Creativity and problem Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
René Victor Valqui Vidal
2004-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.
Creativity and Problem Solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2004-01-01
This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....
Creativity and Problem Solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2004-01-01
This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
岳科来
2016-01-01
There have considerable number of design philosophies and design methods in this world,but today I’d like to intorduce a new design problem solving system which comes from Chinese traditonal religion Dao.
Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving
Golnabi, Laura
2016-01-01
This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…
Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving
Golnabi, Laura
2016-01-01
This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…
Developing Creativity through Collaborative Problem Solving
Albert, Lillie R.; Kim, Rina
2013-01-01
This paper discusses an alternative approach for developing problem solving experiences for students. The major argument is that students can develop their creativity by engaging in collaborative problem solving activities in which they apply a variety of mathematical methods creatively to solve problems. The argument is supported by: considering…
Creative Problem Solving for Social Studies.
Weiss, Steve; Kinney, Mark; And Others
1980-01-01
This article discusses techniques for integrating real problem solving and decision making into secondary social studies programs. Approaches to creative problem solving are presented, and various systematic decision making programs currently available for classroom use are identified. (Author/RM)
Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.
Polland, Mark J.
In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…
Creative problem solving: an applied university course
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
René Victor Valqui Vidal
2010-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the principles of active learning and the contents of a creativity course entitled: Creativity and Problem Solving. The main purpose of this course is to create a space to discuss, reflect and experiment with creativity, creative processes and creative tools of relevance for students of any speciality (60% will end as operational researchers working with problem solving approaches. This course has run with big success since 1998 at the Technical University of Denmark. It started with very few students, now is a very popular course attracting many students from abroad. The selected themes, the methods and techniques, the structure of this course, the learning processes and the achieved results are presented. The results of student's and teacher's evaluations are also outlined. Finally some reflections, recommendations and conclusions are discussed.
Incubation and intuition in creative problem solving.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenneth James Gilhooly
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered. Some recent studies of divergent thinking, using the Alternative Uses task, carried out in my laboratory regarding Immediate v. Delayed Incubation and the effects of resource competition from interpolated activities are discussed. These studies supported a role for Unconscious Work as against Intermittent Conscious work or Beneficial Forgetting in incubation.What form might unconscious work take? On theoretical grounds, the notion that Unconscious Work involves the same processing steps as Conscious Work but minus conscious awareness is discounted, despite some recent arguments that the unconscious can duplicate any conscious function. A candidate account in terms of spreading activation, coupled with below-threshold but active goal representations, is put forward. This account could explain the emergence of subjectively sudden intuitive solutions (Aha-insight solutions as a result of unconscious processes (Unconscious Work during incubation periods.
Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
María F. Ayllón
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas, flexibility (range of ideas, novelty (unique idea and elaboration (idea development. These factors contribute, among others, to the fact that schoolchildren are competent in mathematics. The problem solving and posing are a very powerful evaluation tool that shows the mathematical reasoning and creative level of a person. Creativity is part of the mathematics education and is a necessary ingredient to perform mathematical assignments. This contribution presents some important research works about problem posing and solving related to the development of mathematical knowledge and creativity. To that end, it is based on various beliefs reflected in the literature with respect to notions of creativity, problem solving and posing.
Sociodrama: Group Creative Problem Solving in Action.
Riley, John F.
1990-01-01
Sociodrama is presented as a structured, yet flexible, method of encouraging the use of creative thinking to examine a difficult problem. An example illustrates the steps involved in putting sociodrama into action. Production techniques useful in sociodrama include the soliloquy, double, role reversal, magic shop, unity of opposites, and audience…
Creative Problem Solving A Guide for Trainers and Management
Van Gundy, Arthur B
1987-01-01
Creative problem solving (CPS) is a six-step process designed to help people systematically resolve nonroutine, ambiguous types of problems. Because most organizational problems tend to be nonroutine, skill in using CPS process can confer a significant competitive advantage. Creative Problem Solving gives training managers the information they need to develop and teach a course on CPS. VanGundy provides an overview of the process, elements of the creative climate needed to foster CPS and innovative thinking, creative thinking exercises designed to illustrate specific CPS principles, and easy-t
Teaching Creativity and Inventive Problem Solving in Science
DeHaan, Robert L.
2009-01-01
Engaging learners in the excitement of science, helping them discover the value of evidence-based reasoning and higher-order cognitive skills, and teaching them to become creative problem solvers have long been goals of science education reformers. But the means to achieve these goals, especially methods to promote creative thinking in scientific problem solving, have not become widely known or used. In this essay, I review the evidence that creativity is not a single hard-to-measure property...
The Intermediate Impossible: A Prewriting Activity for Creative Problem Solving.
Karloff, Kenneth
1985-01-01
Adapts Edward de Bono's "Intermediate Impossible" strategy--for considering ideas that normally would be discarded as stepping-stones to new ideas--for use as a prewriting activity to enhance creative problem solving. (HTH)
Creativity, Problem Solving, and Solution Set Sightedness: Radically Reformulating BVSR
Simonton, Dean Keith
2012-01-01
Too often, psychological debates become polarized into dichotomous positions. Such polarization may have occurred with respect to Campbell's (1960) blind variation and selective retention (BVSR) theory of creativity. To resolve this unnecessary controversy, BVSR was radically reformulated with respect to creative problem solving. The reformulation…
Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving
Ayllón, María F.; Gómez, Isabel A.; Ballesta-Claver, Julio
2016-01-01
This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas), flexibility (range of ideas),…
Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.
2008-01-01
More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…
Thinking can cause forgetting: memory dynamics in creative problem solving.
Storm, Benjamin C; Angello, Genna; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon
2011-09-01
Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that retrieval can cause the forgetting of related or competing items in memory (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present research, we examined whether an analogous phenomenon occurs in the context of creative problem solving. Using the Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962), we found that attempting to generate a novel common associate to 3 cue words caused the forgetting of other strong associates related to those cue words. This problem-solving-induced forgetting effect occurred even when participants failed to generate a viable solution, increased in magnitude when participants spent additional time problem solving, and was positively correlated with problem-solving success on a separate set of RAT problems. These results implicate a role for forgetting in overcoming fixation in creative problem solving.
LEVELING STUDENTS’ CREATIVE THINKING IN SOLVING AND POSING MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tatag Yuli Eko Siswono
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Many researchers assume that people are creative, but their degree ofcreativity is different. The notion of creative thinking level has beendiscussed .by experts. The perspective of mathematics creative thinkingrefers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which is basedon intuition but has a conscious aim. The divergent thinking is focusedon flexibility, fluency, and novelty in mathematical problem solving andproblem posing. As students have various backgrounds and differentabilities, they possess different potential in thinking patterns,imagination, fantasy and performance; therefore, students have differentlevels of creative thinking. A research study was conducted in order todevelop a framework for students’ levels of creative thinking inmathematics. This research used a qualitative approach to describe thecharacteristics of the levels of creative thinking. Task-based interviewswere conducted to collect data with ten 8thgrade junior secondary schoolstudents. The results distinguished five levels of creative thinking,namely level 0 to level 4 with different characteristics in each level.These differences are based on fluency, flexibility, and novelty inmathematical problem solving and problem posing.Keywords: student’s creative thinking, problem posing, flexibility,fluency, novelty DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.1.1.794.17-40
Teaching creativity and inventive problem solving in science.
DeHaan, Robert L
2009-01-01
Engaging learners in the excitement of science, helping them discover the value of evidence-based reasoning and higher-order cognitive skills, and teaching them to become creative problem solvers have long been goals of science education reformers. But the means to achieve these goals, especially methods to promote creative thinking in scientific problem solving, have not become widely known or used. In this essay, I review the evidence that creativity is not a single hard-to-measure property. The creative process can be explained by reference to increasingly well-understood cognitive skills such as cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control that are widely distributed in the population. I explore the relationship between creativity and the higher-order cognitive skills, review assessment methods, and describe several instructional strategies for enhancing creative problem solving in the college classroom. Evidence suggests that instruction to support the development of creativity requires inquiry-based teaching that includes explicit strategies to promote cognitive flexibility. Students need to be repeatedly reminded and shown how to be creative, to integrate material across subject areas, to question their own assumptions, and to imagine other viewpoints and possibilities. Further research is required to determine whether college students' learning will be enhanced by these measures.
Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving.
Isen, A M; Daubman, K A; Nowicki, G P
1987-06-01
Four experiments indicated that positive affect, induced by means of seeing a few minutes of a comedy film or by means of receiving a small bag of candy, improved performance on two tasks that are generally regarded as requiring creative ingenuity: Duncker's (1945) candle task and M. T. Mednick, S. A. Mednick, and E. V. Mednick's (1964) Remote Associates Test. One condition in which negative affect was induced and two in which subjects engaged in physical exercise (intended to represent affectless arousal) failed to produce comparable improvements in creative performance. The influence of positive affect on creativity was discussed in terms of a broader theory of the impact of positive affect on cognitive organization.
INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTS FOR STIMULATING CREATIVITY AND PROBLEM SOLVING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Octav Dumitru DAFINOIU
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract The creation of knowledge, the advanced research in strategic directions, the increasing of economic competitiveness and the transfer of knowledge in the economy are priorities of economic policies. They are based on research, development and innovation activities, which although take various shapes, have something in common: they relate to problem solving. Strategies, methods and techniques used in order to find solutions for problems are based on problem solving techniques taken from psychology. This paper, which creates a bridge between the field of economy and that of psychology, proposes innovative tools to stimulate creativity and the problem solving ability. The tools suggested are based on analogy, the fundamental operation of thinking and creative imagination, and can be applied in various business functions.
Thinking Can Cause Forgetting: Memory Dynamics in Creative Problem Solving
Storm, Benjamin C.; Angello, Genna; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon
2011-01-01
Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that retrieval can cause the forgetting of related or competing items in memory (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present research, we examined whether an analogous phenomenon occurs in the context of creative problem solving. Using the Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962), we found…
Creative and Participative Problem Solving - The Art and the Science
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
This book collects my experiences as a facilitator for many different communities and organizations and as a teacher at the Technical University of Denmark for the courses Creativity and Problem Solving and Systemic Operational Research. Several of the chapters has been used in my lecturing...
Creative Problem Solving as a Learning Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Ninck
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The Business School at the Bern University of Applied Sciences is offering a new MScBA degree program in business development. The paper presents a practical report about the action learning approach in the course 'Business Analysis and Design'. Our problem-based approach is more than simply 'learning by doing'. In a world of increasing complexity, taking action alone will not result in a learning effect per se. What is imperative is to structure and facilitate the learning process on different levels: individual construction of mental models; understanding needs and developing adequate solutions; critical reflection of methods and processes. Reflective practice, where individuals are learning from their own professional experiences rather than from formal teaching or knowledge transfer, may be the most important source for lifelong learning.
[High intellectual capacity, problem-solving and creativity].
Sastre-Riba, Sylvia; Pascual-Sufrate, M Teresa
2013-02-22
The aim of the study is focused on the characteristics and components of creativity as a multidimensional construct in the context of intelligence, divergent thinking and problem solving, and their incorporation into the definition and explanation of intellectual functioning of giftedness and talent. It shows the progress of the investigation from the initial postulates of Guilford about the nature and cognitive processes involved in the creative act, its features and components, development and differential expression in the high intellectual ability, and the neurological correlates neuropsychological research is beginning to show. We present the results obtained with 41 participants with high intellectual capacity profiles of giftedness or talent of 6 to 14 years. We measure their cognitive skills through BADyG or DAT tests, and creative skills by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), in two measuring points. Analyses show comparatively among high ability profiles: 1) the creative measurement stability between the two time points, 2) statistically significant differences between the creative components of fluency, flexibility and originality, related to the profiles of giftedness or talent (convergent or divergent), 3) the statistically significant changes among the scores of the creative components, at all ages studied.
Creative Dance: Singapore Children's Creative Thinking and Problem-Solving Responses
Keun, Leong Lai; Hunt, Peggy
2006-01-01
An important outcome of Singapore's education system is the development of creative thinking skills. This project investigates the impact of a creative dance unit on a class of Primary One (seven-year-old) children's usage of bodily kinaesthetic intelligence to solve problems. One key objective was for the researchers to observe something new,…
Creativity and Ethics: The Relationship of Creative and Ethical Problem-Solving.
Mumford, Michael D; Waples, Ethan P; Antes, Alison L; Brown, Ryan P; Connelly, Shane; Murphy, Stephen T; Devenport, Lynn D
2010-02-01
Students of creativity have long been interested in the relationship between creativity and deviant behaviors such as criminality, mental disease, and unethical behavior. In the present study we wished to examine the relationship between creative thinking skills and ethical decision-making among scientists. Accordingly, 258 doctoral students in the health, biological, and social sciences were asked to complete a measure of creative processing skills (e.g., problem definition, conceptual combination, idea generation) and a measure of ethical decision-making examining four domains, data management, study conduct, professional practices, and business practices. It was found that ethical decision-making in all four of these areas was related to creative problem-solving processes with late cycle processes (e.g., idea generation and solution monitoring) proving particularly important. The implications of these findings for understanding the relationship between creative and deviant thought are discussed.
A Cross Cultural Examination of Creative Problem Solving Style: The Dutch Translation of VIEW
Isaksen, Scott G.; De Schryver, Luc; Onkelinx, Jonas
2010-01-01
Creativity and Creative Problem Solving are globally important. This study examined the cross-cultural applicability of creative problem solving styles by translating VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style from its native English into Dutch and examining its psychometric properties and preliminary validation evidence. In general, support was…
The "Iron Inventor": Using Creative Problem Solving to Spur Student Creativity
Lee, Seung Hwan; Hoffman, K. Douglas
2014-01-01
Based on the popular television show the "Iron Chef," an innovative marketing activity called the "Iron Inventor" is introduced. Using the creative problem-solving approach and active learning techniques, the Iron Inventor facilitates student learning pertaining to the step-by-step processes of creating a new product and…
Developing Creative Problem Solving and Professional Identity through ICT in Higher Education
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Horn, Line Helverskov; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin
2016-01-01
This chapter regards creative problem solving as a professional identity skill that can be fostered by creative learning environments supported by ICT. A systematic literature review is provided in order to build relationships between creative problem solving, creative learning environments, ICT......, and professional identity in higher education. The literature review will focus on the following research questions: How do ICTs support a creative learning environment in fostering creative problem solving skills? How do ICTs relate to or affect the characteristics of professional identity in the context...
Requirements Engineering as Creative Problem Solving: A Research Agenda for Idea Finding
Maiden, N.; Jones, S; Karlsen, I. K.; Neill, R.; Zachos, K.; Milne, A.
2010-01-01
This vision paper frames requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. Its purpose is to enable requirements researchers and practitioners to recruit relevant theories, models, techniques and tools from creative problem solving to understand and support requirements processes more effectively. It uses 4 drivers to motivate the case for requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. It then maps established requirements activities onto one of the longest-esta...
Creativity: A Complementary Relationship between Information Demand and Success at Problem Solving
Barnes, G. Michael
1978-01-01
Creativity, intelligence, and problem-solving tasks that varied in the explicitness of problem definition and in the format for an acceptable solution were administered to 100 college students. Two hypotheses that distinguished between concepts of creative and intelligent problem-solving were presented, and syntactical and strategic distinctions…
Teaching People to Manage Constraints: Effects on Creative Problem-Solving
Peterson, David R.; Barrett, Jamie D.; Hester, Kimberly S.; Robledo, Issac C.; Hougen, Dean F.; Day, Eric A.; Mumford, Michael D.
2013-01-01
Constraints often inhibit creative problem-solving. This study examined the impact of training strategies for managing constraints on creative problem-solving. Undergraduates, 218 in all, were asked to work through 1 to 4 self-paced instructional programs focused on constraint management strategies. The quality, originality, and elegance of…
Skills and Dispositions for Creative Problem Solving during the Artmaking Process
Pitri, Eliza
2013-01-01
In this article, Eliza Pitri states, "when allowed to make and explain their own choices, students develop invaluable creative problem-solving skills." Opportunities for such critical thinking abound in the art classroom. The importance of identifying how skills and dispositions related to creative problem solving are expressed in a…
Kim, SugHee; Chung, KwangSik; Yu, HeonChang
2013-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to propose a training program for creative problem solving based on computer programming. The proposed program will encourage students to solve real-life problems through a creative thinking spiral related to cognitive skills with computer programming. With the goal of enhancing digital fluency through this proposed…
Teaching People to Manage Constraints: Effects on Creative Problem-Solving
Peterson, David R.; Barrett, Jamie D.; Hester, Kimberly S.; Robledo, Issac C.; Hougen, Dean F.; Day, Eric A.; Mumford, Michael D.
2013-01-01
Constraints often inhibit creative problem-solving. This study examined the impact of training strategies for managing constraints on creative problem-solving. Undergraduates, 218 in all, were asked to work through 1 to 4 self-paced instructional programs focused on constraint management strategies. The quality, originality, and elegance of…
Incubation, Insight, and Creative Problem Solving: A Unified Theory and a Connectionist Model
Helie, Sebastien; Sun, Ron
2010-01-01
This article proposes a unified framework for understanding creative problem solving, namely, the explicit-implicit interaction theory. This new theory of creative problem solving constitutes an attempt at providing a more unified explanation of relevant phenomena (in part by reinterpreting/integrating various fragmentary existing theories of…
Problem Solving and Creativity in Public Policy Courses: Promoting Interest and Civic Engagement
Wukich, Clayton; Siciliano, Michael D.
2014-01-01
This article examines the impact of problem-solving and creativity exercises on student interest in public policy making and behavior related to civic engagement. Researchers have long described policy making as a function of problem solving. Creativity has also been identified as an important component of the process. While these skills are…
Problem Solving and Creativity in Public Policy Courses: Promoting Interest and Civic Engagement
Wukich, Clayton; Siciliano, Michael D.
2014-01-01
This article examines the impact of problem-solving and creativity exercises on student interest in public policy making and behavior related to civic engagement. Researchers have long described policy making as a function of problem solving. Creativity has also been identified as an important component of the process. While these skills are…
Carmeli, Abraham; Sheaffer, Zachary; Binyamin, Galy; Reiter-Palmon, Roni; Shimoni, Tali
2014-01-01
Previous research has pointed to the importance of transformational leadership in facilitating employees' creative outcomes. However, the mechanism by which transformational leadership cultivates employees' creative problem-solving capacity is not well understood. Drawing on theories of leadership, information processing and creativity,…
Carmeli, Abraham; Sheaffer, Zachary; Binyamin, Galy; Reiter-Palmon, Roni; Shimoni, Tali
2014-01-01
Previous research has pointed to the importance of transformational leadership in facilitating employees' creative outcomes. However, the mechanism by which transformational leadership cultivates employees' creative problem-solving capacity is not well understood. Drawing on theories of leadership, information processing and creativity,…
The influence of transformational leadership on organizational creative problem solving capacity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stevanović Ana
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In order to successfully operate and remain in contemporary turbulent marketplace, organizations need to foster their employees' creativity, because it is a prerequisite of organizational innovation. As creativity is a precursor of innovation, and as innovation is an example of creative solutions implementation, there arenumerous situations which require creative behavior of employees and that can be labeled as 'problems'. Therefore, creative problem solving turns out to be relevant in understanding of creativity. The aim of this paper is to offer an answer to the question - how transformational leadership influences the improvement of the capacity for creative problem solving within the organization. On the basis of the relevant literature, but also numerous practical examples of successful companies, we realized that transformational leaders foster a creative attitude of the employees and help them to build capacity for creative problem solving. Also, we realized that many studies have neglected the psychological conditions under which this exchange takes place. As creative problem solving requires extensive and strenuous cognitive processes, we assumed that the role of psychological safety is necessary because employees need to feel free during proposing new creative solutions.
Analysis of the Impact on Creative Problem Solving in an Organization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jasmina Žnideršič
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: What affects creative problem solving in anorganization?Purpose: The aim is to obtain a better picture by using statisticalanalysis on the effects of workers' creativity in problem solving inan organizationMethod: The data was obtained by interviewing employees and usingnonparametric tests (χ2 test, Fisher test and χ2 test with Yates correction for data analysis. Results: The research results showed that fear of failure does not affect creative problem solving nor do creativity test encourageworkers towards greater creativity, but prior knowledge and experience do influence workers' creative problem-solving.Organization: Results of this research study will provide managers inan organization a clearer picture of employees’ views, whether there is dominance of routine work, poor stimulated creativity and other factors that affect their creativity.Society: Opinion of workers in an organization can encourage other organizations to explore the impact on creativity of their employees.Originality: Because the data were obtained from a small organization, the results of this research study can only refer tothe setting it researched.Limitations/Future Research: To obtain a wider picture of the effectson creativity, a greater number of employees would need to be included as well as other factors would need to be analysed.This research study took place in an organization where creativityand problem solving are not required.
Teaching Creative Problem Solving Methods to Undergraduate Economics and Business Students
Cancer, Vesna
2014-01-01
This paper seeks to explore the need for and possibility of teaching current and potential problem solvers--undergraduate students in the economic and business field to define problems, to generate and choose creative and useful ideas and to verify them. It aims to select an array of quick and easy-to-use creative problem solving (CPS) techniques.…
INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTS FOR STIMULATING CREATIVITY AND PROBLEM SOLVING
Octav Dumitru DAFINOIU
2015-01-01
Abstract The creation of knowledge, the advanced research in strategic directions, the increasing of economic competitiveness and the transfer of knowledge in the economy are priorities of economic policies. They are based on research, development and innovation activities, which although take various shapes, have something in common: they relate to problem solving. Strategies, methods and techniques used in order to find solutions for problems are based on problem solving techniques taken f...
Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Developing students’ creative problem-solving skills is paramount to today’s teachers, due to the exponentially growing demand for cognitive plasticity and critical thinking in the workforce. In today’s knowledge economy, workers must be able to participate in creative dialogue and complex problem-solving....... This has prompted institutions of higher education to implement new pedagogical methods such as problem-based and case-based education. The Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education is an essential, comprehensive collection of the newest research in higher...... education, creativity, problem solving, and pedagogical design. It provides the framework for further research opportunities in these dynamic, necessary fields. Featuring work regarding problem-oriented curriculum and its applications and challenges, this book is essential for policy makers, teachers...
Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chemi, Tatiana
2016-01-01
Developing students’ creative problem-solving skills is paramount to today’s teachers, due to the exponentially growing demand for cognitive plasticity and critical thinking in the workforce. In today’s knowledge economy, workers must be able to participate in creative dialogue and complex problem......-solving. This has prompted institutions of higher education to implement new pedagogical methods such as problem-based and case-based education. The Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education is an essential, comprehensive collection of the newest research in higher...... education, creativity, problem solving, and pedagogical design. It provides the framework for further research opportunities in these dynamic, necessary fields. Featuring work regarding problem-oriented curriculum and its applications and challenges, this book is essential for policy makers, teachers...
Leveling Students' Creative Thinking in Solving and Posing Mathematical Problem
Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko
2010-01-01
Many researchers assume that people are creative, but their degree of creativity is different. The notion of creative thinking level has been discussed .by experts. The perspective of mathematics creative thinking refers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which is based on intuition but has a conscious aim. The divergent thinking…
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
de Jager, Cherylene; Muller, Anton; Roodt, Gert
2013-01-01
Orientation: An important evaluation function is to determine whether creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills can be developed through training and to assess whether these skills, on their own...
Using Depth Intuition in Creative Problem Solving and Strategic Innovation.
Markley, O. W.
1988-01-01
The article describes four step-by-step methods to sharpen intuitive capacities for problem-solving and innovation. Visionary and transpersonal knowledge processes are tapped to gain access to relatively deep levels of intuition. The methods are considered useful for overcoming internal blockages or resistance, developing organizational mission…
Thinking about Applications: Effects on Mental Models and Creative Problem-Solving
Barrett, Jamie D.; Peterson, David R.; Hester, Kimberly S.; Robledo, Issac C.; Day, Eric A.; Hougen, Dean P.; Mumford, Michael D.
2013-01-01
Many techniques have been used to train creative problem-solving skills. Although the available techniques have often proven to be effective, creative training often discounts the value of thinking about applications. In this study, 248 undergraduates were asked to develop advertising campaigns for a new high-energy soft drink. Solutions to this…
Aldous, Carol R.
2007-01-01
This paper examines the intersection between creativity, problem solving, cognitive psychology and neuroscience in a discussion surrounding the genesis of new ideas and innovative science. Three creative activities are considered. These are (a) the interaction between visual-spatial and analytical or verbal reasoning, (b) attending to feeling in…
The Impact of Metacognitive Instruction on Creative Problem Solving
Hargrove, Ryan A.; Nietfeld, John L.
2015-01-01
This study examined the impact of teaching creativity in the form of associative thinking strategies within a metacognitive framework. A representative sample of 30 university design students was selected from a larger section (N = 122) to participate in a 16-week supplemental course. Each week a new creative thinking strategy was integrated with…
Creativity for Problem Solvers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2009-01-01
This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes specially related to problem solving. Central publications related to the theme are briefly reviewed. Creative tools and approaches suitable to support problem solving are also presented. Finally......, the paper outlines the author’s experiences using creative tools and approaches to: Facilitation of problem solving processes, strategy development in organisations, design of optimisation systems for large scale and complex logistic systems, and creative design of software optimisation for complex non...
Mohamed, Ahmed; Maker, C. June; Lubart, Todd
2012-01-01
In this study, we explored whether creativity was domain specific or domain general. The relationships between students' scores on three creative problem-solving activities (math, spatial artistic, and oral linguistic) in the DISCOVER assessment (Discovering Intellectual Strengths and Capabilities While Observing Varied Ethnic Responses) and the…
Jaskari, Minna-Maarit
2013-01-01
Creativity and marketing imagination are essential core competencies for marketers. Therefore, higher marketing education emphasizes creativity in several ways. However, assessing creativity and creative problem solving is challenging and tools for this purpose have not been developed in the context of marketing education. To address this gap, we…
Jaskari, Minna-Maarit
2013-01-01
Creativity and marketing imagination are essential core competencies for marketers. Therefore, higher marketing education emphasizes creativity in several ways. However, assessing creativity and creative problem solving is challenging and tools for this purpose have not been developed in the context of marketing education. To address this gap, we…
Cheng, Kai Wen
2011-01-01
Background: Facing highly competitive and changing environment, cultivating citizens with problem-solving attitudes is one critical vision of education. In brief, the importance of education is to cultivate students with practical abilities. Realizing the advantages of web-based cooperative learning (web-based CL) and creative problem solving…
Enhancing creative problem solving in an integrated visual art and geometry program: A pilot study
Schoevers, E.M.; Kroesbergen, E.H.
2017-01-01
This article describes a new pedagogical method, an integrated visual art and geometry program, which has the aim to increase primary school students' creative problem solving and geometrical ability. This paper presents the rationale for integrating visual art and geometry education. Furthermore
Fostering Student Engagement: Creative Problem-Solving in Small Group Facilitations
Samson, Patricia L.
2015-01-01
Creative Problem-Solving (CPS) can be a transformative teaching methodology that supports a dialogical learning atmosphere that can transcend the traditional classroom and inspire excellence in students by linking real life experiences with the curriculum. It supports a sense of inquiry that incorporates both experiential learning and the…
Tyagi, Tarun Kumar
2016-01-01
The relationship between mathematical creativity (MC) and mathematical problem-solving performance (MP) has often been studied but the causal relation between these two constructs has yet to be clearly reported. The main purpose of this study was to define the causal relationship between MC and MP. Data from a representative sample of 480…
The Effects of Training Preservice Teacher in Creative Problem Solving and Classroom Management
Pannells, Tammy C.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of teaching a specific creative problem solving model to preservice teachers. The study included 74 participants, 67 females and 7 males enrolled in an undergraduate educational psychology course in a Mid-western university. In a 2 x 2 full factorial design, participants were randomly…
[Brain mechanisms of imagination during verbal creative problem solving].
Rodionov, A R
2013-01-01
In the present study, EEG spectral analysis was used to examine the brain mechanisms of imagination in student actors and student non-actors under three experimental conditions: when subjects created a coherent story based on a presented picture (STORY), listed the details of the presented picture (DETAIL) and executed simple calculation while they looked at neutral background (COUNT). Statistical comparison of STORY and DETAIL conditions revealed significantly higher spectral power in alpha1 (7.5-10 Hz) and alpha2 (10-12.5 Hz) bands in the most of investigated cortical areas in actors and non-actors. By contrast, in comparisons STORY-COUNT and DETAIL-COUNT significantly lower spectral power in the same frequency bands in all investigated cortical areas in both groups was obtained. The most prominent differences in comparison STORY-DETAIL were revealed over the central parietal area. The most prominent differences in comparisons STORY-COUNT and DETAIL-COUNT were revealed mainly over the occipital areas. These EEG changes were found in both groups of subjects. Taking this fact into account we consider parietal areas to be stable element of the brain system which maintain verbal creativity in actors and non-actors. The discussion of our results with respect to those obtained in previous studies leads to conclusion that parietal areas are involved into the mechanism of selective inhibition of visual information processing during imagination.
Sweat, Noah W; Bates, Larry W; Hendricks, Peter S
2016-01-01
Developing methods for improving creativity is of broad interest. Classic psychedelics may enhance creativity; however, the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. This study was designed to assess whether a relationship exists between naturalistic classic psychedelic use and heightened creative problem-solving ability and if so, whether this is mediated by lifetime mystical experience. Participants (N = 68) completed a survey battery assessing lifetime mystical experience and circumstances surrounding the most memorable experience. They were then administered a functional fixedness task in which faster completion times indicate greater creative problem-solving ability. Participants reporting classic psychedelic use concurrent with mystical experience (n = 11) exhibited significantly faster times on the functional fixedness task (Cohen's d = -.87; large effect) and significantly greater lifetime mystical experience (Cohen's d = .93; large effect) than participants not reporting classic psychedelic use concurrent with mystical experience. However, lifetime mystical experience was unrelated to completion times on the functional fixedness task (standardized β = -.06), and was therefore not a significant mediator. Classic psychedelic use may increase creativity independent of its effects on mystical experience. Maximizing the likelihood of mystical experience may need not be a goal of psychedelic interventions designed to boost creativity.
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Komkrit Chookhom
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The purposes of this study aimed to: 1 develop plan for creative problem solving learning activities with a required efficiency of 80/80, 2 find out effectiveness indices of the plan for creative problem solving learning activities, 3 compare learning achievements, problem-solving thinking abilities of the students who learned using creative problem solving learning activities between pretest and posttest, 4 compare learning achievements, problem-solving thinking abilities of the students who learned using conventional learning approaches between pretest and posttest, and 5 compare learning achievements, problem-solving thinking abilities of the students who learned using creative problem solving learning activities and those who conventional learning approaches, The samples for this study consisted of vocational certificate level 1 students in second semester of the academic year of 2014, Kantharalak Technical College. They were selected using the cluster random sampling technique and randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group one learning by creative problem solving learning activities, and the other one experimental group learning by conventional learning approaches. The tools used in the study were: 1 plans for creative problem solving learning activities and conventional Learning approaches, The instruments used in this study were: 6 units, 3 hours per week in each plan, for a total of 18 hours of teaching 2 a 30 items 4 choice achievement test with discriminating powers (B ranging 0.22-0.63 with a reliability (rcc of 0.86, and 3 a 28 item 4 choice test of problem-solving thinking with discriminating powers (B ranging 0.22-0.71 with a reliability (rcc of 0.76. Basic statistics used for analyzing the collected data were percentage, mean, and standard deviation, and the statistic used for testing the hypotheses was Hotelling’s T2 . The results of the study were as follows: 1. The efficiencies of the plan for creative problem
Owoh, Jeremy Strickland
2015-01-01
In today's technology enriched schools and workforces, creative problem-solving is involved in many aspects of a person's life. The educational systems of developed nations are designed to raise students who are creative and skillful in solving complex problems. Technology and the age of information require nations to develop generations of…
Owoh, Jeremy Strickland
2015-01-01
In today's technology enriched schools and workforces, creative problem-solving is involved in many aspects of a person's life. The educational systems of developed nations are designed to raise students who are creative and skillful in solving complex problems. Technology and the age of information require nations to develop generations of…
Scriptwriting as a creative, collaborative learning process of problem finding and problem solving
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Eva Novrup Redvall
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Artiklen bygger på et kvalitativt case-studie af instruktør Annette K. Olesen og manuskriptforfatter Kim Fupz Aakesons samarbejde om at skrive manuskriptet til spillefilmen Lille soldat. Inspireret af et studie af ‘problem finding in art’ af Csikszentmihalyi og Getzels (1976 og med brug af Isaksen og Treffingers model af stadierne i kreative processer (1994 fra forskning inden for Creative Problem Solving (CPS anskues processen som en kollektiv, kreativ proces baseret på kontinuerlig ‘problem finding’ og ‘problem solving’. Artiklen diskuterer styrkerne ved en dynamisk tilgang til at løse ‘discovered problem situations’ som at udvikle en original ide til et færdigt manuskript, og den udfordrer den traditionelle opfattelse af filmproduktion som bestående af mere adskilte faser, hvor skuespillere og filmhold først inddrages efter færdiggørelsen af et manuskript i stedet for at levere ‘gaver’ under dets tilblivelse. Artiklen bidrager med ny viden om kreative samarbejder i dansk film og peger videre mod at inddrage viden fra produktionsanalyse i diskussioner af værker såvel som authorship i filmvidenskaben.
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Ahmed Mohamed
2012-12-01
Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, we explored whether creativity was domain specific or domain general. The relationships between students’ scores on three creative problem-solving activities (math, spa-tial artistic, and oral linguistic in the DIS-COVER assessment (Discovering Intellectual Strengths and Capabilities While Observing Varied Ethnic Responses and the TCT-DP (Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Produc-tion, a non-verbal general measure of creativi-ty, were examined. The participants were 135 first and second graders from two schools in the Southwestern United States from linguisti-cally and culturally diverse backgrounds. Pearson correlations, canonical correlations, and multiple regression analyses were calcu-lated to describe the relationship between the TCT-DP and the three DISCOVER creative problem-solving activities. We found that crea-tivity has both domain-specific and domain-general aspects, but that the domain-specific component seemed more prominent. One im-plication of these results is that educators should consider assessing creativity in specific domains to place students in special programs for gifted students rather than relying only on domain-general measures of divergent think-ing or creativity.
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Cherylene De Jager
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Orientation: An important evaluation function is to determine whether creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills can be developed through training and to assess whether these skills, on their own, are sufficient to ignite innovation in organisations. Research purpose: The evaluation question that the present study aimed to address is whether employees in a corporate context, such as a financial services organisation, can develop creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills through an intervention such as a workshop. Motivation for the study: A financial services organisation commissioned the primary author of this article to design a workshop with the intent to develop the creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills of their employees in order to ignite innovation and competitiveness. Research design, approach and method: This study employed mainly qualitative research. Utilisation-focused evaluation (UFE was employed and findings from the literature review, questionnaires, pen-and-paper tests and interviews were used. The unit of analysis was a niche business unit in a South African financial services organisation.Main findings: From this study’s point of view, the most critical finding related to the confirmation that individuals can acquire creative and innovative thinking and problemsolving skills. The acquisition of these skills, however, is not sufficient on its own to establish a culture supportive of creativity and sustainable innovation. Practical/managerial implications: The development of creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills of employees is not sufficient on its own to support sustainable innovation. Managers should consciously establish determinants on an organisational as well as an individual level to create an environment supportive of sustainable innovation. Contribution/value-add: The present study indicated how a workshop can assist
The effects of implicit and explicit security priming on creative problem solving.
Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Rom, Eldad
2011-04-01
Attachment theory is a theory of affect regulation as it occurs in the context of close relationships. Early research focused on regulation of emotions through maintenance of proximity to supportive others (attachment figures) in times of need. Recently, emphasis has shifted to the regulation of emotion, and the benefits of such regulation for exploration and learning, via the activation of mental representations of attachment figures (security priming). We conducted two studies on the effects of implicit and explicit security priming on creative problem solving. In Study 1, implicit security priming (subliminal presentation of attachment figures' names) led to more creative problem solving (compared with control conditions) regardless of dispositional attachment anxiety and avoidance. In Study 2, the effects of explicit security priming (recalling experiences of being well cared for) were moderated by anxiety and avoidance. We discuss the link between attachment and exploration and the different effects of implicit and explicit security priming.
Kinsella, John J.
1970-01-01
Discussed are the nature of a mathematical problem, problem solving in the traditional and modern mathematics programs, problem solving and psychology, research related to problem solving, and teaching problem solving in algebra and geometry. (CT)
Developing Creative Problem Solving and Professional Identity through ICT in Higher Education
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Horn, Line Helverskov; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin
2016-01-01
, and professional identity in higher education. The literature review will focus on the following research questions: How do ICTs support a creative learning environment in fostering creative problem solving skills? How do ICTs relate to or affect the characteristics of professional identity in the context...... of higher education? And How do ICTs relate to or affect the formation of professional identity in the context of higher education? These questions create the structure of this chapter in which the authors propose a change of perspective in the study of professional identity and ICT, from the theoretical...... standpoint of actor-network theory. Accordingly, the conclusion of this chapter contributes to the better development of creative education by ICT and professional identity in the future....
Mumford, Michael D; Antes, Alison L; Caughron, Jared J; Connelly, Shane; Beeler, Cheryl
2010-02-01
In the present study, 258 doctoral students working in the health, biological, and social sciences were asked to solve a series of field-relevant problems calling for creative thought. Proposed solutions to these problems were scored with respect to critical creative thinking skills such as problem definition, conceptual combination, and idea generation. Results indicated that health, biological, and social scientists differed with respect to their skill in executing various operations, or processes, involved in creative thought. Interestingly, no differences were observed as a function of the students' level of experience. The implications of these findings for understanding cross-field, and cross-experience level, differences in creative thought are discussed.
Implementation of Creative Problem Solving Model to Improve The High School Student’s Metacognitive
Effendi, A.
2017-02-01
This Research is quasi-experimented study with 3×2 factorial and nonequivalent control-group design. The population in this study were all 10th grade students at one of the Senior High School in Ciamis. Furthermore, two sample groups randomly selected (experimental class and control class) with a purposive sampling technique. Each sample group divided into high, medium, and low level based on students’ mathematical prior knowledge. The experimental class used Creative Problem Solving models but the control class used conventional models. The instrument used in this study were the metacognitive ability test. The differences of metacognitive ability improvement based on students’ mathematical prior knowledge and applied learning model was tested by two ways ANOVA at significance level 0.05, after prerequisites testing are met. Based on this research, it is known that (1) Students’ metacognitive ability improvement that has been acquired the Creative Problem Solving model is significantly better than students who acquired conventional learning; (2) There are significantly differences in metacognitive abilities improvement among students who obtain the Creative Problem Solving model with students who received conventional learning in terms of students’ mathematical prior knowledge level, high, medium, and low. Metacognitive abilities improvement of Experimented students who have a high and a medium mathematical prior knowledge level, are significantly better than the improvement of Control students’ metacognitive abilities that have a high and a medium mathematical prior knowledge level. However, the increase in metacognitive abilities of students who have lower mathematical prior knowledge level in the experimental class and the control class did not differ significantly.
Tyagi, Tarun Kumar
2016-04-01
The relationship between mathematical creativity (MC) and mathematical problem-solving performance (MP) has often been studied but the causal relation between these two constructs has yet to be clearly reported. The main purpose of this study was to define the causal relationship between MC and MP. Data from a representative sample of 480 eighth-grade students were analysed using a cross-lagged panel correlation (CLPC) design. CLPC attempts to rule out plausible alternative explanation of a causal effect. The result suggests that significant predominant causal relationship was found between MC and MP. It indicates that MP was found to be a cause of MC than the converse.
Laisema, Sitthichai; Wannapiroon, Panita
2014-01-01
The purposes of this research study were: 1) to develop a Collaborative Learning Model with Virtual Team in u-Learning Environment using Creative Problem-solving Process(U-CCPS Model); 2) to evaluate a U-CCPS Model. The research procedures were divided into two phases. The first phase was to develop U-CCPS Model, and the second phase was to evaluate U-CCPS Model. The sample group in this study consisted of five experts using purposive sampling. Data were analyzed by arithmetic mean and standa...
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Ahmad Busyairi
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This study aimed to get an idea related to the development of cognitive abilities and creative thinking skills in problem solving student after being given treatment with CPS-based experimental learning and conventional learning. The method used in this research is a quasi-experimental design with the randomized pretest-posttest control group design. The research sample group of 58 high school students who are divided into two classes (class 29 experimental and 29 control group. The collected data was then analyzed using N-gain calculation, t-test, and the calculation of effect size. The result showed that the students' cognitive abilities for both classes equally increased by the moderate category. For the creative thinking skills of students in problem solving, experimental class increased by categories was increased while the control class with low category. Based on the test results show that the application of learning hypothesis-based experiments CPS can significantly improve the cognitive abilities and skills of creative thinking in solving problems of students compared to the application of conventional learning. In addition, based on the calculation of effect size indicates that the application of experiment-based learning CPS effective in improving cognitive ability and creative thinking skills in problem solving students with moderate category. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan gambaran terkait peningkatan kemampuan kognitif dan keterampilan berpikir kreatif dalam pemecahan masalah siswa setelah diberikan perlakuan dengan pembelajaran CPS berbasis eksperimen dan pembelajaran kovensional. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode kuasi eksperimen dengan desain the randomized pretest-posttest control group design. Sampel penelitian sebanyak 58 siswa SMA yang dibagi ke dalam dua kelas (29 kelas eksperimen dan 29 kelas kontrol. Data yang terkumpul kemudian dianalisis dengan menggunakan perhitungan N
Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Bangun Ruang di SMP dengan Pendekatan Creative Problem Solving
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Yuli Sulistyowati
2014-12-01
Abstract The aim of this research was to produce the solid instructional package with Creative Problem Solving approach which have good quality based on the validity, practicality, and effectiveness criteria. This study was a research and development using the developmental model adapted from Thiagarajan, Semmel, and Semmel included define, design, develop, and disseminate stages. This study produces instructional package consists of lesson plans, student worksheets, achievement tests, and mathematical reasoning tests. The results of the validation showed that the developed package is very valid based on lesson plans, student worksheets, and tests. The results of the tryout indicated that lesson plans and student worksheets are practical and effective. The practicality was in very practical category based on teacher’s assessment and practical category based on the implementation of learning and student’s assessment. The effectiveness was in the effective category based on student’s learning mastery. In the classical mastery learning it reached 76.67% for achievement and 90% for mathematical reasoning. Keywords: development, instructional package, Creative Problem Solving
Warren, David E; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C
2016-07-01
Creativity relies on a diverse set of cognitive processes associated with distinct neural correlates, and one important aspect of creativity, divergent thinking, has been associated with the hippocampus. However, hippocampal contributions to another important aspect of creativity, convergent problem solving, have not been investigated. We tested the necessity of hippocampus for convergent problem solving using a neuropsychological method. Participants with amnesia due to hippocampal damage (N = 5) and healthy normal comparison participants (N = 5) were tested using a task that promoted solutions based on existing knowledge (Bowden and Jung-Beeman, 2003). During each trial, participants were given a list of three words (e.g., fly, man, place) and asked to respond with a word that could be combined with each of the three words (e.g., fire). The amnesic group produced significantly fewer correct responses than the healthy comparison group. These findings indicate that the hippocampus is necessary for normal convergent problem solving and that changes in the status of the hippocampus should affect convergent problem solving in the context of creative problem-solving across short intervals. This proposed contribution of the hippocampus to convergent problem solving is consistent with an expanded perspective on hippocampal function that acknowledges its role in cognitive processes beyond declarative memory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Alhusaini, Abdulnasser Alashaal F.
The Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS) model was developed in 2004 by C. June Maker and colleagues as an intervention for gifted students to develop creative problem solving ability through the use of real-world problems. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the REAPS model on developing students' general creativity and creative problem solving in science with two durations as independent variables. The long duration of the REAPS model implementation lasted five academic quarters or approximately 10 months; the short duration lasted two quarters or approximately four months. The dependent variables were students' general creativity and creative problem solving in science. The second purpose of the study was to explore which aspects of creative problem solving (i.e., generating ideas, generating different types of ideas, generating original ideas, adding details to ideas, generating ideas with social impact, finding problems, generating and elaborating on solutions, and classifying elements) were most affected by the long duration of the intervention. The REAPS model in conjunction with Amabile's (1983; 1996) model of creative performance provided the theoretical framework for this study. The study was conducted using data from the Project of Differentiation for Diverse Learners in Regular Classrooms (i.e., the Australian Project) in which one public elementary school in the eastern region of Australia cooperated with the DISCOVER research team at the University of Arizona. All students in the school from first to sixth grade participated in the study. The total sample was 360 students, of which 115 were exposed to a long duration and 245 to a short duration of the REAPS model. The principal investigators used a quasi-experimental research design in which all students in the school received the treatment for different durations. Students in both groups completed pre- and posttests using the Test of Creative Thinking
Nembhard, Ingrid M; Cherian, Praseetha; Bradley, Elizabeth H
2014-10-01
This article examines the effect on quality improvement of two common but distinct approaches to organizational learning: importing best practices (an externally oriented approach rooted in learning by imitating others' best practices) and internal creative problem solving (an internally oriented approach rooted in learning by experimenting with self-generated solutions). We propose that independent and interaction effects of these approaches depend on where organizations are in their improvement journey - initial push or later phase. We examine this contingency in hospitals focused on improving treatment time for patients with heart attacks. Our results show that importing best practices helps hospitals achieve initial phase but not later phase improvement. Once hospitals enter the later phase of their efforts, however, significant improvement requires creative problem solving as well. Together, our results suggest that importing best practices delivers greater short-term improvement, but continued improvement depends on creative problem solving. © The Author(s) 2014.
Effects of Positive Mood on Generative and Evaluative Thinking in Creative Problem Solving
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Jennifer Politis
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to examine the role of positive mood on generative and evaluative thinking in creative problem solving. Participants included 89 middle school students who watched either a positive or neutral mood video program. After students watched the video, they completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS scale to determine their current mood. Participants were then divided into three groups and given a divergent thinking task to complete. Group A was asked to generate potential solutions to a problem (generative thinking. Group B was given one solution to the problem that had been offered by participants’ peers in a previous pilot study and then asked to generate possible advantages to this particular solution (evaluative thinking. Group C was given the potential solution but asked to generate potential disadvantages (also evaluative thinking. Students in the positive mood condition were significantly more fluent than those who watched the neutral video. Students in the neutral mood condition generated more disadvantages than advantages, but this difference was significant only at p < .10. Implications and limitations of these results were discussed.
Using creative problem solving (TRIZ) in improving the quality of hospital services.
LariSemnani, Behrouz; Mohebbi Far, Rafat; Shalipoor, Elham; Mohseni, Mohammad
2014-08-14
TRIZ is an initiative and SERVQUAL is a structured methodology for quality improvement. Using these tools, inventive problem solving can be applied for quality improvement, and the highest quality can be reached using creative quality improvement methodology. The present study seeks to determine the priority of quality aspects of services provided for patients in the hospital as well as how TRIZ can help in improving the quality of those services. This Study is an applied research which used a dynamic qualitative descriptive survey method during year 2011. Statistical population includes every patient who visited in one of the University Hospitals from March 2011. There existed a big gap between patients' expectations from what seemingly is seen (the design of the hospital) and timely provision of services with their perceptions. Also, quality aspects of services were prioritized as follows: keeping the appearance of hospital (the design), accountability, assurance, credibility and having empathy. Thus, the only thing which mattered most for all staff and managers of studied hospital was the appearance of hospital as well as its staff look. This can grasp a high percentage of patients' satisfaction. By referring to contradiction matrix, the most important principles of TRIZ model were related to tangible factors including principles No. 13 (discarding and recovering), 25 (self-service), 35 (parameter changes), and 2 (taking out). Furthermore, in addition to these four principles, principle No. 24 (intermediary) was repeated most among the others. By utilizing TRIZ, hospital problems can be examined with a more open view, Go beyond The conceptual framework of the organization and responded more quickly to patients ' needs.
A non-formal learning program for the contribution of creative problem solving skills : a case study
Olgun, Elif
2012-01-01
Ankara : The Program of Curriculum and Instruction, Bilkent University, 2012 Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2012. Includes bibliographical references leaves 103-114. The purpose of this study is to examine the contribution of a non-formal learning program to the creative problem solving skills of elementary and middle school students, using a mixed method case study. This research was conducted over 14 weeks during the first semester of the 2011 – 2012 school year ...
Rule, Audrey C.; Zhbanova, Ksenia; Webb, Angela Hileman; Evans, Judy; Schneider, Jean S.; Parpucu, Harun; Logan, Stephanie; Van Meeteren, Beth; Alkouri, Zaid; Ruan, Bin
2011-01-01
Creativity is a talent that undergirds invention and innovation, making it an important skill in today's society. Although students are often told to "be creative," they many times do not know how and have little practice in this skill. This document presents an analysis of 33 creative products made by adult participants at a state conference for…
A Study on the Application of Creative Problem Solving Teaching to Statistics Teaching
Hu, Ridong; Xiaohui, Su; Shieh, Chich-Jen
2017-01-01
Everyone would encounter the life issue of solving complicated problems generated by economic behaviors among all activities for making a living. Various life problems encountered therefore could be generalized by economic statistics. In other words, a lot of important events in daily life are related to economic statistics. For this reason,…
Jaarsveld, Saskia; Lachmann, Thomas
2017-01-01
This paper discusses the importance of three features of psychometric tests for cognition research: construct definition, problem space, and knowledge domain. Definition of constructs, e.g., intelligence or creativity, forms the theoretical basis for test construction. Problem space, being well or ill-defined, is determined by the cognitive abilities considered to belong to the constructs, e.g., convergent thinking to intelligence, divergent thinking to creativity. Knowledge domain and the possibilities it offers cognition are reflected in test results. We argue that (a) comparing results of tests with different problem spaces is more informative when cognition operates in both tests on an identical knowledge domain, and (b) intertwining of abilities related to both constructs can only be expected in tests developed to instigate such a process. Test features should guarantee that abilities can contribute to self-generated and goal-directed processes bringing forth solutions that are both new and applicable. We propose and discuss a test example that was developed to address these issues.
Jaarsveld, Saskia; Lachmann, Thomas
2017-01-01
This paper discusses the importance of three features of psychometric tests for cognition research: construct definition, problem space, and knowledge domain. Definition of constructs, e.g., intelligence or creativity, forms the theoretical basis for test construction. Problem space, being well or ill-defined, is determined by the cognitive abilities considered to belong to the constructs, e.g., convergent thinking to intelligence, divergent thinking to creativity. Knowledge domain and the possibilities it offers cognition are reflected in test results. We argue that (a) comparing results of tests with different problem spaces is more informative when cognition operates in both tests on an identical knowledge domain, and (b) intertwining of abilities related to both constructs can only be expected in tests developed to instigate such a process. Test features should guarantee that abilities can contribute to self-generated and goal-directed processes bringing forth solutions that are both new and applicable. We propose and discuss a test example that was developed to address these issues. PMID:28220098
Improving Creative Problem-Solving in a Sample of Third Culture Kids
Lee, Young Ju; Bain, Sherry K.; McCallum, R. Steve
2007-01-01
We investigated the effects of divergent thinking training (with explicit instruction) on problem-solving tasks in a sample of Third Culture Kids (Useem and Downie, 1976). We were specifically interested in whether the children's originality and fluency in responding increased following instruction, not only on classroom-based worksheets and the…
Enhancing crowdsourcing success: the role of creative and deliberate problem-solving styles
Mahr, F.D.; Rindfleisch, A.; Slotegraaf, R.
2015-01-01
A growing number of firms are using crowdsourcing platforms to actively solicit the skills of external entities to help them solve innovation-related problems. Despite its increasing popularity, crowdsourcing has produced mixed success, because few external experts provide helpful solutions. The
Fink, Andreas; Grabner, Roland H; Benedek, Mathias; Reishofer, Gernot; Hauswirth, Verena; Fally, Maria; Neuper, Christa; Ebner, Franz; Neubauer, Aljoscha C
2009-03-01
Cortical activity in the EEG alpha band has proven to be particularly sensitive to creativity-related demands, but its functional meaning in the context of creative cognition has not been clarified yet. Specifically, increases in alpha activity (i.e., alpha synchronisation) in response to creative thinking can be interpreted in different ways: As a functional correlate of cortical idling, as a sign of internal top-down activity or, more specifically, as selective inhibition of brain regions. We measured brain activity during creative thinking in two studies employing different neurophysiological measurement methods (EEG and fMRI). In both studies, participants worked on four verbal tasks differentially drawing on creative idea generation. The EEG study revealed that the generation of original ideas was associated with alpha synchronisation in frontal brain regions and with a diffuse and widespread pattern of alpha synchronisation over parietal cortical regions. The fMRI study revealed that task performance was associated with strong activation in frontal regions of the left hemisphere. In addition, we found task-specific effects in parietotemporal brain areas. The findings suggest that EEG alpha band synchronisation during creative thinking can be interpreted as a sign of active cognitive processes rather than cortical idling.
Simonton, Dean Keith
2013-01-01
Although the theory that creativity requires blind variation and selective retention (BVSR) is now more than a half-century old, only recently has BVSR theory undergone appreciable conceptual development, including formal three-parameter definitions of both creativity and sightedness. In this article, these new developments are for the first time…
Watts, Logan L.; Steele, Logan M.; Song, Hairong
2017-01-01
Prior studies have demonstrated inconsistent findings with regard to the relationship between need for cognition and creativity. In our study, measurement issues were explored as a potential source of these inconsistencies. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to examine the factor structure underlying the 18-item need for cognition…
Watts, Logan L.; Steele, Logan M.; Song, Hairong
2017-01-01
Prior studies have demonstrated inconsistent findings with regard to the relationship between need for cognition and creativity. In our study, measurement issues were explored as a potential source of these inconsistencies. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to examine the factor structure underlying the 18-item need for cognition…
A Problem-Solving Approach to Teaching Creativity for Engineering and Other Disciplines
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Chelsey Bradford
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Creativity is an integral part in the careers of every professional, including artists, actors, as well as businessmen and engineers. Engineers, the focus of this effort, are traditionally considered to be systematic thinkers and implementers of constrained procedures and algorithms. In order to challenge this perception, ECE490DI is a class designed to show engineering students that their majors and future careers will not only use creativity, but be fully immersed in it. Once the students realize this fact, the next step is to help them discover their own creativity skills and show them that creativity, like other talents, can be nurtured and strengthened through repetitive use. To accomplish these goals, students in ECE490DI take a class trip to renowned theme parks in Orlando, FL, where they attend multiple workshops in the areas of leadership, teamwork, and creativity. The workshops allow students to exercise their leadership, teamwork, and creativity and show them several tools to expand and further improve their abilities in those areas. Students are also given the chance to meet and interact with theme parks' engineers, also known as "Imagineers," to see the practical applications of creativity in a hands-on creative work environment. While the objectives of ECE490DI were successfully met in previous semesters, the class was redesigned to have a broader scope and a multidisciplinary nature. The multidisciplinary version of the class builds on the assessment results of the previous offerings as well as feedback from participating students, faculty members, and theme parks staff members. The new version of the class includes more meetings throughout the semester to further reinforce the ideas and concepts from the workshops.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eli Carmeli
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Action research (AR has an important role to play in educating physical therapists. Increasing efforts should be encouraged to instigate AR programs in physical therapy practice and clinical education. Such programs commonly require considerable effort and understanding by clinical instructors, and require adoption of new educational methods. AR programs can lead physical therapists and clinicians to be more questioning and reflective in evaluating practical questions regarding patient therapy and education. The purpose of this article is to educate the readers on the importance of AR and to provide a few relevant references on that topic. A specific study is described in this paper in which physical therapy clinical instructors participated in a structured workshop designed to demonstrate the values of AR and how such values can be incorporated in teaching their students. AR can lead to improved therapist-patient interaction and help solve specific practical problems arising during therapy sessions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tim ePalmer
2015-10-01
Full Text Available How is the brain configured for creativity? What is the computational substrate for ‘eureka’ moments of insight? Here we argue that creative thinking arises ultimately from a synergy between low-energy stochastic and energy-intensive deterministic processing, and is a by-product of a nervous system whose signal-processing capability per unit of available energy has become highly energy optimised. We suggest that the stochastic component has its origin in thermal noise affecting the activity of neurons. Without this component, deterministic computational models of the brain are incomplete.
Creative Response Styles: The Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Problem-Solving Training.
Haley, Gay L.
1984-01-01
Eighty-nine Black preschoolers (advantaged and disadvantaged) participated in sociodrama, verbal training, or control groups. Among results was that differences in socioeconomic groups were related to creative response style rather than to overall ideational, fluency, and originality in divergent production. (CL)
Seeking creativity: A case study on information problem solving in professional music
Wopereis, Iwan; Derix, Egbert
2017-01-01
This study explored the information seeking behavior of a professional jazz musician during creative work. It aimed at revealing information seeking activities necessary to execute present-day musical projects. A single case was studied in depth. First, a narrative interview was conducted to reveal
Seeking creativity: A case study on information problem solving in professional music
Wopereis, Iwan; Derix, Egbert
2017-01-01
This study explored the information seeking behavior of a professional jazz musician during creative work. It aimed at revealing information seeking activities necessary to execute present-day musical projects. A single case was studied in depth. First, a narrative interview was conducted to reveal
Prefrontal cortex involvement in creative problem solving in middle adolescence and adulthood
Kleibeuker, S.W.; Koolschijn, P.C.M.P.; Jolles, D.D.; Schel, M.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Crone, E.A.
2013-01-01
Creative cognition, defined as the generation of new yet appropriate ideas and solutions, serves important adaptive purposes. Here, we tested whether and how middle adolescence, characterized by transformations toward life independency and individuality, is a more profitable phase than adulthood for
Demystify Math, Science, and Technology: Creativity, Innovation, and Problem-Solving
Adams, Dennis; Hamm, Mary
2010-01-01
Technology is viewed as a powerful force both in and out of school and has long been linked with math and science. Although concepts and activities of this book apply to any grade, the primary focus is on the elementary and middle school levels. This book provides principles and practical strategies for promoting creative and innovative work in…
Creativity--A Framework for the Design/Problem Solving Discourse in Technology Education
Lewis, Theodore
2005-01-01
Subjects for which aesthetics and creative performance are critical curricular dimensions (such as art, physical education, music, and technology education), and which are accommodative of students across the range of intelligences (Gardner, 1999) are not readily or completely captured by content standards. Therefore content knowledge in these…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamdenur Uzunoğlu
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate whether the epistemological beliefs, creativity levels and thinking styles of pre-school teachers are significant predictors of their problem solving skills and in accordance with this purpose, a correlational survey design was used. The sample of this study consists of 155 pre school teachers working in Isparta in the school year 2011-2012. As data collection tools, “Problem Solving Inventory”, “Epistemological Beliefs Scale, “How Creative Are You?” and lastly, “Thinking Styles Inventory” were used. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. In this study, it has been found that problem solving skills of the teachers are a significant predictor of preschool teachers’ perceptions of their creativity levels positively and perceptions of their conventional thinking styles negatively in the belief that learning depends on ability.
A Creativity Course for Problem Solvers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
for students of any speciality working with problem solving approaches. This course has run with big success since 1998 at the Technical University of Denmark. It started with very few students, now is a very popular course attracting many students from abroad. The selected themes, the methods and techniques......This paper presents the principles of active learning and the contents of a creativity course entitled: Creativity and Problem Solving. The main purpose of this course is to create a space to discuss, reflect and experiment with creativity, creative processes and creative tools of relevance...
Hong, Felix T
2013-09-01
Rosen classified sciences into two categories: formalizable and unformalizable. Whereas formalizable sciences expressed in terms of mathematical theories were highly valued by Rutherford, Hutchins pointed out that unformalizable parts of soft sciences are of genuine interest and importance. Attempts to build mathematical theories for biology in the past century was met with modest and sporadic successes, and only in simple systems. In this article, a qualitative model of humans' high creativity is presented as a starting point to consider whether the gap between soft and hard sciences is bridgeable. Simonton's chance-configuration theory, which mimics the process of evolution, was modified and improved. By treating problem solving as a process of pattern recognition, the known dichotomy of visual thinking vs. verbal thinking can be recast in terms of analog pattern recognition (non-algorithmic process) and digital pattern recognition (algorithmic process), respectively. Additional concepts commonly encountered in computer science, operations research and artificial intelligence were also invoked: heuristic searching, parallel and sequential processing. The refurbished chance-configuration model is now capable of explaining several long-standing puzzles in human cognition: a) why novel discoveries often came without prior warning, b) why some creators had no ideas about the source of inspiration even after the fact, c) why some creators were consistently luckier than others, and, last but not least, d) why it was so difficult to explain what intuition, inspiration, insight, hunch, serendipity, etc. are all about. The predictive power of the present model was tested by means of resolving Zeno's paradox of Achilles and the Tortoise after one deliberately invoked visual thinking. Additional evidence of its predictive power must await future large-scale field studies. The analysis was further generalized to constructions of scientific theories in general. This approach
Problem Solving and Reasoning.
1984-02-01
6 here Acquisition of Problem - Solving Skill . An imporrant qLestinn is how the knowledge required For solving problems in a domain such as geometry is...Neves, 0. 4. (1981). Acquisition of problem - solving skill . In J. R. Anderson (Eds), Cognitive skills and their acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum...NJ: Erlbaum. Voss, J. F., Greene, T. R., Post, T. A., & Penner, B. C. (1983). Problem solving skill in the social sciences. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The
Cassotti, Mathieu; Agogué, Marine; Camarda, Anaëlle; Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire
2016-01-01
Developmental cognitive neuroscience studies tend to show that the prefrontal brain regions (known to be involved in inhibitory control) are activated during the generation of creative ideas. In the present article, we discuss how a dual-process model of creativity--much like the ones proposed to account for decision making and reasoning--could…
Jausovec, Norbert
2000-01-01
Studied differences in cognitive processes related to creativity and intelligence using EEG coherence and power measures in the lower and upper alpha bands. Results of 2 experiments involving 49 and 48 right-handed student teachers suggest that creativity and intelligence are different abilities that also differ in the neurological activity…
Cassotti, Mathieu; Agogué, Marine; Camarda, Anaëlle; Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire
2016-01-01
Developmental cognitive neuroscience studies tend to show that the prefrontal brain regions (known to be involved in inhibitory control) are activated during the generation of creative ideas. In the present article, we discuss how a dual-process model of creativity--much like the ones proposed to account for decision making and reasoning--could…
Laughlin, Patrick R
2011-01-01
Experimental research by social and cognitive psychologists has established that cooperative groups solve a wide range of problems better than individuals. Cooperative problem solving groups of scientific researchers, auditors, financial analysts, air crash investigators, and forensic art experts are increasingly important in our complex and interdependent society. This comprehensive textbook--the first of its kind in decades--presents important theories and experimental research about group problem solving. The book focuses on tasks that have demonstrably correct solutions within mathematical
Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving
Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon
2014-01-01
Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…
An investigation on solving cooperative problem solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masoumeh Sadat Abtahi
2014-03-01
Full Text Available One of the most important techniques to improve teaching skills is to use cooperative problem solving (CPS approach. Implementing CPS techniques in elementary schools helps us train more creative generations. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find out how much elementary teachers use CPS techniques at different schools located in city of Zanjan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 90 volunteers out of 120 teachers who were enrolled in elementary schools. The study analyzes the data using some basic statistics and the result indicates that teachers maintain an average CPS score of 39.37, which is well above the average level. The study provides some guidelines for exploring teachers CPS’s capabilities.
Cassotti, Mathieu; Agogué, Marine; Camarda, Anaëlle; Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire
2016-01-01
Developmental cognitive neuroscience studies tend to show that the prefrontal brain regions (known to be involved in inhibitory control) are activated during the generation of creative ideas. In the present article, we discuss how a dual-process model of creativity-much like the ones proposed to account for decision making and reasoning-could broaden our understanding of the processes involved in creative ideas generation. When generating creative ideas, children, adolescents, and adults tend to follow "the path of least resistance" and propose solutions that are built on the most common and accessible knowledge within a specific domain, leading to fixation effect. In line with recent theory of typical cognitive development, we argue that the ability to resist the spontaneous activation of design heuristics, to privilege other types of reasoning, might be critical to generate creative ideas at all ages. In the present review, we demonstrate that inhibitory control at all ages can actually support creativity. Indeed, the ability to think of something truly new and original requires first inhibiting spontaneous solutions that come to mind quickly and unconsciously and then exploring new ideas using a generative type of reasoning.
Brainstorming: Thinking - Problem Solving Strategy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ms. Agnes Monica .V
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Brainstorming is a popular tool that helps you generate creative answers to a problem. It is mainly useful when you want to break out of stale, established patterns of thinking, so that you can develop new ways of looking at things. The aforementioned also helps you overcome many of the concerns that can make collection problemsolving a sterile and substandard process. Though group brainstorming is often more effective at generating ideas than normal group problem-solving, study after study has revealed that when individuals brainstorm on their own, they come up with more ideas and often better quality ideas than groups of people who brainstorm together
Singh, Chandralekha
2016-01-01
One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for metacognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.
Mathematics as Problem Solving.
Soifer, Alexander
This book contains about 200 problems. It is suggested that it be used by students, teachers or anyone interested in exploring mathematics. In addition to a general discussion on problem solving, there are problems concerned with number theory, algebra, geometry, and combinatorics. (PK)
Problem Solving Techniques Seminar.
Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.
This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. Six problem-solving techniques are developed in the booklet to assist individuals and groups in making better decisions: problem identification, data gathering, data analysis, solution analysis,…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul
2006-01-01
as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naima Moustaid-Moussa
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Background: Recent findings from our research indicate that children participating in a creative afterschool program exhibit overall healthier lifestyle practices compared to the average US pediatric population. This observation led us to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity and lifestyle practices of their parents. Objective: To determine the strongest predictors of weight status for female parents whose children were participating in such creative afterschool program. Design: Surveyed subjects were parents of children who competed in the 2008 and 2009 Destination ImagiNation® Global Finals in Knoxville, Tennessee. A total of 4,608 children participated in data collection, with parental consent. For the combined 2 years, 1,118 parents, 87% of whom were females (n=1,032 completed online questionnaires, which were based on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and included self-reported height, weight, dietary intake, physical activity, and socioeconomic status. The majority of this population was white, and less than 5% were African American or Hispanic. Results: We report here results obtained for the female parents. Only 45.2% of these female parents were overweight/obese, compared to a national average of 64.1% reported by the National Health Nutrition Examination Surveys for 2007—2008. Furthermore, this population was significantly more physically active compared to national average. Most parents (76% had completed a college degree and reported high incomes. Parents with the lowest income were the most obese in this population. Finally, we found a significant association between parent and child weight status. Conclusions: These studies demonstrate that female parents of children who have healthy lifestyles were physically active, which likely accounts for the parents’ lower overweight/obesity rates. In addition to physical activity, income and percentage of calories from fat were all predictors of weight status.
AlMutairi, Abdullahi Naser Mohammad
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using brainstorm strategy in developing creative problem solving skills among male students in Saud Al-Kharji School in Kuwait. The sample of the study consisted of (98) male students. The sample was distributed into two classes, the first represents the experimental group totaling (47)…
2017-03-01
the "SAS+-level Changes" section. Many modern heuristics use a technique called "delete- relaxation ". Delete relaxation does not handle counts and...use the same algorithm, representation, and use the same technique to generate their heuristics. The drawback of this is that there is almost never...one problem solving technique , one representation, or one way to create heuristics that works well on all problems/domains. There is a tradeoff
Problem Solving Using Microcomputers.
Demana, Franklin; Waits, Bert
1987-01-01
It is argued that microcomputer technology has evolved to the stage that it should be routinely used by mathematics students at all levels. It is shown how the use of microcomputers can change the way problems are solved. Computer-generated graphics are highlighted. (PK)
Solving Problems through Circles
Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.
2015-01-01
Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…
Solving Problems through Circles
Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.
2015-01-01
Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…
Universal Design Problem Solving
Sterling, Mary C.
2004-01-01
Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, David
2012-01-01
employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher......Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... and participants and was documented by qualitative methods. This paper presents an academic literature review on Appreciative Inquiry and problem solving for continuous improvements that did not reveal successful attempts in combining the two.Both the literature and the empirical study showed one of the main...
Hansen, David
2012-01-01
Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?”The r...
Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer
Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.
2006-01-01
Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…
Solved problems in electromagnetics
Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco
2017-01-01
This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .
1982-10-01
Artificial Intelig ~ence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and’ Edward A.. Feigenbaum)’, The chapter was written B’ Paul Cohen, with contributions... Artificial Intelligence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and EdWard A. Feigenbaum). The chapter was written by Paul R. Cohen, with contributions by Stephen...Wheevoats"EntermdI’ Planning and Problem ’Solving by Paul R. Cohen Chaptb-rXV-of Volumec III’of the Handbook of Artificial Intelligence edited by Paul R
Problem Solving with an Icon Oriented Programming Tool: A Case Study in Technology Education.
Lavonen, Jari M.; Lattu, Matti; Meisalo, Veijo P.
2001-01-01
Finnish eighth graders used computer control software to find creative solutions to technological problems. The learning environment encouraged problem-centered and creative approaches. More systematic teaching of programming skills before problem solving was recommended. (Contains 32 references.) (SK)
How to solve mathematical problems
Wickelgren, Wayne A
1995-01-01
Seven problem-solving techniques include inference, classification of action sequences, subgoals, contradiction, working backward, relations between problems, and mathematical representation. Also, problems from mathematics, science, and engineering with complete solutions.
Depression and social problem solving.
Marx, E M; Williams, J M; Claridge, G C
1992-02-01
Twenty depressed patients with major depressive disorder, 20 nondepressed matched control subjects, and 17 patients with anxiety disorders were compared in different measures of social problem solving. Problem solving was assessed with the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Test (Study 1), the solution of personal problems, and a problem-solving questionnaire (Study 2). Results showed that, as predicted, depressed subjects suffered from a deficit in problem solving in all three measures. The majority of these deficits were also displayed by the clinical control group rather than being specific to a diagnosis of depression. However, depressed subjects produced less effective solutions than did normal and clinical control subjects. The results suggest that depressed and anxious patients may have difficulties at different stages of the problem-solving process.
Solving complex fisheries management problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist
2011-01-01
A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related...
PROBLEM SOLVING IN SCHOOL MATHEMATICS BASED ON HEURISTIC STRATEGIES
Novotná, Jarmila; EISENMANN. Petr; PŘIBYL, Jiří; ONDRUŠOVÁ, Jiřina; BŘEHOVSKÝ, Jiří
2014-01-01
The paper describes one of the ways of developing pupils’ creative approach to problem solving. The described experiment is a part of a longitudinal research focusing on improvement of culture of problem solving by pupils. It deals with solving of problems using the following heuristic strategies: Analogy, Guess – check – revise, Systematic experimentation, Problem reformulation, Solution drawing, Way back and Use of graphs of functions. Most attention is paid to the question whether short-te...
Combinatorial reasoning to solve problems
Coenen, Tom; Hof, Frits; Verhoef, Nellie
2016-01-01
This study reports combinatorial reasoning to solve problems. We observed the mathematical thinking of students aged 14-16. We study the variation of the students’ solution strategies in the context of emergent modelling. The results show that the students are tempted to begin the problem solving pr
Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress
J. David Creswell; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M.P.; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M.
2013-01-01
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indi...
Barak, Moshe
2013-01-01
This paper presents the outcomes of teaching an inventive problem-solving course in junior high schools in an attempt to deal with the current relative neglect of fostering students' creativity and problem-solving capabilities in traditional schooling. The method involves carrying out systematic manipulation with attributes, functions and…
Solving complex fisheries management problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist
2011-01-01
A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related to ...... to both natural, other material and to cultural conditions. Hence, solving the discard problem requires not only technical and regulatory instruments, but also arenas and structures that allow and facilitate processes of cultural change....
De Bono, Edward
A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…
Learning Engineering Knowledge and Creativity by Solving Projects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunfang Zhou
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Recent studies have argued the increasing complexity of engineering practice brings challenges to engineers. Creativity has been thought as one necessary element in engineering education. And to let students work with project work has been regarded as a good strategy of developing creativity. However, the literature shows studies on engineering education, most previous efforts take a departure of psychological perspective to discuss developing creative skills through project work; there is a lack of discussion on how project work supports achieving new knowledge and creativity in a social theory framework. Therefore, this paper aims to answer this lack and provide a literature review by focusing on three questions: 1 Which kinds of knowledge are needed for engineering students? 2 What are relationships between knowledge, learning and creativity? And 3 why does a solving project context support creativity and learning? Based on answering the three questions, the literature review underpins the needs of developing creativity in engineering education and strengths of solving project context in stimulating creativity and learning. So this paper contributes to future studies and practical strategies of fostering creative engineers.
1979-01-01
The corrosion problem, it turned out, stemmed from the process called electrolysis. When two different metals are in contact, an electrical potential is set up between them; when the metals are surrounded by an electrolyte, or a conducting medium, the resulting reaction causes corrosion, often very rapid corrosion. In this case the different metals were the copper grounding system and the ferry's aluminum hull; the dockside salt water in which the hull was resting served as the electrolyte. After identifying the source of the trouble, the Ames engineer provided a solution: a new wire-and-rod grounding system made of aluminum like the ferry's hull so there would no longer be dissimilar metals in contact. Ames research on the matter disclosed that the problem was not unique to the Golden Gate ferries. It is being experienced by many pleasure boat operators who are probably as puzzled about it as was the Golden Gate Transit Authority.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai
as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organizational issues, specifically new organizational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organizational forms and to point to some design problems that characterize these forms.Keywords: Herbert...... Simon, problem-solving, new organizational forms. JEL Code: D23, D83......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are "The Architecture of Complexity" and "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...
Problem Solving with General Semantics.
Hewson, David
1996-01-01
Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)
Problem Solving and Complex Systems
Guinand, Frédéric
2008-01-01
The observation and modeling of natural Complex Systems (CSs) like the human nervous system, the evolution or the weather, allows the definition of special abilities and models reusable to solve other problems. For instance, Genetic Algorithms or Ant Colony Optimizations are inspired from natural CSs to solve optimization problems. This paper proposes the use of ant-based systems to solve various problems with a non assessing approach. This means that solutions to some problem are not evaluated. They appear as resultant structures from the activity of the system. Problems are modeled with graphs and such structures are observed directly on these graphs. Problems of Multiple Sequences Alignment and Natural Language Processing are addressed with this approach.
Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa
1997-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.
Solving Optimal Timing Problems Elegantly
Todorova, Tamara
2013-01-01
Few textbooks in mathematical economics cover optimal timing problems. Those which cover them do it scantly or in a rather clumsy way, making it hard for students to understand and apply the concept of optimal time in new contexts. Discussing the plentiful illustrations of optimal timing problems, we present an elegant and simple method of solving them. Whether the present value function is exponential or logarithmic, a convenient way to solve it is to convert the base to the exponential numb...
2008+ solved problems in electromagnetics
Nasar, Syed
2007-01-01
SciTech Publishing is reissuing this extremely valuable learning resource, originally published in 1992 in the Schaum's Problem-Solving Series for students of electromagnetics and those who wish to refresh and solidify their understanding of its challenging applications. Problem-solving drill helps develop confidence, but few textbooks offer the answers, never mind the complete solutions, to their chapter exercises. Here noted author Professor Syed Nasar has divided the book's problems into topic areas similar to a textbook and presented a wide array of problems, followed immediately by their
Problems of Pedagogical Creativity Development
Ibragimkyzy, Shynar; Slambekova, Tolkyn S.; Saylaubay, Yerlan E.; Albytova, Nazymgul
2016-01-01
This article provides analysis of research papers by different scholars, dedicated to topical issues of pedagogical creativity development in the educational process. The authors determined that pedagogical creativity could be considered at five levels: information-reproducing, adaptive-prognostic, innovative, research and creative-prognostic. In…
Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving
Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin
2015-01-01
In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.
Students' Problem Solving and Justification
Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.
2004-01-01
This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…
Promote Problem-Solving Discourse
Bostic, Jonathan; Jacobbe, Tim
2010-01-01
Fourteen fifth-grade students gather at the front of the classroom as their summer school instructor introduces Jonathan Bostic as the mathematics teacher for the week. Before examining any math problems, Bostic sits at eye level with the students and informs them that they will solve problems over the next four days by working individually as…
Teaching Employees to Solve Problems.
Miller, Lauren E.; Feggestad, Kurt
1987-01-01
John Deere's systematic problem-solving training for its employees is applicable in the vocational classroom. The process includes stating the problem, writing its specifications, identifying distinctions, determining changes that occurred at the time, identifying possible causes, testing the possibilities, verifying the most probable cause, and…
Mathematical problem solving by analogy.
Novick, L R; Holyoak, K J
1991-05-01
We report the results of 2 experiments and a verbal protocol study examining the component processes of solving mathematical word problems by analogy. College students first studied a problem and its solution, which provided a potential source for analogical transfer. Then they attempted to solve several analogous problems. For some problems, subjects received one of a variety of hints designed to reduce or eliminate the difficulty of some of the major processes hypothesized to be involved in analogical transfer. Our studies yielded 4 major findings. First, the process of mapping the features of the source and target problems and the process of adapting the source solution procedure for use in solving the target problem were clearly distinguished: (a) Successful mapping was found to be insufficient for successful transfer and (b) adaptation was found to be a major source of transfer difficulty. Second, we obtained direct evidence that schema induction is a natural consequence of analogical transfer. The schema was found to co-exist with the problems from which it was induced, and both the schema and the individual problems facilitated later transfer. Third, for our multiple-solution problems, the relation between analogical transfer and solution accuracy was mediated by the degree of time pressure exerted for the test problems. Finally, mathematical expertise was a significant predictor of analogical transfer, but general analogical reasoning ability was not. The implications of the results for models of analogical transfer and for instruction were considered.
Aging and skilled problem solving.
Charness, N
1981-03-01
Information-processing models of problem solving too often are based on restrictive age ranges. On the other hand, gerontologists have investigated few problem-solving tasks and have rarely generated explicit models. As this article demonstrates, both fields can benefit by closer collaboration. One major issue in gerontology is whether aging is associated with irreversible decrement or developmental plasticity. If both processes occur, then an appropriate strategy for investigating aging is to equate age groups for molar problem-solving performance and search for differences in the underlying components. This strategy was adopted to examine the relation of age and skill to problem solving in chess. Chess players were selected to vary widely in age and skill such that these variables were uncorrelated. Problem-solving and memory tasks were administered. Skill level was the only significant predictor for accuracy in both a choose-a-move task and a speeded end-game evaluation task. Age (negatively) and skill (positively) jointly determined performance in an unexpected recall task. Efficient chunking in recall was positively related to skill, though negatively related to age. Recognition confidence, though not accuracy, was negatively related to age. Thus despite age-related declines in encoding and retrieval of information, older players match the problem-solving performance of equivalently skilled younger players. Apparently, they can search the problem space more efficiently, as evidenced by taking less time to select an equally good move. Models of chess skill that stress that role of encoding efficiency, as indexed by chunking in recall, need to be modified to account for performance over the life span.
Methods of solving nonstandard problems
Grigorieva, Ellina
2015-01-01
This book, written by an accomplished female mathematician, is the second to explore nonstandard mathematical problems – those that are not directly solved by standard mathematical methods but instead rely on insight and the synthesis of a variety of mathematical ideas. It promotes mental activity as well as greater mathematical skills, and is an ideal resource for successful preparation for the mathematics Olympiad. Numerous strategies and techniques are presented that can be used to solve intriguing and challenging problems of the type often found in competitions. The author uses a friendly, non-intimidating approach to emphasize connections between different fields of mathematics and often proposes several different ways to attack the same problem. Topics covered include functions and their properties, polynomials, trigonometric and transcendental equations and inequalities, optimization, differential equations, nonlinear systems, and word problems. Over 360 problems are included with hints, ...
Solving the drift control problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Melda Ormeci Matoglu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We model the problem of managing capacity in a build-to-order environment as a Brownian drift control problem. We formulate a structured linear program that models a practical discretization of the problem and exploit a strong relationship between relative value functions and dual solutions to develop a functional lower bound for the continuous problem from a dual solution to the discrete problem. Refining the discretization proves a functional strong duality for the continuous problem. The linear programming formulation is so badly scaled, however, that solving it is beyond the capabilities of standard solvers. By demonstrating the equivalence between strongly feasible bases and deterministic unichain policies, we combinatorialize the pivoting process and by exploiting the relationship between dual solutions and relative value functions, develop a mechanism for solving the LP without ever computing its coefficients. Finally, we exploit the relationship between relative value functions and dual solutions to develop a scheme analogous to column generation for refining the discretization so as to drive the gap between the discrete approximation and the continuous problem to zero quickly while keeping the LP small. Computational studies show our scheme is much faster than simply solving a regular discretization of the problem both in terms of finding a policy with a low average cost and in terms of providing a lower bound on the optimal average cost.
Interactive problem solving using LOGO
Boecker, Heinz-Dieter; Fischer, Gerhard
2014-01-01
This book is unique in that its stress is not on the mastery of a programming language, but on the importance and value of interactive problem solving. The authors focus on several specific interest worlds: mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and games; however, their approach can serve as a model that may be applied easily to other fields as well. Those who are interested in symbolic computing will find that Interactive Problem Solving Using LOGO provides a gentle introduction from which one may move on to other, more advanced computational frameworks or more
Problem solving through recreational mathematics
Averbach, Bonnie
1999-01-01
Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga
Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.
Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M
2013-01-01
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
Robot computer problem solving system
Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.
1974-01-01
The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.
On transfer during problem solving
Hamel, R.; Jakab, E.
2013-01-01
A puzzle is equally new for everyone who is presented with it for the first time. However, it is not if we take one’s previous knowledge into account. Some knowledge may be utilised while working on the puzzle. If this is the case, problem solving as well as the development of knowledge about the pu
Pizlo, Zygmunt
2007-01-01
This paper presents a bibliography of a little more than 100 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Compendex databases. Only journal papers, books and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, research in applied…
Anticipating Student Responses to Improve Problem Solving
Wallace, Ann H.
2007-01-01
This article illustrates how problem solving can be enhanced through careful planning and problem presentation. Often, students shut down or are turned off when presented with a problem to solve. The author describes how to motivate students to embrace a problem to be solved and provides helpful prompts to further the problem-solving process.…
Genetics problem solving and worldview
Dale, Esther
The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
Group Creativity Development by Solving Real-life Project in Engineering Education
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Chunfang; Kolmos, Anette; Du, Xiangyun
2011-01-01
creativity can be developed by the mutual function of the four dimensions under the positive facilitation of supervisors. A case study was carried out with a student satellite project in the department of electronic systems at Aalborg University in Denmark. Multiple methods including interviews......In recent years, problem and project based learning (PBL) has been employed by a growing number of educational institutions to foster creative engineers. Among the diverse pedagogical practices of PBL, there has been an emergence of real-life project for students. Based on literature of creativity...... research, PBL theories and the social theory of learning, this paper analyzes and discusses four major dimensions of project work - problem analysis and solving, group learning, interdisciplinary learning and project management - as the factors in constructing creative learning environments. We think group...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
田燕; 罗俊龙; 李文福; 邱江; 张庆林
2011-01-01
Heuristic strategy is one of the usual strategies in problem solving. Zhang Qinglin proposed the heuristic theory of prototypal matters in insight problem solving, which can be regarded as creative problem solving under experimental conditions. According to this theory, "prototypal events activation" and "key heuristic information activation" are two parts of the process of prototype elicitation. The present study was designed to explore the influence of the two conditions of prototype learning on elicitation effect in creative problem solving. Namely the influence of the mark of prototype and the illustration of prototype on "prototypal events activation"and "key heuristic information activation" in creative problem solving. We adopted the activation rate of prototypal events and the accuracy of problem solving as two dependent variable index in order to depart the process of'prototypal events activation"from the process of "key heuristic information activation".This study selected thirty-two scientific inventions-creations problems as the material and adopted the "8 vs 8" learning and testing experimental paradigm. First, the participants were asked to study eight prototypes successively; second, the participants were required to answer eight qestions presented randomly through oral report. And the eight qestions should be answered according to the eight prototypes supplied earlier. In the experiment, a 2 (with marks vs. Without marks) x2 (with illustrations vs. Without illustrations) experimental design was adopted. Marks were the bold key phrases marked out with green 'in the literal representations of prototypes and they can most unlimitedly embody the principle and method of science. Illustrations were the pictorial representations of prototypes which were presented together with the literal representations of prototypes. The instrument for the statistical analyses used in the experiment is SPSS 16. 0.The results showed that: 1) the activation rate of
Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Intelligence.
1980-04-01
first half of the analogy or because of vocabulary demand in the second half of the analogy. For example, FELINE is to CANINE as CAT is to ? was...the ecological validity of the task as a representative case of real-world problem solving. Investigation of the task’s ecological validity, or at...analogies) measure intellectual functioning of such a basic kind that ecological validity is less important. But if one’s goal is to study the ability to
2014-01-01
Background Healthcare worldwide needs translation of basic ideas from engineering into the clinic. Consequently, there is increasing demand for graduates equipped with the knowledge and skills to apply interdisciplinary medicine/engineering approaches to the development of novel solutions for healthcare. The literature provides little guidance regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, effective interdisciplinary learning for engineering and medical students in a team-based project context. Methods A quantitative survey was distributed to engineering and medical students and staff in two universities, one in Ireland and one in Belgium, to chart knowledge and practice in interdisciplinary learning and teaching, and of the teaching of innovation. Results We report important differences for staff and students between the disciplines regarding attitudes towards, and perceptions of, the relevance of interdisciplinary learning opportunities, and the role of creativity and innovation. There was agreement across groups concerning preferred learning, instructional styles, and module content. Medical students showed greater resistance to the use of structured creativity tools and interdisciplinary teams. Conclusions The results of this international survey will help to define the optimal learning conditions under which undergraduate engineering and medicine students can learn to consider the diverse factors which determine the success or failure of a healthcare engineering solution. PMID:24450310
Spoelstra, Howard; Stoyanov, Slavi; Burgoyne, Louise; Bennett, Deirdre; Sweeney, Catherine; Drachsler, Hendrik; Vanderperren, Katrien; Van Huffel, Sabine; McSweeney, John; Shorten, George; O'Flynn, Siun; Cantillon-Murphy, Padraig; O'Tuathaigh, Colm
2014-01-22
Healthcare worldwide needs translation of basic ideas from engineering into the clinic. Consequently, there is increasing demand for graduates equipped with the knowledge and skills to apply interdisciplinary medicine/engineering approaches to the development of novel solutions for healthcare. The literature provides little guidance regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, effective interdisciplinary learning for engineering and medical students in a team-based project context. A quantitative survey was distributed to engineering and medical students and staff in two universities, one in Ireland and one in Belgium, to chart knowledge and practice in interdisciplinary learning and teaching, and of the teaching of innovation. We report important differences for staff and students between the disciplines regarding attitudes towards, and perceptions of, the relevance of interdisciplinary learning opportunities, and the role of creativity and innovation. There was agreement across groups concerning preferred learning, instructional styles, and module content. Medical students showed greater resistance to the use of structured creativity tools and interdisciplinary teams. The results of this international survey will help to define the optimal learning conditions under which undergraduate engineering and medicine students can learn to consider the diverse factors which determine the success or failure of a healthcare engineering solution.
Using Sociodrama to Help Young Children Problem Solve
McLennan, Deanna Marie Pecaski
2012-01-01
Sociodrama is an arts-based, action-oriented tool of individual and collective social exploration and creative problem solving that allows participants to explore and find potential resolutions to issues of concern and conflict in their lives. This article describes how Early Years educators can begin to implement basic sociodrama into their…
Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving
Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.
2010-01-01
Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…
Fostering Problem-Solving in a Virtual Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raafat George Saadé
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This article investigates students’ perceptions of the relationship between Problem-Solving and the activities and resources used in a Web-based course on the fundamentals of Information Technology at a university in Montreal, Canada. We assess for the different learning components of the course, the extent of perceived problem-solving skills acquisition including research, creativity and critical thinking skills. The course entailed two categories of learning, namely resources-based and interactive components. The study aimed at answering the following questions: 1 To what extent do students understand the definitions of Problem-solving, Research, and Creative Idea Generation skills, and Critical Thinking skills? (2 What is the relative contribution of the various learning components (activities and resources of the course to the perceived acquisition of Problem-Solving, Research, and Creative Idea Generations skills, and Critical Thinking skills; (3 Is the understanding of the definitions correlated with the perceived contributions of the learning components (activities and resources of the course to the skills development? (4 To what extent is perceived Problem-solving skill acquisition explained by the acquisition of the other three skills?
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Robert W Maloy; Sharon A Edwards; Gordon Anderson
2010-01-01
.... What evolved was a broader set of strategies for teaching math problem solving using a combination of computer-based activities, learning games, and students' creative writing of math problems...
Cognitive functioning in mathematical problem solving during early adolescence
Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.; Campbell, K. Jennifer
1993-12-01
Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and intuitive processes in the context of mathematical problem solving. Sixteen Year 9 and 10 students from advanced mathematics classes were individually assessed while they solved five mathematics problems. Each student's problem-solving path, for each problem, was mapped according to the type of strategies used. Strategies were broadly classified into Ikonic (IK) or Concrete Symbolic (CS) categories. Students were given two types of problems to solve: (i) those most likely to attract a concrete symbolic approach; and (ii) problems with a significant imaging or intuitive component. Students were also assessed as to the vividness and controllability of their imaging ability, and their creativity. Results indicated that the nature of the problem is a basic factor in determining the type of strategy used for its solution. Students consistently applied CS strategies to CS problems, and IK strategies to IK problems. In addition, students tended to change modes significantly more often when solving CS-type problems than when solving IK-type problems. A switch to IK functioning appeared to be particularly helpful in breaking an unproductive set when solving a CS-type problem. Individual differences in strategy use were also found, with students high on vividness of imagery using IK strategies more frequently than students who were low on vividness. No relationship was found between IK strategy use and either students' degree of controllability of imagery or their level of creativity. The instructional implications of the results are discussed.
Bridging Creativity and Group by Elements of Problem-Based Learning (PBL)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Chunfang
2015-01-01
As the recent studies have discussed Problem-Based Learning (PBL) as popular model of fostering creativity, this paper aims to provide a theoretical framework bridging creativity and student group context by elements of PBL. According to the literature review, the elements at least include group...... learning, problem solving, interdisciplinary learning, project management and facilitation. The main five elements construct PBL as a suitable learning environment to develop individual creativity and to stimulate interplay of individual creativity and group creativity. Thus, a theoretical model...
The Art of Scientific Ideas: Teaching and Learning Strategies that Promote Creative Problem Finding
LaBanca, Frank; Ritchie, Krista C.
2011-01-01
Problem solving is a valuable skill in the science classroom. Students often use a variety of inquiry strategies to identify problems and their implications; develop action plans; locate relevant sources, information, and data; and formulate solutions. Problem solving is a logical, analytical, and sometimes creative process. The less tangible,…
ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: PROBLEM-SOLVING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adela NEMEŞ
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating ideas and implementing innovative solutions: identifying the problem, searching for possible solutions, selecting the most optimal solution and implementing a possible solution. Each aspect of personality has a different orientation to problem solving, different criteria for judging the effectiveness of the process and different associated strengths. Using real-world data in sample problems will also help facilitate the transfer process, since students can more easily identify with the context of a given situation. The paper describes the use of the Problem-Solving in Biology and the method of its administration. It also presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the value in teaching Biology. Problem-solving is seen as an essential skill that is developed in biology education.
Community-powered problem solving.
Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas
2013-04-01
Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections.
Problem Solving Appraisal of Delinquent Adolescents.
Perez, Ruperto M.; And Others
The study investigated the following: (1) the relationship of problem solving appraisal to narcissistic vulnerability, locus of control, and depression; (2) the differences in problem solving appraisal, locus of control, and depression in first-time and repeat offenders; and (3) the prediction of problem solving appraisal by narcissistic…
Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction
van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.
2013-01-01
Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…
LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?
Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris
2011-01-01
With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…
Collis-Romberg Mathematical Problem Solving Profiles.
Collis, K. F.; Romberg, T. A.
Problem solving has become a focus of mathematics programs in Australia in recent years, necessitating the assessment of students' problem-solving abilities. This manual provides a problem-solving assessment and teaching resource package containing four elements: (1) profiles assessment items; (2) profiles diagnostic forms for recording individual…
Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.
Ouellette, Hugh
1979-01-01
A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)
Problem-solving in a Constructivist Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee Chien Sing
1999-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamic challenges of an increasingly borderless world buoyed by advances in telecommunications and information technology has resulted in educational reform and subsequently, a reconceptualisation of what constitutes a learner, learning and the influence of the learning environment on the process of learning. In keeping up with the changing trends and challenges of an increasingly networked, dynamic and challenging international community, means to provide an alternative environment that stimulates inquiry and equips learners with the skills needed to manage technological change and innovations must be considered. This paper discusses the importance of interaction, cognition and context, collaboration in a networked computer-mediated environment, the problem-solving approach as a catalyst in stimulating creative and critical thinking and in providing context for meaningful interaction and whether the interactive environment created through computer-mediated collaboration will motivate learners to be responsible for their own learning and be independent thinkers. The sample involved learners from three schools in three different countries. Findings conclude that a rich interactive environment must be personally relevant to the learner by simulating authentic problems without lowering the degree of cognitive complexity. Review in curriculum, assessment and teacher training around constructivist principles are also imperative as these interrelated factors form part of the learning process system.
Bit Preservation: A Solved Problem?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David S. H. Rosenthal
2010-07-01
Full Text Available For years, discussions of digital preservation have routinely featured comments such as “bit preservation is a solved problem; the real issues are ...”. Indeed, current digital storage technologies are not just astoundingly cheap and capacious, they are astonishingly reliable. Unfortunately, these attributes drive a kind of “Parkinson’s Law” of storage, in which demands continually push beyond the capabilities of systems implementable at an affordable price. This paper is in four parts:Claims, reviewing a typical claim of storage system reliability, showing that it provides no useful information for bit preservation purposes.Theory, proposing “bit half-life” as an initial, if inadequate, measure of bit preservation performance, expressing bit preservation requirements in terms of it, and showing that the requirements being placed on bit preservation systems are so onerous that the experiments required to prove that a solution exists are not feasible.Practice, reviewing recent research into how well actual storage systems preserve bits, showing that they fail to meet the requirements by many orders of magnitude.Policy, suggesting ways of dealing with this unfortunate situation.
IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eny Susiana
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and learningto make studentâ€™s problem solving skill in progress. There are many informationprocessingmodels of problem solving, such as simplified model of the problem-solvingprocess by Gicks, Polyaâ€™s problem solving process etc. One of them is IDEAL problemsolving. Each letter of IDEAL is stand for an aspect of thinking that is important forproblem solving. IDEAL is identify problem, Define Goal, Explore possible strategies,Anticipate outcme and Act, and Look back and learn. Using peer interaction andquestion prompt in small group in IDEAL problem solving teaching and Learning canimprove problem solving skill.Kata kunci: IDEAL Problem Solving, Interaksi Sebaya, Pertanyaan Penuntun, KelompokKecil.
Problem-solving and Cognitive Style.
Garrett, Roger M.
1989-01-01
Reviewed are 15 studies on cognitive style and problem solving in science education. The effects of problem context, problem type, and three kinds of cognitive style on subjects' abilities to encounter and solve problems are investigated. Three protocols of the subjects' encountering activities are provided. (YP)
Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving.
Jonassen, David H.
2000-01-01
Proposes a metatheory of problem solving. Describes differences among problems in terms of their structured ness, domain specificity (abstractness), and complexity; describes individual differences that affect problem solving; and presents a typology of problems, each of which engages different cognitive, affective, and conative process and…
IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika
Eny Susiana
2012-01-01
Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving) is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and l...
Thinking Process of Naive Problem Solvers to Solve Mathematical Problems
Mairing, Jackson Pasini
2017-01-01
Solving problems is not only a goal of mathematical learning. Students acquire ways of thinking, habits of persistence and curiosity, and confidence in unfamiliar situations by learning to solve problems. In fact, there were students who had difficulty in solving problems. The students were naive problem solvers. This research aimed to describe…
Improving mathematical problem solving : A computerized approach
Harskamp, EG; Suhre, CJM
Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction
Improving mathematical problem solving : A computerized approach
Harskamp, EG; Suhre, CJM
2006-01-01
Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction
Problem solving using soft systems methodology.
Land, L
This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.
Concept mapping instrumental support for problem solving
Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Piet
2008-01-01
The main theoretical position of this paper is that it is the explicit problem-solving support in concept mapping software that produces a stronger effect in problem-solving performance than the implicit support afforded by the graphical functionality of concept mapping software. Explicit problem-so
Mathematical problem solving in primary school
Kolovou, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313715947
2011-01-01
A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each
Mathematical problem solving in primary school
Kolovou, A.
2011-01-01
A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each corre
Marigliano, Michelle L.; Russo, Michele J.
2011-01-01
Creative movement is an ideal way to help young children develop critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Most young children are, by nature, extremely physical. They delight in exploring the world with their bodies and expressing their ideas and feelings through movement. During creative movement experiences, children learn to think before…
Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J David Creswell
Full Text Available High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress
Creswell, J. David; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M. P.; Harris, Peter R.; Levine, John M.
2013-01-01
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751
Mobile serious games for collaborative problem solving.
Sanchez, Jaime; Mendoza, Claudia; Salinas, Alvaro
2009-01-01
This paper presents the results obtained from the implementation of a series of learning activities based on mobile serious games (MSG) for the development of problem-solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students, who had to solve the problems posed by the game collaboratively. The data shows that the experimental group had a higher perception of their own skills of collaboration and of the plan execution dimension of problem solving than the control group, providing empirical evidence regarding the contribution of MSGs to the development of collaborative problem-solving skills.
Common Core: Solve Math Problems
Strom, Erich
2012-01-01
The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…
Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2013-01-01
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…
Does social problem solving differ from other types of problem solving during the adult years?
Heidrich, S M; Denney, N W
1994-01-01
One hundred thirteen individuals, ages 18-81, were presented with a test of social problem solving, a test of practical problem solving, the Twenty Questions task (a test of traditional problem solving), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised Vocabulary subtest (a measure of crystallized intelligence), and Raven's Progressive Matrices (a measure of fluid intelligence). The effects of age, sex, education, and intellectual abilities on problem-solving performance were examined. Social problem solving was positively related to higher education and higher Vocabulary scores, but it was not related to age. Social problem solving and practical problem solving were significantly related to each other and to scores on the Vocabulary subtest, whereas traditional problem solving was significantly related to scores on Raven's Progressive Matrices. These results suggest that different types of problem solving are differentially related to other intellectual abilities and to age.
Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems
Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji
2015-10-01
Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we conducted an interview study with 16 graduate students coming from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds. During the interviews, we asked participants to solve two interdisciplinary science problems on the topic of osmosis. We investigated participants' problem reasoning processes and probed in their attitudes toward general interdisciplinary approach and specific interdisciplinary problems. Through a careful inductive content analysis of their responses, we studied how disciplinary, cognitive, and affective factors influenced their interdisciplinary problems-solving. We found that participants' prior discipline-based science learning experiences had both positive and negative influences on their interdisciplinary problem-solving. These influences were embodied in their conceptualization of the interdisciplinary problems, the strategies they used to integrate different disciplinary knowledge, and the attitudes they had toward interdisciplinary approach in general and specific interdisciplinary problems. This study sheds light on interdisciplinary science education by revealing the complex relationship between disciplinary learning and interdisciplinary problem-solving.
Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving
Barczi, Krisztina
2013-01-01
Teaching how to solve problems--from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks--has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might…
Creating a Brighter Future: An Update on the Future Problem Solving Program.
Crabbe, Anne Borland
1982-01-01
The Future Problem Solving Program is intended to help gifted students (grades 4 through 12) develop richer images of the future and increase creativity, communication, teamwork, research, and problem-solving skills. Procedures for participating in the program and securing materials are explained. (CL)
Aljaberi, Nahil M.; Gheith, Eman
2016-01-01
This study aims to investigate the ability of pre-service class teacher at University of Petrain solving mathematical problems using Polya's Techniques, their level of problem solving skills in daily-life issues. The study also investigates the correlation between their ability to solve mathematical problems and their level of problem solving…
Vibrations and Stability: Solved Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Jon Juel
Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003.......Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003....
Do TEFL Articles Solve Problems?
Edge, Julian
1985-01-01
Discusses the problem which English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) teacher trainees who are nonnative English speakers have in reading articles about EFL teaching methods. As a solution to this problem, the author produced a worksheet for the students to fill in while reading the articles which followed Hoey's…
Solving global optimization problems on GPU cluster
Barkalov, Konstantin; Gergel, Victor; Lebedev, Ilya
2016-06-01
The paper contains the results of investigation of a parallel global optimization algorithm combined with a dimension reduction scheme. This allows solving multidimensional problems by means of reducing to data-independent subproblems with smaller dimension solved in parallel. The new element implemented in the research consists in using several graphic accelerators at different computing nodes. The paper also includes results of solving problems of well-known multiextremal test class GKLS on Lobachevsky supercomputer using tens of thousands of GPU cores.
Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis
Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.
2015-01-01
Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…
Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2"
Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin
2013-01-01
This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…
Emotion dysregulation, problem-solving, and hopelessness.
Vatan, Sevginar; Lester, David; Gunn, John F
2014-04-01
A sample of 87 Turkish undergraduate students was administered scales to measure hopelessness, problem-solving skills, emotion dysregulation, and psychiatric symptoms. All of the scores from these scales were strongly associated. In a multiple regression, hopelessness scores were predicted by poor problem-solving skills and emotion dysregulation.
Computer-Based Assessment of Problem Solving.
Baker, E. L.; Mayer, R. E.
1999-01-01
Examines the components required to assess student problem solving in technology environments. Discusses the purposes of testing, provides an example demonstrating the difference between retention and transfer, defines and analyzes problem solving, and explores techniques and standards for measuring the quality of student understanding. Contains…
Teaching and Learning through Problem Solving
Ollerton, Mike
2007-01-01
In this article, the author relates some problem solving work with primary schools to Department for Children, Schools, and Families (DfES) support. In four primary schools in the West Midlands, the focus was teaching mathematics through problem solving, based on materials published on the DfES "standards" website. The author noticed…
The Process of Solving Complex Problems
Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…
Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-01-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…
Students' Metaphors for Mathematical Problem Solving
Yee, Sean P.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the metaphors used by students to describe mathematical problem solving. This study focused on identifying how students interpret and perceive mathematical problem solving via conceptual metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson, 2003). These perceptions and interpretations were coded and analyzed qualitatively and…
Mathematics Teachers Circle around Problem Solving
Fernandes, Anthony; Koehler, Jacob; Reiter, Harold
2011-01-01
Making problem solving a central part of teaching may be challenging to teachers who have limited experiences in learning and teaching mathematics in this way. Math Teachers' Circles were developed with the aim of establishing a "culture of problem solving" among middle school mathematics teachers. This culture could then be carried back into…
The Functions of Pictures in Problem Solving
Elia, Iliada; Philippou, George
2004-01-01
In the present study, we assert that pictures serve four functions in problem solving: decorative, representational, organizational and informational. We, therefore, investigate the effects of pictures based on their functions in mathematical problem solving (MPS), by high achievement students of Grade 6 in Cyprus, in a communication setting. A…
Fostering Creative Problem Solvers in Higher Education: A Response to Complexity of Societies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2016-01-01
Recent studies have emphasized issues of social emergence based on thinking of societies as complex systems. The complexity of professional practice has been recognized as the root of challenges for higher education. To foster creative problem solvers is a key response of higher education in order...... to meet such challenges. This chapter aims to illustrate how to understand: 1) complexity as the nature of professional practice; 2) creative problem solving as the core skill in professional practice; 3) creativity as interplay between persons and their environment; 4) higher education as the context...... of fostering creative problem solvers; and 5) some innovative strategies such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL) and building a learning environment by Information Communication Technology (ICT) as potential strategies of creativity development. Accordingly, this chapter contributes to bridge the complexity...
Easton, Don
1999-03-01
This note is a description of a student solution to a problem. I found the solution exciting because it exemplifies the kind of solution by analogy that Feynman describes in The Feynman Lectures on Physics.
Collection of solved problems in physics
Koupilová, ZdeÅka; Mandíková, Dana; Snětinová, Marie
2017-01-01
To solve physics problems is a key ability which students should reach during their physics education. Ten years ago we started to develop a Collection of fully solved problems. The structure of problems' solutions is specially designed to substitute tutor's help during lesson and encourage students to solve at least some parts of a problem independently. Nowadays the database contains about 770 fully solved problems in physics in Czech, more than 100 problems in Polish and more than 140 problems in English. Other problems are still being translated. Except for physics problems, the Collection has also a mathematical part, which contains more than 300 fully solved problems in mathematics. This paper follows the presentation of the Collection of solved problems from previous years and introduces a new interface of the Collection, its enhanced functionality, new topics, newly created interface for teachers, user feedback and plans for future development. The database is placed at the website of the Department of Physics Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, the links are: http://reseneulohy.cz/fyzika (Czech version); http://www.physicstasks.eu/ (English version).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mimi Mohaffyza Mohamad
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between students’ learning styles and problem solving skills among students in Building Construction Course at Vocational School. This study also investigated the differences between the students’ type of learning styles and their ability to solve the problem using their creative thinking. A survey was carried out on 68 vocational students in Building Construction Course from two Vocational Schools. Felder-Soloman’s Index of Learning Styles (ILS and elements of creative thinking in problem solving for Vocational Education were the tools used in this study. Creative thinking in problem solving elements was categorized from the subject specification used in Building Construction curriculum. In brief, the ILS have five dimension; Processing, Perception, Input, Understanding and Perception. The results show that the Input style dominates the learning styles of Building Construction’s students in Vocational School and manipulating idea is the dominant creative thinking elements to solve the problem which students preferred. In conclusion, type of students’ learning styles will influence how they can cater their learning to improve their academic achievement and how they can use their creativity to solve the problem in actual situation in Building Construction work. However, learning styles are not main indicator to predict how students excellent are.
Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives.
Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent
2015-01-01
Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P assertiveness levels and problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession.
Solving the wrong hierarchy problem
Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson
2016-06-01
Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2 -symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. We show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1 σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.
Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krisztina Barczi
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Teaching how to solve problems – from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks – has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might be useful. The present article describes part of an experiment that was designed to determine the effects of cooperative teaching techniques on the development of problem-solving skills.
Trading a Problem-solving Task
Matsubara, Shigeo
This paper focuses on a task allocation problem, especially cases where the task is to find a solution in a search problem or a constraint satisfaction problem. If the search problem is hard to solve, a contractor may fail to find a solution. Here, the more computational resources such as the CPU time the contractor invests in solving the search problem, the more a solution is likely to be found. This brings about a new problem that a contractee has to find an appropriate level of the quality in a task achievement as well as to find an efficient allocation of a task among contractors. For example, if the contractee asks the contractor to find a solution with certainty, the payment from the contractee to the contractor may exceed the contractee's benefit from obtaining a solution, which discourages the contractee from trading a task. However, solving this problem is difficult because the contractee cannot ascertain the contractor's problem-solving ability such as the amount of available resources and knowledge (e.g. algorithms, heuristics) or monitor what amount of resources are actually invested in solving the allocated task. To solve this problem, we propose a task allocation mechanism that is able to choose an appropriate level of the quality in a task achievement and prove that this mechanism guarantees that each contractor reveals its true information. Moreover, we show that our mechanism can increase the contractee's utility compared with a simple auction mechanism by using computer simulation.
Solving the Wrong Hierarchy Problem
Blinov, Nikita
2016-01-01
Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop thi...
Lesion mapping of social problem solving.
Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H
2014-10-01
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease.
Solving complex problems a handbook
Schönwandt, Walter; Grunau, Jens; Utz, Jürgen; Voermanek, Katrin
2014-01-01
When you're planning something big, problems appear rather quickly. We hear of them on a daily basis. The bigger or more complex a task, the more we have to deal with complicated, multidisciplinary task formulations. In many cases it is architecture, including urban and spatial planning, but also politics and all types of organizational forms, irrespective of whether they are public authorities or private enterprises, which are expected to deliver functional solutions for such challenges. This is precisely where this book is helpful. It introduces a methodology for developing target-specific,
Education for complex problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh
The Problem-Based Learning model as it is practiced at Aalborg University grew out of expectations for future graduates in the 1970s. Many changes and developments have taken place since then in the ways the principles and methodologies are practiced, due to changes in society and governmental re...... regulations. However, the basic educational principles and methodologies are still the same and seem to meet expectations from society and academic work places today. This is what surveys and research, done regularly, document. (see for instance Krogh, 2013)....
Solving the Telomere Replication Problem
Maestroni, Laetitia; Matmati, Samah; Coulon, Stéphane
2017-01-01
Telomeres are complex nucleoprotein structures that protect the extremities of linear chromosomes. Telomere replication is a major challenge because many obstacles to the progression of the replication fork are concentrated at the ends of the chromosomes. This is known as the telomere replication problem. In this article, different and new aspects of telomere replication, that can threaten the integrity of telomeres, will be reviewed. In particular, we will focus on the functions of shelterin and the replisome for the preservation of telomere integrity. PMID:28146113
Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry
Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi
2011-01-01
This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…
Solving computationally expensive engineering problems
Leifsson, Leifur; Yang, Xin-She
2014-01-01
Computational complexity is a serious bottleneck for the design process in virtually any engineering area. While migration from prototyping and experimental-based design validation to verification using computer simulation models is inevitable and has a number of advantages, high computational costs of accurate, high-fidelity simulations can be a major issue that slows down the development of computer-aided design methodologies, particularly those exploiting automated design improvement procedures, e.g., numerical optimization. The continuous increase of available computational resources does not always translate into shortening of the design cycle because of the growing demand for higher accuracy and necessity to simulate larger and more complex systems. Accurate simulation of a single design of a given system may be as long as several hours, days or even weeks, which often makes design automation using conventional methods impractical or even prohibitive. Additional problems include numerical noise often pr...
ALGORITHM FOR SOLVING EXTREME SCHEDULING PROBLEMS
Gennady A. Berketov
2015-01-01
The article considers the original algorithmfor solving the generalized problem ofscheduling theory, based on the branch and bound method. Task schedulingperform works (operations) and restrictions on resources used often occur with scheduling discrete manufacturing operations, optimizing network implementationschedules of scientific, economic or technical projects. Tools to solve suchproblems are included in the decisionsupport system ACS in many businesses.The effectiveness of the proposed ...
Solving the factorization problem with P systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Alberto Leporati; Claudio Zandron; Giancarlo Mauri
2007-01-01
P systems have been used many times to face with computationally difficult problems, such as NP-complete decision problems and NP-hard optimization problems. In this paper we focus our attention on another computationally intractable problem: factorization. In particular, we first propose a simple method to encode binary numbers using multisets. Then, we describe three families of P systems: the first two allow to add and to multiply two binary encoded numbers, respectively, and the third solves the factorization problem.
Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar
van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly
2013-01-01
At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…
Emerging representation technologies for problem solving
Jong, de Ton; Spector, J. Michael; Merrill, M. David; Elen, Jan; Bishop, M.J.
2014-01-01
When learners solve problems they often create an external representation to organize the information given in the problem statement, to translate this problem description into underlying domain terms, and to complete this with knowledge they already have. This representation is subsequently used to
Tree Searching and Student Problem Solving
Alderman, Donald L.
1978-01-01
Tree searching was applied as a computer model of simple addition sentences. Results indicated that the number of problem reductions performed in tree searching accounted for most of the variance across problems in student error rate and solution time. The technique constitutes a computer test for the adequacy of a problem solving prescription.…
Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-12-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
Physics: Quantum problems solved through games
Maniscalco, Sabrina
2016-04-01
Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210
Information problem solving and mental effort
Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Frerejean, Jimmy
2012-01-01
Brand-Gruwel, S., & Frerejean, J. (2012, 5 September). Information problem solving and mental effort. Presentation at the EARLI ASC 2012 "Using eye tracking to design and evaluate education & training methods", Heerlen, The Netherlands.
Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartvig, Susanne C
1999-01-01
This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods. The descri......This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods....... The described work is part of a project that aims at establishing a coherent framework for future development of integrated design tools....
Productive Dialog During Collaborative Problem Solving
Hausmann, Robert G M; van de Sande, Carla; VanLehn, Kurt
2008-01-01
Collaboration is an important problem-solving skill; however, novice collaboration generally benefits from some kind of support. One possibility for supporting productive conversations between collaborators is to encourage pairs of students to provide explanations for their problem-solving steps. To test this possibility, we contrasted individuals who were instructed to self-explain problem-solving steps with dyads who were instructed to jointly explain problem-solving steps in the context of an intelligent tutoring system (ITS). The results suggest that collaboratively developed explanations prompted students to remediate their errors in dialog, as opposed to relying on the ITS for assistance, which is provided in the form of on-demand hints. The paper concludes with a discussion about implications for combining proven learning interventions.
How to solve applied mathematics problems
Moiseiwitsch, B L
2011-01-01
This workbook bridges the gap between lectures and practical applications, offering students of mathematics, engineering, and physics the chance to practice solving problems from a wide variety of fields. 2011 edition.
Photoreactors for Solving Problems of Environmental Pollution
Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Sokolova, I. V.
2015-04-01
Designs and physical aspects of photoreactors, their capabilities for a study of kinetics and mechanisms of processes proceeding under illumination with light, as well as application of photoreactors for solving various applied problem are discussed.
Methods of solving sequence and series problems
Grigorieva, Ellina
2016-01-01
This book aims to dispel the mystery and fear experienced by students surrounding sequences, series, convergence, and their applications. The author, an accomplished female mathematician, achieves this by taking a problem solving approach, starting with fascinating problems and solving them step by step with clear explanations and illuminating diagrams. The reader will find the problems interesting, unusual, and fun, yet solved with the rigor expected in a competition. Some problems are taken directly from mathematics competitions, with the name and year of the exam provided for reference. Proof techniques are emphasized, with a variety of methods presented. The text aims to expand the mind of the reader by often presenting multiple ways to attack the same problem, as well as drawing connections with different fields of mathematics. Intuitive and visual arguments are presented alongside technical proofs to provide a well-rounded methodology. With nearly 300 problems including hints, answers, and solutions,Met...
Solving traveling salesman problems by genetic algorithms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
The gene section ordering on solving traveling salesman problems is analyzed by numerical experiments. Some improved crossover operations are presented. Several combinations of genetic operations are examined and the functions of these operations are analyzed. The essentiality of the ordering of the gene section and the significance of the evolutionary inversion operation are discussed. Some results and conclusions are obtained and given, which provide useful information for the implementation of the genetic operations for solving the traveling salesman problem.
An Algorithm for Solving Quadratic Programming Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Moraru
1997-08-01
Full Text Available Herein is investigated the method of solution of quadratic programming problems. The algorithm is based on the effective selection of constraints. Quadratic programming with constraints-equalities are solved with the help of an algorithm, so that matrix inversion is avoided, because of the more convenient organization of the Calculus. Optimal solution is determined in a finite number of iterations. It is discussed the extension of the algorithm over solving quadratic non-convex programming problems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilhan KARATAS
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educatingstudents as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum. Students’ gaining of that skill in school mathematics is closely related with the learning environment to beformed and the roles given to the students. The aim of this study is to create a problem solving based learning environment to enhance the students’ problem solving skill. Within this scope, students’practiced activities and problems that provide them to proceed in Polya (1945’s problem solving phases and throughout the study, students’ success in problem solving have been evaluated. While experimental group students received problem solving based learning environment performed, control group students have continued their present program in this quise1experimental study. Eleven problem solving activities were given to the students at the beginning, middle and end of the study and the students’ performances wereanalyzed based on problem solving phases. The findings illustrated that the experimental group students’ success in problem solving activities has increased while the control group students’ success has not changed significantly.
A framework for solving ill-structured community problems
Keller, William Cotesworth
A multifaceted protocol for solving ill-structured community problems has been developed. It embodies the lessons learned from the past by refining and extending features of previous models from the systems thinkers, and the fields of behavioral decision making and creative problem solving. The protocol also embraces additional features needed to address the unique aspects of community decision situations. The essential elements of the protocol are participants from the community, a problem-solving process, a systems picture, a facilitator, a modified Delphi method of communications, and technical expertise. This interdisciplinary framework has been tested by a quasi experiment with a real world community problem (the high cost of electrical power on Long Island, NY). Results indicate the protocol can enable members of the community to understand a complicated, ill-structured problem and guide them to action to solve the issue. However, the framework takes time (over one year in the test case) and will be inappropriate for crises where quick action is needed.
Teaching Problem Solving without Modeling through "Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving."
Pestel, Beverly C.
1993-01-01
Reviews research relevant to the problem of unsatisfactory student problem-solving abilities and suggests a teaching strategy that addresses the issue. Author explains how she uses teaching aloud problem solving (TAPS) in college chemistry and presents evaluation data. Among the findings are that the TAPS class got fewer problems completely right,…
On Teaching Problem Solving in School Mathematics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erkki Pehkonen
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open problems (i.e., problem fields. Next we discuss the objectives of the Finnish curriculum that are connected with problem solving. Some examples and research results are taken from a Finnish–Chilean research project that monitors the development of problem-solving skills in third grade pupils. Finally, some ideas on “teacher change” are put forward. It is not possible to change teachers, but only to provide hints for possible change routes: the teachers themselves should work out the ideas and their implementation.
Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts
Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.
2012-01-01
Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, September). Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts. Poster presented at the EARLI SIG 6 & 7 "Instructional Design" and "Learning and Instruction with Computers", Bari, Italy.
Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts
Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.
2012-01-01
Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, November). Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts. Poster presented at the ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.
Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Matematika Berorientasi Open-ended Problem Solving
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Ni Nyoman Parwati
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Developing Mathematics Learning Materials Oriented to Open-ended Problem Solving. Mathematics learning should develop students' critical and creative thinking competences, which can be done through open-ended problem-solving activities. This study aims at developing mathematics learning materials for the fifth grade of elementary schools which can facilitate such activities. The development process employed a four-D model (define, design, develop, and disseminate. At the define and design stages, the researcher produced the drafts of student's book, student's worksheet, and teacher's manual accompanied with the lesson plans. At the develop and disseminate stages, the mathematics learning materials oriented to open-ended problem solving for the fifth-grade elementary school students were found to be valid, effective, and feasible. Abstrak: Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Matematika Berorientasi Open-ended Problem Solving. Kemampuan berpikir kritis dan kreatif sangat diperlukan dalam memecahkan masalah yang merupakan tujuan pokok dari pembelajaran matematika. Penyajian masalah matematika terbuka merupakan alternatif untuk menumbuhkembangkan kemampuan berpikir siswa. Agar proses pembelajaran berlangsung efektif, perlu didukung dengan perangkat pembelajaran yang relevan. Tujuan penelitian pengembangan ini adalah menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran matematika SD berorientasi open-ended problem solving. Pengembangan prototipe perangkat pembelajaran tersebut, menggunakan four-D model (Define, Design, Develop and Disseminate. Penelitian dilakukan pada SD di kota Singaraja, Bali. Tahap define dan design menghasilkan draf perangkat pembelajaran berupa buku siswa beserta LKS, dan buku petunjuk guru beserta rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran (RPP. Berikutnya, dilaksanakan tahap develop dan disseminate. Perangat pembelajaran matematika SD kelas V berorientasi open-ended problem solving yang dikembangkan terbukti valid, efektif, dan layak pakai.
Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems
Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.
2009-01-01
Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…
Problem-Solving: Scaling the "Brick Wall"
Benson, Dave
2011-01-01
Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…
A program to solve rotating plasma problems
Bakker, M.; Berg, M.S. van den
1980-01-01
It is shown that the solution of a rotating plasma problem minimizes a quitably chosen funtional. This variational problem is solved by the Ritz-Galerkin methud using piecewise bilinear functions and applying some Newton-Côtes-like quadrature. The resulting linear system with a sparse nonegative def
Using Bibliotherapy To Teach Problem Solving.
Forgan, James W.
2002-01-01
This article discusses how students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning to become proactive problem solvers. A sample lesson plan is presented based on a teaching framework for bibliotherapy and problem solving that contains the elements of prereading, guided reading, post-reading discussion, and a…
Solving Problems of Practice in Education.
Boyd, Robert D.; Menlo, Allen
1984-01-01
Discusses the many complexities involved in the translation of scientific information in the social sciences into forms usable for solving problems of practice in education. Prescribes a series of stages to be followed from the advent of a practitioner's situational problem to the design of a response to it. (Author/JN)
GIS Live and Web Problem Solving
Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.
2007-01-01
GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…
A reflexive perspective in problem solving
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Chio, José Angel
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to favour the methodological process of reflexive analysis in problem solving in the general teaching methods that concentrates in strengthening the dimensional analysis, to gain a greater preparation of the students for the solution of mathematical problems.
Complex Problem Solving in a Workplace Setting.
Middleton, Howard
2002-01-01
Studied complex problem solving in the hospitality industry through interviews with six office staff members and managers. Findings show it is possible to construct a taxonomy of problem types and that the most common approach can be termed "trial and error." (SLD)
Metaphor and analogy in everyday problem solving.
Keefer, Lucas A; Landau, Mark J
2016-11-01
Early accounts of problem solving focused on the ways people represent information directly related to target problems and possible solutions. Subsequent theory and research point to the role of peripheral influences such as heuristics and bodily states. We discuss how metaphor and analogy similarly influence stages of everyday problem solving: Both processes mentally map features of a target problem onto the structure of a relatively more familiar concept. When individuals apply this structure, they use a well-known concept as a framework for reasoning about real world problems and candidate solutions. Early studies found that analogy use helped people gain insight into novel problems. More recent research on metaphor goes further to show that activating mappings has subtle, sometimes surprising effects on judgment and reasoning in everyday problem solving. These findings highlight situations in which mappings can help or hinder efforts to solve problems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:394-405. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1407 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems
Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.
2009-01-01
Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…
Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving
Sriraman, Bharath
2004-01-01
An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.
SOLVING GLOBAL PROBLEMS USING COLLABORATIVE DESIGN PROCESSES
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lenau, Torben Anker; Mejborn, Christina Okai
2011-01-01
new solutions that would help solve the global problem of sanitation. Lack of sanitation is a problem for 42% of the world’s population but it is also a taboo topic that only very few people will engage in. In the one-day workshop participants from very different areas came together and brought...... forward proposed solutions for how to design, brand and make business models for how to solve aspects of the sanitation problem. The workshop showed that it was possible to work freely with such a taboo topic and that in particular the use of visualisation tools, i.e. drawing posters and building simple...
Mathematical problem solving in primary school
Kolovou, A
2011-01-01
A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each correct answer. If a question is not answered or the answer is wrong, one point is subtracted from your score. The quiz contains 10 questions. Tina received 8 points in total. How many questions did Tin...
Creativity for Operational Researchers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2005-01-01
This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes specially related to problem solving. Central publications of Creativity- OR are brie y reviewed. Creative tools and approaches suitable to support OR work are also presented. Finally, the paper...... outlines the author's experiences using creative tools and approaches to: Facilitation of problem solving processes, strategy development in organisations, and design of optimisation systems for large scale and complex logistic systems....
Creativity for Operational Researchers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2005-01-01
This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes specially related to problem solving. Central publications of Creativity- OR are brie y reviewed. Creative tools and approaches suitable to support OR work are also presented. Finally, the paper...... outlines the author's experiences using creative tools and approaches to: Facilitation of problem solving processes, strategy development in organisations, and design of optimisation systems for large scale and complex logistic systems....
Creativity for Operational Researchers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2004-01-01
This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes specially related to problem solving. Central publications of Creativity-OR are briefly reviewed. Creative tools and approaches suitable to support OR work are also presented. Finally, the paper...... outlines the author's experiences using creative tools and approaches to: Facilitation of problem solving processes, strategy development in organisations, and design of optimisation systems for large scale and complex logistic systems....
Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel
2016-01-01
This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…
Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan
2013-01-01
Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…
Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving
Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim
2016-01-01
This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…
Graziotin, Daniel; Wang, Xiaofeng; Abrahamsson, Pekka
2014-01-01
For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers' productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research). Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states-emotions and moods-deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1) providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2) introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3) raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a multidisciplinary viewpoint.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Graziotin
2014-03-01
Full Text Available For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers’ productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research. Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states—emotions and moods—deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1 providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2 introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3 raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Havva ILGIN
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In this research, by carrying out activities based on texts, effect of providing problem solving skill on students’ levels of problem solving attainment was tried to be identified. Research was performed according to pretest-posttest Experimental Model with Control Group, in 2008-2009 educational year at second grade of an elementary school in Denizli province. For nine weeks, four hours in a week, while teacher guide book was being followed in control group in Turkish language lesson, texts were carried out with problem solving activities in experimental group. In the research, “Problem Solving Test” which were used as data collection tools, were developed by benefiting from matching of attainment-problem solving steps-cognitive domain steps. Problem Solving Test is made up of 16 multiple choice and 9 open ended questions. In the analysis of data, t test was used. It was found that problem solving teaching succeeded at “identifying different possible solutions in the light of collected data, applying the decided way of solution, evaluating types of solutions, evaluating used problem solving method” stages of problem solving.
Why students still can't solve physics problems after solving over 2000 problems
Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho
2014-09-01
This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.
Chan, Zenobia C Y
2013-08-01
To explore students' attitude towards problem-based learning, creativity and critical thinking, and the relevance to nursing education and clinical practice. Critical thinking and creativity are crucial in nursing education. The teaching approach of problem-based learning can help to reduce the difficulties of nurturing problem-solving skills. However, there is little in the literature on how to improve the effectiveness of a problem-based learning lesson by designing appropriate and innovative activities such as composing songs, writing poems and using role plays. Exploratory qualitative study. A sample of 100 students participated in seven semi-structured focus groups, of which two were innovative groups and five were standard groups, adopting three activities in problem-based learning, namely composing songs, writing poems and performing role plays. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. There are three themes extracted from the conversations: 'students' perceptions of problem-based learning', 'students' perceptions of creative thinking' and 'students' perceptions of critical thinking'. Participants generally agreed that critical thinking is more important than creativity in problem-based learning and clinical practice. Participants in the innovative groups perceived a significantly closer relationship between critical thinking and nursing care, and between creativity and nursing care than the standard groups. Both standard and innovative groups agreed that problem-based learning could significantly increase their critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Further, by composing songs, writing poems and using role plays, the innovative groups had significantly increased their awareness of the relationship among critical thinking, creativity and nursing care. Nursing educators should include more types of creative activities than it often does in conventional problem-based learning classes. The results could help nurse educators design an appropriate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Nuswowati
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to build creative thinking skills and creative attitude of students through a model of problem-based lectures Environmental Chemistry (PBL Green Chemistry visionary. Mixed methods research design experimental models embedded with pretest-posttest control group were used in this study, and the differences between assumed initial end-tests as the effects of the treatment. Creative thinking skills measured by the essay tests, non test while the creative attitude is measured from the completed questionnaires consisting of positive and negative statements of markers creative attitude. Data measurement N-gain of creative thinking skills for the control and experimental group were 0.40 and 0.71, while the creative attitude were 0.08 and 0.34. Improved tests of creative thinking skills or creative attitudes were analyzed by t-test. Implementation of research findings indicate environmental chemistry lecture- problems based Green Chemistry vision can improve thinking skills and of creative student.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Nuswowati
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to build creative thinking skills and creative attitude of students through a model of problem-based lectures Environmental Chemistry (PBL Green Chemistry visionary. Mixed methods research design experimental models embedded with pretest-posttest control group were used in this study, and the differences between assumed initial end-tests as the effects of the treatment. Creative thinking skills measured by the essay tests, non test while the creative attitude is measured from the completed questionnaires consisting of positive and negative statements of markers creative attitude. Data measurement N-gain of creative thinking skills for the control and experimental group were 0.40 and 0.71, while the creative attitude were 0.08 and 0.34. Improved tests of creative thinking skills or creative attitudes were analyzed by t-test. Implementation of research findings indicate environmental chemistry lecture- problems based Green Chemistry vision can improve thinking skills and of creative student.
A Problem with Current Conceptions of Expert Problem Solving
Kuo, Eric; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew
2011-01-01
Current conceptions of expert problem solving depict physical/conceptual reasoning and formal mathematical reasoning as separate steps: a good problem solver first translates a physical understanding into mathematics, then performs mathematical/symbolic manipulations, then interprets the mathematical solution physically. However, other research suggests that blending conceptual and symbolic reasoning during symbolic manipulations can reflect expertise. We explore the hypothesis that blending conceptual and symbolic reasoning (i) indicates problem-solving expertise more than adherence to "expert" problem-solving steps and (ii) is something some undergraduates do spontaneously, suggesting it's a feasible instructional target. Interviewed students were asked to (1) explain a particular equation and (2) solve a problem using that equation. In-depth analysis of two students, Alex and Pat, revealed a pattern of behavior. All 11 interviews were coded to investigate the generalizability of this pattern. Alex describe...
Solving and creating Raven Progressive Matrices: reasoning in well- and ill-defined problem spaces
Jaarsveld, S.; Lachmann, T.; Hamel, R.; van Leeuwen, C.
2010-01-01
We studied the development of creative cognition in children ranging from nursery school to Grade 6 (4-12 yr old, N¼511), performing a problem generation task. The task involved inventing a novel item for a classical problem solving task they had completed beforehand: the Raven Progressive Matrices
Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Preston Foerder
Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.
USING TASK LIKE PISA’S PROBLEM TO SUPPORT STUDENT’S CREATIVITY IN MATHEMATICS
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Rita Novita
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Creativity is one of keys to success in the evolving global economy and also be a fundamental skill that is absolutely necessary in the 21st century. Also In mathematics, creativity or thinking creatively is important to be developed because creativity is an integral part of mathematics. However, limiting the use of creativity in the classroom reduces mathematics to a set of skills to master and rules to memorize. Doing so causes many children’s natural curiosity and enthusiasm for mathematics to disappear as they get older, creating a tremendous problem for mathematics educators who are trying to instil these very qualities. In order to investigate the increase in awareness of elementary school students’ creativity in solving mathematics’ problems by using task like PISA’s Question, a qualitative research emphasizing on holistic description was conducted. We used a formative evaluation type of development research as a mean to develop mathematical tasks like PISA’s question that have potential effect to support students’ creativity in mathematics. Ten elementary school students of grade 6 in Palembang were involved in this research. They judged the task given for them is very challenging and provokes their curiosity. The result showed that task like PISA’s question can encourage students to more creatively in mathematics.
SVM for Solving Forward Problems of EIT.
Wu, Youxi; Li, Ying; Guo, Lei; Yan, Weili; Shen, Xueqin; Fu, Kun
2005-01-01
Support Vector Machine (SVM) can be seen as a new machine learning way which is based on the idea of VC dimensions and the principle of structural risk minimization rather than empirical risk minimization. SVM can be used for classification and regression. Support Vector Regression (SVR) is a very important branch of Support Vector Machine. Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) have been successfully treated by using SVR in previous works. The forward problems of EIT are the basis of EIT inverse problems. The forward problem's essence is to solve PDEs. The method has been successfully tested on the forward problems of EIT and has yielded accurate results.
Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.
2013-01-01
The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…
Writing about the Problem-Solving Process To Improve Problem-Solving Performance.
Williams, Kenneth M.
2003-01-01
Concludes that writing about the executive processes of problem solving, difficulties encountered, alternative strategies that might have been used, and the problem solving process in general helped students in the treatment group learn to use executive processes more quickly and more effectively than students in the control group. (Author/NB)
Teaching, Learning and Assessing Statistical Problem Solving
Marriott, John; Davies, Neville; Gibson, Liz
2009-01-01
In this paper we report the results from a major UK government-funded project, started in 2005, to review statistics and handling data within the school mathematics curriculum for students up to age 16. As a result of a survey of teachers we developed new teaching materials that explicitly use a problem-solving approach for the teaching and…
The art and science of problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2005-01-01
In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group proble...
Why Some Communities Can Solve Their Problems.
Mathews, David
1989-01-01
Effective communities are well-educated about themselves, have a better understanding of public information, talk through public issues to generate shared knowledge, appreciate the difference between public opinion and public judgment, and believe in public leadership as the key to using public power to solve community problems. (SK)
Latest Trends in Problem Solving Assessment
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Maria Karyotaki
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Problem solving is the skill that coordinates all the cognitive, metacognitive and behavioral processes taking place when individuals encounter a previously unprecedented situation or difficulty. Metacognitive processes seem to play the most important role for resolving a problematic situation as individuals reflect on their acquired knowledge, skills and experiences, thus become aware of their capabilities and how to regulate them. Therefore, metacognitive awareness is the competence that mostly assists individuals in their attempt to construct new knowledge and reach their goals. Furthermore, individuals’ self-assessment and peer-assessment processes could reveal their level of metacognitive awareness and therefore, by far, their problem solving competency. Consequently, ICTs could capture individuals’ problem solving skills through tracking down and analyzing the latters’ cognitive and metacognitive processes as well as their behavioral patterns. The aforementioned computer-based assessment could consist of a fuzzy expert system with domain knowledge from an automated task-based test with particular solution strategies in combination with log data for identifying and classifying one’s level of problem solving ability according to specific criteria.
Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking
Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil
2011-01-01
This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…
Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning
Crul, Liselore
2014-01-01
This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…
Stoichiometric Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.
Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen
The purpose of this descriptive study was to create and test questions on stoichiometry with number ratios for quick mental calculations and to identify students' problem-solving strategies. The present study was a component of a more comprehensive investigation in which 7,441 German senior high school students were asked to work on 154 test items…
Should Children Learn to Solve Problems?
Watras, Joseph
2011-01-01
In this comparative essay, the author discusses the opposing educational theories of John Dewey and Gregory Bateson. While Dewey believed that the scientific method was the dominant method of solving problems and thereby acquiring knowledge that mattered, Bateson warned that this one-sided approach would lead to actions that could destroy the…
Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning
Crul, Liselore
2014-01-01
This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…
Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2010-01-01
This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…
Facilitating Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.
Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.
1983-01-01
Investigated superiority of instructional strategies (factor-label method, proportionality, use of analogies, use of diagrams) in teaching problem-solving related to mole concept, gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Also investigated effectiveness of strategies for students (N=609) with different verbal-visual preferences, proportional…
Facilitating problem solving in high school chemistry
Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.
The major purpose for conducting this study was to determine whether certain instructional strategies were superior to others in teaching high school chemistry students problem solving. The effectiveness of four instructional strategies for teaching problem solving to students of various proportional reasoning ability, verbal and visual preference, and mathematics anxiety were compared in this aptitude by treatment interaction study. The strategies used were the factor-label method, analogies, diagrams, and proportionality. Six hundred and nine high school students in eight schools were randomly assigned to one of four teaching strategies within each classroom. Students used programmed booklets to study the mole concept, the gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Problem-solving ability was measured by a series of immediate posttests, delayed posttests and the ACS-NSTA Examination in High School Chemistry. Results showed that mathematics anxiety is negatively correlated with science achievement and that problem solving is dependent on students' proportional reasoning ability. The factor-label method was found to be the most desirable method and proportionality the least desirable method for teaching the mole concept. However, the proportionality method was best for teaching the gas laws. Several second-order interactions were found to be significant when mathematics anxiety was one of the aptitudes involved.
Problem solving stages in the five square problem.
Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael
2015-01-01
According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory.
Optimal Planning and Problem-Solving
Clemet, Bradley; Schaffer, Steven; Rabideau, Gregg
2008-01-01
CTAEMS MDP Optimal Planner is a problem-solving software designed to command a single spacecraft/rover, or a team of spacecraft/rovers, to perform the best action possible at all times according to an abstract model of the spacecraft/rover and its environment. It also may be useful in solving logistical problems encountered in commercial applications such as shipping and manufacturing. The planner reasons around uncertainty according to specified probabilities of outcomes using a plan hierarchy to avoid exploring certain kinds of suboptimal actions. Also, planned actions are calculated as the state-action space is expanded, rather than afterward, to reduce by an order of magnitude the processing time and memory used. The software solves planning problems with actions that can execute concurrently, that have uncertain duration and quality, and that have functional dependencies on others that affect quality. These problems are modeled in a hierarchical planning language called C_TAEMS, a derivative of the TAEMS language for specifying domains for the DARPA Coordinators program. In realistic environments, actions often have uncertain outcomes and can have complex relationships with other tasks. The planner approaches problems by considering all possible actions that may be taken from any state reachable from a given, initial state, and from within the constraints of a given task hierarchy that specifies what tasks may be performed by which team member.
A Problem Solving Environment Based on CORBA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Lancaster
2001-01-01
Full Text Available We have investigated aspects of the design of Problem Solving Environments (PSE by constructing a prototype using CORBA as middleware. The two issues we are mainly concerned with are the use of non-trivial (containing more than just a start method CORBA interfaces for the computational components, and the provision of interactivity using the same mechanisms used for flow control. After describing the design decisions that allow us to investigate these issues, and contrasting them with alternatives, we describe the architecture of the prototype and its use in the context of a study of photonic materials. We argue that having several methods on a component interface can be used to mitigate performance problems that may arise when trying to solve problems in PSE's based on small components. We describe how our mechanism allows a high degree of computational steering over all components.
A Heuristic Approach to Innovative Problem Solving
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Bertil Hök
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A methodic approach to innovative problem solving is suggested. First, Bayesian techniques are analyzed for quantifying, monitoring and predicting the process. The symmetry of Bayes‟ theorem implicates that the chances of success offrail ideas with small base rates can be boosted by highly accurate tests built on solid scientific ground. Second, a hypothesis is presented in which five methodic elements – connection, selection, transformation, balance and finish - are deemed to be necessary and sufficient to explain innovative solutions to complex problems. The hypothesis is supported by the analysis of disruptive innovations in several fields, and by emulation of a data base including 40,000 inventions.The reported findings may become useful in the further methodic development of innovative problem solving, especially in the risky and lengthy preconceptual phases
Solving Problems with The Percentage Bar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frans van Galen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available At the end of primary school all children more of less know what apercentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems.This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a teaching experiment the students were then taught the use of the percentage bar. Although the teaching experiment was very short - just one lesson - the results confirm that the percentage bar is a powerful model that deserves a central place in the teaching of percentages
The Problem of Engineering Creativity in Russia: A Critical Review
Kukushkin, Sergey; Churlyaeva, Natalya
2012-01-01
The problem of technological creativity in Russia is briefly discussed. Special attention is paid to the development of indigenous engineering corpus in unfavourable conditions and some reasons for engineers' low creativity are revealed. The Soviet system of engineering higher education (HE) is criticised as not focused on fostering creative…
Ilhan KARATAS; Baki, Adnan
2013-01-01
Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educatingstudents as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum. Students’ gaining of that skill in school mathematics is closely related with the learning environment to beformed and the roles given to the students....
IMPACT OF HEURISTIC STRATEGIES ON PUPILS’ ATTITUDES TO PROBLEM SOLVING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
NOVOTNÁ, Jarmila
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The paper is a sequel to the article (Novotná et al., 2014, where the authors present the results of a 4-month experiment whose main aim was to change pupils’ culture of problem solving by using heuristic strategies suitable for problem solving in mathematics education. (Novotná et al., 2014 focused on strategies Analogy, Guess – check – revise, Systematic experimentation, Problem reformulation, Solution drawing, Working backwards and Use of graphs of functions. This paper focuses on two other heuristic strategies convenient for improvement of pupils’ culture of problem solving: Introduction of an auxiliary element and Omitting a condition. In the first part, the strategies Guess – Check – Revise, Working backwards, Introduction of an auxiliary element and Omitting a condition are characterized in detail and illustrated by examples of their use in order to capture their characteristics. In the second part we focus on the newly introduced strategies and analyse work with them in lessons using the tools from (Novotná et al., 2014. The analysis of results of the experiment indicates that, unlike in case of the strategy Introduction of an auxiliary element, successful use of the strategy Omitting a condition requires longer teacher’s work with the pupils. The following analysis works with the strategy Systematic experimentation, which seemed to be the easiest to master in (Novotná et al., 2014; we focus on the dangers it bears when it is used by pupils. The conclusion from (Novotná et al., 2014, which showed that if pupils are introduced to an environment that supports their creativity, their attitude towards problem solving changes in a positive way already after the period of four months, is confirmed.
Learning via problem solving in mathematics education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piet Human
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Three forms of mathematics education at school level are distinguished: direct expository teaching with an emphasis on procedures, with the expectation that learners will at some later stage make logical and functional sense of what they have learnt and practised (the prevalent form, mathematically rigorous teaching in terms of fundamental mathematical concepts, as in the so-called “modern mathematics” programmes of the sixties, teaching and learning in the context of engaging with meaningful problems and focused both on learning to become good problem solvers (teaching for problem solving andutilising problems as vehicles for the development of mathematical knowledge andproﬁciency by learners (problem-centred learning, in conjunction with substantialteacher-led social interaction and mathematical discourse in classrooms.Direct expository teaching of mathematical procedures dominated in school systems after World War II, and was augmented by the “modern mathematics” movement in the period 1960-1970. The latter was experienced as a major failure, and was soon abandoned. Persistent poor outcomes of direct expository procedural teaching of mathematics for the majority of learners, as are still being experienced in South Africa, triggered a world-wide movement promoting teaching mathematics for and via problem solving in the seventies and eighties of the previous century. This movement took the form of a variety of curriculum experiments in which problem solving was the dominant classroom activity, mainly in the USA, Netherlands, France and South Africa. While initially focusing on basic arithmetic (computation with whole numbers and elementary calculus, the problem-solving movement started to address other mathematical topics (for example, elementary statistics, algebra, differential equations around the turn of the century. The movement also spread rapidly to other countries, including Japan, Singapore and Australia. Parallel with the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘振林; 唐苏妍; 葛伟
2012-01-01
现代战争特点为防空作战中武器目标分配(WTA)问题的求解效率和质量提出了新的需求和挑战.建立了WTA问题模型,并选择粒子群优化算法(PSO)求解模型.针对PSO算法在求解WTA模型中出现的早熟收敛特性,从认知心理学角度进行分析,将创造性思维(CT)引入PSO的速度更新公式中,提出了一种基于创造性思维的PSO算法CTPSO.针对WTA模型的离散性特点,设计了编码与解码策略,及位置和速度矢量的离散化运算规则.实验证明了CTPSO算法在WTA问题求解质量和求解效率方面的优越性.%Because of new characteristics of modern warfare new requirements and challenges of Weapon Target Assignment (WTA) in air defense warfare are put forward. A WTA model is designed, and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is chosen to solve it. PSO suffers from the premature convergence problem in solving WTA. To solve this problem, PSO algorithm is analyzed from cognitive psychology and CTPSO algorithm is proposed by introducing CT to the evolution model of PSO. According to the discreteness in WTA model, discrete strategies are designed by setting the coding and decoding rules,and the operation rules for particles' velocity and positions. Experimental results show that CTPSO has priority in solution quality and convergence rate.
Students' Images of Problem Contexts when Solving Applied Problems
Moore, Kevin C.; Carlson, Marilyn P.
2012-01-01
This article reports findings from an investigation of precalculus students' approaches to solving novel problems. We characterize the images that students constructed during their solution attempts and describe the degree to which they were successful in imagining how the quantities in a problem's context change together. Our analyses revealed…
Students' Images of Problem Contexts when Solving Applied Problems
Moore, Kevin C.; Carlson, Marilyn P.
2012-01-01
This article reports findings from an investigation of precalculus students' approaches to solving novel problems. We characterize the images that students constructed during their solution attempts and describe the degree to which they were successful in imagining how the quantities in a problem's context change together. Our analyses revealed…
Spreadsheet modelling for solving combinatorial problems: The vendor selection problem
Ipsilandis, Pandelis G
2008-01-01
Spreadsheets have grown up and became very powerful and easy to use tools in applying analytical techniques for solving business problems. Operations managers, production managers, planners and schedulers can work with them in developing solid and practical Do-It-Yourself Decision Support Systems. Small and Medium size organizations, can apply OR methodologies without the presence of specialized software and trained personnel, which in many cases cannot afford anyway. This paper examines an efficient approach in solving combinatorial programming problems with the use of spreadsheets. A practical application, which demonstrates the approach, concerns the development of a spreadsheet-based DSS for the Multi Item Procurement Problem with Fixed Vendor Cost. The DSS has been build using exclusively standard spreadsheet feature and can solve real problems of substantial size. The benefits and limitations of the approach are also discussed.
Imagination as the crank of problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kolbæk, Ditte
and the imagination of the preferred present or future. Imagination is the foundation of problem solving, in this case the problems identified in the PR. The role of imagination cannot be underestimated in this collaborative process in which the interface between the individual and the collective dimensions merge...... and encourage the participants’ imagination to flow freely in order to redefine reality at work. I see different paths for this exploration: I could look into cultural practices and values concerning relations and interactions among colleagues who have solved a task together (Branco & lopes). Or I could dig...... into who “says” or “decides” what is preferred or favored in the sense of who seems to get the power in the team (Latour, Dunne & Raby). Or I could concentrate on the term “dialogue” (Bakhtin, Bohm, Oliveira). I hope the winterschool will add more view angles to this study.My premature research question is...
Learning Matlab a problem solving approach
Gander, Walter
2015-01-01
This comprehensive and stimulating introduction to Matlab, a computer language now widely used for technical computing, is based on an introductory course held at Qian Weichang College, Shanghai University, in the fall of 2014. Teaching and learning a substantial programming language aren’t always straightforward tasks. Accordingly, this textbook is not meant to cover the whole range of this high-performance technical programming environment, but to motivate first- and second-year undergraduate students in mathematics and computer science to learn Matlab by studying representative problems, developing algorithms and programming them in Matlab. While several topics are taken from the field of scientific computing, the main emphasis is on programming. A wealth of examples are completely discussed and solved, allowing students to learn Matlab by doing: by solving problems, comparing approaches and assessing the proposed solutions.
Fostering interpersonal problem solving skills in children
Luciana Carla dos Santos Elias; Edna Maria Marturano
2016-01-01
Interpersonal problem solving skills - IPSS are important for psychosocial adaptation of people. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a program for the development ofHSPI, applied by teachers. Participants were 203 students from a public elementary school, aged between six and ten years, and their teachers. The children were allocated in two groups - intervention and comparison. The groups were evaluated before and after intervention as their social skills, IPSS, beha...
Logic training through algorithmic problem solving
Ferreira, João Fernando; Mendes, Alexandra; Cunha, Alcino; Baquero, Carlos; Silva, Paulo; L. S. Barbosa; Oliveira, José Nuno Fonseca
2011-01-01
Available for individual study only. Although much of mathematics is algorithmic in nature, the skills needed to formulate and solve algorithmic problems do not form an integral part of mathematics education. In particular, logic, which is central to algorithm development, is rarely taught explicitly at preuniversity level, under the justification that it is implicit in mathematics and therefore does not need to be taught as an independent topic. This paper argues in the opposite direction...
Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Kuo, Fan-Ray
2015-01-01
Web-based problem-solving, a compound ability of critical thinking, creative thinking, reasoning thinking and information-searching abilities, has been recognised as an important competence for elementary school students. Some researchers have reported the possible correlations between problem-solving competence and information searching ability;…
Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving
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Eric D. Johnson
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian reasoning relative to normalized formats (e.g. probabilities, percentages, both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on transparent Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e. transparent problem structures at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct versus incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual difference might influence this time point.
Development of analogical problem-solving skill.
Holyoak, K J; Junn, E N; Billman, D O
1984-12-01
3 experiments were performed to assess children's ability to solve a problem by analogy to a superficially dissimilar situation. Preschoolers and fifth and sixth graders were asked to solve a problem that allowed multiple solutions. Some subjects were first read a story that included an analogous problem and its solution. When the mapping between the relations involved in the corresponding solutions was relatively simple, and the corresponding instruments were perceptually and functionally similar, even preschoolers were able to use the analogy to derive a solution to the transfer problem (Experiment 1). Furthermore, salient similarity of the instruments was neither sufficient (Experiment 2) nor necessary (Experiment 3) for success by preschool subjects. When the story analog mapped well onto the transfer problem, 4-year-olds were often able to generate a solution that required transformation of an object with little perceptual or semantic similarity to the instrument used in the base analog (Experiment 3). The older children used analogies in a manner qualitatively similar to that observed in comparable studies with adults (Experiment 1), whereas the younger children exhibited different limitations.
Marantz, Paula
1982-01-01
Outlines the purpose and content of the television series "Creativity with Bill Moyers." Programs explore creativity by investigating the way artists and other innovators express themselves in their work and in solving problems. (AM)
ILGIN, Havva; ARSLAN, Derya
2012-01-01
In this research, by carrying out activities based on texts, effect of providing problem solving skill on students’ levels of problem solving attainment was tried to be identified. Research was performed according to pretest-posttest Experimental Model with Control Group, in 2008-2009 educational year at second grade of an elementary school in Denizli province. For nine weeks, four hours in a week, while teacher guide book was being followed in control group in Turkish language lesson, texts ...
Role of Beliefs and Emotions in Numerical Problem Solving in University Physics Education
Bodin, Madelen; Winberg, Mikael
2012-01-01
Numerical problem solving in classical mechanics in university physics education offers a learning situation where students have many possibilities of control and creativity. In this study, expertlike beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were the most important predictors of the quality of performance of a task…
Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
2014-01-01
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…
Mathematical Problem Solving: A Review of the Literature.
Funkhouser, Charles
The major perspectives on problem solving of the twentieth century are reviewed--associationism, Gestalt psychology, and cognitive science. The results of the review on teaching problem solving and the uses of computers to teach problem solving are included. Four major issues related to the teaching of problem solving are discussed: (1)…
Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
2014-01-01
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…
A Flipped Pedagogy for Expert Problem Solving
Pritchard, David
The internet provides free learning opportunities for declarative (Wikipedia, YouTube) and procedural (Kahn Academy, MOOCs) knowledge, challenging colleges to provide learning at a higher cognitive level. Our ``Modeling Applied to Problem Solving'' pedagogy for Newtonian Mechanics imparts strategic knowledge - how to systematically determine which concepts to apply and why. Declarative and procedural knowledge is learned online before class via an e-text, checkpoint questions, and homework on edX.org (see http://relate.mit.edu/physicscourse); it is organized into five Core Models. Instructors then coach students on simple ``touchstone problems'', novel exercises, and multi-concept problems - meanwhile exercising three of the four C's: communication, collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving. Students showed 1.2 standard deviations improvement on the MIT final exam after three weeks instruction, a significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the CLASS, and their grades improved by 0.5 standard deviation in their following physics course (Electricity and Magnetism).
Solving Problems with The Percentage Bar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frans van Galen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a teaching experiment the students were then taught the use of the percentage bar. Although the teaching experiment was very short - just one lesson - the results confirm that the percentage bar is a powerful model that deserves a central place in the teaching of percentages.Keywords: percentage, model, design research DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.1.558.1-8
Durán Novoa, Roberto A.
2011-01-01
An inventive problem (IP) can be defined as a human perception of a situation that has to be changed, but with at least one obstacle which impedes achievement of the desired goal. In practice, they are solved generally using random trial and error, despite the fact that in literature there are several structured approaches to stimulate creativity and deal with them. During the development of products IP solving is particularly important throughout the concept generation, being often conducted...
Cultivating Creative Problem Solvers: The PBL Style
Hung, Woei
2015-01-01
After decades of research, we now know that creativity is a multidimensional construct that involves variables from the domains of personality, environment, and cognition. A construct with such level of complexity, as we know from past research, cannot be effectively learned through traditional lecture-based instruction. Rather, the formation of…
Can compactifications solve the cosmological constant problem?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hertzberg, Mark P. [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University,574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Masoumi, Ali [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University,574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2016-06-30
Recently, there have been claims in the literature that the cosmological constant problem can be dynamically solved by specific compactifications of gravity from higher-dimensional toy models. These models have the novel feature that in the four-dimensional theory, the cosmological constant Λ is much smaller than the Planck density and in fact accumulates at Λ=0. Here we show that while these are very interesting models, they do not properly address the real cosmological constant problem. As we explain, the real problem is not simply to obtain Λ that is small in Planck units in a toy model, but to explain why Λ is much smaller than other mass scales (and combinations of scales) in the theory. Instead, in these toy models, all other particle mass scales have been either removed or sent to zero, thus ignoring the real problem. To this end, we provide a general argument that the included moduli masses are generically of order Hubble, so sending them to zero trivially sends the cosmological constant to zero. We also show that the fundamental Planck mass is being sent to zero, and so the central problem is trivially avoided by removing high energy physics altogether. On the other hand, by including various large mass scales from particle physics with a high fundamental Planck mass, one is faced with a real problem, whose only known solution involves accidental cancellations in a landscape.
The Problem of Assessing Problem Solving: Can Comparative Judgement Help?
Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew
2015-01-01
School mathematics examination papers are typically dominated by short, structured items that fail to assess sustained reasoning or problem solving. A contributory factor to this situation is the need for student work to be marked reliably by a large number of markers of varied experience and competence. We report a study that tested an…
Programming languages for business problem solving
Wang, Shouhong
2007-01-01
It has become crucial for managers to be computer literate in today's business environment. It is also important that those entering the field acquire the fundamental theories of information systems, the essential practical skills in computer applications, and the desire for life-long learning in information technology. Programming Languages for Business Problem Solving presents a working knowledge of the major programming languages, including COBOL, C++, Java, HTML, JavaScript, VB.NET, VBA, ASP.NET, Perl, PHP, XML, and SQL, used in the current business computing environment. The book examin
A Process Analysis of Engineering Problem Solving and Assessment of Problem Solving Skills
Grigg, Sarah J.
2012-01-01
In the engineering profession, one of the most critical skills to possess is accurate and efficient problem solving. Thus, engineering educators should strive to help students develop skills needed to become competent problem solvers. In order to measure the development of skills, it is necessary to assess student performance, identify any…
Problem Solving Interventions: Impact on Young Children with Developmental Disabilities
Diamond, Lindsay Lile
2012-01-01
Problem-solving skills are imperative to a child's growth and success across multiple environments, including general and special education. Problem solving is comprised of: (a) attention to the critical aspects of a problem, (b) generation of solution(s) to solve the problem, (c) application of a solution(s) to the identified problem, and…
Variable and Value Ordering When Solving Balanced Academic Curriculum Problems
Castro, Carlos; Manzano, Sebastian
2001-01-01
In this paper we present the use of Constraint Programming for solving balanced academic curriculum problems. We discuss the important role that heuristics play when solving a problem using a constraint-based approach. We also show how constraint solving techniques allow to very efficiently solve combinatorial optimization problems that are too hard for integer programming techniques.
An e-learning approach to informed problem solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georg Weichhart
2012-06-01
Full Text Available When taking into account individualized learning processes not only content and interaction facilities need to be re-considered, but also the design of learning processes per se. Besides explicitness of learning objectives, interactive means of education need to enable intertwining content and communication elements as basic elements of active learning in a flexible way while preserving a certain structure of the learning process. Intelligibility Catchers are a theoretically grounded framework to enable such individualized processes. It allows learners and teachers agreeing and determining a desired learning outcome in written form. This type of e-learning contract enables students to individually explore content and participate in social interactions, while being guided by a transparent learning process structure. The developed implementation empowers learners in terms of creative problem-solving capabilities, and requires adaptation of classroom situations. The framework and its supporting semantic e-learning environment not only enables diverse learning and problem solving processes, but also supports the collaborative construction of e-learning contracts.
Solving the Examination Timetabling Problem in GPUs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasileios Kolonias
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The examination timetabling problem belongs to the class of combinatorial optimization problems and is of great importance for every University. In this paper, a hybrid evolutionary algorithm running on a GPU is employed to solve the examination timetabling problem. The hybrid evolutionary algorithm proposed has a genetic algorithm component and a greedy steepest descent component. The GPU computational capabilities allow the use of very large population sizes, leading to a more thorough exploration of the problem solution space. The GPU implementation, depending on the size of the problem, is up to twenty six times faster than the identical single-threaded CPU implementation of the algorithm. The algorithm is evaluated with the well known Toronto datasets and compares well with the best results found in the bibliography. Moreover, the selection of the encoding of the chromosomes and the tournament selection size as the population grows are examined and optimized. The compressed sparse row format is used for the conflict matrix and was proven essential to the process, since most of the datasets have a small conflict density, which translates into an extremely sparse matrix.
Solving fault diagnosis problems linear synthesis techniques
Varga, Andreas
2017-01-01
This book addresses fault detection and isolation topics from a computational perspective. Unlike most existing literature, it bridges the gap between the existing well-developed theoretical results and the realm of reliable computational synthesis procedures. The model-based approach to fault detection and diagnosis has been the subject of ongoing research for the past few decades. While the theoretical aspects of fault diagnosis on the basis of linear models are well understood, most of the computational methods proposed for the synthesis of fault detection and isolation filters are not satisfactory from a numerical standpoint. Several features make this book unique in the fault detection literature: Solution of standard synthesis problems in the most general setting, for both continuous- and discrete-time systems, regardless of whether they are proper or not; consequently, the proposed synthesis procedures can solve a specific problem whenever a solution exists Emphasis on the best numerical algorithms to ...
Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dana Ganor-Stern
Full Text Available Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults' ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner.
Leonard, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.; Mestre, Jose P.
1996-12-01
We report on the use of qualitative problem-solving strategies in teaching an introductory, calculus-based physics course as a means of highlighting the role played by conceptual knowledge in solving problems. We found that presenting strategies during lectures and in homework solutions provides an excellent opportunity to model for students the type of concept-based, qualitative reasoning that is valued in our profession, and that student-generated strategies serve a diagnostic function by providing instructors with insights on students' conceptual understanding and reasoning. Finally, we found strategies to be effective pedagogical tools for helping students both to identify principles that could be applied to solve specific problems, as well as to recall the major principles covered in the course months after it was over.
SolveDB: Integrating Optimization Problem Solvers Into SQL Databases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Siksnys, Laurynas; Pedersen, Torben Bach
2016-01-01
Many real-world decision problems involve solving optimization problems based on data in an SQL database. Traditionally, solving such problems requires combining a DBMS with optimization software packages for each required class of problems (e.g. linear and constraint programming) -- leading...... to workflows that are cumbersome, complex, inefficient, and error-prone. In this paper, we present SolveDB - a DBMS for optimization applications. SolveDB supports solvers for different problem classes and offers seamless data management and optimization problem solving in a pure SQL-based setting. This allows...... for much simpler and more effective solutions of database-based optimization problems. SolveDB is based on the 3-level ANSI/SPARC architecture and allows formulating, solving, and analysing solutions of optimization problems using a single so-called solve query. SolveDB provides (1) an SQL-based syntax...
Solving Complex Problems to Create Charter Extension Options
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tippmann, Esther; Nell, Phillip Christopher
This study examines subsidiary-driven problem solving processes and their potential to create advanced solutions for charter extension options. Problem solving theory suggests that biases in problem formulation and solution search can confine problem solving potential. We thus argue that balanced...
Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya
Lederman, Eric
2009-01-01
In "How to Solve It", accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to…
Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya
Lederman, Eric
2009-01-01
In "How to Solve It", accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to…
Innovation, imitation, and problem-solving in a networked group.
Wisdom, Thomas N; Goldstone, Robert L
2011-04-01
We implemented a problem-solving task in which groups of participants simultaneously played a simple innovation game in a complex problem space, with score feedback provided after each of a number of rounds. Each participant in a group was allowed to view and imitate the guesses of others during the game. The results showed the use of social learning strategies previously studied in other species, and demonstrated benefits of social learning and nonlinear effects of group size on strategy and performance. Rather than simply encouraging conformity, groups provided information to each individual about the distribution of useful innovations in the problem space. Imitation facilitated innovation rather than displacing it, because the former allowed good solutions to be propagated and preserved for further cumulative innovations in the group. Participants generally improved their solutions through the use of fairly conservative strategies, such as changing only a small portion of one's solution at a time, and tending to imitate solutions similar to one's own. Changes in these strategies over time had the effect of making solutions increasingly entrenched, both at individual and group levels. These results showed evidence of nonlinear dynamics in the decentralization of innovation, the emergence of group phenomena from complex interactions of individual efforts, stigmergy in the use of social information, and dynamic tradeoffs between exploration and exploitation of solutions. These results also support the idea that innovation and creativity can be recognized at the group level even when group members are generally cautious and imitative.
Effects of Problem-Solving, Guided-Discovery and Expository ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Effects of Problem-Solving, Guided-Discovery and Expository Teaching ... of problem-solving, guideddiscovery, and expository methods of instruction on students performance in redox reaction, considering their mathematics ability. It was a ...
Problem-Solving Techniques in the Management of Conflicts among ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Problem-Solving Techniques in the Management of Conflicts among Rural Dwellers in ... skills acquired in problem-solving techniques and conflict management ... Besides, conflict management should involve intensive negotiation, the use of ...
de Mul, F.F.M.; Martin Batlle, C.; Martin i Batlle, Cristina; de Bruijn, Imme; Rinzema, K.; Rinzema, Kees
2003-01-01
Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential
INVESTIGATION OF MATHEMATICS TEACHERS’ VIEWS ABOUT IMPROVING PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS
YILDIZ, Cemalettin
2016-01-01
Since problem solving skills playa central role in middle and secondary school mathematics curricula, this made mathematicseducators give importance to this subject. Improving problem solving skills ofstudents is one of the primary aims of education so it is very important tomake students gain problem solving skills. Thus, the aim of this research is toinvestigate views of middle and secondary school mathematics teachers relatedto improvement of students’ problem solving skills. Qualitative r...
Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem
Muhammad, Asif Zahoor Raja
2014-01-01
In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs.
Projective geometry solved problems and theory review
Fortuna, Elisabetta; Pardini, Rita
2016-01-01
This book starts with a concise but rigorous overview of the basic notions of projective geometry, using straightforward and modern language. The goal is not only to establish the notation and terminology used, but also to offer the reader a quick survey of the subject matter. In the second part, the book presents more than 200 solved problems, for many of which several alternative solutions are provided. The level of difficulty of the exercises varies considerably: they range from computations to harder problems of a more theoretical nature, up to some actual complements of the theory. The structure of the text allows the reader to use the solutions of the exercises both to master the basic notions and techniques and to further their knowledge of the subject, thus learning some classical results not covered in the first part of the book. The book addresses the needs of undergraduate and graduate students in the theoretical and applied sciences, and will especially benefit those readers with a solid grasp of ...
Dynamics of students’ epistemological framing in group problem solving
Nguyen, Hai D.; Chari, Deepa N.; Sayre, Eleanor C.
2016-11-01
Many studies have investigated students’ epistemological framing when solving physics problems. Framing supports students’ problem solving as they decide what knowledge to employ and the necessary steps to solve the problem. Students may frame the same problem differently and take alternative paths to a correct solution. When students work in group settings, they share and discuss their framing to decide how to proceed in problem solving as a whole group. In this study, we investigate how groups of students negotiate their framing and frame shifts in group problem solving.
Dynamics of students' epistemological framing in group problem solving
Nguyen, Hai D; Sayre, Eleanor C
2016-01-01
Many studies have investigated students' epistemological framing when solving physics problems. Framing supports students' problem solving as they decide what knowledge to employ and the necessary steps to solve the problem. Students may frame the same problem differently and take alternate paths to a correct solution. When students work in group settings, they share and discuss their framing to decide how to proceed in problem solving as a whole group. In this study, we investigate how groups of students negotiate their framing and frame shifts in group problem solving.
The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance
Bahar, Abdulkadir
2013-01-01
Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…
Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism
Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle
2012-01-01
The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…
Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective
Hung, Woei
2013-01-01
Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…
Students' Use of Imagery in Solving Qualitative Problems in Kinematics.
Kozhevnikov, Maria; Hegarty, Mary; Mayer, Richard
This report describes a study that investigated the relationship between mental imagery and problem solving in physics, specifically in kinematics. A distinction is made between visual imagery and spatial imagery used in solving physics problems. The results of this study indicate that while spatial imagery may promote problem solving success, the…
Teaching Young Children Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills
Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.
2010-01-01
Learning how to problem solve is one of the key developmental milestones in early childhood. Children's problem-solving skills represent a key feature in the development of social competence. Problem solving allows children to stay calm during difficult situations, repair social relations quickly, and get their needs met in ways that are safe and…
Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students
Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William
2005-01-01
Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…
Problem Solving: Polya's Heuristic Applied to Psychological Research.
Damarin, Suzanne K.
Using the "How to Solve It" list developed by Polya as a vehicle of comparison, research findings and key concepts from the psychological study of problem solving are applied to mathematical problem solving. Hypotheses concerning the interpretation of psychological phenomena for mathematical problem situations are explored. Several areas…
Harmony Theory: Problem Solving, Parallel Cognitive Models, and Thermal Physics.
Smolensky, Paul; Riley, Mary S.
This document consists of three papers. The first, "A Parallel Model of (Sequential) Problem Solving," describes a parallel model designed to solve a class of relatively simple problems from elementary physics and discusses implications for models of problem-solving in general. It is shown that one of the most salient features of problem…
The Influence of Cognitive Diversity on Group Problem Solving Strategy
Lamm, Alexa J.; Shoulders, Catherine; Roberts, T. Grady; Irani, Tracy A.; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel
2012-01-01
Collaborative group problem solving allows students to wrestle with different interpretations and solutions brought forth by group members, enhancing both critical thinking and problem solving skills. Since problem solving in groups is a common practice in agricultural education, instructors are often put in the position of organizing student…
Teaching Problem Solving in Secondary School Mathematics Classrooms
Lam, Toh Tin; Guan, Tay Eng; Seng, Quek Khiok; Hoong, Leong Yew; Choon, Toh Pee; Him, Ho Foo; Jaguthsing, Dindyal
2014-01-01
This paper reports an innovative approach to teaching problem solving in secondary school mathematics classrooms based on a specifically designed problem-solving module.This approach adopts the science practical paradigm and rides on the works of Polya and Schoenfeld in order to give greater emphasis to the problem solving processes. We report the…
Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities
Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer
2012-01-01
This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…
Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism
Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle
2012-01-01
The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…
Using Analogy to Solve a Three-Step Physics Problem
Lin, Shih-Yin
2016-01-01
In a companion paper, we discuss students' ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss students' ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two- step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.
Method for solving a convex integer programming problem
Stefanov, Stefan M.
2003-01-01
We consider a convex integer program which is a nonlinear version of the assignment problem. This problem is reformulated as an equivalent problem. An algorithm for solving the original problem is suggested which is based on solving the simple assignment problem via some of known algorithms.
Leprosy: a problem solved by 2000?
Stearns, A T
2002-09-01
It is now the year 2001, and in many endemic regions leprosy remains a public health problem by any definition. It is clear that defining leprosy purely by prevalence side-steps some of the real issues. There is still much to do to solve the problem of leprosy. Control programmes require better tests for early diagnosis if leprosy is to be reduced much further. Treatment of the infection and of reactions is still far from ideal, whilst an effective vaccine would be valuable in high-risk regions. Research into the true incidence in each endemic area is essential, and control programs of the future will need a more detailed understanding of the transmission of M. leprae to permit new logical interventions. Leprosy remains a devastating disease. Much of the damage that it inflicts is irreversible, and leads to disability and stigmatization. This is perhaps the greatest problem posed. It is easy to dwell on the successes of the elimination campaign, so diverting attention from those populations of 'cured' patients who still suffer from the consequences of infection. Leprosy should be regarded as a problem unsolved so long as patients continue to present with disabilities. WHO has carried out a highly successful campaign in reducing the prevalence of leprosy, and this needs to be acknowledged, but what is happening to the incidence in core endemic areas? Maintaining this success, however, may be an even greater struggle if funding is withdrawn and vertical programmes are absorbed into national health structures. We must take heed of the historian George Santayana, 'those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it'. We should take the example of tuberculosis as a warning of the dangers of ignoring a disease before it has been fully controlled, and strive to continue the leprosy elimination programmes until there are no new cases presenting with disability. The World Health Organisation has shown that leprosy is an eminently treatable disease, and has
Masrukan; Mufidah, N. A.
2017-04-01
The 4K model is a learning model that is characterized by character, performance, creative and conservative. The use of a 4K model in this research is to improve the character of tolerance and Geometry problem-solving ability of students. Assessment of learning done thoroughly and during the learning process, using project assessment that includes assessment at the time of student do the project and assessment of students’ project report. The result that the ability of geometry problem solving and tolerance character of students with project assessment achieve mastery and improved by project assessment.
A Framework for Distributed Problem Solving
Leone, Joseph; Shin, Don G.
1989-03-01
This work explores a distributed problem solving (DPS) approach, namely the AM/AG model, to cooperative memory recall. The AM/AG model is a hierarchic social system metaphor for DPS based on the Mintzberg's model of organizations. At the core of the model are information flow mechanisms, named amplification and aggregation. Amplification is a process of expounding a given task, called an agenda, into a set of subtasks with magnified degree of specificity and distributing them to multiple processing units downward in the hierarchy. Aggregation is a process of combining the results reported from multiple processing units into a unified view, called a resolution, and promoting the conclusion upward in the hierarchy. The combination of amplification and aggregation can account for a memory recall process which primarily relies on the ability of making associations between vast amounts of related concepts, sorting out the combined results, and promoting the most plausible ones. The amplification process is discussed in detail. An implementation of the amplification process is presented. The process is illustrated by an example.
SOLVING GLOBAL PROBLEMS USING COLLABORATIVE DESIGN PROCESSES
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lenau, Torben Anker; Mejborn, Christina Okai
2011-01-01
In this paper we argue that use of collaborative design processes is a powerful means of bringing together different stakeholders and generating ideas in complex design situations. The collaborative design process was used in a workshop with international participants where the goal was to propos...... physical models strongly enhanced mutual understanding and exchange of ideas. Furthermore, the introduction of biological solution analogies also showed to be fruitful for the generation of new ideas for product design.......In this paper we argue that use of collaborative design processes is a powerful means of bringing together different stakeholders and generating ideas in complex design situations. The collaborative design process was used in a workshop with international participants where the goal was to propose...... forward proposed solutions for how to design, brand and make business models for how to solve aspects of the sanitation problem. The workshop showed that it was possible to work freely with such a taboo topic and that in particular the use of visualisation tools, i.e. drawing posters and building simple...
Partial differential equations theory and completely solved problems
Hillen, Thomas; van Roessel, Henry
2014-01-01
Uniquely provides fully solved problems for linear partial differential equations and boundary value problems Partial Differential Equations: Theory and Completely Solved Problems utilizes real-world physical models alongside essential theoretical concepts. With extensive examples, the book guides readers through the use of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) for successfully solving and modeling phenomena in engineering, biology, and the applied sciences. The book focuses exclusively on linear PDEs and how they can be solved using the separation of variables technique. The authors begin
Social problem-solving in Chinese baccalaureate nursing students.
Fang, Jinbo; Luo, Ying; Li, Yanhua; Huang, Wenxia
2016-11-01
To describe social problem solving in Chinese baccalaureate nursing students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with a cluster sample of 681 Chinese baccalaureate nursing students. The Chinese version of the Social Problem-Solving scale was used. Descriptive analyses, independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance were applied to analyze the data. The final year nursing students presented the highest scores of positive social problem-solving skills. Students with experiences of self-directed and problem-based learning presented significantly higher scores in Positive Problem Orientation subscale. The group with Critical thinking training experience, however, displayed higher negative problem solving scores compared with nonexperience group. Social problem solving abilities varied based upon teaching-learning strategies. Self-directed and problem-based learning may be recommended as effective way to improve social problem-solving ability. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
The Future Workshop: Democratic problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2005-01-01
The origins, principles and practice of a very popular method known as The Future Workshop are presented. The fundamental theory and principles of this method are presented in an introductory way. In addition, practical guidelines to carry out such a workshop are outlined and several types of app...... of applications are shortly described. The crucial importance of both the facilitation process and the use of creative tools in team work are enhanced....
How play enhances creativity in problem based learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thorsted, Ann Charlotte
2015-01-01
This article draws on 20 Danish university students’ reflections in and on a Problem-based Learning process (PBL). The study showed how a more playful approach changed how the students collaborated, communicated, and approached a given task. They felt more creative, open minded and engaged compared...
The development of a culture of problem solving with secondary students through heuristic strategies
Eisenmann, Petr; Novotná, Jarmila; Přibyl, Jiří; Břehovský, Jiří
2015-12-01
The article reports the results of a longitudinal research study conducted in three mathematics classes in Czech schools with 62 pupils aged 12-18 years. The pupils were exposed to the use of selected heuristic strategies in mathematical problem solving for a period of 16 months. This was done through solving problems where the solution was the most efficient if heuristic strategies were used. The authors conducted a two-dimensional classification of the use of heuristic strategies based on the work of Pólya (2004) and Schoenfeld (1985). We developed a tool that allows for the description of a pupil's ability to solve problems. Named, the Culture of Problem Solving (CPS), this tool consists of four components: intelligence, text comprehension, creativity and the ability to use existing knowledge. The pupils' success rate in problem solving and the changes in some of the CPS factors pre- and post-experiment were monitored. The pupils appeared to considerably improve in the creativity component. In addition, the results indicate a positive change in the students' attitude to problem solving. As far as the teachers participating in the experiment are concerned, a significant change was in their teaching style to a more constructivist, inquiry-based approach, as well as their willingness to accept a student's non-standard approach to solving a problem. Another important outcome of the research was the identification of the heuristic strategies that can be taught via long-term guided solutions of suitable problems and those that cannot. Those that can be taught include systematic experimentation, guess-check-revise and introduction of an auxiliary element. Those that cannot be taught (or can only be taught with difficulty) include the strategies of specification and generalization and analogy.
Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students
Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.
2012-01-01
Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…
A New Searching Problem Solved by Quantum Computers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
闫海洋
2002-01-01
It is well known that a quantum computer can search more quickly than a classical computer while solving the so-called Grover-searching problem. We present a new searching problem which cannot be classified into Grover's problem and can be solved by using the modified searching iterations with the same efficiency as for Grover's problem.
Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students
Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.
2012-01-01
Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…
Exploring Primary Student’s Problem-Solving Ability by Doing Tasks Like PISA's Question
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rita Novita
2012-07-01
result from some students, known that they like to do such tasks because can improve their reasoning, creativity and thinking ability.Keywords: development research, task of PISA, mathematical problem-solving task, problem solving competency. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.3.2.571.133-150
Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer.
Youssef-Shalala, Amina; Ayres, Paul; Schubert, Carina; Sweller, John
2014-09-01
Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that a general problem-solving strategy based on a make-as-many-moves-as-possible heuristic could facilitate problem solutions for transfer problems. In four experiments, school students were required to learn about a topic through practice with a general problem-solving strategy, through a conventional problem solving strategy or by studying worked examples. In Experiments 1 and 2 using junior high school students learning geometry, low knowledge students in the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher on near or far transfer tests than the conventional problem-solving group. In Experiment 3, an advantage for a general problem-solving group over a group presented worked examples was obtained on far transfer tests using the same curriculum materials, again presented to junior high school students. No differences between conditions were found in Experiments 1, 2, or 3 using test problems similar to the acquisition problems. Experiment 4 used senior high school students studying economics and found the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher than the conventional problem-solving group on both similar and transfer tests. It was concluded that the general problem-solving strategy was helpful for novices, but not for students that had access to domain-specific knowledge.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ira Vahlia
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Discovery learning is a learning that involves students in the process of mental activity through a brainstorm, to discuss, and try it yourself, so that children can learn to be independent. Resulting in the discovery-based learning problem solving is to let children discover things on their own and group investigation that emphasizes problem solving based on a debriefing activities and student participation. The classes drawn into the sample, the class as a class given control based discovery learning and problem solving one class another group investigation given learning-based problem solving. Data analysis techniques in this study using Ttes. From the results of this study concluded that: (a In the first experiment class that implements learning model-based problem solving group investigation obtained average value of learning outcomes at 73.10 while the experimental class II implementing discovery-based learning problem solving obtained average value postest average of 66.55. (b There are significant differences between the results of student learning in the class that implements the discovery-based learning and problem solving class that implements the learning model based problem solving group investigation. Student results in learning problem solving based group investigation better on the class that implements the model-based discovery learning problem solving. Keywords: discovery learning, group investigation, learning numerical methods, problem solving
A Problem Solving Framework for Managing Poor Readers in Classrooms.
Beck, Judith S.
1988-01-01
Points out that poor readers may exhibit behavioral, cognitive, and emotional problems. Offers a problem-solving framework for intervention in poor readers' nonacademic problems, and describes several possible types of intervention. (ARH)
Affect and mathematical problem solving a new perspective
Adams, Verna
1989-01-01
Research on cognitive aspects of mathematical problem solving has made great progress in recent years, but the relationship of affective factors to problem-solving performance has been a neglected research area. The purpose of Affect and Mathematical Problem Solving: A New Perspective is to show how the theories and methods of cognitive science can be extended to include the role of affect in mathematical problem solving. The book presents Mandler's theory of emotion and explores its implications for the learning and teaching of mathematical problem solving. Also, leading researchers from mathematics, education, and psychology report how they have integrated affect into their own cognitive research. The studies focus on metacognitive processes, aesthetic influences on expert problem solvers, teacher decision-making, technology and teaching problem solving, and beliefs about mathematics. The results suggest how emotional factors like anxiety, frustration, joy, and satisfaction can help or hinder performance in...
Adams, Robert A., Ed.
A collection of 20 essays on creative problem solving in advertising and sales promotion considers the relationship between client and agency and the degree of creativity that is necessary or desirable for each side to bring to their collaboration. The different essays are fully illustrated and specifically focus on such areas as creativity in…
Solving traveling salesman problems using generalized chromosome genetic algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jinhui Yang; Chunguo Wu; Heow Pueh Lee; Yanchun Liang
2008-01-01
Generalized chromosome genetic algorithm (GCGA) was proposed for solving generalized traveling salesman problems (GTSP) as reported in the authors' earlier work. Theoretically, the GCGA could also be used to solve the classical traveling salesman problem (CTSP), which has not been reported by others. In this paper, the generalized chromosome characteristics are analyzed and the feasibility for consistently solving the GTSP and CTSP is verified. Numerical experiments show the advantages of the GCGA for solving a large-scale CTSP.
The relationship between students' problem solving frames and epistemological beliefs
Wampler, Wendi N.
Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. Matter and Interactions [M&I] is a curriculum that focuses on a restructuring of physics content knowledge and emphasizes a systematic approach to problem solving, called modeling, which involves the application physical principles to carefully defined systems of objects and interactions (Chabay and Sherwood, 2007a). Because the M&I approach to problem solving is different from many students' previous physics experience, efforts need to be made to attend to their epistemological beliefs and expectations about not only learning physics content knowledge, but problem solving as well. If a student frames solving physics problems as a `plug and chug' type activity, then they are going continue practicing this strategy. Thus, it is important to address students' epistemological beliefs and monitor how they frame the activity of problem solving within the M&I course. This study aims to investigate how students frame problem solving within the context of a large scale implementation of the M&I curriculum, and how, if at all, those frames shift through the semester. By investigating how students frame the act of problem solving in the M&I context, I was able to examine the connection between student beliefs and expectations about problem solving in physics and the skills and strategies used while solving problems in class. To accomplish these goals, I recruited student volunteers from Purdue's introductory, calculus-based physics course and assessed their problem solving approach and espoused epistemological beliefs over the course of a semester. I obtained data through video recordings of the students engaged in small group problem solving during recitation activities
Transfer Between Analogies: How Solving One Analogy Problem Helps to Solve Another
Keane, Mark T.
1995-01-01
This paper deals with transfer between analogies; with what people acquire from one analogy problem-solving episode that can be re-applied to a subsequent analogy, problem-solving episode. This issue must be resolved if we are to understand the nature of expertise and the appropriate use of analogy in education. There are two main explanations of what subjects acquire from an analogy problem-solving episode. The schema-induction hypothesis maintains that subjects acquire an abs...
Group Creativity Development by Solving Real-life Project in Engineering Education
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Chunfang; Kolmos, Anette; Du, Xiangyun
2011-01-01
In recent years, problem and project based learning (PBL) has been employed by a growing number of educational institutions to foster creative engineers. Among the diverse pedagogical practices of PBL, there has been an emergence of real-life project for students. Based on literature of creativit...
Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving
Mason, Andrew
2016-01-01
Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes towards Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate level courses vs. problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate level physics. The physics graduate students' responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students' responses to some survey questions are less expert-like than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for...
Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information
Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc
2011-01-01
The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…
Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information
Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc
2011-01-01
The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…
A Descriptive Study of Cooperative Problem Solving Introductory Physics Labs
Knutson, Paul Aanond
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those…
Protocol Analysis of the Social Problem Solving of Teachers.
Cummings, Anne L.; And Others
1989-01-01
Social problem solving and cognitive style (field independence/field dependence) were studied in a sample of 70 elementary and secondary teachers taking a summer course in counseling. Protocol analysis was used to identify the variety of problem-solving methods applied to social problems. (SLD)
Threshold Concepts in the Development of Problem-Solving Skills
Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; MacKay, Bruce
2015-01-01
Problem-solving skills are often identified as a key component of 21st century education. This study collected data from students enrolled in a university-level Liberal Education science course called "Problems and Puzzles," which introduced students to the theory and practice of problem solving via puzzles. Based on classroom…
Glogs as Non-Routine Problem Solving Tools in Mathematics
Devine, Matthew T.
2013-01-01
In mathematical problem solving, American students are falling behind their global peers because of a lack of foundational and reasoning skills. A specific area of difficulty with problem solving is working non-routine, heuristic-based problems. Many students are not provided with effective instruction and often grow frustrated and dislike math.…
Problem-Solving during Shared Reading at Kindergarten
Gosen, Myrte N.; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees
2015-01-01
This paper reports on a conversation analytic study of problem-solving interactions during shared reading at three kindergartens in the Netherlands. It illustrates how teachers and pupils discuss book characters' problems that arise in the events in the picture books. A close analysis of the data demonstrates that problem-solving interactions do…
Solving set partitioning problems using lagrangian relaxation
van Krieken, M.G.C.
2006-01-01
This thesis focuses on the set partitioning problem. Given a collection of subsets of a certain root set and costs associated to these subsets, the set partitioning problem is the problem of finding a minimum cost partition of the root set. Many real-life problems, such as vehicle routing and crew s
Hoppmann, Christiane A; Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda
2008-07-01
Qualitative interviews on family and financial problems from 332 adolescents, young, middle-aged, and older adults, demonstrated that developmentally relevant goals predicted problem-solving strategy use over and above problem domain. Four focal goals concerned autonomy, generativity, maintaining good relationships with others, and changing another person. We examined both self- and other-focused problem-solving strategies. Autonomy goals were associated with self-focused instrumental problem solving and generative goals were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in family and financial problems. Goals of changing another person were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in the family domain only. The match between goals and strategies, an indicator of problem-solving adaptiveness, showed that young individuals displayed the greatest match between autonomy goals and self-focused problem solving, whereas older adults showed a greater match between generative goals and other-focused problem solving. Findings speak to the importance of considering goals in investigations of age-related differences in everyday problem solving.
Phenomenographic study of students’ problem solving approaches in physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura N. Walsh
2007-12-01
Full Text Available This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study is a hierarchical set of categories that describe the students’ problem solving approaches in the context of introductory physics.
Cobweb Heuristic for solving Multi-Objective Vehicle Routing Problem
Okitonyumbe Y.F., Joseph; Ulungu, Berthold E.-L.; Kapiamba Nt., Joel
2015-01-01
Abstract Solving a classical vehicle routing problem (VRP) by exact methods presents many difficulties for large dimension problem. Consequently, in multi-objective framework, heuristic or metaheuristic methods are required. Due to particular VRP structure, it seems that a dedicated heuristic is more suitable than a metaheuristic. The aim of this article is to collapse different heuristics solving classical VRP and adapt them for to solve the multi-objective vehicle routing problem (MOVRP)...
After being challenged by a video game problem, sleep increases the chance to solve it.
Beijamini, Felipe; Pereira, Sofia Isabel Ribeiro; Cini, Felipe Augusto; Louzada, Fernando Mazzilli
2014-01-01
In the past years many studies have demonstrated the role of sleep on memory consolidation. It is known that sleeping after learning a declarative or non-declarative task, is better than remaining awake. Furthermore, there are reports of a possible role for dreams in consolidation of declarative memories. Other studies have reported the effect of naps on memory consolidation. With similar protocols, another set of studies indicated that sleep has a role in creativity and problem-solving. Here we hypothesised that sleep can increase the likelihood of solving problems. After struggling to solve a video game problem, subjects who took a nap (n = 14) were almost twice as likely to solve it when compared to the wake control group (n = 15). It is interesting to note that, in the nap group 9 out 14 subjects engaged in slow-wave sleep (SWS) and all solved the problem. Surprisingly, we did not find a significant involvement of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep in this task. Slow-wave sleep is believed to be crucial for the transfer of memory-related information to the neocortex and implement intentions. Sleep can benefit problem-solving through the generalisation of newly encoded information and abstraction of the gist. In conclusion, our results indicate that sleep, even a nap, can potentiate the solution of problems that involve logical reasoning. Thus, sleep's function seems to go beyond memory consolidation to include managing of everyday-life events.
The Effectiveness of Integrative Group Therapy on Improving Problem-Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raheleh Maddah-Shoorcheh
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Background: Today, the psychological and behavioral science experts pay attention to the problem-solving skill as a basic skill. Improving the problem-solving skill is better done through psychological trainings in the form of a group in which communication is the most important issue. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the effectiveness of integrative group therapy on the problem-solving skill. Materials and Methods: This study is an experimental study with pretest-posttest approach. Thirty clients who were referring to the Counseling and Psychological Services Center of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad were chosen based on screening method. In addition, they were randomly divided into two equal groups: experimental and control groups (13 participants each. Problem-solving questionnaire was used to collect data as well as the experimental intervention was integrative group therapy that was administrated during 8 weekly two-hour sessions. Mean and standard deviation were used for data analysis in the descriptive level and covariate method was used at the inference level (ANCOVA. Results: The results suggest that the problem-solving skills in the experimental group were significantly increased. Moreover, the significant difference was observed in subscales closeness, control, confidence and creative. Conclusion: Integrative group therapy could be an effective intervention for improving problem-solving skills.
After being challenged by a video game problem, sleep increases the chance to solve it.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felipe Beijamini
Full Text Available In the past years many studies have demonstrated the role of sleep on memory consolidation. It is known that sleeping after learning a declarative or non-declarative task, is better than remaining awake. Furthermore, there are reports of a possible role for dreams in consolidation of declarative memories. Other studies have reported the effect of naps on memory consolidation. With similar protocols, another set of studies indicated that sleep has a role in creativity and problem-solving. Here we hypothesised that sleep can increase the likelihood of solving problems. After struggling to solve a video game problem, subjects who took a nap (n = 14 were almost twice as likely to solve it when compared to the wake control group (n = 15. It is interesting to note that, in the nap group 9 out 14 subjects engaged in slow-wave sleep (SWS and all solved the problem. Surprisingly, we did not find a significant involvement of Rapid Eye Movement (REM sleep in this task. Slow-wave sleep is believed to be crucial for the transfer of memory-related information to the neocortex and implement intentions. Sleep can benefit problem-solving through the generalisation of newly encoded information and abstraction of the gist. In conclusion, our results indicate that sleep, even a nap, can potentiate the solution of problems that involve logical reasoning. Thus, sleep's function seems to go beyond memory consolidation to include managing of everyday-life events.
Ebomoyi, Josephine Itota
The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX) software. All participants not only solved "Microquest," which focuses on cellular processes and mode of action of antibiotics, but also "Creeping Crud," which focuses on the cause, origin and transmission of diseases. Participants also responded to the "Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ). Hierarchical multiple regression was used for analysis with GPA (Gracie point average) as a control. There were 49 (78.6%) that successfully solved "Microquest" while 52 (82.5%) successfully solved "Creeping Crud". Metacognitive self regulation strategy was significantly (p self-esteem problems. The implications for educational and relevance to real life situations are discussed.
Problem-solving strategies for teaching mathematics to deaf students.
Mousley, K; Kelly, R R
1998-10-01
Three teaching and learning strategies for problem solving were implemented with first- and second-year deaf college students enrolled in mathematics courses at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID), Rochester Institute of Technology. These strategies involved the students in (a) giving an explanation to a peer observer in sign language, after which they would put their understanding of a problem and its solution in writing; (b) visualizing the problem-solving process prior to starting to solve a problem; and (c) observing their teacher modeling the analytical process step by step for a sample problem prior to solving math word problems. The students were asked to solve two types of problems: typical word problems, and a visual/manipulative puzzle that would provide a problem-solving experience that would contrast with the experience of solving a problem presented in text format. The results showed that these kinds of instructional strategies can enhance the problem-solving performance of deaf and hard of hearing college students.
Math Forum @ Drexel, 2009
2009-01-01
Different techniques for understanding a problem can lead to ideas for never-used-before solutions. Good problem-solvers use a problem-solving strategy and may come back to it frequently while they are working on the problem to refine their strategy, see if they can find better solutions, or find other questions. Writing is an integral part of…
Innovation and problem solving: a review of common mechanisms.
Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David
2014-11-01
Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild.
The Family as a Small Problem Solving Group
Tallman, Irving
1970-01-01
Analyzes relationship between "open channels of communication" and "centralization of authority", and "cultural" variables in terms of their contributions to optimal problem solving structures and activities. (Author)
Surveying graduate students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chandralekha Singh
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate students’ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students’ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate students’ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.
Solving Thousand Digit Frobenius Problems Using Grobner Bases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt
2008-01-01
A Gröbner basis-based algorithm for solving the Frobenius Instance Problem is presented, and this leads to an algorithm for solving the Frobenius Problem that can handle numbers with thousands of digits. Connections to irreducible decompositions and Hilbert functions are also presented.......A Gröbner basis-based algorithm for solving the Frobenius Instance Problem is presented, and this leads to an algorithm for solving the Frobenius Problem that can handle numbers with thousands of digits. Connections to irreducible decompositions and Hilbert functions are also presented....
Applying Lakatos' Theory to the Theory of Mathematical Problem Solving.
Nunokawa, Kazuhiko
1996-01-01
The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)
Teaching methods for systematic inventive problem-solving: evaluation of a course for teachers
Barak, Moshe
2006-11-01
Systematic inventive problem-solving is an approach for finding original and useful ideas by systematically examining alterations in existing components within a system, their attributes, functions or internal relationships. This method, which aims at complementing divergent thinking in problem-solving and design, is gaining increased attention in industrial and academic frameworks. The current study examined how science and technology teachers learn, internalize and use the method within an academic course. Data were collected through pre-course and post-course quizzes and questionnaires, documentation of students’ activities, and interviews. The results showed that individuals can improve their problem-solving abilities by combining methods based on ‘ordered thinking’ and ‘disordered thinking,’ and that none of these approaches has preference over the other. Considerable additional work is required, however, to investigate how the proposed approach could be used to foster creative thinking in science and technology studies at school.
Problem-Solving Test: Southwestern Blotting
Szeberényi, József
2014-01-01
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Southern blotting, Western blotting, restriction endonucleases, agarose gel electrophoresis, nitrocellulose filter, molecular hybridization, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proto-oncogene, c-abl, Src-homology domains, tyrosine protein kinase, nuclear localization signal, cDNA,…
Formulating and Solving Problems in Computational Chemistry.
Norris, A. C.
1980-01-01
Considered are the main elements of computational chemistry problems and how these elements can be used to formulate the problems mathematically. Techniques that are useful in devising an appropriate solution are also considered. (Author/TG)
General Problem Solving: Navy Requirements and Solutions.
1985-03-01
subjects’ ability to manipulate their environment. In one test, the subjects were asked to tell how to save a kitten stranded at the top of a tree. The...unstruc- - .tured design problem to a structured problem. "* We have to be careful not to introduce unnecessary constraints in a problem. This is the case
Same Old Problem, New Name? Alerting Students to the Nature of the Problem-Solving Process
Yerushalmi, Edit; Magen, Esther
2006-01-01
Students frequently misconceive the process of problem-solving, expecting the linear process required for solving an exercise, rather than the convoluted search process required to solve a genuine problem. In this paper we present an activity designed to foster in students realization and appreciation of the nature of the problem-solving process,…
A Decision Support System for Solving Multiple Criteria Optimization Problems
Filatovas, Ernestas; Kurasova, Olga
2011-01-01
In this paper, multiple criteria optimization has been investigated. A new decision support system (DSS) has been developed for interactive solving of multiple criteria optimization problems (MOPs). The weighted-sum (WS) approach is implemented to solve the MOPs. The MOPs are solved by selecting different weight coefficient values for the criteria…
Kieran, ML
2016-01-01
This piece is an accessible introduction to thinking philosophically about literary creativity. The article characterises literary creativity, outlines types of creativity, looks at the role of canonicity and tradition, considers inspiration, irrationality and links to mental illness, how to think of literary creativity as a craft and the role that character plays in being creative.
Kieran, ML
2016-01-01
This piece is an accessible introduction to thinking philosophically about literary creativity. The article characterises literary creativity, outlines types of creativity, looks at the role of canonicity and tradition, considers inspiration, irrationality and links to mental illness, how to think of literary creativity as a craft and the role that character plays in being creative.
Fostering and Assessing Creativity in Technology Education
Buelin-Biesecker, Jennifer Katherine
2012-01-01
This study compared the creative outcomes in student work resulting from two pedagogical approaches to creative problem solving activities. A secondary goal was to validate the Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT) as a means of assessing creativity. Linear models for problem solving and design processes serve as the current paradigm in classroom…
Identifying, analysing and solving problems in practice.
Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui
When a problem is identified in practice, it is important to clarify exactly what it is and establish the cause before seeking a solution. This solution-seeking process should include input from those directly involved in the problematic situation, to enable individuals to contribute their perspective, appreciate why any change in practice is necessary and what will be achieved by the change. This article describes some approaches to identifying and analysing problems in practice so that effective solutions can be devised. It includes a case study and examples of how the Five Whys analysis, fishbone diagram, problem tree analysis, and Seven-S Model can be used to analyse a problem.
A PROJECTION-TYPE METHOD FOR SOLVING VARIOUS WEBER PROBLEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian-lin Jiang; Bo Chen
2006-01-01
This paper investigates various Weber problems including unconstrained Weber problems and constrained Weber problems under l1,l2 and l∞-norms. First with a transformation technique various Weber problems are turned into a class of monotone linear variational inequalities. By exploiting the favorable structure of these variational inequalities, we present a new projection-type method for them. Compared with some other projection-type methods which can solve monotone linear variational inequality, this new projection-type method is simple in numerical implementations and more efficient for solving this class of problems; Compared with some popular methods for solving unconstrained Weber problem and constrained Weber problem, a singularity would not happen in this new method and it is more reliable by using this new method to solve various Weber problems.
Vibrations and Stability - Order & Chaos, Solved Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Jon Juel
2002-01-01
A collection of worked out solutions to many of the exercise problems in my textbook "Vibrations and Stability", McGraw-Hill, London, 1997.......A collection of worked out solutions to many of the exercise problems in my textbook "Vibrations and Stability", McGraw-Hill, London, 1997....
Solving Direct and Inverse Heat Conduction Problems
Taler, Jan
2006-01-01
Presents a solution for direct and inverse heat conduction problems. This work discusses the theoretical basis for the heat transfer process in the first part. It presents selected theoretical and numerical problems in the form of exercises with their subsequent solutions in the second part
Dental caries vaccine: some problems solved?
Everhart, D L; Mallett, C P; Doyle, G
1985-10-01
The interest in a dental caries vaccine has been great over the past few years. Studies have shown two possible problems using Streptococcus mutans as an immunogen: (i) the production of heart reactive antibody, and (ii) the need to protect against several serotypes. Possible solutions to these problems are discussed.
Solving infeasibility problems in computerized test assembly
Timminga, E.
1998-01-01
Linear programming techniques have been used successfully in a variety of test assembly problems. It is, however, possible that no test can be found meeting all the constraints in the linear programming model. The problem of diagnosing and repairing infeasible linear programming models is discussed.
Solving infeasibility problems in computerized test assembly
Timminga, E.
1998-01-01
Linear programming techniques have been used successfully in a variety of test assembly problems. It is, however, possible that no test can be found meeting all the constraints in the linear programming model. The problem of diagnosing and repairing infeasible linear programming models is discussed.
Social problem solving and coping skills of medical students
Emel Yigit; Sevgi Ozcan; Gulsah Seydaoglu
2016-01-01
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate medical students' social problem solving and coping skills. Material and Methods: In this correlational descriptive study, data were gathered from 457 medical students. Social Problem Solving Inventory and Social Problem Coping Behaviours Inventory were used. Results: The most preferred activities when the students face a problem were talking with friends (87.1%), talking with special persons (85.4%), sleeping (82.6%), talking with family...
Solving Hitchcock's transportation problem by a genetic algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Hai-feng; CHO Joong Rae; LEE Jeong.Tae
2004-01-01
Genetic algorithms (GAs) employ the evolutionary process of Darwin's nature selection theory to find the solutions of optimization problems. In this paper, an implementation of genetic algorithm is put forward to solve a classical transportation problem, namely the Hitchcock's Transportation Problem (HTP), and the GA is improved to search for all optimal solutions and identify them automatically. The algorithm is coded with C++ and validated by numerical examples. The computational results show that the algorithm is efficient for solving the Hitchcock's transportation problem.
Dondlinger, Mary Jo; McLeod, Julie K.
2015-01-01
The Global Village Playground (GVP) was a capstone learning experience designed to address institutional assessment needs while providing an integrated and authentic learning experience for students aimed at fostering complex problem solving, as well as critical and creative thinking. In the GVP, students work on simulated and real-world problems…
Social problem solving and coping skills of medical students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emel Yigit
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate medical students' social problem solving and coping skills. Material and Methods: In this correlational descriptive study, data were gathered from 457 medical students. Social Problem Solving Inventory and Social Problem Coping Behaviours Inventory were used. Results: The most preferred activities when the students face a problem were talking with friends (87.1%, talking with special persons (85.4%, sleeping (82.6%, talking with family members (81.6%, and eating (79.8%. The ratio of the behaviors that can be deemed risky were exhibiting aggressive and violent behaviors (18.9%, drinking alcohol (18.7%, smoking (17.6%, playing games of chance (16.9%, and using substance (3.8%. There was a positive relationship between total scores of Social Problem Solving Inventory and Social Problem Coping Behaviours Inventory. It is found that immature social problem solving ability has increased the risk of unfavourable behaviours by 3.1 fold. Conclusion: Social problem solving ability is significantly correlated with coping behaviours and may predict it. Medical students who are the doctors and the role models of the future need to develop their social problem solving skills in addition to clinical problem solving skills. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 721-731
The Problems of Creative Thinking in the Works by Lajos Szekely
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mazilov V.A.
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The article analyzes views on creativity and creative thinking of the famous psychologist and psychoanalyst Lajosh Sekey (1906-1995. The key milestones of the biography of this extraordinary scientist are traced. It is shown that he began its research career as a representative of the school of Gestalt psychology the fundamental ideas of which he decidedly supported. The comparative analyses of Lajosh Sekey´s works published over different periods makes the evolution of his views evident. The author investigates Sekey´s studies on creative thinking during a creative pause which are separated by almost thirty years interval (1940 and 1968. The comparative analysis states the changes in Sekeyґs position. It is particularly important to note organic combination of ideas of Gestalt psychology both with psychoanalysis and ideas of Piaget and J. Bruner. Sekey was successful in developing a special method. It consists of the use of the traditional psychoanalytic procedures for the sake of the investigation of creative thinking and of the solving of problems that have live importance. It is worth stating that a creative pause as a separate stage of thinking never can be “simulated” in the laboratory setting. This is a stage that really differentiategenuine practical thinking from its artificial laboratory models. In our view the evolution of the Gestalt concepts of thinking follows the way of spontaneous integration. This means it demonstrates the tendency to use complex descriptions involving borrowing, close “interaction”, cooperation, and communication with other research approaches. This spontaneous integration makes a psychological conception go beyond the “framework” of the scientific school. This is inevitable because comprehension of the “psychological” given in all its entire and real complexity is ever in the conflict with the “narrow” theoretical settings. In our opinion, this is one of the ways of the development of
A problem solving model for regulatory policy making
Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Sileno, G.; Wyner, A.; Benn, N.
2011-01-01
In this paper we discuss how the interests and field theory promoted by public administration as a stakeholder in policy argumentation, directly arise from its problem solving activities, using the framework for public administration problem solving we proposed in [1,2]. We propose that calls for ch
Phenomenographic Study of Students' Problem Solving Approaches in Physics
Walsh, Laura N.; Howard, Robert G.; Bowe, Brian
2007-01-01
This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study…
A Longitudinal Study of Database-Assisted Problem Solving.
Wildemuth, Barbara M.; Friedman, Charles P.; Keyes, John; Downs, Stephen M.
2000-01-01
Examines the effects of database assistance on clinical problem solving across three cohorts of medical students and two database interfaces. Discusses the relationship between personal domain knowledge and problem solving, personal domain knowledge and database searching, and comparisons of different interface styles in information retrieval…
A Case Study of Dynamic Visualization and Problem Solving
Lavy, Ilana
2007-01-01
This paper reports an example of a situation in which university students had to solve geometrical problems presented to them dynamically using the interactive computerized environment of the "MicroWorlds Project Builder". In the process of the problem solving, the students used ten different solution strategies. The unsuccessful…
Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.
Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K
2014-12-15
The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions.
Reading-Enhanced Word Problem Solving: A Theoretical Model
Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Rupley, William H.
2012-01-01
There is a reciprocal relationship between mathematics and reading cognition. Metacognitive training within reading-enhanced problem solving should facilitate students developing an awareness of what good readers do when reading for meaning in solving mathematical problems enabling them to apply these strategies. The constructs for each cognitive…
The Effect of Strategy on Problem Solving: An FMRI Study
Newman, Sharlene D.; Pruce, Benjamin; Rusia, Akash; Burns, Thomas, Jr.
2010-01-01
fMRI was used to examine the differential effect of two problem-solving strategies. Participants were trained to use both a pictorial/spatial and a symbolic/algebraic strategy to solve word problems. While these two strategies activated similar cortical regions, a number of differences were noted in the level of activation. These differences…
Problem Solving and Collaboration Using Mobile Serious Games
Sanchez, Jaime; Olivares, Ruby
2011-01-01
This paper presents the results obtained with the implementation of a series of learning activities based on Mobile Serious Games (MSGs) for the development of problem solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students in order to solve problems collaboratively. A…
Measuring Problem Solving Skills in Plants vs. Zombies 2
Shute, Valerie J.; Moore, Gregory R.; Wang, Lubin
2015-01-01
We are using stealth assessment, embedded in "Plants vs. Zombies 2," to measure middle-school students' problem solving skills. This project started by developing a problem solving competency model based on a thorough review of the literature. Next, we identified relevant in-game indicators that would provide evidence about students'…
Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities
D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie
2010-01-01
We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…
The Effects of Age on Perceptual Problem-Solving Strategies.
Lee, Jo Ann; Pollack, Robert H.
Witkin's Embedded Figures Test (EFT) was used to measure the changes with age in field dependence and problem-solving ability. Qualitative data concerning problem-solving strategies and quantitative data were collected. EFT was administered to 12 females in each of the following decades: 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s. All subjects were moderately…
High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems.
Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy
2001-01-01
Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.…
Structured collaboration versus individual learning in solving physics problems
Harskamp, Egbert; Ding, Ning
2006-01-01
The research issue in this study is how to structure collaborative learning so that it improves solving physics problems more than individual learning. Structured collaborative learning has been compared with individual learning environments with Schoenfeld's problem-solving episodes. Students took
Solving L-L Extraction Problems with Excel Spreadsheet
Teppaitoon, Wittaya
2016-01-01
This work aims to demonstrate the use of Excel spreadsheets for solving L-L extraction problems. The key to solving the problems successfully is to be able to determine a tie line on the ternary diagram where the calculation must be carried out. This enables the reader to analyze the extraction process starting with a simple operation, the…
Improving Mathematical Problem Solving Skills: The Journey to Success
Rousseau, Donna
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine if problem solving skills can be improved through the use of an interdisciplinary program incorporating reading, music, and mathematics. The study was conducted in seven fifth grade classrooms, and addresses the need to teach problem solving strategies in elementary school and the importance of problem…
Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression
Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin
2013-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…
Applications of Fitzpatrick functions for solving optimization problems II
Nashed, Z.; Raykov, I.
2015-10-01
This paper is a continuation of the paper [8] and presents more applications of Fitzpatrick functions for solving optimization problems. The main purpose of the present work is to introduce some new properties of Fitzpatrick functions useful for solving optimization problems, using also their already presented specific properties, as the maximal monotonicity, proper, convex and lower semi-continuity.
A New Approach: Computer-Assisted Problem-Solving Systems
Gok, Tolga
2010-01-01
Computer-assisted problem solving systems are rapidly growing in educational use and with the advent of the Internet. These systems allow students to do their homework and solve problems online with the help of programs like Blackboard, WebAssign and LON-CAPA program etc. There are benefits and drawbacks of these systems. In this study, the…
Fostering Problem-Solving in a Virtual Environment
Morin, Danielle; Thomas, Jennifer D. E.; Saadé, Raafat George
2015-01-01
This article investigates students' perceptions of the relationship between Problem-Solving and the activities and resources used in a Web-based course on the fundamentals of Information Technology at a university in Montreal, Canada. We assess for the different learning components of the course, the extent of perceived problem-solving skills…
The Effect of Strategy on Problem Solving: An FMRI Study
Newman, Sharlene D.; Pruce, Benjamin; Rusia, Akash; Burns, Thomas, Jr.
2010-01-01
fMRI was used to examine the differential effect of two problem-solving strategies. Participants were trained to use both a pictorial/spatial and a symbolic/algebraic strategy to solve word problems. While these two strategies activated similar cortical regions, a number of differences were noted in the level of activation. These differences…
Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression
Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin
2013-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…
High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems.
Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy
2001-01-01
Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.…
A theory of intelligence: networked problem solving in animal societies
Shour, Robert
2009-01-01
A society's single emergent, increasing intelligence arises partly from the thermodynamic advantages of networking the innate intelligence of different individuals, and partly from the accumulation of solved problems. Economic growth is proportional to the square of the network entropy of a society's population times the network entropy of the number of the society's solved problems.
Solving constrained minimax problem via nonsmooth equations method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Xiu-xia(郭修霞)
2004-01-01
A new nonsmooth equations model of constrained minimax problem was derived. The generalized Newton method was applied for solving this system of nonsmooth equations system. A new algorithm for solving constrained minimax problem was established. The local superlinear and quadratic convergences of the algorithm were discussed.
Best Known Problem Solving Strategies in "High-Stakes" Assessments
Hong, Dae S.
2011-01-01
In its mathematics standards, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that problem solving is an integral part of all mathematics learning and exposure to problem solving strategies should be embedded across the curriculum. Furthermore, by high school, students should be able to use, decide and invent a wide range of strategies.…
The Effects of Service Learning on Student Problem Solving
Guo, Fangfang; Yao, Meilin; Wang, Cong; Yan, Wenfan; Zong, Xiaoli
2016-01-01
Previous research indicated that service learning (SL) is an effective pedagogy to improve students' problem-solving ability and increase their classroom engagement. However, studies on SL are rare in China. This study examined the effects of SL on the problem solving of Chinese undergraduate students as well as the mechanism through which it…
(Eds.). Resource-bounded problem solving (Dagstuhl Seminar 14341)
Haxhimusa, Y.; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van; Varma, S.; Wareham, H.T.
2014-01-01
This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 14341 'Resource-bounded Problem Solving'. This seminar is a successor to Dagstuhl Seminar 11351: 'Computer Science & Problem Solving: New Foundations', held in August 2011, which was the first Dagstuhl event to bring together com
Problem Solving Frameworks for Mathematics and Software Development
McMaster, Kirby; Sambasivam, Samuel; Blake, Ashley
2012-01-01
In this research, we examine how problem solving frameworks differ between Mathematics and Software Development. Our methodology is based on the assumption that the words used frequently in a book indicate the mental framework of the author. We compared word frequencies in a sample of 139 books that discuss problem solving. The books were grouped…
Designing Computer Software for Problem-Solving Instruction.
Duffield, Judith A.
1991-01-01
Discusses factors that might influence the effectiveness of computer software designed to teach problem solving. Topics discussed include the structure of knowledge; transfer of training; computers and problem solving instruction; human-computer interactions; and types of software, including drill and practice programs, tutorials, instructional…
Measurement of Creativity: The tripartite approach for creative thinking
Takahashi,Kiyoshi; Hirikami, Akira
2014-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to propose a new measurement method of creativity. Based on the tripartite thinking model (TTM), this paper developed the tripartite creativity test (TCT). The TCT was generated by considering creative process in problem solving. The TCT defines creativity as the interaction of three modes of thinking: logical thinking, critical thinking, and lateral thinking. This model is apart from traditional definition of creativity that prescribes it as the skill for produci...
Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird.
Logan, Corina J
2016-01-01
Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop's Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments.
Solved problems in dynamical systems and control
Tenreiro-Machado, J; Valério, Duarte; Galhano, Alexandra M
2016-01-01
This book presents a collection of exercises on dynamical systems, modelling and control. Each topic covered includes a summary of the theoretical background, problems with solutions, and further exercises.
Collaborative problem solving with a total quality model.
Volden, C M; Monnig, R
1993-01-01
A collaborative problem-solving system committed to the interests of those involved complies with the teachings of the total quality management movement in health care. Deming espoused that any quality system must become an integral part of routine activities. A process that is used consistently in dealing with problems, issues, or conflicts provides a mechanism for accomplishing total quality improvement. The collaborative problem-solving process described here results in quality decision-making. This model incorporates Ishikawa's cause-and-effect (fishbone) diagram, Moore's key causes of conflict, and the steps of the University of North Dakota Conflict Resolution Center's collaborative problem solving model.
Field-dependent-independent cognitive style in solving dynamics problems.
Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Xin; Ren, Ming-Zhang
2003-06-01
251 senior middle school (Grade 11) students were tested on the Chinese Group Embedded Figures Test and Dynamic Problems Test. A 2 (cognitive style) x 2 (sex) analysis of variance indicated a nonsignificant effect with respect to cognitive style in solving easier Dynamics problems but a main significant effect in solving complex Dynamics problems. Multiple comparisons (post hoc t tests) indicated that cognitive style is a significant factor among boys but not girls. The difference between Field-independent students and Field-dependent students in solving complex Dynamics problems may be that the former students more easily form a clear map of motion than the latter students.
Using Neighborhood Diversity to Solve Hard Problems
Ganian, Robert
2012-01-01
Parameterized algorithms are a very useful tool for dealing with NP-hard problems on graphs. Yet, to properly utilize parameterized algorithms it is necessary to choose the right parameter based on the type of problem and properties of the target graph class. Tree-width is an example of a very successful graph parameter, however it cannot be used on dense graph classes and there also exist problems which are hard even on graphs of bounded tree-width. Such problems can be tackled by using vertex cover as a parameter, however this places severe restrictions on admissible graph classes. Michael Lampis has recently introduced neighborhood diversity, a new graph parameter which generalizes vertex cover to dense graphs. Among other results, he has shown that simple parameterized algorithms exist for a few problems on graphs of bounded neighborhood diversity. Our article further studies this area and provides new algorithms parameterized by neighborhood diversity for the p-Vertex-Disjoint Paths, Graph Motif and Prec...
Smoothing Newton Algorithm for Solving Generalized Complementarity Problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘晓红; 倪铁
2010-01-01
The generalized complementarity problem includes the well-known nonlinear complementarity problem and linear complementarity problem as special cases.In this paper, based on a class of smoothing functions, a smoothing Newton-type algorithm is proposed for solving the generalized complementarity problem.Under suitable assumptions, the proposed algorithm is well-defined and global convergent.
Internet computer coaches for introductory physics problem solving
Xu Ryan, Qing
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.
Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.
This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they
Bilgin, Ibrahim
2006-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pair problem solving technique incorporating Polya's problem solving strategy on undergraduate students' performance in conceptual and algorithmic questions in chemistry. The subjects of this study were 89 students enrolled from two first year chemistry classes. The experimental group was…
Griesser, Sara Anne
Current mathematics education emphasizes the importance of a problem solving mindset in the classroom. Students need to know how they are going to use what they are learning in real life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of anchored problem solving instruction on middle school students' mathematical abilities. The researcher…
Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.
2009-01-01
This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they hav
Yakubova, Gulnoza
2013-01-01
Problem solving is an important employability skill and considered valuable both in educational settings (Agran & Alper, 2000) and the workplace (Ju, Zhang, & Pacha, 2012). However, limited research exists instructing students with autism to engage in problem solving skills (e.g., Bernard-Opitz, Sriram, & Nakhoda-Sapuan, 2001). The…
Yakubova, Gulnoza
2013-01-01
Problem solving is an important employability skill and considered valuable both in educational settings (Agran & Alper, 2000) and the workplace (Ju, Zhang, & Pacha, 2012). However, limited research exists instructing students with autism to engage in problem solving skills (e.g., Bernard-Opitz, Sriram, & Nakhoda-Sapuan, 2001). The…
An Integrated Architecture for Engineering Problem Solving
1998-12-01
62 Figure 33: Constrained attainable envisionment heuristic............................................63 Figure 34: Problem 4.21...collection of qualitative states and transitions that describe the behavior of the system is called an envisionment (de Kleer, 1977). There are two...types of envisionments commonly used for analyzing systems. An attainable envisionment describes all states that are reachable from a given initial
A UV-decomposed method for solving an MPEC problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHAN Feng; PANG Li-ping; ZHU Li-mei; XIA Zun-quan
2008-01-01
A UV-decomposition method for solving a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints(MPEC)problem with linear complementarity constraints is presented.The problem is first converted into a nonlinear programming one.The structure of subdifierential a corresponding penalty function and refults of its UV-decomposition are given.A conceptual algorithm for solving this problem with a superlinear convergence rate is then constructed in terms of the obtained results.
Learning disabilities and social problem solving skills
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pina Filippello
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recent studies showed that children with learning disabilities present significant difficulties in learning as well as in social skills (Siperstein, 2009.Therefore, it was observed how it is difficult for these children to establish adequate relationships, especially to advise coping strategies to face interpersonal conflicts (Oliva & LaGreca, 1988. Accordingly to this argument and with reference to Agaliotis e Kalyva (2004, 2009, this study examines the preferences for strategies to solve an hypothetical conflict on a sample of children with LD in comparison to typical developing peers. They used the method of social story to conduct this research. In fact, researchers asked to the children, after they have listened a short story describing an interpersonal conflict interaction between adult and peers, which strategies they would have chosen if they were in the same situation and the strategies that would be most appropriate to resolve a conflict. Results obtained from the experiment corroborated literature data and demonstrated that children with LD, in comparison to typical developing peers, use and prefer dysfunctional coping strategies, aggressive or passive, also in relation to the partner interaction (adult or peers to face interpersonal conflict.
Modeling crowdsourcing as collective problem solving
Guazzini, Andrea; Donati, Camillo; Nardi, Annalisa; Levnajic, Zoran
2015-01-01
Crowdsourcing is a process of accumulating the ideas, thoughts or information from many independent participants, with aim to find the best solution for a given challenge. Modern information technologies allow for massive number of subjects to be involved in a more or less spontaneous way. Still, the full potentials of crowdsourcing are yet to be reached. We introduce a modeling framework through which we study the effectiveness of crowdsourcing in relation to the level of collectivism in facing the problem. Our findings reveal an intricate relationship between the number of participants and the difficulty of the problem, indicating the the optimal size of the crowdsourced group. We discuss our results in the context of modern utilization of crowdsourcing.
Interval Arithmetic for Nonlinear Problem Solving
2013-01-01
Implementation of interval arithmetic in complex problems has been hampered by the tedious programming exercise needed to develop a particular implementation. In order to improve productivity, the use of interval mathematics is demonstrated using the computing platform INTLAB that allows for the development of interval-arithmetic-based programs more efficiently than with previous interval-arithmetic libraries. An interval-Newton Generalized-Bisection (IN/GB) method is developed in this platfo...
Graphic Organizer in Action: Solving Secondary Mathematics Word Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khoo Jia Sian
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Mathematics word problems are one of the most challenging topics to learn and teach in secondary schools. This is especially the case in countries where English is not the first language for the majority of the people, such as in Brunei Darussalam. Researchers proclaimed that limited language proficiency and limited Mathematics strategies are the possible causes to this problem. However, whatever the reason is behind difficulties students face in solving Mathematical word problems, it is perhaps the teaching and learning of the Mathematics that need to be modified. For example, the use of four-square-and-a-diamond graphic organizer that infuses model drawing skill; and Polya’s problem solving principles, to solve Mathematical word problems may be some of the strategies that can help in improving students’ word problem solving skills. This study, through quantitative analysis found that the use of graphic organizer improved students’ performance in terms of Mathematical knowledge, Mathematical strategy and Mathematical explanation in solving word problems. Further qualitative analysis revealed that the use of graphic organizer boosted students’ confidence level and positive attitudes towards solving word problems.Keywords: Word Problems, Graphic Organizer, Algebra, Action Research, Secondary School Mathematics DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.7.2.3546.83-90
Cognitive Backgrounds of Problem Solving: A Comparison of Open-Ended vs. Closed Mathematics Problems
Bahar, Abdulkadir; Maker, C. June
2015-01-01
Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of elementary…
Neural correlates of mental preparation for successful insight problem solving.
Tian, F; Tu, S; Qiu, J; Lv, J Y; Wei, D T; Su, Y H; Zhang, Q L
2011-01-20
A distinct type of mental preparation (activity in medial frontal and temporal areas) had been found to facilitate insight problem solving independent of specific problems [25]. In order to explore whether neural activity during a preparatory interval (mental preparation) is associated with which insight problems would be solved or not, we developed a task that uses Chinese logogriphs (riddles) as materials. Blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI contrasts between Successful and Unsuccessful mental preparation were measured. Results showed that mental preparation leading to successful problem solving involves heightened activity in the left middle/medial frontal gyrus, the left middle/superior temporal gyrus, the right cerebellum, the bilateral claustrum and the left postcentral gyrus. We discussed the role of these areas in mental preparation for successful insight problem solving.
Solving Tensor Structured Problems with Computational Tensor Algebra
Morozov, Oleksii
2010-01-01
Since its introduction by Gauss, Matrix Algebra has facilitated understanding of scientific problems, hiding distracting details and finding more elegant and efficient ways of computational solving. Today's largest problems, which often originate from multidimensional data, might profit from even higher levels of abstraction. We developed a framework for solving tensor structured problems with tensor algebra that unifies concepts from tensor analysis, multilinear algebra and multidimensional signal processing. In contrast to the conventional matrix approach, it allows the formulation of multidimensional problems, in a multidimensional way, preserving structure and data coherence; and the implementation of automated optimizations of solving algorithms, based on the commutativity of all tensor operations. Its ability to handle large scientific tasks is showcased by a real-world, 4D medical imaging problem, with more than 30 million unknown parameters solved on a current, inexpensive hardware. This significantly...
Solving Hub Network Problem Using Genetic Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mursyid Hasan Basri
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses a network problem that described as follows. There are n ports that interact, and p of those will be designated as hubs. All hubs are fully interconnected. Each spoke will be allocated to only one of available hubs. Direct connection between two spokes is allowed only if they are allocated to the same hub. The latter is a distinct characteristic that differs it from pure hub-and-spoke system. In case of pure hub-and-spoke system, direct connection between two spokes is not allowed. The problem is where to locate hub ports and to which hub a spoke should be allocated so that total transportation cost is minimum. In the first model, there are some additional aspects are taken into consideration in order to achieve a better representation of the problem. The first, weekly service should be accomplished. Secondly, various vessel types should be considered. The last, a concept of inter-hub discount factor is introduced. Regarding the last aspect, it represents cost reduction factor at hub ports due to economies of scale. In practice, it is common that the cost rate for inter-hub movement is less than the cost rate for movement between hub and origin/destination. In this first model, inter-hub discount factor is assumed independent with amount of flows on inter-hub links (denoted as flow-independent discount policy. The results indicated that the patterns of enlargement of container ship size, to some degree, are similar with those in Kurokawa study. However, with regard to hub locations, the results have not represented the real practice. In the proposed model, unsatisfactory result on hub locations is addressed. One aspect that could possibly be improved to find better hub locations is inter-hub discount factor. Then inter-hub discount factor is assumed to depend on amount of inter-hub flows (denoted as flow-dependent discount policy. There are two discount functions examined in this paper. Both functions are characterized by
Solving Maximal Clique Problem through Genetic Algorithm
Rajawat, Shalini; Hemrajani, Naveen; Menghani, Ekta
2010-11-01
Genetic algorithm is one of the most interesting heuristic search techniques. It depends basically on three operations; selection, crossover and mutation. The outcome of the three operations is a new population for the next generation. Repeating these operations until the termination condition is reached. All the operations in the algorithm are accessible with today's molecular biotechnology. The simulations show that with this new computing algorithm, it is possible to get a solution from a very small initial data pool, avoiding enumerating all candidate solutions. For randomly generated problems, genetic algorithm can give correct solution within a few cycles at high probability.
1000 Solved Problems in Modern Physics
Kamal, Ahmad A
2010-01-01
This book basically caters to the needs of undergraduates and graduates physics students in the area of modern physics, specially particle and nuclear physics. Lecturers/tutors may use it as a resource book. The contents of the book are based on the syllabi currently used in the undergraduate courses in USA, U.K., and other countries. The book is divided into 10 chapters, each chapter beginning with a brief but adequate summary and necessary formulas, tables and line diagrams followed by a variety of typical problems useful for assignments and exams. Detailed solutions are provided at the end of each chapter.
Solving Hub Network Problem Using Genetic Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mursyid Hasan Basri
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses a network problem that described as follows. There are n ports that interact, and p of those will be designated as hubs. All hubs are fully interconnected. Each spoke will be allocated to only one of available hubs. Direct connection between two spokes is allowed only if they are allocated to the same hub. The latter is a distinct characteristic that differs it from pure hub-and-spoke system. In case of pure hub-and-spoke system, direct connection between two spokes is not allowed. The problem is where to locate hub ports and to which hub a spoke should be allocated so that total transportation cost is minimum. In the first model, there are some additional aspects are taken into consideration in order to achieve a better representation of the problem. The first, weekly service should be accomplished. Secondly, various vessel types should be considered. The last, a concept of inter-hub discount factor is introduced. Regarding the last aspect, it represents cost reduction factor at hub ports due to economies of scale. In practice, it is common that the cost rate for inter-hub movement is less than the cost rate for movement between hub and origin/destination. In this first model, inter-hub discount factor is assumed independent with amount of flows on inter-hub links (denoted as flow-independent discount policy. The results indicated that the patterns of enlargement of container ship size, to some degree, are similar with those in Kurokawa study. However, with regard to hub locations, the results have not represented the real practice. In the proposed model, unsatisfactory result on hub locations is addressed. One aspect that could possibly be improved to find better hub locations is inter-hub discount factor. Then inter-hub discount factor is assumed to depend on amount of inter-hub flows (denoted as flow-dependent discount policy. There are two discount functions examined in this paper. Both functions are characterized by
Problem-solving Model for Managing Stress and Anxiety
Taghi Abutalebi Ahmadi
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study is to take a look at problem-solving model for managing stress and anxiety. If each of us as a human being has an organized method for solving the different problems of our life, at that time we can get along with stress and anxiety easily. The capability of problem solving makes it possible for that person a) to distinguish emotions in himself and others b) to understand how excitement affects behavior c) to be able to show different reactions to different emotions....
A Numerical Embedding Method for Solving the Nonlinear Optimization Problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
田保锋; 戴云仙; 孟泽红; 张建军
2003-01-01
A numerical embedding method was proposed for solving the nonlinear optimization problem. By using the nonsmooth theory, the existence and the continuation of the following path for the corresponding homotopy equations were proved. Therefore the basic theory for the algorithm of the numerical embedding method for solving the non-linear optimization problem was established. Based on the theoretical results, a numerical embedding algorithm was designed for solving the nonlinear optimization problem, and prove its convergence carefully. Numerical experiments show that the algorithm is effective.