WorldWideScience

Sample records for creek dependent population

  1. Two age populations of zircons from the Timber Creek kimberlites, Northern Territory, as determined by laser-ablation ICP-MS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousova, E.A.; Jackson, S.E.; O'Reilly, S.Y.; Griffin, W.L.

    2001-01-01

    Two populations of kimberlitic zircon are present in the Timber Creek kimberlites, Northern Territory. Laser-ablation ICP-MS U-Pb dating yields an age of 1483 ± 15 (2σ) Ma for the main group and an age of 179 ± 2 Ma for the other group. This distinction of two age groups is strongly supported by Hf isotope data on the same zircons. Although the trace-element patterns of both populations are typical of mantle-derived zircons, the 'young' population has slightly higher concentrations of most trace elements, but has lower Hf, Nb, Ta and Pb contents. The distinct differences in trace-element contents and Hf isotopic composition of the two zircon populations indicate that they were derived from different magma sources. The dating results indicate that the emplacement age of the Timber Creek kimberlites cannot be older than the age of the 'young' zircon population (i.e. 179 ± 2 Ma). This clarifies the inconsistency between the previously reported SHRIMP age of the Timber Creek zircons (1462 ± 53 Ma) and the much younger age (1200Ma) of the sediments of the Victoria River Basin into which these kimberlites have intruded. The Timber Creek kimberlites are a newly recognised extension of the widespread Jurassic kimberlite activity known in Western Australia and South Australia. Copyright (2001) Geological Society of Australia

  2. Summer food habits and trophic overlap of roundtail chub and creek chub in Muddy Creek, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, M.C.; Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Native fishes of the Upper Colorado River Basin have experienced substantial declines in abundance and distribution, and are extirpated from most of Wyoming. Muddy Creek, in south-central Wyoming (Little Snake River watershed), contains sympatric populations of native roundtail chub (Gila robusta), bluehead sucker, (Catostomus discobolus), and flannelmouth sucker (C. tatipinnis), and represents an area of high conservation concern because it is the only area known to have sympatric populations of all 3 species in Wyoming. However, introduced creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) are abundant and might have a negative influence on native fishes. We assessed summer food habits of roundtail chub and creek chub to provide information on the ecology of each species and obtain insight on potential trophic overlap. Roundtail chub and creek chub seemed to be opportunistic generalists that consumed a diverse array of food items. Stomach contents of both species were dominated by plant material, aquatic and terrestrial insects, and Fishes, but also included gastropods and mussels. Stomach contents were similar between species, indicating high trophic, overlap. No length-related patterns in diet were observed for either species. These results suggest that creek chubs have the potential to adversely influence the roundtail chub population through competition for food and the native fish assemblage through predation.

  3. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration approach...

  4. Aerial population estimates of wild horses (Equus caballus) in the adobe town and salt wells creek herd management areas using an integrated simultaneous double-count and sightability bias correction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubow, Bruce C.; Ransom, Jason I.

    2007-01-01

    An aerial survey technique combining simultaneous double-count and sightability bias correction methodologies was used to estimate the population of wild horses inhabiting Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas, Wyoming. Based on 5 surveys over 4 years, we conclude that the technique produced estimates consistent with the known number of horses removed between surveys and an annual population growth rate of 16.2 percent per year. Therefore, evidence from this series of surveys supports the validity of this survey method. Our results also indicate that the ability of aerial observers to see horse groups is very strongly dependent on skill of the individual observer, size of the horse group, and vegetation cover. It is also more modestly dependent on the ruggedness of the terrain and the position of the sun relative to the observer. We further conclude that censuses, or uncorrected raw counts, are inadequate estimates of population size for this herd. Such uncorrected counts were all undercounts in our trials, and varied in magnitude from year to year and observer to observer. As of April 2007, we estimate that the population of the Adobe Town /Salt Wells Creek complex is 906 horses with a 95 percent confidence interval ranging from 857 to 981 horses.

  5. Population dynamics of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Spruce Creek Pennsylvania: A quarter-century perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Gary D.; Carline, Robert F.; Wagner, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between density-independent and density-dependent factors on the demography of a dense, relatively unexploited population of brown trout in Spruce Creek Pennsylvania between 1985 and 2011.Individual PCAs of flow and temperature data elucidated groups of years with multiple high flow versus multiple low flow characteristics and high versus low temperature years, although subtler patterns of variation also were observed.Density and biomass displayed similar temporal patterns, ranging from 710 to 1,803 trout/ha and 76–263 kg/ha. We detected a significantly negative linear stock-recruitment relationship (R2 = .39) and there was no evidence that flow or water temperature affected recruitment.Both annual survival and the per-capita rate of increase (r) for the population varied over the study, and density-dependent mechanisms possessed the greatest explanatory power for annual survival data. Temporal trends in population r suggested it displayed a bounded equilibrium with increases observed in 12 years and decreases detected in 13 years.Model selection analysis of per-capita rate of increase data for age 1, and adults (N = eight interpretable models) indicated that both density-dependent (five of eight) and negative density-independent processes (five of eight, i.e. high flows or temperatures), affected r. Recruitment limitation also was identified in three of eight models. Variation in the per-capita rate of increase for the population was most strongly affected by positive density independence in the form of increasing spring–summer temperatures and recruitment limitation.Model selection analyses describing annual variation in both mean length and mass data yielded similar results, although maximum wi values were low ranging from 0.09 to 0.23 (length) and 0.13 to 0.22 (mass). Density-dependence was included in 15 of 15 interpretable models for length and all ten interpretable models for mass. Similarly, positive density

  6. Fish population and habitat analysis in Buck Creek, Washington, prior to recolonization by anadromous salmonids after the removal of Condit Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. Brady; Burkhardt, Jeanette; Munz, Carrie; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the physical and biotic conditions in the part of Buck Creek, Washington, potentially accessible to anadromous fishes. This creek is a major tributary to the White Salmon River upstream of Condit Dam, which was breached in October 2011. Habitat and fish populations were characterized in four stream reaches. Reach breaks were based on stream gradient, water withdrawals, and fish barriers. Buck Creek generally was confined, with a single straight channel and low sinuosity. Boulders and cobble were the dominant stream substrate, with limited gravel available for spawning. Large-cobble riffles were 83 percent of the available fish habitat. Pools, comprising 15 percent of the surface area, mostly were formed by bedrock with little instream cover and low complexity. Instream wood averaged 6—10 pieces per 100 meters, 80 percent of which was less than 50 centimeters in diameter. Water temperature in Buck Creek rarely exceeded 16 degrees Celsius and did so for only 1 day at river kilometer (rkm) 3 and 11 days at rkm 0.2 in late July and early August 2009. The maximum temperature recorded was 17.2 degrees Celsius at rkm 0.2 on August 2, 2009. Minimum summer discharge in Buck Creek was 3.3 cubic feet per second downstream of an irrigation diversion (rkm 3.1) and 7.7 cubic feet per second at its confluence with the White Salmon River. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was the dominant fish species in all reaches. The abundance of age-1 or older rainbow trout was similar between reaches. However, in 2009 and 2010, the greatest abundance of age-0 rainbow trout (8 fish per meter) was in the most downstream reach. These analyses in Buck Creek are important for understanding the factors that may limit fish abundance and productivity, and they will help identify and prioritize potential restoration actions. The data collected constitute baseline information of pre-dam removal conditions that will allow assessment of changes in fish populations now that Condit Dam has

  7. Big Creek Pit Tags

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along the...

  8. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  9. Surface-water resources of Polecat Creek basin, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, L.L.

    1956-01-01

    A compilation of basic data on surface waters in Polecat Creek basin is presented on a monthly basis for Heyburn Reservoir and for Polecat Creek at Heyburn, Okla. Chemical analyses are shown for five sites in the basin. Correlation of runoff records with those for nearby basins indicates that the average annual runoff of the basin above gaging station at Heyburn is 325 acre-feet per square mile. Estimated duration curves of daily flow indicate that under natural conditions there would be no flow in Polecat Creek at Heyburn (drainage area, 129 square miles) about 16 percent of the time on an average, and that the flow would be less than 3 cubic feet per second half of the time. As there is no significant base flow in the basin, comparable low flows during dry-weather periods may be expected in other parts of the basin. During drought periods Heyburn Reservoir does not sustain a dependable low-water flow in Polecat Creek. Except for possible re-use of the small sewage effluent from city of Sapulpa, dependable supplies for additional water needs on the main stem will require development of supplemental storage. There has been no regular program for collection of chemical quality data in the basin, but miscellaneous analyses indicate a water of suitable quality for municipal and agricultural uses in Heyburn Reservoir and Polecat Creek near Heyburn. One recent chemical analysis indicates the possibility of a salt pollution problem in the Creek near Sapulpa. (available as photostat copy only)

  10. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  11. Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

  12. Road construction on Caspar Creek watersheds --- 10-year report on impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. S. Krammes; David M. Burns

    1973-01-01

    In 1960, Federal and State agencies jointly started a long-term study of the effects of logging and road building on streamflow, sedimentation, aquatic habitat, and fish populations on two watersheds of Caspar Creek, in northern California. The experimental watersheds are the North and South Forks of the Creek. The data being collected consist of continuous streamflow...

  13. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  14. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  15. Vegetation - Pine Creek WA and Fitzhugh Creek WA [ds484

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This fine-scale vegetation classification and map of the Pine Creek and Fitzhugh Creek Wildlife Areas, Modoc County, California was created following FGDC and...

  16. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring

  17. Collaborative monitoring in Walnut Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Ballard; Ralph Kraetsch; Lynn Huntsinger

    2002-01-01

    In 1995 and 2000, a monitoring program was designed and implemented to track oak regeneration and native grass populations in target management areas in the four Open Space Preserves of the City of Walnut Creek, California. The program resulted from a collaboration of scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, a group of interested citizens known as the...

  18. Mapping and quantifying groundwater inflows to Deep Creek (Maribyrnong catchment, SE Australia) using 222Rn, implications for protecting groundwater-dependant ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, Ian; Gilfedder, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Groundwater inflows in a chain-of-ponds river quantified. • Groundwater inflow vs. discharge relationship determined using Rn. • First long-term continuous Rn monitoring in a river indicates temporal changes to groundwater inflows. • Application to protection of groundwater-dependant ecosystems. - Abstract: Understanding groundwater inflows to rivers is important in managing connected groundwater and surface water systems and for protecting groundwater-dependant ecosystems. This study defines the distribution of gaining reaches and estimates groundwater inflows to a 62 km long section of Deep Creek (Maribyrnong catchment, Australia) using 222 Rn. During summer months, Deep Creek ceases to flow and comprises a chain of ponds that δ 18 O and δ 2 H values, major ion concentrations, and 222 Rn activities imply are groundwater fed. During the period where the river flows, the relative contribution of groundwater inflows to total river discharge ranges from ∼14% at high flow conditions to ∼100% at low flows. That the predicted groundwater inflows account for all of the increase in discharge at low flow conditions lends confidence to the mass balance calculations. Near-continuous 27 week 222 Rn monitoring at one location in the middle of the catchment confirms the inverse correlation between river discharge and relative groundwater inflows, and also implies that there are limited bank return flows. Variations in groundwater inflows are related to geology and topography. High groundwater inflows occur where the river is at the edge of its floodplain, adjacent to hills composed of basement rocks, or flowing through steep incised valleys. Understanding the distribution of groundwater inflows and quantifying the contribution of groundwater to Deep Creek is important for managing and protecting the surface water resources, which support the endangered Yarra pygmy perch

  19. Flood-inundation maps for Indian Creek and Tomahawk Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Arin J.; Studley, Seth E.

    2016-01-25

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.4-mile upper reach of Indian Creek from College Boulevard to the confluence with Tomahawk Creek, a 3.9-mile reach of Tomahawk Creek from 127th Street to the confluence with Indian Creek, and a 1.9-mile lower reach of Indian Creek from the confluence with Tomahawk Creek to just beyond the Kansas/Missouri border at State Line Road in Johnson County, Kansas, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Overland Park, Kansas. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the U.S. Geological Survey Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgages on Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas. Near real time stages at these streamgages may be obtained on the Web from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at these sites.Flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated for each reach by using the most current stage-discharge relations at the streamgages. The hydraulic models were then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; 17 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and 14 water-surface profiles for Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas, for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the next interval above the 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flood level (500-year recurrence interval). The

  20. Ground water in Creek County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Richard Carlysle

    1937-01-01

    Creek County has been designated as a problem area by the Land Use Planning Section of the Resettlement Administration. Some of the earliest oil fields to brought into production were situated in and near this county, and new fields have been opened from time to time during the ensuing years. The production of the newer fields, however, has not kept pace with the exhaustion of the older fields, and the county now presents an excellent picture of the problems involved in adjusting a population to lands that are nearly depleted of their mineral wealth. Values of land have been greatly depressed; tax collection is far in arrears; tenancy is widespread; and in addition more people will apparently be forced to depend on the income from agriculture than the land seems capable of supporting. The county as a whole is at best indifferently suitable for general farming. The Land Use planning Section proposes to study the present and seemingly immanent maladjustments of population to the resources of the land, and make recommendations for their correction. The writer was detailed to the Land Use Planning Section of Region VIII for the purposes of making studies of ground water problems in the region. In Creek County two investigations were made. In September, 1936, the writer spent about ten days investigating the availability of ground water for the irrigation of garden crops during drouths. If it proved feasible to do this generally throughout the county, the Land Use Planning Section might be able to encourage this practice. The second investigation made by the writer was in regard to the extent to which ground water supplies have been damaged by oil well brines. He was in county for four days late in January 1937, and again in March, 1937. During part of the second field trip he was accompanied by R.M. Dixon, sanitary engineer of the Water Utilization Unit of the Resettlement Administration. (available as photostat copy only)

  1. Sources of baseflow for the Minnehaha Creek Watershed, Minnesota, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieber, J. L.; Moore, T. L.; Gulliver, J. S.; Magner, J. A.; Lahti, L. B.

    2013-12-01

    Minnehaha Creek is among the most valued surface water features in the Minneapolis, MN metro area, with a waterfall as it enters the Minnehaha Creek park. Flow in Minnehaha Creek is heavily dependent on discharge from the stream's origin, Lake Minnetonka, the outlet of which is closed during drought periods to maintain water elevations in the lake resulting in low- (or no-) flow conditions in the creek. Stormwater runoff entering directly to the creek from the creek's largely urbanized watershed exacerbates extremes in flow conditions. Given the cultural and ecological value of this stream system, there is great interest in enhancing the cultural and ecosystem services provided by Minnehaha Creek through improvements in streamflow regime by reducing flashiness and sustaining increased low-flows. Determining the potential for achieving improvements in flow requires first that the current sources of water contributing to low-flows in the creek be identified and quantified. Work on this source identification has involved a number of different approaches, including analyses of the streamflow record using a hydrologic system model framework, examination of the Quaternary and bedrock geology of the region, estimation of groundwater-surface water exchange rates within the channel using hyporheic zone temperature surveys and flux meter measurements, and analyses of the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in samples of stream water, groundwater, and rainfall. Analysis of baseflow recessions using the method of Brutsaert and Nieber (1977) indicates that only a small portion of the catchment, probably the riparian zone, contributes to baseflows. This result appears to be supported by the observation that the limestone/shale bedrock layer underlying the surficial aquifer has a non-zero permeability, and in a significant portion of the watershed the layer has been eroded away leaving the surficial aquifer ';bottomless' and highly susceptible to vertical (down) water loss

  2. Steel Creek water quality: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.A.; Kretchmer, D.W.; Chimney, M.J.

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet envirorunental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems

  3. 75 FR 40034 - Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek...-managed public land on Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort Patrick Henry, South Holston, Watauga, and... Proposed Land Use Alternative) identified in the final environmental impact statement (FEIS). Under the...

  4. The taxonomy and seasonal population dynamics of some Magela Creek flood plain microcrustaceans (Cladocera and copedoda)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julli, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Six Magela Creek floodplain billabongs were sampled between September 1981 and January 1983 to determine the seasonal population dynamics of littoral and limnetic microcrustaceans. Thirty-seven cladoceran and four copepod species were identified amongst littoral weedbeds and several unidentified harpacticoid copepods and ostracods were also found. By comparison only 6 cladoceran and 4 copepod species were found in limnetic areas. Littoral species generally attained their highest densities during the mid-Wet to Early-dry seasons. The number of open water species present in samples generally increased with the progression of the Dry season. Towards the end of the Dry season, a simplification of the limnetic species assemblage occurred in some billabongs, perhaps in response to adverse changes in water quality

  5. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 3730-005] Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that they have...

  6. Effects of timber harvest on aquatic vertebrates and habitat in the North Fork Caspar Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney J. Nakamoto

    1998-01-01

    I examined the relationships between timber harvest, creek habitat, and vertebrate populations in the North and South forks of Caspar Creek. Habitat inventories suggested pool availability increased after the onset of timber harvest activities. Increased large woody debris in the channel was associated with an increase in the frequency of blowdown in the riparian...

  7. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-10-15

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present day spawners. Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline of Columbia River chum salmon. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Currently, only two main populations are recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning has been documented in most lower Columbia River tributaries. The first is located in the Grays River (RKm 34) (Grays population), a tributary of the Columbia, and the second is a group of spawners that utilize the Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks (Lower Gorge population). A possible third population of mainstem spawners, found in the fall of 1999, were located spawning above the I-205 bridge (approximately RKm 182), this aggregation is referred to as the Woods Landing/Rivershore population or the I-205 group. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum as outlined in Hatchery Genetic Management Plans (HGMP) has three main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of LCR chum salmon exist in LCR tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans involving habitat restoration including the creation of

  8. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  9. Population genetic analysis reveals barriers and corridors for gene flow within and among riparian populations of a rare plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevroy, Tanya H; Moody, Michael L; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2018-02-01

    Landscape features and life-history traits affect gene flow, migration and drift to impact on spatial genetic structure of species. Understanding this is important for managing genetic diversity of threatened species. This study assessed the spatial genetic structure of the rare riparian Grevillea sp. Cooljarloo (Proteaceae), which is restricted to a 20 km 2 region impacted by mining in the northern sandplains of the Southwest Australian Floristic Region, an international biodiversity hotspot. Within creek lines and floodplains, the distribution is largely continuous. Models of dispersal within riparian systems were assessed by spatial genetic analyses including population level partitioning of genetic variation and individual Bayesian clustering. High levels of genetic variation and weak isolation by distance within creek line and floodplain populations suggest large effective population sizes and strong connectivity, with little evidence for unidirectional gene flow as might be expected from hydrochory. Regional clustering of creek line populations and strong divergence among creek line populations suggest substantially lower levels of gene flow among creek lines than within creek lines. There was however a surprising amount of genetic admixture in floodplain populations, which could be explained by irregular flooding and/or movements by highly mobile nectar-feeding bird pollinators. Our results highlight that for conservation of rare riparian species, avoiding an impact to hydrodynamic processes, such as water tables and flooding dynamics, may be just as critical as avoiding direct impacts on the number of plants.

  10. Persistence of the longnose darter (P. nasuta) in Lee Creek, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Michael R.; Long, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The longnose darter Percina nasuta (Bailey) is one of Oklahoma’s rarest fish species (1) and is listed by the state as endangered. Throughout the rest of its range, which includes Missouri, Arkansas and the far eastern portion of Oklahoma, the longnose darter is classified as “rare” or “threatened” (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 1). This species inhabits both slow- and fast-water habitats with cobble and gravel substrates in medium to large streams (7, 8, 1). Oklahoma populations of longnose darter are known to occur only in the Poteau River and Lee Creek drainages in Le Flore and Sequoyah counties, respectively (9, 10). Cross and Moore (9) collected longnose darters from the Poteau River in 1947. The species was not collected in a subsequent survey of the Poteau River in 1974 (11), possibly because of the effects from the Wister Dam, which was completed in 1949. Darters are especially susceptible to flow alterations from dams (2, 12). This, together with the 1992 completion of Lee Creek Reservoir in Arkansas, has raised concern for the Lee Creek population of longnose darters (13).

  11. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y. [Normandeau Associates Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.

  12. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.A.; Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years' data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143

  13. Water quality, sources of nitrate, and chemical loadings in the Geronimo Creek and Plum Creek watersheds, south-central Texas, April 2015–March 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2017-12-22

    sources) of nitrate. Nitrate sources in the Geronimo Creek watershed include a predominance of nitrate from fertilizer applications, as well as a contribution from septic systems. Additional nitrate loading from these sources is ongoing. Chemical loadings of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate varied little among sampling events and were low at most sites because of low streamflow.In contrast to the Geronimo Creek watershed, nitrate sources in the Plum Creek watershed are dominated by effluent discharge from the major WWTPs in the upper and central parts of the watershed. Results indicate that discharge from these WWTPs accounts for the majority of base flow in the watershed. Nitrate concentrations in Plum Creek were dependent on flow conditions, with the highest concentrations measured at lower flows, when flow is dominated by WWTP effluent discharge. In addition to WWTP effluent discharge, the Plum Creek watershed, similar to the Geronimo Creek watershed, also is affected by historical and current loading of nitrate from fertilizer applications and from septic systems in the watershed. Chemical loadings of dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate in Plum Creek at lower flow conditions are highest at the upstream sites and decrease downstream as distance from the WWTPs increases, which is consistent with WWTP effluent as an important control on water quality. Under higher flow conditions, however, nitrate loads to Plum Creek increased by about a factor of three. These higher nitrate loads cannot be accounted for by WWTP effluent discharge from the five major WWTPs in the watershed. This additional loading indicates that nitrate is exported from the northeastern part of the watershed. In the lower part of the Plum Creek watershed, higher concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate occur, which might be affected by produced water associated with oil and gas exploration, or mixing with saline groundwater.

  14. Stable isotope tracing of trout hatchery carbon to sediments and foodwebs of limestone spring creeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Todd M. [Department of Biology, Shippensburg University, 1871 Old Main Dr., Shippensburg, PA 17257 (United States)], E-mail: tmhurd@ship.edu; Jesic, Slaven; Jerin, Jessica L.; Fuller, Nathan W.; Miller, David [Department of Biology, Shippensburg University, 1871 Old Main Dr., Shippensburg, PA 17257 (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Limestone springs support productive ecosystems and fisheries, yet aquaculture may modify or impair these ecosystems. We determined trout hatchery organic contribution to spring creek sediments and foodwebs with natural abundance stable isotope methods. Hatchery feed, waste, and trout were significantly enriched in {delta}{sup 13}C relative to autotrophs and wild fish. Spring creek sediments were enriched in {delta}{sup 13}C toward the hatchery endmember relative to reference streams without hatcheries and relative to a larger larger-order, spring-influenced stream. Contribution of hatchery C to spring creek sediments was greatest during March and associated with greatest sediment %C. Contribution of hatchery C to pollution-tolerant isopod diet was 39-51% in a stream receiving limestone spring water via hatchery effluent. Isopods of one spring creek also relied on hatchery-derived C within one month of hatchery closure. Four years later, less pollution pollution-tolerant amphipods dominated and consumed non-vascular over vascular autotrophs (86%). Isopods of a second spring creek with an active hatchery did not appear to be using hatchery matter directly, but were enriched in {delta}{sup 34}S relative to a spring creek tributary with no hatchery influence. Isopods in both of these streams were relatively enriched in {delta}{sup 15}N, indicating general nutrient enrichment from surrounding agricultural land use. The contribution of hatchery vs. wild fish in diet of herons and egrets was traced with {delta}{sup 13}C of guano. These birds were strongly dependent on stocked trout in a spring creek with a recently closed state trout hatchery, and also near another large, state-run hatchery. Heron dependence on hatchery fish in the spring creek decreased with time since hatchery closure. Use of stable isotope natural abundance techniques in karst spring creeks can reveal stream impairment due to aquaculture, specific C sources to bio-indicating consumers, losses of

  15. Stable isotope tracing of trout hatchery carbon to sediments and foodwebs of limestone spring creeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, Todd M.; Jesic, Slaven; Jerin, Jessica L.; Fuller, Nathan W.; Miller, David

    2008-01-01

    Limestone springs support productive ecosystems and fisheries, yet aquaculture may modify or impair these ecosystems. We determined trout hatchery organic contribution to spring creek sediments and foodwebs with natural abundance stable isotope methods. Hatchery feed, waste, and trout were significantly enriched in δ 13 C relative to autotrophs and wild fish. Spring creek sediments were enriched in δ 13 C toward the hatchery endmember relative to reference streams without hatcheries and relative to a larger larger-order, spring-influenced stream. Contribution of hatchery C to spring creek sediments was greatest during March and associated with greatest sediment %C. Contribution of hatchery C to pollution-tolerant isopod diet was 39-51% in a stream receiving limestone spring water via hatchery effluent. Isopods of one spring creek also relied on hatchery-derived C within one month of hatchery closure. Four years later, less pollution pollution-tolerant amphipods dominated and consumed non-vascular over vascular autotrophs (86%). Isopods of a second spring creek with an active hatchery did not appear to be using hatchery matter directly, but were enriched in δ 34 S relative to a spring creek tributary with no hatchery influence. Isopods in both of these streams were relatively enriched in δ 15 N, indicating general nutrient enrichment from surrounding agricultural land use. The contribution of hatchery vs. wild fish in diet of herons and egrets was traced with δ 13 C of guano. These birds were strongly dependent on stocked trout in a spring creek with a recently closed state trout hatchery, and also near another large, state-run hatchery. Heron dependence on hatchery fish in the spring creek decreased with time since hatchery closure. Use of stable isotope natural abundance techniques in karst spring creeks can reveal stream impairment due to aquaculture, specific C sources to bio-indicating consumers, losses of farmed fish to predation, and potential exposure

  16. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek...

  17. Henretta Creek reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumphrey, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Teck Coal Ltd. operates 6 open-pit coal mines, of which 5 are located in the Elk Valley in southeastern British Columbia. The Fording River Operations (FRO) began in 1971 in mining areas in Eagle Mountain, Turnbull Mountain and Henretta Valley. The recovery of approximately 5 million tons of coal from the Henretta Creek Valley posed significant challenges to mine planners, hydrologists and environmental experts because the coal had to be recovered from the valley flanks and also from under the main valley floor, on which the fish-bearing Henretta Creek runs. The Henretta Dragline Mining project was described along with the water control structures and fisheries management efforts for the cutthroat trout. A detailed Environmental Impact Assessment and Stage 1 mining report for the Henretta Valley area was completed in December 1990. FRO was granted a mining and reclamation permit in 1991. A temporary relocation of 1,270 metres was required in in April 1997 in order to enable mining on both sides and below the creek bed. Among the innovative construction techniques was a diversion of Henretta Creek through large diameter steel culverts and a specialized crossing of the creek to allow fish passage. The first water flowed through the reclaimed Henretta Creek channel in late 1998 and the first high flow occurred in the spring of 2000. Teck coal FRO then launched an annual fish and fish habitat monitoring program which focused on the Henretta Creek Reclaimed Channel and Henretta Lake. This document presented the results from the final year, 2006, and a summary of the 7 year aquatic monitoring program. It was concluded that from mining through to reclamation, the Henretta project shows the commitment and success of mining and reclamation practices at Teck Coal. Indicators of the project's success include riparian zone vegetation, fisheries re-establishment, aquatic communities and habitat utilization by terrestrial and avian species. 33 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Tidal Influence on Nutrients Status and Phytoplankton Population of Okpoka Creek, Upper Bonny Estuary, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Davies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Okpoka Creek of the Upper Bonny Estuary in the Niger Delta is a tidal creek receiving organic anthropogenic effluents from its environs. The study investigated the influence of tides (low and high on the species composition, diversity, abundance, and distribution of phytoplankton. The surface water and phytoplankton samples were collected monthly from May 2004 to April 2006 at both tides from ten stations according to standard methods. Phytoplankton was identified microscopically. Species diversity was calculated using standard indices. Data analyses were done using analysis of variance, Duncan multiple range, and descriptive statistics. Phosphate and ammonia exceeded international acceptable levels of 0.10 mg/L for natural water bodies indicating high nutrient status, organic matter, and potential pollutants. A total of 158 species of phytoplankton were identified. Diatoms dominated the phytoplankton (62.9%. Diversity indices of diatoms were 1.5±0.03 (Margalef and 0.8±0.01 (Shannon. Pollution-indicator species such as Navicula microcephala, Nitzschia sigma, Synedra ulna (diatoms, Cladophora glomerata (green alga, Euglena acus (euglenoid, Anabeana spiroides (blue-green alga, and Ceratium furca (dinoflagellate were recorded at either only low, high or both tides. Concerted environmental surveillance on Upper Bonny Estuary is advocated to reduce the inflow of pollutants from the Bonny Estuary into this Creek caused by tidal influence.

  19. Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-06-12

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to

  20. Surface-water and ground-water quality in the Powell Creek and Armstrong Creek Watersheds, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, July-September 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Low, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    Powell Creek and Armstrong Creek Watersheds are in Dauphin County, north of Harrisburg, Pa. The completion of the Dauphin Bypass Transportation Project in 2001 helped to alleviate traffic congestion from these watersheds to Harrisburg. However, increased development in Powell Creek and Armstrong Creek Watersheds is expected. The purpose of this study was to establish a baseline for future projects in the watersheds so that the effects of land-use changes on water quality can be documented. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) (2002) indicates that surface water generally is good in the 71 perennial stream miles in the watersheds. PADEP lists 11.1 stream miles within the Armstrong Creek and 3.2 stream miles within the Powell Creek Watersheds as impaired or not meeting water-quality standards. Siltation from agricultural sources and removal of vegetation along stream channels are cited by PADEP as likely factors causing this impairment.

  1. Simulation of Water Quality in the Tull Creek and West Neck Creek Watersheds, Currituck Sound Basin, North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    A study of the Currituck Sound was initiated in 2005 to evaluate the water chemistry of the Sound and assess the effectiveness of management strategies. As part of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate current sediment and nutrient loadings for two distinct watersheds in the Currituck Sound basin and to determine the consequences of different water-quality management scenarios. The watersheds studied were (1) Tull Creek watershed, which has extensive row-crop cultivation and artificial drainage, and (2) West Neck Creek watershed, which drains urban areas in and around Virginia Beach, Virginia. The model simulated monthly streamflows with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 for Tull Creek and West Neck Creek, respectively. The daily sediment concentration coefficient of determination was 0.19 for Tull Creek and 0.36 for West Neck Creek. The coefficient of determination for total nitrogen was 0.26 for both watersheds and for dissolved phosphorus was 0.4 for Tull Creek and 0.03 for West Neck Creek. The model was used to estimate current (2006-2007) sediment and nutrient yields for the two watersheds. Total suspended-solids yield was 56 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. Total nitrogen export was 45 percent lower, and total phosphorus was 43 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. A management scenario with filter strips bordering the main channels was simulated for Tull Creek. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model estimated a total suspended-solids yield reduction of 54 percent and total nitrogen and total phosphorus reductions of 21 percent and 29 percent, respectively, for the Tull Creek watershed.

  2. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report Sep-Nov 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-06-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the fall of 1981, Teredo bartschi remained in Oyster Creek despite continuous prolonged outages of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station

  3. Population and prehistory I: Food-dependent population growth in constant environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte T; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2008-06-01

    We present a demographic model that describes the feedbacks between food supply, human mortality and fertility rates, and labor availability in expanding populations, where arable land area is not limiting. This model provides a quantitative framework to describe how environment, technology, and culture interact to influence the fates of preindustrial agricultural populations. We present equilibrium conditions and derive approximations for the equilibrium population growth rate, food availability, and other food-dependent measures of population well-being. We examine how the approximations respond to environmental changes and to human choices, and find that the impact of environmental quality depends upon whether it manifests through agricultural yield or maximum (food-independent) survival rates. Human choices can complement or offset environmental effects: greater labor investments increase both population growth and well-being, and therefore can counteract lower agricultural yield, while fertility control decreases the growth rate but can increase or decrease well-being. Finally we establish equilibrium stability criteria, and argue that the potential for loss of local stability at low population growth rates could have important consequences for populations that suffer significant environmental or demographic shocks.

  4. 33 CFR 207.170d - Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee, Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.170d Taylor Creek, navigation lock...

  5. Influence of hydrological conditions on the Escherichia coli population structure in the water of a creek on a rural watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratajczak Mehdy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is a commensal bacterium of the gastro-intestinal tract of human and vertebrate animals, although the aquatic environment could be a secondary habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydrological conditions on the structure of the E. coli population in the water of a creek on a small rural watershed in France composed of pasture and with human occupation. Results It became apparent, after studying the distribution in the four main E. coli phylo-groups (A, B1, B2, D, the presence of the hly (hemolysin gene and the antibiotic resistance pattern, that the E. coli population structure was modified not only by the hydrological conditions (dry versus wet periods, rainfall events, but also by how the watershed was used (presence or absence of cattle. Isolates of the B1 phylo-group devoid of hly and sensitive to antibiotics were particularly abundant during the dry period. During the wet period and the rainfall events, contamination from human sources was predominantly characterized by strains of the A phylo-group, whereas contamination by cattle mainly involved B1 phylo-group strains resistant to antibiotics and exhibiting hly. As E. coli B1 was the main phylo-group isolated in water, the diversity of 112 E. coli B1 isolates was further investigated by studying uidA alleles (beta-D-glucuronidase, the presence of hly, the O-type, and antibiotic resistance. Among the forty epidemiolgical types (ETs identified, five E. coli B1 ETs were more abundant in slightly contaminated water. Conclusions The structure of an E. coli population in water is not stable, but depends on the hydrological conditions and on current use of the land on the watershed. In our study it was the ratio of A to B1 phylo-groups that changed. However, a set of B1 phylo-group isolates seems to be persistent in water, strengthening the hypothesis that they may correspond to specifically adapted strains.

  6. Evaluation of some 90Sr sources in the White Oak Creek drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stueber, A.M.; Huff, D.D.; Farrow, N.D.; Jones, J.R.; Munro, I.L.

    1981-01-01

    The drainage basin was monitored to evaluate the relative importance of each source as a contributor to 90 Sr in White Oak Creek. The various sources fall into two general categories, those whose 90 Sr discharge is dependent upon rainfall and those relatively unaffected by the level of precipitation. The identification and ranking of existing non-point sources of 90 Sr in the White Oak Creek basin represents an important step in the ongoing comprehensive program at ORNL to provide a scientific basis for improved control measures and future disposal practices in solid waste disposal areas

  7. A mechanistic analysis of density dependence in algal population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eBorlestean

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Population density regulation is a fundamental principle in ecology, but the specific process underlying functional expression of density dependence remains to be fully elucidated. One view contends that patterns of density dependence are largely fixed across a species irrespective of environmental conditions, whereas another is that the strength and expression of density dependence are fundamentally variable depending on the nature of exogenous or endogenous constraints acting on the population. We conducted a study investigating the expression of density dependence in Chlamydomonas spp. grown under a gradient from low to high nutrient density. We predicted that the relationship between per capita growth rate (pgr and population density would vary from concave up to concave down as nutrient density became less limiting and populations experienced weaker density regulation. Contrary to prediction, we found that the relationship between pgr and density became increasingly concave-up as nutrient levels increased. We also found that variation in pgr increased, and pgr levels reached higher maxima in nutrient-limited environments. Most likely, these results are attributable to population growth suppression in environments with high intraspecific competition due to limited nutrient resources. Our results suggest that density regulation is strongly variable depending on exogenous and endogenous processes acting on the population, implying that expression of density dependence depends extensively on local conditions. Additional experimental work should reveal the mechanisms influencing how the expression of density dependence varies across populations through space and time.

  8. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J. (US Geological Survey, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Western Fisheries Research Center, Cook, WA)

    2003-12-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  9. Assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace elements in selected placer-mined creeks in the birch creek watershed near central, Alaska, 2001-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Langley, Dustin E.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, completed an assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace-element concentrations in streambed sediment of the upper Birch Creek watershed near Central, Alaska. The assessment covered one site on upper Birch Creek and paired sites, upstream and downstream from mined areas, on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek. Stream-discharge and suspended-sediment concentration data collected at other selected mined and unmined sites helped characterize conditions in the upper Birch Creek watershed. The purpose of the project was to provide the Bureau of Land Management with baseline information to evaluate watershed water quality and plan reclamation efforts. Data collection began in September 2001 and ended in September 2005. There were substantial geomorphic disturbances in the stream channel and flood plain along several miles of Harrison Creek. Placer mining has physically altered the natural stream channel morphology and removed streamside vegetation. There has been little or no effort to re-contour waste rock piles. During high-flow events, the abandoned placer-mine areas on Harrison Creek will likely contribute large quantities of sediment downstream unless the mined areas are reclaimed. During 2004 and 2005, no substantial changes in nutrient or major-ion concentrations were detected in water samples collected upstream from mined areas compared with water samples collected downstream from mined areas on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek that could not be attributed to natural variation. This also was true for dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance-a measure of total dissolved solids. Sample sites downstream from mined areas on Harrison Creek and Frying Pan Creek had higher median suspended-sediment concentrations, by a few milligrams per liter, than respective upstream sites. However, it is difficult to attach much importance to the small downstream increase

  10. Water quality of the Swatara Creek Basin, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarren, Edward F.; Wark, J.W.; George, J.R.

    1964-01-01

    The Swatara Creek of the Susquehanna River Basin is the farthest downstream sub-basin that drains acid water (pH of 4.5 or less) from anthracite coal mines. The Swatara Creek drainage area includes 567 square miles of parts of Schuylkill, Berks, Lebanon, and Dauphin Counties in Pennsylvania.To learn what environmental factors and dissolved constituents in water were influencing the quality of Swatara Creek, a reconnaissance of the basin was begun during the summer of 1958. Most of the surface streams and the wells adjacent to the principal tributaries of the Creek were sampled for chemical analysis. Effluents from aquifers underlying the basin were chemically analyzed because ground water is the basic source of supply to surface streams in the Swatara Creek basin. When there is little runoff during droughts, ground water has a dominating influence on the quality of surface water. Field tests showed that all ground water in the basin was non-acidic. However, several streams were acidic. Sources of acidity in these streams were traced to the overflow of impounded water in unworked coal mines.Acidic mine effluents and washings from coal breakers were detected downstream in Swatara Creek as far as Harper Tavern, although the pH at Harper Tavern infrequently went below 6.0. Suspended-sediment sampling at this location showed the mean daily concentration ranged from 2 to 500 ppm. The concentration of suspended sediment is influenced by runoff and land use, and at Harper Tavern it consisted of natural sediments and coal wastes. The average daily suspended-sediment discharge there during the period May 8 to September 30, 1959, was 109 tons per day, and the computed annual suspended-sediment load, 450 tons per square mile. Only moderate treatment would be required to restore the quality of Swatara Creek at Harper Tavern for many uses. Above Ravine, however, the quality of the Creek is generally acidic and, therefore, of limited usefulness to public supplies, industries and

  11. 77 FR 10960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... deviation from the regulation governing the operation of Snake Creek Bridge, mile 0.5, across Snake Creek... schedule of Snake Creek Bridge in Islamorada, Florida. This deviation will result in the bridge opening...

  12. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of...

  13. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  14. 33 CFR 117.231 - Brandywine Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brandywine Creek. 117.231 Section 117.231 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.231 Brandywine Creek. The draw of the...

  15. Rapid evolution of a marsh tidal creek network in response to sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Z. J.; Fitzgerald, D. M.; Mahadevan, A.; Wilson, C. A.; Pennings, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    In the Santee River Delta (SRD), South Carolina, tidal creeks are extending rapidly onto the marsh platform. A time-series of aerial photographs establishes that these channels were initiated in the 1950's and are headward eroding at a rate of 1.9 m /yr. Short-term trends in sea level show an average relative sea level rise (RSLR) of 4.6 mm/yr over a 20-year tide gauge record from nearby Winyah Bay and Charleston Harbor (1975-1995). Longer-term (85-year) records in Charleston suggest a rate of 3.2 mm/yr. RSLR in the SRD is likely even higher as sediment cores reveal that the marsh is predominantly composed of fine-grained sediment, making it highly susceptible to compaction and subsidence. Furthermore, loss in elevation will have been exacerbated by the decrease in sediment supply due to the damming of the Santee River in 1939. The rapid rate of headward erosion indicates that the marsh platform is in disequilibrium; unable to keep pace with RSLR through accretionary processes and responding to an increased volume and frequency of inundation through the extension of the drainage network. The observed tidal creeks show no sinuosity and a distinctive morphology associated with their young age and biological mediation during their evolution. Feedbacks between tidal flow, vegetation and infauna play a strong role in the morphological development of the creeks. The creek heads are characterized by a region denuded of vegetation, the edges of which are densely populated and burrowed by Uca Pugnax (fiddler crab). Crab burrowing destabilizes sediment, destroys rooting and impacts drainage. Measured infiltration rates are three orders of magnitude higher in the burrowed regions than in a control area (1000 ml/min and 0.6 ml/min respectively). Infiltration of oxygenated water enhances decomposition of organic matter and root biomass is reduced within the creek head (marsh=4.3 kg/m3, head=0.6 kg/m3). These processes lead to the removal and collapse of the soils, producing

  16. Asotin Creek model watershed plan: Asotin County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council completed its ''Strategy for Salmon'' in 1992. This is a plan, composed of four specific elements,designed to double the present production of 2.5 million salmon in the Columbia River watershed. These elements have been called the ''four H's'': (1) improve harvest management; (2) improve hatcheries and their production practices; (3) improve survival at hydroelectric dams; and (4) improve and protect fish habitat. The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ''Strategy for Salmon''. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity

  17. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore...

  18. Population and prehistory III: food-dependent demography in variable environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte T; Puleston, Cedric O; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2009-11-01

    The population dynamics of preindustrial societies depend intimately on their surroundings, and food is a primary means through which environment influences population size and individual well-being. Food production requires labor; thus, dependence of survival and fertility on food involves dependence of a population's future on its current state. We use a perturbation approach to analyze the effects of random environmental variation on this nonlinear, age-structured system. We show that in expanding populations, direct environmental effects dominate induced population fluctuations, so environmental variability has little effect on mean hunger levels, although it does decrease population growth. The growth rate determines the time until population is limited by space. This limitation introduces a tradeoff between population density and well-being, so population effects become more important than the direct effects of the environment: environmental fluctuation increases mortality, releasing density dependence and raising average well-being for survivors. We discuss the social implications of these findings for the long-term fate of populations as they transition from expansion into limitation, given that conditions leading to high well-being during growth depress well-being during limitation.

  19. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Efforts, US Geological Survey Report, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2006-06-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attended to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first objective was to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort included measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective was to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the fourth year of a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  20. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Effors; US Geological Survey Reports, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie S. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2006-02-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the third year of at least a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  1. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  2. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile 0...

  3. CREEK Project's Phytoplankton Pigment Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The CREEK Project began in January of 1996 and was designed to help determine the role of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in tidal creeks of the North Inlet Estuary,...

  4. Water in urban planning, Salt Creek Basin, Illinois water management as related to alternative land-use practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1970-01-01

    Water management can be an integral part of urban comprehensive planning in a large metropolitan area. Water both imposes constraints on land use and offers opportunities for coordinated land and water management. Salt Creek basin in Cook and Du Page Counties of the Chicago metropolitan area is typical of rapidly developing suburban areas and has been selected to illustrate some of these constraints and opportunities and to suggest the effects of alternative solutions. The present study concentrates on the related problems of ground-water recharge, water quality, management of flood plains, and flood-control measures. Salt Creek basin has a drainage area of 150 square miles. It is in flat to. gently rolling terrain, underlain by glacial drift as much as 200 feet thick which covers a dolomite aquifer. In 1964, the population of the basin was about 400,000, and 40 percent of the land was in urban development. The population is expected to number 550,000 to 650,000 by 1990, and most of the land will be taken by urban development. Salt Creek is a sluggish stream, typical of small drainage channels in the headwaters area of northeastern Illinois. Low flows of 15 to 25 cubic feet per second in the lower part of the basin consist largely of sewage effluent. Nearly all the public water supplies in the basin depend on ground water. Of the total pumpage of 27.5 million gallons per day, 17.5 million gallons per day is pumped from the deep (Cambrian-Ordovician) aquifers and 10 million gallons per day is pumped from the shallow (Silurian dolomite and glacial drift) aquifers. The potential yield of the shallow aquifers, particularly glacial drift in the northern part of the basin, far exceeds present use. The largest concentration of pumpage from the shallow ,aquifers is in the Hinsdale-La Grange area. Salt Creek serves as an important source of recharge to these supplies, particularly just east of Hinsdale. The entire reach of Salt Creek south and east of Elmhurst can be

  5. Effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Otter Creek and in the Otter Creek alluvial aquifer, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Otter Creek drains an area of 709 square miles in the coal-rich Powder River structural basin of southeastern Montana. The Knobloch coal beds in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation is a shallow aquifer and a target for future surface mining in the downstream part of the Otter Creek basin. A mass-balance model was used to estimate the effects of potential mining on the dissolved solids concentration in Otter Creek and in the alluvial aquifer in the Otter Creek valley. With extensive mining of the Knobloch coal beds, the annual load of dissolved solids to Otter Creek at Ashland at median streamflow could increase by 2,873 tons, or a 32-percent increase compared to the annual pre-mining load. Increased monthly loads of Otter Creek, at the median streamflow, could range from 15 percent in February to 208 percent in August. The post-mining dissolved solids load to the subirrigated part of the alluvial valley could increase by 71 percent. The median dissolved solids concentration in the subirrigated part of the valley could be 4,430 milligrams per liter, compared to the pre-mining median concentration of 2,590 milligrams per liter. Post-mining loads from the potentially mined landscape were calculated using saturated-paste-extract data from 506 overburdened samples collected from 26 wells and test holes. Post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley likely would continue at increased rates for hundreds of years after mining. If the actual area of Knobloch coal disturbed by mining were less than that used in the model, post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley would be proportionally smaller. (USGS)

  6. 27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swan Creek. 9.211 Section 9.211 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.211 Swan Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural are...

  7. Currents and siltation at Dharamtar creek, Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Kolhatkar, V.M.; Fernandes, A.A.

    Hydrographic data collected in Dharamtar Creek during 1976-77 have been analysed. This showed that the waters in the Creek are well mixed and the salinity varied with the tide. The tidal currents are found to be generally strong. The distribution...

  8. Water quality in the upper Shoal Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, John G.

    2001-01-01

    broilers and 300,000 turkeys. Probable nonhuman sources included turkeys, horses, chickens, and cattle; however, wildlife sources such as deer, raccoon, muskrat, and opossum were not evaluated. Human waste was an important source of E. coli in water samples collected at the MDNR monitoring site (site 3) on Shoal Creek and at two tributary sites (Joyce Creek and Woodward Creek). In general, the detection of human ribopatterns was consistent with the detection of organic compounds commonly associated with human wastewater such as caffeine, triclosan, or phenol, and the fecal indicators cholesterol and 3B-coprostanol. Ribopattern analysis indicate that horses were an important source of E. coli in Woodward Creek, which was consistent with horses being pastured immediately upstream from the sampling site on this creek. Pogue Creek contains a large density of turkey barns and five of eight E. coli isolates from one sample from Pogue Creek were matched to turkeys. Water samples from Pogue Creek generally did not contain detectable concentrations of human wastewater compounds, but one sample did contain detectable quantities of the antibiotics tylosin and lincomycin (widely used in the animal industry), and sulfamethoxazole (human use only). Although promising, the ability of ribopattern analyses to positively identify the source of a particular isolate is uncertain because of the small sample size, possible differences between animal source patterns in the study area and database used, lack of native wildlife source patterns, and variation in results depending on the number of possible animal host considered. Results of this study indicate that a trend of increasing fecal coliform densities with increasing time detected by the MDNR is, in part, caused by trends in annual precipitation and stream discharge, and not necessarily changes in land use or densities of animal operations. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model using specific conductance and wate

  9. CREEK Project's Internal Creek Habitat Survey for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: January 1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  10. The psychological correlates of dependency in the Jamaican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, G; Hickling, F W

    2013-01-01

    To establish the prevalence of psychological dependency in the Jamaican society in order to examine the relationship between the psychological correlates of dependency and socio-political dependency in this post-colonial country. A total of 1506 adult individuals were sampled from 2150 households using a stratified sampling method and assessed using the 17 questions of the Jamaica Personality Disorder Inventory (JPDI) on the phenomenology of dependency that are grouped into the psychological features of physiological dependency, financial dependency, and psychological dependency. The database of responses to the demographic and JPDI questionnaires was created and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17. Of the national population sampled, 77.1% denied having any of these phenomenological symptoms of dependence while 22.63% of the population admitted to having some phenomenology of dependency, ranging from mild (5.6%), to moderate (12.1), or severe (4.9%). Substance use (physiological dependency) responders accounted for 21.23%, financial dependency responders for 43.45%, and psychological dependency responders for 15.96%. Significant gender and socio-economic class patterns of dependency were revealed. This substantial swathe of the Jamaican population acknowledged their own dependency and behavioural withdrawal response to physical or emotional loss in their life, and reported having dependency problems in managing their financial and monetary affairs. Three-quarters of the Jamaican responders of this survey ostensibly are free of the phenomenology of dependency while a more vulnerable one-quarter has insight that they are still locked in a struggle for psychological independence. The political and economic relations between psychological dependency and socio-political dependency are discussed.

  11. Assessment of sea water inundation along Daboo creek area in Indus Delta Region, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Ibrahim; Zafar, Hina; Shahzad, Muhammad I.; Meraj, Mohsin; Kazmi, Jamil H.

    2017-12-01

    Indus Deltaic Region (IDR) in Pakistan is an erosion vulnerable coast due to the high deep water wave energy. Livelihood of millions of people depends on the fisheries and mangrove forests in IDR. IDR consists of many creeks where Daboo is a major creek located at southeast of the largest city of Pakistan, Karachi. Unfortunately, there has been no detailed study to analyze the damages of sea water intrusion at a large temporal and spatial scale. Therefore, this study is designed to estimate the effects of sea water inundation based on changing sea water surface salinity and sea surface temperature (SST). Sea surface salinity and SST data from two different surveys in Daboo creek during 1986 and 2010 are analyzed to estimate the damages and extent of sea water intrusion. Mean salinity has increased 33.33% whereas mean SST decreased 13.79% from 1987 to 2010. Spatio-temporal analysis of creek area using LANDSAT 5 Thematic mapper (TM) data for the years 1987 and 2010 shows significant amount of erosion at macro scale. Creek area has increased approximately 9.93% (260.86 m2 per year) which is roughly equal to 60 extensive sized shrimp farms. Further Land Use Land Cover (LULC) analyses for years 2001 and 2014 using LANDSAT 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has indicated 42.3% decrease in cultivated land. Wet mud flats have spread out at the inner mouth of creek with enormous increase of 123.3%. Significant sea water intrusion has increased the area of barren land by 37.9%. This also resulted in overall decrease of 6.7% in area covered by mangroves. Therefore, this study recorded a significant evidence of sea water intrusion in IDR that has caused serious damages to community living in the area, economical losses. Additionally, it has also changed the environment by reducing creek biological productivity as reported by earlier studies over other regions of the world.

  12. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of the...

  13. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the...

  14. 33 CFR 117.800 - Mill Neck Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mill Neck Creek. 117.800 Section 117.800 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.800 Mill Neck Creek. The draw of the...

  15. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  16. Swatara Creek basin of southeastern Pennsylvania--An evaluation of its hydrologic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Wilbur Tennant; Schneider, William J.; Crooks, James W.

    1967-01-01

    Local concentrations of population in the Swatara Creek basin of Pennsylvania find it necessary to store, transport, and treat water because local supplies are either deficient or have been contaminated by disposal of wastes in upstream areas. Water in the basin is available for the deficient areas and for dilution of the coal-mine drainage in the northern parts and the sewage wastes in the southern parts.

  17. Preliminary Chemical and Biological Assessment of Ogbe Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of water from the Ogbe Creek ... indicated the impact of the perturbational stress on the organisms inhabiting the creek. ... experiences seasonal flooding which introduces a lot of detritus and ...

  18. Plankton biodiversity of Dharamtar creek adjoining Mumbai harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    rich plankton community. However, recent industrial development along the banks of creek may pose the problem due to waste disposal into this creek system. Losses of marine life diversity are largely the results of conflicting uses, in particular...

  19. 77 FR 5201 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... operation of the Baltimore County highway bridge at Wise Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk... Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4 between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. This change would require the...

  20. Fish communities in sandy pool of Magela Creek, Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodland, D.J.; Ward, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Physico-chemical conditions, changes in fish communities and characteristics of species populations of eight permanent sandy pools along Magela Creek during the 1981 Dry season are described. Causes of mortality in each species, especially Craterocephalus marianae, were investigated. It is emphasised that in using baseline data to assess the impact of mining and animal communities, it may sometimes be difficult to differentiate natural mortality from mortality resulting from pollution. The aim of this study was to distinguish the most important environmental factors responsible for fish mortality. The study indicates that the mortality was low (<50% of the original population) in most pools. In populations that did suffer high mortality, anoxic conditions may have been an important cause. 67 refs., 36 tabs., 21 figs., ills

  1. Are elderly dependency ratios associated with general population suicide rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2011-05-01

    The elderly population size is increasing worldwide due to falling birth rates and increasing life expectancy. It has been hypothesized that as the elderly dependency ratio (the ratio of those over the age of 65 years to those under 65) increases, there will be fewer younger people available to care for older people and this, in turn, will increase the burden on younger carers with increased levels of psychiatric morbidity leading to an increase in general population suicide rates. A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates was conducted using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations websites. The main findings were of a significant and independent positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates in both genders. The contribution of cross-national differences in psychiatric morbidity in younger carers on general population suicide rates requires further study. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in younger carers of older people should be examined by: (i) cross-national studies using standardized measures of psychiatric morbidity that are education-free, culture-fair and language-fair; and (ii) within-country longitudinal studies with changing elderly dependency ratios over time.

  2. 75 FR 8036 - Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project AGENCY: Forest... Rangeland Project area. The analysis will determine if a change in management direction for livestock grazing is needed to move existing resource conditions within the Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project area...

  3. State-dependent neutral delay equations from population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarossa, M V; Hadeler, K P; Kuttler, C

    2014-10-01

    A novel class of state-dependent delay equations is derived from the balance laws of age-structured population dynamics, assuming that birth rates and death rates, as functions of age, are piece-wise constant and that the length of the juvenile phase depends on the total adult population size. The resulting class of equations includes also neutral delay equations. All these equations are very different from the standard delay equations with state-dependent delay since the balance laws require non-linear correction factors. These equations can be written as systems for two variables consisting of an ordinary differential equation (ODE) and a generalized shift, a form suitable for numerical calculations. It is shown that the neutral equation (and the corresponding ODE--shift system) is a limiting case of a system of two standard delay equations.

  4. A baseline and watershed assessment in the Lynx Creek, Brenot Creek, and Portage Creek watersheds near Hudson's Hope, BC : summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matscha, G.; Sutherland, D.

    2005-06-01

    This report summarized a baseline monitoring program for the Lynx Creek, Brenot Creek, and Portage Creek watersheds located near Hudson's Hope, British Columbia (BC). The monitoring program was designed to more accurately determine the effects of potential coalbed gas developments in the region, as well as to assess levels of agricultural and forest harvesting, and the impacts of current land use activities on water quantity and quality. Water quality was sampled at 18 sites during 5 different flow regimes, including summer and fall low flows; ice cover; spring run-off; and high flows after a heavy summer rain event. Sample sites were located up and downstream of both forest and agricultural activities. The water samples were analyzed for 70 contaminants including ions, nutrients, metals, hydrocarbons, and hydrocarbon fractions. Results showed that while many analyzed parameters met current BC water quality guidelines, total organic carbon, manganese, cadmium, E. coli, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci often exceeded recommended guidelines. Aluminum and cobalt values exceeded drinking water guidelines. The samples also had a slightly alkaline pH and showed high conductance. A multiple barrier approach was recommended to reduce potential risks of contamination from the watersheds. It was concluded that a more refined bacteria source tracking method is needed to determine whether fecal pollution has emanated from human, livestock or wildlife sources. 1 tab., 9 figs

  5. Wolf Creek Generating Station containment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.H.; Neises, G.J.; Howard, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a CONTEMPT-LT/28 containment model that has been developed by Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (WCNOC) to predict containment pressure and temperature behavior during the postulated events at Wolf Creek Generating Station (WCGS). The model has been validated using data provided in the WCGS Updated Safety Analysis Report (USAR). CONTEMPT-LT/28 model has been used extensively at WCGS to support plant operations, and recently, to support its 4.5% thermal power uprate project

  6. A mangrove creek restoration plan utilizing hydraulic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Darryl E; Mitsch, William J

    2017-11-01

    Despite the valuable ecosystem services provided by mangrove ecosystems they remain threatened around the globe. Urban development has been a primary cause for mangrove destruction and deterioration in south Florida USA for the last several decades. As a result, the restoration of mangrove forests has become an important topic of research. Using field sampling and remote-sensing we assessed the past and present hydrologic conditions of a mangrove creek and its connected mangrove forest and brackish marsh systems located on the coast of Naples Bay in southwest Florida. We concluded that the hydrology of these connected systems had been significantly altered from its natural state due to urban development. We propose here a mangrove creek restoration plan that would extend the existing creek channel 1.1 km inland through the adjacent mangrove forest and up to an adjacent brackish marsh. We then tested the hydrologic implications using a hydraulic model of the mangrove creek calibrated with tidal data from Naples Bay and water levels measured within the creek. The calibrated model was then used to simulate the resulting hydrology of our proposed restoration plan. Simulation results showed that the proposed creek extension would restore a twice-daily flooding regime to a majority of the adjacent mangrove forest and that there would still be minimal tidal influence on the brackish marsh area, keeping its salinity at an acceptable level. This study demonstrates the utility of combining field data and hydraulic modeling to aid in the design of mangrove restoration plans.

  7. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan: Asotin County, Washington, 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, Dave

    1995-04-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council completed its ``Strategy for Salmon'' in 1992. This is a plan, composed of four specific elements,designed to double the present production of 2.5 million salmon in the Columbia River watershed. These elements have been called the ``four H's'': (1) improve harvest management; (2) improve hatcheries and their production practices; (3) improve survival at hydroelectric dams; and (4) improve and protect fish habitat. The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon''. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity.

  8. Geohydrology of the stratified-drift aquifer system in the lower Sixmile Creek and Willseyville Creek trough, Tompkins County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Karig, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tompkins County Planning Department began a series of studies of the stratified-drift aquifers in Tompkins County to provide geohydrologic data for planners to develop a strategy to manage and protect their water resources. This aquifer study in lower Sixmile Creek and Willseyville Creek trough is the second in a series of aquifer studies in Tompkins County. The study area is within the northern area of the Appalachian Plateau and extends about 9 miles from the boundary between Tompkins County and Tioga County in the south to just south of the City of Ithaca in the north. In lower Sixmile Creek and Willseyville Creek trough, confined sand and gravel aquifers comprise the major water-bearing units while less extensive unconfined units form minor aquifers. About 600 people who live in lower Sixmile Creek and Willseyville Creek trough rely on groundwater from the stratified-drift aquifer system. In addition, water is used by non-permanent residents such as staff at commercial facilities. The estimated total groundwater withdrawn for domestic use is about 45,000 gallons per day (gal/d) or 0.07 cubic foot per second (ft3/s) based on an average water use of 75 gal/d per person for self-supplied water systems in New York. Scouring of bedrock in the preglacial lower Sixmile Creek and Willseyville Creek valleys by glaciers and subglacial meltwaters truncated hillside spurs, formed U-shaped, transverse valley profiles, smoothed valley walls, and deepened the valleys by as much as 300 feet (ft), forming a continuous trough. The unconsolidated deposits in the study area consist mostly of glacial drift, both unstratified drift (till) and stratified drift (laminated lake, deltaic, and glaciofluvial sediments), as well as some post-glacial stratified sediments (lake-bottom sediments that were deposited in reservoirs, peat and muck that were deposited in wetlands, and alluvium deposited by streams). Multiple advances and

  9. Leith Creek, Scotland County, North Carolina, Detailed Project Report. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    of Leith Creek within the study limits. Climate in the area is characteristic of the warm temperate zone. In summer, the days are generally hot and...RESOURCES B-2 TERRAIN AND LAND USE B-4 S CLIMATE B-4 ARCHEOLOGiCAL CONSIDERATIONS B-4 NATURAL RESOURCES B-5 0 HUMAN RESOURCES 8-6 POPULATION...irtoved cnd it ions jere corcp’-ted11, >.ve pti Vn (CI card) of the Hydr- aulic Enqincerinq Cm tt ’ .. ~ v.’Water- Surface Profi les’. Improved profil

  10. Geohydrology and water quality of the stratified-drift aquifers in Upper Buttermilk Creek and Danby Creek Valleys, Town of Danby, Tompkins County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    2015-11-20

    In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Town of Danby and the Tompkins County Planning Department, began a study of the stratified-drift aquifers in the upper Buttermilk Creek and Danby Creek valleys in the Town of Danby, Tompkins County, New York. In the northern part of the north-draining upper Buttermilk Creek valley, there is only one sand and gravel aquifer, a confined basal unit that overlies bedrock. In the southern part of upper Buttermilk Creek valley, there are as many as four sand and gravel aquifers, two are unconfined and two are confined. In the south-draining Danby Creek valley, there is an unconfined aquifer consisting of outwash and kame sand and gravel (deposited by glacial meltwaters during the late Pleistocene Epoch) and alluvial silt, sand, and gravel (deposited by streams during the Holocene Epoch). In addition, throughout the study area, there are several small local unconfined aquifers where large tributaries deposited alluvial fans in the valley.

  11. 76 FR 65118 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows Point, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows Point, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... regulation. The Baltimore County Revenue Authority (Dundalk Avenue) highway toll drawbridge across Bear Creek... applicable or necessary. Basis and Purpose The drawbridge across Bear Creek, mile 1.5 was removed and...

  12. Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 1998: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 1998-2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John

    2003-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon collection and spawning began in 1998. A total of 114 fish were collected from Johnson Creek and 54 fish (20 males and 34 females) were retained for Broodstock. All broodstock were transported to Lower Snake River Compensation Plan's South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility, operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. The remaining 60 fish were released to spawn naturally. An estimated 155,870 eggs from Johnson Creek chinook spawned at the South Fork Salmon River facility were transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for rearing. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,871. Approximately 20,500 eggs from females with high levels of Bacterial Kidney Disease were culled. This, combined with green-egg to eyed-egg survival of 62%, resulted in about 84,000 eyed eggs produced in 1998. Resulting juveniles were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery in 1999. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags and 8,043 were also PIT tagged. A total of 78,950 smolts were transported from the McCall Fish Hatchery and released directly into Johnson Creek on March 27, 28, 29, and 30, 2000.

  13. Ground-Water System in the Chimacum Creek Basin and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction in Chimacum and Tarboo Creeks and the Big and Little Quilcene Rivers, Eastern Jefferson County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, F. William; Longpre, Claire I.; Justin, Greg B.

    2004-01-01

    throughout most of the year and the lower reaches have little or no gains. The Big Quilcene River generally gains water from the shallow ground-water system after it emerges from a bedrock canyon and loses water from the town of Quilcene to the mouth of the river in Quilcene Bay. The Little Quilcene River generally loses water to the shallow ground-water system, although two localized areas were found to have gaining conditions. The Big Quilcene and Little Quilcene Rivers incur significant losses on the alluvial plain at the head of Quilcene Bay. Each of the creeks examined had a unique pattern of gaining and losing reaches, owing to the hydraulic conductivity of the streambed material and the relative altitude of the surrounding water table. Although the magnitudes of gains and losses varied seasonally, the spatial distribution did not vary greatly, suggesting that patterns of gains and losses in surface-water systems depend greatly on the geology underlying the streambed.

  14. 75 FR 68780 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RC11-1-000] Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing November 2, 2010. Take notice that on October 27, 2010, Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC (Cedar Creek) filed an appeal with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) of...

  15. Stimulus-dependent maximum entropy models of neural population codes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Granot-Atedgi

    Full Text Available Neural populations encode information about their stimulus in a collective fashion, by joint activity patterns of spiking and silence. A full account of this mapping from stimulus to neural activity is given by the conditional probability distribution over neural codewords given the sensory input. For large populations, direct sampling of these distributions is impossible, and so we must rely on constructing appropriate models. We show here that in a population of 100 retinal ganglion cells in the salamander retina responding to temporal white-noise stimuli, dependencies between cells play an important encoding role. We introduce the stimulus-dependent maximum entropy (SDME model-a minimal extension of the canonical linear-nonlinear model of a single neuron, to a pairwise-coupled neural population. We find that the SDME model gives a more accurate account of single cell responses and in particular significantly outperforms uncoupled models in reproducing the distributions of population codewords emitted in response to a stimulus. We show how the SDME model, in conjunction with static maximum entropy models of population vocabulary, can be used to estimate information-theoretic quantities like average surprise and information transmission in a neural population.

  16. Density dependence in a recovering osprey population: demographic and behavioural processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretagnolle, V; Mougeot, F; Thibault, J-C

    2008-09-01

    1. Understanding how density-dependent and independent processes influence demographic parameters, and hence regulate population size, is fundamental within population ecology. We investigated density dependence in growth rate and fecundity in a recovering population of a semicolonial raptor, the osprey Pandion haliaetus [Linnaeus, 1758], using 31 years of count and demographic data in Corsica. 2. The study population increased from three pairs in 1974 to an average of 22 pairs in the late 1990s, with two distinct phases during the recovery (increase followed by stability) and contrasted trends in breeding parameters in each phase. 3. We show density dependence in population growth rate in the second phase, indicating that the stabilized population was regulated. We also show density dependence in productivity (fledging success between years and hatching success within years). 4. Using long-term data on behavioural interactions at nest sites, and on diet and fish provisioning rate, we evaluated two possible mechanisms of density dependence in productivity, food depletion and behavioural interference. 5. As density increased, both provisioning rate and the size of prey increased, contrary to predictions of a food-depletion mechanism. In the time series, a reduction in fledging success coincided with an increase in the number of non-breeders. Hatching success decreased with increasing local density and frequency of interactions with conspecifics, suggesting that behavioural interference was influencing hatching success. 6. Our study shows that, taking into account the role of non-breeders, in particular in species or populations where there are many floaters and where competition for nest sites is intense, can improve our understanding of density-dependent processes and help conservation actions.

  17. Hydrology of Bishop Creek, California: An Isotopic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. Space; John W. Hess; Stanley D. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Five power generation plants along an eleven kilometer stretch divert Bishop Creek water for hydro-electric power. Stream diversion may be adversely affecting the riparian vegetation. Stable isotopic analysis is employed to determine surface water/ground-water interactions along the creek. surface water originates primarily from three headwater lakes. Discharge into...

  18. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2002-10-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 spawners present day (Johnson et al. 1997). Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline in this species in the Columbia River. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of chum salmon (Johnson et al. 1997). This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River chum as outlined in the Hatchery Genetic Management Plan (HGMP) for the Grays River project has four main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of Lower Columbia River chum salmon exist in Lower Columbia River tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans that would involve habitat restoration including the creation of spawning refugias, supplementation if necessary and a habitat and fish monitoring and evaluation plan. If chum have been extirpated from previously utilized streams, develop re-introduction plans that utilize appropriate genetic donor stock(s) of Lower Columbia River chum salmon and integrate habitat improvement and fry-to-adult survival evaluations. Third, reduce the extinction risk to Grays River chum salmon population by randomly capturing adults in the basin for use in a supplementation program and reintroduction of Lower Columbia River chum salmon into the Chinook River basin. The

  19. Density-dependent feedbacks can mask environmental drivers of populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Petter

    I present some results from studies identifying environmental drivers of vital rates and population dynamics when controlling for intraspecific density statistically or experimentally, show that density dependence can be strong even in populations of slow-growing species in stressful habitats, an...

  20. 78 FR 64003 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Jump Creek, Succor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Jump Creek, Succor Creek, and... Field Office Jump Creek, Succor Creek and Cow Creek Watersheds grazing permit renewal, and by this... in the Federal Register. ADDRESSES: Copies of the Jump Creek, Succor Creek and Cow Creek Watersheds...

  1. 78 FR 26065 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Jump Creek, Succor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Jump Creek, Succor Creek, and... the Jump Creek, Succor Creek, and Cow Creek Watersheds Grazing Permit Renewal and by this notice is... receive written comments on the Draft EIS for the Jump Creek, Succor Creek, and Cow Creek Watersheds...

  2. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Mark E.

    2001-11-01

    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring.

  3. Effects of best-management practices in Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks in the Waumandee Creek Priority Watershed, Wisconsin, 1990-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Walker, John F.; Bannerman, Roger T.; Rutter, Troy D.

    2012-01-01

    In many watersheds, nonpoint-source contamination is a major contributor to water-quality problems. In response to the recognition of the importance of nonpoint sources, the Wisconsin Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Abatement Program (Nonpoint Program) was enacted in 1978. This report summarizes the results of a study to assess the effectiveness of watershed-management practices for controlling nonpoint-source contamination for the Eagle Creek and Joos Valley Creek Watersheds. Streamflow-gaging stations equipped for automated sample collection and continuous recording of stream stage were installed in July 1990 at Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks and were operated through September 2007. In October 1990, three rain gages were installed in each watershed and were operated through September 2007. Best-Management Practices (BMPs) were installed during 1993 to 2000 in Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks and were tracked throughout the study period. By the year 2000, a majority of the BMPs were implemented in the two watersheds and goals set by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the local Land Conservation Department had been achieved for the two study watersheds (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 1990). The distributions of the rainstorms that produced surface runoff and storm loads were similar in the pre-BMP (1990-93) and post-BMP implementation (2000-07) periods for both Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks. The highest annual streamflow occurred at both sites in water year 1993, which corresponded to the greatest above normal nonfrozen precipitation measured at two nearby NOAA weather stations. The minimum streamflow occurred in water year 2007 at both sites. Base-flow and stormwater samples were collected and analyzed for suspended solids, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen. For both Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks the median concentrations of suspended solids and total phosphorus in base flow were lower during the post-BMP period compared to the pre

  4. Modelling interactions of toxicants and density dependence in wildlife populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Aafke M.; Hendriks, Harrie W.M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Hendriks, A. Jan; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.

    2013-01-01

    1. A major challenge in the conservation of threatened and endangered species is to predict population decline and design appropriate recovery measures. However, anthropogenic impacts on wildlife populations are notoriously difficult to predict due to potentially nonlinear responses and interactions with natural ecological processes like density dependence. 2. Here, we incorporated both density dependence and anthropogenic stressors in a stage-based matrix population model and parameterized it for a density-dependent population of peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus exposed to two anthropogenic toxicants [dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)]. Log-logistic exposure–response relationships were used to translate toxicant concentrations in peregrine falcon eggs to effects on fecundity. Density dependence was modelled as the probability of a nonbreeding bird acquiring a breeding territory as a function of the current number of breeders. 3. The equilibrium size of the population, as represented by the number of breeders, responded nonlinearly to increasing toxicant concentrations, showing a gradual decrease followed by a relatively steep decline. Initially, toxicant-induced reductions in population size were mitigated by an alleviation of the density limitation, that is, an increasing probability of territory acquisition. Once population density was no longer limiting, the toxicant impacts were no longer buffered by an increasing proportion of nonbreeders shifting to the breeding stage, resulting in a strong decrease in the equilibrium number of breeders. 4. Median critical exposure concentrations, that is, median toxicant concentrations in eggs corresponding with an equilibrium population size of zero, were 33 and 46 μg g−1 fresh weight for DDE and PBDEs, respectively. 5. Synthesis and applications. Our modelling results showed that particular life stages of a density-limited population may be relatively insensitive to

  5. Streamflow conditions along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-11-14

    The availability of adequate water to meet the present (2017) and future needs of humans, fish, and wildlife is a fundamental issue for the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation in northeast Kansas. Because Soldier Creek flows through the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Reservation, it is an important tribal resource. An understanding of historical Soldier Creek streamflow conditions is required for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages along Soldier Creek were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends by Juracek (2017). Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to compute annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow. Results of the assessment are summarized in this fact sheet.

  6. Missing link between the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet; Ponce, David; Parsons, Tom; Hart, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    The next major earthquake to strike the ~7 million residents of the San Francisco Bay Area will most likely result from rupture of the Hayward or Rodgers Creek faults. Until now, the relationship between these two faults beneath San Pablo Bay has been a mystery. Detailed subsurface imaging provides definitive evidence of active faulting along the Hayward fault as it traverses San Pablo Bay and bends ~10° to the right toward the Rodgers Creek fault. Integrated geophysical interpretation and kinematic modeling show that the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults are directly connected at the surface-a geometric relationship that has significant implications for earthquake dynamics and seismic hazard. A direct link enables simultaneous rupture of the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults, a scenario that could result in a major earthquake ( M = 7.4) that would cause extensive damage and loss of life with global economic impact.

  7. Alcohol dependence: international policy implications for prison populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gail Yvonne; Hoffmann, Norman G

    2006-11-08

    In light of the emphasis on drug abuse, this study explored the relative prevalence of substance use disorders among United Kingdom (UK) prison inmates in the context of findings from a general inmate population in the United States (US). The lead author of the report conducted a structured diagnostic interview with 155 new admissions to one of two prisons in the UK using the CAAPE (Comprehensive Addiction And Psychological Evaluation), a structured diagnostic interview, to ensure consistent assessments. The US sample consisted of 6,881 male inmates in a state prison system evaluated with an automated version of the SUDDS-IV (Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV) interview. Alcohol dependence emerged as the most prevalent substance use disorder in both UK prisons and in the US sample. Relative frequencies of abuse and dependence for alcohol and other drugs revealed that dependence on a given substance was more prevalent than abuse ad defined by the current diagnostic criteria. Despite the emphasis on drugs in correctional populations, alcohol dependence appears to be the most prominent substance use disorder among the incarcerated in both the US and UK and must be considered in developing treatment programs and policy priorities.

  8. Investigating the Maya Polity at Lower Barton Creek Cayo, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, George Van, III

    The objectives of this research are to determine the importance of Lower Barton Creek in both time and space, with relation to other settlements along the Belize River Valley. Material evidence recovered from field excavations and spatial information developed from Lidar data were employed in determining the socio-political nature and importance of this settlement, so as to orient its existence within the context of ancient socio-political dynamics in the Belize River Valley. Before the investigations detailed in this thesis no archaeological research had been conducted in the area, the site of Lower Barton Creek itself was only recently identified via the 2013 West-Central Belize LiDAR Survey (WCBLS 2013). Previously, the southern extent of the Barton Creek area represented a major break in our knowledge not only of the Barton Creek area, but the southern extent of the Belize River Valley. Conducting research at Lower Barton Creek has led to the determination of the polity's temporal existence and allowed for a greater and more complex understanding of the Belize River Valley's interaction with regions abutting the Belize River Valley proper.

  9. Flood-inundation maps for Suwanee Creek from the confluence of Ivy Creek to the Noblin Ridge Drive bridge, Gwinnett County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.9-mile reach of Suwanee Creek, from the confluence of Ivy Creek to the Noblin Ridge Drive bridge, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Gwinnett County, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Suwanee Creek at Suwanee, Georgia (02334885). Current stage at this USGS streamgage may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that commonly are collocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Suwanee Creek at Suwanee (02334885), available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. A one-dimensional step-backwater model was developed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC-RAS software for Suwanee Creek and was used to compute flood profiles for a 6.9-mile reach of the creek. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Suwanee Creek at Suwanee streamgage (02334885). The hydraulic model was then used to determine 19 water-surface profiles for flood stages at the Suwanee Creek streamgage at 0.5-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage. The profiles ranged from just above bankfull stage (7.0 feet) to approximately 1.7 feet above the highest recorded water level at the streamgage (16.0 feet). The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined

  10. Tidal Creek Sentinel Habitat Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Research, Assessment and Prediction's Tidal Creeks: Sentinel Habitat Database was developed to support the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  11. 75 FR 3195 - Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Mill Creek; Allotment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...; Oregon; Mill Creek; Allotment Management Plans EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent... allotments on the Lookout Mountain Ranger District. These four allotments are: Cox, Craig, Mill Creek, and..., Mill Creek and Old Dry Creek allotments. The responsible official will also decide how to mitigate...

  12. Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Burris, J.A. (C. E. Environmental, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report.

  13. Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J.; Burris, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report

  14. Suspended-sediment and turbidity responses to sediment and turbidity reduction projects in the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek, Watersheds, New York, 2010–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemion, Jason; McHale, Michael R.; Davis, Wae Danyelle

    2016-12-05

    Suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) and turbidity were monitored within the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek tributaries to the upper Esopus Creek in New York, the main source of water to the Ashokan Reservoir, from October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2014. The purpose of the monitoring was to determine the effects of suspended-sediment and turbidity reduction projects (STRPs) on SSC and turbidity in two of the three streams; no STRPs were constructed in the Beaver Kill watershed. During the study period, four STRPs were completed in the Stony Clove Creek and Warner Creek watersheds. Daily mean SSCs decreased significantly for a given streamflow after the STRPs were completed. The most substantial decreases in daily mean SSCs were measured at the highest streamflows. Background SSCs, as measured in water samples collected in upstream reference stream reaches, in all three streams in this study were less than 5 milligrams per liter during low and high streamflows. Longitudinal stream sampling identified stream reaches with failing hillslopes in contact with the stream channel as the primary sediment sources in the Beaver Kill and Stony Clove Creek watersheds.

  15. Characterization of surface water contaminants in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.; Madix, S.; Rash, C.

    1995-01-01

    Surface waters in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek have been contaminated by activities on the DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation throughout the more than 50 year history of Oak Ridge. Though the Clinch River and Poplar Creek drainage areas are contaminated with heavy metals, organics and radionuclides, public access to these sites is not restricted. The investigation, divided into discrete studies, was tailored to provide a statistically sound picture of contaminants and aqueous toxicity in Poplar Creek, investigate contaminant remobilization from sediments, and determine contaminant levels during a series of ''worst-case'' events. Results for Poplar Creek indicate that average contaminant values were below levels of concern for human health and ecological risk, though contaminant distributions suggest that episodic events contribute sufficiently to system contaminant levels to be of concern. Additionally, water column contaminant levels were significantly higher in particle deposition areas rather than at known contaminant sources. Levels of organic compounds in reference areas to Poplar Creek exceeded those in the Poplar Creek study area. In the Clinch River and Poplar Creek, statistical differences in metal and radionuclide levels from known contaminated areas confirmed previous results, and were used to independently distinguish between sites. Contaminant concentrations were elevated in association with sediments, though no distinction between deposition and remobilization could be made. Due to elevated contaminant levels, and some unexpected contaminant distributions, sites in Poplar Creek and off-channel embayments of the Clinch River were identified that will require additional characterization

  16. Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible

  17. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2004-09-01

    Currently, two methods of reintroduction are being simultaneously evaluated at Duncan Creek. Recolonization is occurring by introducing adult chum salmon from the Lower Gorge (LG) population into Duncan Creek and allowing them to naturally reproduce. The supplementation strategy required adults to be collected and artificially spawned, incubated, reared, and released at the mouth of Duncan Creek. All eggs from the artificial crossings at Washougal Hatchery were incubated and the fry reared to release size at the hatchery. The Duncan Creek chum salmon project was very successful in 2003-04, providing knowledge and experience that will improve program execution in future years. The gear used to collect adult brood stock was changed from tangle nets to beach seines. This increased efficiency and the speed at which adults could be processed in the field, and most likely reduced stress on the adults handled. Certain weaknesses exposed in past seasons still exist and new ones were exposed (e.g. inadequate incubation and rearing space at Washougal Hatchery for any large salvage operation and having to move the rearing troughs outside the raceway in 2004). Egg-to-fry survival rates of 64% and 58% showed that the channels are functioning at the upper end of what can be expected from them. Possibly the most important event this season was the ability to strontium mark and release all naturally-produced fry from the spawning channels. Channel and floodplain modifications reduced the likelihood that floods will damage the channels and negatively impact survival rates.

  18. Low-flow water-quality characterization of the Gore Creek watershed, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado, August 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Kirby H.; Spahr, Norman E.

    1998-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCOL) is one of 59 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study units designed to assess the status and trends of the Nation?s water quality (Leahy and others, 1990). The UCOL study unit began operation in 1994, and surface-water-quality data collection at a network of 14 sites began in October 1995 (Apodaca and others, 1996; Spahr and others, 1996). Gore Creek, which flows through Vail, Colorado, originates in pristine alpine headwaters and is designated a gold-medal trout fishery. The creek drains an area of about 102 square miles and is a tributary to the Eagle River. Gore Creek at the mouth near Minturn (site 13 in fig. 1) is one of the 14 sites in the UCOL network. This site was selected to evaluate water quality resulting from urban development and recreational land use. The Gore Creek watershed has undergone rapid land-use changes since the 1960?s as the Vail area shifted from traditional mountain ranchlands to a four-season resort community. Residential, recreational, commercial, and transportation development continues near Gore Creek and its tributaries to support the increasing permanent and tourist population of the area. Interstate 70 runs through the watershed from Vail Pass near site 14, along the eastern side of Black Gore Creek, and along the northern side of the main stem of Gore Creek to the mouth of the watershed (fig. 1). A major local concern is how increasing urbanization/recreation affects the water quality, gold-medal trout fishery, and aesthetic values of Gore Creek. An evaluation of the spatial characteristics of water quality in the watershed upstream from site 13 at the mouth of Gore Creek (fig. 1) can provide local water and land managers with information necessary to establish water policy and make land-use planning decisions to maintain or improve water quality. Historical data collected at the mouth of Gore Creek provide information about water quality resulting from land use, but a synoptic

  19. Evolution of the landscape along the Clear Creek Corridor, Colorado; urbanization, aggregate mining and reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda; Knepper, Daniel H.; Melick, Roger A.; Hickman, John

    2002-01-01

    Prime agricultural land along the Clear Creek floodplain, Colorado, attracted settlement in the 1850's but the demand for sand and gravel for 1900's construction initiated a sequence of events that exceeded previous interests and created the modified landscape and urban ecosystem that exists today. The Clear Creek valley corridor offers a landscape filled with a persistent visible and hidden reminder of it's past use. The map sheets illustrate the Clear Creek landscape as a series of compositions, both at the macro view (in the spatial context of urban structure and highways from aerial photographs) and micro view (from the civic scale where landscape features like trees, buildings, and sidewalks are included). The large-scale topographic features, such as mountains and terraces, appear 'changeless' (they do change over geologic time), while Clear Creek has changed from a wide braided stream to a narrow confined stream. Transportation networks (streets and highways) and spiraling population growth in adjacent cities (from approximately 38,000 people in 1880 to over a million in 1999) form two dominant landscape patterns. Mining and wetland/riparian occupy the smallest amount of land use acres compared to urban, transportation, or water reservoir activities in the Clear Creek aggregate reserve study area. Four types of reclaimed pits along Clear Creek were determined: water storage facilities, wildlife/greenbelt space, multiple-purpose reservoirs, and 'hidden scenery.' The latter involves infilling gravel pits (with earth backfill, concrete rubble, or sanitary landfill) and covering the site with light industry or residential housing making the landform hard to detect as a past mine site. Easier to recognize are the strong-edged, rectilinear water reservoirs, reclaimed from off-channel sand and gravel pits that reflect the land survey grid and property boundaries. The general public may not realize softly contoured linear wildlife corridors connecting urban

  20. The Patroon Creek Contamination Migration Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, K.; Zafran, A.; Moore, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Shaw performed a Site Investigation (SI) for sediment within the Unnamed Tributary of the Patroon Creek, a section of the Patroon Creek, and the Three Mile Reservoir as part of the overall contract with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to remediate the Colonie Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Site. The Unnamed Tributary formerly flowed through the former Patroon Lake, which was located on the main site property and was used as a landfill for radiological and chemical wastes. The objective of the investigation was to determine the absence/presence of radioactive contamination within the three Areas of Concern (AOC). In order to accomplish this objective, Shaw assembled a team to produce a Technical Memorandum that provided an in-depth understanding of the environmental conditions related to the Patroon Creek. Upon completion and analysis of the Technical Memorandum, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was constructed and a Technical Planning Program (TPP) was held to develop a Sediment Investigation Work Plan and Sediment Investigation Sampling and Analysis Plan. A total of 32 sample locations were analyzed using on-site direct gamma scans with a Pancake Geiger-Mueller (PGM) instrument for screening purposes and samples were analyzed at on-site and off-site laboratories. The highest interval from each core scan was selected for on-site analysis utilizing a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Eight of these samples were sent off-site for gamma/alpha spectroscopy confirmation. The data collected during the SI indicated that the U-238 cleanup criterion was exceeded in sediment samples collected from two locations within the Unnamed Tributary but not in downstream sections of Patroon Creek or Three Mile Reservoir. Future actions for impacted sediment in the Unnamed Tributary will be further evaluated. Concentrations of U-238 and Th-232 in all other off-site sediment samples collected from the Unnamed Tributary, Patroon Creek, and

  1. Alcohol dependence: international policy implications for prison populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Norman G

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the emphasis on drug abuse, this study explored the relative prevalence of substance use disorders among United Kingdom (UK prison inmates in the context of findings from a general inmate population in the United States (US. The lead author of the report conducted a structured diagnostic interview with 155 new admissions to one of two prisons in the UK using the CAAPE (Comprehensive Addiction And Psychological Evaluation, a structured diagnostic interview, to ensure consistent assessments. The US sample consisted of 6,881 male inmates in a state prison system evaluated with an automated version of the SUDDS-IV (Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV interview. Results Alcohol dependence emerged as the most prevalent substance use disorder in both UK prisons and in the US sample. Relative frequencies of abuse and dependence for alcohol and other drugs revealed that dependence on a given substance was more prevalent than abuse ad defined by the current diagnostic criteria. Conclusion Despite the emphasis on drugs in correctional populations, alcohol dependence appears to be the most prominent substance use disorder among the incarcerated in both the US and UK and must be considered in developing treatment programs and policy priorities.

  2. Diel variation in fish assemblages in tidal creeks in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JF. Oliveira-Neto

    Full Text Available Tidal creeks are strongly influenced by tides and are therefore exposed to large differences in salinity and depth daily. Here we compare fish assemblages in tidal creeks between day and night in two tidal creeks in southern Brazil. Monthly day and night, simultaneous collections were carried out in both creeks using fyke nets. Clupeiformes tended to be caught more during the day. Cathorops spixii, Genidens genidens and Rypticus randalli tended to be caught at night. Sciaenidae also tended to be caught more during the night. In general, pelagic species were diurnal, while deep water species were nocturnal. These trends are probably due to a variety of causes, such as phylogeny, predation and net avoidance.

  3. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  4. The Wells Creek Meteorite Impact Site and Changing Views on Impact Cratering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J. R. H.; Orchiston, Wayne; Clendening, Ron

    2012-11-01

    Wells Creek is a confirmed meteorite impact site in Tennessee, USA. The Wells Creek structure was first noticed by railroad surveyors around 1855 and brought to the attention of J.M. Safford, Tennessee's State Geologist. He included an insert in the 1869 Geologic Map of Tennessee, which is the first known map to include the structure. The origin of the Wells Creek structure was controversial, and was interpreted as being either the result of volcanic steam explosion or meteorite impact. It was only in the 1960s that Wilson and Stearns were able to state that the impact hypothesis was preferred. Evidence for a Wells Creek meteorite impact includes drill core results, extreme brecciation and shatter cones, while a local lack of volcanic material is telling. Just to the north of the Wells Creek Basin are three small basins that Wilson concluded were associated with the Wells Creek impact event, but evidence regarding the origin of the Austin, Indian Mound and Cave Spring Hollow sites is not conclusive.

  5. Use of PIT tag and underwater video recording in assessing estuarine fish movement in a high intertidal mangrove and salt marsh creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynecke, Jan-Olaf; Poole, Geoffrey C.; Werry, Jonathan; Lee, Shing Yip

    2008-08-01

    We assessed movement patterns in relation to habitat availability (reflected by the extent of tidal flooding) for several commercially and recreationally important species in and out of a small mangrove creek within the subtropical Burrum River estuary (25°10'S 152°37'E) in Queensland, Australia. Movement patterns of Acanthopagrus australis, Pomadasys kaakan, Lutjanus russelli and Mugil cephalus were examined between December 2006 and April 2007 using a stationary passive integrated transponder (PIT) system adapted for saline environments (30-38 ppt) and underwater digital video cameras (DVCs). This is the second known application of a stationary PIT tag system to studying fish movement in estuarine environments. The transponder system was set in place for 104 days and recorded >5000 detections. Overall 'recapture' rate of tagged fish by the transponder system was >40%. We used PIT tags implanted in a total of 75 fish from a tidal creek connected to the main channel of the estuary. We also developed a high-resolution digital elevation (2.5 m cell size) model of the estuary derived from airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and aerial imagery to estimate inundation dynamics within the tidal creek, and related the timing of inundation in various habitats to the timing of fish immigration to and emigration from the creek. Over 50% of all tagged fish were moving in and out of the creek at a threshold level when 50% of the mangrove forest became flooded. Individuals of all four species moved into and out of the tidal creek repeatedly at different times depending on species and size, indicating strong residential behaviour within the estuary. The main activity of fishes was at night time. Manual interpretation of video from >700 fish sightings at three different mangrove sites confirmed the findings of the stationary PIT system, that the function of shelter vs food in mangrove habitat may be size dependent. Our established techniques assess the spatial ecology

  6. Water-budgets and recharge-area simulations for the Spring Creek and Nittany Creek Basins and parts of the Spruce Creek Basin, Centre and Huntingdon Counties, Pennsylvania, Water Years 2000–06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John W.; Risser, Dennis W.; Regan, R. Steve; Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Markstrom, Steven

    2015-08-17

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with ClearWater Conservancy and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection to develop a hydrologic model to simulate a water budget and identify areas of greater than average recharge for the Spring Creek Basin in central Pennsylvania. The model was developed to help policy makers, natural resource managers, and the public better understand and manage the water resources in the region. The Groundwater and Surface-water FLOW model (GSFLOW), which is an integration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Groundwater Flow Model (MODFLOW-NWT), was used to simulate surface water and groundwater in the Spring Creek Basin for water years 2000–06. Because the groundwater and surface-water divides for the Spring Creek Basin do not coincide, the study area includes the Nittany Creek Basin and headwaters of the Spruce Creek Basin. The hydrologic model was developed by the use of a stepwise process: (1) develop and calibrate a PRMS model and steady-state MODFLOW-NWT model; (2) re-calibrate the steady-state MODFLOW-NWT model using potential recharge estimates simulated from the PRMS model, and (3) integrate the PRMS and MODFLOW-NWT models into GSFLOW. The individually calibrated PRMS and MODFLOW-NWT models were used as a starting point for the calibration of the fully coupled GSFLOW model. The GSFLOW model calibration was done by comparing observations and corresponding simulated values of streamflow from 11 streamgages and groundwater levels from 16 wells. The cumulative water budget and individual water budgets for water years 2000–06 were simulated by using GSFLOW. The largest source and sink terms are represented by precipitation and evapotranspiration, respectively. For the period simulated, a net surplus in the water budget was computed where inflows exceeded outflows by about 1.7 billion cubic feet (0.47 inches per year over the basin area

  7. Hail creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.

    2005-09-01

    The paper examines the development of one of the largest coking coal deposits in the world. Hail Creek is 100 km west of Mackay and 35 km northeast of Nebo, Queensland and has proven opencut reserves of 195.6 as at December 2003. Coal processing stated in July 2003. The award winning project included construction of a coal handling and preparation plant, a railway, a village and offsite infrastructure and mine buildings and site services. Coal is mined by conventional dragline and truck/shovel techniques. 1 photo.

  8. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Mark E.

    2001-01-01

    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring

  9. Potential effects of surface coal mining on the hydrology of the Corral Creek area, Hanging Woman Creek coal field, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClymonds, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Corral Creek area of the Hanging Woman Creek coal field, 9 miles east of the Decker coal mines near the Tongue River, contains large reserves of Federal coal that have been identified for potential lease sale. A hydrologic study was conducted in the area to describe existing hydrologic systems and to study assess potential impacts of surface coal mining on local water resources. Hydrogeologic data collected indicate that aquifers are coal and sandstone beds within the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene age) and sand and gravel in valley alluvium (Pleistocene and Holocene age). Surface-water resources are limited to a few spring-fed stock ponds in the higher parts of the area and the intermittent flow of Corral Creek near the mouth. Most of the stock ponds in the area become dry by midsummer. Mining of the Anderson coal bed would remove three stock wells and would lower the potentiometric surface within the coal and sandstone aquifers. The alluvial aquifer beneath Corral Creek and South Fork would be removed. Although mining would alter the existing hydrologic systems and remove several shallow wells, alternative ground-water supplies are available that could be developed to replace those lost by mining. (USGS)

  10. NPDES Permit for Soap Creek Associates Wastewater Treatment Facility in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0023183, Soap Creek Associates, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in West, Bighorn County, Montana, to Soap Creek.

  11. Hydrogeology of the interstream area between Ty Ty Creek and Ty Ty Creek tributary near Plains, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lisa M.; Hicks, David W.

    1996-01-01

    remains relatively unchanged during high and low water-level periods. Water levels in the Claiborne aquifer fluctuated by a maximum of 6 ft during the period from January to December 1991. Recharge to the Claiborne aquifer consists of a local and regional flow component. Lateral ground-water flow (regional flow) into the study area is dependent on regional hydraulic controls (pumpage, stream discharge, and rainfall). The rate of lateral movement of ground water is dependent on the hydraulic conductivity of the saturated zone, the hydraulic gradient, and other hydraulic factors, and is considered to be relatively constant. Local recharge enters the ground-water system as rainfall that percolates down to the water table. Annual water-level fluctuations in the Claiborne aquifer indicate that the majority of regional and local recharge occurs in the interstream area with recharge decreasing downslope to the streams. Ground water discharges to Ty Ty Creek and it's tributary throughout the year during low and high water-level periods.

  12. Effective size of density-dependent two-sex populations: the effect of mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, A M; Engen, S; SAEther, B-E

    2017-08-01

    Density dependence in vital rates is a key feature affecting temporal fluctuations of natural populations. This has important implications for the rate of random genetic drift. Mating systems also greatly affect effective population sizes, but knowledge of how mating system and density regulation interact to affect random genetic drift is poor. Using theoretical models and simulations, we compare N e in short-lived, density-dependent animal populations with different mating systems. We study the impact of a fluctuating, density-dependent sex ratio and consider both a stable and a fluctuating environment. We find a negative relationship between annual N e /N and adult population size N due to density dependence, suggesting that loss of genetic variation is reduced at small densities. The magnitude of this decrease was affected by mating system and life history. A male-biased, density-dependent sex ratio reduces the rate of genetic drift compared to an equal, density-independent sex ratio, but a stochastic change towards male bias reduces the N e /N ratio. Environmental stochasticity amplifies temporal fluctuations in population size and is thus vital to consider in estimation of effective population sizes over longer time periods. Our results on the reduced loss of genetic variation at small densities, particularly in polygamous populations, indicate that density regulation may facilitate adaptive evolution at small population sizes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. 75 FR 57766 - Ryckman Creek Resources, LLC; Notice of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-498-000] Ryckman Creek Resources, LLC; Notice of Petition September 15, 2010. Take notice that on September 3, 2010, Ryckman Creek..., a petition for an Exemption of Temporary Acts and Operations and Request for Expedited Approval...

  14. 78 FR 76750 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chambers Creek, Steilacoom, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... operating schedule that governs the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Chambers Creek Railway Bridge across... performing lift bridge maintenance and upgrades for the BNSF Chambers Creek Railway Bridge across Chambers... maintenance and upgrade items to this vertical lift bridge in support of Positive Train Control requirements...

  15. Flood-inundation maps for Big Creek from the McGinnis Ferry Road bridge to the confluence of Hog Wallow Creek, Alpharetta and Roswell, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2015-08-20

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 12.4-mile reach of Big Creek that extends from 260 feet above the McGinnis Ferry Road bridge to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgage at Big Creek below Hog Wallow Creek at Roswell, Georgia (02335757), were developed by the USGS in cooperation with the cities of Alpharetta and Roswell, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Big Creek near Alpharetta, Georgia (02335700). Real-time stage information from this USGS streamgage may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs for many streams where the USGS operates streamgages and provides flow data. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Big Creek near Alpharetta (02335700), available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed for this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.

  16. Geophysical Characterization of the Hilton Creek Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, A. K.; Macy, K. P.; De Cristofaro, J. L.; Polet, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Long Valley Caldera straddles the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada Batholith and the western edge of the Basin and Range Province, and represents one of the largest caldera complexes on Earth. The caldera is intersected by numerous fault systems, including the Hartley Springs Fault System, the Round Valley Fault System, the Long Valley Ring Fault System, and the Hilton Creek Fault System, which is our main region of interest. The Hilton Creek Fault System appears as a single NW-striking fault, dipping to the NE, from Davis Lake in the south to the southern rim of the Long Valley Caldera. Inside the caldera, it splays into numerous parallel faults that extend toward the resurgent dome. Seismicity in the area increased significantly in May 1980, following a series of large earthquakes in the vicinity of the caldera and a subsequent large earthquake swarm which has been suggested to be the result of magma migration. A large portion of the earthquake swarms in the Long Valley Caldera occurs on or around the Hilton Creek Fault splays. We are conducting an interdisciplinary geophysical study of the Hilton Creek Fault System from just south of the onset of splay faulting, to its extension into the dome of the caldera. Our investigation includes ground-based magnetic field measurements, high-resolution total station elevation profiles, Structure-From-Motion derived topography and an analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms and statistics. Preliminary analysis of topographic profiles, of approximately 1 km in length, reveals the presence of at least three distinct fault splays within the caldera with vertical offsets of 0.5 to 1.0 meters. More detailed topographic mapping is expected to highlight smaller structures. We are also generating maps of the variation in b-value along different portions of the Hilton Creek system to determine whether we can detect any transition to more swarm-like behavior towards the North. We will show maps of magnetic anomalies, topography

  17. CREEK Project's Oyster Biomass Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  18. 75 FR 16728 - Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger... manner that increases resiliency of the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project area ecosystem to... requirements to require. The Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project includes treatments previously proposed...

  19. Coding of time-dependent stimuli in homogeneous and heterogeneous neural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiran, Manuel; Kruscha, Alexandra; Benda, Jan; Lindner, Benjamin

    2018-04-01

    We compare the information transmission of a time-dependent signal by two types of uncoupled neuron populations that differ in their sources of variability: i) a homogeneous population whose units receive independent noise and ii) a deterministic heterogeneous population, where each unit exhibits a different baseline firing rate ('disorder'). Our criterion for making both sources of variability quantitatively comparable is that the interspike-interval distributions are identical for both systems. Numerical simulations using leaky integrate-and-fire neurons unveil that a non-zero amount of both noise or disorder maximizes the encoding efficiency of the homogeneous and heterogeneous system, respectively, as a particular case of suprathreshold stochastic resonance. Our findings thus illustrate that heterogeneity can render similarly profitable effects for neuronal populations as dynamic noise. The optimal noise/disorder depends on the system size and the properties of the stimulus such as its intensity or cutoff frequency. We find that weak stimuli are better encoded by a noiseless heterogeneous population, whereas for strong stimuli a homogeneous population outperforms an equivalent heterogeneous system up to a moderate noise level. Furthermore, we derive analytical expressions of the coherence function for the cases of very strong noise and of vanishing intrinsic noise or heterogeneity, which predict the existence of an optimal noise intensity. Our results show that, depending on the type of signal, noise as well as heterogeneity can enhance the encoding performance of neuronal populations.

  20. 76 FR 13344 - Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger... Impact Statement for the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project was published in the Federal Register... Responsible Official for the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project. DATES: The Final Environmental Impact...

  1. Sedimentation Study and Flume Investigation, Mission Creek, Santa Barbara, California; Corte Madera Creek, Marin County, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Copeland, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    .... An existing concrete-lined flood control channel on Corte Madera Creek in Marin County, California lacks a debris basin at its upstream terminus and carries significant bed load through a supercritical flow reach...

  2. Anticipated transport of Cs-137 from Steel Creek following L-Area restart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Heat exchanger cooling water, spent fuel storage basin effluents, and process water from P and L-Reactor Areas were discharged to Steel Creek beginning in 1954. Cs-137 was the most significant radionuclide discharged to the environs. Once the Cs-137 was discharged from P and L-Area reactors to Steel Creek, it became associated with silt and clay in the Steel Creek system. After its association with the silt and clay, the Cs-137 becomes part of the sediment transport process and undergoes continual deposition-resuspension in the stream system. This report discusses the expected fate and transport of Cs-137 currently present in the Steel Creek system after L-Reactor restart

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure in the threatened Oregon silverspot butterfly (Speyeria zerene hippolyta) in western Oregon and northwestern California— Implications for future translocations and the establishment of new populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2016-09-20

    Executive SummaryWe present results of population genetic analyses performed on Oregon silverspot butterflies (OSB; Speyeria zerene hippolyta) in western Oregon and northwestern California. We used DNA sequences from a 561-base pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for a dataset comprised of 112 S. z. hippolyta and 32 S. z. gloriosa individuals collected at 9 locations in western Oregon and northwestern California. The most pertinent findings thus far are summarized as follows:Among OSB populations, genetic diversity is lowest at Mount Hebo and highest at Rock Creek and Bray Point. Of the 32 haplotypes detected in OSB, only 2 were shared among populations (1 shared by Mount Hebo, Cascade Head, Bray Point, and Rock Creek, and 1 shared by Rock Creek and Lake Earl). The remaining 30 haplotypes were identified in individual populations, highlighting the strong differentiation among sites. It is unclear if the shared haplotypes represent widespread, naturally occurring genetic variation or if allele sharing among populations is due to translocation history.Using full siblings of individuals that were released at Rock Creek and Bray Point in 2012 as comparison standards, the analyses suggest that 54 percent of the sampled individuals from Bray Point were naturally recruited into the population and were not originating from the 2012 release of captive reared individuals. Likewise, 33 percent of the analyzed individuals from Rock Creek were naturally recruited. Both of these estimates may be underestimates if the shared alleles that we identified among populations are naturally occurring and not a product of the 2012 translocations.The results suggest that there are about 12–13 COI haplotypes in the Mount Hebo population. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service anticipates using Mount Hebo as the source of individuals when establishing new populations in the future. Nonlinear regression models based on a series of rarefaction analyses

  4. Heritable oxidative phosphorylation differences in a pollutant resistant Fundulus heteroclitus population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Xiao; Crawford, Douglas L.; Nacci, Diane E.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laboratory reared fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Laboratory reared F3 fish from polluted population displayed higher routine metabolism and complex II activity but lower complex I enzyme activity. • Enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance were retained in laboratory reared F3 fish from the polluted population. - Abstract: Populations can adapt to stress including recent anthropogenic pollution. Our published data suggests heritable differences in hepatocyte oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in field-caught killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from the highly polluted Elizabeth River, VA, USA, relative to fish from a nearby, relatively unpolluted reference site in King’s Creek VA. Consistent with other studies showing that Elizabeth River killifish are resistant to some of the toxic effects of certain contaminants, OxPhos measurements in hepatocytes from field-caught King’s Creek but not field-caught Elizabeth River killifish were altered by acute benzo [a] pyrene exposures. To more definitively test whether the enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance are heritable, we measured OxPhos metabolism in a laboratory-reared F3 generation from the Elizabeth River population versus a laboratory-reared F1 generation from the King’s Creek population and compared these results to previous data from the field-caught fish. The F3 Elizabeth River fish compared to F1 King’s Creek fish had significantly higher State 3 respiration (routine metabolism) and complex II activity, and significantly lower complex I activity. The consistently higher routine metabolism in the F3 and field-caught Elizabeth River fish versus F1 and field-caught King’s Creek fish implies a heritable change in OxPhos function. The observation that LEAK, E-State, Complex I and Complex II were different in laboratory bred

  5. Heritable oxidative phosphorylation differences in a pollutant resistant Fundulus heteroclitus population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xiao, E-mail: xdu@rsmas.miami.edu [Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Crawford, Douglas L. [Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Nacci, Diane E. [Population Ecology Branch, Atlantic Ecology Division, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 27 Tarzwell Dr., Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States); Oleksiak, Marjorie F., E-mail: moleksiak@rsmas.miami.edu [Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Laboratory reared fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Laboratory reared F3 fish from polluted population displayed higher routine metabolism and complex II activity but lower complex I enzyme activity. • Enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance were retained in laboratory reared F3 fish from the polluted population. - Abstract: Populations can adapt to stress including recent anthropogenic pollution. Our published data suggests heritable differences in hepatocyte oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in field-caught killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from the highly polluted Elizabeth River, VA, USA, relative to fish from a nearby, relatively unpolluted reference site in King’s Creek VA. Consistent with other studies showing that Elizabeth River killifish are resistant to some of the toxic effects of certain contaminants, OxPhos measurements in hepatocytes from field-caught King’s Creek but not field-caught Elizabeth River killifish were altered by acute benzo [a] pyrene exposures. To more definitively test whether the enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance are heritable, we measured OxPhos metabolism in a laboratory-reared F3 generation from the Elizabeth River population versus a laboratory-reared F1 generation from the King’s Creek population and compared these results to previous data from the field-caught fish. The F3 Elizabeth River fish compared to F1 King’s Creek fish had significantly higher State 3 respiration (routine metabolism) and complex II activity, and significantly lower complex I activity. The consistently higher routine metabolism in the F3 and field-caught Elizabeth River fish versus F1 and field-caught King’s Creek fish implies a heritable change in OxPhos function. The observation that LEAK, E-State, Complex I and Complex II were different in laboratory bred

  6. Minimizing the dependency ratio in a population with below-replacement fertility through immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C.; Belyakov, A.O.; Feichtinger, G.

    2012-01-01

    Many industrialized countries face fertility rates below replacement level, combined with declining mortality especially in older ages. Consequently, the populations of these countries have started to age. One important indicator of age structures is the dependency ratio which is the ratio of the nonworking age population to the working age population. In this work we find the age-specific immigration profile that minimizes the dependency ratio in a stationary population with below-replacement fertility. It is assumed that the number of immigrants per age is limited. We consider two alternative policies. In the first one, we fix the total number of people who annually immigrate to a country. In the second one, we prescribe the size of the receiving country’s population. For both cases we provide numerical results for the optimal immigration profile, for the resulting age structure of the population, as well as for the dependency ratio. PMID:22781918

  7. Impact of urbanization on flood of Shigu creek in Dongguan city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Luying; Chen, Yangbo; Zhang, Tao

    2018-06-01

    Shigu creek is a highly urbanized small watershed in Dongguan City. Due to rapid urbanization, quick flood response has been observed, which posted great threat to the flood security of Dongguan City. To evaluate the impact of urbanization on the flood changes of Shigu creek is very important for the flood mitigation of Shigu creek, which will provide insight for flood planners and managers for if to build a larger flood mitigation system. In this paper, the Land cover/use changes of Shigu creek from 1987-2015 induced by urbanization was first extracted from a local database, then, the Liuxihe model, a physically based distributed hydrological model, is employed to simulate the flood processes impacted by urbanization. Precipitation of 3 storms was used for flood processes simulation. The results show that the runoff coefficient and peak flow have increased sharply.

  8. Recovery, restoration, and development of an enhancement plan for the Leading Creek watershed after dewatering of the Meigs number-sign 31 coal mine in Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, D.S.; Hassel, J.H. Van; Yeager, M.M.; Babendreier, J.E.; Currie, R.J.; Astin, L.E.; Lynde, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    Following the flooding of the Meigs number-sign 31 deep coal mine in Meigs County, Ohio, a proactive plan was developed to evaluate effects of initial dewatering, recovery, and development of a watershed enhancement plan. Approximately half of the 31-mile Leading Creek mainstem received coal mine discharge of high conductivity, low pH, high metals and total suspended solids loading. Most forms of aquatic life were depleted in the impacted areas of the creek. After three years since the incident, many forms of benthic macroinvertebrates and fish have returned to the creek, and sediments have been purged of metal loading by storm water events. The enhancement plan involves a reconnaissance of the creek and tributaries pinpointing areas of agricultural sedimentation and abandoned mined land (AML) influences in the lower half. Research activities involved sampling water and sediment in 10 stations of the creek and 17 major tributaries. The tributaries were addressed as point source discharges with water/sediment toxicity testing conducted. In-situ testing included growth impairment evaluation of Asian clams at 27 stations in the watershed. Several tributaries were intermittently toxic depending upon rainfall and the degree of AML input. Benthic macroinvertebrate assembles in most tributaries were stressed and comprised 0--3 taxa. Erosion/sedimentation loading was being addressed by hydrological modeling of the creek, land use management/habitat assessment, and data management by geographic information systems

  9. Evaluation of the consequences of thermal isolation on biota of upper Steel Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.

    1984-04-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize and evaluate existing data concerning the upper reaches of Steel Creek on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina. This report addresses the current ecological status of this stream section and the need and/or desirability of maintaining an ambient water temperature zone of passage with lower Steel Creek or the nearby Meyers Branch, an undisturbed watershed that is a major tributary to Steel Creek. The specific case evaluated involves the construction of an 800 to 1000 acre cooling reservoir on Steel Creek upstream of the confluence of Steel Creek and Meyers Branch. Water temperatures exiting this reservoir are assumed to never exceed 90 0 F. Studies were conducted in connection with the proposed restart of the L-Reactor at SRP. 8 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  10. 78 FR 2990 - Bear Creek Storage Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP13-34-000] Bear Creek..., 2012, Bear Creek Storage Company, L.L.C. (Bear Creek), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 749, Birmingham....208, 157.213 and 157.216 of the Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act, and Bear Creek's...

  11. Tritium at the Steel Creek Landing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, M.; Heffner, J.D.; Fledderman, P.D.; Littrell, J.W.; Hayes, D.W.; Dodgen, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1997 and January 1998, the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) collected routine weekly grab samples from the Savannah River near the Steel Creek Boat Landing

  12. Phytoplankton characteristics in a polluted Bombay Harbour-Thana-Bassein creek estuarine complex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, Neelam; Ramaiah, N.; Nair, V.R.

    Annual variations in phytoplankton characteristics were studied from Bombay Harbour-Thana creek-Bassein creek (BHTCBC) estuarine confluence to assess the levels of pigment concentration, productivity and, qualitative and qunatitative nature...

  13. Dependence of adiabatic population transfer on pulse profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Control of population transfer by rapid adiabatic passage has been an established technique wherein the exact amplitude profile of the shaped pulse is considered to be insignificant. We study the effect of ultrafast shaped pulses for two-level systems, by density-matrix approach. However, we find that adiabaticity depends ...

  14. CREEK Project's Nekton Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  15. Brood Year 2004: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation Report, June 2004 through March 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhards, John S.; Hill, Robert; Daniel, Mitch [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-02-19

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek to spawn through artificial propagation. This was the sixth season of adult chinook broodstock collection in Johnson Creek following collections in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Weir installation was completed on June 21, 2004 with the first chinook captured on June 22, 2004 and the last fish captured on September 6, 2004. The weir was removed on September 18, 2004. A total of 338 adult chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. Of these, 211 were of natural origin, 111 were hatchery origin Johnson Creek supplementation fish, and 16 were adipose fin clipped fish from other hatchery operations and therefore strays into Johnson Creek. Over the course of the run, 57 natural origin Johnson Creek adult chinook were retained for broodstock, transported to the South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility and held until spawned. The remaining natural origin Johnson Creek fish along with all the Johnson Creek supplementation fish were released upstream of the weir to spawn naturally. Twenty-seven Johnson Creek females were artificially spawned with 25 Johnson Creek males. Four females were diagnosed with high bacterial kidney disease levels resulting in their eggs being culled. The 27 females produced 116,598 green eggs, 16,531 green eggs were culled, with an average eye-up rate of 90.6% resulting in 90,647 eyed eggs. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery until November 2005 and then transferred to the outdoor rearing facilities during the Visual Implant Elastomer tagging operation

  16. Density dependence governs when population responses to multiple stressors are magnified or mitigated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E; Essington, Timothy E; Halpern, Benjamin S

    2017-10-01

    Population endangerment typically arises from multiple, potentially interacting anthropogenic stressors. Extensive research has investigated the consequences of multiple stressors on organisms, frequently focusing on individual life stages. Less is known about population-level consequences of exposure to multiple stressors, especially when exposure varies through life. We provide the first theoretical basis for identifying species at risk of magnified effects from multiple stressors across life history. By applying a population modeling framework, we reveal conditions under which population responses from stressors applied to distinct life stages are either magnified (synergistic) or mitigated. We find that magnification or mitigation critically depends on the shape of density dependence, but not the life stage in which it occurs. Stressors are always magnified when density dependence is linear or concave, and magnified or mitigated when it is convex. Using Bayesian numerical methods, we estimated the shape of density dependence for eight species across diverse taxa, finding support for all three shapes. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Stability of a sand spit due to dredging in an adjacent creek

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patgaonkar, R.S.; Ilangovan, D.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Jayakumar, S.; Rajagopal, M.D.

    , safety factor 1. Introduction The Jatadharmohan creek (hereinafter referred to as JMC) is a tidal creek oriented in the NE-SW direction (Fig. 1) and lies to the south of Paradip, along the east coast of India. This creek runs almost parallel... cor = 15 + (Nobs -15)/2, for Nobs > 15 b) Overburden correction: Ncor = Nobs x 350/ (? + 70) where, ? = overburden pressure The critical circular failure surface is the one for which factor of safety is the least. This is arrived...

  18. Geohydrology and Water Quality of the Valley-Fill Aquifer System in the Upper Sixmile Creek and West Branch Owego Creek Valleys in the Town of Caroline, Tompkins County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Town of Caroline and Tompkins County Planning Department, began a study of the valley-fill aquifer system in upper Sixmile Creek and headwaters of West Branch Owego Creek valleys in the Town of Caroline, NY. The purpose of the study is to provide geohydrologic data to county and town planners as they develop a strategy to manage and protect their water resources. The first aquifer reach investigated in this series is in the Town of Caroline and includes the upper Sixmile Creek valley and part of West Branch Owego Creek valley. The portions of the valley-fill aquifer system that are comprised of saturated coarse-grained sediments including medium to coarse sand and sandy gravel form the major aquifers. Confined sand and gravel units form the major aquifers in the western and central portions of the upper Sixmile Creek valley, and an unconfined sand and gravel unit forms the major aquifer in the eastern portion of the upper Sixmile Creek valley and in the headwaters of the West Branch Owego Creek valley. The valley-fill deposits are thinnest near the edges of the valley where they pinch out along the till-mantled bedrock valley walls. The thickness of the valley fill in the deepest part of the valley, at the western end of the study area, is about 100 feet (ft); the thickness is greater than 165 ft on top of the Valley Heads Moraine in the central part of the valley. An estimated 750 people live over and rely on groundwater from the valley-fill aquifers in upper Sixmile Creek and West Branch Owego Creek valleys. Most groundwater withdrawn from the valley-fill aquifers is pumped from wells with open-ended 6-inch diameter casings; the remaining withdrawals are from shallow dug wells or cisterns that collect groundwater that discharges to springs (especially in the Brooktondale area). The valley-fill aquifers are the sources of water for about 200 households, several apartment complexes, two mobile home parks

  19. Explaining density-dependent regulation in earthworm populations using life-history analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammenga, J.E.; Spurgeon, D.J.; Svendsen, C.; Weeks, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    At present there is little knowledge about how density regulates population growth rate and to what extent this is determined by life-history patterns. We compared density dependent population consequences in the Nicholsonian sense based oil experimental observations and life-history modeling for

  20. Evaluation of protected, threatened, and endangered fish species in Upper Bear Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryon, M.G.

    1998-07-01

    The East Bear Creek Site for the proposed centralized waste facility on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation was evaluated for potential rare, threatened or endangered (T and E) fish species in the six primary tributaries and the main stem of Bear Creek that are within or adjacent to the facility footprint. These tributaries and portion of Bear Creek comprise the upper Bear Creek watershed. One T and E fish species, the Tennessee dace (Phoxinus tennesseensis), was located in these streams. The Tennessee dace is listed by the State of Tennessee as being in need of management, and as such its habitat is afforded some protection. Surveys indicated that Tennessee dace occupy the northern tributaries NT-1, NT-4, and NT-5, as well as Bear Creek. Several specimens of the dace were gravid females, indicating that the streams may function as reproductive habitat for the species. The implications of impacts on the species are discussed and mitigation objectives are included

  1. Stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Date Creek Basin, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, T.R.; Tieman, D.J.; Grimes, J.G.; Bard, C.S.; Helgerson, R.N.; Pritz, P.M.; Wolf, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Date Creek Supplement is to characterize the chemistry of sediment samples representing stream basins in which the Anderson Mine (and related prospects) occur. Once characterized, the chemistry is then used to delineate other areas within the Date Creek Basin where stream sediment chemistry resembles that of the Anderson Mine area. This supplementary report examines more closely the data from sediment samples taken in 239 stream basins collected over a total area of approximately 900 km 2 (350 mi 2 ). Cluster and discriminant analyses are used to characterize the geochemistry of the stream sediment samples collected in the Date Creek Basin. Cluster and discriminant analysis plots are used to delineate areas having a potential for uranium mineralization similar to that of the Anderson Mine

  2. 75 FR 31418 - Intermountain Region, Payette National Forest, Council Ranger District; Idaho; Mill Creek-Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Ranger District; Idaho; Mill Creek--Council Mountain Landscape Restoration Project AGENCY: Forest Service... the Mill Creek--Council Mountain Landscape Restoration Project. The approximate 51,900 acre project area is located about two miles east of Council, Idaho. The Mill Creek--Council Mountain Landscape...

  3. Methamphetamine use and dependence in vulnerable female populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Srikosai, Soontaree; Wittayanookulluk, Apisak

    2017-07-01

    The study reviews recent publications on methamphetamine use and dependence women in term of their epidemic, physical health impact, psychosocial impacts, and also in the identified vulnerable issues. Studies of vulnerable populations of women are wide ranging and include sex workers, sexual minorities, homeless, psychiatric patients, suburban women, and pregnant women, in which amphetamine type stimulants (ATSs) are the most commonly reported illicit drug used among them. The prenatal exposure of ATS demonstrated the small for gestational age and low birth weight; however, more research is needed on long-term studies of methamphetamine-exposed children. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is commonly reported by female methamphetamine users as perpetrators and victims. However, statistics and gendered power dynamics suggest that methamphetamine-related IPV indicates a higher chance of femicide. Methamphetamine-abusing women often have unresolved childhood trauma and are introduced to ATS through families or partners. Vulnerable populations of women at risk of methamphetamine abuse and dependence. Impacts on their physical and mental health, IPV, and pregnancy have been reported continuing, which guide that empowering and holistic substance abuse are necessary for specific group.

  4. Flood-inundation maps for Sweetwater Creek from above the confluence of Powder Springs Creek to the Interstate 20 bridge, Cobb and Douglas Counties, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 10.5-mile reach of Sweetwater Creek, from about 1,800 feet above the confluence of Powder Springs Creek to about 160 feet below the Interstate 20 bridge, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Cobb County, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Georgia (02337000). Current stage at this USGS streamgage may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that commonly are collocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Sweetwater Creek near Austell (02337000), which is available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. A one-dimensional step-backwater model was developed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) software for Sweetwater Creek and was used to compute flood profiles for a 10.5-mile reach of the creek. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Sweetwater Creek near Austell streamgage (02337000), as well as high-water marks collected during annual peak-flow events in 1982 and 2009. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 21 water-surface profiles for flood stages at the Sweetwater Creek streamgage at 1-foot intervals referenced to the

  5. Mercury in Thana creek, Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    weight) with marked increased from harbour to the creek region suggests substantial mercury input in the head region. Chemical extraction by hydrogen peroxide indicated that more than 70% of mercury was leachable and probably organically bound...

  6. Fish Passage Assessment: Big Canyon Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Richard

    2004-02-01

    This report presents the results of the fish passage assessment as outlined as part of the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project as detailed in the CY2003 Statement of Work (SOW). As part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP), this project is one of Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) many efforts at off-site mitigation for damage to salmon and steelhead runs, their migration, and wildlife habitat caused by the construction and operation of federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The proposed restoration activities within the Big Canyon Creek watershed follow the watershed restoration approach mandated by the Fisheries and Watershed Program. Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program vision focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects. We strive toward maximizing historic ecosystem productive health, for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations. The Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program (NPTFWP) sponsors the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project. The NPTFWP has the authority to allocate funds under the provisions set forth in their contract with BPA. In the state of Idaho vast numbers of relatively small obstructions, such as road culverts, block thousands of miles of habitat suitable for a variety of fish species. To date, most agencies and land managers have not had sufficient, quantifiable data to adequately address these barrier sites. The ultimate objective of this comprehensive inventory and assessment was to identify all barrier crossings within the watershed. The barriers were then prioritized according to the

  7. Radium 226 in waters of the Magela creek, Northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerland, C.; Medley, P.; Martin, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Magela Creek is located in the tropical monsoonal belt of Australia, which is characterised by contrasting wet (December to March) and dry (April to November) seasons. Magela Creek drains a catchment of which about half of the total area lies upstream of the open-cut Ranger uranium mine. The main risk identified for ecosystems surrounding this mine site is from dispersion of mine waste waters during the wet season. Monitoring of biological indicator organisms, water quality (physical and chemical) and radionuclide concentrations in surface water, groundwater and biota is conducted upstream and downstream of the Ranger mine to measure possible environmental impacts of mining. Of special interest is the radionuclide radium-226, as it is predicted to dominate the effective dose to members of the critical group (i.e. the Aboriginal population living downstream of the mining site) resulting from any release of waters from the mine site, in particular through intake of food items such as freshwater mussels and fish. Receiving water standards for radium-226 have been set for the mine on the basis of radiological dose assessments in accordance with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1996). It is proposed in this paper to compare trigger values based on ICRP recommendations with trigger values developed in line with the philosophy of the new Australian Water Quality Guidelines (ANZECC and ARMCANZ 2000). Total Ra-226 activity concentrations were determined in Magela creek both upstream and downstream of the Ranger uranium mine, using alpha spectrometry with a detection limit of about 0.5 mBq/L. According to the new Water Quality Guidelines site-specific trigger values for total Ra-226 activity concentrations were statistically derived from a reference dataset. They are intended to provide an early warning system for the management of a pollutant source for the purpose of environmental protection of downstream ecosystems

  8. Density regulation in Northeast Atlantic fish populations: Density dependence is stronger in recruitment than in somatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Fabian; Ricard, Daniel; Heino, Mikko

    2018-05-01

    Population regulation is a central concept in ecology, yet in many cases its presence and the underlying mechanisms are difficult to demonstrate. The current paradigm maintains that marine fish populations are predominantly regulated by density-dependent recruitment. While it is known that density-dependent somatic growth can be present too, its general importance remains unknown and most practical applications neglect it. This study aimed to close this gap by for the first time quantifying and comparing density dependence in growth and recruitment over a large set of fish populations. We fitted density-dependent models to time-series data on population size, recruitment and age-specific weight from commercially exploited fish populations in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Data were standardized to enable a direct comparison within and among populations, and estimated parameters were used to quantify the impact of density regulation on population biomass. Statistically significant density dependence in recruitment was detected in a large proportion of populations (70%), whereas for density dependence in somatic growth the prevalence of density dependence depended heavily on the method (26% and 69%). Despite age-dependent variability, the density dependence in recruitment was consistently stronger among age groups and between alternative approaches that use weight-at-age or weight increments to assess growth. Estimates of density-dependent reduction in biomass underlined these results: 97% of populations with statistically significant parameters for growth and recruitment showed a larger impact of density-dependent recruitment on population biomass. The results reaffirm the importance of density-dependent recruitment in marine fishes, yet they also show that density dependence in somatic growth is not uncommon. Furthermore, the results are important from an applied perspective because density dependence in somatic growth affects productivity and

  9. Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek bull trout enumeration project 2001.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the second year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. An enumeration fence and traps were installed on the creek from September 6th to October 12th 2001 to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 273 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length and weight were determined for all bull trout captured. In total, 39 fish of undetermined sex, 61 males and 173 females were processed through the fence. An additional 19 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 12th. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during this project was 292 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and kokanee (O. nerka). A total of 143 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in two different locations (river km 27.5-30.5, and km 24.0-25.5) on October 3rd. The majority of redds (n=132) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past five years. The additional 11 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Buhl Creek, and Skookumchuck Creek at three locations suggested that water temperatures were within the temperature range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing

  10. Pine Creek uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, M.B.; Needham, R.S.; Page, R.W.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.; Wyborn, L.A.I.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this project is to help establish a sound geological framework of the Pine Creek region through regional geological, geochemical and geophysical studies. Uranium ore at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is confined to a wedge of conglomerate in faulted contact with altered volcanics. The uranium, which is classified as epigenetic sandstone type, is derived from a uranium-enriched felsic volcanic source

  11. Evaluation of the Steel Creek ecosystem in relation to the proposed restart of L reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Sharitz, R.R.; Gladden, J.B.

    1981-10-01

    Information is presented on the following subjects: habitat and vegetation, the avifauna, semi-aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates, and aquatic communities of Steel Creek, species of special concern, and radiocesium in Steel Creek. Two main goals of the study were the compilation of a current inventory of the flora and fauna of the Steel Creek ecosystem and an assessment of the probable impacts of radionuclides, primarily 137 Cs, that were released into Steel Creek during earlier reactor operations. Although a thorough evaluation of the impacts of the L reactor restart is impossible at this time, it is concluded that the effects on the Steel Creek ecosystem will be substantial if no mitigative measures are taken

  12. Lagrangian sampling of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2005--Hydrological and chemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Gray, James L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Taylor, Howard E.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents methods and data for a Lagrangian sampling investigation into chemical loading and in-stream attenuation of inorganic and organic contaminants in two wastewater treatment-plant effluent-dominated streams: Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa. Water-quality sampling was timed to coincide with low-flow conditions when dilution of the wastewater treatment-plant effluent by stream water was at a minimum. Sample-collection times corresponded to estimated travel times (based on tracer tests) to allow the same "parcel" of water to reach downstream sampling locations. The water-quality data are linked directly to stream discharge using flow- and depth-integrated composite sampling protocols. A range of chemical analyses was made for nutrients, carbon, major elements, trace elements, biological components, acidic and neutral organic wastewater compounds, antibiotic compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, steroid and steroidal-hormone compounds, and pesticide compounds. Physical measurements were made for field conditions, stream discharge, and time-of-travel studies. Two Lagrangian water samplings were conducted in each stream, one in the summer of 2003 and the other in the spring of 2005. Water samples were collected from five sites in Boulder Creek: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, and three downstream sites. Fourmile Creek had seven sampling sites: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, four downstream sites, and a tributary. At each site, stream discharge was measured, and equal width-integrated composite water samples were collected and split for subsequent chemical, physical, and biological analyses. During the summer of 2003 sampling, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant consisted of 36 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from the respective wastewater treatment plant was 81 percent effluent. During the spring of 2005

  13. 78 FR 25484 - License Amendment for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, Bear Creek Facility, Converse County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Petroleum Corporation, Bear Creek Facility, Converse County, Wyoming AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission.... 47 for its Bear Creek Uranium Mill facility in Converse County, Wyoming. The NRC has prepared an... INFORMATION: I. Background The Bear Creek Uranium Mill operated from September 1977 until January 1986, and...

  14. Econometric model for age- and population-dependent radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Rogers, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The economic impact associated with ionizing radiation exposures in a given human population depends on numerous factors including the individual's mean economic status as a function age, the age distribution of the population, the future life expectancy at each age, and the latency period for the occurrence of radiation-induced health effects. A simple mathematical model has been developed that provides an analytical methodology for estimating the societal econometrics associated with radiation effects are to be assessed and compared for economic evaluation

  15. Mathematical modelling of flooding at Magela Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardavas, I.

    1989-01-01

    The extent and frequency of the flooding at Magela Creek can be predicted from a mathematical/computer model describing the hydrological phases of surface runoff. Surface runoff involves complex water transfer processes over very inhomogeneous terrain. A simple mathematical model of these has been developed which includes the interception of rainfall by the plant canopy, evapotranspiration, infiltration of surface water into the soil, the storage of water in surface depressions, and overland and subsurface water flow. The rainfall-runoff model has then been incorporated into a more complex computer model to predict the amount of water that enters and leaves the Magela Creek flood plain, downstream of the mine. 2 figs., ills

  16. Feasibility Report and Environmental Statement for Water Resources Development, Cache Creek Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    classified as Porno , Lake Miwok, and Patwin. Recent surveys within the Clear Lake-Cache Creek Basin have located 28 archeological sites, some of which...additional 8,400 acre-feet annually to the Lakeport area. Porno Reservoir on Kelsey Creek, being studied by Lake County, also would supplement M&l water...project on Scotts Creek could provide 9,100 acre- feet annually of irrigation water. Also, as previously discussed, Porno Reservoir would furnish

  17. Featured Partner: Saddle Creek Logistics Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Saddle Creek Logistics as a SmartWay partner committed to sustainability in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by freight transportation, partly by growing its compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles for

  18. Influence of surface water accumulations of the Stupnica creek on underground coal mining in the Durdevic coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valjarevic, R; Urosevic, V

    1986-01-01

    Discusses hydrological, geological and mining conditions at the Durdevic underground coal mine. A landslide at a spoil bank dammed the creek flowing above the mine. Two exploratory boreholes (62 m and 68 m) were drilled for hydrological investigations. Water coloring techniques, chemical water analysis, measurement of underground water level and water flow were used to determine whether a sudden inrush of rainfall and accumulated surface water could endanger the mine. Underground water inflow to mine rooms varies from 110-200 m/sup 3//min, depending on the season. Diversion of the creek bed with the accumulated water and accumulation and subsequent drainage of surface water via large diameter concrete pipes were considered as possible ways of improving safety in the mine. Details of these projects are included. 4 refs.

  19. Fish assemblages in the Upper Esopus Creek, NY: Current status, variability, and controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; George, Scott D.; Keller, Walter T

    2015-01-01

    The Upper Esopus Creek receives water diversions from a neighboring basin through the Shandaken Tunnel (the portal) from the Schoharie Reservoir. Although the portal is closed during floods, mean flows and turbidity of portal waters are generally greater than in Esopus Creek above their confluence. These conditions could potentially affect local fish assemblages, yet such effects have not been assessed in this highly regulated stream. We studied water quality, hydrology, temperature, and fish assemblages at 18 sites in the Upper Esopus Creek during 2009–2011 to characterize the effects of the portal input on resident-fish assemblages and to document the status of the fishery resource. In general, fish-community richness increased by 2–3 species at mainstem sites near the portal, and median density and biomass of fish communities at sites downstream of the portal were significantly lower than they were at sites upstream of the portal. Median densities of Salmo trutta (Brown Trout) and all trout species were significantly lower than at mainstem sites downstream from the portal—25.1 fish/0.1 ha and 148.9 fish/0.1 ha, respectively—than at mainstem sites upstream from the portal—68.8 fish/0.1 ha and 357.7 fish/0.1 ha, respectively—yet median biomass for Brown Trout and all trout did not differ between sites from both reaches. The median density of young-of-year Brown Trout at downstream sites (9.3 fish/0.1 ha) was significantly lower than at upstream sites (33.9 fish/0.1 ha). Waters from the portal appeared to adversely affect the density and biomass of young-of-year Brown Trout, but lower temperatures and increased flows also improved habitat quality for mature trout at downstream sites during summer. These findings, and those from companion studies, indicate that moderately turbid waters from the portal had few if any adverse impacts on trout populations and overall fish communities in the Upper Esopus Creek during this study.

  20. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : January 2000-December 2002 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Duane G.

    2003-04-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports were implemented from calendar year 2000 through 2002 in the Pataha Creek Watershed. The Pataha Creek Watershed was selected in 1993, along with the Tucannon and Asotin Creeks, as model watersheds by NPPC. In previous years, demonstration sites using riparian fencing, off site watering facilities, tree and shrub plantings and upland conservation practices were used for information and education and were the main focus of the implementation phase of the watershed plan. These practices were the main focus of the watershed plan to reduce the majority of the sediment entering the stream. Prior to 2000, several bank stabilization projects were installed but the installation costs became prohibitive and these types of projects were reduced in numbers over the following years. The years 2000 through 2002 were years where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek. Over 95% of the sediment entering the stream can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. The Pataha Creek has steelhead in the upper reaches and native and planted rainbow trout in the mid to upper portion. Suckers, pikeminow and shiners inhabit the lower portion because of the higher water temperatures and lack of vegetation. The improvement of riparian habitat will improve habitat for the desired fish species. The lower portion of the Pataha Creek could eventually develop into spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon if some migration barriers are removed and habitat is restored. The upland projects completed during 2000 through 2002 were practices that reduce erosion from the cropland. Three-year continuous no-till projects were finishing up and the monitoring of this particular practice is ongoing. Its direct impact on soil erosion along with the economical aspects is being studied. Other practices such as terrace, waterway, sediment

  1. Tidal mixing in Dahej creek waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Sarma, R.V.

    Mixing characteristics of a tidal inlet near Dahej at the mouth of Narmada River, Gujarat, India are examined in terms of tides, currents and bathymetry. The dilution potential of the Dahej Creek waters during a tidal march for a given rate...

  2. Geochemical survey of stream sediments of the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringrose, C.D.

    1977-01-01

    A stream sediment survey was conducted in the Piceance Creek Basin to study the spatial distribution of Zn, Mo, Hg, Cd and As for future baseline considerations. The pH and organic matter were also measured. From samples taken at the mouths (junctions) of most of the named creeks in the basin, it is concluded that none of the streams contained sediments with anomalous trace element concentrations with respect to the basin. But it is thought that Mo and possibly As could be potentially toxic because of their abundance and their mobility under the stream sediments' alkaline condition. From a different sampling plan, designed to describe the background variance of five streams (Roan, Black Sulfur, Parachute, Yellow and Piceance Creeks), it was found that most of the variance occurred at distances from 0-10 m within 2 km stream segments 10 km apart for Mo, Hg, Az, and organic matter. When the variance between the five streams was considered, it was found to dominate the variances of the other factors for Mo, Hg, and Zn. This variance between streams is actually thought to represent the variance between the major drainage system in the basin. When comparison is made between the two sampling design results, it is thought that the trace element concentrations of stream junction samples represented the best range of expected values for the entire basin. The expected ranges of the trace elements from the nested design are thought to be reasonable estimates of preliminary baselines for Parachute Creek, Roan Creek and Black Sulfur Creek within the restricted limits of the streams defined in the text. From the experience gained in pursuing this study, it is thought that composite sampling should be considered, where feasible, to reduce the analytical load and to reduce the small scale variance.

  3. 76 FR 62758 - Wallowa-Whitman and Umatilla National Forests, Oregon Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... environmental analyses for proposed mining Plans in the portions of the Granite Creek Watershed under their... Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans analysis area that meets the Purpose of and Need for Action. It is... Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an...

  4. Foraminiferal study from Kharo Creek, Kachchh (Gujarat), north west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.

    any creek of Kachchh area will also serve as a baseline data to assess the future impact of industrial pollution (if any) as a jetty for offoading cement is being constructed in Kharo creek for proposed cement plant which is coming up in this area....

  5. Buck Creek River Flow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Yasas; George, Elizabeth; Ritter, John

    2009-04-01

    Buck Creek flowing through Springfield Ohio has a number of low-head dams currently in place that cause safety issues and sometimes make it impossible for recreational boaters to pass through. The safety issues include the back eddies created by the dams that are known as drowning machines and the hydraulic jumps. In this study we are modeling the flow of Buck Creek using topographical and flow data provided by the Geology Department of Wittenberg University. The flow is analyzed using Hydraulic Engineering Center - River Analysis System software (HEC-RAS). As the first step a model of the river near Snyder Park has been created with the current structure in place for validation purposes. Afterwards the low-head dam is replaced with four drop structures with V-notch overflow gates. The river bed is altered to reflect plunge pools after each drop structure. This analysis will provide insight to how the flow is going to behave after the changes are made. In addition a sediment transport analysis is also being conducted to provide information about the stability of these structures.

  6. Discharge, sediment, and water chemistry in Clear Creek, western Nevada, water years 2013–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Jena M.; Riddle, Daniel J.; Paul, Angela P.

    2018-05-01

    Clear Creek is a small stream that drains the eastern Carson Range near Lake Tahoe, flows roughly parallel to the Highway 50 corridor, and discharges to the Carson River near Carson City, Nevada. Historical and ongoing development in the drainage basin is thought to be affecting Clear Creek and its sediment-transport characteristics. Previous studies from water years (WYs) 2004 to 2007 and from 2010 to 2012 evaluated discharge, selected water-quality parameters, and suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, and yields at three Clear Creek sampling sites. This report serves as a continuation of the data collection and analyses of the Clear Creek discharge regime and associated water-chemistry and sediment concentrations and loads during WYs 2013–16.Total annual sediment loads ranged from 870 to 5,300 tons during WYs 2004–07, from 320 to 1,770 tons during WYs 2010–12, and from 50 to 200 tons during WYs 2013–16. Ranges in annual loads during the three study periods were not significantly different; however, total loads were greater during 2004–07 than they were during 2013–16. Annual suspended-sediment loads in WYs 2013–16 showed no significant change since WYs 2010–12 at sites 1 (U.S. Geological Survey reference site 10310485; Clear Creek above Highway 50, near Spooner Summit, Nevada) or 2 (U.S. Geological Survey streamgage 10310500; Clear Creek above Highway 50, near Spooner Summit, Nevada), but significantly lower loads at site 3 (U.S. Geological Survey site 10310518; Clear Creek at Fuji Park, at Carson City, Nevada), supporting the theory of sediment deposition between sites 2 and 3 where the stream gradient becomes more gradual. Currently, a threshold discharge of about 3.3 cubic feet per second is required to mobilize streambed sediment (bedload) from site 2 in Clear Creek. Mean daily discharge was significantly lower in 2010–12 than in 2004–07 and also significantly lower in 2013–16 than in 2010–12. During this study, lower bedload, and

  7. Results of the radiological survey at Two Mile Creek, Tonawanda, New York (TNY002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, M.E.; Rodriguez, R.E.; Uziel, M.S.

    1997-08-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at Two Mile Creek, Tonawanda, New York. The survey was performed in November 1991 and May 1996. The purpose of the survey was to determine if radioactive materials from work performed under government contract at the Linde Air Products Division of Union Carbide Corporation, Tonawanda, New York, had been transported into the creek. The survey included a surface gamma scan in accessible areas near the creek and the collection of soil, sediment, and core samples for radionuclide analyses. Survey results indicate that no significant material originating at the Linde plant is presently in the creek. Three of the 1991 soil sample locations on the creek bank and one near the lake contained slightly elevated concentrations of 238 U with radionuclide distributions similar to that found in materials resulting from former processing activities at the Linde site

  8. 77 FR 29918 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Battle Creek, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at W. K. Kellogg.... Kellogg Airport, Battle Creek, MI. Controlled airspace is needed for the safety and management of IFR... controlled airspace at W.K. Kellogg Airport, Battle Creek, MI. Environmental Review This proposal will be...

  9. Effects of Anthropogenic Pollution on the Oxidative Phosphorylation Pathway of Hepatocytes from Natural Populations of Fundulus heteroclitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xiao; Crawford, Douglas L.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F., E-mail: moleksiak@rsmas.miami.edu

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Polluted fish had lower LEAK, enzyme III and enzyme IV but higher enzyme I. • Exposures to PAH and PCB only affected individuals from the reference population. - Abstract: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), potentially target mitochondria and cause toxicity. We compared the effects of POPs on mitochondrial respiration by measuring oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in hepatocytes isolated from lab-depurated Fundulus heteroclitus from a Superfund site contaminated with PAHs (Elizabeth River VA, USA) relative to OxPhos metabolism in individuals from a relatively clean, reference population (King’s Creek VA, USA). In individuals from the polluted Elizabeth River population, OxPhos metabolism displayed lower LEAK and lower activities in complex III, complex IV, and E State, but higher activity in complex I compared to individuals from the reference King’s Creek population. To test the supposition that these differences were due to or related to the chronic PAH contamination history of the Elizabeth River population, we compared the OxPhos functions of undosed individuals from the polluted and reference populations to individuals from these populations dosed with a PAH {benzo [α] pyrene (BaP)} or a PCB {PCB126 (3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl)}, respectively. Exposure to PAH or PCB affected OxPhos in the reference King’s Creek population but had no detectable effects on the polluted Elizabeth River population. Thus, PAH exposure significantly increased LEAK, and exposure to PCB126 significantly decreased State 3, E state and complex I activity in the reference King’s Creek population. These data strongly implicate an evolved tolerance in the Elizabeth River fish where dosed

  10. Effects of Anthropogenic Pollution on the Oxidative Phosphorylation Pathway of Hepatocytes from Natural Populations of Fundulus heteroclitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Xiao; Crawford, Douglas L.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Polluted fish had lower LEAK, enzyme III and enzyme IV but higher enzyme I. • Exposures to PAH and PCB only affected individuals from the reference population. - Abstract: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), potentially target mitochondria and cause toxicity. We compared the effects of POPs on mitochondrial respiration by measuring oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in hepatocytes isolated from lab-depurated Fundulus heteroclitus from a Superfund site contaminated with PAHs (Elizabeth River VA, USA) relative to OxPhos metabolism in individuals from a relatively clean, reference population (King’s Creek VA, USA). In individuals from the polluted Elizabeth River population, OxPhos metabolism displayed lower LEAK and lower activities in complex III, complex IV, and E State, but higher activity in complex I compared to individuals from the reference King’s Creek population. To test the supposition that these differences were due to or related to the chronic PAH contamination history of the Elizabeth River population, we compared the OxPhos functions of undosed individuals from the polluted and reference populations to individuals from these populations dosed with a PAH {benzo [α] pyrene (BaP)} or a PCB {PCB126 (3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl)}, respectively. Exposure to PAH or PCB affected OxPhos in the reference King’s Creek population but had no detectable effects on the polluted Elizabeth River population. Thus, PAH exposure significantly increased LEAK, and exposure to PCB126 significantly decreased State 3, E state and complex I activity in the reference King’s Creek population. These data strongly implicate an evolved tolerance in the Elizabeth River fish where dosed

  11. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program Population Estimates for Juvenile Salmonids in Nason Creek, WA ; 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Matthew; Murdoch, Keely [Yakama Nation Fisheries Resource Management

    2009-07-20

    This report summarizes juvenile coho, spring Chinook, and steelhead salmon migration data collected at a 1.5m diameter cone rotary fish trap on Nason Creek during 2008; providing abundance and freshwater productivity estimates. We used species enumeration at the trap and efficiency trials to describe emigration timing and to estimate the number of emigrants. Trapping began on March 2, 2008 and was suspended on December 11, 2008 when snow and ice accumulation prevented operation. During 2008, 0 brood year (BY) 2006 coho, 1 BY2007 coho, 906 BY2006 spring Chinook, 323 BY2007 fry Chinook, 2,077 BY2007 subyearling Chinook, 169 steelhead smolts, 414 steelhead fry and 2,390 steelhead parr were trapped. Mark-recapture trap efficiency trials were performed over a range of stream discharge stages. A total of 2,639 spring Chinook, 2,154 steelhead and 12 bull trout were implanted with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags. Most PIT tagged fish were used for trap efficiency trials. We were unable to identify a statistically significant relationship between stream discharge and trap efficiency, thus, pooled efficiency estimates specific to species and trap size/position were used to estimate the number of fish emigrating past the trap. We estimate that 5,259 ({+-} 359; 95% CI) BY2006 Chinook, 16,816 ({+-} 731; 95% CI) BY2007 Chinook, and 47,868 ({+-} 3,780; 95% CI) steelhead parr and smolts emigrated from Nason Creek in 2008.

  12. Site-wide remedial alternative development in Bear Creek Valley, Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents a case study of an environmental restoration project at a major mixed waste site that poses unique challenges to remediation efforts. Bear Creek Valley is located immediately west of the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Y-12 Plant was built in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, with its original mission being electromagnetic separation of uranium. Since being completed, the Y-12 Plant has also been used for chemical processing of uranium and lithium compounds as well as precision fabrication of components containing these and other materials. Wastes containing radionuclides, metals, chlorinated solvents, oils, coolants, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), and others were disposed of in large quantities at Bear Creek Valley as a result of manufacturing operations at the Y-12 Plant. The Bear Creek Valley feasibility study is using innovative strategies to efficiently and thoroughly consider the information available regarding Bear Creek Valley and process options that could be combined into its remedial alternatives

  13. Users' guide to system dynamics model describing Coho salmon survival in Olema Creek, Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Torregrosa, Alicia; Madej, Mary Ann; Reichmuth, Michael; Fong, Darren

    2014-01-01

    The system dynamics model described in this report is the result of a collaboration between U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and National Park Service (NPS) San Francisco Bay Area Network (SFAN) staff, whose goal was to develop a methodology to integrate inventory and monitoring data to better understand ecosystem dynamics and trends using salmon in Olema Creek, Marin County, California, as an example case. The SFAN began monitoring multiple life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Olema Creek during 2003 (Carlisle and others, 2013), building on previous monitoring of spawning fish and redds. They initiated water-quality and habitat monitoring, and had access to flow and weather data from other sources. This system dynamics model of the freshwater portion of the coho salmon life cycle in Olema Creek integrated 8 years of existing monitoring data, literature values, and expert opinion to investigate potential factors limiting survival and production, identify data gaps, and improve monitoring and restoration prescriptions. A system dynamics model is particularly effective when (1) data are insufficient in time series length and/or measured parameters for a statistical or mechanistic model, and (2) the model must be easily accessible by users who are not modelers. These characteristics helped us meet the following overarching goals for this model: Summarize and synthesize NPS monitoring data with data and information from other sources to describe factors and processes affecting freshwater survival of coho salmon in Olema Creek. Provide a model that can be easily manipulated to experiment with alternative values of model parameters and novel scenarios of environmental drivers. Although the model describes the ecological dynamics of Olema Creek, these dynamics are structurally similar to numerous other coastal streams along the California coast that also contain anadromous fish populations. The model developed for Olema can be used, at least as a

  14. The Effect of Landuse and Other External Factors on Water Quality Within two Creeks in Northern Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, S.

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor the water quality in two creeks in Northern Kentucky. These are the Banklick Creek in Kenton County and the Woolper Creek in Boone County, Kentucky. The objective was to evaluate the effect of landuse and other external factors on surface water quality. Landuse within the Banklick watershed is industrial, forest and residential (urban) whereas that of Woolper Creek is agricultural and residential (rural). Two testing sites were selected along the Banklick Creek; one site was upstream the confluence with an overflow stream from an adjacent lake; the second site was downstream the confluence. Most of the drainage into the lake is over a near-by industrial park and the urban residential areas of the cities of Elsmere and Erlanger, Kentucky. Four sampling locations were selected within the Woolper Creek watershed to evaluate the effect of channelization and subsequent sedimentation on the health of the creek. Water quality parameters tested for include dissolved oxygen, phosphates, chlorophyll, total suspended sediments (TSS), pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), nitrates, and electrical conductivity. Sampling and testing were conducted weekly and also immediately after storm events that occurred before the regular sampling dates. Sampling and testing proceeded over a period of 29 weeks. Biological impact was determined, only in Woolper Creek watershed, by sampling benthic macroinvertebrates once every four weeks. The results showed significant differences in the water quality between the two sites within the Banklick Creek. The water quality may be affected by the stream overflow from the dammed lake. Also, channelization in the Woolper Creek seemed to have adverse effects on the water quality. A retention pond, constructed to prevent sediments from flowing into the Woolper Creek, did not seem to be effective. This is because the water quality downstream of the retention pond was significantly worse than that of the

  15. UTILIZING CREEKS FOR INTEGRATED RURAL COASTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-02-09

    Feb 9, 2013 ... This study examines the Utilization of Creeks for Integrated Coastal Development of Ilaje ... utilization, poor fishing techniques, poor sources of water and navigation routes, and manual ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 6 No.3 .... together, implement, monitor and evaluate.

  16. CREEK Project's Microzooplankton Seasonal Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  17. Escapement monitoring of adult chinook salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology was used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in spawning areas in Lake Creek and the Secesh River, Idaho, in 1999. This technique is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. This was the third year of testing the remote application of this methodology in the Secesh River drainage. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild salmon spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. Adult chinook salmon spawner abundance was estimated in Lake Creek with the remote time-lapse video application. Adult spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 1999 was 67 salmon. Significant upstream and downstream spawner movement affected the ability to determine the number of fish that contributed to the spawning population. The first passage on Lake Creek was recorded on July 11, two days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement occurred at the Lake Creek site on July 20, peak of total movement activity was August 19 with the last fish observed on August 26. A minimum of 133 adult chinook salmon migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River site prior to the July 15 installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred July 19, peak of total movement was August 15, 17 and 18 and the last fish passed on September 10. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. Mainly upstream only, movement characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. Estimated abundance was compared to single and multiple-pass redd count surveys within the drainage. There were

  18. Some Physicochemical Charateristics of Badagry Creek, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology ... Badagry Creek runs through Nigeria and Republic of Benin with access to the Atlantic Ocean. ... Colour, surface temperature, pH, salinity, turbidity, phenol, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen ...

  19. 75 FR 9201 - Kilarc-Cow Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Intention To Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 606-027-CA] Kilarc-Cow... of license for the Kilarc-Cow Creek Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 606. The project contains two developments and is located on Old Cow Creek and South Cow Creek in Shasta County, northern California. In the...

  20. Continuous fission-product monitor system at Oyster Creek. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, L.L.; Chulick, E.T.

    1980-10-01

    A continuous on-line fission product monitor has been installed at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Forked River, New Jersey. The on-line monitor is a minicomputer-controlled high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer system. An intrinsic Ge detector scans a collimated sample line of coolant from one of the plant's recirculation loops. The minicomputer is a Nuclear Data 6620 system. Data were accumulated for the period from April 1979 through January 1980, the end of cycle 8 for the Oyster Creek plant. Accumulated spectra, an average of three a day, were stored on magnetic disk and subsequently analyzed for fisson products, Because of difficulties in measuring absolute detector efficiency, quantitative fission product concentrations in the coolant could not be determined. Data for iodine fission products are reported as a function of time. The data indicate the existence of fuel defects in the Oyster Creek core during cycle 8

  1. Streamflow characteristics and trends along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-08-16

    Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages along Soldier Creek in northeast Kansas were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends. This information is required by the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to assess annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow.Annual mean streamflows along Soldier Creek were characterized by substantial year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trends. On average, annual mean base flow accounted for about 20 percent of annual mean streamflow. Mean monthly flows followed a general seasonal pattern that included peak values in spring and low values in winter. Annual peak flows, which were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability, were most likely to occur in May and June and least likely to occur during November through February. With the exception of a weak yet statistically significant increasing trend at the Soldier Creek near Topeka, Kansas, streamgage, there were no pronounced long-term trends in annual peak flows. Annual 1-day, 30-day, and 90-day mean minimum flows were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trend. During an extreme drought, as was the case in the mid-1950s, there may be zero flow in Soldier Creek continuously for a period of one to several months.

  2. Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Taylor, Michelle L.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer-long tributary to Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Fish Creek is an important water body because it is used for irrigation, fishing, and recreation and adds scenic value to the Jackson Hole properties it runs through. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and biologic communities of Fish Creek during 2007–11. The hydrology of Fish Creek is strongly affected by groundwater contributions from the area known as the Snake River west bank, which lies east of Fish Creek and west of Snake River. Because of this continuous groundwater discharge to the creek, land-use activities in the west bank area can affect the groundwater quality. Evaluation of nitrate isotopes and dissolved-nitrate concentrations in groundwater during the study indicated that nitrate was entering Fish Creek from groundwater, and that the source of nitrate was commonly a septic/sewage effluent or manure source, or multiple sources, potentially including artificial nitrogen fertilizers, natural soil organic matter, and mixtures of sources. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate and orthophosphate, which are key nutrients for growth of aquatic plants, generally were low in Fish Creek and occasionally were less than reporting levels (not detected). One potential reason for the low nutrient concentrations is that nutrients were being consumed by aquatic plant life that increases during the summer growing season, as a result of the seasonal increase in temperature and larger number of daylight hours. Several aspects of Fish Creek’s hydrology contribute to higher productivity and biovolume of aquatic plants in Fish Creek than typically observed in streams of its size in

  3. Gravity, magnetic, and physical property data in the Smoke Creek Desert area, northwest Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilden, Janet E.; Ponce, David A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Tushman, Kira; Duvall, Alison

    2006-01-01

    The Smoke Creek Desert, located approximately 100 km (60 mi) north of Reno near the California-Nevada border, is a large basin situated along the northernmost parts of the Walker Lane Belt (Stewart, 1988), a physiographic province defined by northwest-striking topographic features and strike-slip faulting. Because geologic framework studies play an important role in understanding the hydrology of the Smoke Creek Desert, a geologic and geophysical effort was begun to help determine basin geometry, infer structural features, and estimate depth to Pre-Cenozoic rocks, or basement. In May and June of 2004, and June of 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected 587 new gravity stations, more than 160 line-kilometers (100 line-miles) of truck-towed magnetometer data, and 111 rock property samples in the Smoke Creek Desert and vicinity in northwest Nevada, as part of an effort to characterize its hydrogeologic framework. In the Smoke Creek Desert area, gravity highs occur over rocks of the Skedaddle Mountains, Fox Range, Granite Range, and over portions of Tertiary volcanic rocks in the Buffalo Hills. These gravity highs likely reflect basement rocks, either exposed at the surface or buried at shallow depths. The southern Smoke Creek Desert corresponds to a 25-mGal isostatic gravity low, which corresponds with a basin depth of approximately 2 km. Magnetic highs are likely due to granitic, andesitic, and metavolcanic rocks, whereas magnetic lows are probably associated with less magnetic gneiss and metasedimentary rocks in the region. Three distinctive patterns of magnetic anomalies occur throughout the Smoke Creek Desert and Squaw Creek Valley, likely reflecting three different geological and structural settings.

  4. Summary of hydrologic conditions in the Reedy Creek Improvement District, central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Edward R.

    1986-01-01

    The Reedy Creek Improvement is an area of about 43 square miles in southwestern Orange and northwestern Osceola Counties, Florida. A systematic program of hydrologic data collection in the Reedy Creek Improvement District and vicinity provided data for assessing the impact of development, mostly the Walt Disney World Theme Park and related development on the hydrology. Data collected include stream discharge, water quality, groundwater levels, lakes levels, and climatological. Rainfall has been less than the long-term average in the Reedy Creek Improvement District since development began in 1968. The deficient rainfall has reduced stream discharge, lowered groundwater and lake levels, and possibly affected water quality in the area. Groundwater levels and lake levels have declined since 1970. However, the coincidence of below-average rainfall with the period of development makes it impossible to assess the effect of pumping on declines. Occurrence of toxic metals does not relate to development, but distribution of insecticides and herbicides does appear to relate to development. Specific conductance, phosphorous, and nitrate concentrations have increased in Reedy Creek since 1970, probably due to disposal of treated wastes. (USGS)

  5. Geomorphic Function and Restoration Potential of Spring Creeks in Southeastern Idaho: Analysis and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, T. P.; Hill, Z.; Levell, A.; Maguire, T.; Risso, D.

    2014-12-01

    A large wetland and floodplain complex adjacent to the Snake River in southeastern Idaho, USA, encompasses numerous spring-fed creeks that originate on the floodplain and discharge at their confluence with the Snake River and American Falls Reservoir. Resource managers are implementing a program to restore these spring creeks for the recovery of Yellowstone cutthroat trout and ecosystem health. Our objectives were to evaluate the physical characteristics of these spring creeks, develop a conceptual model of their geomorphic function, compare the restoration potential of individual reaches, and communicate our findings to a broad audience of resource managers and regional stakeholders in order to foster restoration planning. A geomorphic assessment along 38 km of three spring creeks was completed by collecting data at several transects within distinct geomorphic reaches, and by collecting data continuously throughout all reaches. These data were summarized in a GIS database and used to quantify the overall geomorphic functioning of each reach. The geomorphic functional scores were scaled from 0% (non-functional) to 100% (fully functional). Among all three spring creeks, geomorphic function ranged from 29% to 63%, with bank conditions and riparian vegetation being the primary causes of overall channel degradation. Results from the geomorphic assessment fostered the development of a conceptual model for spring creek function, whereby degraded bank conditions represent the primary controlling factor of decreased geomorphic function and fish habitat quality. The reach-based geomorphic functional scoring provides an indicator of relative restoration potential for each reach, and is one of the factors used in determining site-specific priorities for protecting, enhancing, and restoring spring creeks on the Fort Hall Bottoms. The study results, conceptual model and restoration strategy were communicated to resource managers and regional stakeholders through a graphically

  6. Ghrelin precursor gene polymorphism and methamphetamine dependence in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Su-Jung; Pae, Chi-Un; Lee, Heejin; Choi, Bomoon; Kim, Tae-Suk; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Kwon, Do-Hoon; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2005-12-01

    Ghrelin is a recently isolated brain-gut peptide that has growth hormone-releasing and appetite-inducing activities. Several recent studies have suggested that ghrelin plays a major role in the pathophysiology of drug-seeking behavior and anxiety. Therefore, we assessed the effect of the ghrelin precursor polymorphism on methamphetamine dependence in the Korean population. One hundred and eighteen patients with methamphetamine dependence, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria, and the 144 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Genotyping for the ghrelin precursor polymorphism was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism-based technique. The genotypic and allelic distributions of the ghrelin precursor polymorphism in the patients with methamphetamine dependence were not significantly different from those of the control subjects. However, the Met72 carriers were associated with the emotional problems of methamphetamine dependence. The patients with the Met72 allele were more depressed and anxious than the homozygous patients with the wild Leu72 allele. The present study suggests that the ghrelin precursor polymorphism may not confer a susceptibility to the development of methamphetamine dependence in the Korean population. However, the Leu72Met polymorphism could have a potential role in the emotional problems that are associated with this disease.

  7. Dispersal, density dependence, and population dynamics of a fungal microbe on leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Scott T; Ives, Anthony R; Nordheim, Erik V; Andrews, John H

    2007-06-01

    Despite the ubiquity and importance of microbes in nature, little is known about their natural population dynamics, especially for those that occupy terrestrial habitats. Here we investigate the dynamics of the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans (Ap) on apple leaves in an orchard. We asked three questions. (1) Is variation in fungal population density among leaves caused by variation in leaf carrying capacities and strong density-dependent population growth that maintains densities near carrying capacity? (2) Do resident populations have competitive advantages over immigrant cells? (3) Do Ap dynamics differ at different times during the growing season? To address these questions, we performed two experiments at different times in the growing season. Both experiments used a 2 x 2 factorial design: treatment 1 removed fungal cells from leaves to reveal density-dependent population growth, and treatment 2 inoculated leaves with an Ap strain engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP), which made it possible to track the fate of immigrant cells. The experiments showed that natural populations of Ap vary greatly in density due to sustained differences in carrying capacities among leaves. The maintenance of populations close to carrying capacities indicates strong density-dependent processes. Furthermore, resident populations are strongly competitive against immigrants, while immigrants have little impact on residents. Finally, statistical models showed high population growth rates of resident cells in one experiment but not in the other, suggesting that Ap experiences relatively "good" and "bad" periods for population growth. This picture of Ap dynamics conforms to commonly held, but rarely demonstrated, expectations of microbe dynamics in nature. It also highlights the importance of local processes, as opposed to immigration, in determining the abundance and dynamics of microbes on surfaces in terrestrial systems.

  8. More about the Ordovician–Silurian transition beds at Mirny Creek, Omulev Mountains, NE Russia: carbon isotopes and conodonts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Kaljo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Profound environmental and biodiversity changes take place in the Ordovician–Silurian boundary interval. The Mirny Creek and Neznakomka River bank sections discussed in this paper expose the upper Katian–lower Rhuddanian part of the boundary beds. The succession consists of carbonate rocks, partly with bioherms, alternating with argillaceous and siltstone packages that are well dated by graptolites. Microfossils are rare, especially in the Hirnantian, but conodonts provide some useful markers just below and above the Hirnantian stage boundaries. The Hirnantian δ13C trend in the Mirny Creek section is the stratigraphically longest described so far and it has a highly specific shape. The trend commenced at the first appearance datum of Normalograptus extraordinarius or slightly below this level. The main peak occurs near the middle of the N. persculptus Biozone. Samples from the Neznakomka River suggest a somewhat wider peak interval than at Mirny Creek. Detailed comparison of the Mirny and Stirnas (Latvia δ13C curves shows a general similarity despite great specific features of both trends. Correlation of the δ13C trends from China, Baltica and North America with that at Mirny Creek reveals a great variety of shapes of the carbon isotope curve. However, its rising limb commenced, if represented, everywhere close to the beginning of the N. extraordinarius Biozone or in terms of the Baltic succession, at the bottom of the Porkuni Regional Stage. Most likely a general shape of the HICE trend is pyramidal, which is peaking in the early N. persculptus Biochrone. Differences in the values and shape of an actual curve at different localities depend on local environmental conditions, sometimes modifying the global signal rather strongly.

  9. Draft environmental statement related to the operation of Hope Creek Generating Station (Docket No. 50-354)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.H.

    1984-06-01

    This report contains an assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of the Hope Creek Generating Station pursuant to the National Environment Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environmental impacts, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs associated with station operation. Land use and terrestrial and aquatic ecological impacts will be small. No operational impacts to historic and archeological sites are anticipated. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk of radiation exposure associated with accidental release of radioactivity is very low. Socioeconomic impacts of the project are anticipated to be minimal. The action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Hope Creek Generating Station, Unit 1

  10. Nekton use of intertidal creek edges in low salinity salt marshes of the Yangtze River estuary along a stream-order gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Binsong; Qin, Haiming; Xu, Wang; Wu, Jihua; Zhong, Junsheng; Lei, Guangchun; Chen, Jiakuan; Fu, Cuizhang

    2010-07-01

    Non-vegetated creek edges were investigated to explore spatial nekton use patterns in a low salinity intertidal salt marsh creek network of the Yangtze River estuary along a stream-order gradient with four creek orders. Non-vegetated creek edges were arbitrarily defined as the approximately 3 m extending from the creek bank (the marsh-creek interface) into open water. Nekton was sampled using seine nets during daytime high slack water during spring tides for two or three days each in May through July 2008. Twenty-three nekton species (16 fishes and 7 crustaceans) were caught during the study. Fishes were dominated by gobies ( Mugilogobius abei, Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus, Periophthalmus modestus, Synechogobius ommaturus), mullets ( Chelon haematocheilus, Liza affinis) and Chinese sea bass ( Lateolabrax maculatus). Crustaceans were dominated by mud crab ( Helice tientsinensis) and white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda). Rank abundance curves revealed higher evenness of nekton assemblages in lower-order creeks compared to higher-order creeks. Fish abundance tended to increase with increasing creek order. Crustacean abundance was higher in the first-third order creeks than in the fourth-order creek. Dominant nekton species displayed various trends in abundance and length-frequency distributions along the stream-order gradient. The spatial separation of nekton assemblages between the first-third order creeks and the fourth-order creek could be attributed to geomorphological factors (distance to mouth and cross-sectional area). These findings indicate that both lower- and higher-order creek edges play important yet different roles for nekton species and life history stages in salt marshes.

  11. Geologic framework, regional aquifer properties (1940s-2009), and spring, creek, and seep properties (2009-10) of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Jeff B.; Sprague, Jesse E.; Durall, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, examined the geologic framework, regional aquifer properties, and spring, creek, and seep properties of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, which contains areas proposed for exploratory drilling and possible uranium mining on U.S. Forest Service land. The geologic structure of the region was formed from uplift of the Zuni Mountains during the Laramide Orogeny and the Neogene volcanism associated with the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field. Within this structural context, numerous aquifers are present in various Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary formations and the Quaternary alluvium. The distribution of the aquifers is spatially variable because of the dip of the formations and erosion that produced the current landscape configuration where older formations have been exhumed closer to the Zuni Mountains. Many of the alluvial deposits and formations that contain groundwater likely are hydraulically connected because of the solid-matrix properties, such as substantive porosity, but shale layers such as those found in the Mancos Formation and Chinle Group likely restrict vertical flow. Existing water-level data indicate topologically downgradient flow in the Quaternary alluvium and indiscernible general flow patterns in the lower aquifers. According to previously published material and the geologic structure of the aquifers, the flow direction in the lower aquifers likely is in the opposite direction compared to the alluvium aquifer. Groundwater within the Chinle Group is known to be confined, which may allow upward migration of water into the Morrison Formation; however, confining layers within the Chinle Group likely retard upward leakage. Groundwater was sodium-bicarbonate/sulfate dominant or mixed cation-mixed anion with some calcium/bicarbonate water in the study area. The presence of the reduction/oxidation-sensitive elements iron and manganese in groundwater indicates reducing

  12. 76 FR 45301 - PSEG Nuclear LLC, Hope Creek Generating Station; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Docket No. 50-354 [NRC-2009-0391] PSEG Nuclear LLC, Hope Creek... operator of the Hope Creek Generating Station (HCGS). Renewed Facility Operating License No. NPF- 57... Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants, Supplement 45, Regarding Hope Creek Generating Station and Salem Nuclear...

  13. Geology of the Teakettle Creek watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. LaMotte

    1937-01-01

    The Teakettle Creek Experimental Watersheds lie for the most part on quartzites of probable Triassic age. However one of the triplicate drainages has a considerable acreage developed on weathered granodiorite. Topography is relatively uniform and lends itself to triplicate watershed studies. Locations for dams are suitable if certain engineering precautions...

  14. The macroinvertebrates of Magela Creek, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, R.

    1982-04-01

    The littoral zones of five permanent billabongs in Magela Creek were sampled monthly for macroinvertebrates. Greatest numbers of taxa and individuals were caught in the late wet season and early dry season in the shallow billabongs; in the deep billabongs, seasonal variations were not so marked. These changes appeared to be associated with the development of macrophytes, which offered food and shelter to the invertebrate fauna. The dominant groups were the Chironomidae, Oligochaetae and Ephemeroptera. The seasonal patterns of the catches were sufficiently consistent for future samples to be able to be compared with these initial ones with some confidence that any changes are real. This work is part of a larger study into the biota and water quality of Magela Creek designed to provide data on aquatic communities before mining of the Ranger uranium deposit starts

  15. Prehistoric Agricultural Communities in West Central Alabama. Volume 2. Studies of Material Remains from the Lubbub Creek Archaeological Locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    and excessive calculus deposits which promoted periodontal disease , was not observed in the sample. In a survey of caries experience in populations of...class. General categories such as large mammal (e.g., deer or bear), medium mammal (e.g., raccoon or dog sized), and small mammal (e.g., mouse or rabbit...sample from the Lubbub Creek Archaeological Locality. We know from ethnohistoric accounts and from archaeological remains that dogs were commensals

  16. EAARL topography-Potato Creek watershed, Georgia, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Jones, J.W.; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.

    2011-01-01

    This DVD contains lidar-derived first-surface (FS) and bare-earth (BE) topography GIS datasets of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin, Georgia. These datasets were acquired on February 27, 2010.

  17. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements...

  18. 77 FR 1720 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park AGENCY: National Park...), Rock Creek Park, Washington, DC The Plan will support long-term protection, preservation, and restoration of native vegetation and other natural and cultural resources in Rock Creek Park. DATES: The NPS...

  19. Linking individual phenotype to density-dependent population growth: the influence of body size on the population dynamics of malaria vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Tanya L.; Lwetoijera, Dickson W.; Knols, Bart G. J.; Takken, Willem; Killeen, Gerry F.; Ferguson, Heather M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the endogenous factors that drive the population dynamics of malaria mosquitoes will facilitate more accurate predictions about vector control effectiveness and our ability to destabilize the growth of either low- or high-density insect populations. We assessed whether variation in phenotypic traits predict the dynamics of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes, the most important vectors of human malaria. Anopheles gambiae dynamics were monitored over a six-month period of seasonal growth and decline. The population exhibited density-dependent feedback, with the carrying capacity being modified by rainfall (97% wAICc support). The individual phenotypic expression of the maternal (p = 0.0001) and current (p = 0.040) body size positively influenced population growth. Our field-based evidence uniquely demonstrates that individual fitness can have population-level impacts and, furthermore, can mitigate the impact of exogenous drivers (e.g. rainfall) in species whose reproduction depends upon it. Once frontline interventions have suppressed mosquito densities, attempts to eliminate malaria with supplementary vector control tools may be attenuated by increased population growth and individual fitness. PMID:21389034

  20. Water quality, selected chemical characteristics, and toxicity of base flow and urban stormwater in the Pearson Creek and Wilsons Creek Basins, Greene County, Missouri, August 1999 to August 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Joseph M.; Johnson, Byron Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The chemistry and toxicity of base flow and urban stormwater were characterized to determine if urban stormwater was degrading the water quality of the Pearson Creek and Wilsons Creek Basins in and near the city of Springfield, Greene County, Missouri. Potentially toxic components of stormwater (nutrients, trace metals, and organic compounds) were identified to help resource managers identify and minimize the sources of toxicants. Nutrient loading to the James River from these two basins (especially the Wilsons Creek Basin) is of some concern because of the potential to degrade downstream water quality. Toxicity related to dissolved trace metal constituents in stormwater does not appear to be a great concern in these two basins. Increased heterotrophic activity, the result of large densities of fecal indicator bacteria introduced into the streams after storm events, could lead to associated dissolved oxygen stress of native biota. Analysis of stormwater samples detected a greater number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than were present in base-flow samples. The number and concentrations of pesticides detected in both the base-flow and stormwater samples were similar.Genotoxicity tests were performed to determine the bioavilability of chemical contaminants and determine the potential harmful effects on aquatic biota of Pearson Creek and Wilsons Creek. Genotoxicity was determined from dialysates from both long-term (approximately 30 days) and storm-event (3 to 5 days) semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) samples that were collected in each basin. Toxicity tests of SPMD samples indicated evidence of genotoxins in all SPMD samples. Hepatic activity assessment of one long-term SPMD sample indicated evidence of contaminant uptake in fish. Chemical analyses of the SPMD samples found that relatively few pesticides and pesticide metabolites had been sequestered in the lipid material of the SPMD; however, numerous PAHs and

  1. Mapping spatial and temporal variation of stream water temperature in the upper Esopus Creek watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, H.; McGlinn, L.

    2017-12-01

    The upper Esopus Creek and its tributary streams located in the Catskill Mountain region of New York State provide habitats for cold-adapted aquatic species. However, ongoing global warming may change the stream water temperature within a watershed and disturb the persistence of coldwater habitats. Characterizing thermal regimes within the upper Esopus Creek watershed is important to provide information of thermally suitable habitats for aquatic species. The objectives of this study are to measure stream water temperature and map thermal variability among tributaries to the Esopus Creek and within Esopus Creek. These objectives will be achieved by measuring stream water temperature for at least two years. More than 100 water temperature data loggers have been placed in the upper Esopus Creek and their tributaries to collect 30-minute interval water temperatures. With the measured water temperature, we will use spatial interpolation in ArcGIS to create weekly and monthly water temperature surface maps to evaluate the thermal variation over time and space within the upper Esopus Creek watershed. We will characterize responsiveness of water temperature in tributary streams to air temperature as well. This information of spatial and temporal variation of stream water temperature will assist stream managers with prioritizing management practices that maintain or enhance connectivity of thermally suitable habitats in high priority areas.

  2. Escapement Monitoring of Adult Chinook Salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2001-04-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology was used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in spawning areas in Lake Creek and the Secesh River, Idaho, in 1999. This technique is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. This was the third year of testing the remote application of this methodology in the Secesh River drainage. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild salmon spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. Adult chinook salmon spawner abundance was estimated in Lake Creek with the remote time-lapse video application. Adult spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 1999 was 67 salmon. Significant upstream and downstream spawner movement affected the ability to determine the number of fish that contributed to the spawning population. The first passage on Lake Creek was recorded on July 11, two days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement occurred at the Lake Creek site on July 20, peak of total movement activity was August 19 with the last fish observed on August 26. A minimum of 133 adult chinook salmon migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River site prior to the July 15 installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred July 19, peak of total movement was August 15, 17 and 18 and the last fish passed on September 10. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. Mainly upstream only, movement characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. Estimated abundance was compared to single and multiple-pass redd count surveys within the drainage. There were

  3. The natural channel of Brandywine Creek, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolman, M.G.

    1955-01-01

    This study of the channel of Brandy wine Creek, Pennsylvania, consists of three parts. The first is an analysis of the changes which take place in the width, depth, velocity, slope of the water surface, suspended load, and roughness factor with changing discharge below the bankfull stage at each of several widely separated cross sections of the channel. Expressed as functions of the discharge, it is found that the variables behave systematically. In every section studied, as the discharge increases, the velocity increases to about the 0.6 power, depth to the 0.4, and load to the 2.0 power of the discharge. The roughness decreases to the 0.2 power of the discharge. The relative magnitudes and the direction of these variations are similar to those which have been observed in other rivers in the United States, primarily in the West. Some modifications of the hypotheses applicable to the western rivers are probably required because on Brandywine Creek the difference between the materials on the bed and in the banks is considerably greater than it is on most of the western rivers studied. In the second part of the paper the progressive changes of the same variables in the downstream direction with increasing discharge at a given frequency are described. Despite the disorderly appearance of the stream, it is found that the variables display a progressive, orderly change in the downstream direction when traced from the headwater tributaries through the trunk stream of Brandywine Creek. At a given frequency of flow, width increases with discharge to about the 0.5 power. Depth increases downstream somewhat less rapidly, while the slope and roughness both decrease in the downstream direction. Despite a decrease in the size of the material on the bed, both the mean velocity and the mean bed velocity increase downstream. The rates of change of these variables are in close accord with the changes observed on rivers flowing in alluvium and in stable irrigation canals. These

  4. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuscher, D.M.; Taki, D.; Ariwite, K.

    1996-01-01

    Critical habitat for endangered Snake River sockeye salmon includes five rearing lakes located in the Sawtooth Valley of central Idaho. Most of the lakes contain either introduced or endemic kokanee populations. Snake River sockeye occur naturally in Redfish Lake, and are being stocked in Redfish and Pettit Lakes. Because kokanee compete with sockeye for limited food resources, understanding population characteristics of both species such as spawn timing, egg-to-fry survival, distribution and abundance are important components of sockeye recovery. This chapter describes some of those characteristics. In 1995, hydroacoustic estimates of O. nerka densities in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes ranged from 57 to 465 fish/ha. Densities were greatest in Pettit followed by Redfish (167), Alturas (95), and Stanley Lakes. O. nerka numbers increased from 1994 values in Pettit and Alturas Lakes, but declined in Redfish and Stanley. Despite a decline in total lake abundance, O. nerka biomass estimates in Redfish Lake increased. Approximately 144,000 kokanee fry recruited to Redfish Lake from Fishhook Creek. O. nerka fry recruitment to Stanley and Alturas lake was 5,000 and 30,000 fry, respectively. Egg-to-fry survival was 14% in Fishhook and 7% in Stanley Lake Creek. In Fishhook Creek, kokanee spawning escapement was estimated using stream surveys and a weir. Escapement estimates were 4,860 from weir counts, and 7,000 from stream surveys. As part of the kokanee reduction program, 385 of the spawning female kokanee were culled. Escapement for Stanley Lake Creek was only 60 fish, a ten fold decrease from 1994. In Alturas Lake, kokanee spawners dropped by 50% to 1,600

  5. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, D.M.; Taki, D.; Ariwite, K.

    1996-05-01

    Critical habitat for endangered Snake River sockeye salmon includes five rearing lakes located in the Sawtooth Valley of central Idaho. Most of the lakes contain either introduced or endemic kokanee populations. Snake River sockeye occur naturally in Redfish Lake, and are being stocked in Redfish and Pettit Lakes. Because kokanee compete with sockeye for limited food resources, understanding population characteristics of both species such as spawn timing, egg-to-fry survival, distribution and abundance are important components of sockeye recovery. This chapter describes some of those characteristics. In 1995, hydroacoustic estimates of O. nerka densities in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes ranged from 57 to 465 fish/ha. Densities were greatest in Pettit followed by Redfish (167), Alturas (95), and Stanley Lakes. O. nerka numbers increased from 1994 values in Pettit and Alturas Lakes, but declined in Redfish and Stanley. Despite a decline in total lake abundance, O. nerka biomass estimates in Redfish Lake increased. Approximately 144,000 kokanee fry recruited to Redfish Lake from Fishhook Creek. O. nerka fry recruitment to Stanley and Alturas lake was 5,000 and 30,000 fry, respectively. Egg-to-fry survival was 14% in Fishhook and 7% in Stanley Lake Creek. In Fishhook Creek, kokanee spawning escapement was estimated using stream surveys and a weir. Escapement estimates were 4,860 from weir counts, and 7,000 from stream surveys. As part of the kokanee reduction program, 385 of the spawning female kokanee were culled. Escapement for Stanley Lake Creek was only 60 fish, a ten fold decrease from 1994. In Alturas Lake, kokanee spawners dropped by 50% to 1,600.

  6. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretz, Justin K.; Olson, Jill M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2003-03-01

    In 2002 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued working as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, broodstock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate the project data points and augment past data. Supplementation treatments included the release of 51,329 left ventral-clipped smolts into Clear Creek (750 were PIT tagged), and 12,000 unmarked coded-wire tagged parr into Pete King Creek (998 were PIT tagged). Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 579 naturally produced spring chinook juveniles in Clear Creek, and 54 on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. For Clear Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam of hatchery produced supplementation and naturally produced PIT tagged smolts, were 36.0%, and 53.1%, respectively. For Pete King Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam, of hatchery produced supplementation smolts and naturally produced smolts PIT tagged as parr and presmolts, were 18.8%, and 8.3%, respectively. Adults collected for broodstock in 2002 represented the final adult broodstock group collected for the ISS project. Twenty-six ventral clipped, and 28 natural adult spring chinook were transported above the weir. Monitoring and evaluation of spawning success was continued on Clear and Pete King creeks. A total of 69 redds were counted and 79 carcasses were recovered on Clear Creek. Two redds were observed and no carcasses were collected on Pete King Creek.

  7. The influence of neap-spring tidal variation and wave energy on sediment flux in salt marsh tidal creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jessica; Ferner, Matthew C.; Callaway, John C.

    2018-01-01

    Sediment flux in marsh tidal creeks is commonly used to gage sediment supply to marshes. We conducted a field investigation of temporal variability in sediment flux in tidal creeks in the accreting tidal marsh at China Camp State Park adjacent to northern San Francisco Bay. Suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), velocity, and depth were measured near the mouths of two tidal creeks during three six-to-ten-week deployments: two in winter and one in summer. Currents, wave properties and SSC were measured in the adjacent shallows. All deployments spanned the largest spring tides of the season. Results show that tidally-averaged suspended-sediment flux (SSF) in the tidal creeks decreased with increasing tidal energy, and SSF was negative (bayward) for tidal cycles with maximum water surface elevation above the marsh plain. Export during the largest spring tides dominated the cumulative SSF measured during the deployments. During ebb tides following the highest tides, velocities exceeded 1 m/s in the narrow tidal creeks, resulting in negative tidally-averaged water flux, and mobilizing sediment from the creek banks or bed. Storm surge also produced negative SSF. Tidally-averaged SSF was positive in wavey conditions with moderate tides. Spring-tide sediment export was about 50% less at a station 130 m further up the tidal creek than at the creek mouth. The negative tidally-averaged water flux near the creek mouth during spring tides indicates that in the lower marsh, some of the water flooding directly across the bay--marsh interface drains through the tidal creeks, and suggests that this interface may be a pathway for sediment supply to the lower marsh as well.

  8. Concentration of metals in shrimps and crabs from Thane-Bassein creek system, Maharashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnamurti, A.J.; Nair, V.R.

    was in the order of Zn>Cu>Cd>Ni>Pb. In shrimps maximum level of Cu (av. 41.3 ppm dry wt) and Zn (av. 164 ppm dry wt) were observed respectively in Metapenaeus brevicornis from Thane Creek and Exopalaemon stylifera from Bassein Creek. The crabs, Scylla serrata from...

  9. Simulation of water quality for Salt Creek in northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melching, Charles S.; Chang, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality processes in the Salt Creek watershed in northeastern Illinois were simulated with a computer model. Selected waste-load scenarios for 7-day, 10-year low-flow conditions were simulated in the stream system. The model development involved the calibration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency QUAL2E model to water-quality constituent concentration data collected by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) for a diel survey on August 29-30, 1995, and the verification of this model with water-quality constituent concentration data collected by the IEPA for a diel survey on June 27-28, 1995. In-stream measurements of sediment oxygen demand rates and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD) decay rates by the IEPA and traveltime and reaeration-rate coefficients by the U.S. Geological Survey facilitated the development of a model for simulation of water quality in the Salt Creek watershed. In general, the verification of the calibrated model increased confidence in the utility of the model for water-quality planning in the Salt Creek watershed. However, the model was adjusted to better simulate constituent concentrations measured during the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey. Two versions of the QUAL2E model were utilized to simulate dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the Salt Creek watershed for selected effluent discharge and concentration scenarios for water-quality planning: (1) the QUAL2E model calibrated to the August 29-30, 1995, diel survey, and (2) the QUAL2E model adjusted to the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey. The results of these simulations indicated that the QUAL2E model adjusted to the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey simulates reliable information for water-quality planning. The results of these simulations also indicated that to maintain DO concentrations greater than 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) throughout most of Salt Creek for 7-day, 10-year low-flow conditions, the sewage-treatment plants (STP's) must discharge

  10. Audit of Wolf Creek Generating Station, Unit 1 technical specifications. Final technical evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, H.M.

    1985-07-01

    This document was prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assist them in determining whether the Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1 Technical Specifications (T/S), which govern plant systems configurations and operations, are in conformance with the assumptions of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as amended, the requirements of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) as supplemented, and the Comments and Responses to the Wolf Creek Technical Specification Draft Inspection Report. A comparative audit of the FSAR as amended, the SER as supplemented, and the Draft Inspection Report was performed with the Wolf Creek T/S. Several discrepancies were identified and subsequently resolved through discussions with the cognizant NRC reviewer, NRC staff reviewers and/or utility representatives. The Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1 T/S, to the extent reviewed, are in conformance with the FSAR, SER, and Draft Inspection Report

  11. 75 FR 66077 - Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of Supplemental Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12555-004-PA] Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of Supplemental Environmental Assessment... Energy Projects has reviewed the application for an original license for the Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric...

  12. Anomalous dependence of population growth on the birth rate in the plant-herbivore system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xue M.; Han, Seung K.; Chung, Jean S.

    2010-01-01

    We performed a simulation of the two-species plant-herbivore system by using the agent-based NetLogo program and constructed a dynamic model of populations consistent with the simulation results. The dynamic model is a three-dimensional system including the mean energy of the herbivore in addition to two variables denoting the populations of plants and herbivores. A steady-state analysis of the dynamic model shows that the dependence of the herbivore population on the birth and the death rates observed from the agent model is consistent with the prediction of the dynamic model. Especially, the anomalous dependence of the herbivore population on the birth rate, where the population decreases with the birth rate for small death rate, is consistently explained by a phase plane analysis of the dynamic model.

  13. 78 FR 26063 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; East Hobble Creek Restoration Project Final Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ...-100-00-0-0, CUPCA00] Central Utah Project Completion Act; East Hobble Creek Restoration Project Final... Creek Restoration Project. These two agencies have determined that the proposed [[Page 26064

  14. Global asymptotic stability of density dependent integral population projection models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebarber, Richard; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Townley, Stuart

    2012-02-01

    Many stage-structured density dependent populations with a continuum of stages can be naturally modeled using nonlinear integral projection models. In this paper, we study a trichotomy of global stability result for a class of density dependent systems which include a Platte thistle model. Specifically, we identify those systems parameters for which zero is globally asymptotically stable, parameters for which there is a positive asymptotically stable equilibrium, and parameters for which there is no asymptotically stable equilibrium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Social deprivation, population dependency ratio and an extended hospital episode - Insights from acute medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournane, Seán; Dalton, Ann; Byrne, Declan; Conway, Richard; O'Riordan, Deirdre; Coveney, Seamus; Silke, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Patients from deprived backgrounds have a higher in-patient mortality following an emergency medical admission; this study aimed to investigate the extent to which Deprivation status and the population Dependency Ratio influenced extended hospital episodes. All Emergency Medical admissions (75,018 episodes of 41,728 patients) over 12 years (2002-2013) categorized by quintile of Deprivation Index and Population Dependency Rates (proportion of non-working/working) were evaluated against length of stay (LOS). Patients with an Extended LOS (ELOS), >30 days, were investigated, by Deprivation status, Illness Severity and Co-morbidity status. Univariate and multi-variable risk estimates (Odds Rates or Incidence Rate Ratios) were calculated, using truncated Poisson regression. Hospital episodes with ELOS had a frequency of 11.5%; their median LOS (IQR) was 55.0 (38.8, 97.6) days utilizing 57.6% of all bed days by all 75,018 emergency medical admissions. The Deprivation Index independently predicted the rate of such ELOS admissions; these increased approximately five-fold (rate/1000 population) over the Deprivation Quintiles with model adjusted predicted admission rates of for Q1 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86, 0.99), Q22.63 (95% CI: 2.55, 2.71), Q3 3.84 (95% CI: 3.77, 3.91), Q4 3.42 (95% CI: 3.37, 3.48) and Q5 4.38 (95% CI: 4.22, 4.54). Similarly the Population Dependency Ratio Quintiles (dependent to working structure of the population by small area units) independently predicted extended LOS admissions. The admission of patients with an ELOS is strongly influenced by the Deprivation status and the population Dependency Ratio of the catchment area. These factors interact, with both high deprivation and Dependency cohorts having a major influence on the numbers of emergency medical admission patients with an extended hospital episode. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the Steel Creek ecosystem in relation to the proposed restart of the L-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Sharitz, R.R.; Gladden, J.B.

    1982-10-01

    This report summarizes the findings of slightly more than one year's study of the Steel Creek ecosystem. Generally, the findings have allowed us to refine our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the Steel Creek ecosystem which is an essential prerequisite for predicting the impacts associated with L-reactor restart. Reanalysis of the Steel Creek plant community relationships using 1981 aerial photography revealed that this component of the delta ecosystem continues to change as a result of natural successional processes. The major detectable changes have occurred on the more elevated portions of Steel Creek delta where coverage by woody species (especially willow) is continuing to increase. This successional woody community is invading areas previously dominated by persistent herbaceous species such as cut grass. Eleven vegetation associations were identified in the Steel Creek delta area, including two associations that were not apparently affected by the earlier reactor operations

  17. Drywell corrosion stopped at Oyster Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipford, B.L.; Flynn, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the detection of corrosion on the drywell containment vessel of Oyster Creek Nuclear Plant and the application of a protective coating to repair the drywell. The topics of the article include drywell design features, identification of the problem, initial action, drywell corrosion, failure of cathodic protection, long-term repair, and repair results

  18. Physical Processes Affecting the Distribution of Diydymosphenia Geminata Biomass Bloom in Rapid Creek, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abessa, M. B.; Sundareshwar, P. V.; Updhayay, S.

    2010-12-01

    Didymosphenia geminata is a freshwater diatom that has invaded and colonized many of the world’s oligotrophic streams and rivers, including Rapid Creek in Western South Dakota - a perennial oligotrophic stream that emerges from the Black Hills and is fed by cold water release from the Pactola Reservoir. Since 2002, D. geminata blooms have been observed in certain stretches of the Rapid Creek. These massive blooms are localized to certain segments of the Creek where the flow is mainly slow, stable and shallow dominated by boulder type bed material and submerged large woody debris. Water chemistry data from this Creek showed the variability of major nutrients such as phosphate, nitrates/nitrites and ammonium are insignificant across our study sites while the nature of the stream flow is quite irregular. We measured flow rates, depth, temperature, stream bed characteristics, water chemistry, and D. geminata biomass in regions with and without blooms. The presentation will discuss how changes in physical parameters along the various reaches of the Creek impact the biomass distribution of this invasive alga.

  19. Minnehaha Creek Watershed SWMM5 Model Data Analysis and Future Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Water Bodies Organization 1 SWMM5 LMCW EPA 1 HEC - RAS Minnehaha Creek and Lake Minnetonka system HEC 2 CE-QUAL-W2 Lake Minnetonka system ERDC...and adjusted as needed to adequately address project goals and priorities. SWMM5 and HEC - RAS are the recommended Tier 1 models. The current SWMM5...model is an appropriate modeling platform for modeling subbasins in the LMCW. HEC - RAS should be used to model Minnehaha Creek and the Lake Minnetonka

  20. 75 FR 77826 - White River National Forest; Eagle County, CO; Beaver Creek Mountain Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... and/or affected individuals, organizations and governmental agencies will be used to identify resource... upcoming 2015 World Alpine Championships. In order for Beaver Creek to continue to host international... located at Beaver Creek. Hosting the 2015 International Skiing Federation (FIS) World Alpine Ski...

  1. 75 FR 15705 - Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12555-004-PA] Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment March 23, 2010. In... reviewed the application for an original license for the Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Project, to be...

  2. 77 FR 58979 - Boundary Establishment for the Au Sable, Bear Creek, Manistee, and the Pine Wild and Scenic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Boundary Establishment for the Au Sable, Bear Creek..., Washington Office, is transmitting the final boundary of the Au Sable, Bear Creek, Manistee, and the Pine..., Cadillac, MI 49601, (231) 775- 5023, ext. 8756. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Au Sable, Bear Creek...

  3. CREEK Project's Oyster Growth and Survival Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  4. Restoration Potential of a Mining-Impacted Urban Stream: Horseshoe Branch of Lion Creek, Oakland, CA

    OpenAIRE

    Hackenjos, Bethany; Woelfle-Erskine, Cleo; Wood, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Horseshoe Creek, located in the Oakland Hills of California, flows through a remnant oak and redwood forests in Horseshoe Canyon. From the 1880s through the 1930s, nearby Leona sulfur mine deposited massive tailings piles in the valleys east of Horseshoe Creek. During that time, clear-cut logging of redwoods denuded and destabilized the surrounding hillsides. Today, most of Horseshoe Creekʼs upper and middle reaches are either culverted or transformed into an engineered channel, and Merritt C...

  5. Marine ecological habitat: A case study on projected thermal power plant around Dharamtar creek, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kulkarni, V.A.; Naidu, V.S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Estuaries and tidal creeks, harboring mangroves particularly, face tremendous anthropogenic pressures. Expansion of mega cities and the thermal power plants are generally proposed in the vicinity of estuaries and creek, due to the feasibility...

  6. 2016-2017 Update of Hydraulic Fracturing Induced Earthquakes near Fox Creek, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Gu, Y. J.; Zhang, M.

    2017-12-01

    With a reported Richter magnitude (ML) of 4.8, the January 12, 2016 earthquake near Fox Creek is the largest event in Alberta during the past decade. This event led to the suspension of a nearby hydraulic fracturing well, in compliance with the provincial "traffic-light" protocol. In previous study, we examine the hypocenter location and focal mechanism of this earthquake, and the results support an anthropogenic origin. Since then (until August 2017), no event reached ML=4, while several ML>3 events occurred in the Fox Creek area. Their focal mechanisms are consistent with the ones from previous events that were induced by hydraulic fracturing, suggesting a strike-slip mechanism with either N-S or E-W trending fault. In 2017, the near-source station (distance Fox Creek region.

  7. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave

    2002-12-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time- lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999 and 2001. The adult salmon spawner escapement estimate into Lake Creek in 2001 was 697 fish, the largest escapement since the project began. Jack salmon comprised 10% of the spring migration. Snow pack in the drainage was 38% of the average during the winter of 2000/2001. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 9, 19 days after installation of the fish counting station and two weeks earlier than previously reported. Peak net upstream movement of 52 adults occurred on June 22. Peak of total movement activity was July 3. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 6. Redd count expansion methods were compared to underwater video determined salmon spawner abundance in Lake Creek in 2001. Expanded index area redd count point estimates and intensive area redd counts in 2001, estimated from 1.3 percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers in Lake Creek have varied widely. In 2001 there were 2.07 fish per redd. In 1999, there were 3.58 fish per redd, and in 1998, with no jacks returning to spawn, there were 1.02 fish per redd. Migrating salmon in Lake Creek

  8. An experimental field study of delayed density dependence in natural populations of Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael K Walsh

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus, a species known to transmit dengue and chikungunya viruses, is primarily a container-inhabiting mosquito. The potential for pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus has increased our need to understand its ecology and population dynamics. Two parameters that we know little about are the impact of direct density-dependence and delayed density-dependence in the larval stage. The present study uses a manipulative experimental design, under field conditions, to understand the impact of delayed density dependence in a natural population of Ae. albopictus in Raleigh, North Carolina. Twenty liter buckets, divided in half prior to experimentation, placed in the field accumulated rainwater and detritus, providing oviposition and larval production sites for natural populations of Ae. albopictus. Two treatments, a larvae present and larvae absent treatment, were produced in each bucket. After five weeks all larvae were removed from both treatments and the buckets were covered with fine mesh cloth. Equal numbers of first instars were added to both treatments in every bucket. Pupae were collected daily and adults were frozen as they emerged. We found a significant impact of delayed density-dependence on larval survival, development time and adult body size in containers with high larval densities. Our results indicate that delayed density-dependence will have negative impacts on the mosquito population when larval densities are high enough to deplete accessible nutrients faster than the rate of natural food accumulation.

  9. Residential runoff as a source of pyrethroid pesticides to urban creeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, D.P. [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Building, Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States)], E-mail: dweston@berkeley.edu; Holmes, R.W. [Water Branch, California Department of Fish and Game, 830 S Street, Sacramento, CA 95811 (United States)], E-mail: rholmes@dfg.ca.gov; Lydy, M.J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, 171 Life Sciences II, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)], E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu

    2009-01-15

    Pyrethroid pesticides occur in urban creek sediments at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive aquatic life. To better understand the source of these residues, runoff from residential neighborhoods around Sacramento, California was monitored over the course of a year. Pyrethroids were present in every sample. Bifenthrin, found at up to 73 ng/L in the water and 1211 ng/g on suspended sediment, was the pyrethroid of greatest toxicological concern, with cypermethrin and cyfluthrin of secondary concern. The bifenthrin could have originated either from use by consumers or professional pest controllers, though the seasonal pattern of discharge from the drain was more consistent with professional use as the dominant source. Stormwater runoff was more important than dry season irrigation runoff in transporting pyrethroids to urban creeks. A single intense storm was capable of discharging as much bifenthrin to an urban creek in 3 h as that discharged over 6 months of irrigation runoff. - Pyrethroid insecticides regularly detected in residential runoff at toxicologically significant concentrations.

  10. Residential runoff as a source of pyrethroid pesticides to urban creeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, D.P.; Holmes, R.W.; Lydy, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrethroid pesticides occur in urban creek sediments at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive aquatic life. To better understand the source of these residues, runoff from residential neighborhoods around Sacramento, California was monitored over the course of a year. Pyrethroids were present in every sample. Bifenthrin, found at up to 73 ng/L in the water and 1211 ng/g on suspended sediment, was the pyrethroid of greatest toxicological concern, with cypermethrin and cyfluthrin of secondary concern. The bifenthrin could have originated either from use by consumers or professional pest controllers, though the seasonal pattern of discharge from the drain was more consistent with professional use as the dominant source. Stormwater runoff was more important than dry season irrigation runoff in transporting pyrethroids to urban creeks. A single intense storm was capable of discharging as much bifenthrin to an urban creek in 3 h as that discharged over 6 months of irrigation runoff. - Pyrethroid insecticides regularly detected in residential runoff at toxicologically significant concentrations

  11. The Influence of Water Circulation on Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics in Bald Head Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrasse, M. C.; Osburn, C. L.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; He, R.

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in biogeochemical cycles in estuaries such as tidal creeks draining coastal wetlands such as salt marshes. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regarding the quantity and quality of the DOM that tidally exchanges between salt marshes and their adjacent estuaries. Tidal movements play a central role in lateral exchanges of materials and bidirectional flow results in the mixing of DOM from marsh plants and estuarine DOM. The aim of this study was to better understand the role of water circulation on the distribution and quality of DOM in Bald Head Creek, a tributary to the Cape Fear River estuary in eastern North Carolina. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, stable carbon isotopes, and chromophoric DOM (CDOM) absorbance at 254 nm (a254) were used to distinguish between DOM quantity and quality at three locations along the creek: Site 3 (upstream), Site 2 (middle stream), and Site 1 (near the creek mouth). Samples were collected over four tidal cycles between March-August 2016 and compared to time series data collected approximately weekly from 2014-2016. DOM characteristics differed substantially over the tidal cycle. Higher CDOM and DOC concentration were observed at low tide than at high tide at all three sites, suggesting greater export of carbon from the marsh into the creek as the tides recede. Analysis of CDOM quality based on specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254) and spectral slope ratio (SR) showed that the marsh end-member (Site 3) source of DOM had greater aromaticity and higher molecular weight. Site 1 showed greater variability over the tidal cycle most likely due to a greater tidal influence, being closer to the mouth. Additionally, an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) and a hydrodynamic model were used to map water circulation and DOC concentration along the creek to compute exchanges with the adjacent estuary. Results suggest that estuarine OM dynamics are strongly controlled by

  12. 75 FR 62112 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the San Juan Creek and Tributaries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... evaluate flood risk management alternative measures along the lower portions of San Juan, Trabuco, and Oso... to its confluence with Tijeras Creek; and Oso Creek from its confluence with Trabuco Creek northwest approximately 4.5 miles to just north of Oso Parkway. The communities of San Juan Capistrano, Mission Viejo...

  13. Mechanosensory based orienting behaviors in fluvial and lacustrine populations of mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl Coombs; Gary D. Grossman

    2006-01-01

    We compared prey-orienting and rheotactic behaviors in a fluvial (Coweeta Creek) and lacustrine (Lake Michigan) population of mottled sculpin. Blinded sculpin from both populations exhibited unconditioned, mechanosensory based rheotaxis to low velocity flows. Whereas Lake Michigan sculpin generally showed increasing levels of positive rheotaxis to increasing velocities...

  14. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Westchester Creek project area, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the Westchester Creek project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from this area to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Westchester Creek was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Westchester Creek project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic acute and water-column toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Thirteen individual sediment core samples were collected from this area and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample representing the Westchester Creek area to be dredged, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended- particulate phase (SPP) of the Westchester Creek sediment composite, was analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  15. Zooplankton composition in Dharamtar creek adjoining Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    bedoti was the true inhabitant. In general zooplankton production indicated 1.5 fold increase towards the upper reaches of the creek where salinity variations were drastic. A more diversified faunal assemblage of oceanic and neritic species characterised...

  16. Sub-national mapping of population pyramids and dependency ratios in Africa and Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Carla; Hornby, Graeme M.; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Gaughan, Andrea E.; Linard, Catherine; Bird, Tomas J.; Kerr, David; Lloyd, Christopher T.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2017-07-01

    The age group composition of populations varies substantially across continents and within countries, and is linked to levels of development, health status and poverty. The subnational variability in the shape of the population pyramid as well as the respective dependency ratio are reflective of the different levels of development of a country and are drivers for a country's economic prospects and health burdens. Whether measured as the ratio between those of working age and those young and old who are dependent upon them, or through separate young and old-age metrics, dependency ratios are often highly heterogeneous between and within countries. Assessments of subnational dependency ratio and age structure patterns have been undertaken for specific countries and across high income regions, but to a lesser extent across the low income regions. In the framework of the WorldPop Project, through the assembly of over 100 million records across 6,389 subnational administrative units, subnational dependency ratio and high resolution gridded age/sex group datasets were produced for 87 countries in Africa and Asia.

  17. Evaluation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Mercury Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, David B.; Brooks, Scott C.; Mathews, Teresa J.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; DeRolph, Chris; Brandt, Craig C.; Peterson, Mark J.; Ketelle, Richard

    2016-01-01

    runoff, floodplain leaching, bank soil erosion, and periphyton matrix dynamics. The bioaccumulation model tracks the feeding, growth, and mercury assimilation of representative individual fish through their typical life span using key inputs of fish size, water temperature, and diet. The LEFPC watershed was divided into five modeling reaches, and fluxes and concentrations are assessed at this spatial scale. Following are the key findings of the field and laboratory studies and the watershed and bioaccumulation modeling: •The greatest flux of total mercury (HgT) in LEFPC is related to stormflow transport of Hg-contaminated solids entering the creek because of bank erosion in the upper reaches of the creek. • The second greatest flux originates from upper EFPC (Station 17 representing the exit stream sampling point near the boundary of the Y-12 Complex), and appears to control base flow fluxes. • The observed increase in MeHg concentration and flux from upstream to downstream is related primarily to instream methylation by periphyton and other biological activity. • A meaningful substantial reduction of the HgT flux in LEFPC would require addressing the flux of HgT originating from bank erosion and from Station 17. • Actions to reduce LEFPC floodplain leaching and runoff would not produce much of an impact on HgT or MeHg concentrations or fluxes unless other major sources are eliminated first. This project addresses the Action Plan goal to evaluate the role of LEFPC bank soil sources and to consider the entire EFPC hydrologic system. Model conclusions are dependent on the data available at the time of this assessment. However, a robust understanding and quantification for some mercury-related parameters and relationships is still lacking; there is a continued need for field data collection and modeling improvements. Model predictions should be viewed cautiously, with comparisons of the magnitude of predictions between scenarios being more valid than absolute

  18. Evaluation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Mercury Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Chris [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ketelle, Richard [East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-01

    runoff, floodplain leaching, bank soil erosion, and periphyton matrix dynamics. The bioaccumulation model tracks the feeding, growth, and mercury assimilation of representative individual fish through their typical life span using key inputs of fish size, water temperature, and diet. The LEFPC watershed was divided into five modeling reaches, and fluxes and concentrations are assessed at this spatial scale. Following are the key findings of the field and laboratory studies and the watershed and bioaccumulation modeling: • The greatest flux of total mercury (HgT) in LEFPC is related to stormflow transport of Hg-contaminated solids entering the creek because of bank erosion in the upper reaches of the creek. • The second greatest flux originates from upper EFPC (Station 17 representing the exit stream sampling point near the boundary of the Y-12 Complex), and appears to control base flow fluxes. • The observed increase in MeHg concentration and flux from upstream to downstream is related primarily to instream methylation by periphyton and other biological activity. • A meaningful substantial reduction of the HgT flux in LEFPC would require addressing the flux of HgT originating from bank erosion and from Station 17. • Actions to reduce LEFPC floodplain leaching and runoff would not produce much of an impact on HgT or MeHg concentrations or fluxes unless other major sources are eliminated first. This project addresses the Action Plan goal to evaluate the role of LEFPC bank soil sources and to consider the entire EFPC hydrologic system. Model conclusions are dependent on the data available at the time of this assessment. However, a robust understanding and quantification for some mercury-related parameters and relationships is still lacking; there is a continued need for field data collection and modeling improvements. Model predictions should be viewed cautiously, with comparisons of the magnitude of predictions between scenarios being more valid than absolute

  19. Occurrence and Distribution of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Miller, Cherie V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Park Service Police Aviation Group, conducted a high-resolution, low-altitude aerial thermal infrared survey of the Washington, D.C. section of Rock Creek Basin within the Park boundaries to identify specific locations where warm water was discharging from seeps or pipes to the creek. Twenty-three stream sites in Rock Creek Park were selected based on the thermal infrared images. Sites were sampled during the summers of 2007 and 2008 for the analysis of organic wastewater compounds to verify potential sources of sewage and other anthropogenic wastewater. Two sets of stormwater samples were collected, on June 27-28 and September 6, 2008, at the Rock Creek at Joyce Road water-quality station using an automated sampler that began sampling when a specified stage threshold value was exceeded. Passive-sampler devices that accumulate organic chemicals over the duration of deployment were placed in July 2008 at the five locations that had the greatest number of detections of organic wastewater compounds from the June 2007 base-flow sampling. During the 2007 base-flow synoptic sampling, there were ubiquitous low-level detections of dissolved organic wastewater indicator compounds such as DEET, caffeine, HHCB, and organophosphate flame retardants at more than half of the 23 sites sampled in Rock Creek Park. Concentrations of DEET and caffeine in the tributaries to Rock Creek were variable, but in the main stem of Rock Creek, the concentrations were constant throughout the length of the creek, which likely reflects a distributed source. Organophosphate flame retardants in the main stem of Rock Creek were detected at estimated concentrations of 0.2 micrograms per liter or less, and generally did not increase with distance downstream. Overall, concentrations of most wastewater indicators in whole-water samples in the Park were similar to the concentrations found at the upstream sampling station at the Maryland/District of Columbia

  20. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe

  1. CREEK Project: RUI: the Role of Oyster Reefs in the Structure and Function of Tidal Creeks. A Project Overview: 1996-2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before - After...

  2. Tom Beaver, Creek Television Reporter. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students presents an account of an American Indian television reporter, Tom Beaver (Creek), and includes a map of Oklahoma showing the location of Indian tribes. A teacher's guide following the biography contains information about the Creek tribe and the history of television, learning objectives and directions…

  3. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  4. BPA riparian fencing and alternative water development projects completed within Asotin Creek Watershed ; 2000 and 2001 Asotin Creek fencing final report of accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.J.Bradley J.

    2002-01-01

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 35. According to Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife's (WDFW) Priority WRIA's by ''At-Risk Stock Significance Map'', it is the highest priority WRIA in southeastern Washington. Summer steelhead, bull trout, and Snake River spring chinook salmon which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. WDFW manages it as a Wild Steelhead Reserve; no hatchery fish have been released here since 1997. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe, Washington Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. Local students, volunteers and Salmon Corps members from the Nez Perce Tribe have been instrumental in the success of the Model Watershed Program on Asotin Creek. ACCD began coordinating habitat projects in 1995 with the help of BPA funding. Approximately two hundred and seventy-six projects have been implemented as of 1999. The Washington State Legislature was successful in securing funding for endangered salmon and steelhead recovery throughout the State in 1998. While these issues were new to most of the State, the ACCD has been securing and administering funding for endangered salmonids since 1994. The ''Asotin Creek Riparian Planting 2000-053-00 and Asotin Creek Riparian Fencing 2000-054-00'' teamed BPA and the Governor's Salmon Recovery Funding to plant approximately 84

  5. Evidence for de-sulfidation to form native electrum in the Fire Creek epithermal gold-silver deposit, north-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, J.; Day, J. M.; Cook, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    that the second phase of mineralization shows spatial and petrographic association with coarser silica and carbon phases. Conversely associations of electrum in Mule Canyon are typically with chalcedony or opal veins and hydrothermal breccia matrices (John et al. Econ. Geol. 98, 425-463, 2003). Opal and chalcedony phases do not appear within fracture-filled veins in Fire Creek, but occur as cap rocks on the surface. These associations are likely driven by impingement of basaltic dikes into ground waters in both the Fire Creek and Mule Canyon deposits. However, in the case of Fire Creek, our study demonstrates that there is a clear spatial dependence between the electrum, primary S-rich mineralized veins and phases of coarse carbonate and silica. We postulate that this occurs through increased brecciation and sub-surface boiling of hydrothermal fluids leading to de-sulfidation and a marked change in alteration and mineral assemblage.

  6. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Underwater time- lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999, 2001 and 2002. The adult salmon spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 2002 was 410 fish. Jack salmon comprised 7.1 percent of the run. Estimated hatchery composition was 6.1 percent of the spawning run. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 26, 15 days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream movement of 41 adults occurred on July 8. Peak of total movement activity was August 18. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 2. Snow pack in the drainage was 91% of the average during the winter of 2001/2002. Video determined salmon spawner abundance was compared to redd count expansion method point estimates in Lake Creek in 2002. Expanded index area redd count and extensive area redd count point estimates in 2002, estimated from one percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion methods varied from two percent fewer to 55 percent greater in 2001, 11 to 46 percent fewer in 1999 and 104 to 214 percent greater in 1998. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers determined by video abundance and multiple pass redd counts of the larger extensive survey

  7. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-10-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  8. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

    2001-01-19

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant). As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Complex on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the

  9. 78 FR 62361 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Vermont; Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ... Power Corporation; Vermont; Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service... issuance of a new license for the Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project No. 2558. The programmatic agreement... Agreement would be incorporated into any Order issuing a license. Green Mountain Power Corporation, as...

  10. 78 FR 2685 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; East Hobble Creek Restoration Project Draft Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Central Utah Project Completion Act; East Hobble Creek Restoration Project Draft Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... assessment for the East Hobble Creek Restoration Project is available for public review and comment. The...

  11. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Trettin, C.C.

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation

  12. [Alimentation dependent health disorders among adult population of Bashkortostan Republic and their relation with nutritional traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaev, R M; Kondrova, N S; Baĭkina, I M; Larionova, T K

    2008-01-01

    The authors demonstrated relationship between alimentation dependent diseases among adult population of the Republic and nutritional traits of the population, defined major directions of program to optimize nutrition of the population.

  13. Turbidity and suspended sediment in the upper Esopus Creek watershed, Ulster County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Michael R.; Siemion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) and turbidity were measured for 2 to 3 years at 14 monitoring sites throughout the upper Esopus Creek watershed in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The upper Esopus Creek watershed is part of the New York City water-supply system that supplies water to more than 9 million people every day. Turbidity, caused primarily by high concentrations of inorganic suspended particles, is a potential water-quality concern because it colors the water and can reduce the effectiveness of drinking-water disinfection. The purposes of this study were to quantify concentrations of suspended sediment and turbidity levels, to estimate suspended-sediment loads within the upper Esopus Creek watershed, and to investigate the relations between SSC and turbidity. Samples were collected at four locations along the main channel of Esopus Creek and at all of the principal tributaries. Samples were collected monthly and during storms and were analyzed for SSC and turbidity in the laboratory. Turbidity was also measured every 15 minutes at six of the sampling stations with in situ turbidity probes.

  14. Urbanization Effects on Floodplain Sediments in the Fourche Creek Wetlands in Little Rock, Arkansas, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, J.; Ruhl, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Jason Simmons and Laura S. Ruhl As Earth's population continues to grow, is it expected that by the year 2030, sixty percent of all people will be housed in urban cities. Although these urban areas are of the utmost importance socially, culturally and economically, they also have an adverse impact on the geochemical makeup of the natural landscape. Rapid urbanization has profound hydrological, chemical, physical, and ecological impacts on watersheds near urban areas. Trace metals, and other organic and inorganic contaminants from industrialization, car exhaust, overflow of sewage lines, and excess storm drain runoff are found in this surface water. In Little Rock, Arkansas, runoff from seventy-three percent of the city's surface area empties into Fourche Creek, then its urban wetlands, before it is further transported to the Arkansas River. Previous studies have revealed that the Fourche Creek wetlands mitigate flooding and remove contaminants from the water column. In this study, we examined the effects of urbanization by examining the geochemical makeup of the wetland sediment that drains most of Little Rock. Sediment samples were collected along transects of Fourche Creek at three locations, beginning at the water's edge and moving out distances between seventy to one hundred feet into the wetland. Sediments were dried, homogenized, and then sieved for grain size distribution. Leaching experiments were performed to determine the trace element concentration adsorbed to the surface, which could be easily mobilized. In these experiments, ultrapure deionized water and homogenized soil were combined in centrifuge tubes at a 10:1 liquid to solid ratio, and rotated for twenty-four hours allowing the mixture to properly combine and react. The leachate was filtered, then analyzed using Ion Chromatography (IC) to determine cations and anions, and ICPMS to determine trace metals present in the soil. Results were compiled, and a map was created showing grain sizes present

  15. 76 FR 8728 - Bear Creek Hydro Associates, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13951-000] Bear Creek Hydro..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On December 22, 2010, the Bear Creek Hydro Associates... (FPA), proposing to study the [[Page 8729

  16. Environmental Setting of the Sugar Creek and Leary Weber Ditch Basins, Indiana, 2002-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    The Leary Weber Ditch Basin is nested within the Sugar Creek Basin in central Indiana. These basins make up one of the five study sites in the Nation selected for the Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate topical study, a part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. In this topical study, identifying the natural factors and human influences affecting water quality in the Leary Weber Ditch and Sugar Creek Basins are the focus of the assessment. A detailed comparison between the environmental settings of these basins is presented. Specifics of the topical study design as implemented in the Leary Weber Ditch and Sugar Creek Basins are described.

  17. Peak discharge, flood frequency, and peak stage of floods on Big Cottonwood Creek at U.S. Highway 50 near Coaldale, Colorado, and Fountain Creek below U.S. Highway 24 in Colorado Springs, Colorado, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.; Stevens, Michael R.; Mommandi, Amanullah; Khan, Aziz R.

    2017-12-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Transportation, determined the peak discharge, annual exceedance probability (flood frequency), and peak stage of two floods that took place on Big Cottonwood Creek at U.S. Highway 50 near Coaldale, Colorado (hereafter referred to as “Big Cottonwood Creek site”), on August 23, 2016, and on Fountain Creek below U.S. Highway 24 in Colorado Springs, Colorado (hereafter referred to as “Fountain Creek site”), on August 29, 2016. A one-dimensional hydraulic model was used to estimate the peak discharge. To define the flood frequency of each flood, peak-streamflow regional-regression equations or statistical analyses of USGS streamgage records were used to estimate annual exceedance probability of the peak discharge. A survey of the high-water mark profile was used to determine the peak stage, and the limitations and accuracy of each component also are presented in this report. Collection and computation of flood data, such as peak discharge, annual exceedance probability, and peak stage at structures critical to Colorado’s infrastructure are an important addition to the flood data collected annually by the USGS.The peak discharge of the August 23, 2016, flood at the Big Cottonwood Creek site was 917 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) with a measurement quality of poor (uncertainty plus or minus 25 percent or greater). The peak discharge of the August 29, 2016, flood at the Fountain Creek site was 5,970 ft3/s with a measurement quality of poor (uncertainty plus or minus 25 percent or greater).The August 23, 2016, flood at the Big Cottonwood Creek site had an annual exceedance probability of less than 0.01 (return period greater than the 100-year flood) and had an annual exceedance probability of greater than 0.005 (return period less than the 200-year flood). The August 23, 2016, flood event was caused by a precipitation event having an annual exceedance probability of 1.0 (return

  18. Assessment of the impacts of the Salem and Hope Creek Stations on shortnose sturgeon, 'Acipenser brevirostrum' lesueur. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masnik, M.T.; Wilson, J.H.

    1980-04-01

    Acipenser brevirostrum, a federally recognized endangered species, is known from the Delaware River in the vicinity of the Salem and Hope Creek Nuclear Stations. The potential for adverse impact to this species due to the completion of construction and the operation of these stations is assessed. A review of the literature pertaining to the distribution, life history, and tolerance of this species is presented. Both historical records and current status of the shortnose sturgeon population in the Delaware River are discussed

  19. Subsurface geology of the Cold Creek syncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, C.W.; Price, S.M.

    1981-07-01

    Bedrock beneath the Hanford Site is being evaluated by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) for possible use by the US Department of Energy as a geologic repository for nuclear waste storage. Initial BWIP geologic and hydrologic studies served to determine that the central Hanford Site contains basalt flows with thick, dense interiors that have low porosities and permeabilities. Furthermore, within the Cold Creek syncline, these flows appear to be nearly flat lying across areas in excess of tens of square kilometers. Such flows have been identified as potential repository host rock candidates. The Umtanum flow, which lies from 900 to 1150 m beneath the surface, is currently considered the leading host rock candidate. Within the west-central Cold Creek syncline, a 47-km 2 area designated as the reference repository location (RRL) is currently considered the leading candidate site. The specific purpose of this report is to present current knowledge of stratigraphic, lithologic, and structural factors that directly relate to the suitability of the Umtanum flow within the Cold Creek syncline for use as a nuclear waste repository host rock. The BWIP geologic studies have concentrated on factors that might influence groundwater transport of radionuclides from this flow. These factors include: (1) intraflow structures within the interiors of individual lava flows, (2) interflow zones and flow fronts between adjacent lava flows, and (3) bedrock structures. Data have been obtained primarily through coring and geophysical logging of deep boreholes, petrographic, paleomagnetic, and chemical analysis, seismic-reflection, gravity, and magnetic (ground and multilevel airborne) surveys, and surface mapping. Results included in this document comprise baseline data which will be utilized to prepare a Site Characterization Report as specified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  20. Hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek Watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two (primarily) agricultural areas (subwatersheds) of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed Oso Creek tributary (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during October 2005-September 2007. Fourteen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Nineteen composite runoff samples (10 West Oso Creek, nine Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-two discrete suspended-sediment samples (10 West Oso Creek, 12 Oso Creek tributary) and 13 bacteria samples (eight West Oso Creek, five Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the study subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff at both subwatershed outlet sites occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 10.83 inches compared with 7.28 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 2-year study period averaged 2.61 pounds

  1. Tillman Creek Mitigation Site As-Build Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Doug [Otak, Inc.

    2009-05-29

    This as-built report describes site conditions at the Tillman Creek mitigation site in South Cle Elum, Washington. This mitigation site was constructed in 2006-2007 to compensate for wetland impacts from the Yakama Nation hatchery. This as-built report provides information on the construction sequence, as-built survey, and establishment of baseline monitoring stations.

  2. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 240 Pu, and 3 H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay

  3. The transport of zinc and manganese tracers across the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.L.; Calf, G.E.; Davison, A.; Easey, J.F.; Morley, A.

    1983-01-01

    A study has been made of the transport of 54 Mn and 65 Zn released into Magela Creek near Jabiru and into the Leichhardt Billabong on the Magela Plains. Near Jabiru, both isotopes were systematically removed from the surface water by adsorption on the bottom sediments. The 54 Mn was preferentially removed initially; the 65 Zn adsorption became relatively more significant further downstream. Systematic differences are thought to reflect the time-dependent evolution of the species distribution in fresh water systems. The heavy metal tracers injected into the Leichhardt Billabong were non-selectively removed by the vegetation as the radioactive plume crossed onto the shallow flood plain

  4. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinzman, R.L.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Cada, G.F.; Peterson, M.J.

    1996-04-01

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities

  5. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Cada, G.F.; Peterson, M.J. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities.

  6. Stochastic seasonality and nonlinear density-dependent factors regulate population size in an African rodent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Steneth, Nils Chr.; Nichols, James D.

    1997-01-01

    , but clear examples of both processes acting in the same population are rare(7,8). Key-factor analysis (regression of population changes on possible causal factors) and time-series analysis are often used to investigate the presence of density dependence, but such approaches may be biased and provide...... no information on actual demographic rates(9,10). Here we report on both density-dependent and density-independent effects in a murid rodent pest species, the multimammute rat Mastomys natalensis (Smith, 1834), using statistical capture-recapture models, Both effects occur simultaneously, but we also demonstrate...

  7. Simulation of effects of wastewater discharges on Sand Creek and lower Caddo Creek near Ardmore, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Edwin A.

    1999-01-01

    A streamflow and water-quality model was developed for reaches of Sand and Caddo Creeks in south-central Oklahoma to simulate the effects of wastewater discharge from a refinery and a municipal treatment plant.The purpose of the model was to simulate conditions during low streamflow when the conditions controlling dissolved-oxygen concentrations are most severe. Data collected to calibrate and verify the streamflow and water-quality model include continuously monitored streamflow and water-quality data at two gaging stations and three temporary monitoring stations; wastewater discharge from two wastewater plants; two sets each of five water-quality samples at nine sites during a 24-hour period; dye and propane samples; periphyton samples; and sediment oxygen demand measurements. The water-quality sampling, at a 6-hour frequency, was based on a Lagrangian reference frame in which the same volume of water was sampled at each site. To represent the unsteady streamflows and the dynamic water-quality conditions, a transport modeling system was used that included both a model to route streamflow and a model to transport dissolved conservative constituents with linkage to reaction kinetics similar to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency QUAL2E model to simulate nonconservative constituents. These model codes are the Diffusion Analogy Streamflow Routing Model (DAFLOW) and the branched Lagrangian transport model (BLTM) and BLTM/QUAL2E that, collectively, as calibrated models, are referred to as the Ardmore Water-Quality Model.The Ardmore DAFLOW model was calibrated with three sets of streamflows that collectively ranged from 16 to 3,456 cubic feet per second. The model uses only one set of calibrated coefficients and exponents to simulate streamflow over this range. The Ardmore BLTM was calibrated for transport by simulating dye concentrations collected during a tracer study when streamflows ranged from 16 to 23 cubic feet per second. Therefore, the model is expected to

  8. 76 FR 72025 - Noise Compatibility Program Notice for W.M. Kellogg Airport, Battle Creek, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... for W.M. Kellogg Airport, Battle Creek, MI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... exposure maps submitted by the City of Battle Creek, Michigan for W.K. Kellogg Airport under the provisions... noise compatibility program that was submitted for W.K. Kellogg Airport under part 150 in conjunction...

  9. Canyon Creek: A late Pleistocene vertebrate locality in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Florence R.; Hamilton, Thomas D.; Hopkins, David M.; Repenning, Charles A.; Haas, Herbert

    1981-09-01

    The Canyon Creek vertebrate-fossil locality is an extensive road cut near Fairbanks that exposes sediments that range in age from early Wisconsin to late Holocene. Tanana River gravel at the base of the section evidently formed during the Delta Glaciation of the north-central Alaska Range. Younger layers and lenses of fluvial sand are interbedded with arkosic gravel from Canyon Creek that contains tephra as well as fossil bones of an interstadial fauna about 40,000 years old. Solifluction deposits containing ventifacts, wedge casts, and rodent burrows formed during a subsequent period of periglacial activity that took place during the maximum phase of Donnelly Glaciation about 25,000-17,000 years ago. Overlying sheets of eolian sand are separated by a 9500-year-old paleosol that may correlate with a phase of early Holocene spruce expansion through central Alaska. The Pleistocene fauna from Canyon Creek consists of rodents (indicated by burrows), Mammuthus primigenius (woolly mammoth), Equus lambei (Yukon wild ass), Camelops hesternus (western camel), Bison sp. cf. B. crassicornis (large-horned bison), Ovis sp. cf. O. dalli (mountain sheep), Canis sp. cf. C. lupus (wolf), Lepus sp. cf. L. othus or L. arcticus (tundra hare), and Rangifer sp. (caribou). This assemblage suggests an open landscape in which trees and tall shrubs were either absent or confined to sheltered and moist sites. Camelops evidently was present in eastern Beringia during the middle Wisconsin interstadial interval but may have disappeared during the following glacial episode. The stratigraphic section at Canyon Creek appears to demonstrate that the Delta Glaciation of the north-central Alaska Range is at least in part of early Wisconsin age and was separated from the succeeding Donnelly Glaciation by an interstadial rather than interglacial episode.

  10. Cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of population-based, epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moylan Steven

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies have demonstrated that rates of smoking and nicotine dependence are increased in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, significant variability exists in the epidemiological literature exploring this relationship, including study design (cross-sectional versus prospective, the population assessed (random sample versus clinical population and diagnostic instrument utilized. Methods We undertook a systematic review of population-based observational studies that utilized recognized structured clinical diagnostic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM or International Classification of Diseases (ICD for anxiety disorder diagnosis to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders. Results In total, 47 studies met the predefined inclusion criteria, with 12 studies providing prospective information and 5 studies providing quasiprospective information. The available evidence suggests that some baseline anxiety disorders are a risk factor for initiation of smoking and nicotine dependence, although the evidence is heterogeneous and many studies did not control for the effect of comorbid substance use disorders. The identified evidence however appeared to more consistently support cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence as being a risk factor for development of some anxiety disorders (for example, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, although these findings were not replicated in all studies. A number of inconsistencies in the literature were identified. Conclusions Although many studies have demonstrated increased rates of smoking and nicotine dependence in individuals with anxiety disorders, there is a limited and heterogeneous literature that has prospectively examined this relationship in population studies using validated diagnostic criteria. The most consistent evidence supports smoking and nicotine dependence as

  11. Tidal Flooding and Vegetation Patterns in a Salt Marsh Tidal Creek Imaged by Low-altitude Balloon Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.; Madsen, E.

    2013-12-01

    Inundation of marsh surfaces by tidal creek flooding has implications for the headward erosion of salt marsh creeks, effect of rising sea levels, biological zonation, and marsh ecosystem services. The hydroperiod; as the frequency, duration, depth and flux of water across the marsh surface; is a key factor in salt marsh ecology, but remains poorly understood due to lack of data at spatial scales relevant to tracking the spatial movement of water across the marsh. This study examines how hydroperiod, drainage networks, and tidal creek geomorphology on the vegetation at Crab Haul Creek. Crab Haul Creek is the farthest landward tidal basin in North Inlet, a bar-built estuary in South Carolina. This study measures the hydroperiod in the headwaters Crab Haul Creek with normal and near-IR photos from a helium balloon Helikite at 75-100 m altitude. Photos provide detail necessary to resolve the waterline and delineate the hydroperiod during half tidal cycles by capturing the waterline hourly from the headwaters to a piezometer transect 260 meters north. The Helikite is an ideal instrument for local investigations of surface hydrology due to its maneuverability, low cost, ability to remain aloft for extended time over a fixed point, and ability to capture high-resolution images. Photographs taken from aircraft do not provide the detail necessary to determine the waterline on the marsh surface. The near-IR images make the waterline more distinct by increasing the difference between wet and dry ground. In the headwaters of Crab Haul Creek, individual crab burrows are detected by automated image classification and the number of crab burrows and their spatial density is tracked from January-August. Crab burrows are associated with the unvegetated region at the creek head, and we relate their change over time to the propagation of the creek farther into the tidal basin. Plant zonation is influenced by the hydroperiod, but also may be affected by salinity, water table depth, and

  12. Bathymetric survey of Carroll Creek Tributary to Lake Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, Alabama, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.G.; Kimbrow, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Tuscaloosa, conducted a bathymetric survey of Carroll Creek, on May 12-13, 2010. Carroll Creek is one of the major tributaries to Lake Tuscaloosa and contributes about 6 percent of the surface drainage area. A 3.5-mile reach of Carroll Creek was surveyed to prepare a current bathymetric map, determine storage capacities at specified water-surface elevations, and compare current conditions to historical cross sections. Bathymetric data were collected using a high-resolution interferometric mapping system consisting of a phase-differencing bathymetric sonar, navigation and motion-sensing system, and a data acquisition computer. To assess the accuracy of the interferometric mapping system and document depths in shallow areas of the study reach, an electronic total station was used to survey 22 cross sections spaced 50 feet apart. The data were combined and processed and a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) and contour map were generated. Cross sections were extracted from the TIN and compared with historical cross sections. Between 2004 and 2010, the area (cross section 1) at the confluence of Carroll Creek and the main run of LakeTuscaloosa showed little to no change in capacity area. Another area (cross section 2) showed a maximum change in elevation of 4 feet and an average change of 3 feet. At the water-surface elevation of 224 feet (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929), the cross-sectional area has changed by 260 square feet for a total loss of 28 percent of cross-sectional storage area. The loss of area may be attributed to sedimentation in Carroll Creek and (or) the difference in accuracy between the two surveys.

  13. Evaluation of water quality threats to the endangered Okaloosa darter (Etheostoma okaloosae) in East Turkey Creek on Eglin Air Force Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, R E; Spade, D J; Knoebl, I; Hemming, J M; Tongue, M L; Szabo, N J; Kroll, K J; Tate, W B; Denslow, N D

    2012-04-01

    The threatened Okaloosa darter (Etheostoma okaloosae) is found almost exclusively on the Eglin Air Force Base in the Choctawhatchee Bay watershed of Florida. Portions of this limited habitat are threatened with soil erosion, altered hydrology, and impaired water quality. In the present study, general water quality parameters (i.e., dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, pH, temperature, relative turbidity, and primary productivity) were characterized in East Turkey Creek, which is a body of water potentially impacted by treated wastewater sprayfields, and Long Creek, an adjacent reference stream that does not border the sprayfields. Water quality was assessed during a 30-day exposure using passive samplers for both non-polar and polar effluent parameters. Because the Okaloosa darter was listed as endangered at the time of sampling we chose a closely related species from the same creeks, the sailfin shiner (Pteronotropis hypseleotris) in which to measure metal body burdens. Additionally, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were used for microarray analysis on gonad and liver tissues after 48 h exposures to water collected from the two creeks and brought into the laboratory. Waters from all sites, including reference sites, affected the expression of genes related to various biological processes including transcription and translation, cell cycle control, metabolism, and signaling pathways, suggesting that the sum of anthropogenic compounds in the site waters may cause a generalized stress response in both liver and testis, an effect that could be related to the generally low populations of the Okaloosa darter. Furthermore, effects of site waters on fish gene expression may be related to the impact of human activities other than the wastewater sprayfields, as nearby areas are closed to the public for military testing, training, and administrative activities and due to ordnance contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Judy Creek and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The story of the Pengrowth Energy Trust, a company created in 1988 to provide investors with an opportunity to participate in the oil and gas industry without the higher investment risk associated with exploratory drilling is the vehicle used to provide an overview of the development of the Judy Creek oil field, an historical sketch of Imperial Oil Limited, and of the development of the community of Swan Hills shed, a town carved out of muskeg by early pioneers in 1957-1958. The book is replete with anecdotes and photographs, depicting the indomitable spirit of the people whose determination and faith made the development of the oil industry in Alberta possible

  15. Water quality monitoring report for the White Oak Creek Embayment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.J.; Wefer, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    Water quality monitoring activities that focused on the detection of resuspended sediments in the Clinch River were conducted in conjunction with the White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE) time-critical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to construct a sediment-retention structure at the mouth of White Oak Creek (WOC). Samples were collected by use of a 24-h composite sampler and through real-time water grab sampling of sediment plumes generated by the construction activities. Sampling stations were established both at the WOC mouth, immediately adjacent to the construction site, and at K-1513, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site drinking water intake approximately 9.6 km downstream in the Clinch River. Results are described

  16. Determination of premining geochemical background and delineation of extent of sediment contamination in Blue Creek downstream from Midnite Mine, Stevens County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Stan E.; Kirschner, Frederick E.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Budahn, James R.; Brown, Zoe Ann

    2008-01-01

    Geochemical and radionuclide studies of sediment recovered from eight core sites in the Blue Creek flood plain and Blue Creek delta downstream in Lake Roosevelt provided a stratigraphic geochemical record of the contamination from uranium mining at the Midnite Mine. Sediment recovered from cores in a wetland immediately downstream from the mine site as well as from sediment catchments in Blue Creek and from cores in the delta in Blue Creek cove provided sufficient data to determine the premining geochemical background for the Midnite Mine tributary drainage. These data provide a geochemical background that includes material eroded from the Midnite Mine site prior to mine development. Premining geochemical background for the Blue Creek basin has also been determined using stream-sediment samples from parts of the Blue Creek, Oyachen Creek, and Sand Creek drainage basins not immediately impacted by mining. Sediment geochemistry showed that premining uranium concentrations in the Midnite Mine tributary immediately downstream of the mine site were strongly elevated relative to the crustal abundance of uranium (2.3 ppm). Cesium-137 (137Cs) data and public records of production at the Midnite Mine site provided age control to document timelines in the sediment from the core immediately downstream from the mine site. Mining at the Midnite Mine site on the Spokane Indian Reservation between 1956 and 1981 resulted in production of more than 10 million pounds of U3O8. Contamination of the sediment by uranium during the mining period is documented from the Midnite Mine along a small tributary to the confluence of Blue Creek, in Blue Creek, and into the Blue Creek delta. During the period of active mining (1956?1981), enrichment of base metals in the sediment of Blue Creek delta was elevated by as much as 4 times the concentration of those same metals prior to mining. Cadmium concentrations were elevated by a factor of 10 and uranium by factors of 16 to 55 times premining

  17. Estimates of natural streamflow at two streamgages on the Esopus Creek, New York, water years 1932 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Gazoorian, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Streamflow in the Esopus Creek watershed is altered by two major watershed management activities carried out by the New York City Department of Environmental Protection as part of its responsibility to maintain a water supply for New York City: (1) diversion of water from the Schoharie Creek watershed to the Esopus Creek through the Shandaken Tunnel, and (2) impoundment of the Esopus Creek by a dam that forms the Ashokan Reservoir and subsequent release through the Catskill Aqueduct. Stakeholders in the Catskill region are interested and concerned about the extent to which these watershed management activities have altered streamflow, especially low and high flows, in the Esopus Creek. To address these concerns, natural (in the absence of diversion and impoundment) daily discharge from October 1, 1931, to September 30, 2012, was estimated for the U.S. Geological Survey streamgages at Coldbrook (station number 01362500), downstream of the Shandaken Tunnel discharge, and at Mount Marion (01364500), downstream of the Ashokan Reservoir.

  18. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport along Hunter Creek, southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Risley, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary assessment of (1) bed-material transport in the Hunter Creek basin, (2) historical changes in channel condition, and (3) supplementary data needed to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel extraction revealed the following: Along the lower 12.4 km (kilometers) of Hunter Creek from its confluence with the Little South Fork Hunter Creek to its mouth, the river has confined and unconfined segments and is predominately alluvial in its lowermost 11 km. This 12.4-km stretch of river can be divided into two geomorphically distinct study reaches based primarily on valley physiography. In the Upper Study Reach (river kilometer [RKM] 12.4-6), the active channel comprises a mixed bed of bedrock, boulders, and smaller grains. The stream is confined in the upper 1.4 km of the reach by a bedrock canyon and in the lower 2.4 km by its valley. In the Lower Study Reach (RKM 6-0), where the area of gravel bars historically was largest, the stream flows over bed material that is predominately alluvial sediments. The channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments. The primary human activities that likely have affected bed-material transport and the extent and area of gravel bars are (1) historical and ongoing aggregate extraction from gravel bars in the study area and (2) timber harvest and associated road construction throughout the basin. These anthropogenic activities likely have varying effects on sediment transport and deposition throughout the study area and over time. Although assessing the relative effects of these anthropogenic activities on sediment dynamics would be challenging, the Hunter Creek basin may serve as a case study for such an assessment because it is mostly free of other alterations to hydrologic and geomorphic processes such as flow regulation, dredging, and other navigation improvements that are common in many Oregon coastal basins. Several datasets are available that may support a more detailed physical assessment

  19. Effects of outcropping groundwater from the F- and H-Area seepage basins on the distribution of fish in Four Mile Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Storey, C.

    1990-10-01

    Four Mile Creek was electrofished during June 26--July 2, 1990 to assess the impacts of outcropping ground water form the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins on fish abundance and distribution. Number of fish species and total catch were comparable at sample stations upstream from and downstream from the outcropping zone in Four Mile Creek. Species number and composition downstream from the outcropping zone in Four Mile Creek were similar to species number and composition in unimpacted portions of Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Meyers Branch. These findings indicate that seepage basin outcropping was not adversely affecting the Four Mile Creek fish community. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Copepod composition, abundance and diversity in Makupa Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evenness (J) was, however, relatively constant (0.67 to 0.84) during the entire sampling period. These results point to suppressed copepod diversity and abundance in Makupa Creek, and possible reasons for this, which may include environmental degradation caused by pollution, are presented. Western Indian Ocean ...

  1. 77 FR 55817 - Panther Creek Power Operating, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2570-000] Panther Creek Power Operating, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Panther Creek Power Operating, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  2. The environmental dependence of inbreeding depression in a wild bird population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szulkin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Inbreeding depression occurs when the offspring produced as a result of matings between relatives show reduced fitness, and is generally understood as a consequence of the elevated expression of deleterious recessive alleles. How inbreeding depression varies across environments is of importance for the evolution of inbreeding avoidance behaviour, and for understanding extinction risks in small populations. However, inbreeding-by-environment (IxE interactions have rarely been investigated in wild populations.We analysed 41 years of breeding events from a wild great tit (Parus major population and used 11 measures of the environment to categorise environments as relatively good or poor, testing whether these measures influenced inbreeding depression. Although inbreeding always, and environmental quality often, significantly affected reproductive success, there was little evidence for statistically significant I x E interactions at the level of individual analyses. However, point estimates of the effect of the environment on inbreeding depression were sometimes considerable, and we show that variation in the magnitude of the I x E interaction across environments is consistent with the expectation that this interaction is more marked across environmental axes with a closer link to overall fitness, with the environmental dependence of inbreeding depression being elevated under such conditions. Hence, our analyses provide evidence for an environmental dependence of the inbreeding x environment interaction: effectively an I x E x E.Overall, our analyses suggest that I x E interactions may be substantial in wild populations, when measured across relevant environmental contrasts, although their detection for single traits may require very large samples, or high rates of inbreeding.

  3. Timing intervals using population synchrony and spike timing dependent plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a computational model by which ensembles of regularly spiking neurons can encode different time intervals through synchronous firing. We show that a neuron responding to a large population of convergent inputs has the potential to learn to produce an appropriately-timed output via spike-time dependent plasticity. We explain why temporal variability of this population synchrony increases with increasing time intervals. We also show that the scalar property of timing and its violation at short intervals can be explained by the spike-wise accumulation of jitter in the inter-spike intervals of timing neurons. We explore how the challenge of encoding longer time intervals can be overcome and conclude that this may involve a switch to a different population of neurons with lower firing rate, with the added effect of producing an earlier bias in response. Experimental data on human timing performance show features in agreement with the model’s output.

  4. Technology transfer: taking science from the books to the ground at Bent Creek Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia Kirschman

    2014-01-01

    Technology transfer has been an important part of the research program at Bent Creek Experimental Forest (Bent Creek) since its establishment in 1925. Our stated mission is to develop and disseminate knowledge and strategies for restoring, managing, sustaining, and enhancing the vegetation and wildlife of upland hardwood-dominated forest ecosystems of the Southern...

  5. Clean Coal Power at Toms Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    On October 20, 1992 the US Department of Energy (DOE), through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-21-93MC92444 with TAMCO Power Partners to implement the Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined - Cycle Demonstration Project. The process design is proceeding as scheduled, and a draft Environmental Information Volume has been produced. The overall project schedule, however, may have to be adjusted when the Power Sales Agreement has been finalized

  6. Modelling Anopheles gambiae s.s. Population Dynamics with Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Christiansen-Jucht

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and global warming are emerging as important threats to human health, particularly through the potential increase in vector- and water-borne diseases. Environmental variables are known to affect substantially the population dynamics and abundance of the poikilothermic vectors of disease, but the exact extent of this sensitivity is not well established. Focusing on malaria and its main vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, we present a set of novel mathematical models of climate-driven mosquito population dynamics motivated by experimental data suggesting that in An. gambiae, mortality is temperature and age dependent. We compared the performance of these models to that of a “standard” model ignoring age dependence. We used a longitudinal dataset of vector abundance over 36 months in sub-Saharan Africa for comparison between models that incorporate age dependence and one that does not, and observe that age-dependent models consistently fitted the data better than the reference model. This highlights that including age dependence in the vector component of mosquito-borne disease models may be important to predict more reliably disease transmission dynamics. Further data and studies are needed to enable improved fitting, leading to more accurate and informative model predictions for the An. gambiae malaria vector as well as for other disease vectors.

  7. Continuous hydrologic simulation and flood-frequency, hydraulic, and flood-hazard analysis of the Blackberry Creek watershed, Kane County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, David T.; Straub, Timothy D.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Results of hydrologic model, flood-frequency, hydraulic model, and flood-hazard analysis of the Blackberry Creek watershed in Kane County, Illinois, indicate that the 100-year and 500-year flood plains range from approximately 25 acres in the tributary F watershed (a headwater subbasin at the northeastern corner of the watershed) to almost 1,800 acres in Blackberry Creek main stem. Based on 1996 land-cover data, most of the land in the 100-year and 500-year flood plains was cropland, forested and wooded land, and grassland. A relatively small percentage of urban land was in the flood plains. The Blackberry Creek watershed has undergone rapid urbanization in recent decades. The population and urbanized lands in the watershed are projected to double from the 1990 condition by 2020. Recently, flood-induced damage has occurred more frequently in urbanized areas of the watershed. There are concerns about the effect of urbanization on flood peaks and volumes, future flood-mitigation plans, and potential effects on the water quality and stream habitats. This report describes the procedures used in developing the hydrologic models, estimating the flood-peak discharge magnitudes and recurrence intervals for flood-hazard analysis, developing the hydraulic model, and the results of the analysis in graphical and tabular form. The hydrologic model, Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF), was used to perform the simulation of continuous water movements through various patterns of land uses in the watershed. Flood-frequency analysis was applied to an annual maximum series to determine flood quantiles in subbasins for flood-hazard analysis. The Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) hydraulic model was used to determine the 100-year and 500-year flood elevations, and to determine the 100-year floodway. The hydraulic model was calibrated and verified using high water marks and observed inundation maps for the July 17-18, 1996, flood event. Digital

  8. Human Health Risk Assessment Applied to Rural Populations Dependent on Unregulated Drinking Water Sources: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Lorelei; Bharadwaj, Lalita; McLeod, Lianne; Waldner, Cheryl

    2017-07-28

    Safe drinking water is a global challenge for rural populations dependent on unregulated water. A scoping review of research on human health risk assessments (HHRA) applied to this vulnerable population may be used to improve assessments applied by government and researchers. This review aims to summarize and describe the characteristics of HHRA methods, publications, and current literature gaps of HHRA studies on rural populations dependent on unregulated or unspecified drinking water. Peer-reviewed literature was systematically searched (January 2000 to May 2014) and identified at least one drinking water source as unregulated (21%) or unspecified (79%) in 100 studies. Only 7% of reviewed studies identified a rural community dependent on unregulated drinking water. Source water and hazards most frequently cited included groundwater (67%) and chemical water hazards (82%). Most HHRAs (86%) applied deterministic methods with 14% reporting probabilistic and stochastic methods. Publications increased over time with 57% set in Asia, and 47% of studies identified at least one literature gap in the areas of research, risk management, and community exposure. HHRAs applied to rural populations dependent on unregulated water are poorly represented in the literature even though almost half of the global population is rural.

  9. Draft environmental assessment: Cypress Creek Dome site, Mississippi. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Cypress Creek dome site in Mississippi as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Cypress Creek dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations contained in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Cypress Creek dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is contained in the Gulf Interior Region of the Gulf Coastal Plain, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites - the Richton dome site and the Vacherie dome site. Although the Cypress Creek dome site appears to be suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf Interior Region and is proposing to nominate the Richton dome site rather than the Cypress Creek dome site as one of the three sites suitable for characterization

  10. Determination of the radiological capacity of Culiat Creek and adjoining tributaries. Part of a coordinated programme on the study of integrated radioactive waste management systems and their impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalfin, E.A.

    1975-05-01

    Culiat Creek is the intended area near the Philippine Atomic Research Center for low radioactive waste disposal. It is a relatively small creek which however becomes bigger as it combines with other creeks and finally joining a major river (Pasig River) discharging into Manila Bay. The project was proposed to study the characteristics and radiological capacity of the creek, specifically for cobalt 60 and for 3 elements in the ecosystem thought to be the likely critical pathway of reconcentration of wastes back to man. The 3 elements were: a) 2 species of edible plants grown in the area 1) Kangkong (Ipomea repens) 2) Gabi (colocasia esculenta) b) The river bed composed primarily of volcanic tuff c) A local species of fish ''Hito'' (clarias batrachus). The experiment tested the various elements for their concentration factors under controlled laboratory conditions for cobalt in concentrations estimated to be similar to the radioactive wastes produced in the Center. Results of the experiment showed that the critical pathway for the area was a combination of the river bottom and the roots system of kangkong which would expose children who might play in the creek vicinity or people who would be digging adobe in the area, to external radiation. Concentration factors of the various elements showed that only the root system of the kangkong gave significant levels of reconcentration (CF = 600 Max) and when viewed against the present usage and physical condition of the creek represent the most possible source of external exposure to the population in the vicinity. The derived working limits for the area were as follows: 1. Injection of radioactive wastes for disposal shall be done only with at least a 50 liter per second flow rate in the creek. 2. A total of 200 millicuries can be safely dumped into the area. 3. Succeeding disposal shall be limited to an amount equal to: 200 - (loss due to radioactive decay + unmet reserves from presious dumping). 4. These recommendations

  11. Monitoring the Thermal Regime at Hot Creek and Vicinity, Long Valley Caldera, Eastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clor, L. E.; Hurwitz, S.; Howle, J.

    2015-12-01

    Hot Creek Gorge contains the most obvious surface expression of the hydrothermal system in Long Valley Caldera, California, discharging 200-300 L/s of thermal water according to USGS measurements made since 1988. Formerly, Hot Creek was a popular public swimming area, but it was closed in 2006 due to unpredictable temperature fluctuations and sporadic geysering of thermal water within the creek (Farrar et al. USGS Fact Sheet2007-3045). The USGS has monitored the thermal regime in the area since the mid-1980s, including a long-term series of studies 0.6 km away at well CH-10b. Temperature measurements in the ~100 m deep well, which have been performed on an intermittent basis since it was drilled in 1983, reveal a complex temperature profile. Temperatures increase with depth to a maximum at about 45 meters below the ground surface, and then decrease steadily to the bottom of the well. The depth of the temperature maximum in the well (~45 m) corresponds to an elevation of ~2,120 m, roughly equivalent to the elevation of Hot Creek, and appears to sample the same hydrothermal flow system that supplies thermal features at the surface in the gorge. Starting in the early 1990s, the maximum temperature in CH-10b rose from 93.4°C to its peak in 2007 at 101.0°C. A cooling trend was observed beginning in 2009 and continues to present (99.3°C in June 2015). As the input into CH-10b is at the elevation of the creek, it exhibits the potential for response to thermal events at Hot Creek, and could provide a useful tool for monitoring future hazards. On short timescales, CH-10b also responds to large global earthquakes, greater than ~M7. These responses are captured with continuously logged high-frequency data (5s), and are usually characterized by a co-seismic water level drop of up to ten centimeters. Water levels tend to recover to pre-earthquake levels within a few hours to days.

  12. Bayesian inference on the effect of density dependence and weather on a guanaco population from Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubillaga, Maria; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive population dynamics is fundamental for management of wild populations. The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is one of two wild camelid species in South America. We evaluated the effects of density dependence and weather variables on population regulation based...

  13. 75 FR 37790 - Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Issue a Supplemental Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Issue a Supplemental Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Project June 23, 2010. On March 23, 2010, Commission staff issued an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Project. On April 22, 2010, the U.S...

  14. Tidal flow characteristics at Kasheli (Kalwa/ Bassein creek), Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Suryanarayana, A.

    Tidal flow characteristics of waters at Kasheli, connected to the sea through Thane and Bassein Creeks in Bombay, Maharashtra, India are investigated based on tide and current observations carried out in 1980-81. The results establish that the tidal...

  15. Reconnaissance investigation of high-calcium marble in the Beaver Creek area, St. Lawrence County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. Ervin

    1978-01-01

    Three belts of marble of the Grenville Series were mapped in the Beaver Creek drainage basin, St. Lawrence County, N.Y. One of these, on the west side of Beaver Creek, consists of coarsely crystalline pure calcitic marble that occurs in a zone at least 10 by 0.8 km in extent. Samples of marble show CaCO3 content to be greater than 93 percent, and some samples contain greater than 96 percent, and only small amounts of MgO and Fe203 are present. Marble in two other belts to the east of Beaver Creek are variable in composition, but locally have high content of calcium carbonate material. The marble deposit west of Beaver Creek has a chemical composition favorable for specialized chemical, industrial, and metallurgical uses. Another favorable aspect of the deposit is its proximity to inexpensive water transportation on the St. Lawrence Seaway only 27.5 km away by road, at Ogdensburg, N.Y.

  16. Hydrologic data for North Creek, Trinity River basin, Texas, 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1979 water year for the 21.6-square mile area above the stream-gaging station North Creek near Jacksboro, Texas. A continuous water-stage recording gage was installed at one representative floodwater-retarding structure (site 28-A) on Oct. 5, 1972. The data are collected to compute the contents, surface area, inflow, and outflow at this site. The stream-gaging station on North Creek near Jacksboro continuously records the water level which, with measurements of streamflow, is used to compute the runoff from the study area. Streamflow records at this gage began on Aug. 8, 1956. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are included for one storm during the 1979 water year at the stream-gaging station. (USGS)

  17. White Oak Creek embayment sediment retention structure design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Kimmell, B.L.; Page, D.G.; Wilkerson, R.B.; Hudson, G.R.; Kauschinger, J.L.; Zocolla, M.

    1994-01-01

    White Oak Creek is the major surface water drainage throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Samples taken from the lower portion of the creek revealed high levels of Cesium 137 and lower level of Cobalt 60 in near surface sediment. Other contaminants present in the sediment included: lead, mercury, chromium, and PCBs. In October 1990, DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) agreed to initiate a time critical removal action in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) to prevent the transport of the contaminated sediments into the Clinch River system. This paper discusses the environmental, regulatory, design, and construction issues that were encountered in conducting the remediation work

  18. Monitoring anthropogenic sewage pollution on mangrove creeks in southern Mozambique: A test of Palaemon concinnus Dana, 1852 (Palaemonidae) as a biological indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penha-Lopes, G.; Torres, P.; Cannicci, S.

    2011-01-01

    Tropical coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, have a great ecological and socioeconomic importance for adjacent systems and local populations, but intensive environmental impact monitoring is still lacking, mainly in East Africa. This study evaluated the potential anthropogenic disturbance...... on Palaemon concinnus population structure and fitness. Palaemon concinnus populations from one pen-urban (domestic sewage impacted) and two pristine mangrove creeks were studied by sampling nearly 100 shrimps per location every 15 days for 12 months. The shrimps at the pen-urban location were larger......, experienced longer reproductive periods, presented higher proportion of ovigerous females and better embryo quality when compared with shrimps inhabiting pristine locations. Physiological indices (RNA/DNA ratio) were similar between shrimps at pristine and pen-urban mangroves. However, a higher level...

  19. Cherry Creek Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Jennie Sperling; Tim Rodenkirk

    2011-01-01

    This guidebook describes Cherry Creek Research Natural Area, a 239-ha (590-ac) area that supports old-growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock (Pseudotsuga menziesii- Tsuga heterophylla) forest occurring on sedimentary materials in the southern Oregon Coast Range. Major plant associations present within the area include the western hemlock/Oregon oxalis...

  20. Preliminary investigations on the Ichthyodiversity of Kilifi Creek, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Smith, 1939) off the Kenyan coast at Malindi only. 50 km north of ... communities, river fed creek, upstream and the bay proper, in Gazi ... habitat degradation: pollution, overfishing, ..... exploitable fishes from a marine park and its effect on the ...

  1. Trout Creek, Oregon Watershed Assessment; Findings, Condition Evaluation and Action Opportunities, 2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runyon, John

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of the assessment is to characterize historical and current watershed conditions in the Trout Creek Watershed. Information from the assessment is used to evaluate opportunities for improvements in watershed conditions, with particular reference to improvements in the aquatic environment. Existing information was used, to the extent practicable, to complete this work. The assessment will aid the Trout Creek Watershed Council in identifying opportunities and priorities for watershed restoration projects.

  2. Hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Fernandez, Carlos J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two primarily agricultural subwatersheds of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is about 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed tributary to Oso Creek (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is about 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during the study period October 2005-September 2008. Seventeen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Twenty-four composite runoff water-quality samples (12 at West Oso Creek, 12 at Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-six discrete suspended-sediment samples (12 West Oso Creek, 14 Oso Creek tributary) and 17 bacteria samples (10 West Oso Creek, 7 Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the two subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the two subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff from the two subwatersheds occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 13.95 inches compared with 9.45 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 3

  3. Effects of cypress knee roughness on flow resistance and discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw-Swiatek Dorota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of cypress knee roughness on flow resistance and discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed. In this study effects of cypress knees as vegetation resistance factor on Turkey Creek watershed discharge calculation were analyzed. The Turkey Creek watershed is a 3rd order stream system draining an approximate area of 5,240 ha. It is located at 33°08' N latitude and 79°47' W longitude, approximately 60 km north-west of City of Charleston in South Carolina (USA. Turkey Creek (WS 78 is typical of other watersheds in the south Atlantic coastal plain. In the case of Turkey Creek watershed, one of the main channels and riparian floodplain vegetation contains cypress trees. Cypress trees live in moist or swampy regions along the Atlantic coastal plain. The cypress trees are characterized by the unique root system called knees that appear just above the water line, up to 1.2 m above water surface. This study is conducted to examine the effects of roughness of cypress knee as related to its shape (diameter and height on discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed. Hydraulic characteristics of the cypress knees were determined by field inventory in selected cross-section along the main stream channel. The Pasche method was used to calculate the total Darcy–Weisbach friction factor in discharge capacity calculation of the study watershed. The results of this study show that the effect of vegetation shape in the Pasche approach is significant. If the variability of vegetation stem diameter is taken into consideration in the calculations, an increase by 10–32% in the values of friction coefficients occurs.

  4. Evaluation of the Steel Creek ecosystem in relation to the propsed restart of the L-reactor: interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The ecological assessment of the Steel Creek ecosystempresents information concerning the fall and winter utilization of Steel Creek habitats. An understanding of the wintering behavior of these species is necessary to assess the impact of thermal effluents on these species. Waterfowl use of the Steel Creek habitats was extensive during winter 1981-1982. The habitat was used for both foraging and roosting. Mallards and wood ducks were the most important local game species. Observations of the thermal deltas indicated substantial migratory waterfowl use of areas near Four Mile Creek, while no ducks were observed in the vicinity of Pen Branch. Studies of the American alligator through the winter of 1981-1982 indicated that this species remains active through the winter. It has also been established that the Florida mud turtle, occurs in Steel Creek. Fish collections through the fall of 1981 and winter of 1981-1982 yielded 49 species. Considerable differences in overall fish species diversity and changes in fish species composition were observed. Substantial variations in radiocesium concentrations exist among species although all species were exposed to the same concentrations of radiocesium in water. Substantially less radiocesium remains in the system than was anticipated. Substantial differences occur in different stream segments as well as the vertical distribution of the isotope through the soil profile. The studies to date document that animal use of the Steel Creek cosystems is substantial

  5. Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained

  6. The Effect of Source Suspended Sediment Concentration on the Sediment Dynamics of a Macrotidal Creek and Salt Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, E.; van Proosdij, D.; Milligan, T. G.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal variability in the sediment dynamics of a Bay of Fundy tidal creek and salt marsh system was analyzed to better understand the ecomorphodynamics of a high suspended sediment concentration intertidal habitat. Data were collected over 62 tides for velocity, suspended sediment concentration, deposition, and grain size at four stations from the creek thalweg to the marsh surface. Five topographic surveys were also conducted throughout the 14-month study. Deposition rates per tide varied spatially from 56.4 g·m-2 at the creek thalweg to 15.3 g·m-2 at the marsh surface. Seasonal variations in deposition in the creek and marsh surface were from 38.0 g·m-2 to 97.7 g·m-2 and from 12.2 g·m-2 to 19.6 g·m-2 respectively. Deposition and erosion were greatest in late fall and winter. This seasonal change, led by higher suspended sediment concentrations, was observed in the creek and at the marsh bank but notably absent from the marsh edge and marsh surface. Sediments were predominantly deposited in floc form (76-83%). Because of high floc content, higher suspended sediment concentrations led to more rapid loss of sediment from suspension. With increasing sediment concentration, deposition increased in the tidal creek and at the marsh bank but not at the marsh edge or marsh surface. This suggests that in highly flocculated environments the water column clears fast enough that very little sediment remains in suspension when the water reaches the marsh and that the sediment concentration during marsh inundation is independent of the initial concentration in the creek.

  7. Forest Creeks Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Ron Halvorson

    2010-01-01

    This guidebook describes Forest Creeks Research Natural Area, a 164-ha (405-ac) area comprising two geographically distinct canyons and associated drainages. The two units have been established as examples of first- to third-order streams originating within a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) zone. The two riparian areas also represent examples of...

  8. Fish Creek Rim Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Ian Grinter

    2016-01-01

    This guidebook describes major biological and physical attributes of the 3531-ha (8,725-ac) Fish Creek Rim Research Natural Area located within the Northern Basin and Range ecoregion and managed by the Bureau of Land Management, Lakeview District (USDI BLM 2003).

  9. Assessment of water quality, benthic invertebrates, and periphyton in the Threemile Creek basin, Mobile, Alabama, 1999-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Ann K.; Gill, Amy C.; Moreland, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 4-year investigation of water quality and aquatic-community structure in Threemile Creek, an urban stream that drains residential areas in Mobile, Alabama. Water-quality samples were collected between March 2000 and September 2003 at four sites on Threemile Creek, and between March 2000 and October 2001 at two tributary sites that drain heavily urbanized areas in the watershed. Stream samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, and selected organic wastewater compounds. Continuous measurements of dissolved-oxygen concentrations, water temperature, specific conductance, and turbidity were recorded at three sites on Threemile Creek during 1999?2003. Aquatic-community structure was evaluated by conducting one survey of the benthic invertebrate community and multiple surveys of the algal community (periphyton). Benthic invertebrate samples were collected in July 2000 at four sites on Threemile Creek; periphyton samples were collected at four sites on Threemile Creek and the two tributary sites during 2000 ?2003. The occurrence and distribution of chemical constituents in the water column provided an initial assessment of water quality in the streams; the structure of the benthic invertebrate and algal communities provided an indication of the cumulative effects of water quality on the aquatic biota. Information contained in this report can be used by planners and resource managers in the evaluation of proposed total maximum daily loads and other restoration efforts that may be implemented on Threemile Creek. The three most upstream sites on Threemile Creek had similar water chemistry, characterized by a strong calcium-bicarbonate component; the most downstream site on Threemile Creek was affected by tidal fluctuations and mixing from Mobile Bay and had a strong sodium-chloride component. The water chemistry at the tributary site on Center Street was characterized by a strong sodium-chloride component

  10. Simulation And Forecasting of Daily Pm10 Concentrations Using Autoregressive Models In Kagithane Creek Valley, Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağaç, Kübra; Koçak, Kasım; Deniz, Ali

    2015-04-01

    A time series approach using autoregressive model (AR), moving average model (MA) and seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (SARIMA) were used in this study to simulate and forecast daily PM10 concentrations in Kagithane Creek Valley, Istanbul. Hourly PM10 concentrations have been measured in Kagithane Creek Valley between 2010 and 2014 periods. Bosphorus divides the city in two parts as European and Asian parts. The historical part of the city takes place in Golden Horn. Our study area Kagithane Creek Valley is connected with this historical part. The study area is highly polluted because of its topographical structure and industrial activities. Also population density is extremely high in this site. The dispersion conditions are highly poor in this creek valley so it is necessary to calculate PM10 levels for air quality and human health. For given period there were some missing PM10 concentration values so to make an accurate calculations and to obtain exact results gap filling method was applied by Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA). SSA is a new and efficient method for gap filling and it is an state-of-art modeling. SSA-MTM Toolkit was used for our study. SSA is considered as a noise reduction algorithm because it decomposes an original time series to trend (if exists), oscillatory and noise components by way of a singular value decomposition. The basic SSA algorithm has stages of decomposition and reconstruction. For given period daily and monthly PM10 concentrations were calculated and episodic periods are determined. Long term and short term PM10 concentrations were analyzed according to European Union (EU) standards. For simulation and forecasting of high level PM10 concentrations, meteorological data (wind speed, pressure and temperature) were used to see the relationship between daily PM10 concentrations. Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) was also applied to the data to see the periodicity and according to these periods models were built

  11. CREEK Project's Water Chemistry, Chlorophyll a, and Suspended Sediment Weekly Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  12. Peculiarities of dermatoglyphic values among the people of Uzbek population dependently on sex

    OpenAIRE

    Kuziyev, Otabek; ORTIQBOYEV JAKHONGIR ORTIQBOY OGLI; Khakimova, Gulnoz; Aripdjanova, Nigina

    2015-01-01

    : This article describes a study conducted to determine the basic dermatoglyphic traits, located in relation to gender in persons of Uzbek population. Provides definitions of the differences in rate of dermatoglyphic depending on nationality.

  13. Ecology of phytoplankton from Dharmatar Creek, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    Phytoplankton pigment, cell count and species diversity wee studied at five locations in Dharamtar Creek during September 1984 to November 1985. Chemical parameters indicated a healthy system free of any environmental stress. The water...

  14. Indian Creek-AML: Coal slurry reclamation (Kansas case history)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witthar, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Black and Veatch, assisted by Jack Nawrot, developed conceptual and final designs and provided construction assistance to create grasslands and wetlands in order to reclaim an abandoned coal mine for the state of Kansas. The mine included spoils, a coal refuse dump, and slurry pond in the Indian Creek drainage basin in east central Kansas. The Indian Creek flowed from an off-site abandoned mine and through the coal slurry pond where its waters became more polluted. The intent of the reclamation project was to improve water quality and create a wildlife refuge. The coal refuse was covered and seeded with a diversity of vegetation including several grasses and legume. The slurry pond was developed into a series of large wetland cells to improve water quality. Prior to reclamation, the water leaving the site had a typical pH of 3.3, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6, an iron content which typically over 22 mg/L and ranging over 100 mg/L, and contained large amounts of coal slurry. The acid sediment in the slurry killed fish and caused visible damage to a new large concrete box culvert several miles downstream of the site. Post-reclamation water quality leaving the Indian Creek site showed immediate improvement even before vegetation was reestablished. The existing wetland treatment systems have been successfully treating water for over seven years with the pH of the water leaving the wetlands above 7 and soluble iron content less than 1 mg/L. Fish in the constructed wetlands support waterfowl which now nest onsite

  15. Hydrologic data for North Creek, Trinity River basin, Texas, 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1976 water year for a 21.6-square mile area above the stream-gaging station on North Creek near Jacksboro, Texas. A continuous water-stage recording gage was installed at one representative floodwater-retarding structure (site 28-A) on Oct. 5, 1972. The data are used to compute the contents, surface area, inflow, and outflow at this site. The stream-gaging station on North Creek near Jacksboro continuously records the water level which, with measurements of streamflow, is used to compute the runoff from the study area. Streamflow records at this gage began on Aug. 8, 1956. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations, including hydrographs and mass curves, are included for two storm periods during the 1976 water year at the stream-gaging station. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Individual and population dose to users of the Savannah River following K-Reactor tritium release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton, W.H.; Hamby, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 5700 curies of tritium were released to Pen Branch between December 22, 1991 and December 25, 1991. As expected, the tritiated water traveled through the Savannah River swamp to Steel Creek and the Savannah River. Elevated tritium concentrations in the river at Becks Ferry (Beaufort-Jasper) and Abercorn Creek (Port Wentworth) has caused some concern among downstream water users as to the amount of tritium available for uptake through the domestic drinking water supplies at the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water treatment facilities. Radiation dose to the downstream drinking water population is estimated in this report

  17. WARM SPRINGS CREEK GEOTHERMAL STUDY, BLAIN COUNTY IDAHO, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Warm Springs Creek drainage near Ketchum, Idaho (17040219), a leaking pipeline coveys geothermal water through the valley to heat nearby homes as well as to supply a resorts swimming pool. Several domestic wells in close proximity to this line have exhibited increasing fl...

  18. Disentangling the effects of climate, density dependence, and harvest on an iconic large herbivore's population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koons, David; Colchero, Fernando; Hersey, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relative effects of climate, harvest, and density dependence on population dynamics is critical for guiding sound population management, especially for ungulates in arid and semi-arid environments experiencing climate change. To address these issues for bison in southern Utah, we...... than precipitation and other temperature-related variables (model weight > 3 times more than that for other climate variables). Although we hypothesized that harvest is the primary driving force of bison population dynamics in southern Utah, our elasticity analysis indicated that changes in early...... spring temperature could have a greater ‘relative effect’ on equilibrium abundance than either harvest or the strength of density dependence. Our findings highlight the utility of incorporating elasticity analyses into state-space population models, and the need to include climatic processes in wildlife...

  19. Spring runoff water-chemistry data from the Standard Mine and Elk Creek, Gunnison County, Colorado, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mast, M. Alisa; Marsik, Joseph; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2011-01-01

    Water samples were collected approximately every two weeks during the spring of 2010 from the Level 1 portal of the Standard Mine and from two locations on Elk Creek. The objective of the sampling was to: (1) better define the expected range and timing of variations in pH and metal concentrations in Level 1 discharge and Elk Creek during spring runoff; and (2) further evaluate possible mechanisms controlling water quality during spring runoff. Samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen (oxygen-18 and deuterium). The Level 1 portal sample and one of the Elk Creek samples (EC-CELK1) were collected from the same locations as samples taken in the spring of 2007, allowing comparison between the two different years. Available meteorological and hydrologic data suggest that 2010 was an average water year and 2007 was below average. Field pH and dissolved metal concentrations in Level 1 discharge had the following ranges: pH, 2.90 to 6.23; zinc, 11.2 to 26.5 mg/L; cadmium, 0.084 to 0.158 mg/L; manganese, 3.23 to 10.2 mg/L; lead, 0.0794 to 1.71 mg/L; and copper, 0.0674 to 1.14 mg/L. These ranges were generally similar to those observed in 2007. Metal concentrations near the mouth of Elk Creek (EC-CELK1) were substantially lower than in 2007. Possible explanations include remedial efforts at the Standard Mine site implemented after 2007 and greater dilution due to higher Elk Creek flows in 2010. Temporal patterns in pH and metal concentrations in Level 1 discharge were similar to those observed in 2007, with pH, zinc, cadmium, and manganese concentrations generally decreasing, and lead and copper generally increasing during the snowmelt runoff period. Zinc and cadmium concentrations were inversely correlated with flow and thus apparently dilution-controlled. Lead and copper concentrations were inversely correlated with pH and thus apparently pH-controlled. Zinc, cadmium, and manganese concentrations near the

  20. Partitioning the sources of demographic variation reveals density-dependent nest predation in an island bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Helen R; Sillett, T Scott; Langin, Kathryn M; Morrison, Scott A; Ghalambor, Cameron K

    2014-07-01

    Ecological factors often shape demography through multiple mechanisms, making it difficult to identify the sources of demographic variation. In particular, conspecific density can influence both the strength of competition and the predation rate, but density-dependent competition has received more attention, particularly among terrestrial vertebrates and in island populations. A better understanding of how both competition and predation contribute to density-dependent variation in fecundity can be gained by partitioning the effects of density on offspring number from its effects on reproductive failure, while also evaluating how biotic and abiotic factors jointly shape demography. We examined the effects of population density and precipitation on fecundity, nest survival, and adult survival in an insular population of orange-crowned warblers (Oreothlypis celata) that breeds at high densities and exhibits a suite of traits suggesting strong intraspecific competition. Breeding density had a negative influence on fecundity, but it acted by increasing the probability of reproductive failure through nest predation, rather than through competition, which was predicted to reduce the number of offspring produced by successful individuals. Our results demonstrate that density-dependent nest predation can underlie the relationship between population density and fecundity even in a high-density, insular population where intraspecific competition should be strong.

  1. Coho Salmon Habitat in a Changing Environment-Green Valley Creek, Graton, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M. D.; Kobor, J. S.; Sherwood, M. N.

    2013-12-01

    Green Valley Creek (GVC) is a small (101 sq km) aquatic habitat refugium in the Russian River watershed (3,840 sq km) in coastal northern California. Coho salmon (Onchorhynchus kisutch) is endangered per the Federal Endangered Species Act, and GVC is one stream where coho have persisted. Fish surveys in GVC have found high species diversity, growth rates, and over-summer survival. The upper portion of GVC comprises a principal tributary (20 sq km) that provides spawning and rearing habitat for coho. The second principal tributary, Atascadero Creek, is comparable in size, but has few fish. Atascadero Creek and lower GVC have broad, densely vegetated floodplains. A Recovery Plan for the Central Coastal California coho Evolutionarily Significant Unit has been developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), which applies to the Russian River and its tributaries. Cooperative research regarding fish populations and habitat, a captive breeding and release program for native coho salmon, and efforts to plan for and restore habitat are ongoing. These regional efforts are particularly active in GVC, and participants include NMFS, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Gold Ridge Resource Conservation District, the California Coastal Conservancy, the University of California Cooperative Extension, and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, among others. Our research focuses on hydrologic, geomorphic and hydrogeologic characteristics of the watershed in relation to aquatic habitat. Natural watershed factors contributing to habitat for coho include proximity to the coastal summer fog belt with cool temperatures, the Wilson Grove Formation aquifer that maintains dry season stream flow, and structural geology favorable for active floodplain morphology. Human impacts include water use and agriculture and rural residential development. Historic human impacts include stream clearing and draining of wetlands and floodplain for agriculture, which likely

  2. Four Mile Creek bottomland restoration program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, K.W.

    1995-12-31

    On the Savannah River Site (SRS), nuclear production reactors were cooled by a once-through cooling cycle, using water from the Savannah River and discharging the effluent to small tributaries of the Savannah River. Four Mile Creek (also known as Fourmile Branch) is a third order tributary of the Savannah River on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. It received thermal effluent from C Reactor from 1955 to 1985, which increased the flow rate, water depth and water temperature. Prior to 1955, the base flow was approximately one cubic meter per second, but increased, with the reactor effluent, to approximately 11 cubic meters per second, raising the water depth in the channel by 15 to 30 cm. Effluent temperature at the outfall was approximately 60 C and at the delta was 40 to 45 C, depending on the operation level of the reactor, the season of the year and the specific meteorological conditions. The increased flow rate also increased erosion in the upper reaches of the stream with deposition of this eroded material occurring in the delta averaging 60 cm of newly deposited sand on top of the former substrate.

  3. Four Mile Creek bottomland restoration program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    On the Savannah River Site (SRS), nuclear production reactors were cooled by a once-through cooling cycle, using water from the Savannah River and discharging the effluent to small tributaries of the Savannah River. Four Mile Creek (also known as Fourmile Branch) is a third order tributary of the Savannah River on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. It received thermal effluent from C Reactor from 1955 to 1985, which increased the flow rate, water depth and water temperature. Prior to 1955, the base flow was approximately one cubic meter per second, but increased, with the reactor effluent, to approximately 11 cubic meters per second, raising the water depth in the channel by 15 to 30 cm. Effluent temperature at the outfall was approximately 60 C and at the delta was 40 to 45 C, depending on the operation level of the reactor, the season of the year and the specific meteorological conditions. The increased flow rate also increased erosion in the upper reaches of the stream with deposition of this eroded material occurring in the delta averaging 60 cm of newly deposited sand on top of the former substrate

  4. Sediment sources and storages in the urbanizing South Creek catchment, Lake Macquarie, NSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.J.

    1988-10-01

    An investigation of the sediment source areas and sediment storages has been undertaken in the South Creek catchment, Lake Macquarie, NSW. Source areas have been examined by analyzing suspended sediment concentrations, field measurements and observations, and caesium-137 values. The caesium-137 technique and field measurements were used to study the sediment storages on the South Creek flood plain. Particle size analysis of sediments on the slopes and flood plain were undertaken to provide information on the efficiency of the sediment transport system. The results of these investigations indicate that the developing urban areas are the main sources of poorest water quality (in terms of suspended sediment) in the South Creek catchment. The open woodland, rural and established urban areas were minor sediment source areas, although the open woodland had the potential to become a major sediment source if disturbed by human activities. The developing urban areas had efficient sediment transport systems, while the open woodland and rural areas tended to deposit sediment locally. The upstream section of the flood plain was found to be storing more sediment than the downstream section. The study revealed that when urban development occurs on the steeper gradients of the South Creek catchment erosion processes are greatly accelerated and thus the developing urban area becomes the major source of poorest water quality in the catchment. The importance of the developing urban area as a sediment source needs to be considered in any future land developments in urbanizing drainage basins

  5. Chemical and Ecological Health of White Sucker (Catostomus Commersoni) in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cherie V.; Weyers, Holly S.; Blazer, Vicki; Freeman, Mary E.

    2006-01-01

    Several classes of chemicals that are known or suspected contaminants were found in bed sediment in Rock Creek, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and furans, trace metals and metalloids (mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc), and polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs and selected aroclors). Concentrations of many of these chemicals consistently exceeded threshold or chronic-effects guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and often exceeded probable effects levels (PELs). Exceedance of PELs was dependent on the amount of total organic carbon in the sediments. Concurrent with the collection of sediment-quality data, white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were evaluated for gross-external and internal-organ anomalies, whole-body burdens of chemical contaminants, and gut contents to determine prey. The histopathology of internal tissues of white sucker was compared to contaminant levels in fish tissue and bed sediment. Gut contents were examined to determine preferential prey and thus potential pathways for the bioaccumulation of chemicals from bed sediments. Male and female fish were tested separately. Lesions and other necroses were observed in all fish collected during both years of sample collection, indicating that fish in Rock Creek have experienced some form of environmental stress. No direct cause and effect was determined for chemical exposure and compromised fish health, but a substantial weight of evidence indicates that white sucker, which are bottom-feeding fish and low-order consumers in Rock Creek, are experiencing some reduction in vitality, possibly due to immunosuppression. Abnormalities observed in gonads of both sexes of white sucker and observations of abnormal behavior during spawning indicated some interruption in reproductive success.

  6. Chemical and ecological health of white sucker (Catostomus Commersoni) in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2003?04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C.V.; Weyers, H.S.; Blazer, V.S.; Freeman, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Several classes of chemicals that are known or suspected contaminants were found in bed sediment in Rock Creek, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and furans, trace metals and metalloids (mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc), and polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs and selected aroclors). Concentrations of many of these chemicals consistently exceeded thresholdor chronic-effects guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and often exceeded probable effects levels (PELs). Exceedance of PELs was dependent on the amount of total organic carbon in the sediments. Concurrent with the collection of sediment-quality data, white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were evaluated for gross-external and internal-organ anomalies, whole-body burdens of chemical contaminants, and gut contents to determine prey. The histopathology of internal tissues of white sucker was compared to contaminant levels in fish tissue and bed sediment. Gut contents were examined to determine preferential prey and thus potential pathways for the bioaccumulation of chemicals from bed sediments. Male and female fish were tested separately. Lesions and other necroses were observed in all fish collected during both years of sample collection, indicating that fish in Rock Creek have experienced some form of environmental stress. No direct cause and effect was determined for chemical exposure and compromised fish health, but a substantial weight of evidence indicates that white sucker, which are bottom-feeding fish and low-order consumers in Rock Creek, are experiencing some reduction in vitality, possibly due to immunosuppression. Abnormalities observed in gonads of both sexes of white sucker and observations of abnormal behavior during spawning indicated some interruption in reproductive success.

  7. Hydrology of Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts, central Utah, and potential effects of coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Baskin, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Alkali Creek coal-lease tract includes about 2,150 acres in the Book Cliffs coal field in central Utah, and the Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tract includes about 3,360 acres in the Wasatch Plateau coal field, also in central Utah. Both the Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts are near areas where coal is currently (1987) mined by underground methods from the Cretaceous Blackhawk Formation. The Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge areas have intermittent streams in which flow after snowmelt runoff is locally sustained into midsummer by springflow. The only perennial stream is South Fork Corner Canyon Creek in the Castle Valley Ridge area. Peak flow in both areas generally is from snowmelt runoff; however, peak flow from thunderstorm runoff in the Alkali Creek area can exceed that from snowmelt runoff. Estimated annual source-area sediment yield was 0.5 acre-ft/sq mi in the Alkali Creek lease tract and it was 0.3 acre-ft/sq mi in the Castle Valley Ridge lease tract. Groundwater in the Alkali Creek area occurs in perched aquifers in the Flagstaff Limestone and in other formations above the coal-bearing Blackhawk Formation. The principal source of recharge to the aquifers is snowmelt on outcrops. Faults may be major conduits and control the movement of groundwater. Groundwater discharges at formation contacts, between zones of differing permeability within a formation, near faults and into mines. Water sampled from 13 springs in the Alkali Creek area contained dissolved solids at concentrations ranging from 273 to 5,210 mg/L. Water sampled from 17 springs in the Castle Valley Ridge area contained dissolved solids at concentrations ranging from 208 to 579 mg/L. The composition of water from a recently abandoned part of an active mine the Wasatch Plateau closely resembles that of water discharging from a nearby mine that has been abandoned for more than 30 years. Mining of the Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts likely will

  8. Final Environmental Assessment, Horse Creek Bridge Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    existing bridge pipes that have failed and replace the failed structure with a new, prefabricated pedestrian bridge within the original bridge footprint...vehicles, nor designed for support of standard passenger vehicle loads. The bridge would be a single prefabricated unit consisting of a steel grate...placed on new concrete abutments built on the existing foundations on the creek banks, and put in place by a crane operating from the vehicle parking

  9. Temporal variability in the importance of hydrologic, biotic, and climatic descriptors of dissolved oxygen dynamics in a shallow tidal-marsh creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Neale, P.; Tzortziou, M.; Megonigal, P.

    2017-12-01

    Due to strong abiotic forcing, dissolved oxygen (DO) in shallow tidal creeks often disobeys the conventional explanation of general aquatic DO cycling as biologically-regulated. In the present work, we seek to quantify the relative importance of abiotic (hydrologic and climatic), and biotic (primary productivity as represented by chlorophyll-a) descriptors of tidal creek DO. By fitting multiple linear regression models of DO to hourly chlorophyll-a, water quality, hydrology, and weather data collected in a tidal creek of a Chesapeake Bay marsh (Maryland, USA), temporal shifts (summer - early winter) in the relative importance of tidal creek DO descriptors were uncovered. Moreover, this analysis identified an alternative approach to evaluating tidal stage as a driver of DO by dividing stage into two DO-relevant variables: stage above and below bankfull depth. Within the hydrologic variable class, stage below bankfull depth dominated as an important descriptor, thus highlighting the role of pore water drainage and mixing as influential processes forcing tidal creek DO. Study findings suggest that tidal creek DO dynamics are explained by a balance of hydrologic, climatic, and biotic descriptors during warmer seasons due to many of these variables (i.e., chlorophyll-a, water temperature) acting as tracers of estuarine-marsh water mixing; conversely, in early winter months when estuarine and marsh waters differ less distinctly, hydrologic variables increase in relative importance as descriptors of tidal creek DO. These findings underline important distinctions in the underlying mechanisms dictating DO variability in shallow tidal marsh-creek environments relative to open water estuarine systems.

  10. Impact of Coastal Development and Marsh Width Variability on Groundwater Quality in Estuarine Tidal Creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, M.; Wilson, A. M.; Smith, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal upland development has been shown to negatively impact surface water quality in tidal creeks in the southeastern US, but less is known about its impact on groundwater. We sampled groundwater in the upland and along the marsh perimeter of tidal creeks located within developed and undeveloped watersheds. Samples were analyzed for salinity, dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Groundwater samples collected from the upland in developed and undeveloped watersheds were compared to study the impact of development on groundwater entering the marsh. Groundwater samples collected along the marsh perimeter were analyzed to study the impact of marsh width variability on groundwater quality within each creek. Preliminary results suggest a positive correlation between salinity and marsh width in undeveloped watersheds, and a higher concentration of nutrients in developed versus undeveloped watersheds.

  11. Sediment transport and storage in North Fork Caspar Creek, Mendocino County, California: water years 1980-1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Brent Napolitano

    1996-01-01

    Abstract - The old-growth redwood forest of North Fork Caspar Creek was clear-cut between 1864 and 1904. Previous research on logging-related changes in suspended sediment and streamflow would suggest that North Fork Caspar Creek has recovered from historical logging (Rice et al., 1979; Ziemer, 1981); research on the influence of large woody debris (LWD) on channel...

  12. Trail Creek II: Modeling Flow and E. Coli Concentrations in a Small Urban Stream using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, D. E.; Saintil, T.

    2017-12-01

    Pathogens are one of the leading causes of stream and river impairment in the State of Georgia. The common presence of fecal bacteria is driven by several factors including rapid population growth stressing pre-existing and ageing infrastructure, urbanization and poor planning, increase percent imperviousness, urban runoff, municipal discharges, sewage, pet/wildlife waste and leaky septic tanks. The Trail Creek watershed, located in Athens-Clarke County, Georgia covers about 33 km2. Stream segments within Trail Creek violate the GA standard due to high levels of fecal coliform bacteria. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) modeling software was used to predict E. coli bacteria concentrations during baseflow and stormflow. Census data from the county was used for human and animal population estimates and the Fecal Indicator Tool to generate the number of colony forming units of E. Coli for each source. The model was calibrated at a daily time step with one year of monitored streamflow and E. coli bacteria data using SWAT-CUP and the SUFI2 algorithm. To simulate leaking sewer lines, we added point sources in the five subbasins in the SWAT model with the greatest length of sewer line within 50 m of the stream. The flow in the point sources were set to 5% of the stream flow and the bacteria count set to that of raw sewage (30,000 cfu/100 mL). The calibrated model showed that the average load during 2003-2013 at the watershed outlet was 13 million cfu per month. Using the calibrated model, we simulated scenarios that assumed leaking sewers were repaired in one of the five subbasins with point sources. The reduction ranged from 10 to 46%, with the largest reduction in subbasin in the downtown area. Future modeling work will focus on the use of green infrastructure to address sources of bacteria.

  13. Retran simulation of Oyster Creek generator trip startup test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alammar, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    RETRAN simulation of Oyster Creek generator trip startup test was carried out as part of Oyster Creek RETRAN model qualification program for reload licensing applications. The objective of the simulation was to qualify the turbine model and its interface with the control valve and bypass systems under severe transients. The test was carried out by opening the main breakers at rated power. The turbine speed governor closed the control valves and the pressure regulator opened the bypass valves within 0.5 sec. The stop valves closed by a no-load turbine trip, before the 10 percent overspeed trip was reached and the reactor scrammed on high APRM neutron flux. The simulation resulted in qualifying a normalized hydraulic torque for the turbine model and a 0.3 sec, delay block for the bypass model to account for the different delays in the hydraulic linkages present in the system. One-dimensional kinetics was used in this simulation

  14. Water resources and effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Hanging Woman Creek basin, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater resources of the Hanging Woman Creek basin, Montana include Holocene and Pleistocene alluvial aquifers and sandstone , coal, and clinker aquifers in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Surface water resources are composed of Hanging Woman Creek, its tributaries, and small stock ponds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater ranged from 200 to 11,00 mg/L. Generally, concentrations were largest in alluvial aquifers and smallest in clinker aquifers. Near its mouth, Hanging Woman Creek had a median concentration of about 1,800 mg/L. Mining of the 20-foot to 35-foot-thick Anderson coal bed and 3-foot to 16-foot thick Dietz coal bed could increase dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow aquifers and in Hanging Woman Creek because of leaching of soluble minerals from mine spoils. Analysis of saturated-paste extracts from 158 overburden samples indicated that water moving through mine spoils would have a median increase in dissolved-solids concentration of about 3,700 mg/L, resulting in an additional dissolved-solids load to Hanging Woman Creek of about 3.0 tons/day. Hanging Woman Creek near Birney could have an annual post-mining dissolved-solids load of 3,415 tons at median discharge, a 47% increase from pre-mining conditions load. Post-mining concentrations of dissolved solids, at median discharge, could range from 2,380 mg/L in March to 3,940 mg/L in August, compared to mean pre-mining concentrations that ranged from 1,700 mg/L in July, November, and December to 2,060 mg/L in May. Post-mining concentrations and loads in Hanging Woman Creek would be smaller if a smaller area were mined. (USGS)

  15. 78 FR 47427 - AUC, LLC Reno Creek, In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 040-09092; NRC-2013-0164] AUC, LLC Reno Creek, In Situ... October 3, 2012, AUC submitted a license application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC... provided the first time that a document is referenced. The AUC License Application request and additional...

  16. 75 FR 17430 - Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Kern, San Luis Obispo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ...] Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Kern, San Luis Obispo, Tulare... Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) located in Kern, San Luis Obispo, Tulare, and Ventura counties of California. We... developing a CCP for Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge NWRs in Kern, San Luis Obispo, Tulare, and...

  17. Novel synthetic Medea selfish genetic elements drive population replacement in Drosophila; a theoretical exploration of Medea-dependent population suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Omar S; Chen, Chun-Hong; Marshall, John M; Huang, Haixia; Antoshechkin, Igor; Hay, Bruce A

    2014-12-19

    Insects act as vectors for diseases of plants, animals, and humans. Replacement of wild insect populations with genetically modified individuals unable to transmit disease provides a potentially self-perpetuating method of disease prevention. Population replacement requires a gene drive mechanism in order to spread linked genes mediating disease refractoriness through wild populations. We previously reported the creation of synthetic Medea selfish genetic elements able to drive population replacement in Drosophila. These elements use microRNA-mediated silencing of myd88, a maternally expressed gene required for embryonic dorso-ventral pattern formation, coupled with early zygotic expression of a rescuing transgene, to bring about gene drive. Medea elements that work through additional mechanisms are needed in order to be able to carry out cycles of population replacement and/or remove existing transgenes from the population, using second-generation elements that spread while driving first-generation elements out of the population. Here we report the synthesis and population genetic behavior of two new synthetic Medea elements that drive population replacement through manipulation of signaling pathways involved in cellular blastoderm formation or Notch signaling, demonstrating that in Drosophila Medea elements can be generated through manipulation of diverse signaling pathways. We also describe the mRNA and small RNA changes in ovaries and early embryos associated from Medea-bearing females. Finally, we use modeling to illustrate how Medea elements carrying genes that result in diapause-dependent female lethality could be used to bring about population suppression.

  18. Tritium Concentrations in Environmental Samples and Transpiration Rates from the Vicinity of Mary's Branch Creek and Background Areas, Barnwell, South Carolina, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Canova, Judy L.; Bradley, Paul M.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Tritium in groundwater from a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Barnwell, South Carolina, is discharging to Mary's Branch Creek. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an investigation from 2007 to 2009 to examine the tritium concentration in trees and air samples near the creek and in background areas, in groundwater near the creek, and in surface water from the creek. Tritium was found in trees near the creek, but not in trees from background areas or from sites unlikely to be in direct root contact with tritium-contaminated groundwater. Tritium was found in groundwater near the creek and in the surface water of the creek. Analysis of tree material has the potential to be a useful tool in locating shallow tritium-contaminated groundwater. A tritium concentration of 1.4 million picocuries per liter was measured in shallow groundwater collected near a tulip poplar located in an area of tritium-contaminated groundwater discharge. Evapotranspiration rates from the tree and tritium concentrations in water extracted from tree cores indicate that during the summer, this tulip poplar may remove more than 17.1 million picocuries of tritium per day from the groundwater that otherwise would discharge to Mary's Branch Creek. Analysis of air samples near the tree showed no evidence that the transpirative release of tritium to the air created a vapor hazard in the forest.

  19. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  20. Water‐Data Report 413723083123801 Crane Creek at Ottawa NWR-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels and water quality parameters recorded on Crane Creek in 2009. LOCATION: Lat. 41°37'21.347"N, long 83°12'40.758"W, near Oak Harbor, OH. Ottawa County, OH...

  1. Water‐Data Report 413723083123801 Crane Creek at Ottawa NWR-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels and water quality parameters recorded on Crane Creek in 2010. LOCATION: Lat. 41°37'21.347"N, long 83°12'40.758"W, near Oak Harbor, OH. Ottawa County, OH...

  2. Water‐Data Report 413723083123801 Crane Creek at Ottawa NWR-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels and water quality parameters recorded on Crane Creek in 2011. LOCATION: Lat. 41°37'21.347"N, long 83°12'40.758"W, near Oak Harbor, OH. Ottawa County, OH...

  3. Water-quality study of Tulpehocken Creek, Berks County, Pennsylvania, prior to impoundment of Blue Marsh Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, James L.

    1977-01-01

    Blue Marsh Lake is planned as a multipurpose impoundment to be constructed on Tulpehocken Creek near Bernville, Berks County, Pennsylvania. Prior to construction, samples of water, bed material, and soil were collected throughout the impoundment site to determine concentrations of nutrients, insecticides, trace metals, suspended sediment, and bacteria. Analyses of water suggest the Tulpehocken Creek basin to be a highly fertile environment. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations near the proposed dam site had median values of 4.5 and 0.13 mg/L, respectively. Suspended sediment discharges average between 100 and 200 tons (90.7 to 181.4 metric tons) per day during normal flows but may exceed 10,000 tons (9,070 metric tons) per day during storm runoff. Highest yields were measured during winter and early spring. Concentrations range from 3 mg/L to more than 500 mg/L. Bed material samples contain trace quantities of aldrin, DDT, DDD, DDE, dieldrin, and chlordane. Polychlorinated biphyenyls (PCB's) ranged from 10 to 100 μg/kg. Soils at the impoundment site are of average fertility. However, the silt loam texture is ideal for attachment and growth of aquatic plants. Bacteria populations indicative of recent fecal contamination are prevalent in the major inflows to the proposed lake. Fecal Coliform exceeded the standards recommended by the Federal Water Pollution Administration Committee on Water Quality Criteria for public water supply in 29 percent of the monthly samples, and exceeded the recommended public bathing waters standard in 83 percent of the samples collected from June to September. Arsenic from an industrial waste was found in the water, suspended sediment, and bed material of Tulpehocken Creek in concentrations of 0 to 30 μg/l, 2 to 879 μg/l, and 1 to 79 μg/g, respectively. It represents a potential environmental hazard; however, the measured concentrations are less than that known to be harmful to man, fish, or wildlife, according to published water

  4. 76 FR 19148 - PSEG Nuclear, LLC, Hope Creek Generating Station and Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-272, 50-311, 50-354; NRC-2009-0390 and NRC-2009-0391] PSEG Nuclear, LLC, Hope Creek Generating Station and Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1 and 2..., DPR-70, and DPR-75 for an additional 20 years of operation for the Hope Creek Generating Station (HCGS...

  5. 76 FR 78641 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RC11-1-002; Docket No. RC11-2-002] Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of Filing Take...) June 16, 2011 Order.\\1\\ \\1\\ Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC and Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC, 135...

  6. 78 FR 11099 - Safety Zone Within the Lower Portion of Anchorage #9, Mantua Creek Anchorage; Paulsboro, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone Within the Lower Portion of Anchorage 9, Mantua Creek Anchorage; Paulsboro, NJ... temporary safety zone around the southern one-third of Anchorage 9 (Mantua Creek Anchorage), below position 39[deg] 51.573 N-075[deg] 13.557 W due to dredging operations. The Dredge Florida will be working...

  7. Status and Monitoring of Natural and Supplemented Chinook Salmon in Johnson Creek, Idaho, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, Craig D.; Nelson, Douglas D. [Nez Perce Tribe

    2008-11-17

    The Nez Perce Tribe Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement Project (JCAPE) has conducted juvenile and adult monitoring and evaluation studies for its 10th consecutive year. Completion of adult and juvenile Chinook salmon studies were conducted for the purpose of evaluating a small-scale production initiative designed to increase the survival of a weak but recoverable spawning aggregate of summer Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The JCAPE program evaluates the life cycle of natural origin (NOR) and hatchery origin (HOR) supplementation fish to quantify the key performance measures: abundance, survival-productivity, distribution, genetics, life history, habitat, and in-hatchery metrics. Operation of a picket style weir and intensive multiple spawning ground surveys were completed to monitor adult Chinook salmon and a rotary screw trap was used to monitor migrating juvenile Chinook salmon in Johnson Creek. In 2007, spawning ground surveys were conducted on all available spawning habitat in Johnson Creek and one of its tributaries. A total of 63 redds were observed in the index reach and 11 redds for all other reaches for a combined count of 74 redds. Utilization of carcass recovery surveys and adult captures at an adult picket weir yielded a total estimated adult escapement to Johnson Creek of 438 Chinook salmon. Upon deducting fish removed for broodstock (n=52), weir mortality/ known strays (n=12), and prespawning mortality (n=15), an estimated 359 summer Chinook salmon were available to spawn. Estimated total migration of brood year 2005 NOR juvenile Chinook salmon at the rotary screw trap was calculated for three seasons (summer, fall, and spring). The total estimated migration was 34,194 fish; 26,671 of the NOR migrants left in the summer (July 1 to August 31, 2005) as fry/parr, 5,852 left in the fall (September 1 to November 21, 2005) as presmolt, and only 1,671 NOR fish left in the spring (March 1 to June 30, 2006) as smolt. In addition, there

  8. Monitoring and research at Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, James E.; Hamilton, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge-Prairie Learning Center (Walnut Creek or the Refuge) is one of the newest additions to the National Wildlife Refuge System, which consists of over 480 units throughout the United States operated by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (the Service). Located about 20 miles east of Des Moines, Iowa, the Refuge has an approved acquisition boundary containing 8,654 acres (Figure 1). Acquisition is from willing sellers only, and to date the Service has purchased approximately 5,000 acres. The acquisition boundary encompasses about 43% of the watershed of Walnut Creek, which bisects the Refuge and drains into the Des Moines River to the southeast. Approximately 25%-30% of the Walnut Creek watershed is downstream of the Refuge. As authorized by Congress in 1990, the purposes of the Refuge are to (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1992): • restore native tallgrass pairie, wetland, and woodland habitats for breeding and migratory waterfowl and resident wildlife; • serve as a major environmental education center providing opportunities for study; • provide outdoor recreation benefits to the public; and • provide assistance to local landowners to improve their lands for wildlife habitat. To implement these purposes authorized by Congress, the Refuge has established the goal of recreating as nearly as possible the natural communities that existed at the time of settlement by Euro-Americans (circa 1840). Current land use is largely agricultural, including 69% cropland, 17% grazed pasture, and 7.5% grassland (dominantly brome) enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program). About 1,395 acres of relict native communities also exist on the Refuge, including prairie (725 acres), oak savanna and woodland (450 acres), and riparian or wetland areas (220 acres). Some of these relicts are highly restorable; others contain only a few prairie plants in a matrix of brome and will be more difficult to restore. When the

  9. Flood-Inundation Maps for Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Zachary W.

    2016-06-06

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.5-mile reach of Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind. Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site (NWS site CRWI3).Flood profiles were computed for the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind., reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater hydraulic modeling software developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the current stage-discharge rating at the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind., and high-water marks from the flood of April 19, 2013, which reached a stage of 15.3 feet. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 13 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 4.0 ft (the NWS “action stage”) to 16.0 ft, which is the highest stage interval of the current USGS stage-discharge rating curve and 2 ft higher than the NWS “major flood stage.” The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar]) data having a 0.49-ft root mean squared error and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each stage.The availability

  10. Bear Creek Project. Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The Bear Creek Project consists of certain mining and milling operations involving uranium ore deposits located in Converse County, Wyoming. Mining of uranium from nine known ore bodies will take place over a period of ten years (estimated); a mill with a nominal capacity of 1000 tons per day of ore will be constructed and operated as long as ore is available. The waste material (tailings) from the mill, also produced at a rate of about 1000 tons per day, will be stored onsite in an impoundment. Environmental impacts and adverse effects are summarized

  11. Hydrogeologic Assessment of the East Bear Creek Unit, San LuisNational Wildlife Refuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2007-07-15

    San Luis National Wildlife Refuge Complex to meetReclamation s obligations for Level 4 water supply under the CentralValley Project Improvement Act. Hydrogeological assessment of the EastBear Creek Unit of the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge was conductedusing a combination of field investigations and a survey of availableliterature from past US Geological Survey Reports and reports by localgeological consultants. Conservative safe yield estimates made using theavailable data show that the East Bear Creek Unit may have sufficientgroundwater resources in the shallow groundwater aquifer to meet aboutbetween 25 percent and 52 percent of its current Level II and between 17percent and 35 percent of its level IV water supply needs. The rate ofsurface and lateral recharge to the Unit and the design of the well fieldand the layout and capacity of pumped wells will decide both thepercentage of annual needs that the shallow aquifer can supply andwhether this yield is sustainable without affecting long-term aquiferquality. In order to further investigate the merits of pumping the nearsurface aquifer, which appears to have reasonable water quality for usewithin the East Bear Creek Unit -- monitoring of the potential sources ofaquifer recharge and the installation of a pilot shallow well would bewarranted. Simple monitoring stations could be installed both upstreamand downstream of both the San Joaquin River and Bear Creek and beinstrumented to measureriver stage, flow and electrical conductivity.Ideally this would be done in conjunction with a shallow pilot well,pumped to supply a portion of the Unit's needs for the wetland inundationperiod.

  12. Impact of Urban Effluents on the Macroinvertebrates of a Creek in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The impact of effluents on the macroinvertebrate communities of an urban creek in ... of complying with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines are ..... Business. World Water Council, Earthscan. Publications Ltd. London, UK.

  13. Contrasting perspectives on the Lava Creek Tuff eruption, Yellowstone, from new U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar age determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Colin J. N.; Stelten, Mark E.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2018-06-01

    The youngest major caldera-forming event at Yellowstone was the 630-ka eruption of the Lava Creek Tuff. The tuff as mapped consists of two major ignimbrite packages (members A and B), linked to widespread coeval fall deposits and formation of the Yellowstone Caldera. Subsequent activity included emplacement of numerous rhyolite flows and domes, and development of two structurally resurgent domes (Mallard Lake and Sour Creek) that accommodate strain due to continual uplift/subsidence cycles. Uplifted lithologies previously mapped on and adjacent to Sour Creek dome were thought to include the 2.08-Ma Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, cropping out beneath Lava Creek Tuff members A and B. Mapped outcrops of this Huckleberry Ridge Tuff material were sampled as welded ignimbrite (sample YR345) on Sour Creek dome, and at nearby Bog Creek as welded ignimbrite (YR311) underlain by an indurated lithic lag breccia containing blocks of another welded ignimbrite (YR324). Zircon near-rim U-Pb analyses from these samples yield weighted mean ages of 661 ± 13 ka (YR345: 95% confidence), 655 ± 11 ka (YR311), and 664 ± 15 ka (YR324) (combined weighted mean of 658.8 ± 6.6 ka). We also studied two samples of ignimbrite previously mapped as Huckleberry Ridge Tuff on the northeastern perimeter of the Yellowstone Caldera, 12 km ENE of Sour Creek dome. Sanidines from these samples yield 40Ar/39Ar age estimates of 634.5 ± 6.8 ka (8YC-358) and 630.9 ± 4.1 ka (8YC-359). These age data show that all these units represent previously unrecognized parts of the Lava Creek Tuff and do not have any relationship to the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff. Our observations and data imply that the Lava Creek eruption was more complex than is currently assumed, incorporating two tuff units additional to those currently mapped, and which themselves are separated by a time break sufficient for cooling and some reworking. The presence of a lag breccia suggests that a source vent lay nearby (Caldera boundary in this area

  14. Contrasting perspectives on the Lava Creek Tuff eruption, Yellowstone, from new U–Pb and 40Ar/39Ar age determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Colin J. N.; Stelten, Mark; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2018-01-01

    The youngest major caldera-forming event at Yellowstone was the ~ 630-ka eruption of the Lava Creek Tuff. The tuff as mapped consists of two major ignimbrite packages (members A and B), linked to widespread coeval fall deposits and formation of the Yellowstone Caldera. Subsequent activity included emplacement of numerous rhyolite flows and domes, and development of two structurally resurgent domes (Mallard Lake and Sour Creek) that accommodate strain due to continual uplift/subsidence cycles. Uplifted lithologies previously mapped on and adjacent to Sour Creek dome were thought to include the ~ 2.08-Ma Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, cropping out beneath Lava Creek Tuff members A and B. Mapped outcrops of this Huckleberry Ridge Tuff material were sampled as welded ignimbrite (sample YR345) on Sour Creek dome, and at nearby Bog Creek as welded ignimbrite (YR311) underlain by an indurated lithic lag breccia containing blocks of another welded ignimbrite (YR324). Zircon near-rim U–Pb analyses from these samples yield weighted mean ages of 661 ± 13 ka (YR345: 95% confidence), 655 ± 11 ka (YR311), and 664 ± 15 ka (YR324) (combined weighted mean of 658.8 ± 6.6 ka). We also studied two samples of ignimbrite previously mapped as Huckleberry Ridge Tuff on the northeastern perimeter of the Yellowstone Caldera, ~ 12 km ENE of Sour Creek dome. Sanidines from these samples yield 40Ar/39Ar age estimates of 634.5 ± 6.8 ka (8YC-358) and 630.9 ± 4.1 ka (8YC-359). These age data show that all these units represent previously unrecognized parts of the Lava Creek Tuff and do not have any relationship to the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff. Our observations and data imply that the Lava Creek eruption was more complex than is currently assumed, incorporating two tuff units additional to those currently mapped, and which themselves are separated by a time break sufficient for cooling and some reworking. The presence of a lag breccia suggests that a source

  15. Four Mile Creek semi-annual sampling report, January 1993 sampling event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    From 1955 to 1988 low-level radioactive wastewater generated by chemical separation processes within the General Separations Area (GSA) was discharged to seepage basins in the F and H Areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). These basins were designed to permit the infiltration of the process wastewaters. As wastewater percolated downward through the basins, chemical and radioactive constituents were retained or sequestered in the subsoils. An extensive study aimed at characterizing the groundwater seeping into Four Mile Creek and its associated seepline was conducted in 1988 and 1989 (Haselow et al. 1990). Results of this study suggested that contaminants leaching from the F and H Area seepage basins were impacting the Four Mile Creek wetland system. The seepage basins were closed in 1988 and capped and sealed in 1990. This effectively eliminated the source of the contaminants and the hydraulic head driving the migration of contaminants from the basins. It has been hypothesized that, after the elimination of the source and head, annual rainfall amounts would be sufficient to dilute and flush out contaminants remaining in the subsoils and groundwaters beneath the basins. Westinghouse Savannah River Company has designed a semi-annual sampling and analytical program for the Four Mile Creek (FMC) seepline and stream water to test the hypothesis. This report summarizes field monitoring activities from January 25, 1993 to February 4, 1993

  16. Water-quality variations in Antelope Creek and Deadmans Run, Lincoln, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, R.A.; Engberg, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Eleven sets of samples from five sites on Antelope Creek and Dead Man 's Run in Lincoln, Nebraska, were collected from December 1982 through June 1983 to study water-quality variations. Specific-conductance values generally were similar for Antelope Creek at 52nd Street and 27th Street, but during a low-flow survey of December 1 they increased from 974 to 8,700 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 C from 27th Street to Court Street. Seepage of saline water from underlying bedrock to the stream occurs in this reach. Specific-conductance values were less variable for Dead Man 's Run, increasing an average of only 47 percent from 66th Street to U.S. Highway 6. Specific-conductance values were less at high flows in Antelope Creek, except in samples collected on January 6, 1983, which contained runoff from salted streets. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these samples were from 5 to 10 times greater than those measured in any other samples. Stray-current corrosion occurs when current flows between dissimilar metals. Zinc-coated wire of channel-stabilization structures (gabions) may be an anode and material within the stream banks may be a cathode. Dissolution of the zinc coating by this type of corrosion may be a cause for gabion deterioration in both streams. (USGS)

  17. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.R.; Bogle, M.A.; Clapp, R.B.; Dearstone, K.; Dreier, R.B.; Early, T.O.; Herbes, S.E.; Loar, J.M.; Parr, P.D.; Southworth, G.R.

    1991-07-01

    As part of its response to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the US Department of Energy had agreed to further investigate contamination of Bear Creek and its floodplain resulting from releases of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents from the Y-12 Plant solid waste management units (SWMU) located in the Bear Creek watershed. That proposed RCRA Facility Investigation has been modified to incorporate the requirements of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) into a Remedial Investigation (RI) Plan for Bear Creek. This document is the RI Plan for Bear Creek and its flood-of-record floodplain. The following assumptions were made in the preparation of this RI Plan: (1) That source-area groundwater monitoring will be conducted as a part of the comprehensive groundwater monitoring plan for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime; and (2) that postclosure activities associated with each SWMU do not explicitly include a comprehensive assessment of surface water, sediment, and floodplain soil contamination in Bear Creek and its tributaries. The RI Plan is thus intended to provide a more comprehensive evaluation of Bear Creek and its floodplain than that provided by the investigative monitoring and risk assessment activities associated with the ten individual SWMUs. RI activities will be carefully coordinated with other monitoring and assessment activities to avoid redundancy and to maximize the utility of data gathered during the investigation. 121 refs., 61 figs., 46 tabs

  18. Changes in the composition of ichthyoplankton assemblage and plastic debris in mangrove creeks relative to moon phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A R A; Barletta, M; Costa, M F; Ramos, J A A; Dantas, D V; Melo, P A M C; Justino, A K S; Ferreira, G V B

    2016-07-01

    Lunar influence on the distribution of fish larvae, zooplankton and plastic debris in mangrove creeks of the Goiana Estuary, Brazil, was studied over a lunar cycle. Cetengraulis edentulus, Anchovia clupeoides and Rhinosardinia bahiensis were the most abundant fish larvae (56·6%), independent of the moon phase. The full moon had a positive influence on the abundance of Gobionellus oceanicus, Cynoscion acoupa and Atherinella brasiliensis, and the new moon on Ulaema lefroyi. The full and new moons also influenced the number of zoeae and megalopae of Ucides cordatus, protozoeae and larvae of caridean shrimps, and the number of hard and soft plastic debris, both 5 mm. Micro and macroplastics were present in samples from all 12 creeks studied, at densities similar to the third most abundant taxon, R. bahiensis. Cetengraulis edentulus and R. bahiensis showed a strong positive correlation with the last quarter moon, when there was less zooplankton available in the creeks and higher abundance of microplastic threads. Anchovia clupeoides, Diapterus rhombeus, U. lefroyi and hard microplastics were positively associated with different moon phases, when calanoid copepods, Caridean larvae and zoeae of U. cordatus were highly available in the creeks. Cynoscion acoupa, G. oceanicus and A. brasiliensis were strongly associated with the full moon, when protozoeae of caridean shrimps and megalopae of U. cordatus were also highly available, as were hard and soft macroplastics, paint chips (mangrove creeks as nursery habitats. The moon phases influenced the distribution of fish larvae species, zooplankton and plastic debris by changing their compositions and abundances in the mangrove creeks of the Goiana Estuary when under the influence of different tidal current regimes. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. CHRNA3 genotype, nicotine dependence, lung function and disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2012-01-01

    The CHRNA3 rs1051730 polymorphism has been associated to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and nicotine dependence in case-control studies with high smoking exposure; however, its influence on lung function and COPD severity in the general population is largely unknown. We...... genotyped 57,657 adult individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study, of whom 34,592 were ever-smokers. Information on spirometry, hospital admissions, smoking behaviour and use of nicotinic replacement therapy was recorded. In homozygous (11%), heterozygous (44%) and noncarrier (45%) ever...

  20. Settlement to Improve Water Quality in Delaware River, Philadelphia-Area Creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Department of Justice have reached agreement with a major water utility in the greater Philadelphia area to significantly reduce sewage discharges to the Delaware River and local creeks.

  1. Mercury at the Oat Hill Extension Mine and James Creek, Napa County, California: Tailings, Sediment, Water, and Biota, 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowey, Aaron J.; Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary The Oat Hill Extension (OHE) Mine is one of several mercury mines located in the James Creek/Pope Creek watershed that produced mercury from the 1870's until 1944 (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1965). The OHE Mine developed veins and mineralized fault zones hosted in sandstone that extended eastward from the Oat Hill Mine. Waste material from the Oat Hill Mine was reprocessed at the OHE Mine using gravity separation methods to obtain cinnabar concentrates that were processed in a retort. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management requested that the U.S. Geological Survey measure and characterize mercury and other chemical constituents that are potentially relevant to ecological impairment of biota in tailings, sediment, and water at the OHE Mine and in the tributaries of James Creek that drain the mine area (termed Drainage A and B) (Figs. 1 and 2). This report summarizes such data obtained from sampling of tailings and sediments at the OHE on October 17, 2003; water, sediment, and biota from James Creek on May 20, 2004; and biota on October 29, 2004. These data are interpreted to provide a preliminary assessment of the potential ecological impact of the mine on the James Creek watershed. The mine tailings are unusual in that they have not been roasted and contain relatively high concentrations of mercury (400 to 1200 ppm) compared to unroasted waste rock at other mines. These tailings have contaminated a tributary to James Creek with mercury primarily by erosion, on the basis of higher concentration of mercury (780 ng/L) measured in unfiltered (total mercury, HgT) spring water flowing from the OHE to James Creek compared to 5 to 14 ng/L HgT measured in James Creek itself. Tailing piles (presumably from past Oat Hill mine dumping) near the USBLM property boundary and upstream of the main OHE mine drainage channel (Drainage A; Fig. 2) also likely emit mercury, on the basis of their mercury composition (930 to 1200 ppm). The OHE spring water is likely an

  2. Gaining, losing, and dry stream reaches at Bear Creek Valley, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, March and September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.A.; Mitchell, R.L. III.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted, to delineate stream reaches that were gaining flow, losing flow, or that were dry in the upper reaches of Bear Creek Valley near the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The study included a review of maps and discharge data from a seepage investigation conducted at Bear Creek Valley; preparation of tables showing site identification and discharge and stream reaches that were gaining flow, losing flow, or that were dry; and preparation of maps showing measurement site locations and discharge measurements, and gaining, losing, and dry stream reaches. This report will aid in developing a better understanding of ground-water and surface-water interactions in the upper reaches of Bear Creek

  3. Skelental anomalies in fishes collected from Korangi Creek and back-water of Sandspit along the coast of Karachi (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Vertebral anomalies have been reported in Liza carinata, Valamugil cunnesiusand Therapon jarbua from Korangi Creek and L. carinata collected frombackwaters of Sandspit. Detail examination of external morphology and X-rays offishes showed kypholordosis and scoliosis in the vertebral column. It is presumed that these effects are results of pollutants in the coastal systems of Korangi Creek and Sandspit backwaters where heavy pollutants and domestic sewage of the Karachi city is discharged untreated. This study suggests the need of effective management measures to save fisheries resources of the creeks and coastal waters

  4. A study of post-thermal recovery of the macroinvertebrate community of Four Mile Creek, June 1985--September 1987. [Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, D.; Starkel, W.; Specht, W.

    1989-11-01

    Four Mile Creek is one of several streams at the Savannah River Site which has received thermal effluents ({le}70{degrees}C water) from nuclear production operations. From 1955--mid-1985, Four Mile Creek received thermal effluent from C-Reactor as well as non-thermal discharges from F and H Separation Areas. Total discharges from all of these facilities was about ten times higher than the natural flow of the creek (Firth et al. 1986). All water being discharged into Four Mile Creek was originally pumped from the Savannah River. This study reports the results of the artificial substrate sampling of macroinvertebrate communities of Four Mile Creek from June 1985 through September 1987, when sampling was terminated. Macroinvertebrate taxa richness, densities, and biomass data from this study are compared to Four Mile data collected prior to the shutdown of C-Reactor (Kondratieff and Kondratieff 1985 and Firth et al. 1986), and to comparable macroinvertebrate data from other Savannah River Site streams. 29 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Mood disorder, anxiety, and suicide risk among subjects with alcohol abuse and/or dependence: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina D. Wiener

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and/or dependence in a population-based sample of young adults and assess the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders, anxiety, and suicide risk in this population. Methods: This cross-sectional, population-based study enrolled 1,953 young adults aged 18-35 years. The CAGE questionnaire was used to screen for alcohol abuse and/or dependence, with CAGE scores ≥ 2 considered positive. Psychiatric disorders were investigated through the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Results: Alcohol abuse and/or dependence was identified in 187 (9.60% individuals (5.10% among women and 15.20% among men. Alcohol abuse and/or dependence were more prevalent among men than women, as well as among those who used tobacco, illicit drugs or presented with anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and suicide risk. Conclusion: These findings suggest that alcohol abuse and/or dependence are consistently associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, could be considered important predictors of other psychiatric disorders, and deserve greater public heath attention, pointing to the need for alcohol abuse prevention programs.

  6. Mood disorder, anxiety, and suicide risk among subjects with alcohol abuse and/or dependence: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Carolina D; Moreira, Fernanda P; Zago, Alethea; Souza, Luciano M; Branco, Jeronimo C; Oliveira, Jacqueline F de; Silva, Ricardo A da; Portela, Luis V; Lara, Diogo R; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean P

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and/or dependence in a population-based sample of young adults and assess the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders, anxiety, and suicide risk in this population. This cross-sectional, population-based study enrolled 1,953 young adults aged 18-35 years. The CAGE questionnaire was used to screen for alcohol abuse and/or dependence, with CAGE scores ≥ 2 considered positive. Psychiatric disorders were investigated through the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Alcohol abuse and/or dependence was identified in 187 (9.60%) individuals (5.10% among women and 15.20% among men). Alcohol abuse and/or dependence were more prevalent among men than women, as well as among those who used tobacco, illicit drugs or presented with anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and suicide risk. These findings suggest that alcohol abuse and/or dependence are consistently associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, could be considered important predictors of other psychiatric disorders, and deserve greater public heath attention, pointing to the need for alcohol abuse prevention programs.

  7. Sampling and analysis plan for treatment water and creek water for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the methodology, organizational structure, quality assurance and health and safety practices to be employed during the water sampling and analysis activities associated with the remediation of the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit during remediation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Bruner sites.

  8. Sampling and analysis plan for treatment water and creek water for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the methodology, organizational structure, quality assurance and health and safety practices to be employed during the water sampling and analysis activities associated with the remediation of the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit during remediation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Bruner sites

  9. Investigation of water quality and aquatic-community structure in Village and Valley Creeks, City of Birmingham, Jefferson County, Alabama, 2000-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Ann K.; Abrahamsen, Thomas A.; Journey, Celeste A.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 16-month investigation of water quality, aquatic-community structure, bed sediment, and fish tissue in Village and Valley Creeks, two urban streams that drain areas of highly intensive residential, commercial, and industrial land use in Birmingham, Alabama. Water-quality data were collected between February 2000 and March 2001 at four sites on Village Creek, three sites on Valley Creek, and at two reference sites near Birmingham?Fivemile Creek and Little Cahaba River, both of which drain less-urbanized areas. Stream samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, fecal bacteria, trace and major elements, pesticides, and selected organic constituents. Bed-sediment and fish-tissue samples were analyzed for trace and major elements, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and additional organic compounds. Aquatic-community structure was evaluated by conducting one survey of the fish community and in-stream habitat and two surveys of the benthic-invertebrate community. Bed-sediment and fish-tissue samples, benthic-invertebrates, and habitat data were collected between June 2000 and October 2000 at six of the nine water-quality sites; fish communities were evaluated in April and May 2001 at the six sites where habitat and benthic-invertebrate data were collected. The occurrence and distribution of chemical constituents in the water column and bed sediment provided an initial assessment of water quality in the streams. The structure of the aquatic communities, the physical condition of the fish, and the chemical analyses of fish tissue provided an indication of the cumulative effects of water quality on the aquatic biota. Water chemistry was similar at all sites, characterized by strong calcium-bicarbonate component and magnesium components. Median concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were highest at the headwaters of Valley Creek and lowest at the reference site on Fivemile Creek. In Village Creek, median

  10. Extractable organics in surface sediments from Thana creek and Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rokade, M.A.; Bhosle, N.B.; Kadam, A.N.

    Considerable variations in hydrocarbon and fatty acid levels in surface sediments from Thana creek and Bombay harbour were observed Sediments from the westernside nearshore locations yielded higher values The residues were characterised by infrared...

  11. Prevalence of eating disorder attitudes among men and women with exercise dependence symptoms: a non-athlete population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Fernanda da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to describe the prevalence of Secondary Exercise Dependence (ScED, i.e. eating disorders attitudes along with exercise dependence symptoms may differ between men and women in a broader exercising population. In this study, 174 regularly exerciser, aged 18-62 years old, who were invited to respond the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26. There were more women than men with ScED. However, only men in the sample presented exercise dependence symptoms without eating disorders attitudes. Eating disorders may or may not exist in those who are exercise dependent in the broad exercising population, although there is a higher prevalence of ScED in women than men.

  12. NITRATE REDUCTION PROGRAM AT THE LINE CREEK OPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff W Hawley

    2015-01-01

    Blasting activities at the Line Creek operation are releasing oxides of nitrogen and arecontributing to chemical changes in the surrounding watersheds. Through analysis of themechanisms of nitrogen release, history of explosive usage, historical nitrate release, changingregulatory requirements, strategy analysis and social impacts associated with the release ofnitrates a nitrate reduction plan will be established.The paper develops the framework for engineering groups, operations groups andma...

  13. Scale-dependent seasonal pool habitat use by sympatric Wild Brook Trout and Brown Trout populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lori A.; Wagner, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    Sympatric populations of native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized Brown Trout Salmo truttaexist throughout the eastern USA. An understanding of habitat use by sympatric populations is of importance for fisheries management agencies because of the close association between habitat and population dynamics. Moreover, habitat use by stream-dwelling salmonids may be further complicated by several factors, including the potential for fish to display scale-dependent habitat use. Discrete-choice models were used to (1) evaluate fall and early winter daytime habitat use by sympatric Brook Trout and Brown Trout populations based on available residual pool habitat within a stream network and (2) assess the sensitivity of inferred habitat use to changes in the spatial scale of the assumed available habitat. Trout exhibited an overall preference for pool habitats over nonpool habitats; however, the use of pools was nonlinear over time. Brook Trout displayed a greater preference for deep residual pool habitats than for shallow pool and nonpool habitats, whereas Brown Trout selected for all pool habitat categories similarly. Habitat use by both species was found to be scale dependent. At the smallest spatial scale (50 m), habitat use was primarily related to the time of year and fish weight. However, at larger spatial scales (250 and 450 m), habitat use varied over time according to the study stream in which a fish was located. Scale-dependent relationships in seasonal habitat use by Brook Trout and Brown Trout highlight the importance of considering scale when attempting to make inferences about habitat use; fisheries managers may want to consider identifying the appropriate spatial scale when devising actions to restore and protect Brook Trout populations and their habitats.

  14. Individualism in plant populations: using stochastic differential equations to model individual neighbourhood-dependent plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiming; Schneider, Manuel K; Pitchford, Jonathan W

    2008-08-01

    We study individual plant growth and size hierarchy formation in an experimental population of Arabidopsis thaliana, within an integrated analysis that explicitly accounts for size-dependent growth, size- and space-dependent competition, and environmental stochasticity. It is shown that a Gompertz-type stochastic differential equation (SDE) model, involving asymmetric competition kernels and a stochastic term which decreases with the logarithm of plant weight, efficiently describes individual plant growth, competition, and variability in the studied population. The model is evaluated within a Bayesian framework and compared to its deterministic counterpart, and to several simplified stochastic models, using distributional validation. We show that stochasticity is an important determinant of size hierarchy and that SDE models outperform the deterministic model if and only if structural components of competition (asymmetry; size- and space-dependence) are accounted for. Implications of these results are discussed in the context of plant ecology and in more general modelling situations.

  15. Population genetic structure and conservation genetics of threatened Okaloosa darters (Etheostoma okaloosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, James D.; Jelks, Howard L.; Tate, Bill; Johnson, Aria R.; Jordan, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Imperiled Okaloosa darters (Etheostoma okaloosae) are small, benthic fish limited to six streams that flow into three bayous of Choctawhatchee Bay in northwest Florida, USA. We analyzed the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci for 255 and 273 Okaloosa darters, respectively. Bayesian clustering analyses and AMOVA reflect congruent population genetic structure in both mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA. This structure reveals historical isolation of Okaloosa darter streams nested within bayous. Most of the six streams appear to have exchanged migrants though they remain genetically distinct. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recently reclassified Okaloosa darters from endangered to threatened status. Our genetic data support the reclassification of Okaloosa darter Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs) in the larger Tom's, Turkey, and Rocky creeks from endangered to threatened status. However, the three smaller drainages (Mill, Swift, and Turkey Bolton creeks) remain at risk due to their small population sizes and anthropogenic pressures on remaining habitat. Natural resource managers now have the evolutionary information to guide recovery actions within and among drainages throughout the range of the Okaloosa darter.

  16. Algal and water-quality data for Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Putnam, Larry D.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of algae and water-quality sampling on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007. The overall purpose of the study was to determine the algal community composition of Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake in relation to organisms that are known producers of unwanted tastes and odors in drinking-water supplies. Algal assemblage structure (phytoplankton and periphyton) was examined at 16 sites on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007, and actinomycetes bacteria were sampled at the Rapid City water treatment plant intake in May 2007, to determine if taste-and-odor producing organisms were present. During the May 2007 sampling, 3 Rapid Creek sites and 4 Canyon Lake sites were quantitatively sampled for phytoplankton in the water column, 7 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 4 lake and retention pond sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Five Rapid Creek sites were sampled for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, two common taste-and-odor causing compounds known to affect water supplies. During the September 2007 sampling, 4 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 3 Canyon Lake sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were measured during each sampling event. Methods of collection and sample analysis are presented for the various types of biological and chemical constituent samples. Diatoms comprised 91-100 percent of the total algal biovolume in periphyton samples collected during May and September. Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) were detected in 7 of the 11 quantitative periphyton samples and ranged from 0.01 to 2.0 percent of the total biovolume. Cyanobacteria were present in 3 of the 7 phytoplankton samples collected in May, but the relative biovolumes were small (0.01-0.2 percent). Six of seven qualitative samples collected from Canyon Lake

  17. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... factors that could be affected by the proposed Project were evaluated in detail in the EIS. These issues... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek... Energy Facility project (Project) in Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota. The Administrator of RUS...

  18. Geologic strip map along the Hines Creek Fault showing evidence for Cenozoic displacement in the western Mount Hayes and northeastern Healy quadrangles, eastern Alaska Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Hanshaw, Maiana N.

    2013-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the Hines Creek Fault and the adjacent Trident Glacier and McGinnis Glacier Faults to the north in the eastern Alaska Range, Alaska, reveals that these faults were active during the Cenozoic. Previously, the Hines Creek Fault, which is considered to be part of the strike-slip Denali Fault system (Ridgway and others, 2002; Nokleberg and Richter, 2007), was interpreted to have been welded shut during the intrusion of the Upper Cretaceous Buchanan Creek pluton (Wahrhaftig and others, 1975; Gilbert, 1977; Sherwood and Craddock, 1979; Csejtey and others, 1992). Our geologic mapping along the west- to west-northwest-striking Hines Creek Fault in the northeastern Healy quadrangle and central to northwestern Mount Hayes quadrangle reveals that (1) the Buchanan Creek pluton is truncated by the Hines Creek Fault and (2) a tectonic collage of fault-bounded slices of various granitic plutons, metagabbro, metabasalt, and sedimentary rock of the Pingston terrane occurs south of the Hines Creek Fault.

  19. Hoe Creek 1990 quarterly sampling cumulative report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crader, S.E.; Huntington, G.S.

    1991-03-01

    Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for benzene and for total phenols three times during 1990. This report summarizes the results of these sampling events and compares the results with those obtained in previous years. Possible further options for remediation of the Hoe Creek site was addressed. Three underground coal gasification (UCG) burns were performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy in 1976, 1977, and 1979 at the Hoe Creek site, which is about 20 miles south of Gillette, Wyoming. As a result of these burns, there has been considerable contamination of groundwater by various organic compounds. There have been three efforts at remediating this situation. In 1986 and again in 1987, contaminated water was pumped out, treated, and reinjected. In 1989, the water was pumped, treated, and sprayed into the atmosphere. Benzene and total phenols have been monitored at various monitoring wells as the site during 1990. The highest detected benzene concentration in 1990 was 220 {mu}g/L, and the highest total phenols concentration was 430 {mu}g/L. It is apparent that contamination is still above baseline levels, although the concentration of total phenols is far less than immediately after the burns. The burned coal seams are still releasing organic compounds into the groundwater that passes through them.

  20. Effects of groundwater levels and headwater wetlands on streamflow in the Charlie Creek basin, Peace River watershed, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.M.; Sacks, L.A.; Hughes, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    The Charlie Creek basin was studied from April 2004 to December 2005 to better understand how groundwater levels in the underlying aquifers and storage and overflow of water from headwater wetlands preserve the streamflows exiting this least-developed tributary basin of the Peace River watershed. The hydrogeologic framework, physical characteristics, and streamflow were described and quantified for five subbasins of the 330-square mile Charlie Creek basin, allowing the contribution of its headwaters area and tributary subbasins to be separately quantified. A MIKE SHE model simulation of the integrated surface-water and groundwater flow processes in the basin was used to simulate daily streamflow observed over 21 months in 2004 and 2005 at five streamflow stations, and to quantify the monthly and annual water budgets for the five subbasins including the changing amount of water stored in wetlands. Groundwater heads were mapped in Zone 2 of the intermediate aquifer system and in the Upper Floridan aquifer, and were used to interpret the location of artesian head conditions in the Charlie Creek basin and its relation to streamflow. Artesian conditions in the intermediate aquifer system induce upward groundwater flow into the surficial aquifer and help sustain base flow which supplies about two-thirds of the streamflow from the Charlie Creek basin. Seepage measurements confirmed seepage inflow to Charlie Creek during the study period. The upper half of the basin, comprised largely of the Upper Charlie Creek subbasin, has lower runoff potential than the lower basin, more storage of runoff in wetlands, and periodically generates no streamflow. Artesian head conditions in the intermediate aquifer system were widespread in the upper half of the Charlie Creek basin, preventing downward leakage from expansive areas of wetlands and enabling them to act as headwaters to Charlie Creek once their storage requirements were met. Currently, the dynamic balance between wetland

  1. 75 FR 6223 - PSEG Nuclear LLC; Hope Creek Generating Station and Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Unit Nos. 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-272, 50-311 and 50-354; NRC-2010-0043] PSEG Nuclear LLC; Hope Creek Generating Station and Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...-70, and DPR-75, issued to PSEG Nuclear LLC (PSEG, the licensee), for operation of the Hope Creek...

  2. Beaver dams and channel sediment dynamics on Odell Creek, Centennial Valley, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rebekah; Meyer, Grant A.

    2014-01-01

    Beaver dams in streams are generally considered to increase bed elevation through in-channel sediment storage, thus, reintroductions of beaver are increasingly employed as a restoration tool to repair incised stream channels. Here we consider hydrologic and geomorphic characteristics of the study stream in relation to in-channel sediment storage promoted by beaver dams. We also document the persistence of sediment in the channel following breaching of dams. Nine reaches, containing 46 cross-sections, were investigated on Odell Creek at Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Centennial Valley, Montana. Odell Creek has a snowmelt-dominated hydrograph and peak flows between 2 and 10 m3 s- 1. Odell Creek flows down a fluvial fan with a decreasing gradient (0.018-0.004), but is confined between terraces along most of its length, and displays a mostly single-thread, variably sinuous channel. The study reaches represent the overall downstream decrease in gradient and sediment size, and include three stages of beaver damming: (1) active; (2) built and breached in the last decade; and (3) undammed. In-channel sediment characteristics and storage were investigated using pebble counts, fine-sediment depth measurements, sediment mapping and surveys of dam breaches. Upstream of dams, deposition of fine (≤ 2 mm) sediment is promoted by reduced water surface slope, shear stress and velocity, with volumes ranging from 48 to 182 m3. High flows, however, can readily transport suspended sediment over active dams. Variations in bed-sediment texture and channel morphology associated with active dams create substantial discontinuities in downstream trends and add to overall channel heterogeneity. Observations of abandoned dam sites and dam breaches revealed that most sediment stored above beaver dams is quickly evacuated following a breach. Nonetheless, dam remnants trap some sediment, promote meandering and facilitate floodplain development. Persistence of beaver dam sediment

  3. Mass loading of selected major and trace elements in Lake Fork Creek near Leadville, Colorado, September-October 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Day, Katherine; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A mass-loading study of Lake Fork Creek of the Arkansas River between Sugarloaf Dam and the mouth was completed in September-October 2001 to help ascertain the following: (1) variation of pH and aqueous constituent concentrations (calcium, sulfate, alkalinity, aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, and zinc) and their relation to toxicity standards along the study reach; (2) location and magnitude of sources of metal loading to Lake Fork Creek; (3) amount and locations of metal attenuation; (4) the effect of streamside wetlands on metal transport from contributing mine tunnels; and (5) the effect of organic-rich inflow from the Leadville National Fish Hatchery on water quality in Lake Fork Creek. The study was done in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Constituent concentrations and pH showed variable patterns over the study reach. Hardness-based acute and chronic toxicity standards were exceeded for some inflows and some constituents. However, stream concentrations did not exceed standards except for zinc starting in the upper parts of the study reach and extending to just downstream from the inflow from the Leadville National Fish Hatchery. Dilution from that inflow lowered stream zinc concentrations to less than acute and chronic toxicity standards. The uppermost 800 meters of the study reach that contained inflow from the Bartlett, Dinero, and Nelson mine tunnels and the Dinero wetland was the greatest source of loading for manganese and zinc. A middle section of the study reach that extended approximately 2 kilometers upstream from the National Fish Hatchery inflow to just downstream from that inflow was the largest source of aluminum, copper, iron, and lead loading. The loading was partially from the National Fish Hatchery inflow but also from unknown sources upstream from that inflow, possibly ground water. The largest sources for calcium and sulfate

  4. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers. Summary report, field sampling program for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Ecker, R.M.; Onishi, Y.

    1982-11-01

    A three-phase field sampling program was conducted on the Buttermilk-Cattaraugus Creek system to investigate the transport of radionuclides in surface waters as part of a continuing program to provide data for application and verification of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) sediment and radionuclide transport model, SERATRA. Phase 1 of the sampling program was conducted during November and December 1977; Phase 2 during September 1978; and Phase 3 during April 1979. Bed sediment, suspended sediment, and water samples were collected over a 45-mile reach of the creek system. Bed sediment samples were also collected at the mouth of Cattaraugus Creek in Lake Erie. A fourth sampling trip was conducted during May 1980 to obtain supplementary channel geometry data and flood plain sediment samples. Radiological analysis of these samples included gamma ray spectrometry analysis, and radiochemical separation and analysis of Sr-90, Pu-238, Pu-239,240, Am-241 and Cm-244. Tritium analysis was also performed on water samples. Based on the evaluation of radionuclide levels in Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, the Nuclear Fuel Services facility at West Valley, New York, may be the source of Cs-137, Sr-90, CS-134, Co-60, Pu-238, Pu-239,240, Am-241, Cm-244 and tritium found in the bed sediment, suspended sediment and water of Buttermilk and Cattaraugus Creeks

  5. Integrating temperature-dependent life table data into a matrix projection model for Drosophila suzukii population estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik G Wiman

    Full Text Available Temperature-dependent fecundity and survival data was integrated into a matrix population model to describe relative Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae population increase and age structure based on environmental conditions. This novel modification of the classic Leslie matrix population model is presented as a way to examine how insect populations interact with the environment, and has application as a predictor of population density. For D. suzukii, we examined model implications for pest pressure on crops. As case studies, we examined model predictions in three small fruit production regions in the United States (US and one in Italy. These production regions have distinctly different climates. In general, patterns of adult D. suzukii trap activity broadly mimicked seasonal population levels predicted by the model using only temperature data. Age structure of estimated populations suggest that trap and fruit infestation data are of limited value and are insufficient for model validation. Thus, we suggest alternative experiments for validation. The model is advantageous in that it provides stage-specific population estimation, which can potentially guide management strategies and provide unique opportunities to simulate stage-specific management effects such as insecticide applications or the effect of biological control on a specific life-stage. The two factors that drive initiation of the model are suitable temperatures (biofix and availability of a suitable host medium (fruit. Although there are many factors affecting population dynamics of D. suzukii in the field, temperature-dependent survival and reproduction are believed to be the main drivers for D. suzukii populations.

  6. Hybridization threatens shoal bass populations in the Upper Chattahoochee River Basin: Chapter 37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Elizabeth E; Porter, Brady A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Long, James M.; Tringali, Michael D.; Long, James M.; Birdsong, Timothy W.; Allen, Micheal S.

    2015-01-01

    Shoal bass are native only to the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river system of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, and are vulnerable to extinction as a result of population fragmentation and introduction of non-native species. We assessed the genetic integrity of isolated populations of shoal bass in the upper Chattahoochee River basin (above Lake Lanier, Big Creek, and below Morgan Falls Dam) and sought to identify rates of hybridization with non-native, illegally stocked smallmouth bass and spotted bass.

  7. Novel Synthetic Medea selfish genetic elements drive population replacement in Drosophila, and a theoretical exploration of Medea-dependent population suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Omar S.; Chen, Chun-Hong; Marshall, John M.; Huang, Haixia; Antoshechkin, Igor; Hay, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Insects act as vectors for diseases of plants, animals and humans. Replacement of wild insect populations with genetically modified individuals unable to transmit disease provides a potentially self-perpetuating method of disease prevention. Population replacement requires a gene drive mechanism in order to spread linked genes mediating disease refractoriness through wild populations. We previously reported the creation of synthetic Medea selfish genetic elements able to drive population replacement in Drosophila. These elements use microRNA-mediated silencing of myd88, a maternally expressed gene required for embryonic dorso-ventral pattern formation, coupled with early zygotic expression of a rescuing transgene, to bring about gene drive. Medea elements that work through additional mechanisms are needed in order to be able to carry out cycles of population replacement and/or remove existing transgenes from the population, using second-generation elements that spread while driving first-generation elements out of the population. Here we report the synthesis and population genetic behavior of two new synthetic Medea elements that drive population replacement through manipulation of signaling pathways involved in cellular blastoderm formation or Notch signaling, demonstrating that in Drosophila Medea elements can be generated through manipulation of diverse signaling pathways. We also describe the mRNA and small RNA changes in ovaries and early embryos associated from Medea-bearing females. Finally, we use modeling to illustrate how Medea elements carrying genes that result in diapause-dependent female lethality could be used to bring about population suppression. PMID:23654248

  8. "An Equal Interest in the Soil": Creek Small-Scale Farming and the Work of Nationhood, 1866-1889

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, David A.

    2009-01-01

    After the war in 1866, slaves became the owners of the lands they once farmed for their masters. The land they farmed became their own because of the nature of Creek citizenship and land tenure. The 1866 treaty of peace between the United States federal government and the Creek Nation (also known as the Muskogee Nation) declared that freed slaves…

  9. 77 FR 25193 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Lost Creek Uranium In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...-166318] Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Lost Creek Uranium In... (EIS) for the Lost Creek Uranium In Situ Recovery (ISR) Project and by this notice is announcing the... subpart 3809 regulations to construct a uranium ore recovery plant, an access road to the site, and a...

  10. 33 CFR 165.553 - Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation Stations, Delaware River, Salem County, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Salem and Hope... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.553 Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation...: the waters of the Delaware River in the vicinity of the Salem and Hope Creek Generation Stations...

  11. A consumer-resource approach to the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L

    2010-05-01

    Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer-resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant-mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. By unifying predation, competition, and mutualism under the common ecological framework of consumer-resource theory, we may also gain a better understanding of the universal features of interspecific interactions in general.

  12. A consumer-resource approach to the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant- mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. By unifying predation, competition, and mutualism under the common ecological framework of consumer-resource theory, we may also gain a better understanding of the universal features of interspecific interactions in general.

  13. Assessing effects of changing land use practices on sediment loads in Panther Creek, north coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Mary Ann; Bundros, Greg; Klein, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Revisions to the California Forest Practice Rules since 1974 were intended to increase protection of water quality in streams draining timber harvest areas. The effects of improved timber harvesting methods and road designs on sediment loading are assessed for the Panther Creek basin, a 15.4 km2 watershed in Humboldt County, north coastal California. We compute land use statistics, analyze suspended sediment discharge rating curves, and compare sediment yields in Panther Creek to a control (unlogged) stream, Little Lost Man Creek. From 1978 to 2008, 8.2 km2 (over half the watershed) was clearcut and other timber management activities (thinning, selection cuts, and so forth) affected an additional 5.9 km2. Since 1984, 40.7 km of streams in harvest units received riparian buffer strip protection. Between 2000 and 2009, 22 km of roads were upgraded and 9.7 km were decommissioned, reducing potential sediment production by an estimated 40,000 m3. Road density is currently 3.1 km/km2. Sediment rating curves from 2005 to 2010 indicate a decrease in suspended sediment concentrations when compared to the pre-1996 period, although Panther Creek still has a higher sediment yield on a per unit area basis than the control stream.

  14. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages and sediment toxicity testing in the Ely Creek watershed restoration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soucek, D.J.; Currie, R.J.; Cherry, D.S.; Latimer, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Ely Creek watershed in Lee County, Virginia, contains an abundance of abandoned mined land (AML) seeps that contaminate the majority of the creek and its confluence into Big Stone Creek. Contaminated sediments had high concentrations of iron (∼10,000 mg/kg), aluminum (∼1,500 mg/kg), magnesium (∼400 mg/kg) and manganese (∼150 mg/kg). Copper and zinc generally ranged from 3 to 20 mg/kg. Benthic macroinvertebrates surveys at six of 20 sites sampled in the watershed yielded no macroinvertebrates, while eight others had total abundances of 1 to 9 organisms. Four reference sites contained ≥100 organisms and at least 14 different taxa. Laboratory, 10-day survival/impairment sediments tests with Daphnia magna did not support the field data. Mortality of 92 to 100% for D. magna occurred in samples collected from six cities. Daphnid reproduction was more sensitive than laboratory test organism survivorship; however, neither daphnid survivorship nor reproduction were good predictors of taxa richness. Laboratory test concerns included the use of a reference diluent water rather than site specific diluent water

  15. Habitat Projects Completed within the Asotin Creek Watershed, 1999 Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    2000-01-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Program (ACMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The Asotin Creek watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in WRIA 35. According to WDFW's Priority WRIA's by At-Risk Stock Significance Map, it is the highest priority in southeastern WA. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. The ACMWP began coordinating habitat projects in 1995. Approximately two hundred seventy-six projects have been implemented through the ACMWP as of 1999. Twenty of these projects were funded in part through Bonneville Power Administration's 1999 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These projects used a variety of methods to enhance and protect watershed conditions. In-stream work for fish habitat included construction of hard structures (e.g. vortex rock weirs), meander reconstruction, placement of large woody debris (LWD) and whole trees and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; thirty-eight were created with these structures. Three miles of stream benefited from riparian improvements such as vegetative plantings (17,000 trees and shrubs) and noxious weed control. Two sediment basin constructions, 67 acres of grass seeding, and seven hundred forty-five acres of minimum till were implemented to reduce sediment production and delivery to streams in the watershed.

  16. Conceptual frameworks, geomorphic interpretation and storytelling: Tales from Lockyer Creek , Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croke, Jacky; Phillips, Jonathan; Van Dyke, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Earth science knowledge and insight begins with case studies, and theories should be derived from and ultimately evaluated against empirical, case study evidence. However, isolated case studies not linked conceptually to other locations or embedded within a broader framework are often of limited use beyond the study site. Geomorphic evidence and phenomena may be interpreted using a variety of conceptual frameworks (theories, models, laws, methodologies, etc.). The evidence may be, or at least appear to be, consistent with multiple frameworks, even when those constructs are derived from entirely different assumptions or frames of reference. Thus different interpretations and stories can be derived from the same evidence. Our purpose here is to illustrate this phenomenon via a case study from Lockyer Creek, southeast Queensland, Australia. Lockyer Creek is fast becoming one of Australia's most studied catchments with a wealth of data emerging following two extreme flood events in 2011 and 2013. Whilst the initial objective of the Big Flood project was to provide information on the frequency and magnitude of these extreme events, in essence the project revealed a rich 'story' of river evolution and adjustment which at first glance did not appear to 'fit' many established conceptual frameworks and theories. This presentation tells the tale of Lockyer Creek as it relates to selected key conceptual frameworks and importantly how this information can then be used for more effective catchment and flood management.

  17. Spatial and temporal variation of stream chemistry associated with contrasting geology and land-use patterns in the Chesapeake Bay watershed—Summary of results from Smith Creek, Virginia; Upper Chester River, Maryland; Conewago Creek, Pennsylvania; and Difficult Run, Virginia, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Kenneth E.; Denver, Judith M.; Langland, Michael J.; Webber, James S.; Böhlke, J.K.; Hively, W. Dean; Clune, John W.

    2016-11-17

    these conservation practices detected in Smith Creek will depend largely on whether nutrient loading (of manure and commercial fertilizer) is reduced over time.Upper Chester RiverThe Upper Chester River watershed includes the 36-square-mile (mi2) watershed area around several nontidal tributaries that drain into the tidal Chester River. The streamgage is on Chesterville Branch, the largest nontidal tributary (approximately 6.12 mi2) and is the site for continuous water-quality monitoring for this project. The base-flow index at Chesterville Branch is about 72 percent and indicates that, as in most of the Coastal Plain, groundwater is the greatest contributor to streamflow. As such, more than 90 percent of the nitrogen in the stream is in the form of nitrate from groundwater. Continuous and discrete data collected at Chesterville Branch show the effects of streamflow and season on water quality. Significantly positive correlations with flow were observed for ammonium, dissolved and total phosphorus, sediment, and turbidity as runoff carried these constituents from the land surface into Chesterville Branch. Other constituents that increased significantly with flow include potassium, sulfate, iron, and manganese, which are likely contributed from near-stream areas and ponds with high organic-matter content. Total nitrogen, pH, and specific conductance, along with chemical constituents associated with groundwater inputs including nitrate, calcium, ratio of calcium to magnesium, silica, bicarbonate, and sodium, were negatively correlated with flow because concentrations of these constituents were diluted by runoff.Seasonal differences in water chemistry, which are most likely related to increased biologic effects on the uptake and release of chemicals in the stream and near-stream areas, also were observed. Water temperature, orthophosphate, δ15N of nitrate, bicarbonate, sodium, and the ratio of sodium to chloride were higher during the warm season, and dissolved oxygen

  18. Seasonal abundance, biomass, diversity, and trophic structure of fish in a salt-marsh tidal creek affected by a coastal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, M.

    1976-01-01

    Monthly measurements were made of the seasonal abundance, biomass, species diversity, and trophic composition of fish inhabiting the tidal creeks of salt marshes receiving thermal discharge near Crystal River, Fla. In the warm months (May through September 1974), mean abundance in the creek receiving thermal discharge was 0.46 individuals/m 2 and mean biomass was 2.2 g (preserved weight)/m 2 . In a control area, creek values in the warm months were 6.77 individuals/m 2 and 9.1 g (preserved weight)/m 2 , respectively. During the cold months (October 1974 through February 1975) there were 0.48 individuals/m 2 and 8.3 g (preserved weight)/m 2 in the discharge area and 0.58 individuals/m 2 and 7.4 g preserved weight/m 2 in the control area. In all months except May 1974 and February 1975, species diversity as species per 1000 individuals was higher in the control creek than in the discharge creek. No apparent differences in fish trophic structure were observed

  19. Calandar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a portion of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid) that contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in the Bear Creek Regime is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). This report contains the information and monitoring data required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (post-closure permit), as modified and issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in September 1995 (permit no. TNHW-087). In addition to the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, permit condition II.C.6 requires the annual monitoring report to address groundwater monitoring activities at the three RCRA Hazardous Waste Disposal Units (HWDUs) in the Bear Creek Regime that are in post-closure corrective action status (the S-3 Site, the Oil Landfarm, and the Bear Creek Burial Grounds/Walk-In Pits).

  20. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina, March 1990--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Runs Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F/H area effluent on the creek, the study included qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites (see map), chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. In a March 1990 study of the potential impact of F/H Area effluent on the macroinvertebrate communities of Upper Three Runs Creek was extended, with reductions in the number of sites to be sampled and in the frequency of water chemistry sampling. This report presents the results of macroinvertebrate stream surveys at three sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent and water chemistry analysis of the three stream sites and the effluent from March 1990 to July 1991.

  1. Blackbird Creek Monitoring Program to Study the impact of Climate Change and Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, G.; Chintapenta, L. K.; Roeske, K. P.; Stone, M.; Phalen, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Blackbird Creek Monitoring Program at Delaware State University continues to utilize various perspectives to study the dynamics of one of Delaware's most pristine ecosystems. The water quality of Blackbird Creek has been constantly monitored for 3 years and correlated with the rain and storm events. Soil nutrients composition has been studied by extracting the water associated with soil aggregates and analyzing the levels of different nutrients. Soil quality is also assessed for heavy metals to identify potential human impact that may affect the health of ecosystem. Within the Blackbird Creek there is a threat to native plant communities from invasive plant species as they alter the ecosystem dynamics. Saltmarsh cord grass (Spartina alterniflora) and common reed (Phragmites australius) are the common wetland plants. Aerial mapping of the creek has been conducted to determine the area covered by invasive plant species. The microbial community structure plays a key role in soil carbon and nitrogen cycles in the ecosystem. Molecular analysis has been performed to study the microbial diversity with respect to the type of marsh grasses. This program has also incorporated the use of diatoms as biological indicators to assess the health of ecosystem and correlate that data with physical and chemical water quality data. The abundance and diversity of macro fauna such as blue crabs, fish and other significant species has also been studied. Stable isotopic analysis of these macro fauna has also been performed to study the food web. The results from this program will be helpful in addressing environmental challenges and designing management strategies.

  2. Site evaluation for U.S. Bureau of Mines experimental oil-shale mine, Piceance Creek basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ege, John R.; Leavesley, G.H.; Steele, G.S.; Weeks, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Bureau of Mines in the selection of a site for a shaft and experimental mine to be constructed in the Piceance Creek basin, Rio Blanco County, Colo. The Piceance Creek basin, an asymmetric, northwest-trending large structural downwarp, is located approximately 40 km (25 mi) west of the town of Meeker in Rio Blanco County, Colo. The oil-shale, dawsonite, nahcolite, and halite deposits of the Piceance Creek basin occur in the lacustrine Green River Formation of Eocene age. In the basin the Green River Formation comprises three members. In ascending order, they are the Douglas Creek, the Garden Gulch, and the Parachute Creek Members, Four sites are presented for consideration and evaluated on geology and hydrology with respect to shale-oil economics. Evaluated criteria include: (1) stratigraphy, (2) size of site, (3) oil-shale yield, (4) representative quantities of the saline minerals dawsonite and nahcolite, which must be present with a minimum amount of halite, (5) thickness of a 'leached' saline zone, (6) geologic structure, (7) engineering characteristics of rock, (8) representative surface and ground-water conditions, with emphasis on waste disposal and dewatering, and (9) environmental considerations. Serious construction and support problems are anticipated in sinking a deep shaft in the Piceance Creek basin. The two major concerns will be dealing with incompetent rock and large inflow of saline ground water, particularly in the leached zone. Engineering support problems will include stabilizing and hardening the rock from which a certain amount of ground water has been removed. The relative suitability of the four potential oil-shale experimental shaft sites in the Piceance Creek basin has been considered on the basis of all available geologic, hydrologic, and engineering data; site 2 is preferred to sites 1, 3, and 4, The units in this report are presented in the form: metric (English). Both units of

  3. The role of bank collapse on tidal creek ontogeny: A novel process-based model for bank retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zheng; Zhao, Kun; Zhang, Changkuan; Dai, Weiqi; Coco, Giovanni; Zhou, Zeng

    2018-06-01

    Bank retreat in coastal tidal flats plays a primary role on the planimetric shape of tidal creeks and is commonly driven by both flow-induced bank erosion and gravity-induced bank collapse. However, existing modelling studies largely focus on bank erosion and overlook bank collapse. We build a bank retreat model coupling hydrodynamics, bank erosion and bank collapse. To simulate the process of bank collapse, a stress-deformation model is utilized to calculate the stress variation of bank soil after bank erosion, and the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is then applied to evaluate the stability of the tidal creek bank. Results show that the bank failure process can be categorized into three stages, i.e., shear failure at the bank toe (stage I), tensile failure on the bank top (stage II), and sectional cracking from the bank top to the toe (stage III). With only bank erosion, the planimetric shapes of tidal creeks are funneled due to the gradually seaward increasing discharge. In contrast to bank erosion, bank collapse is discontinuous, and the contribution of bank collapse to bank retreat can reach 85%, highlighting that the expansion of tidal creeks can be dominated by bank collapse process. The planimetric shapes of tidal creeks are funneled with a much faster expansion rate when bank collapse is considered. Overall, this study makes a further step toward more physical and realistic simulation of bank retreat in estuarine and coastal settings and the developed bank collapse module can be readily included in other morphodynamic models.

  4. Response of single bacterial cells to stress gives rise to complex history dependence at the population level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Roland; Ackermann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria live in ever-changing environments where periods of stress are common. One fundamental question is whether individual bacterial cells have an increased tolerance to stress if they recently have been exposed to lower levels of the same stressor. To address this question, we worked with the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus and asked whether exposure to a moderate concentration of sodium chloride would affect survival during later exposure to a higher concentration. We found that the effects measured at the population level depended in a surprising and complex way on the time interval between the two exposure events: The effect of the first exposure on survival of the second exposure was positive for some time intervals but negative for others. We hypothesized that the complex pattern of history dependence at the population level was a consequence of the responses of individual cells to sodium chloride that we observed: (i) exposure to moderate concentrations of sodium chloride caused delays in cell division and led to cell-cycle synchronization, and (ii) whether a bacterium would survive subsequent exposure to higher concentrations was dependent on the cell-cycle state. Using computational modeling, we demonstrated that indeed the combination of these two effects could explain the complex patterns of history dependence observed at the population level. Our insight into how the behavior of single cells scales up to processes at the population level provides a perspective on how organisms operate in dynamic environments with fluctuating stress exposure. PMID:26960998

  5. Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley Floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. In addition to this SAP, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19&D2) presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation.

  6. Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley Floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. In addition to this SAP, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19 ampersand D2) presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation

  7. Temporal change in biological community structure in the Fountain Creek basin, Colorado, 2001-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study to better understand the relations between environmental characteristics and biological communities in the Fountain Creek basin in order to aide water-resource management and guide future monitoring activities. To accomplish this task, environmental (streamflow, habitat, and water chemistry) and biological (fish and macroinvertebrate) data were collected annually at 24 sites over a 6- or 8-year period (fish, 2003 to 2008; macroinvertebrates, 2001 to 2008). For this report, these data were first analyzed to determine the presence of temporal change in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure among years using nonparametric multivariate statistics. Where temporal change in the biological communities was found, these data were further analyzed using additional nonparametric multivariate techniques to determine which subset of selected streamflow, habitat, or water-chemistry variables best described site-specific changes in community structure relative to a gradient of urbanization. This study identified significant directional patterns of temporal change in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure at 15 of 24 sites in the Fountain Creek basin. At four of these sites, changes in environmental variables were significantly correlated with the concurrent temporal change identified in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure (Monument Creek above Woodmen Road at Colorado Springs, Colo.; Monument Creek at Bijou Street at Colorado Springs, Colo.; Bear Creek near Colorado Springs, Colo.; Fountain Creek at Security, Colo.). Combinations of environmental variables describing directional temporal change in the biota appeared to be site specific as no single variable dominated the results; however, substrate composition variables (percent substrate composition composed of sand, gravel, or cobble) collectively were present in 80 percent of the environmental

  8. Preliminary geochemical assessment of water in selected streams, springs, and caves in the Upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.; Baker, Gretchen M.; Lico, Michael S.; Prudic, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Water in caves, discharging from springs, and flowing in streams in the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages are important natural resources in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Water and rock samples were collected from 15 sites during February 2009 as part of a series of investigations evaluating the potential for water resource depletion in the park resulting from the current and proposed groundwater withdrawals. This report summarizes general geochemical characteristics of water samples collected from the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages for eventual use in evaluating possible hydrologic connections between the streams and selected caves and springs discharging in limestone terrain within each watershed.Generally, water discharging from selected springs in the upper Baker and Snake Creek watersheds is relatively young and, in some cases, has similar chemical characteristics to water collected from associated streams. In the upper Baker Creek drainage, geochemical data suggest possible hydrologic connections between Baker Creek and selected springs and caves along it. The analytical results for water samples collected from Wheelers Deep and Model Caves show characteristics similar to those from Baker Creek, suggesting a hydrologic connection between the creek and caves, a finding previously documented by other researchers. Generally, geochemical evidence does not support a connection between water flowing in Pole Canyon Creek to that in Model Cave, at least not to any appreciable extent. The water sample collected from Rosethorn Spring had relatively high concentrations of many of the constituents sampled as part of this study. This finding was expected as the water from the spring travelled through alluvium prior to being discharged at the surface and, as a result, was provided the opportunity to interact with soil minerals with which it came into contact. Isotopic evidence does not preclude a connection between Baker Creek and the water discharging from

  9. Exxon Nuclear WREM-based NJP-BWR ECCS evaluation model and example application to the Oyster Creek Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krysinski, T.L.; Bjornard, T.A.; Steves, L.H.

    1975-01-01

    A proposed integrated ECCS model for non-jet pump boiling water reactors is presented, using the RELAP4-EM/BLOWDOWN and RELAP4-EM/SMALL BREAK portions of the Exxon Nuclear WREM-based Generic PWR Evaluation Model coupled with the ENC NJP-BWR Fuel Heatup Model. The results of the application of the proposed model to Oyster Creek are summarized. The results of the break size sensitivity study using the proposed model for the Oyster Creek Plant are presented. The application of the above results yielded the MAPLHGR curves. Included are a description of the proposed non-jet pump boiling water reaction evaluation model, justification of its conformance with TOCFR50, Appendix K, the adopted Oyster Creek plant model, and results of the analysis and sensitivity studies. (auth)

  10. Hydrology of the Chicod Creek basin, North Carolina, prior to channel improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Clyde E.; Aldridge, Mary C.

    1980-01-01

    Extensive modification and excavation of stream channels in the 6-square mile Chicod Creek basin began in mid-1979 to reduce flooding and improve stream runoff conditions. The effects of channel improvements on this Coastal Pain basin 's hydrology will be determined from data collected prior to, during, and for several years following channel alternations. This report summarizes the findings of data collected prior to these improvements. During the 3-year study period, flow data collected from four stream gaging stations in the basin show that streams are dry approximately 10 percent of the time. Chemical analyses of water samples from the streams and from eight shallow groundwater observation wells indicate that water discharge from the surficial aquifer is the primary source of streamflow during rainless periods. Concentrations of Kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were often 5 to 10 times greater at Chicod Creek sites than those at nearby baseline sites. It is probable that runoff from farming and livestock operations contributes significantly to these elevated concentrations in Chicod Creek. The only pesticides detected in stream water were low levels of DDT and dieldrin, which occurred during storm runoff. A much wider range of pesticides, however, are found associated with streambed materials. The ratio of fecal coliform counts to those of fecal streptococcus indicate that the streams receive fecal wastes from livestock and poultry operations.

  11. Geophysical investigations of geology and structure at the Martis Creek Dam, Truckee, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, P.A.; Burton, B.L.; Powers, M.H.; Minsley, B.J.; Phillips, J.D.; Hunter, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    A recent evaluation of Martis Creek Dam highlighted the potential for dam failure due to either seepage or an earthquake on nearby faults. In 1972, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed this earthen dam, located within the Truckee Basin to the north of Lake Tahoe, CA for water storage and flood control. Past attempts to raise the level of the Martis Creek Reservoir to its design level have been aborted due to seepage at locations downstream, along the west dam abutment, and at the base of the spillway. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey has undertaken a comprehensive suite of geophysical investigations aimed at understanding the interplay between geologic structure, seepage patterns, and reservoir and groundwater levels. This paper concerns the geologic structure surrounding Martis Creek Dam and emphasizes the importance of a regional-scale understanding to the interpretation of engineering-scale geophysical data. Our studies reveal a thick package of sedimentary deposits interbedded with Plio-Pleistocene volcanic flows; both the deposits and the flows are covered by glacial outwash. Magnetic field data, seismic tomography models, and seismic reflections are used to determine the distribution and chronology of the volcanic flows. Previous estimates of depth to basement (or the thickness of the interbedded deposits) was 100 m. Magnetotelluric soundings suggest that electrically resistive bedrock may be up to 2500 m deep. Both the Polaris Fault, identified outside of the study area using airborne LiDAR, and the previously unnamed Martis Creek Fault, have been mapped through the dam area using ground and airborne geophysics. Finally, as determined by direct-current resistivity imaging, time-domain electromagnetic sounding, and seismic refraction, the paleotopography of the interface between the sedimentary deposits and the overlying glacial outwash plays a principal role both in controlling groundwater flow and in the distribution of the

  12. Short notes and reviews The fossil fauna of Mazon Creek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze, Hans-Peter

    1998-01-01

    Review of: Richardson’s Guide to the Fossil Fauna of Mazon Creek, edited by Charles W. Shabica & Andrew A. Hay. Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, Illinois, 1997: XVIII + 308 pp., 385 figs., 4 tables, 1 faunal list; $75.00 (hard cover) ISBN 0-925065-21-8. Since the last century, the area

  13. Subsurface-controlled geological maps for the Y-12 plant and adjacent areas of Bear Creek Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.L.; Haase, C.S.

    1987-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley in the vicinity of the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant is underlain by Middle to Late Cambrian strata of the Conasauga Group. The group consists of interbedded limestones, shales, mudstones, and siltstones, and it can be divided into six discrete formations. Bear Creek Valley is bordered on the north by Pine Ridge, which is underlain by sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Rome Formation, and on the south by Chestnut Ridge, which is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group. Subsurface-controlled geological maps illustrating stratigraphic data and formational contacts for the formations within the Conasauga Group have been prepared for the Y-12 Plant vicinity and selected areas in Bear Creek Valley westward from the plant. The maps are consistent with all available surface and subsurface data for areas where sufficient data exist to make map construction feasible. 13 refs

  14. Improvement of Anadromous Fish Habitat and Passage in Omak Creek, 2008 Annual Report : February 1, 2008 to January 31, 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasher, Rhonda; Fisher, Christopher [Colville Confederated Tribes

    2009-06-09

    During the 2008 season, projects completed under BPA project 2000-100-00 included installation of riparian fencing, maintenance of existing riparian fencing, monitoring of at-risk culverts and installation of riparian vegetation along impacted sections of Omak Creek. Redd and snorkel surveys were conducted in Omak Creek to determine steelhead production. Canopy closure surveys were conducted to monitor riparian vegetation recovery after exclusion of cattle since 2000 from a study area commonly known as the Moomaw property. Additional redd and fry surveys were conducted above Mission Falls and in the lower portion of Stapaloop Creek to try and determine whether there has been successful passage at Mission Falls. Monitoring adult steelhead trying to navigate the falls resulted in the discovery of shallow pool depth at an upper pool that is preventing many fish from successfully navigating the entire falls. The Omak Creek Habitat and Passage Project has worked with NRCS to obtain additional funds to implement projects in 2009 that will address passage at Mission Falls, culvert replacement, as well as additional riparian planting. The Omak Creek Technical Advisory Group (TAG) is currently revising the Omak Creek Watershed Assessment. In addition, the group is revising strategy to focus efforts in targeted areas to provide a greater positive impact within the watershed. In 2008 the NRCS Riparian Technical Team was supposed to assess areas within the watershed that have unique problems and require special treatments to successfully resolve the issues involved. The technical team will be scheduled for 2009 to assist the TAG in developing strategies for these special areas.

  15. AFSC/ABL: Pink salmon data collected at Sashin Creek Weir 1934-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A database describing a 67-year time series for Sashin Creek pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) data is presented. The database details the survival and other...

  16. Association of radionuclides with streambed sediments in White Oak Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Cerling, T.E.

    1979-09-01

    Radionuclides are found in much higher concentrations on streambed sediment than in the water of White Oak Creek. Selective extraction of sediments demonstrates that 60 Co is immobilized in a nonexchangeable form in the ferromanganese hydrous oxide coatings on the sediments; 90 Sr occurs predominantly in an exchangeable form on clay, iron oxides, and ferromanganese hydrous oxides; 137 Cs occurs in a nonexchangeable and strongly bound form on clays which compose the dominant rock (Conasauga shale) in the watershed. The fine-gravel to coarse-sand size fraction of streambed sediments is the most suitable fraction for radionuclide analysis because of its abundance in the sediment and its high concentration of radionuclides compared to larger and smaller size fractions. A preliminary survey of all major tributes in White Oak Creek shows that radionuclide analysis of streambed sediments is a very useful technique to locate sources of radioactive contamination

  17. RETRAN simulation of Oyster Creek MSIV closure and bypass valve tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alammar, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    A series of benchmarks against start-up tests have been performed on the Oyster Creek boiling water reactor unit 2 RETRAN model in support of developing an in-house reload capability. The liquid and the pressure regulator models have been benchmarked against level and pressure setpoint changes, where small setpoint perturbations were made at rated power. The purpose of the present benchmark is to check the liquid level behavior during a severe level drop as during void collapse following a scram and to size the bypass valves by benchmarking the valves' contraction coefficient. The main steam isolation valves (MSIVs) closure start-up test was chosen for the former, while the bypass valve test was chosen for the latter. The two benchmarks complete the qualification of the upper downcomer liquid level for small and large level changes and the pressure regulator system for the Oyster Creek RETRAN model

  18. The ideal free distribution as an evolutionarily stable state in density-dependent population games

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cressman, R.; Křivan, Vlastimil

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 8 (2010), s. 1231-1242 ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100070601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : density-dependent population games Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2010

  19. 78 FR 67084 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Broad Creek, Laurel, DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Broad Creek, Laurel, DE AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice....25, both at Laurel, DE. The proposed new rule would change the current regulation by requiring a..., mile 8.2, all at Laurel, shall open on signal if at least 48 hours notice is given. Previous regulation...

  20. Geology, Burnst Timber Creek, west of fifth meridian, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-01-01

    The Burnt Timber Creek map-area lies in the southern Foothills of Alberta and includes a narrow strip of the Front Range of the Rocky Mts. along its western edge. The area may be divided into 3 principal structural units, underlain from west to east by the McConnell, Burnt Timber, and Fallentimber thrusts, respectively. McConnell thrust underlies the eastern edge of the mountains. Subsidiary folding and faulting are locally evident in the Paleozoic strata above the thrust. Beneath the McConnell thrust, Mesozoic and Paleozoic strata of the Burnt Timber thrust sheet are strongly overturned in the Panther anticline. The axis of this anticline trends northwest. A culmination along it, in the vicinity of Sheep Creek, deforms the McConnel thrust as well. A total of 16 wells have been drilled to date in 4 separate groups. Each group has revealed the presence of gas and 8 of the wells have been capped as potential gas producers. The reservoir rocks are of Mississippian and Devonian age. Shell Panther River No. 1 well (5-19-30-10W5) is remarkable in having tested at about 86% hydrogen sulfide.

  1. Development of a Precipitation-Runoff Model to Simulate Unregulated Streamflow in the Salmon Creek Basin, Okanogan County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeswijk, Marijke

    2006-01-01

    Surface water has been diverted from the Salmon Creek Basin for irrigation purposes since the early 1900s, when the Bureau of Reclamation built the Okanogan Project. Spring snowmelt runoff is stored in two reservoirs, Conconully Reservoir and Salmon Lake Reservoir, and gradually released during the growing season. As a result of the out-of-basin streamflow diversions, the lower 4.3 miles of Salmon Creek typically has been a dry creek bed for almost 100 years, except during the spring snowmelt season during years of high runoff. To continue meeting the water needs of irrigators but also leave water in lower Salmon Creek for fish passage and to help restore the natural ecosystem, changes are being considered in how the Okanogan Project is operated. This report documents development of a precipitation-runoff model for the Salmon Creek Basin that can be used to simulate daily unregulated streamflows. The precipitation-runoff model is a component of a Decision Support System (DSS) that includes a water-operations model the Bureau of Reclamation plans to develop to study the water resources of the Salmon Creek Basin. The DSS will be similar to the DSS that the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey developed previously for the Yakima River Basin in central southern Washington. The precipitation-runoff model was calibrated for water years 1950-89 and tested for water years 1990-96. The model was used to simulate daily streamflows that were aggregated on a monthly basis and calibrated against historical monthly streamflows for Salmon Creek at Conconully Dam. Additional calibration data were provided by the snowpack water-equivalent record for a SNOTEL station in the basin. Model input time series of daily precipitation and minimum and maximum air temperatures were based on data from climate stations in the study area. Historical records of unregulated streamflow for Salmon Creek at Conconully Dam do not exist for water years 1950-96. Instead, estimates of

  2. Water-quality assessment of the Cypress Creek watershed, Warrick County, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Linda L.; Peters, Charles A.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Soil Conservation Service needs chemical, biological, microbiological, and hydrological data to prepare an environmental evaluation of the water quality in the Cypress Creek watershed, Warrick County, Ind., before plans can be devised to (1) improve water quality, (2) minimize flooding, (3) reduce sedimentation, and (4) provide adequate outlets for drainage in the watershed. The U.S. Geological Survey obtained these data for the Soil Conservation Service in a water-quality survey of the watershed from March to August 1979. Past and present surface coal mining is the factor having the greatest impact on water quality in the watershed. The upper reaches of Cypress Creek receive acid-mine drainage from a coal-mine waste slurry during periods of intense rainfall. All the remaining tributaries, except Summer Pecka ditch, drain mined or reclaimed lands. The general water type of Cypress Creek and most of its tributaries is calcium and magnesium sulfate. In contrast, the water type at background site 21 on Summer Pecka ditch is calcium sulfate. Specific conductance ranged from 470 to 4,730 micromhos per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, and pH ranged from 1.2 to 8.8. Specific conductance, hardness, and concentrations of major ions and dissolved solids were highest in tributaries affected by mining. The pH was lowest in the same tributaries. Concentrations of iron, manganese, and sulfate in water samples and chlordane, DDT, and PCB 's in streambed samples exceeded water-quality limits set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (USGS)

  3. Population dynamics of minimally cognitive individuals. Part 2: Dynamics of time-dependent knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    The dynamical principle for a population of interacting individuals with mutual pairwise knowledge, presented by the author in a previous paper for the case of constant knowledge, is extended to include the possibility that the knowledge is time-dependent. Several mechanisms are presented by which the mutual knowledge, represented by a matrix K, can be altered, leading to dynamical equations for K(t). The author presents various examples of the transient and long time asymptotic behavior of K(t) for populations of relatively isolated individuals interacting infrequently in local binary collisions. Among the effects observed in the numerical experiments are knowledge diffusion, learning transients, and fluctuating equilibria. This approach will be most appropriate to small populations of complex individuals such as simple animals, robots, computer networks, agent-mediated traffic, simple ecosystems, and games. Evidence of metastable states and intermittent switching leads them to envision a spectroscopy associated with such transitions that is independent of the specific physical individuals and the population. Such spectra may serve as good lumped descriptors of the collective emergent behavior of large classes of populations in which mutual knowledge is an important part of the dynamics.

  4. Population ecology of variegate darter (Etheostoma variatum) in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentina, Jane E.; Angermeier, Paul; Hallerman, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Variegate darters (Etheostoma variatum) were listed as endangered in Virginia in 1992. Reasons for listing included habitat degradation and concerns about current and future impacts of coal mining throughout their Virginia range. Prior to this research, little was known about variegate darter distribution, habitat use, or populations in Virginia. Two primary goals of this research were to gain knowledge about the current population ecology and the relationship between landscape-level factors (e.g., land cover changes, watershed size, isolation from other populations) on current and past variegate darter population sizes.We investigated distribution, habitat suitability, population genetics, and population size and structure of variegate darters in the upper Big Sandy River drainage, Buchanan, Dickenson, and Wise Co., Virginia. Our results indicate variegate darters are primarily found in the Levisa Fork, with highest densities and abundances between its confluence with Dismal Creek and the Virginia-Kentucky border. Sporadic occurrences in smaller tributaries to the Levisa and Tug forks indicate they exist more widely in low densities, especially near the confluence with the Tug and Levisa mainstems. Detection of variegate darters in smaller tributaries was inconsistent, with reach-level occupancy estimates varying among years. We detected young-of-year variegate darters every year we sampled, but age 1+ darters were indistinguishable from older darters based on standard length.Variegate darter population size and stability in Virginia were estimated via multiple methods, including site occupancy surveys, mark-recapture studies, and population genetic analysis. Using mark-recapture methods at five sites, we estimated overall population size in 2011 to be approximately 12,800 individuals in the 35-km reach between the Levisa Fork - Dismal Creek confluence and the Virginia-Kentucky border. Age structure seemed stable, with breeding adults and young-of-year collected

  5. Investigating organic matter in Fanno Creek, Oregon, Part 1 of 3: estimating annual foliar biomass for a deciduous-dominant urban riparian corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczyk, Steven; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Goldman, Jami H.

    2014-01-01

    For this study, we explored the amount, type, and distribution of foliar biomass that is deposited annually as leaf litter to Fanno Creek and its floodplain in Portland, Oregon, USA. Organic matter is a significant contributor to the decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations observed in Fanno Creek each year and leaf litter is amongst the largest sources of organic matter to the stream channel and floodplain. Using a combination of field measurements and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data, the annual foliar biomass was estimated for 13 stream reaches along the creek. Biomass estimates were divided into two sets: (1) the annual foliage available from the entire floodplain overstory canopy, and (2) the annual foliage overhanging the stream, which likely contributes leaf litter directly to the creek each year. Based on these computations, an estimated 991 (±22%) metric tons (tonnes, t) of foliar biomass is produced annually above the floodplain, with about 136 t (±24%) of that foliage falling directly into Fanno Creek. The distribution of foliar biomass varies by reach, with between 150 and 640 t/km2 produced along the floodplain and between 400 and 1100 t/km2 available over the channel. Biomass estimates vary by reach based primarily on the density of tree cover, with forest-dominant reaches containing more mature deciduous trees with broader tree canopies than either wetland or urban-dominant reaches, thus supplying more organic material to the creek. By quantifying the foliar biomass along Fanno Creek we have provided a reach-scale assessment of terrestrial organic matter loading, thereby providing land managers useful information for planning future restoration efforts.

  6. Integration of Density Dependence and Concentration Response Models Provides an Ecologically Relevant Assessment of Populations Exposed to Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assessment of toxic exposure on wildlife populations involves the integration of organism level effects measured in toxicity tests (e.g., chronic life cycle) and population models. These modeling exercises typically ignore density dependence, primarily because information on ...

  7. Paleomagnetism of the Miocene intrusive suite of Kidd Creek: Timing of deformation in the Cascade arc, southern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Swanson, D.A.; Snee, L.W.

    1998-01-01

    Paleomagnetic study of the intrusive suite of Kidd Creek in the southern Washington Cascades (23 sites in dikes and sills) was undertaken to help determine if these rocks are comagmatic and whether they postdate regional folding of the volcanic arc. Fission track and 40Ar-39Ar age determinations indicate an age of ???12.7 Ma (middle Miocene) for these rocks. The similarity of normal-polarity characteristic directions for most samples corroborate the available geochemical data indicating that these rocks are most likely comagmatic. Reversed-polarity directions for samples from four sites, however, show that emplacement of Kidd Creek intrusions spanned at least one reversal of the geomagnetic field. The paleomagnetic directions for the dikes and sills fail a fold test at the 99% confidence level indicating that the Kidd Creek rocks postdate regional folding. The mean in situ direction also indicates that the Kidd Creek and older rocks have been rotated 22?? ?? 6?? clockwise about a vertical or near-vertical axis from the expected Miocene direction. Compression and regional folding of the Cascade arc in southern Washington therefore had ended by ???12 Ma prior to the onset of deformation resulting in rotation of these rocks.

  8. 2007 Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lidar: Panther Creek Watershed, Yamhill County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset represents LiDAR elevations acquired during a leaf-off and a leaf-on vegetative condition for the Upper Panther Creek Watershed in the Yamhill County...

  9. Quantifying the distribution of nanodiamonds in pre-Younger Dryas to recent age deposits along Bull Creek, Oklahoma Panhandle, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, Leland C.; Madden, Andrew S.; Carter, Brian J.; Simms, Alexander R.; Swindle, Andrew L.; Alexander, Hanna M.; Fine, Scott; Benamara, Mourad

    2014-02-01

    High levels of nanodiamonds (nds) have been used to support the transformative hypothesis that an extraterrestrial (ET) event (comet explosion) triggered Younger Dryas changes in temperature, flora and fauna assemblages, and human adaptations [Firestone RB, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(41):16016-16021]. We evaluate this hypothesis by establishing the distribution of nds within the Bull Creek drainage of the Beaver River basin in the Oklahoma panhandle. The earlier report of an abundance spike of nds in the Bull Creek I Younger Dryas boundary soil is confirmed, although no pure cubic diamonds were identified. The lack of hexagonal nds suggests Bull Creek I is not near any impact site. Potential hexagonal nds at Bull Creek were found to be more consistent with graphene/graphane. An additional nd spike is found in deposits of late Holocene through the modern age, indicating nds are not unique to the Younger Dryas boundary. Nd distributions do not correlate with depositional environment, pedogenesis, climate perturbations, periods of surface stability, or cultural activity.

  10. Quantifying the distribution of nanodiamonds in pre-Younger Dryas to recent age deposits along Bull Creek, Oklahoma panhandle, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, Leland C; Madden, Andrew S; Carter, Brian J; Simms, Alexander R; Swindle, Andrew L; Alexander, Hanna M; Fine, Scott; Benamara, Mourad

    2014-02-04

    High levels of nanodiamonds (nds) have been used to support the transformative hypothesis that an extraterrestrial (ET) event (comet explosion) triggered Younger Dryas changes in temperature, flora and fauna assemblages, and human adaptations [Firestone RB, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(41):16016-16021]. We evaluate this hypothesis by establishing the distribution of nds within the Bull Creek drainage of the Beaver River basin in the Oklahoma panhandle. The earlier report of an abundance spike of nds in the Bull Creek I Younger Dryas boundary soil is confirmed, although no pure cubic diamonds were identified. The lack of hexagonal nds suggests Bull Creek I is not near any impact site. Potential hexagonal nds at Bull Creek were found to be more consistent with graphene/graphane. An additional nd spike is found in deposits of late Holocene through the modern age, indicating nds are not unique to the Younger Dryas boundary. Nd distributions do not correlate with depositional environment, pedogenesis, climate perturbations, periods of surface stability, or cultural activity.

  11. Numerical simulation of flow in Brush Creek Valley, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, J.M. Jr.; Lee, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    In this paper, we present some results from our three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic, finite element model applied to simulations of flow in Brush Creek Valley. These simulations are not intended to reproduce any particular experiment, but rather are to evaluate the qualitative performance of the model, to explore the major difficulties involved, and to begin sensitivity studies of the flows of interest. 2 refs., 11 figs

  12. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Hope Creek Generation Station (Docket No. 50-354). Supplement No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    Supplement No. 6 to the Safety Evaluation Report on the application filed by Public Service Electric and Gas Company on its own behalf as co-owner and as agent for the other co-owner, the Atlantic City Electric Company, for a license to operate Hope Creek Generating Station has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in Lower Alloways Creek Township in Salem County, New Jersey. This supplement reports the status of certain items that has not been resolved at the time of the publication of the Safety Evaluation Report. This supplement supports the issuance of a full-power license to operate Hope Creek Generating Station

  13. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Carey Creek, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    In August 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Carey Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Carey Creek Project provides a total of 172.95 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 4.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetlands provide 52.68 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 2.82 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow and grassland meadow provide 98.13 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Emergent wetlands provide 11.53 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Open water provides 2.88 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Carey Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  14. Evidence of population resistance to extreme low flows in a fluvial-dependent fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rachel A.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Extreme low streamflows are natural disturbances to aquatic populations. Species in naturally intermittent streams display adaptations that enhance persistence during extreme events; however, the fate of populations in perennial streams during unprecedented low-flow periods is not well-understood. Biota requiring swift-flowing habitats may be especially vulnerable to flow reductions. We estimated the abundance and local survival of a native fluvial-dependent fish species (Etheostoma inscriptum) across 5 years encompassing historic low flows in a sixth-order southeastern USA perennial river. Based on capturemark-recapture data, the study shoal may have acted as a refuge during severe drought, with increased young-of-the-year (YOY) recruitment and occasionally high adult immigration. Contrary to expectations, summer and autumn survival rates (30 days) were not strongly depressed during low-flow periods, despite 25%-80% reductions in monthly discharge. Instead, YOY survival increased with lower minimum discharge and in response to small rain events that increased low-flow variability. Age-1+ fish showed the opposite pattern, with survival decreasing in response to increasing low-flow variability. Results from this population dynamics study of a small fish in a perennial river suggest that fluvial-dependent species can be resistant to extreme flow reductions through enhanced YOY recruitment and high survival

  15. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Mahanoy Creek Basin, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the Mahanoy Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The Mahanoy Creek Basin encompasses an area of 157 square miles (407 square kilometers) including approximately 42 square miles (109 square kilometers) underlain by the Western Middle Anthracite Field. As a result of more than 150 years of anthracite mining in the basin, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments have been adversely affected. Leakage from streams to underground mines and elevated concentrations (above background levels) of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) degrade the aquatic ecosystem and impair uses of the main stem of Mahanoy Creek from its headwaters to its mouth on the Susquehanna River. Various tributaries also are affected, including North Mahanoy Creek, Waste House Run, Shenandoah Creek, Zerbe Run, and two unnamed tributaries locally called Big Mine Run and Big Run. The Little Mahanoy Creek and Schwaben Creek are the only major tributaries not affected by mining. To assess the current hydrological and chemical characteristics of the AMD and its effect on receiving streams, and to identify possible remedial alternatives, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a study in 2001, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Schuylkill Conservation District. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the USGS at five stream sites during low base-flow conditions in October 2001. Twenty species of fish were identified in Schwaben Creek near Red Cross, which drains an unmined area of 22.7 square miles (58.8 square kilometers) in the lower part of the Mahanoy Creek Basin. In contrast, 14 species of fish were identified in Mahanoy Creek near its mouth at Kneass, below Schwaben Creek. The diversity and abundance of fish

  16. Hydrologic Data for Deep Creek Lake and Selected Tributaries, Garrett County, Maryland, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Davies, William J.; Gellis, Allen C.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; McPherson, Wendy S.; Soeder, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recent and ongoing efforts to develop the land in the area around Deep Creek Lake, Garrett County, Maryland, are expected to change the volume of sediment moving toward and into the lake, as well as impact the water quality of the lake and its many tributaries. With increased development, there is an associated increased demand for groundwater and surface-water withdrawals, as well as boat access. Proposed dredging of the lake bottom to improve boat access has raised concerns about the adverse environmental effects such activities would have on the lake. The Maryland Department of Natural Resources (MDDNR) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative study during 2007 and 2008 to address these issues. This study was designed to address several objectives to support MDDNR?s management strategy for Deep Creek Lake. The objectives of this study were to: Determine the current physical shape of the lake through bathymetric surveys; Initiate flow and sediment monitoring of selected tributaries to characterize the stream discharge and sediment load of lake inflows; Determine sedimentation rates using isotope analysis of sediment cores; Characterize the degree of hydraulic connection between the lake and adjacent aquifer systems; and Develop an estimate of water use around Deep Creek Lake. Summary of Activities Data were collected in Deep Creek Lake and in selected tributaries from September 2007 through September 2008. The methods of investigation are presented here and all data have been archived according to USGS policy for future use. The material presented in this report is intended to provide resource managers and policy makers with a broad understanding of the bathymetry, surface water, sedimentation rates, groundwater, and water use in the study area. The report is structured so that the reader can access each topic separately using any hypertext markup (HTML) language reader. In order to establish a base-line water-depth map of

  17. Surface-water quality in the Lycoming Creek watershed, north-central Pennsylvania, August 1–3, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.; Conlon, Matthew D.

    2018-05-17

    This report presents the methodology and results for a study of surface-water quality of the Lycoming Creek watershed in north-central Pennsylvania during August 1–3, 2011. The study was done in cooperation with the Williamsport Municipal Water Authority and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. Samples of stream water were collected from 31 sites in an area of exploration and production of natural gas from the Marcellus Shale – 5 sites on the main stem of Lycoming Creek and 26 sites on tributary streams. The samples provide a snapshot of the base-flow water-quality conditions, which helps document the spatial variability in water-quality and could be useful for assessing future changes.The 272-square mile Lycoming Creek watershed is located within Lycoming, Tioga, and Sullivan Counties in north-central Pennsylvania. Lycoming Creek flows 37.5 miles to its confluence with the West Branch Susquehanna River in the city of Williamsport. A well field that supplies water for Williamsport captures some water that has infiltrated the streambed of Lycoming Creek. Because the stream provides a source of water to the well field, this study focused on the stream-water quality as it relates to drinking-water standards as opposed to aquatic life.Surface-water samples collected at 20 sites by the U.S. Geological Survey and 11 sites by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection were analyzed by each agency for a suite of constituents that included major ions, trace metals, nutrients, and radiochemicals. None of the analytical results failed to meet standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as maximum contaminant levels for drinking water.Results of the sampling show the substantial spatial variability in base-flow water quality within the Lycoming Creek watershed caused by the interrelated effects of physiography, geology and land use. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from less than the laboratory reporting level of 12

  18. Specific Conductance and Dissolved-Solids Characteristics for the Green River and Muddy Creek, Wyoming, Water Years 1999-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Davidson, Seth L.

    2009-01-01

    Southwestern Wyoming is an area of diverse scenery, wildlife, and natural resources that is actively undergoing energy development. The U.S. Department of the Interior's Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative is a long-term science-based effort to assess and enhance aquatic and terrestrial habitats at a landscape scale, while facilitating responsible energy development through local collaboration and partnerships. Water-quality monitoring has been conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Green River near Green River, Wyoming, and Muddy Creek near Baggs, Wyoming. This monitoring, which is being conducted in cooperation with State and other Federal agencies and as part of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative, is in response to concerns about potentially increased dissolved solids in the Colorado River Basin as a result of energy development. Because of the need to provide real-time dissolved-solids concentrations for the Green River and Muddy Creek on the World Wide Web, the U.S. Geological Survey developed regression equations to estimate dissolved-solids concentrations on the basis of continuous specific conductance using relations between measured specific conductance and dissolved-solids concentrations. Specific conductance and dissolved-solids concentrations were less varied and generally lower for the Green River than for Muddy Creek. The median dissolved-solids concentration for the site on the Green River was 318 milligrams per liter, and the median concentration for the site on Muddy Creek was 943 milligrams per liter. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 187 to 594 milligrams per liter in samples collected from the Green River during water years 1999-2008. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 293 to 2,485 milligrams per liter in samples collected from Muddy Creek during water years 2006-08. The differences in dissolved-solids concentrations in samples collected from the Green River compared to samples collected from Muddy

  19. White Oak Creek embayment sediment retention structure: The Oak Ridge model in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Kimmel, B.L.; Page, D.G.; Hudson, G.R.; Wilkerson, R.B.; Zocolla, M.

    1992-01-01

    White Oak Creek is the major surface-water drainage through the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Samples taken from the lower portion of the creek revealed high levels of Cesium-137, and lower levels of Cobalt-60 in near-surface sediment. Other contaminants present in the sediment included: lead, mercury, chromium, and PCBS. In October 1990, DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) agreed to initiate a time-critical removal action in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) to prevent transport of the contaminated sediments into the Clinch River system. This paper discusses the environmental, regulatory, design, and construction issues that were encountered in conducting the remediation work

  20. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Calispell Creek Project, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 13, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Calispell Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in February 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Calispell Creek Project provides a total of 138.17 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 5.16 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Grassland provides 132.02 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 0.99 HUs for yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Calispell Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  1. Waterflood using a muskeg water source Milligan Creek Unit, B. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cracknell, W C

    1968-01-01

    The Milligan Creek field, in NE. British Columbia, is a small but high capacity sand reservoir of Triassic age. Waterflooding was initiated early in the life of the reservoir to provide pressure maintenance and increase oil recovery from the pool. Due to the lack of a subsurface supply in the area, muskeg water from a nearby creek was utilized. This cold water with its high content or iron and organic material has proven to be a major water treatment problem. After considerable experimentation a process using flocculation, filtration through a sand- anthracite filter, and deaeration was found to yield water satisfactory for injection. Seasonal variation in water quality remains a problem. Four years of waterflooding have yielded satisfactory results with a decrease in voidage, an increase in reservoir pressure and the attainment of a high level of production for a pool of this size. Performance has been accurately predicted by means of a potentiometric model.

  2. Large woody debris budgets in the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of large woody debris (LWD) in the two mainstem channels of the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds since 1998, combined with older data from other work in the watersheds, gives estimates of channel wood input rates, survival, and outputs in intermediate-sized channels in coastal redwood forests. Input rates from standing trees for the two reaches over a 15...

  3. Selenium Speciation in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA Correlates with Water Hardness, Ca and Mg Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Carsella

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental levels of selenium (Se are regulated and strictly enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA because of the toxicity that Se can exert at high levels. However, speciation plays an important role in the overall toxicity of Se, and only when speciation analysis has been conducted will a detailed understanding of the system be possible. In the following, we carried out the speciation analysis of the creek waters in three of the main tributaries—Upper Fountain Creek, Monument Creek and Lower Fountain Creek—located in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA. There are statistically significant differences between the Se, Ca and Mg, levels in each of the tributaries and seasonal swings in Se, Ca and Mg levels have been observed. There are also statistically significant differences between the Se levels when grouped by Pierre Shale type. These factors are considered when determining the forms of Se present and analyzing their chemistry using the reported thermodynamic relationships considering Ca2+, Mg2+, SeO42−, SeO32− and carbonates. This analysis demonstrated that the correlation between Se and water hardness can be explained in terms of formation of soluble CaSeO4. The speciation analysis demonstrated that for the Fountain Creek waters, the Ca2+ ion may be mainly responsible for the observed correlation with the Se level. Considering that the Mg2+ level is also correlating linearly with the Se levels it is important to recognize that without Mg2+ the Ca2+ would be significantly reduced. The major role of Mg2+ is thus to raise the Ca2+ levels despite the equilibria with carbonate and other anions that would otherwise decrease Ca2+ levels.

  4. Assessment Of Inocula To Enhance Startup Of Ethanol-Fed And Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to construct an Anaerobic Passive Treatment System (APTS) to treat acid mine drainage from the National Tunnel in North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Centr...

  5. A description of the katabatic ''plume'' from Coal Creek Canyon and its fate in the Rocky Flats Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, R.L.; Shannon, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Katabatic flow from Coal Creek Canyon often affects the region that includes the Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado. The flow from the canyon enters a wide, gently sloping plain approximately 5 km upwind of the plant. Measurements of this flow are combined with a theoretical analysis that describes the dimensions and strength of the flow across the plains as a function of downwind distance from Coal Creek

  6. 77 FR 46283 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Battle Creek, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ...) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at W.K. Kellogg Airport. The airport's geographic coordinates also... controlled airspace at W.K. Kellogg Airport (77 FR 29918) Docket No. FAA-2011-1110. Interested parties were... instrument approach procedures at W.K. Kellogg Airport, Battle Creek, MI. This action is necessary for the...

  7. Innovations in Stream Restoration and Flood Control Design Meeting Flood Capacity and Environmental Goals on San Luis Obispo Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Peterson

    1989-01-01

    Can a natural flowing creek be increased in drainage capacity to protect an adjacent community from flooding while still maintaining a natural habitat? San Luis Obispo constructed one such project on over a mile of Creek as a part of a housing development. The City found that some of the mitigation measures included in the project worked while others did not. In the...

  8. Dynamics of a recovering Arctic bird population: the importance of climate, density dependence, and site quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Jason E.; Swem, Ted; Andersen, David E.; Kennedy, Patricia L.; Nigro, Debora A.

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect vital rates and population-level processes, and understanding these factors is paramount to devising successful management plans for wildlife species. For example, birds time migration in response, in part, to local and broadscale climate fluctuations to initiate breeding upon arrival to nesting territories, and prolonged inclement weather early in the breeding season can inhibit egg-laying and reduce productivity. Also, density-dependent regulation occurs in raptor populations, as territory size is related to resource availability. Arctic Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius; hereafter Arctic peregrine) have a limited and northern breeding distribution, including the Colville River Special Area (CRSA) in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska, USA. We quantified influences of climate, topography, nest productivity, prey habitat, density dependence, and interspecific competition affecting Arctic peregrines in the CRSA by applying the Dail-Madsen model to estimate abundance and vital rates of adults on nesting cliffs from 1981 through 2002. Arctic peregrine abundance increased throughout the 1980s, which spanned the population's recovery from DDT-induced reproductive failure, until exhibiting a stationary trend in the 1990s. Apparent survival rate (i.e., emigration; death) was negatively correlated with the number of adult Arctic peregrines on the cliff the previous year, suggesting effects of density-dependent population regulation. Apparent survival and arrival rates (i.e., immigration; recruitment) were higher during years with earlier snowmelt and milder winters, and apparent survival was positively correlated with nesting season maximum daily temperature. Arrival rate was positively correlated with average Arctic peregrine productivity along a cliff segment from the previous year and initial abundance was positively correlated with cliff height. Higher cliffs with documented higher productivity (presumably

  9. Pilot project for a hybrid road-flooding forecasting system on Squaw Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A network of 25 sonic stage sensors were deployed in the Squaw Creek basin upstream from Ames Iowa to determine : if the state-of-the-art distributed hydrological model CUENCAS can produce reliable information for all road crossings : including those...

  10. Escherichia coli Concentrations in the Mill Creek Watershed, Cleveland, Ohio, 2001-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Amie M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Mill Creek in Cleveland, Ohio, receives discharges from combined-sewer overflows (CSOs) and other sanitary-sewage inputs. These discharges affect the water quality of the creek and that of its receiving stream, the Cuyahoga River. In an effort to mitigate this problem, the Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District implemented a project to eliminate or control (by reducing the number of overflows) all of the CSOs in the Mill Creek watershed. This study focused on monitoring the microbiological water quality of the creek before and during sewage-collection system modifications. Routine samples were collected semimonthly from August 2001 through September 2004 at a site near a U.S. Geological Survey stream gage near the mouth of Mill Creek. In addition, event samples were collected September 19 and 22, 2003, when rainfall accumulations were 0.5 inches (in.) or greater. Concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) were determined and instantaneous discharges were calculated. Streamflow and water-quality characteristics were measured at the time of sampling, and precipitation data measured at a nearby precipitation gage were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Concentrations of E. coli were greater than Ohio's single-sample maximum for primary-contact recreation (298 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100 mL)) in 84 percent of the routine samples collected. In all but one routine sample E. coli concentrations in samples collected when instantaneous streamflows were greater than 20 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) were greater than Ohio's single-sample maximum. When precipitation occurred in the 24-hour period before routine sample collection, concentrations were greater than the maximum in 89 percent of the samples as compared to 73 percent when rainfall was absent during the 24 hours prior to routine sample collection. Before modifications to the sewage-collection system in the watershed began, E. coli concentrations in Mill Creek

  11. Porosity development in the Copper Ridge Dolomite and Maynardville Limestone, Bear Creek Valley and Chestnut Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstrand, P.M.; Menefee, L.S.; Dreier, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    Matrix porosity data from deep core obtained in Bear Creek Valley indicate that porosities in the Maynardville Limestone are lithology and depth dependent. Matrix porosities are greater in the Cooper Ridge Dolomite than in the Maynardville Limestone, yet there is no apparent correlation with depth. Two interrelated diagenetic processes are the major controlling factors on porosity development in the Copper Ridge Dolomite and Maynardville Limestone; dissolution of evaporate minerals and dedolomitization. Both of these diagenetic processes produce matrix porosities between 2.1 and 1.3% in the Copper Ridge Dolomite and upper part of the Maynardville Limestone (Zone 6) to depths of approximately 600 ft bgs. Mean matrix porosities in Zones 5 through 2 of the Maynardville Limestone range from 0.8 to 0.5%. A large number of cavities have been intersected during drilling activities in nearly all zones of the Maynardville Limestone in Bear Creek Valley. Therefore, any maynardville Limestone zone within approximately 200 ft of the ground surface is likely to contain cavities that allow significant and rapid flow of groundwater. Zone 6 could be an important stratigraphic unit in the Maynardville Limestone for groundwater flow and contaminant transport because of the abundance of vuggy and moldic porosities. There are large variations in the thickness and lithology in the lower part of the Maynardville (Zones 2, 3, and 4 in the Burial Grounds region). The direction and velocity of strike-parallel groundwater flow may be altered in this area within the lower Maynardville Limestone

  12. Metal loading in Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park, Montana and Wyoming; a retrospective analysis of previous research; and quantification of metal loading, August 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    Acid drainage from historic mining activities has affected the water quality and aquatic biota of Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park. Numerous investigations focusing on metals contamination have been conducted in the Soda Butte Creek basin, but interpretations of how metals contamination is currently impacting Soda Butte Creek differ greatly. A retrospective analysis of previous research on metal loading in Soda Butte Creek was completed to provide summaries of studies pertinent to metal loading in Soda Butte Creek and to identify data gaps warranting further investigation. Identification and quantification of the sources of metal loading to Soda Butte Creek was recognized as a significant data gap. The McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site has long been identified as a source of metals but its contribution relative to the total metal load entering Yellowstone National Park was unknown. A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was designed to determine metal loads upstream of Yellowstone National Park.A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was conducted on an 8,511-meter reach of Soda Butte Creek from upstream of the McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site downstream to the Yellowstone National Park boundary in August 1999. Synoptic-sampling sites were selected to divide the creek into discrete segments. A lithium bromide tracer was injected continuously into Soda Butte Creek for 24.5 hours. Downstream dilution of the tracer and current-meter measurements were used to calculate the stream discharge. Stream discharge values, combined with constituent concentrations obtained by synoptic sampling, were used to quantify constituent loading in each segment of Soda Butte Creek.Loads were calculated for dissolved calcium, silica, and sulfate, as well as for dissolved and total-recoverable iron, aluminum, and manganese. Loads were not calculated for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc because these elements were infrequently

  13. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Deep Creek and Brandy Branch crossings, Nassau County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of surveys conducted July 14-18, 1992, at the Deep Creek and the Brandy Branch crossings of a pipeline installed during May 1991 in Nassau County, Florida. Both floodplains supported bottomland hardwood forests. The pipeline at the Deep Creek crossing was installed by means of horizontal directional drilling after the ROW had been clear-cut, while the pipeline at the Brandy Branch crossing was installed by means of conventional open trenching. Neither site was seeded or fertilized. At the time of sampling, a dense vegetative community, made up primarily of native perennial herbaceous species, occupied the ROW within the Deep Creek floodplain. The Brandy Branch ROW was vegetated by a less dense stand of primarily native perennial herbaceous plants. Plant diversity was also lower at the Brandy Branch crossing than at the Deep Creek crossing. The results suggest that some of the differences in plant communities are related to the more hydric conditions at the Brandy Branch floodplain.

  14. Ground-water conditions in the Grand County area, Utah, with emphasis on the Mill Creek-Spanish Valley area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    The Grand County area includes all of Grand County, the Mill Creek and Pack Creek drainages in San Juan County, and the area between the Colorado and Green Rivers in San Juan County. The Grand County area includes about 3,980 square miles, and the Mill Creek-Spanish Valley area includes about 44 square miles. The three principal consolidated-rock aquifers in the Grand County area are the Entrada, Navajo, and Wingate aquifers in the Entrada Sandstone, the Navajo Sandstone, and the Wingate Sandstone, and the principal consolidated-rock aquifer in the Mill Creek-Spanish Valley area is the Glen Canyon aquifer in the Glen Canyon Group, comprised of the Navajo Sandstone, the Kayenta Formation, and the Wingate Sandstone.Recharge to the Entrada, Navajo, and Glen Canyon aquifers typically occurs where the formations containing the aquifers crop out or are overlain by unconsolidated sand deposits. Recharge is enhanced where the sand deposits are saturated at a depth of more than about 6 feet below the land surface, and the effects of evaporation begin to decrease rapidly with depth. Recharge to the Wingate aquifer typically occurs by downward movement of water from the Navajo aquifer through the Kayenta Formation, and primarily occurs where the Navajo Sandstone, Kayenta Formation, and the Wingate Sandstone are fractured.

  15. Persistence of bacterial pathogens, antibiotic resistance genes, and enterococci in tidal creek tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chance E; Maddox, Anthony; Hurley, Dorset; Barkovskii, Andrei L

    2018-05-19

    Intertidal creeks form the primary hydrologic link between estuaries and land-based activities on barrier islands. Fecal indicators Enterococcus spp. (Entero1), pathogens Shigella spp. (ipaH), Salmonella spp. (invA), E. coli of EHEC/EPEC groups (eaeA), E. coli of EAEC, EIEC, and UPEC groups (set1B), E. coli of STEC group (stx1); and tetracycline resistance genes (tet(B), tet(C), tet(D), tet(E), tet(K), tet(Q), tet(W), and tet(X); TRG) were detected in the headwater of Oakdale Creek (Sapelo Island, GA) receiving runoffs from Hog Hammock village. Excavation of drainage ditches around the village caused a high increase in the incidence of the above determinants. Water samples were collected from the headwater, transferred to diffusion chambers, submersed in the headwater, saltmarsh, and mouth of the creek; and the determinants were monitored for 3 winter months. With some exceptions, their persistence decreased in order headwater > saltmarsh > mouth. Genes associated with Enterococcus spp. were the most persistent at all the sites, following in the headwater with determinants for Salmonella spp. and E. coli of EAEC, EIEC, and UPEC groups. In the mouth, the most persistent gene was eaeA indicating EHEC, EPEC, and STEC. Tet(B) and tet(C) persisted the longest in headwater and saltmarsh. No TRG persisted after 11 days in the mouth. Most determinants revealed correlations with temperature and pH, and inverse correlations with dissolved oxygen. Decay rates of the above determinants varied in the range of -0.02 to -0.81/day, and were up to 40 folds higher in the saltmarsh and mouth than in the headwater. Our data demonstrated that water parameters could to some extent predict a general trend in the fate of virulence and antibiotic resistance determinants in tidal creek tributaries but strongly suggested that their persistence in these tributaries cannot be predicted from that of enterococci, or extrapolated from one biological contaminant to another. Copyright

  16. Estimated flood-inundation maps for Cowskin Creek in western Wichita, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studley, Seth E.

    2003-01-01

    The October 31, 1998, flood on Cowskin Creek in western Wichita, Kansas, caused millions of dollars in damages. Emergency management personnel and flood mitigation teams had difficulty in efficiently identifying areas affected by the flooding, and no warning was given to residents because flood-inundation information was not available. To provide detailed information about future flooding on Cowskin Creek, high-resolution estimated flood-inundation maps were developed using geographic information system technology and advanced hydraulic analysis. Two-foot-interval land-surface elevation data from a 1996 flood insurance study were used to create a three-dimensional topographic representation of the study area for hydraulic analysis. The data computed from the hydraulic analyses were converted into geographic information system format with software from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center. The results were overlaid on the three-dimensional topographic representation of the study area to produce maps of estimated flood-inundation areas and estimated depths of water in the inundated areas for 1-foot increments on the basis of stream stage at an index streamflow-gaging station. A Web site (http://ks.water.usgs.gov/Kansas/cowskin.floodwatch) was developed to provide the public with information pertaining to flooding in the study area. The Web site shows graphs of the real-time streamflow data for U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations in the area and monitors the National Weather Service Arkansas-Red Basin River Forecast Center for Cowskin Creek flood-forecast information. When a flood is forecast for the Cowskin Creek Basin, an estimated flood-inundation map is displayed for the stream stage closest to the National Weather Service's forecasted peak stage. Users of the Web site are able to view the estimated flood-inundation maps for selected stages at any time and to access information about this report and about flooding in general. Flood

  17. Streamflow investigations on a reach of Hobble Creek near Springville, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Steven J.

    2017-07-27

    The Central Utah Water Conservancy District (CUWCD) is proposing to deliver supplemental flow to Hobble Creek from Strawberry Reservoir through the Mapleton-Springville Lateral pipeline. A substantial portion of the supplemental water is intended to benefit June Sucker recovery and other fish and wildlife along Hobble Creek. The objective of this study was to determine gains or losses of water in a section of Hobble Creek between the Island Dam and the Swenson Dam (the primary study reach) during different seasons and flow conditions.Paired measurements of flow in Hobble Creek were made during June to November 2016, at sites bracketing the primary study reach from site HC3 to HC6. These measurements showed increased streamflow in this reach that ranged from 6.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to 9.3 ft3/s. During August and November, two sets of measurements were made at several locations along the study reach to document baseline conditions, and then an additional amount of water (a pulse of about 9–10 ft3/s) from Strawberry Reservoir through the Mapleton-Springville Lateral pipeline, was added to the reach. During the August 23 measurements, the average change at the upstream site (HC3) relative to the pulse was 9.3 ft3/s, and the average change at the downstream site (HC6) was about 8.4 ft3/s, leaving about 0.9 ft3/s of the additional water unaccounted for at site HC6. However, there was no significant difference between the net streamflow volume at sites HC3 and HC6 associated with the pulse that would indicate water was being lost. During the November 7–9 streamflow measurements, the average change in discharge at site HC3 relative to an increase in flow from the Mapleton-Springville Lateral pipeline (the pulse) was 9.6 ft3/s, and the average change at site HC6 was about 9.8 ft3/s. On the basis of these measurements it appears that the entire amount of the pulse added to the stream at site HC3 was accounted for at site HC6. Additionally, there was no

  18. Radiological tracing for historical patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in creek ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, M.; Bhangare, R.C.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    The marine sediments act like sink for most of the pollutants entering the aquatic environment. It becomes more critical in the case of creek ecosystem due to its landlocked and relatively stagnant nature. Various persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are brought into the creek in the form of dissolved and particulate fluxes from industrial effluents, sewerage discharge, urban runoff from the city, spillage, disposal and chemical weathering. PCBs cycle between sediment, water, air and soil. Studying the historical patterns of these toxic pollutants depositions in sediment cores have several applications. They throw light on the chronological inputs of the pollutants in the marine body. Natural radionuclides like 210 Pb act as tracers for determining the historical patterns of these pollutants in different sediment layers. Determining the activities of these radionuclides is useful for determining the age of sediment layers from the sedimentation rates. The unsupported 210 Pb activity of the Thane creek sediments was determined and modeled for assigning the age to different layers of the cores contaminated with PCBs. The unsupported activity of 210 Pb tracer was found to decrease with the increase in depth of the sediment layers. This pattern of the 210 Pb activity was used for determining the sedimentation rate and age of the core layers. The CRS model with 210 Pb activity traced the average sedimentation rate in Thane Creek to 0.67 cm/yr. This helped in labeling the age of formation of the deep core sediment layers. The vertical profile of different PCB congener concentrations in the core samples depicts a gradient from top to bottom, which indicates the influence of industrial contributions over the period. Peak concentrations for the congeners were observed at 13-24 depth, which indicates excessive loading of sediment with these compounds during 1970s (20-30 cm) which was the period of the maximum use and production of these

  19. Population Structures in Russia: Optimality and Dependence on Parameters of Global Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Yegorov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to analytical investigation of the division of geographical space into urban and rural areas with application to Russia. Yegorov (2005, 2006, 2009 has suggested the role of population density on economics. A city has an attractive potential based on scale economies. The optimal city size depends on the balance between its attractive potential and the cost of living that can be approximated by equilibrium land rent and commuting cost. For moderate scale effects optimal population of a city depends negatively on transport costs that are related positively with energy price index. The optimal agricultural density of population can also be constructed. The larger is a land slot per peasant, the higher will be the output from one unit of his labour force applied to this slot. But at the same time, larger farm size results in increase of energy costs, related to land development, collecting the crop and bringing it to the market. In the last 10 years we have observed substantial rise of both food and energy prices at the world stock markets. However, the income of farmers did not grow as fast as food price index. This can shift optimal rural population density to lower level, causing migration to cities (and we observe this tendency globally. Any change in those prices results in suboptimality of existing spatial structures. If changes are slow, the optimal infrastructure can be adjusted by simple migration. If the shocks are high, adaptation may be impossible and shock will persist. This took place in early 1990es in the former USSR, where after transition to world price for oil in domestic markets existing spatial infrastructure became suboptimal and resulted in persistent crisis, leading to deterioration of both industry and agriculture. Russia is the largest country but this is also its problem. Having large resource endowment per capita, it is problematic to build sufficient infrastructure. Russia has too low population

  20. Death in Indiana: "The Massacre at Fall Creek" by Jessamyn West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Interpreted is the novel, "The Massacre at Fall Creek," that dramatizes an event that occurred in Indiana in 1824 in which White men killed unarmed Seneca Indians. The Whites were brought to trial, convicted, and hanged. The novel demonstrates the moral ambiguity that often characterizes responses toward crime and punishment. (RM)

  1. Biological and environmental characteristics of mangrove habitats from Manori creek, West Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kulkarni, V.A.; Jagtap, T.G.; Mhalsekar, N.M.; Naik, A.N.

    better mangrove formations. A creek habitat had been evaluated for its biological and environmental characteristics, and is compared with similar but relatively lesser stressed Mandovi estuary (approx. 475 km south of Mumbai). Several evidences...

  2. Transport and degradation of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the pyritic Rabis Creek aquifer, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinsby, K.; Hojberg, A.L.; Engesgaard, P.

    2007-01-01

    Vertical profiles of the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 penetrating aerobic and anaerobic parts of a shallow sandy aquifer show that the CFC gases are degraded in the Rabis Creek, Denmark...

  3. Environmental assessment for the Hoe Creek underground, Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation, Campbell County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess environmental and human health Issues and to determine potential impacts associated with the proposed Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation that would be performed at the Hoe Creek site in Campbell County, Wyoming. The Hoe Creek site is located south-southwest of the town of Gillette, Wyoming, and encompasses 71 acres of public land under the stewardship of the Bureau of Land Management. The proposed action identified in the EA is for the DOE to perform air sparging with bioremediation at the Hoe Creek site to remove contaminants resulting from underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments performed there by the DOE in the late 1970s. The proposed action would involve drilling additional wells at two of the UCG test sites to apply oxygen or hydrogen peroxide to the subsurface to volatilize benzene dissolved in the groundwater and enhance bioremediation of non-aqueous phase liquids present in the subsurface. Other alternatives considered are site excavation to remove contaminants, continuation of the annual pump and treat actions that have been used at the site over the last ten years to limit contaminant migration, and the no action alternative. Issues examined in detail in the EA are air quality, geology, human health and safety, noise, soils, solid and hazardous waste, threatened and endangered species, vegetation, water resources, and wildlife. Details of mitigative measures that could be used to limit any detrimental effects resulting from the proposed action or any of the alternatives are discussed, and information on anticipated effects identified by other government agencies is provided.

  4. Uranium in spring water and bryophytes at Basin Creek in central Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacklette, H.T.; Erdman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Arkosic sandstones and conglomerates of Tertiary age beneath the Challis Volcanics of Eocene age at Basin Creek, 10 km northeast of Stanley, Idaho, contain uranium-bearing vitrainized carbon fragments. The economic potential of these sandstones and conglomerates is currently being assessed. Water from 22 springs and associated bryophytes were sampled; two springs were found to contain apparently anomalous concentrations (normalized) of uranium. Water from a third spring contained slightly anomalous amounts of uranium, and two species of mosses at the spring contained anomalous uranium and high levels of both cadmium and lead. Water from a fourth spring was normal for uranium, but the moss from the water contained a moderate uranium level and highly anomalous concentrations of lead, germanium, and thallium. These results suggest that, in the Basin Creek area, moss sampling at springs may give a more reliable indication of uranium occurrence than would water sampling. (Auth.)

  5. Ten years of real-time streamflow gaging of turkey creek - where we have been and where we are going

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Conrads; Devendra Amatya

    2016-01-01

    The Turkey Creek watershed is a third-order coastal plain stream system draining an area of approximately 5,240 hectares of the Francis Marion National Forest and located about 37 miles northwest of Charleston near Huger, South Carolina. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service maintained a streamflow gaging station on Turkey Creek from 1964 to 1981....

  6. Pathogenic bacteria and microbial-source tracking markers in Brandywine Creek Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duris, Joseph W.; Reif, Andrew G.; Olson, Leif E.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2011-01-01

    The City of Wilmington, Delaware, is in the downstream part of the Brandywine Creek Basin, on the main stem of Brandywine Creek. Wilmington uses this stream, which drains a mixed-land-use area upstream, for its main drinking-water supply. Because the stream is used for drinking water, Wilmington is in need of information about the occurrence and distribution of specific fecally derived pathogenic bacteria (disease-causing bacteria) and their relations to commonly measured fecal-indicator bacteria (FIB), as well as information regarding the potential sources of the fecal pollution and pathogens in the basin. This study focused on five routinely sampled sites within the basin, one each on the West Branch and the East Branch of Brandywine Creek and at three on the main stem below the confluence of the West and East Branches. These sites were sampled monthly for 1 year. Targeted event samples were collected on two occasions during high flow and two occasions during normal flow. On the basis of this study, high flows in the Brandywine Creek Basin were related to increases in FIB densities, and in the frequency of selected pathogen and source markers, in the West Branch and main stem of Brandywine Creek, but not in the East Branch. Water exceeding the moderate fullbody-contact single-sample recreational water-quality criteria (RWQC) for Escherichia coli (E. coli) was more likely to contain selected markers for pathogenic E. coli (eaeA,stx1, and rfbO157 gene markers) and bovine fecal sources (E. hirae and LTIIa gene markers), whereas samples exceeding the enterococci RWQC were more likely to contain the same pathogenic markers but also were more likely to carry a marker indicative of human source (esp gene marker). On four sample dates, during high flow between October and March, the West Branch was the only observed potential contributor of selected pathogen and bovine source markers to the main stem of Brandywine Creek. Indeed, the stx2 marker, which indicates a highly

  7. Demonstration of containment purge and vent valve operability for the Hope Creek Generating Station, Unit 1 (Docket No. 50-354)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, C.

    1985-05-01

    The containment purge and vent valve qualification program for the Hope Creek Generating Station has been reviewed by the NRC Licensing Support Section. The review indicates that the licensee has demonstrated the dependability of containment isolation against the buildup of containment pressure due to a LOCA/DBA with the restrictions that during operating conditions 1, 2, and 3 all purge and vent valves will be sealed closed and under administrative control, and during power ascension and descension conditions the 26 in. inboard valve (1-GS-HV-4952) will be used in series with the 2 in. bypass valve (1-GS-HV-4951) to control the release of containment pressure

  8. Assessment Of Inocula To Enhance Startup Of Ethanol-Fed And Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to construct an Anaerobic Passive Treatment System (APTS) to treat acid mine drainage from the National Tunnel in North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Centr...

  9. "Woman Hollering Creek" a Traves de la Musica: Articulating Mexicanidad to Pochismo

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Lydia A.

    2011-01-01

    This essay intervenes in contemporary scholarship on Sandra Cisneros's "Woman Hollering Creek" (1991) by examining the canciones she uses as epigraphs and their relationship to the multiple nationalisms that Chicana/os actively negotiate. I argue that Cisneros's decision to include powerfully nationalist Mexican cancion traditions…

  10. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  11. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  12. Macroinvertebrate communities evaluated prior to and following a channel restoration project in Silver Creek, Blaine County, Idaho, 2001-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Short, Terry M.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Blaine County and The Nature Conservancy, evaluated the status of macroinvertebrate communities prior to and following a channel restoration project in Silver Creek, Blaine County, Idaho. The objective of the evaluation was to determine whether 2014 remediation efforts to restore natural channel conditions in an impounded area of Silver Creek caused declines in local macroinvertebrate communities. Starting in 2001 and ending in 2016, macroinvertebrates were sampled every 3 years at two long-term trend sites and sampled seasonally (spring, summer, and autumn) in 2013, 2015, and 2016 at seven synoptic sites. Trend-site communities were collected from natural stream-bottom substrates to represent locally established macroinvertebrate assemblages. Synoptic site communities were sampled using artificial (multi-plate) substrates to represent recently colonized (4–6 weeks) assemblages. Statistical summaries of spatial and temporal patterns in macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition at both trend and synoptic sites were completed.The potential effect of the restoration project on resident macroinvertebrate populations was determined by comparing the following community assemblage metrics:Total taxonomic richness (taxa richness);Total macroinvertebrate abundance (total abundance);Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT) richness;EPT abundance;Simpson’s diversity; andSimpson’s evenness for periods prior to and following restoration.A significant decrease in one or more metric values in the period following stream channel restoration was the basis for determining impairment to the macroinvertebrate communities in Silver Creek.Comparison of pre-restoration (2001–13) and post‑restoration (2016) macroinvertebrate community composition at trend sites determined that no significant decreases occurred in any metric parameter for communities sampled in 2016. Taxa and EPT richness of colonized assemblages at synoptic sites

  13. Tilted lake shorelines record the onset of motion along the Hilton Creek fault adjacent to Long Valley caldera, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, J. P.; Finnegan, N. J.; Cervelli, P. F.; Langbein, J. O.

    2010-12-01

    Prominent normal faults occur within and around Long Valley caldera, in the eastern Sierra Nevada of California. However, their relationship to both the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the caldera since the 760 ka eruption of the Bishop Tuff remains poorly understood. In particular, in the Mono-Inyo Craters north of Long Valley, extensional faulting appears to be replaced by dike intrusion where magma is available in the crust. However, it is unclear whether extensional faults in Long Valley caldera have been active since the eruption of the Bishop Tuff (when the current topography was established) or are a relatively young phenomenon owing to the cooling and crystallization of the Long Valley magma reservoir. Here we use GPS geodesy and geomorphology to investigate the evolution of the Hilton Creek fault, the primary range-front fault bounding Long Valley caldera to the southwest. Our primary goals are to determine how long the Hilton Creek fault has been active and whether slip rates have been constant over that time interval. To characterize the modern deformation field, we capitalize on recently (July, 2010) reoccupied GPS benchmarks first established in 1999-2000. These fixed-array GPS data show no discernible evidence for recent slip on the Hilton Creek fault, which further highlights the need for longer-term constraints on fault motion. To establish a fault slip history, we rely on a suite of five prominent shorelines from Pleistocene Long Valley Lake whose ages are well constrained based on field relationships to dated lavas, and that are tilted southward toward the Hilton Creek fault. A preliminary analysis of shoreline orientations using GPS surveys and a 5-m-resolution Topographic Synthetic Aperture Radar (TOPSAR) digital elevation model shows that lake shorelines tilt towards the Hilton Creek fault at roughly parallel gradients (~ 0.6%). The measured shorelines range in inferred age from 100 ka to 500 ka, which constrain recent slip on the Hilton

  14. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Hope Creek Generating Station (Docket No. 50-354)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    Supplement No. 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report on the application filed by Public Service Electric and Gas Company on its own behalf as co-owner and as agent for the other co-owner, the Atlantic City Electric Company, for a license to operate Hope Creek Generating Station has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in Lower Alloways Creek Township in Salem County, New Jersey. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved at the time of publication of the Safety Evaluation Report. 6 tabs

  15. Comparison of Glaciological and Gravimetric Glacier Mass Balance Measurements of Taku and Lemon Creek Glaciers, Southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, K.; McNeil, C.; Bond, M.; Getraer, B.; Huxley-Reicher, B.; McNamara, G.; Reinhardt-Ertman, T.; Silverwood, J.; Kienholz, C.; Beedle, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Glacier-wide annual mass balances (Ba) have been calculated for Taku (726 km2) and Lemon Creek glaciers (10.2 km2) since 1946 and 1953 respectively. These are the longest mass balance records in North America, and the only Ba time-series available for Southeast Alaska, making them particularly valuable for the global glacier mass balance monitoring network. We compared Ba time-series from Taku and Lemon Creek glaciers to Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mascon solutions (1352 and 1353) during the 2004-2015 period to assess how well these gravimetric solutions reflect individual glaciological records. Lemon Creek Glacier is a challenging candidate for this comparison because it is small compared to the 12,100 km2 GRACE mascon solutions. Taku Glacier is equally challenging because its mass balance is stable compared to the negative balances dominating its neighboring glaciers. Challenges notwithstanding, a high correlation between the glaciological and gravimetrically-derived Ba for Taku and Lemon Creek glaciers encourage future use of GRACE to measure glacier mass balance. Additionally, we employed high frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) to measure the variability of accumulation around glaciological sites to assess uncertainty in our glaciological measurements, and the resulting impact to Ba. Finally, we synthesize this comparison of glaciological and gravimetric mass balance solutions with a discussion of potential sources of error in both methods and their combined utility for measuring regional glacier change during the 21st century.

  16. Mutagenic potential of water from Pelotas Creek in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T C O; Maciel, L F; Leal, K S; Bender, A E N; Paiva, T S; Garcias, G L; Martino-Roth, M G

    2009-09-01

    Water resource degradation is one of mankind's greatest worries, as it causes direct and indirect damage to the associated biota. We initiated a water monitoring study in Pelotas Creek in 2003 in order to assess the mutagenic effect of the creek's waters. Allium cepa cells exposed to water samples and a chronically exposed macrophyte were analyzed, through evaluation of the mitotic index, mitotic anomalies, interphase anomalies, and total anomalies. Five points were chosen along the lower course of Pelotas Creek, from which water samples and floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Apiaceae) were collected in 2006 and 2007. The enteric bacterium Escherichia coli was found at all sampling points; in the physical-chemical analysis, a few variables exceeded permitted limits, pH (from 6 to 9), chloride (250 mg/L), hardness (from 10 to 200 mg CaCO(3)/L), and conductivity (100 microOmega/cm). There was an increased number of cytogenetic anomalies in exposed A. cepa cells and in the pennywort in 2006 relative to 2007, which may be explained by the increased rainfall, which was three times greater in 2007 at some stations than in 2006.Omega/cm). There was an increased number of cytogenetic anomalies in exposed A. cepa cells and in the pennywort in 2006 relative to 2007, which may be explained by the increased rainfall, which was three times greater in 2007 at some stations than in 2006.

  17. Recovery and enhancement plan development for the Leading Creek watershed, Meigs County, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, R.J.; Cherry, D.S.; Latimer, H.A.; Babendreier, J.E.; Van Hassel, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Following the flooding of the Meigs No. 31 coal mine in Meigs County, Ohio, a proactive plan was developed to evaluate initial dewatering effects, recovery and development of a watershed enhancement plan. Approximately half of the 31-mile Leading Creek mainstem received ∼one billion gallons of coal mine discharge, including sludge and slurry. Damage to the stream system resulted from high conductivity (∼6,000 micromhos/cm), low pH (2.5--3.5), high metals (aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron and iron floc, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc) and total suspended solids. Most forms of aquatic life were depleted in the impacted areas. Four years after the incident, many forms of benthic macroinvertebrates and fish have recovered in the creek, with sediments purged of metals by stormwater events. The enhancement plan involves a reconnaissance of the creek and tributaries pinpointing areas of agricultural sedimentation and abandoned minedland discharges (AMD). Seventeen tributary and ten mainstem stations were addressed as point source discharges with water/sediment toxicity and in-situ testing of Asian clams. One-third of the stations were intermittently toxic from rainfall runoff and the degree of AMD input. Benthic macroinvertebrates in many tributaries were stressed and comprised 1--5 taxa. Erosion/sedimentation was addressed by the USEPA 1-Dimensional Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) model, as well as incorporating land use management/habitat assessment, and data management by Geographical Information Systems

  18. The Evergreen basin and the role of the Silver Creek fault in the San Andreas fault system, San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachens, Robert C.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Graymer, Russell W.; Williams, Robert; Ponce, David A.; Mankinen, Edward A.; Stephenson, William J.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    The Evergreen basin is a 40-km-long, 8-km-wide Cenozoic sedimentary basin that lies mostly concealed beneath the northeastern margin of the Santa Clara Valley near the south end of San Francisco Bay (California, USA). The basin is bounded on the northeast by the strike-slip Hayward fault and an approximately parallel subsurface fault that is structurally overlain by a set of west-verging reverse-oblique faults which form the present-day southeastward extension of the Hayward fault. It is bounded on the southwest by the Silver Creek fault, a largely dormant or abandoned fault that splays from the active southern Calaveras fault. We propose that the Evergreen basin formed as a strike-slip pull-apart basin in the right step from the Silver Creek fault to the Hayward fault during a time when the Silver Creek fault served as a segment of the main route by which slip was transferred from the central California San Andreas fault to the Hayward and other East Bay faults. The dimensions and shape of the Evergreen basin, together with palinspastic reconstructions of geologic and geophysical features surrounding it, suggest that during its lifetime, the Silver Creek fault transferred a significant portion of the ∼100 km of total offset accommodated by the Hayward fault, and of the 175 km of total San Andreas system offset thought to have been accommodated by the entire East Bay fault system. As shown previously, at ca. 1.5–2.5 Ma the Hayward-Calaveras connection changed from a right-step, releasing regime to a left-step, restraining regime, with the consequent effective abandonment of the Silver Creek fault. This reorganization was, perhaps, preceded by development of the previously proposed basin-bisecting Mount Misery fault, a fault that directly linked the southern end of the Hayward fault with the southern Calaveras fault during extinction of pull-apart activity. Historic seismicity indicates that slip below a depth of 5 km is mostly transferred from the Calaveras

  19. Feasibility and potential effects of the proposed Amargosa Creek Recharge Project, Palmdale, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Allen H.; Siade, Adam J.; Martin, Peter; Langenheim, V.E.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Burgess, Matthew K.

    2015-09-17

    Historically, the city of Palmdale and vicinity have relied on groundwater as the primary source of water, owing, in large part, to the scarcity of surface water in the region. Despite recent importing of surface water, groundwater withdrawal for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use has resulted in groundwater-level declines near the city of Palmdale in excess of 200 feet since the early 1900s. To meet the growing water demand in the area, the city of Palmdale has proposed the Amargosa Creek Recharge Project (ACRP), which has a footprint of about 150 acres along the Amargosa Creek 2 miles west of Palmdale, California. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of recharging the Antelope Valley aquifer system by using infiltration of imported surface water from the California State Water Project in percolation basins at the ACRP.

  20. Flood-inundation maps for the Schoharie Creek at Prattsville, New York, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2016-02-18

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 2.6-mile reach of the Schoharie Creek at Prattsville, New York, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Schoharie Creek at Prattsville (station number 01350000). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained online from the USGS National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/) or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/), which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site. National Weather Service-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas and depths of flood inundation.