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Sample records for create-l plasma response

  1. Comparison of the CREATE-L plasma response model with TCV limited discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villone, F.; Vyas, P.; Lister, J.B.; Albanese, R.

    1997-02-01

    Experiments have been performed on the TCV tokamak to evaluate the response of Ohmic-, L-Mode, limited, vertically unstable plasmas to changes in all the poloidal field coil voltages. The resulting closed loop plasma responses have been compared with the CREATE-L linearised MHD equilibrium model of TCV. All the responses in both the time domain and the frequency domain show excellent agreement both for directly measured quantities and for derived parameters which can be used as feedback variables. No modifications to the CREATE-L model were made to achieve this quality of agreement, indicating that the underlaying physical assumptions are appropriate. (author) 20 figs., 6 tabs., 16 refs

  2. Comparison of the CREATE-L plasma response model with TCV limited discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villone, F.; Vyas, P.; Lister, J.B.; Albanese, R.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments have been performed on the TCV tokamak to evaluate the response of ohmic, L mode, limited, vertically unstable plasmas to changes in all the poloidal field coil voltages. The resulting closed loop plasma responses have been compared with the CREATE-L linearized MHD equilibrium model of the TCV tokamak. All the responses in both the time domain and the frequency domain show excellent agreement both for directly measured quantities and for derived parameters. No modifications to the CREATE-L model were made to achieve this quality of agreement, indicating that the underlying physical assumptions are appropriate. (author). 17 refs, 20 figs

  3. The separatrix response of diverted TCV plasmas compared to the CREATE-L model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, P.; Lister, J.B.; Villone, F.; Albanese, R.

    1997-11-01

    The response of Ohmic, single-null diverted, non-centred plasmas in TCV to poloidal field coil stimulation has been compared to the linear CREATE-L MHD equilibrium response model. The closed loop responses of directly measured quantities, reconstructed parameters, and the reconstructed plasma contour were all examined. Provided that the plasma position and shape perturbation were small enough for the linearity assumption to hold, the model-experiment agreement was good. For some stimulations the open loop vertical position instability growth rate changed significantly, illustrating the limitations of a linear model. A different model was developed with the assumption that the flux at the plasma boundary is frozen and was also compared with experimental results. It proved not to be as reliable as the CREATE-L model for some simulation parameters showing that the experiments were able to discriminate between different plasma response models. The closed loop response was also found to be sensitive to changes in the modelled plasma shape. It was not possible to invalidate the CREATE-L model despite the extensive range of responses excited by the experiments. (author) figs., tabs., 5 refs

  4. Measurement of the open loop plasma equilibrium response in TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutlis, A.; Bandyopadhyay, I.; Lister, J.B.; Vyas, P.; Albanese, R.; Limebeer, D.J.N.; Villone, F.; Wainwright, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    A new technique and results are presented for the estimation of the open loop frequency response of the plasma on TCV. Voltages were applied to poloidal field coils and the resulting plasma current, position and shape related parameters were measured. The results are compared with the CREATE-L model, and good agreement is confirmed. The results are a significant advance on previous comparisons with closed loop data, which were limited by the role of feedback in the system. A simpler circuit equation model has also been developed in order to understand the reasons for the good agreement and identify which plasma properties are important in determining the response. The reasons for the good agreement with this model are discussed. An alternative modelling method has been developed, combining features of both the theoretical and experimental techniques. Its advantage is that it incorporates well defined knowledge of the electromagnetic properties of the tokamak with experimental data to derive plasma related parameters. This new model provides further insight into the plasma behaviour. (author)

  5. Direct measurement of the plasma equilibrium response to poloidal field changes and H∞ controller tests in TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, J.B.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.

    2001-01-01

    The control of ITER provides several challenges which can be met using existing techniques for the design of modern controllers. The specific case of the control of the Poloidal Field (PF) system has sollicited considerable interest. One feature of the design of such controllers is their dependence on a sufficiently accurate model of the full system under control. To this end, experiments have been performed on the TCV tokamak to validate one plasma equilibrium response model, the CREATE-L model. Using a new technique, the open loop response of TCV has been directly measured in the frequency domain. These experimental results compare well with the CREATE-L model. This model was subsequently used to design a PF system controller, using methods proposed during the ITER EDA and the first test on TCV has been successful. (author)

  6. Direct measurement of the plasma equilibrium response to poloidal field changes and H∞ controller tests in TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, J.B.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.

    1999-01-01

    The control of ITER provides several challenges which can be met using existing techniques for the design of modern controllers. The specific case of the control of the Poloidal Field (PF) system has solicited considerable interest. One feature of the design of such controllers is their dependence on a sufficiently accurate model of the full system under control. To this end, experiments have been performed on the TCV tokamak to validate one plasma equilibrium response model, the CREATE-L model. Using a new technique, the open loop response of TCV has been directly measured in the frequency domain. These experimental results compare well with the CREATE-L model. This model was subsequently used to design a PF system controller, using methods proposed during the ITER EDA and the first test on TCV has been successful. (author)

  7. Dielectric response of planar relativistic quantum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardos, D.C.; Frankel, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    The dielectric response of planar relativistic charged particle-antiparticle plasmas is investigated, treating Fermi and Bose plasmas. The conductivity tensor in each case is derived in the self-consistent Random Phase Approximation. The tensors are then evaluated at zero temperature for the case of no external fields, leading to explicit dispersion relations for the electrodynamic modes of the plasma. The longitudinal and transverse modes are in general coupled for plasma layers. This coupling vanishes, however, in the zero field case, allowing 'effective' longitudinal and transverse dielectric functions to be defined in terms of components of the conductivity tensor. Solutions to the longitudinal mode equations (i.e. plasmon modes) are exhibited, while purely transverse modes are found not to exist. In the case of the Bose plasma the screening of a test charge is investigated in detail. 41 refs., 1 fig

  8. Plasma inflammatory biomarkers response to aerobic versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma inflammatory biomarkers response to aerobic versus resisted exercise training for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. ... Recent studies proved that morbidity and mortality of COPD is related to systemic inflammation as it contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

  9. Dielectric response in guiding center plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.; Similon, P.

    1979-12-01

    The dielectric function for guiding center plasma is derived from the direct-interaction approximation. For the special case of thermal equilibrium, the reslt agrees with, although is more detailed than, an earlier calculation of Taylor. An explicit formula for the collision operator Σ' is given. The calculation illustrates several important features of renormalized turbulence theory: cancellation between the so-called diffusion and polarization parts of Σ', and the role of the renormalization in providing the proper description of adiabatic response

  10. Nuclear responses in INTOR plasma stabilization elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Gilligan, J.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Miley, G.H.; Wiffen, F.W.; Yang, S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear responses in the plasma stabilization elements were studied in a parametric fashion as a part of the transient electromagnetics critical issue C of ETR/INTOR activity. The main responses are neutron fluence and radiation dose in the insulator material, induced resistivity and atomic displacement in the conductor material, nuclear heating and life analysis for the elements. Copper and aluminum conductors with either MgAl 2 O 4 or MgO insulating material were investigated. Radiation damage and life analysis for these elements were also discussed

  11. Escitalopram plasma levels and antidepressant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Vincenzo; Porcelli, Stefano; Saria, Alois; Serretti, Alessandro; Conca, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Major Depression Disorder (MDD) has a highly variable treatment response due to the large inter-individual variation in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drug treatments. In detail the correlation between plasma level and efficacy has been much debated. Among first-line drugs for MDD, one of the most used is escitalopram. In the present study we investigated the association between serum concentration of escitalopram (SCE) and antidepressant response (AR). 70 MDD patients treated with escitalopram monotherapy were recruited and followed for three months. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale - 21 (HAMD-21) was administrated at baseline, month 1, and month 3 to assess AR. SCE was measured at steady state. Linear regression analysis and nonlinear least-squares regression were used to estimate association between SCE and AR. We found an association between SCE and AR both at month 1 (pescitalopram the association between SCE and AR likely follows a nearly-asymptotic function, with poor AR at sub-therapeutic SCE and stable AR response at therapeutic SCE. Thus, when a patient reaches the therapeutic SCE range, further increase of escitalopram dosage seems to be useless, although further studies are needed to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma equilibrium response modelling and validation on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, J.B.; Sharma, A.; Limebeer, D.J.N.; Wainwright, J.P.; Nakamura, Y.; Yoshino, R.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic procedure to identify the plasma equilibrium response to the poloidal field coil voltages has been applied to the JT-60U tokamak. The required response was predicted with a high accuracy by a state-space model derived from first principles. The ab initio derivation of linearized plasma equilibrium response models is re-examined using an approach standard in analytical mechanics. A symmetric formulation is naturally obtained, removing a previous weakness in such models. RZIP, a rigid current distribution model, is re-derived using this approach and is compared with the new experimental plasma equilibrium response data obtained from Ohmic and neutral beam injection discharges in the JT-60U tokamak. In order to remove any bias from the comparison between modelled and measured plasma responses, the electromagnetic response model without plasma was first carefully tuned against experimental data, using a parametric approach, for which different cost functions for quantifying model agreement were explored. This approach additionally provides new indications of the accuracy to which various plasma parameters are known, and to the ordering of physical effects. Having taken these precautions when tuning the plasmaless model, an empirical estimate of the plasma self-inductance, the plasma resistance and its radial derivative could be established and compared with initial assumptions. Off-line tuning of the JT-60U controller is presented as an example of the improvements which might be obtained by using such a model of the plasma equilibrium response. (author)

  13. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  14. NSTX plasma response to lithium coated divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Bell, M.G.; Allain, J.P.; Bell, R.E.; Ding, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, Rajesh; Majeski, R.; Maqueda, R.J.; Mansfield, D.K.; Mueller, D.; Nygren, R.E.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Taylor, C.N.; Timberlake, J.; Wampler, W.R.; Zakharov, L.E.; Zweben, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma-facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Z(eff) and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, < 0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  15. Direct measurement of the plasma response to electrostatic ion waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfaty, M.; DeSouza-Machado, S.; Skiff, F.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma wave-wave and wave-particle interactions are studied in a linear magnetized plasma. The relatively quiet plasma is produced by an argon gas-discharge. The plasma density is n e ≅ 10 9 cm -3 and the electron/ion temperatures are T e ≅ 5eV and T i = 0.05eV. A grid and a four ring antenna, both mounted on a scanning carriage, are used to launch electrostatic ion waves in the plasma. Laser Induced Fluorescence measurements of both the linear and the nonlinear plasma response to the wave fields are presented. The Vlasov-Poisson equations are used to explain the measured zero, first and second order terms of the ion distribution function in the presence of wave fields. In addition to the broadening (heating) of the ion distribution as the authors increase the wave amplitudes, induced plasma flows are observed both along and across the magnetic field

  16. Plasma glucagon responses to L-arginine in various diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Nobuto; Hayakawa, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Kohzo; Noto, Yutaka; Ohno, Taro

    1978-01-01

    To clarify the mechanism of abnormal glucose metabolism in the secondary diabetes, we examined the dynamics of plasma glucagon levels in various diseases which may accompany glucose intolerance. Plasma glucagon responses to L-arginine were observed in 20 liver cirrhotics, 8 patients with chronic renal failure, 6 patients with chronic pancreatitis, 4 patients, with hyperthyroidism, 22 diabetics and 9 normal controls. Plasma glucagon levels were determined by the radioimmunoassay method of Unger using 125 I-glucagon and antiserum 30K which is specific for pancreatic glucagon. In the cirrhotics, the plasma glucagon responses to L-arginine were significantly higher than in normal controls. The patients whose BSP retention at 45 minutes were above 30% showed higher plasma glucagon responses than in the patients whose BSP retention at 45 minutes were below 30%, suggesting that the more severely the liver was damaged, the more the plasma glucagon levels were elevated. In the patients with chronic renal failure, the plasma glucagon responses to L-arginine were also significantly higher than in normal controls. These abnormal levels were not improved by a hemodialysis, although serum creatinine levels were fairly decreased. In the patients with chronic pancreatitis, the plasma glucagon responses to L-arginine were the same as those in normal controls. In the patients with hyperthyroidism the plasma glucagon responses to L-arginine seemed to be lower than normal controls. In the diabetics, the plasma glucagon responses to L-arginine were almost the same as in normal controls. However their glucagon levels seemed to be relatively high, considering the fact that diabetics had high blood glucose levels. (auth.)

  17. Plasma catecholamine responses to physiologic stimuli in normal human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, W M; Mujais, S K; Zinaman, M; Bravo, E L; Lindheimer, M D

    1986-01-01

    The dynamic response of the sympathoadrenal system was evaluated during and after pregnancy in 13 healthy women with a protocol that compared cardiovascular parameters and plasma catecholamine levels during the basal state, after postural maneuvers, and following isometric exercise. Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were similar during and after gestation when the women rested on their sides, but heart rate was greater in pregnancy. Ten minutes of supine recumbency produced minimal changes, but attenuation of the anticipated increases in heart rate and plasma norepinephrine levels during standing and isometric exercise were observed during pregnancy. In contrast, alterations in plasma epinephrine appeared unaffected by gestation. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels were, as expected, greater during pregnancy; however, increments in response to upright posture were similar in pregnant and postpartum women. To the extent that circulating catecholamines may be considered indices of sympathoadrenal function, these data suggest that normal pregnancy alters cardiovascular and sympathetic nervous system responses to physiologic stimuli.

  18. Plasma response to electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    An electron energy filter (EEF) is embedded in the Large Volume Plasma Device plasma for carrying out studies on excitation of plasma turbulence by a gradient in electron temperature (ETG) described in the paper of Mattoo et al. [S. K. Mattoo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255007 (2012)]. In this paper, we report results on the response of the plasma to the EEF. It is shown that inhomogeneity in the magnetic field of the EEF switches on several physical phenomena resulting in plasma regions with different characteristics, including a plasma region free from energetic electrons, suitable for the study of ETG turbulence. Specifically, we report that localized structures of plasma density, potential, electron temperature, and plasma turbulence are excited in the EEF plasma. It is shown that structures of electron temperature and potential are created due to energy dependence of the electron transport in the filter region. On the other hand, although structure of plasma density has origin in the particle transport but two distinct steps of the density structure emerge from dominance of collisionality in the source-EEF region and of the Bohm diffusion in the EEF-target region. It is argued and experimental evidence is provided for existence of drift like flute Rayleigh-Taylor in the EEF plasma

  19. Clozapine response and plasma catecholamines and their metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A I; Alam, M Y; Sobieraj, J T; Pappalardo, K M; Waternaux, C; Salzman, C; Schatzberg, A F; Schildkraut, J J

    1993-02-01

    The atypical neuroleptic clozapine has an unusual profile of clinical effects and a distinctive spectrum of pharmacological actions. Plasma measures of catecholamines and their metabolites have been used in the past to study the action of typical neuroleptics. We obtained longitudinal assessments of plasma measures of dopamine (pDA), norepinephrine (pNE), and their metabolites, homovanillic acid (pHVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG), in eight treatment-resistant or treatment-intolerant schizophrenic patients who were treated with clozapine for 12 weeks following a prolonged drug-washout period. Our findings from the study of these eight patients suggest the following: Plasma levels of HVA and possibly NE derived from the neuroleptic-free baseline period may predict response to clozapine; plasma levels of HVA and MHPG decrease during the initial weeks of treatment in responders but not in nonresponders; and plasma levels of DA and NE increase in both responders and nonresponders to clozapine.

  20. Instabilities responsible for magnetic turbulence in laboratory rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Lominadze, J.G.; Churikov, A.P.; Erokhin, N.N.; Pustovitov, V.D.; Konovalov, S.V.

    2008-01-01

    Instabilities responsible for magnetic turbulence in laboratory rotating plasma are investigated. It is shown that the plasma compressibility gives a new driving mechanism in addition to the known Velikhov effect due to the negative rotation frequency gradient. This new mechanism is related to the perpendicular plasma pressure gradient, while the density gradient gives an additional drive depending also on the pressure gradient. It is shown that these new effects can manifest themselves even in the absence of the equilibrium magnetic field, which corresponds to nonmagnetic instabilities

  1. Comparing DINA code simulations with TCV experimental plasma equilibrium responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayrutdinov, R.R.; Lister, J.B.; Lukash, V.E.; Wainwright, J.P.

    2000-08-01

    The DINA non-linear time dependent simulation code has been validated against an extensive set of plasma equilibrium response experiments carried out on the TCV tokamak. Limited and diverted plasmas are found to be well modelled during the plasma current flat top. In some simulations the application of the PF coil voltage stimulation pulse sufficiently changed the plasma equilibrium that the vertical position feedback control loop became unstable. This behaviour was also found in the experimental work, and cannot be reproduced using linear time-independent models. A single null diverted plasma discharge was also simulated from start-up to shut-down and the results were found to accurately reproduce their experimental equivalents. The most significant difference noted was the penetration time of the poloidal flux, leading to a delayed onset of sawtoothing in the DINA simulation. The complete set of frequency stimulation experiments used to measure the open loop tokamak plasma equilibrium response was also simulated using DINA and the results were analysed in an identical fashion to the experimental data. The frequency response of the DINA simulations agrees with the experimental results. Comparisons with linear models are also discussed to identify areas of good and only occasionally less good agreement. (author)

  2. Edge Plasma Response to Non-Axisymmetric Fields in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, N. M.; Lao, L. L.; Buttery, R. J.; Evans, T. E.; Snyder, P. B.; Wade, M.R., E-mail: ferraro@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, San Diego (United States); Moyer, R. A.; Orlov, D. M. [University of California San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Lanctot, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: The application of non-axisymmetric fields is found to have significant effects on the transport and stability of H-mode tokamak plasmas. These effects include dramatic changes in rotation and particle transport, and may lead to the partial or complete suppression of edge-localized modes (ELMs) under some circumstances. The physical mechanism underlying these effects is presently not well understood, in large part because the response of the plasma to non- axisymmetric fields is significant and complex. Here, recent advances in modeling the plasma response to non-axisymmetric fields are discussed. Calculations using a resistive two-fluid model in diverted toroidal geometry confirm the special role of the perpendicular electron velocity in suppressing the formation of islands in the plasma. The possibility that islands form near the top of the pedestal, where the zero-crossing of the perpendicular electron velocity may coincide with a mode-rational surface, is explored, and the implications for ELM suppression are discussed. Modeling results are compared with empirical data. It is shown that numerical modeling is successful in reproducing some experimentally observed effects of applied non-axisymmetric fields on the edge temperature and density profiles. The numerical model self-consistently includes the plasma, separatrix, and scrape-off layer. Rotation and diamagnetic effects are also included self-consistently. Solutions are calculated using the M3D-C1 extended-MHD code. (and others)

  3. Stem cell responses to plasma surface modified electrospun polyurethane scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandén, Carl; Hellström Erkenstam, Nina; Padel, Thomas; Wittgenstein, Julia; Liu, Johan; Kuhn, H Georg

    2014-07-01

    The topographical effects from functional materials on stem cell behavior are currently of interest in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here we investigate the influence of argon, oxygen, and hydrogen plasma surface modification of electrospun polyurethane fibers on human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and rat postnatal neural stem cell (NSC) responses. The plasma gases were found to induce three combinations of fiber surface functionalities and roughness textures. On randomly oriented fibers, plasma treatments lead to substantially increased hESC attachment and proliferation as compared to native fibers. Argon plasma was found to induce the most optimal combination of surface functionality and roughness for cell expansion. Contact guided migration of cells and alignment of cell processes were observed on aligned fibers. Neuronal differentiation around 5% was found for all samples and was not significantly affected by the induced variations of surface functional group distribution or individual fiber topography. In this study the influence of argon, oxygen, and hydrogen plasma surface modification of electrospun polyurethane fibers on human embryonic stem cell and rat postnatal neural stem cell (NSC) responses is studied with the goal of clarifying the potential effects of functional materials on stem cell behavior, a topic of substantial interest in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relative spectral response calibration using Ti plasma lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, FEI; Congyuan, PAN; Qiang, ZENG; Qiuping, WANG; Xuewei, DU

    2018-04-01

    This work introduces the branching ratio (BR) method for determining relative spectral responses, which are needed routinely in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Neutral and singly ionized Ti lines in the 250–498 nm spectral range are investigated by measuring laser-induced micro plasma near a Ti plate and used to calculate the relative spectral response of an entire LIBS detection system. The results are compared with those of the conventional relative spectral response calibration method using a tungsten halogen lamp, and certain lines available for the BR method are selected. The study supports the common manner of using BRs to calibrate the detection system in LIBS setups.

  5. Nonlinear Plasma Response to Resonant Magnetic Perturbation in Rutherford Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Yan, Xingting; Huang, Wenlong

    2017-10-01

    Recently a common analytic relation for both the locked mode and the nonlinear plasma response in the Rutherford regime has been developed based on the steady-state solution to the coupled dynamic system of magnetic island evolution and torque balance equations. The analytic relation predicts the threshold and the island size for the full penetration of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). It also rigorously proves a screening effect of the equilibrium toroidal flow. In this work, we test the theory by solving for the nonlinear plasma response to a single-helicity RMP of a circular-shaped limiter tokamak equilibrium with a constant toroidal flow, using the initial-value, full MHD simulation code NIMROD. Time evolution of the parallel flow or ``slip frequency'' profile and its asymptotic approach to steady state obtained from the NIMROD simulations qualitatively agree with the theory predictions. Further comparisons are carried out for the saturated island size, the threshold for full mode penetration, as well as the screening effects of equilibrium toroidal flow in order to understand the physics of nonlinear plasma response in the Rutherford regime. Supported by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China Grants 2014GB124002 and 2015GB101004, the 100 Talent Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and U.S. Department of Energy Grants DE-FG02-86ER53218 and DE-FC02-08ER54975.

  6. Structural responses to plasma disruptions in toroidal shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillack, M.S.; Kazimi, M.S.; Lidsky, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The induced pressures, stresses and strains in unrestrained axisymmetric toroidal shells are studied to scope the behavior of tokamak first walls during plasma disruptions. The modeling includes a circuit analog representation of the shell to solve for induced currents and pressures, and a separate quasi-static 1-D finite element solution for the mechanical response. This work demonstrates that the stresses in tokamkak first walls due to plasma disruption may be large, but to first order will not cause failure in the bulk structure. However, stress concentrations at structural supports and discontinuities together with resonant effects can result in large enhancements of the stresses, which could contribute to plastic deformation or failure when added to the already large steady state thermal and pressure loading of the first wall

  7. Transient response of the 'multiple water-bag' plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Cheeseng

    1989-01-01

    A charge activates impulsively and then decays temporally within a MWB (multiple water-bag)-modelled warm plasma. The transient problem is formulated and asymptotically resolved for large time. The response potential comprises two characteristically distinct quantities W and W N : W is a superposition of spherically expanding, moderately attenuated Kelvin waves contributed by certain points on a subset of dispersion curves; W N is a superposition, associated with two other dispersion curves, of three spherical wavefunctions, one of which incorporates the Fresnel integrals. A transient state feature of the MWB discretization is the partitioning of the response field by growing (fast) fronts, (trailing) slow caustics and a j -surfaces, the fastest among these being an a N- surface (thermal front) which pushes back a quasi-static exterior. Contrary to expectations, there is no response jump across any of those growing partitions. Wavefunctions near the slow caustics possess Airy factors. A rest state ultimately develops behind the slowest slow caustic. An application is made to the fluid plasma. (author)

  8. Energy balance and transient responses in wave driven plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.

    1987-06-01

    In a current-drive experiment with a RF power source, a certain amount of power is absorbed by resonant electrons. From the electrons, energy can flow through four channels: it can be converted into magnetic work when the electron interacts with an electric field, or it can be converted into heat when the electron collides the thermal plasma. In addition, there exists also the conversion of the low frequency RF energy into high frequency non thermal free-free or cyclotron radiation. Efficiencies of these conversions are considered together with the turn-on times of the associated responses

  9. Formation of a three-dimensional plasma boundary after decay of the plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, O.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lanctot, M. J.; Lasnier, C. L.; Mordijck, S.; Moyer, R. A.; Reimerdes, H.; the DIII-D Team

    2014-01-01

    First time experimental evidence is presented for a direct link between the decay of a n = 3 plasma response and the formation of a three-dimensional (3D) plasma boundary. We inspect a lower single-null L-mode plasma which first reacts at sufficiently high rotation with an ideal resonant screening response to an external toroidal mode number n = 3 resonant magnetic perturbation field. Decay of this response due to reduced bulk plasma rotation changes the plasma state considerably. Signatures such as density pump out and a spin up of the edge rotation—which are usually connected to formation of a stochastic boundary—are detected. Coincident, striation of the divertor single ionized carbon emission and a 3D emission structure in double ionized carbon at the separatrix is seen. The striated C II pattern follows in this stage the perturbed magnetic footprint modelled without a plasma response (vacuum approach). This provides for the first time substantial experimental evidence, that a 3D plasma boundary with direct impact on the divertor particle flux pattern is formed as soon as the internal plasma response decays. The resulting divertor structure follows the vacuum modelled magnetic field topology. However, the inward extension of the perturbed boundary layer can still not directly be determined from these measurements.

  10. Plasma-Sprayed Titanium Patterns for Enhancing Early Cell Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunqi; Xie, Youtao; Pan, Houhua; Zheng, Xuebin; Huang, Liping; Ji, Fang; Li, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Titanium coating has been widely used as a biocompatible metal in biomedical applications. However, the early cell responses and long-term fixation of titanium implants are not satisfied. To obviate these defects, in this paper, micro-post arrays with various widths (150-1000 μm) and intervals (100-300 μm) were fabricated on the titanium substrate by template-assisted plasma spraying technology. In vitro cell culture experiments showed that MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited significantly higher osteogenic differentiation as well as slightly improved adhesion and proliferation on the micro-patterned coatings compared with the traditional one. The cell number on the pattern with 1000 µm width reached 130% after 6 days of incubation, and the expressions of osteopontin (OPN) as well as osteocalcin (OC) were doubled. No obvious difference was found in cell adhesion on various size patterns. The present micro-patterned coatings proposed a new modification method for the traditional plasma spraying technology to enhance the early cell responses and convenience for the bone in-growth.

  11. Response of fuzzy tungsten surfaces to pulsed plasma bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, D.; Doerner, R.P.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Miyamoto, M.; Nagata, M.; Sakuma, I.; Shoda, K.; Ueda, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Damage of fuzzy tungsten surfaces due to a transient plasma load is characterized in terms of mass loss, surface morphology, and optical properties. A single D pulsed (∼0.1–0.2 ms) plasma shot with surface absorbed energy density of ∼1.1 MJ m −2 leads to a mass loss of ∼80 μg, which cannot be explained by physical sputtering. Thus, macroscopic erosion processes such as droplets and dust release as well as arcing are thought to be responsible for the mass loss. In fact, scanning electron microscopy observations reveal the melting of the tips of fuzz and arc tracks. The optical reflectivity of the damaged (melted) surface is measured to be higher than that of an undamaged fuzzy surface (below ∼0.01%). Spectroscopic ellipsometry shows that the refractive index, n, and extinction coefficient, k, increase from n ≈ 1 and k ≈ 0 for an undamaged fuzzy surface with an increase in the degree of damage of fuzz

  12. Effect of gas pressure on active screen plasma nitriding response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Akio; Nagatsuka, Kimiaki; Narita, Ryota; Nii, Hiroaki; Akamatsu, Katsuya

    2010-01-01

    An austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 was active screen plasma nitrided using a 304 steel screen to investigate the effect of the gas pressure on the ASPN response. The sample was treated for 18 ks at 723 K in 25% N2 + 75% H2 gases. The gas pressure was changed to 100, 600 and 1200 Pa. The distance between screen and sample was also changed to 10, 30 and 50 mm. The nitrided samples were characterized by appearance observation, surface roughness, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and microhardness testing. After nitriding, polygonal particles with a normal distribution were observed at the center and edges of all the ASPN-treated sample surfaces. Particles on the sample surfaces were finer with an increase in the gas pressure. The nitrided layer with a greater and homogeneous thickness was obtained at a low gas pressure of 100 Pa. (author)

  13. Kinetic theory of instabilities responsible for magnetic turbulence in laboratory rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Lominadze, J.G.; Churikov, A.P.; Pustovitov, V.D.; Erokhin, N.N.; Konovalov, S.V.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of instabilities responsible for magnetic turbulence in collisionless laboratory rotating plasma is investigated. It is shown that the standard mechanism of driving the magnetorotational instability (MRI), due to negative rotation frequency gradient, disappears in such a plasma. Instead of it, a new driving mechanism due to plasma pressure gradient is predicted

  14. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhi, Sunit; Parshad, Omkar

    1985-01-01

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P<0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P<0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P<0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor. (author)

  15. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhi, S. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Child Health); Parshad, O. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Physiology)

    1985-02-01

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P < 0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P < 0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P < 0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor.

  16. Haloperidol response and plasma catecholamines and their metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A I; Alam, M Y; Boshes, R A; Waternaux, C; Pappalardo, K M; Fitzgibbon, M E; Tsuang, M T; Schildkraut, J J

    1993-06-01

    Eleven acutely psychotic patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder underwent a 5-7 day drug-washout period (with lorazepam allowed) prior to participating in a 6-week controlled dose haloperidol trial. Patients were evaluated longitudinally with clinical ratings and with plasma measures of the catecholamines dopamine (pDA) and norepinephrine (pNE) and their metabolites, homovanillic acid (pHVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG). All patients exhibited clinical improvement with haloperidol; the decrease in their Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores ranged from 32 to 89%. Measures of pHVA increased within the first week of treatment and returned to baseline by week 5. The pattern of change of pDA resembled that of pHVA. The pattern of change of pNE and pMHPG revealed a decrease over the course of treatment. The early increase and the subsequent decrease in pHVA were strongly correlated with improvement in positive symptoms on the BPRS. These data are consistent with previous reports on the change in pHVA and pMHPG during clinical response to haloperidol. The data on change of pDA and pNE further describe the nature of the biochemical response to this drug.

  17. Impact of the plasma response in three-dimensional edge plasma transport modelling for RMP ELM control scenarios at ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Oliver

    2014-10-01

    The constrains used in magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modeling of the plasma response to external resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields have a profound impact on the three-dimensional (3-D) shape of the plasma boundary induced by RMP fields. In this contribution, the consequences of the plasma response on the actual 3D boundary structure and transport during RMP application at ITER are investigated. The 3D fluid plasma and kinetic neutral transport code EMC3-Eirene is used for edge transport modeling. Plasma response modeling is conducted with the M3D-C1 code using a single fluid, non-linear and a two fluid, linear MHD constrain. These approaches are compared to results with an ideal MHD like plasma response. A 3D plasma boundary is formed for all cases consisting of magnetic finger structures at the X-point intersecting the divertor surface in a helical footprint pattern. The width of the helical footprint pattern is largely reduced compared to vacuum magnetic fields when using the ideal MHD like screening model. This yields increasing peak heat fluxes in contrast to a beneficial heat flux spreading seen with vacuum fields. The particle pump out as well as loss of thermal energy is reduced by a factor of two compared to vacuum fields. In contrast, the impact of the plasma response obtained from both MHD constrains in M3D-C1 is nearly negligible at the plasma boundary and only a small modification of the magnetic footprint topology is detected. Accordingly, heat and particle fluxes on the target plates as well as the edge transport characteristics are comparable to the vacuum solution. This span of modeling results with different plasma response models highlights the importance of thoroughly validating both, plasma response and 3D edge transport models for a robust extrapolation towards ITER. Supported by ITER Grant IO/CT/11/4300000497 and F4E Grant GRT-055 (PMS-PE) and by Start-Up Funds of the University of Wisconsin - Madison.

  18. Plasma response on impurity injection in W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Brakel, R.; Elsner, A.; Grigull, P.; Hacker, H.; Burhenn, R.; Fiedler, S.; Giannone, L.; Goerner, C.; Hartfuss, H.J.; Herre, G.; Herrmann, A.; Hofmann, J.V.; Kuehner, G.; Naujoks, D.; Sardei, F.; Weller, A.; Wolf, R.

    1997-01-01

    In order to study impurity transport and radiation behavior nitrogen has been injected into the scrape-off plasma of limiter-dominated discharges by gas puffing or into natural magnetic islands at the plasma edge of separatrix-dominated discharges by a reciprocating erosion probe. Strong radiative plasma edge cooling with a reduction of the power flux to the limiter could be obtained. The accompanied degradation of the energy confinement and the observed decrease of the central electron temperature can partly be explained by the reduction of the effective heating power. At high plasma densities and sufficiently strong impurity injection phenomena well known from tokamaks, like plasma shrinking, plasma detachment from the limiters and MARFE's were transiently observed. (orig.)

  19. Plasma response on impurity injection in W7-AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, D [Euratom Assoc., Berlin (Germany). Max-Planck-Inst. of Plasma Phys.; Brakel, R; Elsner, A; Grigull, P; Hacker, H; Burhenn, R; Fiedler, S; Giannone, L.; Goerner, C; Hartfuss, H J; Herre, G; Herrmann, A; Hofmann, J V; Kuehner, G; Naujoks, D; Sardei, F; Weller, A; Wolf, R

    1997-02-01

    In order to study impurity transport and radiation behavior nitrogen has been injected into the scrape-off plasma of limiter-dominated discharges by gas puffing or into natural magnetic islands at the plasma edge of separatrix-dominated discharges by a reciprocating erosion probe. Strong radiative plasma edge cooling with a reduction of the power flux to the limiter could be obtained. The accompanied degradation of the energy confinement and the observed decrease of the central electron temperature can partly be explained by the reduction of the effective heating power. At high plasma densities and sufficiently strong impurity injection phenomena well known from tokamaks, like plasma shrinking, plasma detachment from the limiters and MARFE`s were transiently observed. (orig.).

  20. Osteoblast response to oxygen functionalised plasma polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Jonathan M.

    2001-01-01

    Thin organic films with oxygen-carbon functionalities were deposited from plasmas containing vapour of the small organic compounds: allyI alcohol, methyl vinyl ketone and acrylic acid with octadiene. Characterisation of the deposits was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, in conjunction with chemical derivatisation, and this showed that plasma polymers retained high levels of original monomer functionality when the plasmas were sustained at low power for a given monomer vapour flow rate. High levels of attachment of rat osteosarcoma (ROS 17/2.8) cells were observed on surfaces that had high concentrations of hydroxyl and carbonyl functionalities and intermediate concentrations of carboxyl functionality. Cells did not attach to the octadiene plasma polymer. Cell attachment to carboxyl and methyl functionalised self-assembled monolayers increased with increasing concentration of surface carboxyl groups. Adsorption of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin to acrylic acid/octadiene plasma copolymers was studied by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays and by I 125 radiolabelling. Fibronectin adsorbed in largest amounts to surfaces with intermediate concentrations of carboxyl functionality. Spreading of ROS cells and rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) was characterised by computer image analysis. Cell spreading in media containing 10% serum, on a surface deposited from a plasma of 5 O/o acrylic acid was much greater than on the octadiene plasma polymer while most extensive cell spreading was observed on these surfaces when preadsorbed with fibronectin. Growth (proliferation) of BMSC was assessed over nine days and was found to be faster on an 50% acrylic acid plasma polymer than on tissue culture polystyrene or a hydrocarbon plasma polymer, though cell growth was fastest on fibronectin precoated substrates. Expression of cellular alkaline phosphatase, collagen and calcium reached similar levels on the 50% acrylic acid plasma polymer, tissue culture

  1. Osteoblast response to oxygen functionalised plasma polymer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Jonathan M

    2001-07-01

    Thin organic films with oxygen-carbon functionalities were deposited from plasmas containing vapour of the small organic compounds: allyI alcohol, methyl vinyl ketone and acrylic acid with octadiene. Characterisation of the deposits was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, in conjunction with chemical derivatisation, and this showed that plasma polymers retained high levels of original monomer functionality when the plasmas were sustained at low power for a given monomer vapour flow rate. High levels of attachment of rat osteosarcoma (ROS 17/2.8) cells were observed on surfaces that had high concentrations of hydroxyl and carbonyl functionalities and intermediate concentrations of carboxyl functionality. Cells did not attach to the octadiene plasma polymer. Cell attachment to carboxyl and methyl functionalised self-assembled monolayers increased with increasing concentration of surface carboxyl groups. Adsorption of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin to acrylic acid/octadiene plasma copolymers was studied by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays and by I{sup 125} radiolabelling. Fibronectin adsorbed in largest amounts to surfaces with intermediate concentrations of carboxyl functionality. Spreading of ROS cells and rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) was characterised by computer image analysis. Cell spreading in media containing 10% serum, on a surface deposited from a plasma of 5 O/o acrylic acid was much greater than on the octadiene plasma polymer while most extensive cell spreading was observed on these surfaces when preadsorbed with fibronectin. Growth (proliferation) of BMSC was assessed over nine days and was found to be faster on an 50% acrylic acid plasma polymer than on tissue culture polystyrene or a hydrocarbon plasma polymer, though cell growth was fastest on fibronectin precoated substrates. Expression of cellular alkaline phosphatase, collagen and calcium reached similar levels on the 50% acrylic acid plasma polymer, tissue

  2. Self-consistent modeling of plasma response to impurity spreading from intense localized source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltunov, Mikhail

    2012-07-01

    Non-hydrogen impurities unavoidably exist in hot plasmas of present fusion devices. They enter it intrinsically, due to plasma interaction with the wall of vacuum vessel, as well as are seeded for various purposes deliberately. Normally, the spots where injected particles enter the plasma are much smaller than its total surface. Under such conditions one has to expect a significant modification of local plasma parameters through various physical mechanisms, which, in turn, affect the impurity spreading. Self-consistent modeling of interaction between impurity and plasma is, therefore, not possible with linear approaches. A model based on the fluid description of electrons, main and impurity ions, and taking into account the plasma quasi-neutrality, Coulomb collisions of background and impurity charged particles, radiation losses, particle transport to bounding surfaces, is elaborated in this work. To describe the impurity spreading and the plasma response self-consistently, fluid equations for the particle, momentum and energy balances of various plasma components are solved by reducing them to ordinary differential equations for the time evolution of several parameters characterizing the solution in principal details: the magnitudes of plasma density and plasma temperatures in the regions of impurity localization and the spatial scales of these regions. The results of calculations for plasma conditions typical in tokamak experiments with impurity injection are presented. A new mechanism for the condensation phenomenon and formation of cold dense plasma structures is proposed.

  3. Gravity Responsive NADH Oxidase of the Plasma Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing gravity using an NADH oxidase of the plasma membrane which has been found to respond to unit gravity and low centrifugal g forces. The oxidation rate of NADH supplied to the NADH oxidase is measured and translated to represent the relative gravitational force exerted on the protein. The NADH oxidase of the plasma membrane may be obtained from plant or animal sources or may be produced recombinantly.

  4. Nonrigid, Linear Plasma Response Model Based on Perturbed Equilibria for Axisymmetric Tokamak Control Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welander, A.S.; Deranian, R.D.; Humphreys, D.A.; Leuer, J.A.; Walker, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Tokamak control design relies on an accurate linear model of the plasma response, which can often dominate the local field variations in regions under active feedback control. For example, when fluxes at selected points on the plasma boundary are regulated in DIII-D, the plasma response to a change in a coil current gives rise to a flux change which can be larger than and opposite to the flux change caused by the coil alone.In the past, rigid plasma models have been used for linear stability and shape control design. In a rigid model, the plasma current profile is considered fixed and moves rigidly in response to control coils to maintain radial and vertical force balance. In a nonrigid model, however, changes in the plasma shape and current profile are taken into account. Such models are expected to be important for future advanced tokamak control design. The present work describes development of a nonrigid plasma response model for high-accuracy multivariable control design and provides comparisons of model predictions against DIII-D experimental data. The linear perturbed plasma response model is calculated rapidly from an existing equilibrium solution

  5. Blimp-1 controls plasma cell function through regulation of immunoglobulin secretion and the unfolded protein response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Julie; Shi, Wei; Minnich, Martina; Liao, Yang; Crawford, Simon; Smyth, Gordon K; Kallies, Axel; Busslinger, Meinrad; Nutt, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cell differentiation requires silencing of B cell transcription, while establishing antibody-secretory function and long-term survival. The transcription factors Blimp-1 and IRF4 are essential for plasma cell generation, however their function in mature plasma cells has remained elusive. We have found that while IRF4 was essential for plasma cell survival, Blimp-1 was dispensable. Blimp-1-deficient plasma cells retained their transcriptional identity, but lost the ability to secrete antibody. Blimp-1 regulated many components of the unfolded protein response (UPR), including XBP-1 and ATF6. The overlap of Blimp-1 and XBP-1 function was restricted to the UPR, with Blimp-1 uniquely regulating mTOR activity and plasma cell size. Thus, Blimp-1 is required for the unique physiological capacity of plasma cells that enables the secretion of protective antibody. PMID:26779600

  6. Response of the plasma to the size of an anode electrode biased near the plasma potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnat, E. V.; Laity, G. R.; Baalrud, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    As the size of a positively biased electrode increases, the nature of the interface formed between the electrode and the host plasma undergoes a transition from an electron-rich structure (electron sheath) to an intermediate structure containing both ion and electron rich regions (double layer) and ultimately forms an electron-depleted structure (ion sheath). In this study, measurements are performed to further test how the size of an electron-collecting electrode impacts the plasma discharge the electrode is immersed in. This is accomplished using a segmented disk electrode in which individual segments are individually biased to change the effective surface area of the anode. Measurements of bulk plasma parameters such as the collected current density, plasma potential, electron density, electron temperature and optical emission are made as both the size and the bias placed on the electrode are varied. Abrupt transitions in the plasma parameters resulting from changing the electrode surface area are identified in both argon and helium discharges and are compared to the interface transitions predicted by global current balance [S. D. Baalrud, N. Hershkowitz, and B. Longmier, Phys. Plasmas 14, 042109 (2007)]. While the size-dependent transitions in argon agree, the size-dependent transitions observed in helium systematically occur at lower electrode sizes than those nominally derived from prediction. The discrepancy in helium is anticipated to be caused by the finite size of the interface that increases the effective area offered to the plasma for electron loss to the electrode

  7. Enhancement of gas sensor response of nanocrystalline zinc oxide for ammonia by plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Yue; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of oxygen plasma treatment on nanocrystalline ZnO thin film based gas sensor was investigated. ZnO thin films were synthesized on alkali-free glass substrates by a sol–gel process. ZnO thin films were treated with oxygen plasma to change the number of vacancies/defects in ZnO. The effect of oxygen plasma on the structural, electrical, optical and gas sensing properties was investigated as a function of plasma treatment time. The results suggest that the microstructure and the surface morphology can be tuned by oxygen plasma treatment. The optical transmission in the visible range varies after the oxygen plasma treatment. Moreover, it is found that the oxygen plasma has significant impact on the electrical properties of ZnO thin films indicating a variation of resistivity. The oxygen plasma treated ZnO thin film exhibits an enhanced sensing response towards NH 3 in comparison with that of the as-deposited ZnO sensor. When compared with the as-deposited ZnO film, the sensing response was improved by 50% for the optimum oxygen plasma treatment time of 8 min. The selectivity of 8 min plasma treated ZnO sensor was also examined for an important industrial gas mixture of H 2 , CH 4 and NH 3 .

  8. Germination of Chenopodium Album in Response to Microwave Plasma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Bozena; Stranak, Vitezslav; Sery, Michal; Spatenka, Petr; Tichy, Milan

    2008-01-01

    The seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) were stimulated by low-pressure discharge. The tested seeds were exposed to plasma discharge for different time durations (from 6 minutes to 48 minutes). Germination tests were performed under specified laboratory conditions during seven days in five identical and completely independent experiments. Significant differences between the control and plasma-treated seeds were observed. The treated seeds showed structural changes on the surface of the seat coat. They germinated faster and their sprout accretion on the first day of seed germination was longer. Germination rate for the untreated seeds was 15% while it increased approximately three times (max 55%) for seeds treated by plasma from 12 minutes to 48 minutes.

  9. Haemorrheological response to plasma exchange in Raynaud's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, A J; O'Reilly, M J; Yates, C J; Cotton, L T; Flute, P T; Dormandy, J A

    1979-11-10

    Eight patients with Raynaud's syndrome were treated by weekly plasma exchange for four weeks using a Haemonetics Model 30 Blood Processor. The mean whole-blood viscosity at a shear rate of 0.77/s was significantly lower after treatment, and the mean index of red-cell deformability was significantly improved. In four patients studied serially the mean percentage fall in whole-blood viscosity after a single plasma exchange was 49% at 0.77/s but only 14% at 91/s. All patients noticed symptomatic improvement including healing of ischaemic digital ulcers. In six patients the number of digital arterial segments containing detectable blood flow was measured by directional Doppler; in all six the number increased. It is concluded that plasma exchange is an effective means of haemorrheological treatment and may be beneficial in patients with digital ischaemia.

  10. Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Using color kinetic theory, we discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered

  11. Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Using color kinetic theory, the authors discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered

  12. Plasma metabolomic profiles and immune responses of piglets after weaning and challenge with E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background The processes of weaning and exposure to pathogenic bacteria induce stress responses, which may alter the metabolism. In this study, we investigated the changes in plasma metabolites and immune responses in piglets in response to the stress induced by weaning and Escherichia coli chall...

  13. Importance of Plasma Response to Non-axisymmetric Perturbations in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-kyu; Boozer, Allen H.; Menard, Jonathan E.; Garofalo, Andrea M.; Schaffer, Michael J.; Hawryluk, Richard J.; Kaye, Stanley M.; Gerhardt, Stefan P.; Sabbagh, Steve A. and the NSTX Team

    2009-01-01

    Tokamaks are sensitive to deviations from axisymmetry as small as (delta)B/B 0 ∼ 10 -4 . These non-axisymmetric perturbations greatly modify plasma confinement and performance by either destroying magnetic surfaces with subsequent locking or deforming magnetic surfaces with associated non-ambipolar transport. The Ideal Perturbed Equilibrium Code (IPEC) calculates ideal perturbed equilibria and provides important basis for understanding the sensitivity of tokamak plasmas to perturbations. IPEC calculations indicate that the ideal plasma response, or equivalently the effect by ideally perturbed plasma currents, is essential to explain locking experiments on National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) and DIII-D. The ideal plasma response is also important for Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity (NTV) in non-ambipolar transport. The consistency between NTV theory and magnetic braking experiments on NSTX and DIII-D can be improved when the variation in the field strength in IPEC is coupled with generalized NTV theory. These plasma response effects will be compared with the previous vacuum superpositions to illustrate the importance. However, plasma response based on ideal perturbed equilibria is still not sufficiently accurate to predict the details of NTV transport, and can be inconsistent when currents associated with a toroidal torque become comparable to ideal perturbed currents

  14. Operation Everest II. Plasma Lipid and Hormonal Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    ingestion of a hypocaloric diet , weight loss, and a decrement in maximal oxygen uptake. Also, fasting plasma TG accumulation was increased with a...in the hypobaric chamber, the subjects consumed an ad libitum diet . The menus, food preparation, and dietary data collection were supervised by a...approximately 3000 kcal/day distributed to provide 60% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 25% fat in the diet . A variety of foods and non-alcoholic beverages were

  15. Multijunction grill response to ponderomotive effects at plasma periphery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtak, O.; Klima, R.; Petrzilka, V.A.

    1990-10-01

    A nonlinear coupling code taking account of ponderomotive force effects at the plasma periphery, was developed for a multijunction grill. With increasing RF power density the power reflection coefficient remains rather low at the frequency of 4.6 GHz this at the expense of deterioration of the power distribution among subsidiary waveguides. The ensuing danger of overloading the individual waveguides is expected to be still greater for lower frequencies. (author)

  16. Response of plasma rotation to resonant magnetic perturbations in J-TEXT tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W.; Chen, Z. Y.; Huang, D. W.; Hu, Q. M.; Shi, Y. J.; Ding, Y. H.; Cheng, Z. F.; Yang, Z. J.; Pan, X. M.; Lee, S. G.; Tong, R. H.; Wei, Y. N.; Dong, Y. B.; J-TEXT Team

    2018-03-01

    The response of plasma toroidal rotation to the external resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) has been investigated in Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT) ohmic heating plasmas. For the J-TEXT’s plasmas without the application of RMP, the core toroidal rotation is in the counter-current direction while the edge rotation is near zero or slightly in the co-current direction. Both static RMP experiments and rotating RMP experiments have been applied to investigate the plasma toroidal rotation. The core toroidal rotation decreases to lower level with static RMP. At the same time, the edge rotation can spin to more than 20 km s-1 in co-current direction. On the other hand, the core plasma rotation can be slowed down or be accelerated with the rotating RMP. When the rotating RMP frequency is higher than mode frequency, the plasma rotation can be accelerated to the rotating RMP frequency. The plasma confinement is improved with high frequency rotating RMP. The plasma rotation is decelerated to the rotating RMP frequency when the rotating RMP frequency is lower than the mode frequency. The plasma confinement also degrades with low frequency rotating RMP.

  17. Proteome changes in rat plasma in response to sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Won; Joo, Jeong In; Kim, Dong Hyun; Wang, Xia; Oh, Tae Seok; Choi, Duk Kwon; Yun, Jong Won

    2011-04-01

    Sibutramine is an anti-obesity agent that induces weight loss by selective inhibition of neuronal reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine; however, it is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including heart attack and stroke. Here, we analyzed global protein expression patterns in plasma of control and sibutramine-treated rats using proteomic analysis for a better understanding of the two conflicting functions of this drug, appetite regulation, and cardiovascular risk. The control (n=6) and sibutramine-treated groups (n=6) were injected by vehicle and sibutramine, respectively, and 2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF/MS were performed. Compared to control rats, sibutramine-administered rats gained approximately 18% less body weight and consumed about 13% less food. Plasma leptin and insulin levels also showed a significant decrease in sibutramine-treated rats. As a result of proteomic analysis, 23 differentially regulated proteins were discovered and were reconfirmed by immunoblot analysis. Changed proteins were classified into appetite regulation and cardiovascular risk, according to their regulation pattern. Because the differential levels of proteins that have been well recognized as predictors of CVD risk were not well matched with the results of our proteomic analysis, this study does not conclusively prove that sibutramine has an effect on CVD risk. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Orbital-motion-limited theory of dust charging and plasma response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xian-Zhu; Luca Delzanno, Gian

    2014-01-01

    The foundational theory for dusty plasmas is the dust charging theory that provides the dust potential and charge arising from the dust interaction with a plasma. The most widely used dust charging theory for negatively charged dust particles is the so-called orbital motion limited (OML) theory, which predicts the dust potential and heat collection accurately for a variety of applications, but was previously found to be incapable of evaluating the dust charge and plasma response in any situation. Here, we report a revised OML formulation that is able to predict the plasma response and hence the dust charge. Numerical solutions of the new OML model show that the widely used Whipple approximation of dust charge-potential relationship agrees with OML theory in the limit of small dust radius compared with plasma Debye length, but incurs large (order-unity) deviation from the OML prediction when the dust size becomes comparable with or larger than plasma Debye length. This latter case is expected for the important application of dust particles in a tokamak plasma

  19. Plasma turbulence. Structure formation, selection rule, dynamic response and dynamics transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Sanae I.

    2010-01-01

    The five-year project of Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research entitled general research on the structure formation and selection rule in plasma turbulence had brought many outcomes. Based on these outcomes, the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) program entitled general research on dynamic response and dynamic transport in plasma turbulence has started. In the present paper, the state-of-the-art of the research activities on the structure formation, selection rule and dynamics in plasma turbulence are reviewed with reference to outcomes of these projects. (author)

  20. Dielectric response of a relativistic degenerate electron plasma in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delsante, A.E.; Frankel, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    The longitudinal dielectric response of a relativistic ultradegenerate electron plasma in a strong magnetic field is obtained via a relativistic generalization of the Hartree self-consistent field method. Dispersion relations and damping conditions for plasma oscillations both parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field are obtained. Detailed results for the zero-field case, and applications to white dwarf stars and pulsars are given

  1. 'Non-local' response of RTP ohmic plasmas to peripheral perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, P.; Gorini, G.; Mantica, P.; Hogeweij, G.M.D.; Kloe, J. de; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    A 'non-local' response of the plasma core triggered by peripheral plasma perturbations other than laser ablation is found in the RTP tokamak. Oblique pellet injection (OPI) has been used to induce fast cooling of the peripheral plasma. In response, an inward cold pulse (T e drop) and a slightly delayed core T e rise are observed. A somewhat similar 'non-local' response is observed when the peripheral plasma is heated by modulated electron cyclotron heating or by fast current ramps, i.e. the core temperature drops in response to the peripheral heating. The plasma conditions for the occurrence of the 'non-local' response have been investigated. The core T e rise following OPI is associated with the formation of a large temperature gradient in the region 1 e rise is largest at low electron density and for large pellet deposition radii. Above a critical density the T e rise disappears and only the (weaker) drop in core T e is observed. Time dependent transport simulations show that the propagation of the inward cold pulse is consistent with local transport, while the core T e rise is a slower phenomenon requiring a large transient drop of χ e in the region 1 < q < 2. (author)

  2. Redox Stimulation of Human THP-1 Monocytes in Response to Cold Physical Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Bekeschus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In plasma medicine, cold physical plasma delivers a delicate mixture of reactive components to cells and tissues. Recent studies suggested a beneficial role of cold plasma in wound healing. Yet, the biological processes related to the redox modulation via plasma are not fully understood. We here used the monocytic cell line THP-1 as a model to test their response to cold plasma in vitro. Intriguingly, short term plasma treatment stimulated cell growth. Longer exposure only modestly compromised cell viability but apparently supported the growth of cells that were enlarged in size and that showed enhanced metabolic activity. A significantly increased mitochondrial content in plasma treated cells supported this notion. On THP-1 cell proteome level, we identified an increase of protein translation with key regulatory proteins being involved in redox regulation (hypoxia inducible factor 2α, differentiation (retinoic acid signaling and interferon inducible factors, and cell growth (Yin Yang 1. Regulation of inflammation is a key element in many chronic diseases, and we found a significantly increased expression of the anti-inflammatory heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1 and of the neutrophil attractant chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8. Together, these results foster the view that cold physical plasma modulates the redox balance and inflammatory processes in wound related cells.

  3. Redox Stimulation of Human THP-1 Monocytes in Response to Cold Physical Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekeschus, Sander; Schmidt, Anke; Bethge, Lydia; Masur, Kai; von Woedtke, Thomas; Hasse, Sybille; Wende, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    In plasma medicine, cold physical plasma delivers a delicate mixture of reactive components to cells and tissues. Recent studies suggested a beneficial role of cold plasma in wound healing. Yet, the biological processes related to the redox modulation via plasma are not fully understood. We here used the monocytic cell line THP-1 as a model to test their response to cold plasma in vitro. Intriguingly, short term plasma treatment stimulated cell growth. Longer exposure only modestly compromised cell viability but apparently supported the growth of cells that were enlarged in size and that showed enhanced metabolic activity. A significantly increased mitochondrial content in plasma treated cells supported this notion. On THP-1 cell proteome level, we identified an increase of protein translation with key regulatory proteins being involved in redox regulation (hypoxia inducible factor 2α), differentiation (retinoic acid signaling and interferon inducible factors), and cell growth (Yin Yang 1). Regulation of inflammation is a key element in many chronic diseases, and we found a significantly increased expression of the anti-inflammatory heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) and of the neutrophil attractant chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8). Together, these results foster the view that cold physical plasma modulates the redox balance and inflammatory processes in wound related cells.

  4. Analysis of the step responses of laminar premixed flames to forcing by non-thermal plasma

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna A.

    2016-07-16

    The step responses of lean methane-air flames to non-thermal plasma forcing is reported. The experimental setup consists of an axisymmetric burner, with a nozzle made of a quartz tube. The equivalence ratio is 0.95, allowing stabilization of the flame in a V-shape or an M-shape geometry, over a central stainless steel rod. The plasma is produced by short pulses of 10-ns duration, 8-kV maximum voltage amplitude, applied at 10 kHz. The central rod is used as a cathode, while the anode is a stainless steel ring, fixed on the outer surface of the quartz tube. Plasma forcing is produced by positive or negative steps of plasma. The step response of the flame is investigated through heat release rate (HRR) fluctuations, to facilitate comparisons with flame response to acoustic perturbations. The chemiluminescence of CH* between two consecutive pulses was recorded using an intensified camera equipped with an optical filter to estimate the HRR fluctuations. First, the results show that the flame does not respond to each single plasma pulse, but is affected only by the average plasma power, confirming the step nature of the forcing. The temporal evolutions of HRR are analyzed and the flame transfer functions are determined. A forcing mechanism, as a local increase in the reactivity of the fluid close to the rod, is proposed and compared with numerical simulations. Experiments and numerical simulations are in good qualitative agreement. © 2016.

  5. NR4.00002: Response of a laminar M-shaped premixed flame to plasma forcing

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna A.

    2015-07-27

    We report on the response of a lean methane-air flame to non-thermal plasma forcing. The set-up consists of an axisymmetric burner, with a nozzle made of a quartz tube of 7-mm inlet diameter. The equivalence ratio is 0.9 and the flame is stabilized in an M-shape morphology over a central stainless steel rod and the quartz tube. The plasma is produced by nanosecond pulses of 10 kV maximum voltage amplitude, applied at 10 kHz. The central rod is used as a cathode, while the anode is a stainless steel ring, fixed on the outer surface of the quartz tube. The plasma forcing is produced by bursts of plasma pulses of 1 s duration. The response of the flame is investigated through the heat release rate (HRR) fluctuations. The chemiluminescence of CH* between two consecutive pulses was recorded using an intensified camera with an optical filter to estimate the HRR fluctuations. The results show that, even though the plasma is located in the combustion area, the flame is not responding to each single plasma pulse, but is affected by the discharge burst. The plasma forcing can then be considered as a step of forcing: the beginning of a positive step corresponding to the first plasma pulse, and the beginning of a negative step corresponding to the end of the last pulse of the burst. The effects of both positive and negative steps were investigated. The response of the flame is then analyzed and viable mechanisms are discussed.

  6. A direct indication of plasma potential diagnostic with fast time response and high accuracy based on a differential emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, W.E.; Hershkowitz; Intrator, T.

    1985-01-01

    The floating potential of the emissive probe has been used to directly measure the plasma potential. The authors have recently presented another method for directly indicating the plasma potential with a differential emissive probe. In this paper they describe the effects of probe size, plasma density and plasma potential fluctuation on plasma potential measurements and give methods for reducing errors. A control system with fast time response (α 20 μs) and high accuracy (the order of the probe temperature T/sub w//e) for maintaining a differential emissive probe at plasma potential has been developed. It can be operated in pulsed discharge plasma to measure plasma potential dynamic characteristics. A solid state optical coupler is employed to improve circuit performance. This system was tested experimentally by measuring the plasma potential in an argon plasma device an on the Phaedrus tandem mirror

  7. A direct indication of plasma potential diagnostic with fast time response and high accuracy based on a differential emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, W.E.; Hershkowitz, N.; Intrator, T.

    1985-01-01

    The floating potential of the emissive probe has been used to directly measure the plasma potential. The authors have recently presented another method for directly indicating the plasma potential with a differential emissive probe. In this paper they describe the effects of probe size, plasma density and plasma potential fluctuation on plasma potential measurements and give methods for reducing errors. A control system with fast time response (≅ 20 μs) and high accuracy (the order of the probe temperature T/sub w//e) for maintaining a differential emissive probe at plasma potential has been developed. It can be operated in pulsed discharge plasma to measure plasma potential dynamic characteristics. A solid state optical coupler is employed to improve circuit performance. This system was tested experimentally by measuring the plasma potential in an argon plasma device and on the Phaedrus tandem mirror

  8. The Role of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Plant Responses to Aluminum Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a key factor limiting plant growth and crop production on acid soils. Increasing the plant Al-detoxification capacity and/or breeding Al-resistant cultivars are a cost-effective strategy to support crop growth on acidic soils. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase plays a central role in all plant physiological processes. Changes in the activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase through regulating the expression and phosphorylation of this enzyme are also involved in many plant responses to Al toxicity. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase mediated H+ influx may be associated with the maintenance of cytosolic pH and the plasma membrane gradients as well as Al-induced citrate efflux mediated by a H+-ATPase-coupled MATE co-transport system. In particular, modulating the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPase through application of its activators (e.g., magnesium or IAA or using transgenics has effectively enhanced plant resistance to Al stress in several species. In this review, we critically assess the available knowledge on the role of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in plant responses to Al stress, incorporating physiological and molecular aspects.

  9. VEGF-121 plasma level as biomarker for response to anti-angiogenetic therapy in recurrent glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Maurizio; de Pascalis, Ivana; D'Alessandris, Quintino Giorgio; Fiorentino, Vincenzo; Pierconti, Francesco; Marei, Hany El-Sayed; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; Pallini, Roberto; Larocca, Luigi Maria

    2018-05-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms, particularly the diffusible VEGF-121, could play a major role in the response of recurrent glioblastoma (GB) to anti-angiogenetic treatment with bevacizumab. We hypothesized that circulating VEGF-121 may reduce the amount of bevacizumab available to target the heavier isoforms of VEGF, which are the most clinically relevant. We assessed the plasma level of VEGF-121 in a brain xenograft model, in human healthy controls, and in patients suffering from recurrent GB before and after bevacizumab treatment. Data were matched with patients' clinical outcome. In athymic rats with U87MG brain xenografts, the level of plasma VEGF-121 relates with tumor volume and it significantly decreases after iv infusion of bevacizumab. Patients with recurrent GB show higher plasma VEGF-121 than healthy controls (p = 0.0002) and treatment with bevacizumab remarkably reduced the expression of VEGF-121 in plasma of these patients (p = 0.0002). Higher plasma level of VEGF-121 was significantly associated to worse PFS and OS (p = 0.0295 and p = 0.0246, respectively). Quantitative analysis of VEGF-121 isoform in the plasma of patients with recurrent GB could be a promising predictor of response to anti-angiogenetic treatment.

  10. Plasma protein carbonyl responses to anaerobic exercise in female cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E Afzalpour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Single bouts of aerobic exercise may leads to oxidative stress due to the use of oxygen for metabolism and the generation of reactive oxygen. In athletes, oxidative stress can lead to several deleterious performance effects, such as muscular oxidative damage, muscle soreness, loss of skeletal muscle force production and/or inflammation. However, little is known regarding the severity and duration of oxidative stress arising from intensive anaerobic modes of exercise in aerobically-trained athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single bout of intensive anaerobic exercise on plasma protein carbonyl (PC in aerobically-trained women. Aerobically-trained, provincial female cyclists [n = 18, age: 24.2±2.7 years; stature: 163.6±4.6 cm; body mass: 53.4±4.2 kg] were randomly assigned into either a non-exercising control (CON; n = 9 or experimental (EXP; n = 9 group that underwent a 30-second anaerobic (Wingate cycle ergometer exercise session. Blood sampling took place before exercise, immediately after the exercise (IE, and 24 hours following the exercise (24HR bout. In the EXP, results indicated significant (P ≤ 0.05 differences in PC levels between the pre-test and IE (0.010±0.0124 to 0.0149±0.0420 mmol/milt; P = 0.010, and IE and 24HR (0.0149±0.0420 to 0.0111±0.0183 mmol/milt; P = 0.013. No significant differences were observed between pre-test and 24HR (0.010±0.0124 to 0.0111±0.0183 mmol/milt; P = 0.371. These results indicate that oxidative protein damage, as indicated by PC levels, rises immediately with the onset of anaerobic exercise, but returns to resting levels within 24 hours following exercise in aerobically-trained women.

  11. Dielectric response of particle-antiparticle plasmas in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, N.E.; Hines, K.C.; Kowalenko, V.

    1982-01-01

    We have considered the longitudinal dielectric response of an ultra-degenerate relativistic plasma composed of electrons and positrons. We have used the relativistic Hartree self-consistent field method to investigate the dispersion relations and damping parameters of such a plasma in the presence of a magnetic field. These properties must be studied in the various regimes appropriate for a relativistic plasma as detailed by Tsytovich and Jancovici. Although it is hoped that this work will yield new insight into certain astrophysical phenomena (such as pulsars), it is interesting to note that laboratory electron-positron plasmas may be a thing of the immediate future as a result of suggested new experiments using an intense relativistic electron beam. (author)

  12. Circulating FGF23 levels in response to acute changes in plasma Ca(2+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, E; Mace, M.L.; Hofman-Bang, J.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) synthesis and secretion is still incompletely understood. FGF23 is an important regulator of renal phosphate excretion and has regulatory effects on the calciotropic hormones calcitriol and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Calcium (Ca) and phosphate...... FGF23 levels and whether a close relationship, similar that known for Ca and PTH, exists between Ca and FGF23. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine whether acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia regulate FGF23 levels in the rat. Acute hypercalcemia was induced by an intravenous Ca infusion...... and hypocalcemia by infusion of ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) in normal and acutely parathyroidectomized rats. Intact plasma FGF23 and intact plasma PTH and plasma Ca(2+) and phosphate were measured. Acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia resulted as expected in adequate PTH secretory responses. Plasma FGF...

  13. Electromagnetic loads and structural response of the CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] vacuum vessel to plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, S.L.; Listvinsky, G.; Lee, M.Y.; Bailey, C.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the electromagnetic loads produced by a variety of plasma disruptions, and the resulting structural effects on the compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) vacuum vessel (VV), have been performed to help optimize the VV design. A series of stationary and moving plasmas, with disruption rates from 0.7--10.0 MA/ms, have been analyzed using the EMPRES code to compute eddy currents and electromagnetic pressures, and the NASTRAN code to evaluate the structural response of the vacuum vessel. Key factors contributing to the magnitude of EM forces and resulting stresses on the vessel have been found to include disruption rate, and direction and synchronization of plasma motion with the onset of plasma current decay. As a result of these analyses, a number of design changes have been made, and design margins for the present 1.75 meter design have been improved over the original CIT configuration. 1 ref., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Hemopoietic cell precursor responses to erythropoietin in plasma clot cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    The time dependence of the response of mouse bone marrow cells to erythropoietin (Ep) in vitro was studied. Experiments include studies on the Ep response of marrow cells from normal, plethoric, or bled mice. Results with normal marrow reveal: (1) Not all erythroid precursors (CFU-E) are alike in their response to Ep. A significant number of the precursors develop to a mature erythroid colony after very short Ep exposures, but they account for only approx. 13% of the total colonies generated when Ep is active for 48 hrs. If Ep is active more than 6 hrs, a second population of erythroid colonies emerges at a nearly constant rate until the end of the culture. Full erythroid colony production requires prolonged exposure to erythropoietin. (2) The longer erythropoietin is actively present, the larger the number of erythroid colonies that reach 17 cells or more. Two distinct populations of immediate erythroid precursors are also present in marrow from plethoric mice. In these mice, total colony numbers are equal to or below those obtained from normal mice. However, the population of fast-responding CFU-E is consistently decreased to 10 to 20% of that found in normal marrow. The remaining colonies are formed from plethoric marrow at a rate equal to normal marrow. With increasing Ep exposures, the number of large colonies produced increases. From the marrow of bled mice, total erythroid colony production is equal to or above that of normal marrow. Two populations of colony-forming cells are again evident, with the fast-responding CFU-E being below normal levels. The lack of colonies from this group was compensated in bled mice by rapid colony production in the second population. A real increase in numbers of precursors present in this pool increased the rate of colony production in culture to twice that of normal marrow. The number of large colonies obtained from bled mice was again increased as the Ep exposure was lengthened. (ERB)

  15. Quantitative changes in adipocyte plasma membrane in response to nutritional manipulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.S.; Masoro, E.J.; Yu, B.P.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of changes in adipocyte size and the effects of nutritional manipulations on the quantity of plasma membrane per adipocyte were investigated. A method for estimating the quantity of plasma membrane was developed based on the specific labeling of adipocyte plasma membrane protein with the nonpermeable labeling agent 125I-labeled diazotized diiodosulfanilic acid. By studying rats (ranging in age from 50 to 125 days) fed a standard laboratory chow or a low fat diet or a high fat diet, a wide range of mean fat cell sizes was obtained. It was found that as the volume of the fat cell increased, the amount of plasma membrane increased in a linear fashion and that this linear relationship had the same slope whether the size of the adipocyte increased slowly with age or rapidly in response to a high fat diet. In contrast, fasting for up to 3 days caused a marked decrease in the mean volume of the adipocytes, but either no change or much less change in the amount of plasma membrane per cell than would have been predicted from the linear relationship between adipocytes, but either no change or much less change in the amount of plasma membrane per cell than would have been predicted form the linear relationship between adipocyte volume and amount of plasma membrane per cell obtained with fed rats, i.e., adipocytes from fasted rats contain more plasma membrane per cell than do fat cells of the same size from fed rats. Neither feeding a high fat diet nor fasting caused detectable changes in the protein and lipid composition of the adipocyte plasma membrane

  16. A study of eukaryotic response mechanisms to atmospheric pressure cold plasma by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae single gene mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Hongqing; Wang Ruixue; Sun Peng; Wu Haiyan; Liu Qi; Li Fangting; Fang Jing; Zhang Jue; Zhu Weidong

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms of eukaryotic cell response to cold plasma are studied. A series of single gene mutants of eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae are used to compare their sensitivity to plasma treatment with the wild type. We examined 12 mutants in the oxidative stress pathway and the cell cycle pathway, in which 8 are found to be hypersensitive to plasma processing. The mutated genes' roles in the two pathways are analyzed to understand the biological response mechanisms of plasma treatment. The results demonstrate that genes from both pathways are needed for the eukaryotic cells to survive the complex plasma treatment.

  17. Ion response to relativistic electron bunches in the blowout regime of laser-plasma accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, K I; Rozmus, W; Bychenkov, V Yu; Naseri, N; Capjack, C E; Brantov, A V

    2010-11-05

    The ion response to relativistic electron bunches in the so called bubble or blowout regime of a laser-plasma accelerator is discussed. In response to the strong fields of the accelerated electrons the ions form a central filament along the laser axis that can be compressed to densities 2 orders of magnitude higher than the initial particle density. A theory of the filament formation and a model of ion self-compression are proposed. It is also shown that in the case of a sharp rear plasma-vacuum interface the ions can be accelerated by a combination of three basic mechanisms. The long time ion evolution that results from the strong electrostatic fields of an electron bunch provides a unique diagnostic of laser-plasma accelerators.

  18. The molecular mechanisms of plant plasma membrane intrinsic proteins trafficking and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Zhang, Ji-long; Feng, Xiu-xiu; Li, Hong-jie; Zhang, Gen-fa

    2017-04-20

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are plant channel proteins located on the plasma membrane. PIPs transfer water, CO 2 and small uncharged solutes through the plasma membrane. PIPs have high selectivity to substrates, suggestive of a central role in maintaining cellular water balance. The expression, activity and localization of PIPs are regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels, and also affected by environmental factors. Numerous studies indicate that the expression patterns and localizations of PIPs can change in response to abiotic stresses. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of PIP trafficking, transcriptional and post-translational regulations, and abiotic stress responses. Moreover, we also discuss the current research trends and future directions on PIPs.

  19. NR4.00002: Response of a laminar M-shaped premixed flame to plasma forcing

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna A.; Moeck, Jonas P.; Cha, Min; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2015-01-01

    We report on the response of a lean methane-air flame to non-thermal plasma forcing. The set-up consists of an axisymmetric burner, with a nozzle made of a quartz tube of 7-mm inlet diameter. The equivalence ratio is 0.9 and the flame is stabilized

  20. Analysis of the step responses of laminar premixed flames to forcing by non-thermal plasma

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna; Moeck, Jonas P.; Roberts, William L.; Chung, Suk-Ho; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    The step responses of lean methane-air flames to non-thermal plasma forcing is reported. The experimental setup consists of an axisymmetric burner, with a nozzle made of a quartz tube. The equivalence ratio is 0.95, allowing stabilization

  1. Role of Plasma Fibronectin in the Foreign Body Response to Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Keselowsky, Benjamin G.; Bridges, Amanda W.; Burns, Kellie L.; Tate, Ciara C.; Babensee, Julia E.; LaPlaca, Michelle C.; García, Andrés J.

    2007-01-01

    Host responses to biomaterials control the biological performance of implanted medical devices. Upon implantation, synthetic materials adsorb biomolecules which trigger an inflammatory cascade comprising coagulation, leukocyte recruitment/adhesion, and foreign body reaction. The foreign body reaction and ensuing fibrous encapsulation severely limit the in vivo performance of numerous biomedical devices. While it is well established that plasma fibrinogen and secreted cytokines modulate leukoc...

  2. High-Speed imaging of the plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations in HBT-EP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, Sarah M; Levesque, Jeffrey P; Mauel, Michael E; Navratil, Gerald A

    2015-01-01

    A Phantom v7.3 fast digital camera was used to study visible light fluctuations in the High Beta Tokamak–Extended Pulse (HBT–EP). This video data is the first to be used to analyze and understand the behavior of long wavelength kink perturbations in a wall-stabilized tokamak. The light was mostly comprised of Dα 656 nm light. Profiles of the plasma light at the midplane were hollow with a radial scale length of approximately 4 cm at the plasma edge. The fast camera was also used to measure the plasma’s response to applied helical magnetic perturbations. The programmed toroidal phase angle of the resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) was directly inferred from the resulting images of the plasma response. The plasma response and the intensity of the RMP were compared under different conditions. The resulting amplitude correlations are consistent with previous measurements of the static response using an array of magnetic sensors. (paper)

  3. Beryllium layer response to ITER-like ELM plasma pulses in QSPA-Be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Klimov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Material migration in ITER is expected to move beryllium (Be eroded from the first wall primarily to the tungsten (W divertor region and to magnetically shadowed areas of the wall itself. This paper is concerned with experimental study of Be layer response to ELM-like plasma pulses using the new QSPA-Be plasma gun (SRC RF TRINITI. The Be layers (1→50µm thick are deposited on special castellated Be and W targets supplied by the ITER Organization using the Thermionic Vacuum Arc technique. Transient deuterium plasma pulses with duration ∼0.5ms were selected to provide absorbed energy densities on the plasma stream axis for a 30° target inclination of 0.2 and 0.5MJm−2, the first well below and the second near the Be melting point. This latter value is close to the prescribed maximum energy density for controlled ELMs on ITER. At 0.2MJm−2 on W, all Be layer thicknesses tested retain their integrity up to the maximum pulse number, except at local defects (flakes, holes and cracks and on tile edges. At 0.5MJm−2 on W, Be layer melting and melt layer agglomeration are the main damage processes, they happen immediately in the first plasma impact. Melt layer movement was observed only near plasma facing edges. No significant melt splashing is observed in spite of high plasma pressure (higher than expected in ITER. Be layer of 10µm thick on Be target has higher resistance to plasma irradiation than 1 and 55µm, and retain their integrity up to the maximum pulse number at 0.2MJm−2. For 1µm and 55µm thick on Be target significant Be layer losses were observed at 0.2MJm−2.

  4. IAEA consultants' meeting on thermal response of plasma facing materials and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janev, R.K.

    1990-07-01

    The present Summary Report contains brief proceedings and the main conclusions and recommendations of the IAEA Consultants' Meeting on ''Thermal Response of Plasma Facing Materials and Components'', which was organized by the IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit and held on June 11-13, 1990, in Vienna, Austria. The Report also includes a categorization and assessment of currently studied plasma facing materials, a classification scheme of material properties data, required in fusion reactor design, and a survey of the urgently needed material properties data. (author)

  5. The Inner Magnetosphere Plasma Response to Interplanetary Shocks: Van Allen Probes HOPE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, L. M.; Denton, M.; Ferradas, C.; Henderson, M. G.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R. M.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes' Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) sensors measure ion and electron populations in the plasmasphere, plasma sheet, and lower-energy ring current, providing unique observations at low energies (0.001-50 keV) and low L-shell (down to 1.5 RE). We use the capabilities of these two spacecraft to probe changes in the low energy particles in response to interplanetary (IP) shocks. We focus on changes in the plasma energies, composition, and pitch angle distributions following IP shocks and storm sudden commencements from 2012-2017 through a comparison of HOPE observations preceding and post shock.

  6. Circuit Model Simulations for Ionospheric Plasma Response to High Potential System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Jae Rhee

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available When a deployed probe is biased by a high positive potential during a space experiment, the payload is induced to a negative voltage in order to balance the total current in the whole system. The return currents are due to the responding ions and secondary electrons on the payload surface. In order to understand the current collection mechanism, the process was simulated with a combination of resistor, inductor, and capacitor in SPICE program which was equivalent to the background plasma sheath. The simulation results were compared with experimental results from SPEAR-3 (Space Power Experiment Aboard Rocket-3. The return current curve in the simulation was compatible to the experimental result, and the simulation helped to predict the transient plasma response to a high voltage during the plasma sheath formation.

  7. The polarization response function and the dielectric permittivity of a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnavi, G.; Gratton, F.

    1984-01-01

    We give a simple direct derivation of the polarization response function h for linear electrostatic excitations of a plasma (without magnetic field) considering the effect of a percussion on the electrons. The physical meaning of the procedure is discussed, thus bringing into light basic facts of the plasma dielectric behavior. The result h = ω 2 /sub p/ fo(x/t) (where f/sub o/ is the electron distribution function in velocity space and ω /sub p/ the plasma frequency) is obtained without passing through the Vlasov-Poisson equations as in the standard theory. We show that the equivalence between the present method and the classic Landau analysis rests on properties of the Fourier transform applied on velocity space

  8. The gaseous plasmonic response of a one-dimensional photonic crystal composed of striated plasma layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Righetti, F.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    We present simulations of the response of a one-dimensional striated plasma slab to incident electromagnetic waves that span regions both above and below the plasma frequency, ωp. Photonic bandgap modes are present throughout these regions, and volume and surface plasmon modes facilitate the response below ωp, where the dielectric constant, ɛp frequency, there is a feature for transverse magnetic (TM) polarization that is associated with the emergence of new dispersion branches. Also for TM polarization, a very low frequency mode emerges outside of the light line. Both these features are plasmonic and are attributed to the excitation of symmetric and asymmetric surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the plasma-dielectric interface of the multi-layer plasma slabs. The features seen in the bandgap maps near ωp reveal the possible presence of Fano resonances between the symmetric branch of the SPP and the Bragg resonance as a narrow stop band (anti-node) is superimposed on the otherwise broad transmission band seen for transverse-electric polarization. We provide renderings that allow the visualization of where the transmission bands are and compute the transmittance and reflectance to facilitate the design and interpretation of experiments. The transmission bands associated with photonic bandgap modes above the plasma frequency are rather broad. The plasmonic modes, i.e., those associated with ɛp ≤ 0, can be quite narrow and are tuned by varying the plasma density, affording an opportunity for the application of these structures as ultra-narrow tunable microwave transmission filters.

  9. Physical Modeling of the Processes Responsible for the Mid-Latitude Storm Enhanced Plasma Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Maruyama, N.; Fedrizzi, M.; Codrescu, M.; Heelis, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Certain magnetic local time sectors at mid latitudes see substantial increases in plasma density in the early phases of a geomagnetic storm. The St. Patrick's Day storms of 2013 and 2015 were no exception, both producing large increases of total electron content at mid latitudes. There are theories for the build up of the storm enhanced density (SED), but can current theoretical ionosphere-thermosphere coupled models actually reproduce the response for an actual event? Not only is it necessary for the physical model to contain the appropriate physics, they also have to be forced by the correct drivers. The SED requires mid-latitude zonal transport to provide plasma stagnation in sunlight to provide the production. The theory also requires a poleward drift perpendicular to the magnetic field to elevate the plasma out of the body of the thermosphere to regions of substantially less loss rate. It is also suggested that equatorward winds are necessary to further elevate the plasma to regions of reduced loss. However, those same winds are also likely to transport molecular nitrogen rich neutral gas equatorward, potentially canceling out the benefits of the neutral circulation. Observations of mid-latitude zonal plasma flow are first analyzed to see if this first necessary ingredient is substantiated. The drift observations are then used to tune the driver to determine if, with the appropriate electric field driver, the latest physical models can reproduce the substantial plasma build up. If it can, the simulation can also be used to assess the contribution of the equatorward meridional wind; are they an asset to the plasma build up, or does the enhanced molecular species they carry counteract their benefit.

  10. Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Huijsmans, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon, F-13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Pamela, S. [IIFS-PIIM. Aix Marseille Université - CNRS, 13397 Marseille Cedex20 (France); Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hoelzl, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Cahyna, P. [Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    The interaction of static Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) with the plasma flows is modeled in toroidal geometry, using the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, which includes the X-point and the scrape-off-layer. Two-fluid diamagnetic effects, the neoclassical poloidal friction and a source of toroidal rotation are introduced in the model to describe realistic plasma flows. RMP penetration is studied taking self-consistently into account the effects of these flows and the radial electric field evolution. JET-like, MAST, and ITER parameters are used in modeling. For JET-like parameters, three regimes of plasma response are found depending on the plasma resistivity and the diamagnetic rotation: at high resistivity and slow rotation, the islands generated by the RMPs at the edge resonant surfaces rotate in the ion diamagnetic direction and their size oscillates. At faster rotation, the generated islands are static and are more screened by the plasma. An intermediate regime with static islands which slightly oscillate is found at lower resistivity. In ITER simulations, the RMPs generate static islands, which forms an ergodic layer at the very edge (ψ≥0.96) characterized by lobe structures near the X-point and results in a small strike point splitting on the divertor targets. In MAST Double Null Divertor geometry, lobes are also found near the X-point and the 3D-deformation of the density and temperature profiles is observed.

  11. Metallurgical response of an AISI 4140 steel to different plasma nitriding gas mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adão Felipe Oliveira Skonieski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma nitriding is a surface modification process that uses glow discharge to diffuse nitrogen atoms into the metallic matrix of different materials. Among the many possible parameters of the process, the gas mixture composition plays an important role, as it impacts directly the formed layer's microstructure. In this work an AISI 4140 steel was plasma nitrided under five different gas compositions. The plasma nitriding samples were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, microhardness test, X-ray diffraction and GDOES. The results showed that there are significant microstructural and morphological differences on the formed layers depending on the quantity of nitrogen and methane added to the plasma nitriding atmosphere. Thicknesses of 10, 5 and 2.5 µm were obtained when the nitrogen content of the gas mixtures were varied. The possibility to obtain a compound layer formed mainly by γ'-Fe4N nitrides was also shown. For all studied plasma nitriding conditions, the presence of a compound layer was recognized as being the responsible to hinder the decarburization on the steel surface. The highest value of surface hardness - 1277HV - were measured in the sample which were nitrided with 3vol.% of CH4.

  12. Comparative investigation of ELM control based on toroidal modelling of plasma response to RMP fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yueqiang

    2016-10-01

    The type-I edge localized mode (ELM), bursting at low frequency and with large amplitude, can channel a substantial amount of the plasma thermal energy into the surrounding plasma-facing components in tokamak devices operating at the high-confinement mode, potentially causing severe material damages. Learning effective ways of controlling this instability is thus an urgent issue in fusion research, in particular in view of the next generation large devices such as ITER and DEMO. Among other means, externally applied, three-dimensional resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields have been experimentally demonstrated to be successful in mitigating or suppressing the type-I ELM, in multiple existing devices. In this work, we shall report results of a comparative study of ELM control using RMPs. Comparison is made between the modelled plasma response to the 3D external fields and the observed change of the ELM behaviour on multiple devices, including MAST, ASDEX Upgrade, EAST, DIII-D, JET, and KSTAR. We show that toroidal modelling of the plasma response, based on linear and quasi-linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models, provides essential insights that are useful in interpreting and guiding the ELM control experiments. In particular, linear toroidal modelling results, using the MARS-F code, reveal the crucial role of the edge localized peeling-tearing mode response during ELM mitigation/suppression on all these devices. Such response often leads to strong peaking of the plasma surface displacement near the region of weak equilibrium poloidal field (e.g. the X-point), and this provides an alternative practical criterion for ELM control, as opposed to the vacuum field based Chirikov criteria. Quasi-linear modelling using MARS-Q provides quantitative interpretation of the side effects due to the ELM control coils, on the plasma toroidal momentum and particle confinements. The particular role of the momentum and particle fluxes, associated with the neoclassical toroidal

  13. Acute phase response and plasma carotenoid concentrations in older women: findings from the nun study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; Snowdon, D A; Tully, C L; Gross, M D

    1996-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated whether the acute phase response was associated with suppressed circulating levels of antioxidants in a population of 85 Catholic sisters (nuns) ages 77-99 y. Fasting blood was drawn to determine the presence of an acute phase response, as defined by an elevation in the serum concentration of C-reactive protein. Serum concentrations of albumin, thyroxine-binding prealbumin, zinc, copper, and fibrinogen were determined as were plasma concentrations of carotenoids and alpha tocopherol. Results showed that the presence of an acute phase response was associated with (1) an expected significant decrease in the serum concentrations of albumin (p < 0.001) and thyroxine-binding prealbumin (p < 0.001); (2) an expected significant increase in copper (p < 0.001) and fibrinogen (p = 0.003); and (3) a significant decrease in the plasma concentrations of lycopene (p = 0.03), alpha carotene (p = 0.02), beta carotene (p = 0.02), and total carotenoids (p = 0.01). The acute phase response was associated with decreased plasma levels of the antioxidants lycopene, alpha carotene, and beta carotene. This decrease in circulating antioxidants may further compromise antioxidant status and increase oxidative stress and damage in elders.

  14. Genetic modulation of plasma NPY stress response is suppressed in substance abuse: association with clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Hong, Kwangik Adam; Zhou, Zhifeng; Hauger, Richard L; Goldman, David; Sinha, Rajita

    2012-04-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in stress regulation. Genetic variations predict plasma NPY and neural correlates of emotion and stress. We examined whether the functional NPY haplotype modulates stress-induced NPY and anxiety responses, and if plasma NPY stress responses are associated with substance dependence outcomes. Thirty-seven treatment-engaged, abstinent substance dependent (SD) patients and 28 healthy controls (HCs) characterized on NPY diplotypes (HH: high expression; HLLL: intermediate/low expression) were exposed to stress, alcohol/drug cues and neutral relaxing cues, using individualized guided imagery, in a 3-session laboratory experiment. Plasma NPY, heart rate and anxiety were assessed. Patients were prospectively followed for 90-days post-treatment to assess relapse outcomes. HH individuals showed significantly lower stress-induced NPY with greater heart rate and anxiety ratings, while the HLLL group showed the reverse pattern of NPY, anxiety and heart rate responses. This differential genetic modulation of NPY stress response was suppressed in the SD group, who showed no stress-related increases in NPY and higher heart rate and greater anxiety, regardless of diplotype. Lower NPY predicted subsequent higher number of days and greater amounts of post-treatment drug use. These preliminary findings are the first to document chronic drug abuse influences on NPY diplotype expression where NPY diplotype modulation of stress-related plasma NPY, heart rate and anxiety responses was absent in the substance abuse sample. The finding that lower stress-related NPY is predictive of greater relapse severity provides support for therapeutic development of neuropeptide Y targets in the treatment of substance use disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interplay of single particle and collective response in molecular dynamics simulation of dusty plasma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Srimanta; Das, Amita; Kumar, Sandeep; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar

    2018-04-01

    The collective response of the plasma medium is well known and has been explored extensively in the context of dusty plasma medium. On the other hand, the individual particle response associated with the collisional character giving rise to the dissipative phenomena has not been explored adequately. In this paper, two-dimensional molecular dynamics simulation of dust particles interacting via Yukawa potential has been considered. It has been shown that disturbances induced in a dust crystal elicit both collective and single particle responses. Generation of a few particles moving at speeds considerably higher than acoustic and/or shock speed (excited by the external disturbance) is observed. This is an indication of a single particle response. Furthermore, as these individual energetic particles propagate, the dust crystal is observed to crack along their path. Initially when the energy is high, these particles generate secondary energetic particles by the collisional scattering process. However, ultimately as these particles slow down they excite a collective response in the dust medium at secondary locations in a region which is undisturbed by the primary external disturbance. The condition when the cracking of the crystal stops and collective excitations get initiated has been identified quantitatively. The trailing collective primary disturbances would thus often encounter a disturbed medium with secondary and tertiary collective perturbations, thereby suffering significant modification in its propagation. It is thus clear that there is an interesting interplay (other than mere dissipation) between the single particle and collective response which governs the dynamics of any disturbance introduced in the medium.

  16. Atmospheric plasma processes for microbial inactivation: food applications and stress response in Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Gozzi, Giorgia

    2015-01-01

    This PhD thesis is focused on cold atmospheric plasma treatments (GP) for microbial inactivation in food applications. In fact GP represents a promising emerging technology alternative to the traditional methods for the decontamination of foods. The objectives of this work were to evaluate: - the effects of GP treatments on microbial inactivation in model systems and in real foods; - the stress response in L. monocytogenes following exposure to different GP treatments. As far as t...

  17. Response of cast austenitic stainless steel to low temperature plasma carburizing.

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yong

    2008-01-01

    The response of a cast 316 type austenitic stainless steel to the novel low temperature plasma carburizing process has been investigated in this work. The cast steel has a dendritic structure with a mix of austenite, ferrite and carbide phases. The results show that such a complex structure responds well to the carburizing process, and the inter-dendrite regions containing ferrite and carbides can be transformed to expanded austenite to form a continuous and uniform layer supersat...

  18. Poloidal structure of the plasma response to n = 1 Resonant Magnetic Perturbations in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, L.; Bettini, P.; Piovesan, P.; Terranova, D.; Giannone, L.; Igochine, V.; Maraschek, M.; Suttrop, W.; Teschke, M.; Liu, Y. Q.; Ryan, D.; Eurofusion Mst1 Team; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-10-01

    The hybrid scenario, a candidate for high-beta steady-state tokamak operations, becomes highly sensitive to 3D magnetic field near the no-wall limit. A predictive understanding of the plasma response to 3D fields near ideal MHD limits in terms of validated MHD stability codes is therefore important in order to safely operate future devices. Slowly rotating (5 - 10 Hz) n = 1 external magnetic fields have been applied in hybrid discharges in ASDEX Upgrade for an experimental characterization: the global n = 1 kink response has been measured by means of SXR and complete poloidal arrays of bθ probes located at different toroidal angles and compared to predictions of MHD codes such as MARS-F and V3FIT-VMEC. A Least-Squares Spectral Analysis approach has been developed together with a Monte Carlo technique to extract the small plasma response and its confidence interval from the noisy magnetic signals. MARS-F correctly reproduces the poloidal structure of the n = 1 measurements: for example, the dependence of the dominant poloidal mode number at the plasma edge from q95 is the same as in the experiment. Similar comparisons with V3FIT-VMEC and will be presented. See author list of ``H. Meyer et al. 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 102014''.

  19. Investigation of the energy transport mechanism in the TCA tokamak by studying the plasma dynamical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudok de Wit, Th.; Duval, B.P.; Joye, B.; Lister, J.B.; Moret, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The energy transport mechanisms that govern the electron temperature behaviour of a tokamak remain very badly understood and up to now no proper model has been proposed that can explain experimental observations such as profile consistency or the influence of the density profile. One approach to this problem, extensively used on TCA, is to study the dynamical response of the plasma due to externally imposed modifications of parameters which have an influence on the plasma energy content. The temporal evolution of the electron temperature will closely depend on the type and the characteristics of the implied mechanisms. Thus a detailed measurement of the dynamical response would reveal experimentally the dominant properties that would have to be taken into account in the elaboration of a model of the transport processes. Most of the results presented here were obtained by analysing the electron temperature response inferred from soft X-ray emissivity during modification of the plasma density due to either gas puffing, laser impurity ablation or alfven wave heating on TCA (a = 0.18 m, R = 0.61 m, B Φ = 1.52 T). 4 refs., 3 figs

  20. Quantitative trait loci for magnitude of the plasma cortisol response to confinement in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillet, E; Krieg, F; Dechamp, N; Hervet, C; Bérard, A; Le Roy, P; Guyomard, R; Prunet, P; Pottinger, T G

    2014-04-01

    Better understanding of the mechanisms underlying interindividual variation in stress responses and their links with production traits is a key issue for sustainable animal breeding. In this study, we searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the magnitude of the plasma cortisol stress response and compared them to body size traits in five F2 full-sib families issued from two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for high or low post-confinement plasma cortisol level. Approximately 1000 F2 individuals were individually tagged and exposed to two successive acute confinement challenges (1 month interval). Post-stress plasma cortisol concentrations were determined for each fish. A medium density genome scan was carried out (268 markers, overall marker spacing less than 10 cM). QTL detection was performed using qtlmap software, based on an interval mapping method (http://www.inra.fr/qtlmap). Overall, QTL of medium individual effects on cortisol responsiveness (confinement stressor are distinct traits sharing only part of their genetic control. Chromosomal location of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) makes it a good potential candidate gene for one of the QTL. Finally, comparison of body size traits QTL (weight, length and body conformation) with cortisol-associated QTL did not support evidence for negative genetic relationships between the two types of traits. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  1. Plasma free hemoglobin and microcirculatory response to fresh or old blood transfusions in sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Damiani

    Full Text Available Free hemoglobin (fHb may induce vasoconstriction by scavenging nitric oxide. It may increase in older blood units due to storage lesions. This study evaluated whether old red blood cell transfusion increases plasma fHb in sepsis and how the microvascular response may be affected.This is a secondary analysis of a randomized study. Twenty adult septic patients received either fresh or old (15 days storage, respectively RBC transfusions. fHb was measured in RBC units and in the plasma before and 1 hour after transfusion. Simultaneously, the sublingual microcirculation was assessed with sidestream-dark field imaging. The perfused boundary region was calculated as an index of glycocalyx damage. Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2 and Hb index (THI were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy and a vascular occlusion test was performed.Similar fHb levels were found in the supernatant of fresh and old RBC units. Despite this, plasma fHb increased in the old RBC group after transfusion (from 0.125 [0.098-0.219] mg/mL to 0.238 [0.163-0.369] mg/mL, p = 0.006. The sublingual microcirculation was unaltered in both groups, while THI increased. The change in plasma fHb was inversely correlated with the changes in total vessel density (r = -0.57 [95% confidence interval -0.82, -0.16], p = 0.008, De Backer score (r = -0.63 [95% confidence interval -0.84, -0.25], p = 0.003 and THI (r = -0.72 [95% confidence interval -0.88, -0.39], p = 0.0003.Old RBC transfusion was associated with an increase in plasma fHb in septic patients. Increasing plasma fHb levels were associated with decreased microvascular density.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01584999.

  2. Inflammatory cytokines and plasma redox status responses in hypertensive subjects after heat exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Fonseca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is characterized by a pro-inflammatory status, including redox imbalance and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may be exacerbated after heat exposure. However, the effects of heat exposure, specifically in individuals with inflammatory chronic diseases such as hypertension, are complex and not well understood. This study compared the effects of heat exposure on plasma cytokine levels and redox status parameters in 8 hypertensive (H and 8 normotensive (N subjects (age: 46.5±1.3 and 45.6±1.4 years old, body mass index: 25.8±0.8 and 25.6±0.6 kg/m2, mean arterial pressure: 98.0±2.8 and 86.0±2.3 mmHg, respectively. They remained at rest in a sitting position for 10 min in a thermoneutral environment (22°C followed by 30 min in a heated environmental chamber (38°C and 60% relative humidity. Blood samples were collected before and after heat exposure. Plasma cytokine levels were measured using sandwich ELISA kits. Plasma redox status was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP. Hypertensive subjects showed higher plasma levels of IL-10 at baseline (P<0.05, although levels of this cytokine were similar between groups after heat exposure. Moreover, after heat exposure, hypertensive individuals showed higher plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR1 and lower TBARS (P<0.01 and FRAP (P<0.05 levels. Controlled hypertensive subjects, who use angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitors, present an anti-inflammatory status and balanced redox status. Nevertheless, exposure to a heat stress condition seems to cause an imbalance in the redox status and an unregulated inflammatory response.

  3. Gel chromatography of immunoextracted plasma calcitonin in response to the calcium clamp in healthy males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucht, E.; Toerring, O.; Sjoeberg, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT) in human plasma. Antibodies against synthetic human calcitonin (hCT) coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were raised in rabbits and were directed against the carboxy terminal part of CT. The detection limit of the assay was 8 pg/ml. In 7 males the iCT response to a calcium-clamp was studied. Blood was collected at 0,30 and 60 min after the start of the calcium infusion. iCT was measured directly in plasma and in extracts obtained after purification of plasma iCT by means of immobilized CT antiboides. There was a good correlation between iCT in plasma samples and extracts, r = 0.993, n = 14 (P< 0.001). Dilution curves of extracts and plasma were parallel with the hCT standard curves. Gel chromatography of the extracts on Sephadex G-50 and G-75 disclosed heterogeneity of iCT in normal plasma during basal conditions as well as during calcium stimulation. Thirty min after the start of the calcium clamp all molecular forms, most likely constituting monomeric and dimeric CT and larger forms, were increased, while after 60 min iCT seemed to constitute predominantly forms larger than monomeric TCY. Basal levels of unextracted iCT in healthy males (n = 44, 37 +/- 10 years) were 15 +/- 9 pg-equivalents/ml (mean +/- SD), which was higher than in females (n = 40, 32 +/- 9 years) 11 +/- 4 pg-equivalents/ml (P < 0.05). (author)

  4. Investigating the Response and Expansion of Plasma Plumes in a Mesosonic Plasma Using the Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoegy, W. R.; Krause, L. Habash; Minow, J. I.; Coffey, V. N.

    2014-01-01

    To study the complex interactions between the space environment surrounding the International Space Station (ISS) and the ISS space vehicle, we are exploring a specialized suite of plasma sensors, manipulated by the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) to probe the near-ISS mesosonic plasma ionosphere moving past the ISS. It is proposed that SASSI consists of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Thermal Ion Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TICHS), Thermal Electron Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TECHS), Charge Analyzer Responsive to Local Oscillations (CARLO), the Collimated PhotoElectron Gun (CPEG), and the University of Michigan Advanced Langmuir Probe (ALP). There are multiple expected applications for SASSI. Here, we will discuss the study of fundamental plasma physics questions associated with how an emitted plasma plume (such as from the ISS Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU)) responds and expands in a mesosonic magnetoplasma as well as emit and collect current. The ISS PCU Xe plasma plume drifts through the ionosphere and across the Earth's magnetic field, resulting in complex dynamics. This is of practical and theoretical interest pertaining to contamination concerns (e.g. energetic ion scattering) and the ability to collect and emit current between the spacecraft and the ambient plasma ionosphere. This impacts, for example, predictions of electrodynamic tether current performance using plasma contactors as well as decisions about placing high-energy electric propulsion thrusters on ISS. We will discuss the required measurements and connection to proposed instruments for this study.

  5. Improved break-in-slope analysis of the plasma energy response in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, E A; Eester, D van

    2008-01-01

    The break-in-slope method is a simple-although powerful-data analysis technique that is commonly used to determine the power absorption profiles of the plasma species during auxiliary heating experiments in tokamaks. It is based on the study of the energy response of the particles to sudden changes in the external power applied to the plasma. Even though some experimental conditions are favorable for the straightforward application of the break-in-slope analysis in its most simple form (linear fit of the experimental temperature signals), most situations require the retention of additional terms in the linearized energy conservation equation for a successful use of this technique. In this paper, important corrections necessary to extend the applicability of the traditional break-in-slope technique will be presented: (i) the numerical determination of the break-in-slope instants in the plasma energy response allowing the study of indirect (collisional) heating scenarios; (ii) the inclusion of the density variations due to the external power step based on fast density measurements; (iii) the exponential representation of the plasma energy evolution after the power break, describing the saturation of the experimental signals in slow modulation or single power step experiments; (iv) a first assessment of the influence of the change in the radiated power on the break-in-slope results. As will be shown, these corrections are particularly important in low absorption scenarios and in single power step studies, where the change in the external power cannot be considered 'non-perturbative' and the standard break-in-slope analysis usually leads to integrated power levels well below the actual power injected into the plasma

  6. Photoconductive Detectors with Fast Temporal Response for Laser Produced Plasma Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. J. May; C. Halvorson; T. Perry; F. Weber; P. Young; C. Silbernagel

    2008-01-01

    Processes during laser plasma experiments typically have time scales that are less than 100 ps. The measurement of these processes requires X-ray detectors with fast temporal resolution. We have measured the temporal responses and linearity of several different X-ray sensitive Photoconductive Detectors (PCDs). The active elements of the detectors investigated include both diamond (natural and synthetic) and GaAs crystals. The typical time responses of the GaAs PCDs are approximately 60 ps, respectively. Some characterizations using X-ray light from a synchrotron light source are presented

  7. Using NMR metabolomics to identify responses of an environmental estrogen in blood plasma of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, Linda M.; Foerlin, Lars; Karlsson, Goeran; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Larsson, D.G. Joakim

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics in combination with multivariate data analysis may become valuable tools to study environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals in aquatic organisms. To explore the usefulness of this approach in fish, we have used 1 H NMR metabolomics to compare blood plasma and plasma lipid extracts from rainbow trout exposed to the synthetic contraceptive estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE 2 ) with plasma from control fish. The plasma metabolite profile was affected in fish exposed to 10 ng/L but not 0.87 ng/L of EE 2 , which was in agreement with an induced vitellogenin synthesis in the high dose group only, as measured by ELISA. The main affected metabolites were vitellogenin, alanine, phospholipids and cholesterol. The responses identified by this discovery-driven method could be put in context with previous knowledge of the effects of estrogens on fish. This adds confidence to the approach of using NMR metabolomics to identify environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants

  8. Linear and Nonlinear Response of a Rotating Tokamak Plasma to a Resonant Error-Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2014-10-01

    An in-depth investigation of the effect of a resonant error-field on a rotating, quasi-cylindrical, tokamak plasma is preformed within the context of resistive-MHD theory. General expressions for the response of the plasma at the rational surface to the error-field are derived in both the linear and nonlinear regimes, and the extents of these regimes mapped out in parameter space. Torque-balance equations are also obtained in both regimes. These equations are used to determine the steady-state plasma rotation at the rational surface in the presence of the error-field. It is found that, provided the intrinsic plasma rotation is sufficiently large, the torque-balance equations possess dynamically stable low-rotation and high-rotation solution branches, separated by a forbidden band of dynamically unstable solutions. Moreover, bifurcations between the two stable solution branches are triggered as the amplitude of the error-field is varied. A low- to high-rotation bifurcation is invariably associated with a significant reduction in the width of the magnetic island chain driven at the rational surface, and vice versa. General expressions for the bifurcation thresholds are derived, and their domains of validity mapped out in parameter space. This research was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-FG02-04ER-54742.

  9. IP-10 measured by Dry Plasma Spots as biomarker for therapy responses in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonby, Kristian; Ruhwald, Morten; Kvale, Dag; Dyrhol-Riise, Anne Ma

    2015-03-18

    Tuberculosis (TB) has huge impact on human morbidity and mortality and biomarkers to support rapid TB diagnosis and ensure treatment initiation and cure are needed, especially in regions with high prevalence of multi-drug resistant TB. Soluble interferon gamma inducible protein 10 (IP-10) analyzed from dry plasma spots (DPS) has potential as an immunodiagnostic marker in TB infection. We analyzed IP-10 levels in plasma directly and extracted from DPS in parallel by ELISA from 34 clinically well characterized patients with TB disease before and throughout 24 weeks of effective anti-TB chemotherapy. We detected a significant decline of IP-10 levels in both plasma and DPS already after two weeks of therapy with good correlation between the tests. This was observed both in pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB. In conclusion, plasma IP-10 may serve as an early biomarker for anti-TB chemotherapy responses and the IP-10 DPS method has potential to be developed into a point-of care test for use in resource-limited settings. Further studies must be performed to validate the use of IP-10 DPS in TB high endemic countries.

  10. Determination of GABA and vigabatrin in human plasma by a rapid and simple HPLC method: correlation between clinical response to vigabatrin and increase in plasma GABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löscher, W; Fassbender, C P; Gram, L; Gramer, M; Hörstermann, D; Zahner, B; Stefan, H

    1993-03-01

    The novel antiepileptic drug vigabatrin (Sabril) acts by inhibiting degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), increasing the GABA concentrations in the brain. Because the GABA degrading enzyme GABA aminotransferase (GABA-T) is also present in peripheral tissues, including blood platelets, measurement of plasma GABA levels might be a useful indication of the pharmacological response to vigabatrin during therapeutic monitoring. However, because of the very low concentrations of GABA in plasma, the few methods available for plasma GABA analysis are time-consuming, difficult to perform and/or not selective enough because of potential interference with other plasma constituents. In the present study, a rapid, selective and sensitive amino acid analysis HPLC method has been developed for plasma GABA determination with fluorescence detection, using o-phthaldialdehyde as a precolumn derivatizing agent. By employing a 3 microns particle size reversed-phase column and a multi-step gradient system of two solvents, the very low endogenous concentration of GABA in human plasma could be reproducibly quantitated without interference of other endogenous compounds. Incubation of human plasma samples with GABA degrading enzyme(s) resulted in an almost total loss of the GABA peak, thus demonstrating the specificity of the method for GABA analysis. In addition to GABA and other endogenous amino acids, the HPLC method could be used to quantitate plasma levels of vigabatrin. Thus, this improved HPLC amino acid assay might be used to examine whether concomitant monitoring of plasma GABA and vigabatrin is useful for clinical purposes. This was examined in 20 epileptic patients undergoing chronic treatment with vigabatrin. The average plasma GABA level of these 20 patients did not differ significantly from non-epileptic controls. However, when epileptic patients were subdivided according to their clinical response to vigabatrin, vigabatrin responders

  11. Measurement of tokamak error fields using plasma response and its applicability to ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, E.J.; Buttery, R.J.; Chu, M.S.; Garofalo, A.M.; La Haye, R.J.; Schaffer, M.J.; Casper, T.A.; Gribov, Y.; Hanson, J.M.; Reimerdes, H.; Volpe, F.A.

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear response of a low-beta tokamak plasma to non-axisymmetric fields offers an alternative to direct measurement of the non-axisymmetric part of the vacuum magnetic fields, often termed ‘error fields’. Possible approaches are discussed for determination of error fields and the required current in non-axisymmetric correction coils, with an emphasis on two relatively new methods: measurement of the torque balance on a saturated magnetic island, and measurement of the braking of plasma rotation in the absence of an island. The former is well suited to ohmically heated discharges, while the latter is more appropriate for discharges with a modest amount of neutral beam heating to drive rotation. Both can potentially provide continuous measurements during a discharge, subject to the limitation of a minimum averaging time. The applicability of these methods to ITER is discussed, and an estimate is made of their uncertainties in light of the specifications of ITER's diagnostic systems. The use of plasma response-based techniques in normal ITER operational scenarios may allow identification of the error field contributions by individual central solenoid coils, but identification of the individual contributions by the outer poloidal field coils or other sources is less likely to be feasible. (paper)

  12. RACLETTE: a model for evaluating the thermal response of plasma facing components to slow high power plasma transients. Part I: Theory and description of model capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffray, A. René; Federici, Gianfranco

    1997-04-01

    RACLETTE (Rate Analysis Code for pLasma Energy Transfer Transient Evaluation), a comprehensive but relatively simple and versatile model, was developed to help in the design analysis of plasma facing components (PFCs) under 'slow' high power transients, such as those associated with plasma vertical displacement events. The model includes all the key surface heat transfer processes such as evaporation, melting, and radiation, and their interaction with the PFC block thermal response and the coolant behaviour. This paper represents part I of two sister and complementary papers. It covers the model description, calibration and validation, and presents a number of parametric analyses shedding light on and identifying trends in the PFC armour block response to high plasma energy deposition transients. Parameters investigated include the plasma energy density and deposition time, the armour thickness and the presence of vapour shielding effects. Part II of the paper focuses on specific design analyses of ITER plasma facing components (divertor, limiter, primary first wall and baffle), including improvements in the thermal-hydraulic modeling required for better understanding the consequences of high energy deposition transients in particular for the ITER limiter case.

  13. RACLETTE: a model for evaluating the thermal response of plasma facing components to slow high power plasma transients. Pt. I. Theory and description of model capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffray, A.R.; Federici, G.

    1997-01-01

    For pt.II see ibid., p.101-30, 1997. RACLETTE (Rate Analysis Code for pLasma Energy Transfer Transient Evaluation), a comprehensive but relatively simple and versatile model, was developed to help in the design analysis of plasma facing components (PFCs) under 'slow' high power transients, such as those associated with plasma vertical displacement events. The model includes all the key surface heat transfer processes such as evaporation, melting, and radiation, and their interaction with the PFC block thermal response and the coolant behaviour. This paper represents part I of two sister and complementary papers. It covers the model description, calibration and validation, and presents a number of parametric analyses shedding light on and identifying trends in the PFC armour block response to high plasma energy deposition transients. Parameters investigated include the plasma energy density and deposition time, the armour thickness and the presence of vapour shielding effects. Part II of the paper focuses on specific design analyses of ITER plasma facing components (divertor, limiter, primary first wall and baffle), including improvements in the thermal-hydraulic modeling required for better understanding the consequences of high energy deposition transients in particular for the ITER limiter case. (orig.)

  14. Strategies for the plasma position and shape control in IGNITOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramogida, G.; Alladio, F.; Albanese, R.

    2006-01-01

    The control of the plasma position and shape is a crucial issue in IGNITOR as in every compact, high field, elongated tokamak. The capability of the Poloidal Field Coil system, as presently designed, to provide an effective vertical stabilization of the plasma has been investigated using the CREATE L response model [R. Albanese, F. Villone, '' The Linearized CREATE L Plasma Response Model for the Control of Current, Position and Shape in Tokamaks '', Nucl. Fus., vol. 38, p. 723 (1998)]. This linearized MHD model assumes an axisymmetric deformable plasma described by few global parameters. An optimization of the vertical position control strategy has been carried out and the most effective coil combination has been selected to stabilize the plasma while fulfilling engineering constraints on the coils and minimizing the required power and voltage. The two pairs of coils selected for the vertical control will be fed up with up-down anti-symmetric currents provided by a dedicated supply and overlapped to the scenario currents. The growth rate of the vertical instability and the power required by the active stabilization system have been estimated with this model, indicating that it is possible to design a control system able to guarantee a stability region that includes the most interesting operation conditions. An assessment of the requirements for the plasma cross section shape control has been carried out considering independent perturbations of the plasma global parameters as disturbances and showing that the undesired shape modification rejection is possible with the present PFC and power supply system. The PF coils have been ranked with respect to their capability to restore the shape modifications due to different plasma disturbances and the most effective coil combination, that minimizes recovery time and voltage required, has been selected. In order to have additional means to monitor and control the centre of the plasma column, under demanding conditions

  15. Thermal responses of tokamak reactor first walls during cyclic plasma burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Charak, I.

    1978-01-01

    The CINDA-3G computer code has been adapted to analyze the thermal responses and operating limitations of two fusion reactor first-wall concepts under normal cyclic operation. A component of an LMFBR computer code has been modified and adapted to analyze the ablative behavior of first-walls after a plasma disruption. The first-wall design concepts considered are a forced-circulation water-cooled stainless steel panel with and without a monolithic graphite liner. The thermal gradients in the metal wall and liner have been determined for several burn-cycle scenarios and the extent of surface ablation that results from a plasma disruption has been determined for stainless steel and graphite first surfaces

  16. Thermal responses of tokamak reactor first walls during cyclic plasma burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Charak, I.

    1977-01-01

    The CINDA-3G computer code has been adapted to analyze the thermal responses and operating limitations of two fusion reactor first-wall concepts under normal cyclic operation. A component of an LMFBR computer has been modified and adapted to analyze the ablative behavior of first-walls after a plasma disruption. The first-wall design concepts considered are a forced-circulation water-cooled stainless steel panel with and without a monolithic graphite liner. The thermal gradients in the metal wall and liner have been determined for several burn-cycle scenarios and the extent of surface ablation that results from a plasma disruption has been determined for stainless steel and graphite first surfaces

  17. Fields of an ultrashort tightly focused radially polarized laser pulse in a linear response plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Yousef I.

    2017-10-01

    Analytical expressions for the fields of a radially polarized, ultrashort, and tightly focused laser pulse propagating in a linear-response plasma are derived and discussed. The fields are obtained from solving the inhomogeneous wave equations for the vector and scalar potentials, linked by the Lorenz gauge, in a plasma background. First, the scalar potential is eliminated using the gauge condition, then the vector potential is synthesized from Fourier components of an initial uniform distribution of wavenumbers, and the inverse Fourier transformation is carried out term-by-term in a truncated series (finite sum). The zeroth-order term in, for example, the axial electric field component is shown to model a pulse much better than its widely used paraxial approximation counterpart. Some of the propagation characteristics of the fields are discussed and all fields are shown to have manifested the expected limits for propagation in a vacuum.

  18. Discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood during experimental endotoxemia in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisse R Ostrowski

    Full Text Available Sepsis induces early activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis followed by late fibrinolytic shutdown and progressive endothelial damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the functional hemostatic response in whole blood and plasma during experimental human endotoxemia by the platelet function analyzer, Multiplate and by standard and modified thrombelastography (TEG.Prospective physiologic study of nine healthy male volunteers undergoing endotoxemia by means of a 4-hour infusion of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 ng/kg/hour, with blood sampled at baseline and at 4 h and 6 h. Physiological and standard biochemical data and coagulation tests, TEG (whole blood: TEG, heparinase-TEG, Functional Fibrinogen; plasma: TEG±tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA and Multiplate (TRAPtest, ADPtest, ASPItest, COLtest were recorded. Mixed models with Tukey post hoc tests and correlations were applied.Endotoxemia induced acute SIRS with increased HR, temperature, WBC, CRP and procalcitonin and decreased blood pressure. It also induced a hemostatic response with platelet consumption and reduced APTT while INR increased (all p<0.05. Platelet aggregation decreased (all tests, p<0.05, whereas TEG whole blood clot firmness increased (G, p = 0.05. Furthermore, during endotoxemia (4 h, whole blood fibrinolysis increased (clot lysis time (CLT, p<0.001 and Functional Fibrinogen clot strength decreased (p = 0.049. After endotoxemia (6 h, whole blood fibrinolysis was reduced (CLT, p<0.05. In contrast to findings in whole blood, the plasma fibrin clot became progressively more resistant towards tPA-induced fibrinolysis at both 4 h and 6 h (p<0.001.Endotoxemia induced a hemostatic response with reduced primary but enhanced secondary hemostasis, enhanced early fibrinolysis and fibrinogen consumption followed by downregulation of fibrinolysis, with a discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood. The finding that blood cells are

  19. Effect of test meals of varying dietary fiber content on plasma insulin and glucose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J G; Coffman, K P; Reid, R L; Krall, J M; Albrink, M J

    1981-03-01

    To assess the effect of dietary fiber on glucose tolerance four different meals of varying fiber content but identical protein fat and carbohydrate content were fed to eight healthy men aged 22 to 45. Each meal provided 75 g of carbohydrate as liquid glucose formula, as brown rice, pinto beans, or All Bran. The mean plasma glucose and insulin responses were highest following the formula, and least for All Bran and pinto beans. Rice produced nearly as great a rise in insulin and glucose as did the formula. The rank of each meal by content of neutral detergent fiber was nearly the inverse of the rank by magnitude of the insulin response evoked, fiber content being greatest in All Bran (18 g) and pinto beans (16.2 g), low in rice (2.8 g) and absent from the formula. It was concluded that dietary fiber dampened the insulin response to a high carbohydrate meal.

  20. Plasma homovanillic acid and treatment response in a large group of schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W H; Hwu, H G; Chen, T Y; Lin, S K; Lung, F W; Chen, H; Lin, W L; Hu, W H; Lin, H N; Chien, C P

    1993-10-01

    Plasma levels of homovanillic acid (pHVA), a metabolite of dopamine, were measured in ninety-five Chinese schizophrenic patients free of neuroleptics for at least four weeks. These patients were treated with classical antipsychotics for six weeks. Pretreatment pHVA was positively correlated with the subsequent clinical response (r = 0.408, p or = 50%, n = 47) had higher pretreatment pHVA levels than poor responders (BPRS improvement pHVA level was associated with a more consistent clinical response to the subsequent treatment. Using a pHVA level of 12 ng/ml as a demarcation point, 72% of patients (34 of 47) who had pHVA > or = 12 responded whereas 65% (31 of 48) who had pHVA levels may predict a better clinical response to antipsychotics. Based upon the pHVA findings, two hypothetical subtypes of schizophrenia are proposed.

  1. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamine responses to various challenges during exercise-recovery in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péronnet, F; Massicotte, D; Paquet, J E; Brisson, G; de Champlain, J

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 2 h cycle exercise (50% VO2max) on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), and on plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations, during the recovery period in seven normotensive subjects. Measurements were made at rest in supine (20 min) and standing (10 min) positions, during isometric exercise (hand-grip, 3 min, 25% maximal voluntary, contraction), in response to a mild psychosocial challenge (Stroop conflicting color word task) and during a 5-min period of light exercise (42 +/- 3% VO2max). Data were compared to measurements taken on another occasion under similar experimental conditions, without a previous exercise bout (control). The results showed HR to be slightly elevated in all conditions following the exercise bout. However, diastolic and systolic BP during the recovery period following exercise were not significantly different from the values observed in the control situation. Plasma NE concentrations in supine position and in response to the various physiological and/or psychosocial challenges were similar in the control situation and during the recovery period following exercise. On the other hand plasma E (nmol.1-1) was about 50% lower at rest (0.11 +/- 0.03 vs 0.23 +/- 0.04) as well as in response to hand-grip (0.21 +/- 0.04 vs 0.41 +/- 0.20) and the Stroop-test (0.21 +/- 0.05 vs 0.41 +/- 0.15) following the exercise bout.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Photooptical response of the blood plasma to the low-intensity red light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mints, R.I.; Skopinov, S.A.; Yakovleva, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    Photooptical response to low-intensity red light by irradiation of the whole blood as well as of its pigmentless plasma part is investigated. It is shown by the example of blood irradiation that the mechanism of action of low-intensity red light on the blood is not directly related to pigmented molecular complexes. The conclusion is made, that the effect of low-intensity red light on living organisms includes mechanism not utilizing light absorption by a specialized molecule-photoreceptor as a primary photophysical act

  3. Enhancement of photovoltaic response in multilayer MoS2 induced by plasma doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Sungjin; Kim, Hyunsoo; Chen, Mikai; Nam, Hongsuk; Guo, L Jay; Meyhofer, Edgar; Liang, Xiaogan

    2014-05-27

    Layered transition-metal dichalcogenides hold promise for making ultrathin-film photovoltaic devices with a combination of excellent photovoltaic performance, superior flexibility, long lifetime, and low manufacturing cost. Engineering the proper band structures of such layered materials is essential to realize such potential. Here, we present a plasma-assisted doping approach for significantly improving the photovoltaic response in multilayer MoS2. In this work, we fabricated and characterized photovoltaic devices with a vertically stacked indium tin oxide electrode/multilayer MoS2/metal electrode structure. Utilizing a plasma-induced p-doping approach, we are able to form p-n junctions in MoS2 layers that facilitate the collection of photogenerated carriers, enhance the photovoltages, and decrease reverse dark currents. Using plasma-assisted doping processes, we have demonstrated MoS2-based photovoltaic devices exhibiting very high short-circuit photocurrent density values up to 20.9 mA/cm(2) and reasonably good power-conversion efficiencies up to 2.8% under AM1.5G illumination, as well as high external quantum efficiencies. We believe that this work provides important scientific insights for leveraging the optoelectronic properties of emerging atomically layered two-dimensional materials for photovoltaic and other optoelectronic applications.

  4. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Tri Nugroho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31. doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31

  5. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7115

  6. Comparisons of linear and nonlinear plasma response models for non-axisymmetric perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, A. D.; Ferraro, N. M.; Lao, L. L.; Lanctot, M. J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Izzo, V. A. [University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Lazarus, E. A.; Hirshman, S. P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Park, J.-K.; Lazerson, S.; Reiman, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Cooper, W. A. [Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Liu, Y. Q. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Turco, F. [Columbia University, 116th St and Broadway, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    With the installation of non-axisymmetric coil systems on major tokamaks for the purpose of studying the prospects of ELM-free operation, understanding the plasma response to the applied fields is a crucial issue. Application of different response models, using standard tools, to DIII-D discharges with applied non-axisymmetric fields from internal coils, is shown to yield qualitatively different results. The plasma response can be treated as an initial value problem, following the system dynamically from an initial unperturbed state, or from a nearby perturbed equilibrium approach, and using both linear and nonlinear models [A. D. Turnbull, Nucl. Fusion 52, 054016 (2012)]. Criteria are discussed under which each of the approaches can yield a valid response. In the DIII-D cases studied, these criteria show a breakdown in the linear theory despite the small 10{sup −3} relative magnitude of the applied magnetic field perturbations in this case. For nonlinear dynamical evolution simulations to reach a saturated nonlinear steady state, appropriate damping mechanisms need to be provided for each normal mode comprising the response. Other issues arise in the technical construction of perturbed flux surfaces from a displacement and from the presence of near nullspace normal modes. For the nearby equilibrium approach, in the absence of a full 3D equilibrium reconstruction with a controlled comparison, constraints relating the 2D system profiles to the final profiles in the 3D system also need to be imposed to assure accessibility. The magnetic helicity profile has been proposed as an appropriate input to a 3D equilibrium calculation and tests of this show the anticipated qualitative behavior.

  7. Gene expression responses of HeLa cells to chemical species generated by an atmospheric plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Mayo; Johkura, Kohei; Sato, Takehiko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Response of HeLa cells to a plasma-irradiated medium was revealed by DNA microarray. • Gene expression pattern was basically different from that in a H 2 O 2 -added medium. • Prominently up-/down-regulated genes were partly shared by the two media. • Gene ontology analysis showed both similar and different responses in the two media. • Candidate genes involved in response to ROS were detected in each medium. - Abstract: Plasma irradiation generates many factors able to affect the cellular condition, and this feature has been studied for its application in the field of medicine. We previously reported that hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was the major cause of HeLa cell death among the chemical species generated by high level irradiation of a culture medium by atmospheric plasma. To assess the effect of plasma-induced factors on the response of live cells, HeLa cells were exposed to a medium irradiated by a non-lethal plasma flow level, and their gene expression was broadly analyzed by DNA microarray in comparison with that in a corresponding concentration of 51 μM H 2 O 2 . As a result, though the cell viability was sufficiently maintained at more than 90% in both cases, the plasma-medium had a greater impact on it than the H 2 O 2 -medium. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed fundamentally different cellular responses between these two media. A larger population of genes was upregulated in the plasma-medium, whereas genes were downregulated in the H 2 O 2 -medium. However, a part of the genes that showed prominent differential expression was shared by them, including an immediate early gene ID2. In gene ontology analysis of upregulated genes, the plasma-medium showed more diverse ontologies than the H 2 O 2 -medium, whereas ontologies such as “response to stimulus” were common, and several genes corresponded to “response to reactive oxygen species.” Genes of AP-1 proteins, e.g., JUN and FOS, were detected and notably elevated in

  8. Plasma kallikrein enhances platelet aggregation response by subthreshold doses of ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaiano, Tatiana F; Andrade, Sheila S; de Oliveira, Cleide; Silva, Mariana C C; Buri, Marcus V; Juliano, Maria A; Girão, Manoel J B C; Sampaio, Misako U; Schmaier, Alvin H; Wlodawer, Alexander; Maffei, Francisco H A; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2017-04-01

    Human plasma kallikrein (huPK) potentiates platelet responses to subthreshold doses of ADP, although huPK itself, does not induce platelet aggregation. In the present investigation, we observe that huPK pretreatment of platelets potentiates ADP-induced platelet activation by prior proteolysis of the G-protein-coupled receptor PAR-1. The potentiation of ADP-induced platelet activation by huPK is mediated by the integrin α IIb β 3 through interactions with the KGD/KGE sequence motif in huPK. Integrin α IIb β 3 is a cofactor for huPK binding to platelets to support PAR-1 hydrolysis that contributes to activation of the ADP signaling pathway. This activation pathway leads to phosphorylation of Src, AktS 473 , ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK, and to Ca 2+ release. The effect of huPK is blocked by specific antagonists of PAR-1 (SCH 19197) and α IIb β 3 (abciximab) and by synthetic peptides comprising the KGD and KGE sequence motifs of huPK. Further, recombinant plasma kallikrein inhibitor, rBbKI, also blocks this entire mechanism. These results suggest a new function for huPK. Formation of plasma kallikrein lowers the threshold for ADP-induced platelet activation. The present observations are consistent with the notion that plasma kallikrein promotes vascular disease and thrombosis in the intravascular compartment and its inhibition may ameliorate cardiovascular disease and thrombosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma cell-free mitochondrial DNA declines in response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockett, Penny E; Khanal, Januka; Sitaula, Alina; Oglesby, Christopher; Meachum, William A; Castracane, V Daniel; Kraemer, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    Increased plasma cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mDNA), a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) produced by cellular injury, contributes to neutrophil activation/inflammation in trauma patients and arises in cancer and autoimmunity. To further understand relationships between cf-mDNA released by tissue injury, inflammation, and health benefits of exercise, we examined cf-mDNA response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise. Seven healthy moderately trained young men (age = 22.4 ± 1.2) completed a treadmill exercise trial for 90 min at 60% VO2 max and a resting control trial. Blood was sampled immediately prior to exercise (0 min = baseline), during (+18, +54 min), immediately after (+90 min), and after recovery (R40). Plasma was analyzed for cf-mDNA, IL-6, and lactate. A significant difference in cf-mDNA response was observed between exercise and control trials, with cf-mDNA levels reduced during exercise at +54 and +90 (with or without plasma volume shift correction). Declines in cf-mDNA were accompanied by increased lactate and followed by an increase in IL-6, suggesting a temporal association with muscle stress and inflammatory processes. Our novel finding of cf-mDNA decline with prolonged moderate treadmill exercise provides evidence for increased clearance from or reduced release of cf-mDNA into the blood with prolonged exercise. These studies contrast with previous investigations involving exhaustive short-term treadmill exercise, in which no change in cf-mDNA levels were reported, and contribute to our understanding of differences between exercise- and trauma-induced inflammation. We propose that transient declines in cf-mDNA may induce health benefits, by reducing systemic inflammation. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  10. Plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites predict the response to sulpiride or fluvoxamine in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, N; Yoshimura, R; Shinkai, K; Nakamura, J

    2002-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between the changes in plasma catecholamine metabolites obtained from depressed patients before and after administration of sulpiride, a benzamide compound, or fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and between clinical responses to treatment with each of these drugs. Responders to sulpiride had significantly lower plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels before administration of sulpiride than did non-responders or controls (responders: 4.5 +/- 3.1 ng/ml, non-responders: 11.1 +/- 5.9 ng/ml, controls: 10.9 +/- 5.3 ng/ml). Positive relationships were observed between changes in pHVA levels and improvement rates in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D). In contrast, responders to fluvoxamine had significantly higher plasma free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG) levels before administration of fluvoxamine than did non-responders or controls (responders: 8.5 +/- 1.8 ng/ml, non-responders: 5.9 +/- 2.I ng/ml, controls: 5.2 +/- 2.9 ng/ml). Negative relationships were observed between changes in pMHPG levels and improvement rates in Ham-D. These results suggest that lower pretreatment pHVA levels and higher pretreatment levels of pMHPG might be predictors of response to sulpiride and fluvoxamine, respectively, and that sulpiride might produce a functional increase in the dopaminergic system, resulting in improvement in some depressive symptoms; fluvoxamine, on the other hand, might produce a functional decrease in the noradrenergic system via serotonergic neurons, resulting in improvement of those symptoms.

  11. Modelling of Plasma Response to Resonant Magnetic Perturbations and its Influence on Divertor Strike Points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahyna, P.; Peterka, M.; Panek, R., E-mail: cahyna@ipp.cas.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Liu, Y.; Kirk, A.; Harrison, J.; Thornton, A.; Chapman, I. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Nardon, E. [Association Euratom/CEA, CEA Cadarache, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Schmitz, O. [Forschung Zentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) for edge localized mode (ELM) mitigation in tokamaks can be modified by the plasma response and indeed strong screening of the applied perturbation is in some cases predicted by simulations. In this contribution we investigate what effect would such screening have on the spiralling patterns (footprints) which may appear at the divertor when RMPs are applied. We use two theoretical tools for investigation of the impact of plasma response on footprints: a simple model of the assumed screening currents, which can be used to translate the screening predicted by MHD codes in a simplified geometry into the real geometry, and the MHD code MARS-F. The former consistently predicts that footprints are significantly reduced when complete screening of the resonant perturbation modes (like it is the case in ideal MHD) is assumed. This result is supported by the result of MARS-F in ideal mode for the case of the MAST tokamak. To predict observed patterns of fluxes it is necessary to take into account the deformation of the scrape-off layer, and for this we developed an approximative method based on the Melnikov integral. If the screening of perturbations indeed reduces the footprints, it would provide us with an important tool to evaluate the amount of screening in experiments, as the footprints can be easily observed. We thus present a comparison between predictions and experimental data, especially for the MAST tokamak, where a significant amount of data has been collected. (author)

  12. Role of plasma fibronectin in the foreign body response to biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselowsky, Benjamin G; Bridges, Amanda W; Burns, Kellie L; Tate, Ciara C; Babensee, Julia E; LaPlaca, Michelle C; García, Andrés J

    2007-09-01

    Host responses to biomaterials control the biological performance of implanted medical devices. Upon implantation, synthetic materials adsorb biomolecules, which trigger an inflammatory cascade comprising coagulation, leukocyte recruitment/adhesion, and foreign body reaction. The foreign body reaction and ensuing fibrous encapsulation severely limit the in vivo performance of numerous biomedical devices. While it is well established that plasma fibrinogen and secreted cytokines modulate leukocyte recruitment and maturation into foreign body giant cells, mediators of chronic inflammation and fibrous encapsulation of implanted biomaterials remain poorly understood. Using plasma fibronectin (pFN) conditional knock-out mice, we demonstrate that pFN modulates the foreign body response to polyethylene terephthalate disks implanted subcutaneously. Fibrous collagenous capsules were two-fold thicker in mice depleted of pFN compared to controls. In contrast, deletion of pFN did not alter acute leukocyte recruitment to the biomaterial, indicating that pFN modulates chronic fibrotic responses. The number of foreign body giant cells associated with the implant was three times higher in the absence of pFN while macrophage numbers were not different, suggesting that pFN regulates the formation of biomaterial-associated foreign body giant cells. Interestingly, cellular FN (cFN) was present in the capsules of both normal and pFN-depleted mice, suggesting that cFN could not compensate for the loss of pFN. These results implicate pFN in the host response to implanted materials and identify a potential target for therapeutic intervention to enhance the biological performance of biomedical devices.

  13. Strategies for the plasma position and shape control in IGNITOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villone, F.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Pironti, A.; Rubinacci, G.; Ramogida, G.; Alladio, F.; Bombarda, F.; Coletti, A.; Cucchiaro, A.; Maddaluno, G.; Pizzicaroli, G.; Pizzuto, A.; Roccella, M.; Santinelli, M.; Coppi, B.

    2007-01-01

    The capability of the poloidal field coil system, as presently designed, to provide an effective vertical stabilization of the plasma in the IGNITOR machine has been investigated using the CREATE L response model. An optimization of the vertical position control strategy has been carried out and the most effective coil combination has been selected to stabilize the plasma while fulfilling engineering constraints on the coils and minimizing the required power and voltage. The growth rate of the vertical instability and the power required by the active stabilization system has been estimated with this model. The possible failure of the relevant electromagnetic diagnostics has been taken into account, evaluating the robustness of the plasma position reconstruction strategy. A realistic description of the power supply system has permitted to carry out the optimization of the proportional-integrative-derivative (PID) controller, both with a voltage and a current loop control scheme. An assessment of the requirements for the plasma cross section shape control has been carried out considering perturbations of the plasma global parameters independent of each other and showing that the undesired shape modification rejection is possible with the present PFC and power supply system. The PF coils have been rated relative to their capability to restore shape modifications due to different plasma disturbances. The most effective coil combination, that minimizes recovery time and voltage required, has been identified

  14. Dietary Animal Plasma Proteins Improve the Intestinal Immune Response in Senescent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Lluïsa; Garcia-Just, Alba; Amat, Concepció; Polo, Javier; Moretó, Miquel; Pérez-Bosque, Anna

    2017-12-11

    Increased life expectancy has promoted research on healthy aging. Aging is accompanied by increased non-specific immune activation (inflammaging) which favors the appearance of several disorders. Here, we study whether dietary supplementation with spray-dried animal plasma (SDP), which has been shown to reduce the activation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in rodents challenged by S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB), and can also prevent the effects of aging on immune system homeostasis. We first characterized GALT in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAMP8) at different ages (compared to mice resistant to accelerated senescence; SAMR1). Second, we analyzed the SDP effects on GALT response to an SEB challenge in SAMP8 mice. In GALT characterization, aging increased the cell number and the percentage of activated Th lymphocytes in mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches (all, p < 0.05), as well as the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in intestinal mucosa (both, p < 0.05). With respect to GALT response to the SEB challenge, young mice showed increased expression of intestinal IL-6 and TNF-α, as well as lymphocyte recruitment and activation (all, p < 0.05). However, the immune response of senescent mice to the SEB challenge was weak, since SEB did not change cell recruitment or the percentage of activated Th lymphocytes. Mice supplemented with SDP showed improved capacity to respond to the SEB challenge, similar to the response of the young mice. These results indicate that senescent mice have an impaired mucosal immune response characterized by unspecific GALT activation and a weak specific immune response. SDP supplementation reduces non-specific basal immune activation, allowing for the generation of specific responses.

  15. Dietary Animal Plasma Proteins Improve the Intestinal Immune Response in Senescent Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluïsa Miró

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased life expectancy has promoted research on healthy aging. Aging is accompanied by increased non-specific immune activation (inflammaging which favors the appearance of several disorders. Here, we study whether dietary supplementation with spray-dried animal plasma (SDP, which has been shown to reduce the activation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT in rodents challenged by S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB, and can also prevent the effects of aging on immune system homeostasis. We first characterized GALT in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAMP8 at different ages (compared to mice resistant to accelerated senescence; SAMR1. Second, we analyzed the SDP effects on GALT response to an SEB challenge in SAMP8 mice. In GALT characterization, aging increased the cell number and the percentage of activated Th lymphocytes in mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches (all, p < 0.05, as well as the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in intestinal mucosa (both, p < 0.05. With respect to GALT response to the SEB challenge, young mice showed increased expression of intestinal IL-6 and TNF-α, as well as lymphocyte recruitment and activation (all, p < 0.05. However, the immune response of senescent mice to the SEB challenge was weak, since SEB did not change cell recruitment or the percentage of activated Th lymphocytes. Mice supplemented with SDP showed improved capacity to respond to the SEB challenge, similar to the response of the young mice. These results indicate that senescent mice have an impaired mucosal immune response characterized by unspecific GALT activation and a weak specific immune response. SDP supplementation reduces non-specific basal immune activation, allowing for the generation of specific responses.

  16. Numerical simulation of plasma response to externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation on the J-TEXT tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicheng, LI; Zhonghe, JIANG; Jian, LV; Xiang, LI; Bo, RAO; Yonghua, DING

    2018-05-01

    Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of an equilibrium on the J-TEXT tokamak with applied resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) are performed with NIMROD (non-ideal MHD with rotation, open discussion). Numerical simulation of plasma response to RMPs has been developed to investigate magnetic topology, plasma density and rotation profile. The results indicate that the pure applied RMPs can stimulate 2/1 mode as well as 3/1 mode by the toroidal mode coupling, and finally change density profile by particle transport. At the same time, plasma rotation plays an important role during the entire evolution process.

  17. The effects of testosterone on immune function in quail selected for divergent plasma corticosterone response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark L; Buchanan, Katherine L; Evans, Matthew R; Marin, Raul H; Satterlee, Daniel G

    2009-10-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) suggests that the male sex hormone testosterone has a dual effect; it controls the development and expression of male sexually selected signals, and it suppresses the immune system. Therefore only high quality males are able to fully express secondary sexual traits because only they can tolerate the immunosuppressive qualities of testosterone. A modified version of the ICHH suggests that testosterone causes immunosuppression indirectly by increasing the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Lines of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) selected for divergent responses in levels of plasma CORT were used to test these hypotheses. Within each CORT response line (as well as in a control stock) we manipulated levels of testosterone in castrated quail by treatment with zero (sham), low or high testosterone implants, before testing the birds' humoral immunity and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced immune response, as well as body condition. The PHA-induced response was not significantly affected by CORT selected line, testosterone treatment or their interaction. There was, however, a significant effect of CORT line on humoral immunity in that the control birds exhibited the greatest antibody production, but there was no significant effect of testosterone manipulation on humoral immunity. The males in the sham implant treatment group had significantly greater mass than the males in the high testosterone group, suggesting a negative effect of high testosterone on general body condition. We discuss these results in the context of current hypotheses in the field of sexual selection.

  18. Analysis and Interpretation of the Plasma Dynamic Response to Additional Heating Power using different Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manini, A.

    2002-07-01

    development of this work, the Electron Cyclotron Emission system (ECE) of ASDEX Upgrade is crucial since it allows local measurements of the electron temperature with high temporal and spatial resolutions. The analysis and interpretation of perturbative MECH discharges for power deposition localisation using different diagnostics, such as ECE and SXR measurements, are presented. The most important problem is related to the phase locking between the MECH and the sawtooth activity of the plasma, which disturbs both ECE and SXR measurements. Several techniques have been adopted to circumvent this difficulty. In particular, the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and the Generalised Singular Value Decomposition (GSVD) have been tested in both TCV and ASDEX Upgrade discharges. However, both methods are incapable of treating the problem correctly, which leads to potential misinterpretation of the results. A new method based on system identification using the SVD (SI-SVD) is developed and applied. This method, within reasonable limits induced by the assumption of linearity, is capable of simultaneously separating the MECH from the sawtooth contributions to both ECE electron temperature measurements and SXR emission measurements. Such a method is in particular applied to a NBI heated ASDEX Upgrade discharge in which MECH is added in order to analyse electron heat transport in a mostly ion-heated plasma. Since the NBI heating is also partly modulated with short pulses, which coincide with the sawtooth crashes to improve their stability, both the MECH and the NBI deposition profiles are determined. Moreover, treating the signals with the SI-SVD procedure enables a study of the plasma dynamic response also at higher MECH harmonic numbers. The procedure is then used to analyse MECH discharges in TCV using different diagnostics. The profiles determined using the ECE and soft X-ray measurements are compared and interpreted, demonstrating in particular that line integrated soft X

  19. Thermal response of plasma sprayed tungsten coating to high heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Yang, L.; Tamura, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Yoshida, N.; Noda, N.; Xu, Z.

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the thermal response of tungsten coating on carbon and copper substrates by vacuum plasma spray (VPS) or inert gas plasma spray (IPS), annealing and cyclic heat load experiments of these coatings were conducted. It is indicated that the multi-layered tungsten and rhenium interface of VPS-W/CFC failed to act as a diffusion barrier at elevated temperature and tungsten carbides were developed after 1 h incubation time when annealing temperature was higher than 1600 deg. C. IPS-W/Cu and W/C without an intermediate bonding layer were failed by the detachment of the tungsten coating at 900 and 1200 deg. C annealing for several hours, respectively. Cyclic heat load of electron beam with 35 MW/m 2 and 3-s pulse duration indicated that IPS-W/Cu samples failed with local detachment of the tungsten coating within 200 cycles and IPS-W/C showed local cracks by 300 cycles, but VPS-W/CFC withstood 1000 cycles without visible damages. However, crack creation and propagation in VPS-W/CFC were also observed under higher heat load

  20. The thermal response of the first wall of a fusion reactor blanket to plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klippel, H.Th.

    1983-09-01

    Major plasma disruptions in Tokamak power reactors are potentially dangerous because high thermal overloading of the first wall may occur, resulting in melting and evaporation. The present uncertainties of the disruption characteristics, in particular the space and time dependence of the energy deposition, lead to a wide variation in the prospective surface energy loads. The thermal response of a first wall of aluminium, stainless steel and of graphite subjected to disruption energy loads up to 1000 J cm -2 has been analysed including the effects of melting and surface evaporation, vapour recondensation, vapour shielding, and the moving of the surface boundary caused by the evaporation. A special calculation model has been developed for this purpose. The main results are the following: by values of local transient energy depositions over 1500 J cm -2 bare stainless steel walls are damaged severely. Further calculations are needed to estimate the endurance limit of several candidate first wall materials. Applications of coatings on surfaces need special attention. For the reference INTOR disruption (approx. 100 J cm -2 ) evaporation is not significant. The effect of vapour shielding on evaporation has been found to be significant. The effect on melting is less pronounced. In a complete analysis the stability and dynamic behaviour of the melted layer under electromagnetic forces should be included. Also a reliable set of plasma disruption characteristics should be gathered

  1. Attenuation of acute plasma cortisol response in calves following intravenous sodium salicylate administration prior to castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, J F; Gehring, R; Bettenhausen, A C; Lubbers, B V; Toerber, S E; Thomson, D U; Kukanich, B; Apley, M D

    2007-08-01

    Pain associated with castration in cattle is an animal welfare concern in beef production. This study examined the effect of oral aspirin and intravenous (i.v.) sodium salicylate on acute plasma cortisol response following surgical castration. Twenty bulls, randomly assigned to the following groups, (i) uncastrated, untreated controls, (ii) castrated, untreated controls, (iii) 50 mg/kg sodium salicylate i.v. precastration and (iv) 50 mg/kg aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) per os precastration, were blood sampled at 3, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 min and 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h postcastration. Samples were analyzed by competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay and fluorescence polarization immunoassay for cortisol and salicylate, respectively. Data were analyzed using noncompartmental analysis, a simple cosine model, anova and t-tests. Intravenous salicylate V(d(ss)) was 0.18 L/kg, Cl(B) was 3.36 mL/min/kg and t(1/2 lambda) was 0.63 h. Plasma salicylate concentrations above 25 microg/mL coincided with significant attenuation in peak cortisol concentrations (P = 0.029). Peak salicylate concentrations following oral aspirin administration was castrated groups was significantly higher than uncastrated controls (P = 0.018). These findings have implications for designing drug regimens to provide analgesia during routine animal husbandry procedures.

  2. Enhanced osteoblast responses to poly ether ether ketone surface modified by water plasma immersion ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heying; Lu, Tao; Meng, Fanhao; Zhu, Hongqin; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-05-01

    Poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) offers a set of characteristics superior for human implants; however, its application is limited by the bio-inert surface property. In this work, PEEK surface was modified using single step plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treatment with a gas mixture of water vapor as a plasma resource and argon as an ionization assistant. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the microstructure and composition of the modified PEEK surface. The water contact angle and zeta-potential of the surfaces were also measured. Osteoblast precursor cells MC3T3-E1 and rat bone mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the PEEK samples to evaluate their cytocompatibility. The obtained results show that the hydroxyl groups as well as a "ravined structure" are constructed on water PIII modified PEEK. Compared with pristine PEEK, the water PIII treated PEEK is more favorable for osteoblast adhesion, spreading and proliferation, besides, early osteogenic differentiation indicated by the alkaline phosphatase activity is also up-regulated. Our study illustrates enhanced osteoblast responses to the PEEK surface modified by water PIII, which gives positive information in terms of future biomedical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Unconjugated oestetrol in plasma in response to an intravenous load of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHAS) in uncomplicated and complicated human pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, Ove

    1978-01-01

    A non-chromatographic radioimmunoassay for estimation of unconjugated oestetrol in plasma from pregnant women is described. The antiserum has a high specificity to oestetrol. The technical procedure is simple and rapid. Only small amounts of plasma (0.2-0.4 ml) are needed for the analysis. The method has been applied to the measurement of oestetrol in plasma from pregnant women before and after an intravenous injection of 50 mg DHAS. In women with uncomplicated pregnancies a rise of plasma oestetrol was found 60 min after the injection. From 120 to 360 min there was a plateau level, at 600 min a decrease from this level was observed. No changes in the oestetrol response were found with advancing gestational age from the 33rd to the 40th week of pregnancy. A great spread in the individual responses were recorded. Patients with pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation had a tendency to a lower increase and patients with diabetes a tendency to a higher increase of plasma oestetrol after the DHAS administration. From the data obtained it is concluded that the increase of plasma oestetrol after an intraveneous injection of DHAS in most cases is secondary to the increase of plasma oestradiol. The results suggest that measurement of unconjugated oestetrol in plasma after an intravenous load of DHAS is no safe way to assess foetal wellbeing. In women with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) the simultaneous measurement of plasma oestradiol and oestetrol after an injection of DHAS indicates a possibility to distinguish placental from foetal causes of this syndrome. (author)

  4. Plasma homovanillic acid levels in first-episode schizophrenia. Psychopathology and treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koreen, A R; Lieberman, J; Alvir, J; Mayerhoff, D; Loebel, A; Chakos, M; Amin, F; Cooper, T

    1994-02-01

    To examine plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels in first-episode schizophrenia, to compare pHVA levels in patients and controls, and to assess the association of pHVA levels with psychopathology and treatment response. Forty-one patients entered the study, and pHVA levels were measured at baseline and on a weekly basis for up to 6 weeks of open standardized neuroleptic treatment. Psychopathology was evaluated with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and the Clinical Global Impressions scale. Ten healthy controls were used for comparison of baseline pHVA levels. No differences were observed between patients and controls. Baseline pHVA level was not associated with psychopathology but was associated with time to reach remission. Baseline pHVA levels and week-1 pHVA levels were higher in responders than nonresponders. Regardless of responsiveness, female participants had higher pHVA levels than male participants throughout the study. The pattern of pHVA levels with treatment was similar in all patients with a short-term rise initially and then a decrease toward baseline values. These findings suggest that pHVA levels have prognostic significance for response and time to reach remission. Qualitative and quantitative differences between first-episode patients' pHVA levels and studies using a long-term, neuroleptic-exposed population suggest that changes occur with neuroleptic treatment or the progression of the illness.

  5. Changes in plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonists in response to adrenaline infusion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, S R; Ostrowski, K.; Ullum, H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of adrenaline in the response of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonists (ra) to extreme physiological conditions such as trauma and exercise, we examined the concentrations in the plasma of these cytokines during an adrenaline infusion. Given the fact...... that HIV infected patients have elevated levels of IL-6 in plasma, 12 HIV seropositive subjects and 6 HIV seronegative control subjects received a 1-h adrenaline infusion. Baseline concentrations of IL-6 and IL-1ra were higher in the HIV patients compared with the controls (P...), being most pronounced in the untreated subgroup of HIV infected patients (n = 6). The plasma concentration of adrenaline had increased 24-fold after 15 min of adrenaline infusion. The plasma concentration of IL-6 had increased by two- to threefold after 45 min of adrenaline infusion (P

  6. The response of the Tore Supra edge plasma to supersonic pulsed gas injection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, Radomír; Gunn, J. P.; Bucalossi, J.; Ďuran, Ivan; Geraud, A.; Hron, Martin; Loarer, T.; Pégourié, B.; Stöckel, Jan; Tsitrone, E.

    337-339, č. 16 (2005), s. 530-534 ISSN 0022-3115. [Plasma Surface Interactions /16./. Portland, 24.5.2005-28.5.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP202/03/P062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Edge plasma * Gas injection and fuelling * probes * Plasma flow * Tore Supra Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.414, year: 2005

  7. Cardio-respiratory and plasma lactate responses to exercise with low draught resistances in standardbred trotters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb-Vedi, M; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Lindholm, A

    1996-12-01

    Five Standardbred trotters performed treadmill exercise with incrementally increasing trotting velocities for 2 min intervals in three different tests until fatigue. Each test was performed with draught loads of either 10, 20 or 30 kilopond (kp). Each trotting interval was followed by 2 min periods at a walk without draught load. Recordings were made of heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), plasma lactate (PLA) and stride frequency (SF) at the end of each trotting interval. The HR increased to average values of 191 +/- 10,203 +/- 10 and 214 +/- 7 bpm and PLA increased to 3.8 +/- 0.7, 7.3 +/- 3.8 and 10.8 +/- 6.4 mmol/l at 9 m/s in the three tests, respectively. The HR response to exercise was significantly higher with increasing draught loads, and PLA was significantly higher with 30 kp compared to 10 kp draught resistance. The lowest respiratory rate was seen in the test with 30 kp loading. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was measured in a separate test on a sloped treadmill with increasing velocities without draught load and averaged 70.4 +/- 9.11/min. Muscle biopsies were taken from the gluteus muscle. Individual variations were seen in VO2peak, muscle fibre composition and HR and PLA responses to exercise. In conclusion, at a certain velocity a small increase in draught resistance from 10 to 30 kp significantly increases both the HR and PLA responses. At comparable work intensities the horses differed in circulatory and metabolic responses to exercise.

  8. Combined Analysis of Plasma Amphiregulin and Heregulin Predicts Response to Cetuximab in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimio Yonesaka

    Full Text Available Amphiregulin, a ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, is associated with the efficacy of cetuximab, an antibody against EGFR, as treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC. In contrast, the HER3 ligand heregulin correlates with cetuximab resistance. In this study, we evaluated how the combined levels of circulating amphiregulin and heregulin affect clinical outcomes in patients who receive cetuximab as therapy against advanced CRC.Plasma levels of amphiregulin and heregulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 50 patients with CRC in a training cohort, and in 10 patients in a validation cohort. The combined expression was then assessed with clinical outcome after receiver operating characteristics analysis.Overall response rate was 26%, and median progression-free survival was 110 days in the training cohort. Patients with high amphiregulin and low heregulin had significantly higher objective response rate at 58% and significantly longer progression-free survival of 216 days. This result was confirmed in the validation cohort.A subgroup of CRC patients with high amphiregulin and low heregulin respond to cetuximab therapy better than other patients.

  9. Analysis of plasma dynamic response to modulated electron cyclotron heating in TCV tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, I.

    2008-01-01

    different types of modulating signals. This set-up was used to study simultaneous propagation of heat waves induced by MECH in non-sawtoothing plasmas, and in discharges with sawtooth activity. A new analysis method for the characterization of the plasma non-linear dynamic response to modulated heating was developed on the basis of Higher Order Spectral Analysis (HOSA) technique. This method applied to signals from different diagnostics, such as electron cyclotron emission and soft X-ray measurements, was extensively used to quantitatively characterize the effect of nonlinear phase coupling. In sawtooth free discharges a detailed analysis of the propagation of heat waves demonstrated that their phase coupling is solely related to properties of heat sources. It was demonstrated that if two heat waves are induced by non-coupled power sources (multi-beam MECH) then no phase coupling occurs. In the opposite case, when a source of perturbation (MECH) contains coupled harmonics, the corresponding heat waves demonstrate phase coupling. It was shown that these coupled heat waves loose their phase coherence while propagating in plasma. The dissipation of phase coupling is due to different phase velocities of heat waves and their diffusive damping. The new type of ECH power modulation accompanied with bicoherence analysis was proposed as a candidate for a reliable identification of EC power deposition location in a case of high frequency and low modulation depth MECH, including multi-beam heating. This type of MECH can be particularly important for real time control applications. In cases when MECH is applied to sawtoothing plasmas a direct experimental evidence of MECH-sawtooth non-linear phase coupling has been demonstrated using HOSA techniques, in particular bispectrum and bicoherence profiles. The detailed analysis presented here demonstrates a direct proof of periodic modification of sawtooth behavior by modulated ECH. It was shown that a simple diffusive model for the

  10. High exposure to nevirapine in plasma is associated with an improved virological response in HIV-1-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, A. I.; Weverling, G. J.; Lange, J. M.; Montaner, J. S.; Reiss, P.; Cooper, D. A.; Vella, S.; Hall, D.; Beijnen, J. H.; Hoetelmans, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore relationships between exposure to nevirapine and the virological response in HIV-1-infected individuals participating in the INCAS trial. METHODS: The elimination rate constant of plasma HIV-1 RNA (k) was calculated during the first 2 weeks of treatment with nevirapine,

  11. Response of testosterone and corticosterone plasma levels to the challenge of sibling competition : A study in common terns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braasch, Alexander; Becker, Peter H.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2014-01-01

    The hormonal response to social challenges has been widely studied, however, most work focused on adult behavior in a reproductive context although developing animals also encounter important social challenges early in life. We studied the relationship between acute sibling competition and plasma

  12. RACLETTE: a model for evaluating the thermal response of plasma facing components to slow high power plasma transients. Pt. II. Analysis of ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Raffray, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., p.85-100, 1997. The transient thermal model RACLETTE (acronym of Rate Analysis Code for pLasma Energy Transfer Transient Evaluation) described in part I of this paper is applied here to analyse the heat transfer and erosion effects of various slow (100 ms-10 s) high power energy transients on the actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). These have a strong bearing on the PFC design and need careful analysis. The relevant parameters affecting the heat transfer during the plasma excursions are established. The temperature variation with time and space is evaluated together with the extent of vaporisation and melting (the latter only for metals) for the different candidate armour materials considered for the design (i.e., Be for the primary first wall, Be and CFCs for the limiter, Be, W, and CFCs for the divertor plates) and including for certain cases low-density vapour shielding effects. The critical heat flux, the change of the coolant parameters and the possible severe degradation of the coolant heat removal capability that could result under certain conditions during these transients, for example for the limiter, are also evaluated. Based on the results, the design implications on the heat removal performance and erosion damage of the various ITER PFCs are critically discussed and some recommendations are made for the selection of the most adequate protection materials and optimum armour thickness. (orig.)

  13. RACLETTE: a model for evaluating the thermal response of plasma facing components to slow high power plasma transients. Part II: Analysis of ITER plasma facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Gianfranco; Raffray, A. René

    1997-04-01

    The transient thermal model RACLETTE (acronym of Rate Analysis Code for pLasma Energy Transfer Transient Evaluation) described in part I of this paper is applied here to analyse the heat transfer and erosion effects of various slow (100 ms-10 s) high power energy transients on the actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). These have a strong bearing on the PFC design and need careful analysis. The relevant parameters affecting the heat transfer during the plasma excursions are established. The temperature variation with time and space is evaluated together with the extent of vaporisation and melting (the latter only for metals) for the different candidate armour materials considered for the design (i.e., Be for the primary first wall, Be and CFCs for the limiter, Be, W, and CFCs for the divertor plates) and including for certain cases low-density vapour shielding effects. The critical heat flux, the change of the coolant parameters and the possible severe degradation of the coolant heat removal capability that could result under certain conditions during these transients, for example for the limiter, are also evaluated. Based on the results, the design implications on the heat removal performance and erosion damage of the variuos ITER PFCs are critically discussed and some recommendations are made for the selection of the most adequate protection materials and optimum armour thickness.

  14. Gene expression responses of HeLa cells to chemical species generated by an atmospheric plasma flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Mayo, E-mail: yokoyama@plasma.ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Johkura, Kohei, E-mail: kohei@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Department of Histology and Embryology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sato, Takehiko, E-mail: sato@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Response of HeLa cells to a plasma-irradiated medium was revealed by DNA microarray. • Gene expression pattern was basically different from that in a H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-added medium. • Prominently up-/down-regulated genes were partly shared by the two media. • Gene ontology analysis showed both similar and different responses in the two media. • Candidate genes involved in response to ROS were detected in each medium. - Abstract: Plasma irradiation generates many factors able to affect the cellular condition, and this feature has been studied for its application in the field of medicine. We previously reported that hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was the major cause of HeLa cell death among the chemical species generated by high level irradiation of a culture medium by atmospheric plasma. To assess the effect of plasma-induced factors on the response of live cells, HeLa cells were exposed to a medium irradiated by a non-lethal plasma flow level, and their gene expression was broadly analyzed by DNA microarray in comparison with that in a corresponding concentration of 51 μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. As a result, though the cell viability was sufficiently maintained at more than 90% in both cases, the plasma-medium had a greater impact on it than the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed fundamentally different cellular responses between these two media. A larger population of genes was upregulated in the plasma-medium, whereas genes were downregulated in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium. However, a part of the genes that showed prominent differential expression was shared by them, including an immediate early gene ID2. In gene ontology analysis of upregulated genes, the plasma-medium showed more diverse ontologies than the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium, whereas ontologies such as “response to stimulus” were common, and several genes corresponded to “response to reactive oxygen species.” Genes of AP-1 proteins, e.g., JUN

  15. Plasma C-type natriuretic peptide as a predictor for therapeutic response to metoprolol in children with postural tachycardia syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    Full Text Available POTS is a global public-health disease, but predictor for therapeutic response to metoprolol in children with POTS is lacking. This study was designed to investigate predictive value of plasma C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP in the therapeutic efficacy of metoprolol on postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS in children. Totally 34 children with POTS and 27 healthy children were included in the study. The head-up test or head-up tilt test was used to check heart rate and blood pressure from supine to upright in subjects. A double antibody (competitive sandwich immunoluminometric assay was used to detect plasma CNP. Metoprolol was used to treat children with POTS. The difference in plasma concentrations of CNP between responders and non-responders was compared. An ROC curve was used to analyze plasma CNP to predict efficacy of metoprolol on POTS in children. Plasma CNP in children with POTS was significantly higher than that of healthy children [(51.9 ± 31.4 vs. (25.1 ± 19.1 pg/ml, P 32.55 pg/ml yielded a sensitivity of 95.8% and specificity of 70% in predicting therapeutic efficacy of metoprolol on POTS children. Plasma CNP might serve as a useful predictor for the therapeutic efficacy of metoprolol on POTS in children.

  16. Long-term heat stress induces the inflammatory response in dairy cows revealed by plasma proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Shengguo; Cheng, Jianbo; Yang, Yongxin; Zhang, Yangdong; Yang, Hongjian; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-04

    In this work we employed a comparative proteomic approach to evaluate seasonal heat stress and investigate proteomic alterations in plasma of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows were used and the treatments were: heat stress (n = 6) in hot summer (at the beginning of the moderate heat stress) and no heat stress (n = 6) in spring natural ambient environment, respectively. Subsequently, heat stress treatment lasted 23 days (at the end of the moderate heat stress) to investigate the alterations of plasma proteins, which might be employed as long-term moderate heat stress response in dairy cows. Changes in plasma proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the properties of the identified proteins revealed that the alterations of plasma proteins were related to inflammation in long-term moderate heat stress. Furthermore, the increase in plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) directly demonstrated that long-term moderate heat stress caused an inflammatory response in dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Response to ''Comment on 'Acoustic solitons in inhomogenous pair-ion plasmas''' [Phys. Plasmas 18, 054701 (2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Asif; Mahmood, S.; Haque, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The quantity n p0 (0) is different from n p0 (x) and same is true for v p0 (0), v p0 (x). Taking these differences into account and considering the mathematical relation v p0 (x)= 1/n p0 (x), it can easily be shown that derivatives of these space dependent densities and velocities are linked through the relation ∂v p0 (x)/∂η=-1/n p0 2 (x)∂n p0 (x)/∂η. We show that constraint (1) of the comment can also be transformed to derivative transformation relation. This derivative transformation relation can be used in the derivation of the KdV like equation and our model is valid for inhomogenous pair ion plasma. We mathematically and physically prove that the objections in the comment are false and baseless.

  18. THE CONTAMINANT-ASSOCIATED STRESS RESPONSE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO PLASMA STRESS AND SEX STERIOD CONCENTRATIONS IN THE FLORIDA GAR, LEPISOSTEUS PLATYRHINCUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminants can alter the stress response. This study examined the stress response, defined by plasma cortisol concentration, and its relationship to plasma estradiol-17b and testosterone concentrations in adult gar collected from Lake Apopka, Orange Lake and Lake Woodruff NWR, ...

  19. Experimental and theoretical investigations of mechanisms responsible for plasma jets formation at PALS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Demchenko, N. N.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Kálal, M.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2009), s. 415-427 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : Laser-plasma interaction * laser produced-plasma jet * radiative cooling * target irradiation geometry * PALS laser * laser interferometry Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.420, year: 2008

  20. Response of Jupiter's Aurora to Plasma Mass Loading Rate Monitored by the Hisaki Satellite During Volcanic Eruptions at Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, T.; Hiraki, Y.; Tao, C.; Tsuchiya, F.; Delamere, P. A.; Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Yamazaki, A.; Kita, H.; Badman, S. V.; Fukazawa, K.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2018-03-01

    The production and transport of plasma mass are essential processes in the dynamics of planetary magnetospheres. At Jupiter, it is hypothesized that Io's volcanic plasma carried out of the plasma torus is transported radially outward in the rotating magnetosphere and is recurrently ejected as plasmoid via tail reconnection. The plasmoid ejection is likely associated with particle energization, radial plasma flow, and transient auroral emissions. However, it has not been demonstrated that plasmoid ejection is sensitive to mass loading because of the lack of simultaneous observations of both processes. We report the response of plasmoid ejection to mass loading during large volcanic eruptions at Io in 2015. Response of the transient aurora to the mass loading rate was investigated based on a combination of Hisaki satellite monitoring and a newly developed analytic model. We found that the transient aurora frequently recurred at a 2-6 day period in response to a mass loading increase from 0.3 to 0.5 t/s. In general, the recurrence of the transient aurora was not significantly correlated with the solar wind, although there was an exceptional event with a maximum emission power of 10 TW after the solar wind shock arrival. The recurrence of plasmoid ejection requires the precondition that an amount comparable to the total mass of magnetosphere, 1.5 Mt, is accumulated in the magnetosphere. A plasmoid mass of more than 0.1 Mt is necessary in case that the plasmoid ejection is the only process for mass release.

  1. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-10-05

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations.

  2. Osteoblastic cell response to spark plasma-sintered zirconia/titanium cermets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, Elisa; Guillem-Marti, Jordi; Gutierrez-Gonzalez, Carlos F; Fernandez, Adolfo; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Lopez-Esteban, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic/metal composites, cermets, arise from the idea to combine the dissimilar properties in the pure materials. This work aims to study the biocompatibility of new micro-nanostructured 3 Y-TZP/Ti materials with 25, 50 and 75 vol.% Ti, which have been successfully obtained by spark slasma sintering technology, as well as to correlate their surface properties (roughness, wettability and chemical composition) with the osteoblastic cell response. All samples had isotropic and slightly waved microstructure, with sub-micrometric average roughness. Composites with 75 vol.% Ti had the highest surface hydrophilicity. Surface chemical composition of the cermets correlated well with the relative amounts used for their fabrication. A cell viability rate over 80% dismissed any cytotoxicity risk due to manufacturing. Cell adhesion and early differentiation were significantly enhanced on materials containing the nanostructured 3 Y-TZP phase. Proliferation and differentiation of SaOS-2 were significantly improved in their late-stage on the composite with 75 vol.% Ti that, from the osseointegration standpoint, is presented as an excellent biomaterial for bone replacement. Thus, spark plasma sintering is consolidated as a suitable technology for manufacturing nanostructured biomaterials with enhanced bioactivity. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Response of a core coherent density oscillation on electron cyclotron resonance heating in Heliotron J plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Lu, X. X.; Kenmochi, N.; Ida, K.; Ohshima, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Kado, S.; Kokubu, D.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Otani, Y.; Mizuuchi, T.

    2018-01-01

    We report properties of a coherent density oscillation observed in the core region and its response to electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH) in Heliotron J plasma. The measurement was performed using a multi-channel beam emission spectroscopy system. The density oscillation is observed in a radial region between the core and the half radius. The poloidal mode number is found to be 1 (or 2). By modulating the ECH power with 100 Hz, repetition of formation and deformation of a strong electron temperature gradient, which is likely ascribed to be an electron internal transport barrier, is realized. Amplitude and rotation frequency of the coherent density oscillation sitting at the strong electron temperature gradient location are modulated by the ECH, while the poloidal mode structure remains almost unchanged. The change in the rotation velocity in the laboratory frame is derived. Assuming that the change of the rotation velocity is given by the background E × B velocity, a possible time evolution of the radial electric field was deduced.

  4. Investigating the Response of Loop Plasma to Nanoflare Heating Using RADYN Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, V.; Testa, P.; Allred, J.; De Pontieu, B.; Carlsson, M.; Pereira, T. M. D.; Gošić, Milan; Reale, Fabio

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of 1D hydrodynamic simulations of coronal loops that are subject to nanoflares, caused by either in situ thermal heating or nonthermal electron (NTE) beams. The synthesized intensity and Doppler shifts can be directly compared with Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations of rapid variability in the transition region (TR) of coronal loops, associated with transient coronal heating. We find that NTEs with high enough low-energy cutoff ({E}{{C}}) deposit energy in the lower TR and chromosphere, causing blueshifts (up to ∼20 km s‑1) in the IRIS Si IV lines, which thermal conduction cannot reproduce. The {E}{{C}} threshold value for the blueshifts depends on the total energy of the events (≈5 keV for 1024 erg, up to 15 keV for 1025 erg). The observed footpoint emission intensity and flows, combined with the simulations, can provide constraints on both the energy of the heating event and {E}{{C}}. The response of the loop plasma to nanoflares depends crucially on the electron density: significant Si IV intensity enhancements and flows are observed only for initially low-density loops (<109 cm‑3). This provides a possible explanation of the relative scarcity of observations of significant moss variability. While the TR response to single heating episodes can be clearly observed, the predicted coronal emission (AIA 94 Å) for single strands is below current detectability and can only be observed when several strands are heated closely in time. Finally, we show that the analysis of the IRIS Mg II chromospheric lines can help further constrain the properties of the heating mechanisms.

  5. Plasma response to sustainment with imposed-dynamo current drive in HIT-SI and HIT-SI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, A. C.; Jarboe, T. R.; Chandra, R. N.; Morgan, K. D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Penna, J. M.; Everson, C. J.; Nelson, B. A.

    2017-07-01

    The helicity injected torus—steady inductive (HIT-SI) program studies efficient, steady-state current drive for magnetic confinement plasmas using a novel experimental method. Stable, high-beta spheromaks have been sustained using steady, inductive current drive. Externally induced loop voltage and magnetic flux are oscillated together so that helicity and power injection are always positive, sustaining the edge plasma current indefinitely. Imposed-dynamo current drive (IDCD) theory further shows that the entire plasma current is sustained. The method is ideal for low aspect ratio, toroidal geometries with closed flux surfaces. Experimental studies of spheromak plasmas sustained with IDCD have shown stable magnetic profiles with evidence of pressure confinement. New measurements show coherent motion of a stable spheromak in response to the imposed perturbations. On the original device two helicity injectors were mounted on either side of the spheromak and the injected mode spectrum was predominantly n  =  1. Coherent, rigid motion indicates that the spheromak is stable and a lack of plasma-generated n  =  1 energy indicates that the maximum q is maintained below 1 during sustainment. Results from the HIT-SI3 device are also presented. Three inductive helicity injectors are mounted on one side of the spheromak flux conserver. Varying the relative injector phasing changes the injected mode spectrum which includes n  =  2, 3, and higher modes.

  6. Beta-lipotropin is the major component of the plasma opioid response to surgical stress in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porro, C.A.; Facchinetti, F.; Bertellini, E.; Petraglia, F.; Stacca, R.; Barbieri, G.C.; Genazzani, A.R.

    1987-12-07

    There is growing experimental evidence that beta-endorphin immunoreactivity is raised by surgical stress in patients undergoing general anesthesia. As the assay methods employed to date did not allow to fully discriminate between beta-endorphin and its immediate precursor, beta-lipotropin, the authors have investigated in the present study plasma levels of these two peptides by separating them by chromatography on plasma extracts prior to radioimmunoassay. Beta-lipotropin, but not beta-endorphin, plasma levels were found to be significantly elevated during surgery in the general anesthesia group, while no change was found in either peptide concentration in the spinal one. Cortisol plasma levels also increased significantly 90 minutes after the beginning of surgery. Although the sampling time they adopted may have prevented them from detecting an early peak of beta-endorphin during the first 30 minutes of surgery, the major component of the pituitary opioid response to surgical stress appears to be related to beta-lipotropin. This is in agreement with results of experimental work on various kinds of stress in animals and humans and seems to rule out a role for plasma beta-endorphin in post-operative analgesia. 38 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  7. Variability of plasma and urine betaine in diabetes mellitus and its relationship to methionine load test responses: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lever Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor, and abnormal betaine loss is common in diabetes mellitus (>20% patients, we investigated the relationship between betaine and the post-methionine load rise in homocysteine, in diabetes and control subjects. The post-methionine load test is reported to be both an independent vascular risk factor and a measure of betaine sufficiency. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 34 and control subjects (n = 17 were recruited. We measured baseline fasting plasma and 4-hour post-methionine load (L-methionine, 0.1 mg/kg body weight concentrations of homocysteine, betaine, and the betaine metabolite N,N-dimethylglycine. Baseline urine excretions of betaine, dimethylglycine and glucose were measured on morning urine samples as the ratio to urine creatinine. Statistical determinants of the post-methionine load increase in homocysteine were identified in multiple linear regression models. Results Plasma betaine concentrations and urinary betaine excretions were significantly (p p = 0.00014 and plasma dimethylglycine concentrations (p = 0.039 were also more variable. In diabetes, plasma betaine was a significant negative determinant (p  Conclusions Both high and low plasma betaine concentrations, and high and low urinary betaine excretions, are more prevalent in diabetes. The availability of betaine affects the response in the methionine load test. The benefits of increasing betaine intake should be investigated.

  8. Reproductive organ and vascular specific promoter of the rice plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase mediates environmental stress responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Kazi Md Kamrul; Banu, Mst Sufara Akhter; Pathi, Krishna Mohan; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Plasma membrane Ca(2+)ATPase is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells and helps in removal of calcium (Ca(2+)) from the cell, hence regulating Ca(2+) level within cells. Though plant Ca(2+)ATPases have been shown to be involved in plant stress responses but their promoter regions have not been well studied. The 1478 bp promoter sequence of rice plasma membrane Ca(2+)ATPase contains cis-acting elements responsive to stresses and plant hormones. To identify the functional region, serial deletions of the promoter were fused with the GUS sequence and four constructs were obtained. These were differentially activated under NaCl, PEG cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate treatments. We demonstrated that the rice plasma membrane Ca(2+)ATPase promoter is responsible for vascular-specific and multiple stress-inducible gene expression. Only full-length promoter showed specific GUS expression under stress conditions in floral parts. High GUS activity was observed in roots with all the promoter constructs. The -1478 to -886 bp flanking region responded well upon treatment with salt and drought. Only the full-length promoter presented cold-induced GUS expression in leaves, while in shoots slight expression was observed for -1210 and -886 bp flanking region. The -1210 bp deletion significantly responded to exogenous methyl viologen and abscisic acid induction. The -1210 and -886 bp flanking region resulted in increased GUS activity in leaves under methyl jasmonate treatments, whereas in shoots the -886 bp and -519 bp deletion gave higher expression. Salicylic acid failed to induce GUS activities in leaves for all the constructs. The rice plasma membrane Ca(2+)ATPase promoter is a reproductive organ-specific as well as vascular-specific. This promoter contains drought, salt, cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate related cis-elements, which regulated gene expression. Overall, the tissue-specificity and inducible nature of this

  9. Experimental studies of high-confinement mode plasma response to non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttrop, W.; Kirk, A.; Nazikian, R.; Leuthold, N.; Strumberger, E.; Willensdorfer, M.; Cavedon, M.; Dunne, M.; Fischer, R.; Fietz, S.; Fuchs, J. C.; Liu, Y. Q.; McDermott, R. M.; Orain, F.; Ryan, D. A.; Viezzer, E.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The DIII-D Team; The Eurofusion MST1 Team

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of externally applied small non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations (MP) with tokamak high-confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas is reviewed and illustrated by recent experiments in ASDEX Upgrade. The plasma response to the vacuum MP field is amplified by stable ideal kink modes with low toroidal mode number n driven by the H-mode edge pressure gradient (and associated bootstrap current) which is experimentally evidenced by an observable shift of the poloidal mode number m away from field alignment (m  =  qn, with q being the safety factor) at the response maximum. A torque scan experiment demonstrates the importance of the perpendicular electron flow for shielding of the resonant magnetic perturbation, as expected from a two-fluid MHD picture. Two significant effects of MP occur in H-mode plasmas at low pedestal collisionality, ν \\text{ped}\\ast≤slant 0.4 : (a) a reduction of the global plasma density by up to 61 % and (b) a reduction of the energy loss associated with edge localised modes (ELMs) by a factor of up to 9. A comprehensive database of ELM mitigation pulses at low {ν\\ast} in ASDEX Upgrade shows that the degree of ELM mitigation correlates with the reduction of pedestal pressure which in turn is limited and defined by the onset of ELMs, i. e. a modification of the ELM stability limit by the magnetic perturbation.

  10. Histological response to platelet-rich plasma added to polypropylene mesh implemented in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rubini Ávila

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The platelet-rich plasma (PRP is part of a set of biotechnologies, providing some growth factors that promote repair of different tissues. The polypropylene meshes (PPM are applied in the correction of abdominal defects, pelvic floor and urinary incontinence, however, they induce many significant complications, as a result of an inappropriate inflammatory response. Purpose: To investigate the changes caused by PRP associated with the implantation of PPM in the abdomen of female rabbits, in the production of collagen I and III and the inflammatory infiltrate (ININ. Materials and Methods: We performed implant meshes with and without PRP in adult rabbits (n=30 and euthanasia at 7, 30 and 90 days. Two plates were prepared from each animal and analyzed in five different fields. The ININ was evaluated by quantification of inflammatory cells using hematoxylin-eosin and the collagen by Sirius red method. The results were analyzed applying the Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, Junckheere and Friedmann tests. Results: There was a significant difference in the number of inflammatory cells between the groups with and without PRP (p=0.01 at 90 days. There was increased production of collagen I, III and total with the use of PRP, at seven days. Conclusion: The PPM coating with PRP was associated with increased ININ at the implant area, and an increasing trend during the process of tissue repair. The PPM coated with PRP was related to increased concentration of collagen I, collagen III and the concentration of total collagen increased after seven days of implantation.

  11. Measurements of the vacuum-plasma response in EXTRAP T2R using generic closed-loop subspace system identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, K. Erik J., E-mail: erik.olofsson@ee.kth.se [School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden); Brunsell, Per R.; Drake, James R. [School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unstable plasma response safely measured using special signal processing techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction-capable MIMO models obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Computational statistics employed to show physical content of these models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multifold cross-validation applied for the supervised learning problem. - Abstract: A multibatch formulation of a multi-input multi-output closed-loop subspace system identification method is employed for the purpose of obtaining control-relevant models of the vacuum-plasma response in the magnetic confinement fusion experiment EXTRAP T2R. The accuracy of the estimate of the plant dynamics is estimated by computing bootstrap replication statistics of the dataset. It is seen that the thus identified models exhibit both predictive capabilities and physical spectral properties.

  12. Elevated plasma glucosylsphingosine in Gaucher disease: relation to phenotype, storage cell markers, and therapeutic response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Nick; van Dussen, Laura; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Overkleeft, Herman; Scheij, Saskia; Ghauharali, Karen; van Breemen, Mariëlle J.; Ferraz, Maria J.; Groener, Johanna E. M.; Maas, Mario; Wijburg, Frits A.; Speijer, Dave; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Mistry, Pramod K.; Boot, Rolf G.; Aerts, Johannes M.

    2011-01-01

    Gaucher disease, caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase, leads to prominent glucosylceramide accumulation in lysosomes of tissue macrophages (Gaucher cells). Here we show glucosylsphingosine, the deacylated form of glucosylceramide, to be markedly increased in plasma of

  13. PLASMA AND LUNG MACROPHAGE CAROTENOID RESPONSIVENESS TO SUPPLEMENTATION AND OZONE EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE:: To examine the effect of ozone exposure and vegetable juice supplementation on plasma and lung macrophage concentrations of carotenoids. DESIGN:: A randomized trial. SETTING:: Subjects were exposed to ambient air prior to antioxidant supplementation and to ozone after...

  14. Plasma Amino Acid Responses After Consumption of Beverages with Varying Protein Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    saturated fat Protein Total earbohydT;ltes dietary fiber soluble fiber total sugar lactose sucrose other carbohydrates (maltodextrin. cocoa powder...provided by the manufacturer, 6 Plasma Amino Acids 7 coagulate for 30 min before being centrifuged for 10 min at 3,600 rpm. Resulting plasma and serum...Therefore, consumers should be aware that these products might not contain the specific protein sources being advertised. Acknowledgment The authors

  15. Elevated plasma glucosylsphingosine in Gaucher disease: relation to phenotype, storage cell markers, and therapeutic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Nick; van Dussen, Laura; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Overkleeft, Herman; Scheij, Saskia; Ghauharali, Karen; van Breemen, Mariëlle J.; Ferraz, Maria J.; Groener, Johanna E. M.; Maas, Mario; Wijburg, Frits A.; Speijer, Dave; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Mistry, Pramod K.; Boot, Rolf G.

    2011-01-01

    Gaucher disease, caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase, leads to prominent glucosylceramide accumulation in lysosomes of tissue macrophages (Gaucher cells). Here we show glucosylsphingosine, the deacylated form of glucosylceramide, to be markedly increased in plasma of symptomatic nonneuronopathic (type 1) Gaucher patients (n = 64, median = 230.7nM, range 15.6-1035.2nM; normal (n = 28): median 1.3nM, range 0.8-2.7nM). The method developed for mass spectrometric quantification of plasma glucosylsphingosine is sensitive and robust. Plasma glucosylsphingosine levels correlate with established plasma markers of Gaucher cells, chitotriosidase (ρ = 0.66) and CCL18 (ρ = 0.40). Treatment of Gaucher disease patients by supplementing macrophages with mannose-receptor targeted recombinant glucocerebrosidase results in glucosylsphingosine reduction, similar to protein markers of Gaucher cells. Since macrophages prominently accumulate the lysoglycosphingolipid on glucocerebrosidase inactivation, Gaucher cells seem a major source of the elevated plasma glucosylsphingosine. Our findings show that plasma glucosylsphingosine can qualify as a biomarker for type 1 Gaucher disease, but that further investigations are warranted regarding its relationship with clinical manifestations of Gaucher disease. PMID:21868580

  16. Response of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chanjuan; Ge, Yuqing; Su, Lei; Bu, Jinjin

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the adaptation of plants to acid rain is important to find feasible approaches to alleviate such damage to plants. We studied effects of acid rain on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate during stress and recovery periods. Simulated acid rain at pH 5.5 did not affect plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription in leaves treated with acid rain at pH 3.5 was increased to maintain ion homeostasis by transporting excessive H(+) out of cells. Then intracellular H(+) was close to the control after a 5-day recovery, alleviating damage on membrane and sustaining photosynthetic efficiency and growth. Simulated acid rain at pH 2.5 inhibited plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity by decreasing the expression of H(+)-ATPase at transcription level, resulting in membrane damage and abnormal intracellular H(+), and reduction in photosynthetic efficiency and relative growth rate. After a 5-day recovery, all parameters in leaves treated with pH 2.5 acid rain show alleviated damage, implying that the increased plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and its high expression were involved in repairing process in acid rain-stressed plants. Our study suggests that plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase can play a role in adaptation to acid rain for rice seedlings.

  17. Early changes in plasma glucagon and growth hormone response to oral glucose in experimental hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, F; Moghetti, P; Castello, R; Negri, C; Bonora, E; Muggeo, M

    1996-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying deterioration of glucose tolerance associated with hyperthyroidism are not completely understood. Increases in glucagon and growth hormone (GH) secretion have been previously found in hyperthyroid subjects, and could play a crucial role in this phenomenon. However, studies have not yet established the time sequence of changes in plasma glucose on the one hand and glucagon and GH on the other. To assess the early effects of thyroid hormone excess on glucose tolerance and plasma concentrations of the main glucoregulatory hormones, 12 nondiabetic euthyroid subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before and after triiodothyronine ([T3] 120 micrograms/d) was administered for 10 days. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and GH were determined at fasting and after the glucose load. T3 administration caused a marked increase in serum T3 (8.8 +/- 0.6 v 2.0 +/- 0.1 nmol/L), with clinical and biochemical signs of thyrotoxicosis. During the treatment, plasma glucose significantly increased both at fasting and after the glucose load (basal, 5.3 +/- 0.1 v 4.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/L, P hormone excess rapidly impairs glucose tolerance. Altered secretion of GH is an early event in thyrotoxicosis accompanying the onset of hyperglycemia, whereas plasma glucagon is appropriately suppressed by the increased plasma glucose levels. Thus, GH but not glucagon may contribute to the early hyperglycemic effect of thyrotoxicosis.

  18. Fibroblastic response and surface characterization of O2-plasma-treated thermoplastic polyetherurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlicht, Henning; Wintermantel, Erich; Haugen, Haavard J; Sabetrasekh, Roya

    2010-01-01

    Injection-molded samples of thermoplastic polyetherurethane (TPU) were treated with low-temperature oxygen plasma for different processing times in order to enhance cellular attachment for a gastric implant. Its effects were investigated by contact angle measurement, surface topography, cytotoxicity and cell colonization tests. No significant changes were found in the surface roughness of plasma treatment with plasma treatment time of less than 5 min. Longer treatment showed significantly higher surface roughness. It seems that there was a link between the changes in contact angle and enhanced cell growth on the treated surface, although only for the range up to plasma treatment times of 3 min. Prolonged treatment times did not cause any major changes in the water contact angle, but strongly improved the number of growing cells on the surface. Plasma treatment for 3-7 min led to a twofold increase in the number of cells compared to untreated samples and did not significantly alter the WST-1 nor worsened the lactate dehydrogenase activity compared to the control. Thus, it appears that O 2 plasma treatment is a suitable surface modification method for a gastric implant made of TPU in order to improve surface cell attachment where 3-7 min is the recommended treatment time.

  19. Radiative response on massive noble gas injection for Runaway suppression in disruptive plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    The most direct way to avoid the formation of a relativistic electron beam under the influence of an electric field in a highly conducting plasma, is to increase the electron density to a value, where the retarding collisional force balances the accelerating one. In a disruptive tokamak plasma, rapid cooling induces a high electric field, which could easily violate the force balance and push electrons into the relativistic regime. Such relativistic electrons, the so-called runaways, accumulate many MeV's and can cause substantial damage when they hit the wall. This thesis is based on the principle of rapidly fueling the plasma for holding the force balance even under the influence of high electric fields typical for disruptions. The method of injecting high amounts of noble gas particles into the plasma from a close distance is put into practice in the ASDEX Upgrade fusion test facility. In the framework of this thesis, a multi-channel photometer system based on 144 AXUV detectors in a toroidal stereo measurement setup was built. It kept its promise to provide new insights into the transport mechanisms in a disruptive plasma under the influence of strong radiative interaction dynamics between injected matter and the hot plasma.

  20. Hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by liquid precursor plasma spraying: controlled dense and porous microstructures and osteoblastic cell responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yi; Song Lei; Liu Xiaoguang; Xiao Yanfeng; Wu Yao; Chen Jiyong; Wu Fang; Gu Zhongwei

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrates by a novel plasma spraying process, the liquid precursor plasma spraying (LPPS) process. X-ray diffraction results showed that the coatings obtained by the LPPS process were mainly composed of hydroxyapatite. The LPPS process also showed excellent control on the coating microstructure, and both nearly fully dense and highly porous hydroxyapatite coatings were obtained by simply adjusting the solid content of the hydroxyapatite liquid precursor. Scanning electron microscope observations indicated that the porous hydroxyapatite coatings had pore size in the range of 10-200 μm and an average porosity of 48.26 ± 0.10%. The osteoblastic cell responses to the dense and porous hydroxyapatite coatings were evaluated with human osteoblastic cell MG-63, in respect of the cell morphology, proliferation and differentiation, with the hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process as control. The cell experiment results indicated that the heat-treated LPPS coatings with a porous structure showed the best cell proliferation and differentiation among all the hydroxyapatite coatings. Our results suggest that the LPPS process is a promising plasma spraying technique for fabricating hydroxyapatite coatings with a controllable microstructure, which has great potential in bone repair and replacement applications.

  1. Effect of melatonin supplementation on plasma vasopressin response to different conditions in rats with hyperthyroidism induced by L-thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2010-04-09

    The present study was performed to determine how basal, isotonic, hypertonic and hypovolemic conditions affect fluid-electrolyte balance and plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels in rats with experimental hyperthyroidism supplemented with melatonin. The rats were divided into four groups of twenty-four subjects each kept under the following treatments during one month: (1) Controls; (2) treated with L-thyroxine; (3) treated with L-thyroxine and sham melatonin and (4) treated with L-thyroxine and melatonin. After this each group was further subdivided into subgroups that were subject to normal, isotonic, hypertonic and hypovolemic conditions. The plasma AVP, total triiodothyronine (TT(3)), total thyroxine (TT(4)) and melatonin levels were measured in plasma by means of a Phoenix Pharmaceutical RIA test kit. Hematocrit and osmolality levels were also determined. There were significant increases of total T3 and T4 levels in the L-thyroxine treated groups, p<0.001. The AVP levels were also increased in groups 2 and 3, but not so in the rats treated with melatonin (p<0.001), which also showed increased plasma melatonin levels (p<0.001). These results indicate that treatment with L-thyroxine increases stimulated and non-stimulated AVP release that are inhibited by melatonin supplementation. It was also shown that AVP response to hypertonic and hypovolemic conditions was not affected by L-thyroxine treatment and/or L-thyroxine+melatonin treatment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Riccati solution for the ideal MHD plasma response with applications to real-time stability control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Alexander; Kolemen, Egemen; Glasser, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    Active feedback control of ideal MHD stability in a tokamak requires rapid plasma stability analysis. Toward this end, we reformulate the δW stability method with a Hamilton-Jacobi theory, elucidating analytical and numerical features of the generic tokamak ideal MHD stability problem. The plasma response matrix is demonstrated to be the solution of an ideal MHD matrix Riccati differential equation. Since Riccati equations are prevalent in the control theory literature, such a shift in perspective brings to bear a range of numerical methods that are well-suited to the robust, fast solution of control problems. We discuss the usefulness of Riccati techniques in solving the stiff ordinary differential equations often encountered in ideal MHD stability analyses—for example, in tokamak edge and stellarator physics. We demonstrate the applicability of such methods to an existing 2D ideal MHD stability code—DCON [A. H. Glasser, Phys. Plasmas 23, 072505 (2016)]—enabling its parallel operation in near real-time, with wall-clock time ≪1 s . Such speed may help enable active feedback ideal MHD stability control, especially in tokamak plasmas whose ideal MHD equilibria evolve with inductive timescale τ≳ 1s—as in ITER.

  3. Measurements and modelling of plasma response field to RMP on the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markovič, Tomáš; Liu, Y.Q.; Cahyna, Pavel; Pánek, Radomír; Peterka, Matěj; Aftanas, Milan; Bílková, Petra; Böhm, Petr; Imríšek, Martin; Háček, Pavel; Havlíček, Josef; Havránek, Aleš; Komm, Michael; Urban, Jakub; Weinzettl, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 9 (2016), č. článku 092010. ISSN 0029-5515. [Joint Meeting of the 597th Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Seminar / 7th International Workshop on Stochasticity in Fusion Plasmas. Greifswald, 10.09.2015-12.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35260S; GA AV ČR(CZ) GA16-24724S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : RMP * magnetic measurements * MARS-F Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0029-5515/56/9/092010/meta

  4. Hydrodynamic effects of eroded materials on response of plasma-facing component during a tokamak disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1999-01-01

    Loss of plasma confinement causes surface and structural damage to plasma-facing materials (PFMs) and remains a major obstacle for tokamak reactors. The deposited plasma energy results in surface erosion and structural failure. The surface erosion consists of vaporization, spallation, and liquid splatter of metallic materials, while the structural damage includes large temperature increases in structural materials and at the interfaces between surface coatings and structural members. Comprehensive models (contained in the HEIGHTS computer simulation package) are being used self-consistently to evaluate material damage. Splashing mechanisms occur as a result of volume bubble boiling and liquid hydrodynamic instabilities and brittle destruction mechanisms of nonmelting materials. The effect of macroscopic erosion on total mass losses and lifetime is evaluated. The macroscopic erosion products may further protect PFMs from severe erosion (via the droplet-shielding effect) in a manner similar to that of the vapor shielding concept

  5. Response of cardiac endothelial nitric oxide synthase to plasma viscosity modulation in acute isovolemic hemodilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyanatt Kanokwiroon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS is generally expressed in endocardial cells, vascular endothelial cells and ventricular myocytes. However, there is no experimental study elucidating the relationship between cardiac eNOS expression and elevated plasma viscosity in low oxygen delivery pathological conditions such as hemorrhagic shock-resuscitation and hemodilution. This study tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma viscosity increases cardiac eNOS expression in a hemodilution model, leading to positive effects on cardiac performance. Materials and Methods: Two groups of golden Syrian hamster underwent an acute isovolemic hemodilution where 40% of blood volume was exchanged with 2% (low-viscogenic plasma expander [LVPE] or 6% (high-viscogenic plasma expander [HVPE] of dextran 2000 kDa. In control group, experiment was performed without hemodilution. All groups were performed in awake condition. Experimental parameters, i.e., mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, heart rate, hematocrit, blood gas content and viscosity, were measured. The eNOS expression was evaluated by eNOS Western blot analysis. Results: After hemodilution, MAP decreased to 72% and 93% of baseline in the LVPE and HVPE, respectively. Furthermore, pO 2 in the LVPE group increased highest among the groups. Plasma viscosity in the HVPE group was significantly higher than that in control and LVPE groups. The expression of eNOS in the HVPE group showed higher intensity compared to other groups, especially compared with the control group. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that cardiac eNOS has responded to plasma viscosity modulation with HVPE and LVPE. This particularly supports the previous studies that revealed the positive effects on cardiac function in animals hemodiluted with HVPE.

  6. Plasma and liver lipidomics response to an intervention of rimonabant in ApoE*3Leiden.CETP transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiu Hu

    Full Text Available Lipids are known to play crucial roles in the development of life-style related risk factors such as obesity, dyslipoproteinemia, hypertension and diabetes. The first selective cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker rimonabant, an anorectic anti-obesity drug, was frequently used in conjunction with diet and exercise for patients with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m(2 with associated risk factors such as type II diabetes and dyslipidaemia in the past. Less is known about the impact of this drug on the regulation of lipid metabolism in plasma and liver in the early stage of obesity.We designed a four-week parallel controlled intervention on apolipoprotein E3 Leiden cholesteryl ester transfer protein (ApoE*3Leiden.CETP transgenic mice with mild overweight and hypercholesterolemia. A liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometric approach was employed to investigate plasma and liver lipid responses to the rimonabant intervention. Rimonabant was found to induce a significant body weight loss (9.4%, p<0.05 and a significant plasma total cholesterol reduction (24%, p<0.05. Six plasma and three liver lipids in ApoE*3Leiden.CETP transgenic mice were detected to most significantly respond to rimonabant treatment. Distinct lipid patterns between the mice were observed for both plasma and liver samples in rimonabant treatment vs. non-treated controls. This study successfully applied, for the first time, systems biology based lipidomics approaches to evaluate treatment effects of rimonabant in the early stage of obesity.The effects of rimonabant on lipid metabolism and body weight reduction in the early stage obesity were shown to be moderate in ApoE*3Leiden.CETP mice on high-fat diet.

  7. Association between plasma antibody response and protection in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss immersion vaccinated against Yersinia ruckeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K Raida

    Full Text Available A key hallmark of the vertebrate adaptive immune system is the generation of antigen-specific antibodies from B cells. Fish are the most primitive gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates possessing an adaptive immune system. Vaccination of rainbow trout against enteric redmouth disease (ERM by immersion in Yersinia ruckeri bacterin confers a high degree of protection to the fish. The immune mechanisms responsible for protection may comprise both cellular and humoral elements but the role of specific immunoglobulins in this system has been questioned and not previously described. The present study demonstrates significant increase in plasma antibody titers following immersion vaccination and significantly reduced mortality during Y. ruckeri challenge.Rainbow trout were immersion-vaccinated, using either a commercial ERM vaccine (AquaVac™ ERM vet or an experimental Y. ruckeri bacterin. Half of the trout vaccinated with AquaVac™ ERM vet received an oral booster (AquaVac™ ERM Oral vet. Sub-groups of the fish from each group were subsequently exposed to 1 x 10⁹ CFU Y. ruckeri/ml either eight or twenty-six weeks post vaccination (wpv. All vaccinated groups showed 0% mortality when challenged, which was highly significant compared to the non-vaccinated controls (40 and 28% mortality eight and twenty-six weeks post vaccination (wpv, respectively (P<0.0001. Plasma samples from all groups of vaccinated fish were taken 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 26 wpv. and Y. ruckeri specific IgM antibody levels were measured with ELISA. A significant increase in titers was recorded in vaccinated fish, which also showed a reduced bacteremia during challenge. In vitro plasma studies showed a significantly increased bactericidal effect of fresh plasma from vaccinated fish indicating that plasma proteins may play a role in protection of vaccinated rainbow trout.

  8. Analysis of SF and plasma cytokines provides insights into the mechanisms of inflammatory arthritis and may predict response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Helen L; Bucknall, Roger C; Moots, Robert J; Edwards, Steven W

    2012-03-01

    Biologic drugs have revolutionized the care of RA, but are expensive and not universally effective. To further understand the inflammatory mechanisms underlying RA and identify potential biomarkers predicting response to therapy, we measured multiple cytokine concentrations in SF of patients with inflammatory arthritides (IAs) and, in a subset of patients with RA, correlated this with response to TNF-α inhibition. SF from 42 RA patients and 19 non-RA IA patients were analysed for 12 cytokines using a multiplex cytokine assay. Cytokines were also measured in the plasma of 16 RA patients before and following treatment with anti-TNF-α. Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney U-test, Spearman's rank correlation and cluster analysis with the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post-test analysis. RA SF contained significantly elevated levels of IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, G-CSF, GM-CSF and TNF-α compared with other IA SF. RA patients who did not respond to anti-TNF therapy had elevated IL-6 in their SF pre-therapy (P < 0.05), whereas responders had elevated IL-2 and G-CSF (P < 0.05). Plasma cytokine concentrations were not significantly modulated by TNF inhibitors, with the exception of IL-6, which decreased after 12 weeks (P < 0.05). Cytokine profiles in RA SF vary with treatment and response to therapy. Cytokine concentrations are significantly lower in plasma than in SF and relatively unchanged by TNF inhibitor therapy. Concentrations of IL-6, IL-2 and G-CSF in SF may predict response to TNF inhibitors.

  9. A combination of CO2 laser and plasma surface modification of poly(etheretherketone) to enhance osteoblast response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yanyan; Xiong, Chengdong; Wang, Zhecun; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • COOH and microgrooves containing micropores or microcraters structure were constructed on PEEK surface by a combination of CO 2 laser and plasma treatment. • The mechanical properties of PEEK are maintained after single or dual surface treatment. • Pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) adhesion, spreading and proliferation were improved remarkably on dual treated PEEK surface. • Cell pseudopodia protrude into the micropores or microcraters, in favor of forming firmer bone-implant integration. - Abstract: Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) is a rigid semicrystalline polymer that combines excellent mechanical properties, broad chemical resistance and bone-like stiffness and is widely used in biomedical fields. However, the bio-inert surface of PEEK tends to hinder its biomedical applications when direct osteointegration between the implants and the host tissue is desired. In this work, we demonstrate a dual modification method, which combines the laser and plasma surface treatment to combine advantages of both chemical states and microstructures for osteoblasts responses. While the plasma treatment introduces surface carboxyl groups (−COOH) onto PEEK surface, the laser treatment constructs microstructures over the PEEK surface. Our results indicated that −COOH as well as microgrooves containing micropores or microcraters structure are constructed on PEEK surface and plasma treatment has no apparent effect on the morphology of microstructures produced by laser micromachining. Unexpectedly, the superior mechanical properties of PEEK were maintained irrespective of the treatment used. Compared to native PEEK and single treated PEEK, dual modified PEEK is more favorable for pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) adhesion, spreading and proliferation. Moreover, cell pseudopodia protrude into the micropores or microcraters, in favor of forming firmer bone-implant integration. Our study illustrates enhanced osteoblasts responses to dual treated PEEK surface, which gives

  10. Glucose-stimulated insulin response in pregnant sheep following acute suppression of plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriskandarajah Nadarajah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations in non-pregnant animals have been reported to decrease pancreatic responsiveness. As ovine gestation advances, maternal insulin concentrations fall and NEFA concentrations increase. Experiments were designed to examine if the pregnancy-associated rise in NEFA concentration is associated with a reduced pancreatic sensitivity to glucose in vivo. We investigated the possible relationship of NEFA concentrations in regulating maternal insulin concentrations during ovine pregnancy at three physiological states, non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL, 105 and 135 days gestational age (dGA, term 147+/- 3 days. Methods The plasma concentrations of insulin, growth hormone (GH and ovine placental lactogen (oPL were determined by double antibody radioimmunoassay. Insulin responsiveness to glucose was measured using bolus injection and hyperglycaemic clamp techniques in 15 non-pregnant, non-lactating ewes and in nine pregnant ewes at 105 dGA and near term at 135 dGA. Plasma samples were also collected for hormone determination. In addition to bolus injection glucose and insulin Area Under Curve calculations, the Mean Plasma Glucose Increment, Glucose Infusion Rate and Mean Plasma Insulin Increment and Area Under Curve were determined for the hyperglycaemic clamp procedures. Statistical analysis of data was conducted with Students t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA and 2-way ANOVA. Results Maternal growth hormone, placental lactogen and NEFA concentrations increased, while basal glucose and insulin concentrations declined with advancing gestation. At 135 dGA following bolus glucose injections, peak insulin concentrations and insulin area under curve (AUC profiles were significantly reduced in pregnant ewes compared with NPNL control ewes (p Conclusions Results suggest that despite an acute suppression of circulating NEFA concentrations during pregnancy, the associated steroids and hormones

  11. A combination of CO{sub 2} laser and plasma surface modification of poly(etheretherketone) to enhance osteoblast response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yanyan [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xiong, Chengdong [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wang, Zhecun [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Xiaoyu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zhang, Lifang, E-mail: zhanglfcioc@163.com [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • COOH and microgrooves containing micropores or microcraters structure were constructed on PEEK surface by a combination of CO{sub 2} laser and plasma treatment. • The mechanical properties of PEEK are maintained after single or dual surface treatment. • Pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) adhesion, spreading and proliferation were improved remarkably on dual treated PEEK surface. • Cell pseudopodia protrude into the micropores or microcraters, in favor of forming firmer bone-implant integration. - Abstract: Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) is a rigid semicrystalline polymer that combines excellent mechanical properties, broad chemical resistance and bone-like stiffness and is widely used in biomedical fields. However, the bio-inert surface of PEEK tends to hinder its biomedical applications when direct osteointegration between the implants and the host tissue is desired. In this work, we demonstrate a dual modification method, which combines the laser and plasma surface treatment to combine advantages of both chemical states and microstructures for osteoblasts responses. While the plasma treatment introduces surface carboxyl groups (−COOH) onto PEEK surface, the laser treatment constructs microstructures over the PEEK surface. Our results indicated that −COOH as well as microgrooves containing micropores or microcraters structure are constructed on PEEK surface and plasma treatment has no apparent effect on the morphology of microstructures produced by laser micromachining. Unexpectedly, the superior mechanical properties of PEEK were maintained irrespective of the treatment used. Compared to native PEEK and single treated PEEK, dual modified PEEK is more favorable for pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) adhesion, spreading and proliferation. Moreover, cell pseudopodia protrude into the micropores or microcraters, in favor of forming firmer bone-implant integration. Our study illustrates enhanced osteoblasts responses to dual treated PEEK surface, which

  12. Plasma and liver acetaminophen-protein adduct levels in mice after acetaminophen treatment: Dose–response, mechanisms, and clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, Mitchell R.; Lebofsky, Margitta; Norris, Hye-Ryun K.; Slawson, Matthew H.; Bajt, Mary Lynn; Xie, Yuchao; Williams, C. David; Wilkins, Diana G.; Rollins, Douglas E.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    At therapeutic doses, acetaminophen (APAP) is a safe and effective analgesic. However, overdose of APAP is the principal cause of acute liver failure in the West. Binding of the reactive metabolite of APAP (NAPQI) to proteins is thought to be the initiating event in the mechanism of hepatotoxicity. Early work suggested that APAP-protein binding could not occur without glutathione (GSH) depletion, and likely only at toxic doses. Moreover, it was found that protein-derived APAP-cysteine could only be detected in serum after the onset of liver injury. On this basis, it was recently proposed that serum APAP-cysteine could be used as diagnostic marker of APAP overdose. However, comprehensive dose–response and time course studies have not yet been done. Furthermore, the effects of co-morbidities on this parameter have not been investigated. We treated groups of mice with APAP at multiple doses and measured liver GSH and both liver and plasma APAP-protein adducts at various timepoints. Our results show that protein binding can occur without much loss of GSH. Importantly, the data confirm earlier work that showed that protein-derived APAP-cysteine can appear in plasma without liver injury. Experiments performed in vitro suggest that this may involve multiple mechanisms, including secretion of adducted proteins and diffusion of NAPQI directly into plasma. Induction of liver necrosis through ischemia–reperfusion significantly increased the plasma concentration of protein-derived APAP-cysteine after a subtoxic dose of APAP. While our data generally support the measurement of serum APAP-protein adducts in the clinic, caution is suggested in the interpretation of this parameter. - Highlights: • Extensive GSH depletion is not required for APAP-protein binding in the liver. • APAP-protein adducts appear in plasma at subtoxic doses. • Proteins are adducted in the cell and secreted out. • Coincidental liver injury increases plasma APAP-protein adducts at subtoxic doses

  13. Plasma catecholamine and corticosterone responses to predictable and unpredictable noise stress in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Gugten, J; Slangen, J L; de Boer, S.F.

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) increases were determined in individual rats subjected to either 20 regularly or irregularly scheduled white-noise stimulations (4 min, 100 dBA). Blood was frequently sampled during the first and twentieth noise exposure, and during a

  14. Plasma Oxytocin Immunoreactive Products and Response to Trust in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, EA; Lawson, EA; Metcalf, CA; Keshaviah, A; Zak, PJ; Pollack, MH; Simon, NM

    2013-01-01

    Background Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (GSAD) is characterized by excessive fear and avoidance of several types of social and performance situations. The pathophysiology is not well understood, but research in animals and humans has provided evidence that oxytocin helps regulate normal social affiliative behavior. Previous work in healthy male subjects demonstrated a rise in plasma oxytocin after receiving a high trust signal. To examine the oxytocin system in GSAD, we measured plasma oxytocin in GSAD patients and controls, before and after the social “Trust Game,” a neuroeconomic test examining trust behavior and reaction to trust using real monetary incentives. Methods Thirty-nine subjects with GSAD and 28 healthy controls provided three blood samples for oxytocin measurement before the Trust Game, and one sample after the game. Plasma estradiol was also measured at baseline. The Trust Game protocol version prioritized the sending of a signal of high cooperation and trust to all participants. All analyses controlled for gender and estradiol levels. Results Mean oxytocin levels post-Trust Game (p=0.025), and overall (area under the curve, p=0.011) were lower in GSAD patients compared to controls, after controlling for sex and estradiol. There was no significant change in oxytocin levels after the Game in either group. Conclusions We report low plasma oxytocin levels in patients with generalized social anxiety disorder during a pro-social laboratory task paradigm. Additional research will be important to further examine the relationship between oxytocin and social behavior in GSAD. PMID:22807189

  15. Plasma levels of beta-endorphin and serotonin in response to specific spinal based exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sokunbi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercises as the primary mode of treatment for low back disorders aim to achieve pain reduction, improvement in functional abilityand quality of life of for low back disorder sufferers. However the bio-chemical events associated with the use of these exercises in terms of theireffects on pain relieving neuropeptides have not been well established. Thisstudy was carried out to investigate the effects of spinal stabilisation, backextension and treadmill walking exercises on plasma levels of serotonin andbeta-endorphin.Twenty volunteers (10 males and 10 females without low back pain participated in the study. They were randomly allocated either to one of theexercise groups, where participants carried out one of the spinal stabilisation, back extension and treadmill walkingexercises or the control (no exercise group. The main outcome measures used in this study were plasma levels of serotonin and beta-endorphin measured with Enzyme linked immuno absorbent assay (ELISA technique.The results of this study showed that spinal stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises produced significantincrease in plasma serotonin levels (P 0.05.It could be that biochemical effects associated with stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises therefore mayinvolve production of serotonin and its release into the plasma.

  16. Plasma cortisol stress response in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus influences susceptibility to Edwardeseilla ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone in fish as its plasma variations correlate with the occurrence of various stressful situations. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had a reduced ability to resist pathogens. Channel catfish fingerlings th...

  17. Variations in riboflavin binding by human plasma: identification of immunoglobulins as the major proteins responsible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innis, W.S.; McCormick, D.B.; Merrill, A.H. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Riboflavin binding by plasma proteins from healthy human subjects was examined by equilibrium dialysis using a physiological concentration of [2-14C]riboflavin (0.04 microM). Binding ranged from 0.080 to 0.917 pmole of riboflavin/mg of protein (with a mean +/- SD of 0.274 +/- 0.206), which corresponded to 4.14 to 49.4 pmole/ml of plasma (15.5 +/- 11.0) (N = 34). Males and females yielded similar results. Upon fractionation of plasma by gel filtration, the major riboflavin-binding components eluted with albumin and gamma-globulins. Albumin was purified and found to bind riboflavin only very weakly (Kd = 3.8 to 10.4 mM), although FMN and photochemical degradation products (e.g., lumiflavine and lumichrome) were more tightly bound. Binding in the gamma-globulin fraction was attributed to IgG and IGA because the binding protein(s) and immunoglobulins copurified using various methods were removed by treatment of plasma with protein A-agarose, and were coincident upon immunoelectrophoresis followed by autoradiography to detect [2-14C]riboflavin. Differences among the plasma samples correlated with the binding recovered with the immunoglobulins. Binding was not directly related to the total IgG or IgA levels of subjects. Hence, it appears that the binding is due to a subfraction of these proteins. These findings suggest that riboflavin-binding immunoglobulins are a major cause of variations in riboflavin binding in human circulation, and may therefore affect the utilization of this micronutrient

  18. Reproductive organ and vascular specific promoter of the rice plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase mediates environmental stress responses in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Md Kamrul Huda

    Full Text Available Plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells and helps in removal of calcium (Ca(2+ from the cell, hence regulating Ca(2+ level within cells. Though plant Ca(2+ATPases have been shown to be involved in plant stress responses but their promoter regions have not been well studied.The 1478 bp promoter sequence of rice plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase contains cis-acting elements responsive to stresses and plant hormones. To identify the functional region, serial deletions of the promoter were fused with the GUS sequence and four constructs were obtained. These were differentially activated under NaCl, PEG cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate treatments. We demonstrated that the rice plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase promoter is responsible for vascular-specific and multiple stress-inducible gene expression. Only full-length promoter showed specific GUS expression under stress conditions in floral parts. High GUS activity was observed in roots with all the promoter constructs. The -1478 to -886 bp flanking region responded well upon treatment with salt and drought. Only the full-length promoter presented cold-induced GUS expression in leaves, while in shoots slight expression was observed for -1210 and -886 bp flanking region. The -1210 bp deletion significantly responded to exogenous methyl viologen and abscisic acid induction. The -1210 and -886 bp flanking region resulted in increased GUS activity in leaves under methyl jasmonate treatments, whereas in shoots the -886 bp and -519 bp deletion gave higher expression. Salicylic acid failed to induce GUS activities in leaves for all the constructs.The rice plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase promoter is a reproductive organ-specific as well as vascular-specific. This promoter contains drought, salt, cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate related cis-elements, which regulated gene expression. Overall, the tissue-specificity and inducible

  19. Plasma Metabolomics Biosignature According to HIV Stage of Infection, Pace of Disease Progression, Viremia Level and Immunological Response to Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Scarpellini

    Full Text Available We evaluated plasma samples HIV-infected individuals with different phenotypic profile among five HIV-infected elite controllers and five rapid progressors after recent HIV infection and one year later and from 10 individuals subjected to antiretroviral therapy, five of whom were immunological non-responders (INR, before and after one year of antiretroviral treatment compared to 175 samples from HIV-negative patients. A targeted quantitative tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics approach was used in order to determine plasma metabolomics biosignature that may relate to HIV infection, pace of HIV disease progression, and immunological response to treatment.Twenty-five unique metabolites were identified, including five metabolites that could distinguish rapid progressors and INRs at baseline. Severe deregulation in acylcarnitine and sphingomyelin metabolism compatible with mitochondrial deficiencies was observed. β-oxidation and sphingosine-1-phosphate-phosphatase-1 activity were down-regulated, whereas acyl-alkyl-containing phosphatidylcholines and alkylglyceronephosphate synthase levels were elevated in INRs. Evidence that elite controllers harbor an inborn error of metabolism (late-onset multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency [MADD] was detected.Blood-based markers from metabolomics show a very high accuracy of discriminating HIV infection between varieties of controls and have the ability to predict rapid disease progression or poor antiretroviral immunological response. These metabolites can be used as biomarkers of HIV natural evolution or treatment response and provide insight into the mechanisms of the disease.

  20. Plasma Metabolomics Biosignature According to HIV Stage of Infection, Pace of Disease Progression, Viremia Level and Immunological Response to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpellini, Bruno; Zanoni, Michelle; Sucupira, Maria Cecilia Araripe; Truong, Hong-Ha M; Janini, Luiz Mario Ramos; Segurado, Ismael Dale Cotrin; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated plasma samples HIV-infected individuals with different phenotypic profile among five HIV-infected elite controllers and five rapid progressors after recent HIV infection and one year later and from 10 individuals subjected to antiretroviral therapy, five of whom were immunological non-responders (INR), before and after one year of antiretroviral treatment compared to 175 samples from HIV-negative patients. A targeted quantitative tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics approach was used in order to determine plasma metabolomics biosignature that may relate to HIV infection, pace of HIV disease progression, and immunological response to treatment. Twenty-five unique metabolites were identified, including five metabolites that could distinguish rapid progressors and INRs at baseline. Severe deregulation in acylcarnitine and sphingomyelin metabolism compatible with mitochondrial deficiencies was observed. β-oxidation and sphingosine-1-phosphate-phosphatase-1 activity were down-regulated, whereas acyl-alkyl-containing phosphatidylcholines and alkylglyceronephosphate synthase levels were elevated in INRs. Evidence that elite controllers harbor an inborn error of metabolism (late-onset multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency [MADD]) was detected. Blood-based markers from metabolomics show a very high accuracy of discriminating HIV infection between varieties of controls and have the ability to predict rapid disease progression or poor antiretroviral immunological response. These metabolites can be used as biomarkers of HIV natural evolution or treatment response and provide insight into the mechanisms of the disease.

  1. Effect of dietary cholesterol and plant sterol consumption on plasma lipid responsiveness and cholesterol trafficking in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonse, Peter A S; Ramprasath, Vanu; Jones, Peter J H

    2017-01-01

    Dietary cholesterol and plant sterols differentially modulate cholesterol kinetics and circulating cholesterol. Understanding how healthy individuals with their inherent variabilities in cholesterol trafficking respond to such dietary sterols will aid in improving strategies for effective cholesterol lowering and alleviation of CVD risk. The objectives of this study were to assess plasma lipid responsiveness to dietary cholesterol v. plant sterol consumption, and to determine the response in rates of cholesterol absorption and synthesis to each sterol using stable isotope approaches in healthy individuals. A randomised, double-blinded, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial (n 49) with three treatment phases of 4-week duration were conducted in a Manitoba Hutterite population. During each phase, participants consumed one of the three treatments as a milkshake containing 600 mg/d dietary cholesterol, 2 g/d plant sterols or a control after breakfast meal. Plasma lipid profile was determined and cholesterol absorption and synthesis were measured by oral administration of [3, 4-13C] cholesterol and 2H-labelled water, respectively. Dietary cholesterol consumption increased total (0·16 (sem 0·06) mmol/l, P=0·0179) and HDL-cholesterol (0·08 (sem 0·03) mmol/l, P=0·0216) concentrations with no changes in cholesterol absorption or synthesis. Plant sterol consumption failed to reduce LDL-cholesterol concentrations despite showing a reduction (6 %, P=0·0004) in cholesterol absorption. An over-compensatory reciprocal increase in cholesterol synthesis (36 %, P=0·0026) corresponding to a small reduction in absorption was observed with plant sterol consumption, possibly resulting in reduced LDL-cholesterol lowering efficacy of plant sterols. These data suggest that inter-individual variability in cholesterol trafficking mechanisms may profoundly impact plasma lipid responses to dietary sterols in healthy individuals.

  2. Plasma catecholamine and corticosterone responses to predictable and unpredictable noise stress in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Gugten, J; Slangen, J L; de Boer, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) increases were determined in individual rats subjected to either 20 regularly or irregularly scheduled white-noise stimulations (4 min, 100 dBA). Blood was frequently sampled during the first and twentieth noise exposure, and during a reexposure after 24 hr. During the sampling periods, behavioral activities of the rats were recorded. The initial noise-induced CS release was partially reduced following the regular noise present...

  3. Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Huijsmans, G.; Pamela, S.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A.; Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A.; Hoelzl, M.; Cahyna, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 10 (2013), s. 102510-102510 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2341 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * edge localized mode * magnetohydrodynamics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.249, year: 2013 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/20/10/10.1063/1.4824820

  4. Toroidal modeling of plasma response and resonant magnetic perturbation field penetration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, Y.Q.; Kirk, A.; Sun, Y.; Cahyna, Pavel; Chapman, I.T.; Denner, P.; Fishpool, G.; Garofalo, A.M.; Harrison, J.R.; Nardon, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 12 (2012), s. 124013-124013 ISSN 0741-3335 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tokamak * resonant magnetic perturbation * neoclassical toroidal viscosity Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.369, year: 2012 http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/54/12/124013/pdf/0741-3335_54_12_124013.pdf

  5. Predicted Hematologic and Plasma Volume Responses Following Rapid Ascent to Progressive Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Detection of unethical and illegal manipulation of erythrocyte volume by following changes in hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) in elite athletes is a...tolerance to environmental extremes [2,3] and such manipulation often results in acute plasma volume (PV) loss and elevated hemoglobin concentrations [3...bodies to detect "unfair practices" in athletes seeking to gain an edge in their performance through illegal manipulation of their erythrocyte

  6. Plasma-Activated Tropoelastin Functionalization of Zirconium for Improved Bone Cell Response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yeo, G. C.; Santos, M.; Kondyurin, A.; Lišková, Jana; Weiss, A. S.; Bilek, M. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2016), s. 662-676 ISSN 2373-9878 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-32497A; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : bone * plasma-activated coating * titanium * tropoelastin * zirconium Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2016

  7. Screening of ionic cores in partially ionized plasmas within linear response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gericke, D. O.; Vorberger, J.; Wuensch, K.; Gregori, G.

    2010-01-01

    We employ a pseudopotential approach to investigate the screening of ionic cores in partially ionized plasmas. Here, the effect of the tightly bound electrons is condensed into an effective potential between the (free) valence electrons and the ionic cores. Even for weak electron-ion coupling, the corresponding screening clouds show strong modifications from the Debye result for elements heavier than helium. Modifications of the theoretically predicted x-ray scattering signal and implications on measurements are discussed.

  8. Radioimmunoassay of plasma 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone and its response to ACTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, C.N.; Lewis, P.S.; Horth, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for 18-OH-DOC in plasma was developed using an antiserum raised against the γ-lactone derivative. The steroids with the greatest degree of cross reaction were 18-OH-corticosterone-γ-lactone and aldosterone-γ-lactone which showed cross-reactivities of 1.96% and 0.47% respectively. These and other interfering steroids were eliminated by chromatography of the extracts on columns of Sephadex LH-20. The lowest limit of detection of 18-OH-DOC in 1 ml of plasma corresponded to 33 pmol -1 . The intra-assay precision was 9.7, 4.8 and 2.6% at 102.0, 316.1 and 1144.0 pmol l -1 respectively and the interassay precision was 15.3 and 5.4% at 71.3 and 404.7 pmol l -1 respectively. The concentration of 18-OH-DOC in ten normal subjects was 172.1 +- 39.1 pmol l -1 at 09.00 h, 100.9 +- 16.9 pmol l -1 at 12.00 h and 95.8 +-33.3 pmol l -1 at 16.30 h. Plasma 18-OH-DOC and cortisol levels were measured after various intravenous doses of ACTH in three patients with essential hypertension. Lower doses of ACTH caused considerably greater increases in 18-OH-DOC. These results confirm the ACTH dependency of 18-OH-DOC secretion. (author)

  9. Plasma amino acids and metabolic profiling of dairy cows in response to a bolus duodenal infusion of leucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, Hassan; von Soosten, Dirk; Meyer, Ulrich; Kluess, Jeannette; Dänicke, Sven; Saremi, Behnam; Sauerwein, Helga

    2017-01-01

    kynurenine pathway were identified as the most relevant for separating the treatment groups. These results suggest that Leu regulates the plasma concentrations of branched-chain AA, and other AA, apparently by stimulating their influx into the cells from the circulation. A single-dose duodenal infusion of Leu did not elicit an apparent insulin response, but affected multiple intermediary metabolic pathways including AA and energy metabolism by mechanisms yet to be elucidated.

  10. Involvement of plasma membrane calcium influx in bacterial induction of the K+/H+ and hypersensitive responses in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, M.M.; Keppler, L.D.; Orlandi, E.W.; Baker, C.J.; Mischke, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    An early event in the hypersensitive response of tobacco to Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae is the initiation of a K + /H + response characterized by specific plasma membrane K + efflux, extracellular alkalinization, and intracellular acidification. We investigated the role of calcium in induction of these host responses. Suspension-cultured tobacco cells exhibited a baseline Ca 2+ influx of 0.02 to 0.06 micromole per gram per hour as determined from 45 Ca 2+ uptake. Following bacterial inoculation, uptake rates began to increase coincidently with onset of the K + /H + response. Rates increased steadily for 2 to 3 hours, reaching 0.5 to 1 micromole per gram per hour. This increased Ca 2+ influx was prevented by EGTA and calcium channel blockers such as La 3+ , Co 2+ , and Cd 2+ but not by verapamil and nifedipine. Lanthanum, cobalt, cadmium, and EGTA inhibited the K + /H + response in both suspension-cultured cells and leaf discs and prevented hypersensitive cell death in leaf discs. We conclude that increase plasmalemma Ca 2+ influx is required for the K + /H + and hypersensitive responses in tobacco

  11. Spatiotemporal response of plasma edge density and temperature to non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations at ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, R; Fuchs, J C; McDermott, R; Rathgeber, S K; Suttrop, W; Wolfrum, E; Willensdorfer, M

    2012-01-01

    Non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations (MPs) were successfully applied at ASDEX Upgrade to substantially reduce the plasma energy loss and peak divertor power load that occur concomitant with type-I edge localized modes (ELMs). The response of electron density edge profiles and temperature and pressure pedestal-top values to MPs are reported. ELM mitigation is observed above an edge density threshold and independent of the MPs being resonant or non-resonant with the edge safety factor. The edge electron collisionality appears not to be appropriate to separate mitigated from non-mitigated discharges for the present high-collisionality plasmas. No significant change in the position or gradient of the edge density profile could be observed for the transition into the ELM-mitigated phase, except from the effect of the three-dimensional MP field which leads to an apparent profile shift. An increase in the density and decrease in the temperature at the pedestal-top balance such that the pressure saturates at the value of the pre-mitigated phase. The plasma stored energy, the normalized plasma pressure, and the H-mode quality factor follow closely the evolution of the pedestal-top pressure and thus remain almost unaffected. The temporal evolution of the ion effective charge shows that the impurity content does not increase although flushing through type-I ELMs is missing. The type-I ELMs are replaced in the mitigated phase by small-scale and high-frequency edge perturbations. The effect of the small bursts on the density profile, which is correlated with a transient increase of the divertor thermoelectric current, is small compared with the effect of the type-I ELMs. The residual scatter of the profiles in the mitigated phase is small directly after the transition into the ELM-mitigated phase and increases again when the pressure saturates at the value of the pre-mitigated phase. (paper)

  12. The relationship between acute changes in the systemic inflammatory response and plasma ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and lipid peroxidation after elective hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, F J S; Talwar, D; McMillan, D C

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) is a water soluble vitamin with many functions including antioxidative properties, haemostasis, hormone synthesis, collagen synthesis, carnitine synthesis, bile salt production and enhancing iron absorption. There is some evidence that there is a negative inverse relationship between plasma vitamin C concentration and the systemic inflammatory response as measured by C-reactive protein (CRP). The aim of the present study was to examine, in the context of a longitudinal study, the change in plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and Vitamin E (α-tocopherol, AT) and their relationship to free radical damage during the evolution of the systemic inflammatory response. Venous blood samples were obtained pre-operatively and at 1, 2, 3 and 90 days post-operatively from 11 patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty at Glasgow Royal Infirmary. AA, AT, cholesterol, MDA (marker of free radical damage), CRP and albumin were measured in plasma. Plasma AA fell significantly by 74% (P < 0.01), AT fell by 36% (P < 0.01), cholesterol by 40% (P < 0.01), MDA by 38% (P < 0.01), albumin by 29% (P < 0.01) and CRP increased significantly by 160 fold (P < 0.01) during the systemic inflammatory response. The fall in plasma AA remained significant when adjusted for albumin (P < 0.01). Plasma AT adjusted for cholesterol did not change significantly during the study period. The fall in plasma MDA remained significant when adjusted for albumin (P 0.01). At 3 months post-operatively, all measurements (including AA) except albumin had returned to baseline values. Plasma AA levels are unlikely to be a reliable measurement of Vitamin C where there is evidence of a systemic inflammatory response. The decrease in plasma AA concentration is likely to be secondary to increased consumption, increased usage neutralising free radicals, increased utilisation in supporting AT regeneration and increased urinary excretion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European

  13. Plasma cytokines, chemokines and cellular immune responses in pre-school Nigerian children infected with Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noone Cariosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with over one million deaths annually, particularly in children under five years. This study was the first to examine plasma cytokines, chemokines and cellular immune responses in pre-school Nigerian children infected with Plasmodium falciparum from four semi-urban villages near Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Methods Blood was obtained from 231 children (aged 39–73 months who were classified according to mean P. falciparum density per μl of blood (uninfected (n = 89, low density (10,000, n = 22. IL-12p70, IL-10, Nitric oxide, IFN-γ, TNF, IL-17, IL-4 and TGF-β, C-C chemokine RANTES, MMP-8 and TIMP-1 were measured in plasma. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained and examined markers of innate immune cells (CD14, CD36, CD56, CD54, CD11c AND HLA-DR. T-cell sub-populations (CD4, CD3 and γδTCR were intracellularly stained for IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF following polyclonal stimulation or stimulated with malaria parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides was endemic in these villages and all data were analysed taking into account the potential impact of bystander helminth infection. All data were analysed using SPSS 15 for windows and in all tests, p Results The level of P. falciparum parasitaemia was positively associated with plasma IL-10 and negatively associated with IL-12p70. The percentage of monocytes was significantly decreased in malaria-infected individuals while malaria parasitaemia was positively associated with increasing percentages of CD54+, CD11c+ and CD56+ cell populations. No association was observed in cytokine expression in mitogen-activated T-cell populations between groups and no malaria specific immune responses were detected. Although A. lumbricoides is endemic in these villages, an analysis of the data showed no impact of this helminth infection on P. falciparum parasitaemia or on immune responses associated with P. falciparum infection

  14. Non-LTE modeling of the radiative properties of high-Z plasma using linear response methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foord, Mark; Harte, Judy; Scott, Howard

    2017-10-01

    Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) atomic processes play a key role in the radiation flow and energetics in highly ionized high temperature plasma encountered in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and astrophysical applications. Modeling complex high-Z atomic systems, such as gold used in ICF hohlraums, is particularly challenging given the complexity and intractable number of atomic states involved. Practical considerations, i.e. speed and memory, in large radiation-hydrodynamic simulations further limit model complexity. We present here a methodology for utilizing tabulated NLTE radiative and EOS properties for use in our radiation-hydrodynamic codes. This approach uses tabulated data, previously calculated with complex atomic models, modified to include a general non-Planckian radiation field using a linear response methodology. This approach extends near-LTE response method to conditions far from LTE. Comparisons of this tabular method with in-line NLTE simulations of a laser heated 1-D hohlraum will be presented, which show good agreement in the time-evolution of the plasma conditions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Plasma concentration of prolactin, testosterone might be associated with brain response to visual erotic stimuli in healthy heterosexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Younghee; Jeong, Bumseok; Kim, Ji-Woong; Choi, Jeewook

    2009-09-01

    Many studies have showed that excess or lack of sexual hormones, such as prolactin and testosterone, induced the sexual dysfunction in humans. Little, however, is known about the role of sexual hormones showing normal range in, especially, the basal state unexposed to any sexual stimulation. We hypothesized sexual hormones in the basal state may affect sexual behavior. We investigated the association of the sexual hormones level in the basal hormonal state before visual sexual stimulation with the sexual response-related brain activity during the stimulation. Twelve heterosexual men were recorded the functional MRI signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Both plasma prolacitn and testosterone concentrations were measured before functional MR scanning. A voxel wise regression analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of sexual hormones in basal state and brain activity elicited by ERO minus HA, not food minus nature, contrast. The plasma concentration of prolactin in basal state showed positive association with the activity of the brain involving cognitive component of sexual behavior including the left middle frontal gyrus, paracingulate/superior frontal/anterior cingulate gyri, bilateral parietal lobule, right angular, bilateral precuneus and right cerebellum. Testosterone in basal state was positively associated with the brain activity of the bilateral supplementary motor area which related with motivational component of sexual behavior. Our results suggested sexual hormones in basal state may have their specific target regions or network associated with sexual response.

  16. LONG-LIVED BONE MARROW PLASMA CELLS DURING IMMUNE RESPONSE TO ALPHA (1→3 DEXTRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Chernyshova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production kinetics and some functional properties of long-lived marrow plasma cells were studied in mice immunized with T-independent type 2 antigens. Alpha (1→3 dextran was used as an antigen for immunization. The mice were immunized by dextran, and the numbers of IgM antibody producing cells were determined by ELISPOT method. The cell phenotype was determined by cytofluorimetric technique. In the area of normal bone marrow lymphocytes ~4% of T and ~85% of B cells were detected. About 35% of the cells expressed a plasmocyte marker (CD138; 3% were CD138+IgM+, and about 6% of the lymphocytes were double-positive for CD138+IgA+. Among spleen lymphocytes, 50% of T and 47% of B cells were detected. About 1.5% lymphocytes were CD138+, and 0.5% were positive for CD138 and IgM. Time kinetics of antibody-producing cells in bone marrow and spleen was different. In spleen populations, the peak amounts of antibody-secreting cells have been shown on the day 4; the process abated by the day 28. Vice versa, the numbers of the antibody-producing cells in bone marrow started to increase on the day 4. The process reached its maximum on day 14, and after 28th day became stationary. The in vitro experiments have shown that supplementation of bone marrow cells from immune mice with dextran did not influence their functional activity. It was previously shown for cells responding to T-dependent antigens only. A specific marker for the long-lived plasma cells is still unknown. However, these cells possess a common CD138 marker specific for all plasma cells. A method for isolation of bone marrow CD138+ cells was developed. The CD138+ cells were of 87-97% purity, being enriched in long-lived bone marrow cells, and produced monospecific antibodies.

  17. Restricting dietary sodium reduces plasma sodium response to exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, E E; Franken, C P G; Cotter, J D; Thornton, S N; Rehrer, N J

    2017-11-01

    Exercise-associated hyponatremia can be life-threatening. Excessive hypotonic fluid ingestion is the primary etiological factor but does not explain all variability. Possible effects of chronic sodium intake are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary sodium affects plasma sodium concentration [Na + ] during exercise in the heat, when water intake nearly matches mass loss. Endurance-trained men (n = 9) participated in this crossover experiment. Each followed a low-sodium (lowNa) or high-sodium (highNa) diet for 9 days with 24-h fluid intakes and urine outputs measured before experimental trials (day 10). The trials were ≥2 week apart. Trials comprised 3 h (or if not possible to complete, to exhaustion) cycling (55% VO 2max ; 34 °C, 65% RH) with water intake approximating mass loss. Plasma [Na + ], hematocrit, sweat and urine [Na + ], heart rate, core temperature, and subjective perceptions were monitored. Urine [Na + ] was lower on lowNa 24 h prior to (31 ± 24, 76 ± 30 mmol/L, P = 0.027) and during trials (10 ± 10, 52 ± 32 mmol/L, P = 0.004). Body mass was lower on lowNa (79.6 ± 8.5, 80.5 ± 8.9, P = 0.03). Plasma [Na + ] was lower on lowNa before (137 ± 2, 140 ± 3, P = 0.007) and throughout exercise (P = 0.001). Sweat [Na + ] was unaffected by diet (54.5 ± 40, 54.5 ± 23 mmol/L, P = 0.99). Heart rate and core temperature were higher on lowNa (P ≤ 0.001). Despite decreased urinary sodium losses, plasma sodium was lower on lowNa, with decreased mass indicating (extracellular) water may have been less, explaining greater heart rate and core temperature. General population health recommendations to lower salt intake may not be appropriate for endurance athletes, particularly those training in the heat. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Structural response of a Tokamak first wall under electromagnetic forces caused by a plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, Y.R.; Biggio, M.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Antonacci, P.; Vitali, R.

    1987-01-01

    The modern computerized techniques of CAD/FEM analysis are extensively applied for the numerical simulation of the electromagnetic-mechanical coupling induced in the last design configuration of NET first wall during a plasma disruption event. A picture of the impact of the electromagnetic forces on the structural behaviour of the outboard DN first wall is presented an an improvement of the FW structural section is proposed. In any case, additional investigations will be performed during the long process of structural behaviour optimization of the first wall reactor components

  19. Plasma apolipoprotein M responses to statin and fibrate administration in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelle, Paul J W H; Ahnström, Josefin; Dikkeschei, Bert D

    2010-01-01

    by statin or fibrate administration in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Fourteen type 2 diabetic patients participated in a placebo-controlled crossover study which included three 8-week treatment periods with simvastatin (40mg daily), bezafibrate (400mg daily), and their combination. Results: Apo.......02 to P treatment periods. Conclusions: This study suggests that, even though plasma apoM is lowered by statins, apoM metabolism is to a considerable extent independent of statin- and fibrate-affected pathways involved in cholesterol...

  20. Plasma growth hormone response to human growth hormone releasing factor in rats administered with chlorpromazine and antiserum against somatostatin. Effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, I; Tonegawa, Y; Ihara, T; Hattori, M; Shibasaki, T; Ling, N

    1985-10-01

    The effect of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the plasma growth hormone (GH) response to synthetic human growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) was determined in conscious, freely moving rats pretreated with chlorpromazine and antiserum against somatostatin. Chlorpromazine plus somatostatin antiserum pretreated rats gave consistent response to GRF which was not observed in untreated rats. Chlorpromazine alone has no effect on GH secretion induced by GRF in rat pituitary monolayer culture. In rats made hypothyroid by thyroidectomy, both basal and peak plasma GH responses to a small (0.25 microgram/kg bw) and a moderate dose of GRF (1 microgram/kg bw) were significantly reduced as compared to controls. In rats made hyperthyroid by the administration of thyroxine, basal and peak plasma GH responses to a small but not to a moderate dose of GRF were significantly reduced as compared to controls. A reduced plasma GH response to a small dose of GRF was observed 8 days after the cessation of thyroxine administration. The pituitary GH reserve was markedly reduced in hypothyroid but not in hyperthyroid rats as compared to their respective controls. These results indicate that plasma GH response to GRF is reduced both in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. The mechanism involved in the phenomenon appears to be different between the two conditions.

  1. Relationship between plasma matrix metalloproteinase levels, pulmonary function, bronchodilator response, and emphysema severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Hong, Yoonki; Lim, Myoung Nam; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation in the airway and lung. A protease-antiprotease imbalance has been suggested as a possible pathogenic mechanism for COPD. We evaluated the relationship between matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels and COPD severity. Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-9, and MMP-12 were measured in 57 COPD patients and 36 normal controls. The relationship between MMP levels and lung function, emphysema index, bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life was examined using general linear regression analyses. There were significant associations of MMP-1 with bronchodilator reversibility and of MMP-8 and MMP-9 with lung function. Also, MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 levels were correlated with the emphysema index, independent of lung function. However, MMP-12 was not associated with lung function or emphysema severity. Associations between MMP levels and bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life were not statistically significant. Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 are associated with COPD severity and can be used as a biomarker to better understand the characteristics of COPD patients.

  2. Plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of perch Perca fluviatilis in response to different salinities and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2017-01-01

    with salinity at 10 and 20° C. Maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and aerobic scope was lowest at salinity of 15 at 5° C, yet at 20° C, they were lowest at a salinity of 0. A cost of osmoregulation (SMR at a salinity of 0 and 15 compared with SMR at a salinity of 10) could only be detected at a salinity of 15 at 20...... of osmoregulation (28%) at a salinity of 15 at 20° C indicates that the cost of osmoregulation in P. fluviatilis increases with temperature under hyperosmotic conditions and a power analysis showed that the cost of osmoregulation could be lower than 12·5% under other environmental conditions. The effect of salinity......The present study determined the blood plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of the perch Perca fluviatilis at different salinities (0, 10 and 15) and temperatures (5, 10 and 20° C). Blood plasma osmolality increased with salinity at all temperatures. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) increased...

  3. Benefits of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in skin photodamage: clinical response and histological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ley, B; Cuevast, J; Alonso-Castro, L; Calvo, M I; Ríos-Buceta, L; Orive, G; Anitua, E; Jaén, P

    2015-01-01

    Skin ageing is characterized by small and fine wrinkles, roughness, laxity, and pigmentation as a result of epidermal thinning, collagen degradation, dermal atrophy, and fewer fibroblasts. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) is an autologous plasma preparation enriched in proteins obtained from patient's own blood aimed at accelerating tissue repair and regeneration. To evaluate the benefits of PRGF in skin photodamage, 10 healthy volunteers were treated with three consecutive intradermal injections of PRGF in the facial area. Clinical outcomes and histological analysis were performed. A statistically significant increase in the epidermis and papillary dermis thickness was seen after PRGF treatment (p PRGF treatment, a reduction of the average area fraction of solar elastosis was observed in patients with clinical and histological signs of skin photodamage (p PRGF use was 0.75 (9/12) for the group of patients with signs of skin photodamage. Intradermal PRGF infiltration appears to be an effective treatment for the photodamaged skin. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Phosphatidylinositol response and proliferation of oxidative enzyme-activated human T lymphocytes: suppression by plasma lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeson, A.L.; Scupham, D.W.; Harmony, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol (PI) response and DNA synthesis of neuraminidase and galactose oxidase (NAGO)-stimulated human T lymphocytes are suppressed by low density lipoproteins (LDL). To understand the mechanism of lymphocyte activation more fully, the PI response and DNA synthesis and suppression of these events by LDL in NAGO-stimulated T lymphocytes were characterized. Between 30 min and 6 hr after NAGO stimulation, there was an increase of 32 Pi incorporation into PI without increased incorporation into the phosphorylated forms of PI or into other phospholipids. DNA synthesis as determined by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation depended on the lymphocyte-accessory monocyte ratio and total cell density. Optimal stimulation of the PI response and DNA synthesis occurred at the same concentration of neuraminidase and galactose oxidase. While the PI response was only partially suppressed by LDL with optimal suppression at 10 to 20 micrograms of protein/ml, DNA synthesis was completely suppressed although at much higher LDL concentrations, greater than 100 micrograms protein/ml. As monocyte numbers are increased, LDL suppression of DNA synthesis is decreased. The ability of NAGO to stimulate the PI response and DNA synthesis in a similar way, and the suppression of both events by LDL, suggests the PI response is important for lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Stimulation of human T lymphocytes by oxidative mitogens, neuraminidase, and galactose oxidase caused increased phosphatidylinositol metabolism and increased DNA synthesis. Both responses were suppressed by low density lipoproteins

  5. Association between Polymorphisms in the Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Cluster and the Plasma Triacylglycerol Response to an n-3 PUFA Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Thifault, Elisabeth; Garneau, Véronique; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, a large inter-individual variability in the plasma lipid response to an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation is observed in different studies. Genetic variations may influence plasma lipid responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a supplementation with n-3 PUFA on the plasma lipid profile in relation to the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster. A total of 208 subjects from Quebec City area were supplemented with 3 g/day of n-3 PUFA, during six weeks. In a statistical model including the effect of the genotype, the supplementation and the genotype by supplementation interaction, SNP rs174546 was significantly associated (p = 0.02) with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels, pre- and post-supplementation. The n-3 supplementation had an independent effect on plasma TG levels and no significant genotype by supplementation interaction effects were observed. In summary, our data support the notion that the FADS gene cluster is a major determinant of plasma TG levels. SNP rs174546 may be an important SNP associated with plasma TG levels and FADS1 gene expression independently of a nutritional intervention with n-3 PUFA. PMID:23016130

  6. Plasma chemerin in young untrained men: association with cardio-metabolic traits and physical performance, and response to intensive interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Fradj, Mohamed Kacem Ben; Khammassi, Marwa; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2017-02-01

    Chemerin is an adipose tissue-derived adipokine thought to decrease insulin sensitivity and increase cardiometabolic risk. This study aimed to assess the association of chemerin with cardiometabolic risk and physical performance and examine its response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Eighteen young men have been applied a HIIT program during 8 weeks. Plasma chemerin together with several cardiometabolic factors and physical performance indices were determined before and after the training program. Plasma chemerin and insulin were assessed using immunoenzymatic methods. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) index was calculated as an estimate of insulin resistance. Basal plasma chemerin was positively correlated with body mass index (r=0.782, pHIIT program resulted in significant improvements in body composition, plasma lipids and insulin sensitivity. However, no significant change was detected for plasma chemerin in response to HIIT (134±50.7 ng/mL vs. 137±51.9 ng/mL, p=0.750). Basal plasma chemerin is associated with cardiometabolic health and physical performance in young men. Following HIIT, cardiometabolic health and physical performance had improved, but no significant change had occurred for plasma chemerin.

  7. Urinary and plasma oxytocin changes in response to MDMA or intranasal oxytocin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sunday M; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; de Wit, Harriet; Jacob, Suma

    2016-12-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has received increased experimental attention for its putative role in both normal social functioning and several psychiatric disorders that are partially characterized by social dysfunction (e.g., autism spectrum disorders: ASD). Many human experimental studies measure circulating plasma levels of OT in order to examine the relationship between the hormone and behavior. Urinary OT (uOT) assays offer a simple, easy, and non-invasive method to measure peripheral hormone levels, but the correspondence between uOT and plasma OT (pOT) levels is unclear. Here, we conducted two within-subjects, double-blind studies exploring changes in uOT and pOT levels following administration of two drugs: MDMA, an oxytocin-releasing drug (Study 1), and intranasal oxytocin (INOT: Study 1 and 2). In Study 1, 14 adult participants (2 females) were each administered either oral 1.5mg/kg MDMA or 40IU INOT across two different study sessions. In Study 2, 10 male participants (adolescents and young adults) diagnosed with ASD received either 40IU INOT or placebo across two different sessions. In both studies, blood and urine samples were collected before and after drug administration at each study session. For Study 1, 10 participants provided valid plasma and urine samples for the MDMA session, and 8 provided valid samples for the INOT session. For Study 2, all 10 participants provided valid samples for both INOT and placebo sessions. Pre- and post-administration levels of pOT and uOT were compared. Additionally, correlations between percent change from baseline uOT and pOT levels were examined. Study 1: Plasma OT and uOT levels significantly increased after administration of MDMA and INOT. Furthermore, uOT levels were positively correlated with pOT levels following administration of MDMA (r=0.57, p=0.042) but not INOT (r=0.51, p=0.097). Study 2: There was a significant increase in uOT levels after administration of INOT, but not after administration of

  8. Reply in response to comment by E. W. Hones. [concerning the paper, on hot tenuous plasmas, fireballs, and boundary layers in the earth's magnetotail by Frank, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, L. A.; Decoster, R. J.; Ackerson, K. L.

    1977-01-01

    Hones 1977 points out the marked disagreement between the plasma flow measurements reported by Frank et al. 1976 and those obtained with the LASL plasma analyzer. He suggests (1) that solar ultraviolet background rates may have been incorrectly accounted for in the computation of proton bulk flows in the magnetotail as reported by Frank et al. 1976 and (2) that bulk flows with substantial speeds, i.e., those speeds greater than 50 km per sec, are seldom encountered in the plasma sheet at geocentric radial distances approx. equal to 35 R sub E. It is demonstrated that such ultraviolet responses were carefully considered by Frank et al. 1976 and thus the conclusion is maintained that bulk flows greater than 50 km per sec frequently occur in the plasma sheet at these radial distances. Further, a direct comparison of the capabilities of the LASL plasma analyzer employed by Hones and of the LEPEDEA Frank et al., 1976 indicates that there are rather severe restrictions on which plasmas in the plasma sheet can be properly measured to gain proton temperatures, number densities and flow velocities with the LASL plasma analyzer.

  9. Gene and metabolite time-course response to cigarette smoking in mouse lung and plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaela A Miller

    Full Text Available Prolonged cigarette smoking (CS causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, a prevalent serious condition that may persist or progress after smoking cessation. To provide insight into how CS triggers COPD, we investigated temporal patterns of lung transcriptome expression and systemic metabolome changes induced by chronic CS exposure and smoking cessation. Whole lung RNA-seq data was analyzed at transcript and exon levels from C57Bl/6 mice exposed to CS for 1- or 7 days, for 3-, 6-, or 9 months, or for 6 months followed by 3 months of cessation using age-matched littermate controls. We identified previously unreported dysregulation of pyrimidine metabolism and phosphatidylinositol signaling pathways and confirmed alterations in glutathione metabolism and circadian gene pathways. Almost all dysregulated pathways demonstrated reversibility upon smoking cessation, except the lysosome pathway. Chronic CS exposure was significantly linked with alterations in pathways encoding for energy, phagocytosis, and DNA repair and triggered differential expression of genes or exons previously unreported to associate with CS or COPD, including Lox, involved in matrix remodeling, Gp2, linked to goblet cells, and Slc22a12 and Agpat3, involved in purine and glycerolipid metabolism, respectively. CS-induced lung metabolic pathways changes were validated using metabolomic profiles of matched plasma samples, indicating that dynamic metabolic gene regulation caused by CS is reflected in the plasma metabolome. Using advanced technologies, our study uncovered novel pathways and genes altered by chronic CS exposure, including those involved in pyrimidine metabolism, phosphatidylinositol signaling and lysosome function, highlighting their potential importance in the pathogenesis or diagnosis of CS-associated conditions.

  10. Postprandial metabolomics: A pilot mass spectrometry and NMR study of the human plasma metabolome in response to a challenge meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimpour, Masoumeh; Surowiec, Izabella; Wu, Junfang; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Pinto, Rui; Trygg, Johan; Zivkovic, Angela M.; Nording, Malin L.

    2016-01-01

    The study of postprandial metabolism is relevant for understanding metabolic diseases and characterizing personal responses to diet. We combined three analytical platforms – gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) – to validate a multi-platform approach for characterizing individual variation in the postprandial state. We analyzed the postprandial plasma metabolome by introducing, at three occasions, meal challenges on a usual diet, and 1.5 years later, on a modified background diet. The postprandial response was stable over time and largely independent of the background diet as revealed by all three analytical platforms. Coverage of the metabolome between NMR and GC-MS included more polar metabolites detectable only by NMR and more hydrophobic compounds detected by GC-MS. The variability across three separate testing occasions among the identified metabolites was in the range of 1.1–86% for GC-MS and 0.9–42% for NMR in the fasting state at baseline. For the LC-MS analysis, the coefficients of variation of the detected compounds in the fasting state at baseline were in the range of 2–97% for the positive and 4–69% for the negative mode. Multivariate analysis (MVA) of metabolites detected with GC-MS revealed that for both background diets, levels of postprandial amino acids and sugars increased whereas those of fatty acids decreased at 0.5 h after the meal was consumed, reflecting the expected response to the challenge meal. MVA of NMR data revealed increasing postprandial levels of amino acids and other organic acids together with decreasing levels of acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, also independent of the background diet. Together these data show that the postprandial response to the same challenge meal was stable even though it was tested 1.5 years apart, and that it was largely independent of background diet. This work demonstrates the efficacy of a

  11. Postprandial metabolomics: A pilot mass spectrometry and NMR study of the human plasma metabolome in response to a challenge meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimpour, Masoumeh; Surowiec, Izabella; Wu, Junfang [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden); Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden); Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Pinto, Rui [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden); Bioinformatics Infrastructure for Life Sciences (Sweden); Trygg, Johan [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden); Zivkovic, Angela M. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, CA 95616 (United States); Nording, Malin L., E-mail: malin.nording@umu.se [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden)

    2016-02-18

    The study of postprandial metabolism is relevant for understanding metabolic diseases and characterizing personal responses to diet. We combined three analytical platforms – gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) – to validate a multi-platform approach for characterizing individual variation in the postprandial state. We analyzed the postprandial plasma metabolome by introducing, at three occasions, meal challenges on a usual diet, and 1.5 years later, on a modified background diet. The postprandial response was stable over time and largely independent of the background diet as revealed by all three analytical platforms. Coverage of the metabolome between NMR and GC-MS included more polar metabolites detectable only by NMR and more hydrophobic compounds detected by GC-MS. The variability across three separate testing occasions among the identified metabolites was in the range of 1.1–86% for GC-MS and 0.9–42% for NMR in the fasting state at baseline. For the LC-MS analysis, the coefficients of variation of the detected compounds in the fasting state at baseline were in the range of 2–97% for the positive and 4–69% for the negative mode. Multivariate analysis (MVA) of metabolites detected with GC-MS revealed that for both background diets, levels of postprandial amino acids and sugars increased whereas those of fatty acids decreased at 0.5 h after the meal was consumed, reflecting the expected response to the challenge meal. MVA of NMR data revealed increasing postprandial levels of amino acids and other organic acids together with decreasing levels of acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, also independent of the background diet. Together these data show that the postprandial response to the same challenge meal was stable even though it was tested 1.5 years apart, and that it was largely independent of background diet. This work demonstrates the efficacy of a

  12. Fasting plasma zeaxanthin response to Fructus barbarum L. (wolfberry; Kei Tze) in a food-based human supplementation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chung Yuen; Chung, Wai Yuen; Szeto, Yim Tong; Benzie, Iris F F

    2005-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common disorder that causes irreversible loss of central vision. Increased intake of foods containing zeaxanthin may be effective in preventing AMD because the macula accumulates zeaxanthin and lutein, oxygenated carotenoids with antioxidant and blue light-absorbing properties. Lycium barbarum L. is a small red berry known as Fructus lycii and wolfberry in the West, and Kei Tze and Gou Qi Zi in Asia. Wolfberry is rich in zeaxanthin dipalmitate, and is valued in Chinese culture for being good for vision. The aim of this study, which was a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, human intervention trial of parallel design, was to provide data on how fasting plasma zeaxanthin concentration changes as a result of dietary supplementation with whole wolfberries. Fasting blood was collected from healthy, consenting subjects; fourteen subjects took 15 g/d wolfberry (estimated to contain almost 3 mg zeaxanthin) for 28 d. Repeat fasting blood was collected on day 29. Age- and sex-matched controls (n 13) took no wolfberry. Responses in the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. After supplementation, plasma zeaxanthin increased 2.5-fold: mean values on day 1 and 29 were 0.038 (sem 0.003) and 0.096 (sem 0.009) micromol/l (P0.05), respectively, for the control group. This human supplementation trial shows that zeaxanthin in whole wolfberries is bioavailable and that intake of a modest daily amount markedly increases fasting plasma zeaxanthin levels. These new data will support further study of dietary strategies to maintain macular pigment density.

  13. Distinct kinetics of memory B-cell and plasma-cell responses in peripheral blood following a blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice W Nduati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available B cell and plasma cell responses take place in lymphoid organs, but because of the inaccessibility of these organs, analyses of human responses are largely performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. To determine whether PBMC are a useful source of memory B cells and plasma cells in malaria, and whether they reflect Plasmodium-specific B cell responses in spleen or bone marrow, we have investigated these components of the humoral response in PBMC using a model of Plasmodium chabaudi blood-stage infections in C57BL/6 mice. We detected memory B cells, defined as isotype-switched IgD(- IgM(- CD19(+ B cells, and low numbers of Plasmodium chabaudi Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP1-specific memory B cells, in PBMC at all time points sampled for up to 90 days following primary or secondary infection. By contrast, we only detected CD138(+ plasma cells and MSP1-specific antibody-secreting cells within a narrow time frame following primary (days 10 to 25 or secondary (day 10 infection. CD138(+ plasma cells in PBMC at these times expressed CD19, B220 and MHC class II, suggesting that they were not dislodged bone-marrow long-lived plasma cells, but newly differentiated migratory plasmablasts migrating to the bone marrow; thus reflective of an ongoing or developing immune response. Our data indicates that PBMC can be a useful source for malaria-specific memory B cells and plasma cells, but extrapolation of the results to human malaria infections suggests that timing of sampling, particularly for plasma cells, may be critical. Studies should therefore include multiple sampling points, and at times of infection/immunisation when the B-cell phenotypes of interest are likely to be found in peripheral blood.

  14. Response to "Comment on `Solitonic and chaotic behaviors for the nonlinear dust-acoustic waves in a magnetized dusty plasma'" [Phys. Plasmas 24, 094701 (2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Hui-Ling; Tian, Bo; Xie, Xi-Yang; Wu, Xiao-Yu; Wen, Xiao-Yong

    2018-02-01

    On our previous construction [H. L. Zhen et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 052301 (2016)] of the soliton solutions of a model describing the dynamics of the dust particles in a weakly ionized, collisional dusty plasma comprised of the negatively charged cold dust particles, hot ions, hot electrons, and stationary neutrals in the presence of an external static magnetic field, Ali et al. [Phys. Plasmas 24, 094701 (2017)] have commented that there exists a different form of Eq. (4) from that shown in Zhen et al. [Phys. Plasmas 23, 052301 (2016)] and that certain interesting phenomena with the dust neutral collision frequency ν0>0 are ignored in Zhen et al. [Phys. Plasmas 23, 052301 (2016)]. In this Reply, according to the transformation given by the Ali et al. [Phys. Plasmas 24, 094701 (2017)] comment, we present some one-, two-, and N-soliton solutions which have not been obtained in the Ali et al. [Phys. Plasmas 24, 094701 (2017)] comment. We point out that our previous solutions in Zhen et al. [Phys. Plasmas 23, 052301 (2016)] are still valid because of the similarity between the two dispersion relations of previous solutions in Zhen et al. [Phys. Plasmas 23, 052301 (2016)] and the solutions presented in this Reply. Based on our soliton solutions in this Reply, it is found that the soliton amplitude is inversely related to Zd and B0, but positively related to md and α, where α refers to the coefficient of the nonlinear term, Zd and md are the charge number and mass of a dust particle, respectively, B0 represents the strength of the external static magnetic field. We also find that the two solitons are always in parallel during the propagation.

  15. Effect of eccentric exercise with reduced muscle glycogen on plasma interleukin-6 and neuromuscular responses of musculus quadriceps femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, James P; Myers, Stephen D; Willems, Mark E T

    2016-07-01

    Eccentric exercise can result in muscle damage and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion. Glycogen availability is a potent stimulator of IL-6 secretion. We examined effects of eccentric exercise in a low-glycogen state on neuromuscular function and plasma IL-6 secretion. Twelve active men (23 ± 4 yr, 179 ± 5 cm, 77 ± 10 kg, means ± SD) completed two downhill treadmill runs (gradient, -12%, 5 × 8 min; speed, 12.1 ± 1.1 km/h) with normal (NG) and reduced muscle glycogen (RG) in randomized order and at least 6 wk apart. Muscle glycogen was reduced using an established cycling protocol until exhaustion and dietary manipulation the evening before the morning run. Physiological responses were measured up to 48 h after the downhill runs. During recovery, force deficits of musculus quadriceps femoris by maximal isometric contractions were similar. Changes in low-frequency fatigue were larger with RG. Voluntary activation and plasma IL-6 levels were similar in recovery between conditions. It is concluded that unaccustomed, damaging eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen of the m. quadriceps femoris 1) exacerbated low-frequency fatigue but 2) had no additional effect on IL-6 secretion. Neuromuscular impairment after eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen appears to have a greater peripheral component in early recovery. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Multicompartmental nontargeted LC-MS metabolomics: explorative study on the metabolic responses of rye fiber versus refined wheat fiber intake in plasma and urine of hypercholesterolemic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    A multicompartmental nontargeted LC–MS metabolomics approach was used to study the metabolic responses on plasma and urine of hypercholesterolemic pigs after consumption of diets with contrasting dietary fiber composition (whole grain rye with added rye bran versus refined wheat). To study...... the metabolic responses, we performed a supervised multivariate data analyses used for pattern recognition, which revealed marked effects of the diets on both plasma and urine metabolic profiles. Diverse pools of metabolites were responsible for the discrimination between the diets. Elevated levels of phenolic...... compounds and dicarboxylic acids were detected in urine of pigs after rye consumption compared to refined wheat. Furthermore, consumption of rye was characterized by lower levels of linoleic acid derived oxylipins and cholesterol in the plasma metabolic profiles. These results indicate that higher...

  17. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208) participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA). Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187) and ACOX1 (rs17583163) genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation. PMID:24647074

  18. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Bouchard-Mercier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208 participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA. Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187 and ACOX1 (rs17583163 genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation.

  19. A semi-analytical method to evaluate the dielectric response of a tokamak plasma accounting for drift orbit effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eester, Dirk

    2005-03-01

    A semi-analytical method is proposed to evaluate the dielectric response of a plasma to electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron domain of frequencies in a D-shaped but axisymmetric toroidal geometry. The actual drift orbit of the particles is accounted for. The method hinges on subdividing the orbit into elementary segments in which the integrations can be performed analytically or by tabulation, and it relies on the local book-keeping of the relation between the toroidal angular momentum and the poloidal flux function. Depending on which variables are chosen, the method allows computation of elementary building blocks for either the wave or the Fokker-Planck equation, but the accent is mainly on the latter. Two types of tangent resonance are distinguished.

  20. Response of ISSEC protected first walls to DT and DD plasma neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avci, H.I.; Kulcinski, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the displacement damage and gas production rates can be reduced in CTR first walls by employing passive carbon shields. Reductions in displacement damage range from 3 to 5 for 12.5 cm shield thickness and from 7 to 14 in gas production rates with the same carbon thickness. The factors of reduction are 8 to 20 for the displacements and 17 to 80 for the gas production if a 25 cm shield is used. Depending on whether the isotopes causing the radioactivity are produced as a result of fast or thermal neutron activation, the first wall radioactivity can either go up or down with the increasing carbon shield thickness. It has been found that at shutdown radioactivity in 316 SS, Al, and Nb first walls is reduced with increasing carbon thickness while the activities in V and Ta are increased. Long term radioactivity displays the same trends in Al, 316 SS and Ta as short term radioactivity. However, the long term activity in Nb increases and that in V decreases with increasing shield thickness. It has also been found that systems operating on a D-D plasma cycle have higher displacement rates than respective D-T cycle systems. Gas production rates are slightly lower in D-D systems except for He production in 316 SS. This is due to the higher 59 Ni (n,α) cross sections for thermal neutrons

  1. Response of inorganic materials to laser - plasma EUV radiation focused with a lobster eye collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Jarocki, Roman; Kostecki, Jerzy; Szczurek, Miroslaw; Havlikova, Radka; Pína, Ladislav; Švéda, Libor; Inneman, Adolf

    2007-05-01

    A single photon of EUV radiation carries enough energy to break any chemical bond or excite electrons from inner atomic shells. It means that the radiation regardless of its intensity can modify chemical structure of molecules. It is the reason that the radiation even with low intensity can cause fragmentation of long chains of organic materials and desorption of small parts from their surface. In this work interaction of EUV radiation with inorganic materials was investigated. Different inorganic samples were irradiated with a 10 Hz laser - plasma EUV source based on a gas puff target. The radiation was focused on a sample surface using a lobster eye collector. Radiation fluence at the surface reached 30 mJ/cm2 within a wavelength range 7 - 20 nm. In most cases there was no surface damage even after several minutes of irradiation. In some cases there could be noticed discolouration of an irradiated surface or evidences of thermal effects. In most cases however luminescent and scattered radiation was observed. The luminescent radiation was emitted in different wavelength ranges. It was recorded in a visible range of radiation and also in a wide wavelength range including UV, VUV and EUV. The radiation was especially intense in a case of non-metallic chemical compounds.

  2. Plasma deposited composite coatings to control biological response of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keremidarska, M.; Radeva, E.; Eleršič, K.; Iglič, A.; Pramatarova, L.; Krasteva, N.

    2014-12-01

    The successful osseointegration of a bone implant is greatly dependent on its ability to support cellular adhesion and functions. Deposition of thin composite coatings onto the implant surface is a promising approach to improve interactions with cells without compromising implant bulk properties. In this work, we have developed composite coatings, based on hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) and detonation nanodiamond (DND) particles and have studied adhesion, growth and function of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. PPHMDS/DND composites are of interest for orthopedics because they combine superior mechanical properties and good biocompatibility of DND with high adherence of HMDS to different substrata including glass, metals and plastics. We have used two approaches of the implementation of DND particles into a polymer matrix: pre-mixture of both components followed by plasma polymerization and layer-by-layer deposition of HMDS and DND particles and found that the deposition approach affects significantly the surface properties of the resulting layers and cell behaviour. The composite, prepared by subsequent deposition of monomer and DND particles was hydrophilic, with a rougher surface and MG-63 cells demonstrated better spreading, growth and function compared to the other composite which was hydrophobic with a smooth surface similarly to unmodified polymer. Thus, by varying the deposition approach, different PPHMDS/DND composite coatings, enhancing or inhibiting osteoblast adhesion and functions, can be obtained. In addition, the effect of fibronectin pre-adsorption was studied and was found to increase greatly MG-63 cell spreading.

  3. Quantify Plasma Response to Non-Axisymmetric (3D) Magnetic Fields in Tokamaks, Final Report for FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) FY2014 Joint Research Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, E. J.; Park, J. K.; Marmar, E. S.; Ahn, J. W.; Berkery, J. W.; Burrell, K. H.; Canik, J. M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Ferraro, N. M.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gates, D. A.; Greenwald, M.; Kim, K.; King, J. D.; Lanctot, M. J.; Lazerson, S. A.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lore, J. D.; Menard, J. E.; Nazikian, R.; Shafer, M. W.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Reiman, A. H.; Rice, J. E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Sugiyama, L.; Turnbull, A. D.; Volpe, F.; Wang, Z. R.; Wolfe, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the 2014 Joint Research Target (JRT) has been to conduct experiments and analysis to investigate and quantify the response of tokamak plasmas to non-axisymmetric (3D) magnetic fields. Although tokamaks are conceptually axisymmetric devices, small asymmetries often result from inaccuracies in the manufacture and assembly of the magnet coils, or from nearby magnetized objects. In addition, non-axisymmetric fields may be deliberately applied for various purposes. Even at small amplitudes of order 10 -4 of the main axisymmetric field, such ''3D'' fields can have profound impacts on the plasma performance. The effects are often detrimental (reduction of stabilizing plasma rotation, degradation of energy confinement, localized heat flux to the divertor, or excitation of instabilities) but may in some case be beneficial (maintenance of rotation, or suppression of instabilities). In general, the magnetic response of the plasma alters the 3D field, so that the magnetic field configuration within the plasma is not simply the sum of the external 3D field and the original axisymmetric field. Typically the plasma response consists of a mixture of local screening of the external field by currents induced at resonant surfaces in the plasma, and amplification of the external field by stable kink modes. Thus, validated magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the plasma response to 3D fields are crucial to the interpretation of existing experiments and the prediction of plasma performance in future devices. The non-axisymmetric coil sets available at each facility allow well-controlled studies of the response to external 3D fields. The work performed in support of the 2014 Joint Research Target has included joint modeling and analysis of existing experimental data, and collaboration on new experiments designed to address the goals of the JRT. A major focus of the work was validation of numerical models through quantitative comparison to experimental data

  4. Quantify Plasma Response to Non-Axisymmetric (3D) Magnetic Fields in Tokamaks, Final Report for FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) FY2014 Joint Research Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strait, E. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Park, J. -K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Marmar, E. S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ahn, J. -W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Berkery, J. W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Canik, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delgado-Aparicio, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Ferraro, N. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Garofalo, A. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Gates, D. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Greenwald, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kim, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); King, J. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lanctot, M. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lazerson, S. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Liu, Y. Q. [Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom). Euratom/CCFE Association; Logan, N. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Lore, J. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Menard, J. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Shafer, M. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Paz-Soldan, C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Reiman, A. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Rice, J. E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Sugiyama, L. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Volpe, F. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Wang, Z. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Wolfe, S. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The goal of the 2014 Joint Research Target (JRT) has been to conduct experiments and analysis to investigate and quantify the response of tokamak plasmas to non-axisymmetric (3D) magnetic fields. Although tokamaks are conceptually axisymmetric devices, small asymmetries often result from inaccuracies in the manufacture and assembly of the magnet coils, or from nearby magnetized objects. In addition, non-axisymmetric fields may be deliberately applied for various purposes. Even at small amplitudes of order 10-4 of the main axisymmetric field, such “3D” fields can have profound impacts on the plasma performance. The effects are often detrimental (reduction of stabilizing plasma rotation, degradation of energy confinement, localized heat flux to the divertor, or excitation of instabilities) but may in some case be beneficial (maintenance of rotation, or suppression of instabilities). In general, the magnetic response of the plasma alters the 3D field, so that the magnetic field configuration within the plasma is not simply the sum of the external 3D field and the original axisymmetric field. Typically the plasma response consists of a mixture of local screening of the external field by currents induced at resonant surfaces in the plasma, and amplification of the external field by stable kink modes. Thus, validated magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the plasma response to 3D fields are crucial to the interpretation of existing experiments and the prediction of plasma performance in future devices. The non-axisymmetric coil sets available at each facility allow well-controlled studies of the response to external 3D fields. The work performed in support of the 2014 Joint Research Target has included joint modeling and analysis of existing experimental data, and collaboration on new experiments designed to address the goals of the JRT. A major focus of the work was validation of numerical models through quantitative comparison to experimental data, in

  5. Plasma Concentration of Prolactin, Testosterone Might Be Associated with Brain Response to Visual Erotic Stimuli in Healthy Heterosexual Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Younghee; Kim, Ji-Woong; Choi, Jeewook

    2009-01-01

    Objective Many studies have showed that excess or lack of sexual hormones, such as prolactin and testosterone, induced the sexual dysfunction in humans. Little, however, is known about the role of sexual hormones showing normal range in, especially, the basal state unexposed to any sexual stimulation. We hypothesized sexual hormones in the basal state may affect sexual behavior. Methods We investigated the association of the sexual hormones level in the basal hormonal state before visual sexual stimulation with the sexual response-related brain activity during the stimulation. Twelve heterosexual men were recorded the functional MRI signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Both plasma prolacitn and testosterone concentrations were measured before functional MR scanning. A voxel wise regression analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of sexual hormones in basal state and brain activity elicited by ERO minus HA, not food minus nature, contrast. Results The plasma concentration of prolactin in basal state showed positive association with the activity of the brain involving cognitive component of sexual behavior including the left middle frontal gyrus, paracingulate/superior frontal/anterior cingulate gyri, bilateral parietal lobule, right angular, bilateral precuneus and right cerebellum. Testosterone in basal state was positively associated with the brain activity of the bilateral supplementary motor area which related with motivational component of sexual behavior. Conclusion Our results suggested sexual hormones in basal state may have their specific target regions or network associated with sexual response. PMID:20046395

  6. The miRNA Plasma Signature in Response to Acute Aerobic Exercise and Endurance Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Rinnov, Anders

    2014-01-01

    MiRNAs are potent intracellular posttranscriptional regulators and are also selectively secreted into the circulation in a cell-specific fashion. Global changes in miRNA expression in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercise training have been reported. Therefore, our aim was to establis...

  7. Polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption, plasma cholesterol concentration and neuroendocrine response to mental and physical task load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odink, J.; Kramer, F.M.; Beek, E.J. van der; Thissen, J.T.N.M.; Kempen, H.J.M.; Berg, H. van den; Egger, R.J.; Wientjes, C.J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relation between fatty acid consumption, total plama cholesterol and neuroendocrine response to exposure to stress, factors thought to play a role in the development of coronary heart disease. For this purpose 32 apparently healthy male volunteers were

  8. Intra-ligamentary autologous conditioned plasma and healing response to treat partial ACL ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Matthias; Matteo, Berardo Di; Eichhorn, Jürgen; Zellner, Johannes; Mayr, Felix; Krutsch, Werner; Achenbach, Leonard; Woehl, Rebecca; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Conservative treatment of partial ACL ruptures is associated with a high failure rate, and often patients undergo ACL reconstruction. ACL preservation by trephination of the ACL origin and application of Autologous Conditioned Plasma (ACP) seems to be an intriguing new treatment option to favour ACL tissue healing and avoid traditional reconstruction. The aim of this study was to describe the mid-term outcomes of this new ACL preserving technique. Twenty-four patients (mean age 41.8 years) affected by partial rupture of one or both ACL bundles were included in the present trial. The partial ACL tears were arthroscopically assessed and classified according to a new five step grading system. All patients were treated by trephination of the femoral ACL stump and intra-ligamentary application of ACP. The postoperative outcome was evaluated by both subjective scores and stability testing up to a mean of 25.1 months' follow-up. Adverse events and failure rate were also documented. Clinical outcome was good to excellent with IKDC subjective 82.7 (SD 11.8), Lysholm 87.6 (SD 8.1), Tegner 5.3 (SD 2.1), Cincinnati 88.7 (SD 14.8). The failure rate (i.e. persisting knee instability assessed clinically or by rolimeter) was 12.5%. At objective measurements, knee joints showed a firm endpoint in Lachman test, negative pivot shift phenomenon and a significant reduction in AP-laxity compared to pre-operative status by rolimeter testing (p = 0.002). Return to sport practice was achieved after mean 4.8 months (SD 4.1). ACL stump trephination and concomitant intra-ligamentary application of ACP revealed promising results at mid-term follow-up to treat partial ACL lesions.

  9. Plasma Catecholamines, Sweat Electrolytes and Physiological Responses of Exercised Normal, Partial Anhidrotic and Anhidrotic Horses

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bashir; A. Rasedee

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Malaysia imports horses from temperate countries to develop equine sports in the country. Several of these horses developed partial and complete anhidrosis. Approach: Normal, partial anhidrotic and anhidrotic horses were exercised to determine their sweating and physiological responses to exercise. The heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature and blood samples were obtained before the horses were lunged at 10 km h-­1 for 1 h and at again at 15, 30, 45, 60 min and 24 ...

  10. Differential Interaction of Synthetic Glycolipids with Biomimetic Plasma Membrane Lipids Correlates with the Plant Biological Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Mehmet Nail; Lins, Laurence; Crowet, Jean-Marc; Ongena, Marc; Dorey, Stephan; Dhondt-Cordelier, Sandrine; Clément, Christophe; Bouquillon, Sandrine; Haudrechy, Arnaud; Sarazin, Catherine; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Nott, Katherine; Deleu, Magali

    2017-09-26

    Natural and synthetic amphiphilic molecules including lipopeptides, lipopolysaccharides, and glycolipids are able to induce defense mechanisms in plants. In the present work, the perception of two synthetic C14 rhamnolipids, namely, Alk-RL and Ac-RL, differing only at the level of the lipid tail terminal group have been investigated using biological and biophysical approaches. We showed that Alk-RL induces a stronger early signaling response in tobacco cell suspensions than does Ac-RL. The interactions of both synthetic RLs with simplified biomimetic membranes were further analyzed using experimental and in silico approaches. Our results indicate that the interactions of Alk-RL and Ac-RL with lipids were different in terms of insertion and molecular responses and were dependent on the lipid composition of model membranes. A more favorable insertion of Alk-RL than Ac-RL into lipid membranes is observed. Alk-RL forms more stable molecular assemblies than Ac-RL with phospholipids and sterols. At the molecular level, the presence of sterols tends to increase the RLs' interaction with lipid bilayers, with a fluidizing effect on the alkyl chains. Taken together, our findings suggest that the perception of these synthetic RLs at the membrane level could be related to a lipid-driven process depending on the organization of the membrane and the orientation of the RLs within the membrane and is correlated with the induction of early signaling responses in tobacco cells.

  11. Postprandial plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses after consumption of minimally processed wheat bran or wheat aleurone, or wheat aleurone incorporated into bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveney, Edel M; Price, Ruth K; Hamill, Lesley L; Wallace, Julie M W; McNulty, Helene; Ward, Mary; Strain, J J; Ueland, Per M; Molloy, Anne M; Piironen, Vieno; von Reding, Walter; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Welch, Robert W

    2015-02-14

    The bran and particularly the aleurone fraction of wheat are high in betaine and other physiological methyl donors, which may exert beneficial physiological effects. We conducted two randomised, controlled, cross-over postprandial studies to assess and compare plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses following the consumption of minimally processed bran and aleurone fractions (study A) and aleurone bread (study B). For both studies, standard pharmacokinetic parameters were derived for betaine, choline, folate, dimethylglycine (DMG), total homocysteine and methionine from plasma samples taken at 0, 0·5, 1, 2 and 3 h. In study A (n 14), plasma betaine concentrations were significantly and substantially elevated from 0·5 to 3 h following the consumption of both bran and aleurone compared with the control; however, aleurone gave significantly higher responses than bran. Small, but significant, increases were also observed in DMG measures; however, no significant responses were observed in other analytes. In study B (n 13), plasma betaine concentrations were significantly and substantially higher following consumption of the aleurone bread compared with the control bread; small, but significant, increases were also observed in DMG and folate measures in response to consumption of the aleurone bread; however, no significant responses were observed in other analytes. Peak plasma betaine concentrations, which were 1·7-1·8 times the baseline levels, were attained earlier following the consumption of minimally processed aleurone compared with the aleurone bread (time taken to reach peak concentration 1·2 v. 2·1 h). These results showed that the consumption of minimally processed wheat bran, and particularly the aleurone fraction, yielded substantial postprandial increases in plasma betaine concentrations. Furthermore, these effects appear to be maintained when aleurone was incorporated into bread.

  12. Neonatal plasma polarizes TLR4-mediated cytokine responses towards low IL-12p70 and high IL-10 production via distinct factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E Belderbos

    Full Text Available Human neonates are highly susceptible to infection, which may be due in part to impaired innate immune function. Neonatal Toll-like receptor (TLR responses are biased against the generation of pro-inflammatory/Th1-polarizing cytokines, yet the underlying mechanisms are incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that neonatal plasma polarizes TLR4-mediated cytokine production. When exposed to cord blood plasma, mononuclear cells (MCs produced significantly lower TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 and higher IL-10 compared to MC exposed to adult plasma. Suppression by neonatal plasma of TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production, but not induction of TLR4-mediated IL-10 production, was maintained up to the age of 1 month. Cord blood plasma conferred a similar pattern of MC cytokine responses to TLR3 and TLR8 agonists, demonstrating activity towards both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent agonists. The factor causing increased TLR4-mediated IL-10 production by cord blood plasma was heat-labile, lost after protein depletion and independent of lipoprotein binding protein (LBP or soluble CD14 (sCD14. The factor causing inhibition of TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production by cord blood plasma was resistant to heat inactivation or protein depletion and was independent of IL-10, vitamin D and prostaglandin E2. In conclusion, human neonatal plasma contains at least two distinct factors that suppress TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production or induce IL-10 or production. Further identification of these factors will provide insight into the ontogeny of innate immune development and might identify novel targets for the prevention and treatment of neonatal infection.

  13. Neonatal Plasma Polarizes TLR4-Mediated Cytokine Responses towards Low IL-12p70 and High IL-10 Production via Distinct Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belderbos, Mirjam E.; Levy, Ofer; Stalpers, Femke; Kimpen, Jan L.; Meyaard, Linde; Bont, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Human neonates are highly susceptible to infection, which may be due in part to impaired innate immune function. Neonatal Toll-like receptor (TLR) responses are biased against the generation of pro-inflammatory/Th1-polarizing cytokines, yet the underlying mechanisms are incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that neonatal plasma polarizes TLR4-mediated cytokine production. When exposed to cord blood plasma, mononuclear cells (MCs) produced significantly lower TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 and higher IL-10 compared to MC exposed to adult plasma. Suppression by neonatal plasma of TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production, but not induction of TLR4-mediated IL-10 production, was maintained up to the age of 1 month. Cord blood plasma conferred a similar pattern of MC cytokine responses to TLR3 and TLR8 agonists, demonstrating activity towards both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent agonists. The factor causing increased TLR4-mediated IL-10 production by cord blood plasma was heat-labile, lost after protein depletion and independent of lipoprotein binding protein (LBP) or soluble CD14 (sCD14). The factor causing inhibition of TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production by cord blood plasma was resistant to heat inactivation or protein depletion and was independent of IL-10, vitamin D and prostaglandin E2. In conclusion, human neonatal plasma contains at least two distinct factors that suppress TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production or induce IL-10 or production. Further identification of these factors will provide insight into the ontogeny of innate immune development and might identify novel targets for the prevention and treatment of neonatal infection. PMID:22442690

  14. Ultradian rhythmicity of plasma cortisol is necessary for normal emotional and cognitive responses in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafatakis, K; Russell, G M; Harmer, C J; Munafo, M R; Marchant, N; Wilson, A; Brooks, J C; Durant, C; Thakrar, J; Murphy, P; Thai, N J; Lightman, S L

    2018-04-24

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are secreted in an ultradian, pulsatile pattern that emerges from delays in the feedforward-feedback interaction between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands. Dynamic oscillations of GCs are critical for normal cognitive and metabolic function in the rat and have been shown to modulate the pattern of GC-sensitive gene expression, modify synaptic activity, and maintain stress responsiveness. In man, current cortisol replacement therapy does not reproduce physiological hormone pulses and is associated with psychopathological symptoms, especially apathy and attenuated motivation in engaging with daily activities. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that the pattern of GC dynamics in the brain is of crucial importance for regulating cognitive and behavioral processes. We provide evidence that exactly the same dose of cortisol administered in different patterns alters the neural processing underlying the response to emotional stimulation, the accuracy in recognition and attentional bias toward/away from emotional faces, the quality of sleep, and the working memory performance of healthy male volunteers. These data indicate that the pattern of the GC rhythm differentially impacts human cognition and behavior under physiological, nonstressful conditions and has major implications for the improvement of cortisol replacement therapy.

  15. CD68+ cell count, early evaluation with PET and plasma TARC levels predict response in Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccaro, Annarosa; Annunziata, Salvatore; Cupelli, Elisa; Martini, Maurizio; Calcagni, Maria L; Rufini, Vittoria; Giachelia, Manuela; Bartolomei, Francesca; Galli, Eugenio; D'Alò, Francesco; Voso, Maria T; Leone, Giuseppe; Giordano, Alessandro; Larocca, Luigi M; Hohaus, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Early response evaluation with [(18) F]fluordeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography after 2 cycles of chemotherapy (interim PET) has been indicated as the strongest predictor for outcome in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). We studied the prognostic role of the number of tumor-infiltrating CD68+ cells and of the plasma levels of TARC (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine) in the context of interim PET in 102 patients with classical HL treated with Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine (ABVD). After 2 ABVD cycles, interim PET according to Deauville criteria was negative (score 0-3) in 85 patients and positive (score 4-5) in 15 patients (2 patients technically not evaluable). TARC levels were elevated in 89% of patients at diagnosis, and decreased after 2 cycles in 82% of patients. Persistently elevated TARC levels in 18% of patients were significantly associated with a positive PET result (P = 0.007). Strong predictors for progression-free survival (PFS) were a negative interim PET (85% vs. 28%, P evaluation had no prognostic role. In multivariate analysis, interim PET, CD68+ cell counts and presence of B-symptoms were independently associated with PFS. We conclude that although TARC levels are a biomarker for early response evaluation, they cannot substitute for interim PET as outcome predictor in HL. The evaluation of CD68 counts and B-symptoms at diagnosis may help to identify low-risk patients regardless positive interim PET. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Electrocoagulation of the Locus coeruleus and the plasma catecholamine responses to immobilization stress in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dronjak, S.; Nikolic, J.; Varagic, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Locus coeruleus (LC), the largest noradrenergic nucleus in the brain, plays a major role in behavioral arousal in response to novel or stressful stimuli (Foote et al, 1983). An interesting feature of the LC is the degree of plasticity it displays in response to stress or drug treatment. For example, electrophysiological evidence suggests that sprouting of LC axons may occur following repeated stress (Sakaguchi and Nakamura, 1990). Stress increases LC firing rate and results in increased levels of noradrenaline (Glavin et al, 1983). High concentrations of noradrenergic neurons in LC indicated that this structure might have an integrative role in the blood pressure regulation. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHP) are widely used as a model of human essential hypertension. These animals exhibit enhanced sympathetic activity (Brody et al, 1980). It was therefore of interest to study the role of LC in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats, and the effect of unilateral and bilateral electrocoagulation of the LC on the plasma concentration of noradrenaline and adrenaline during immobilization stress. (author)

  17. Response of testosterone and corticosterone plasma levels to the challenge of sibling competition: a study in common terns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, Alexander; Becker, Peter H; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2014-08-01

    The hormonal response to social challenges has been widely studied, however, most work focused on adult behavior in a reproductive context although developing animals also encounter important social challenges early in life. We studied the relationship between acute sibling competition and plasma corticosterone (CORT) and testosterone (T) in common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks, a species whose young compete for access to food by scramble interactions. Blood samples were taken in nests with two and only one single chick both immediately after a feeding bout and in non-challenged controls. We found that T levels were lower in siblings challenged by a feeding bout as compared to controls, which may be explained by the fact that T suppresses begging behavior and is only elevated in response to territorial intrusion but not sibling competition in a related species. Singletons had, corrected for body condition, generally lower CORT levels than siblings suggesting that growing up with siblings creates a competitive environment in which high CORT levels are sustained irrespective of a social challenge. CORT levels were also negatively correlated with body condition and were higher in males than in females. The latter may be related to sex-specific food requirements and susceptibility to stress. Our results suggest a possible suppressive effect of acute sibling competition on T secretion, and a positive effect on CORT levels by longer term sibling competition. The degree to which these dynamics are related to begging or aggression, or both, needs further experimental work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of antigravity suit inflation on cardiovascular, PRA, and PVP responses in humans. [Plasma Renin Activity and Plasma VasoPressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravik, S. E.; Keil, L. C.; Geelen, G.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of lower body and abdominal pressure, produced by antigravity suit inflation, on blood pressure, pulse rate, fluid and electrolyte shift, plasma vasopressin and plasma renin activity in humans in upright postures were studied. Five men and two women stood upright for 3 hr with the suit being either inflated or uninflated. In the control tests, the suit was inflated only during the latter part of the trials. Monitoring was carried out with a sphygnomanometer, with sensors for pulse rates, and using a photometer and osmometer to measure blood serum characteristics. The tests confirmed earlier findings that the anti-g suit eliminates increases in plasma renin activity. Also, the headward redistribution of blood obtained in the tests commends the anti-g suit as an alternative to water immersion or bed rest for initial weightlessness studies.

  19. Quantum theory of longitudinal dielectric response properties of a two-dimensional plasma in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horing, N.J.M.; Yildiz, M.M.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of dynamic and nonlocal longitudinal dielectric response properties of a two-dimensional Landau-quantized plasma is carried out, using a thermodynamic Green's function formulation of the RPA with a two-dimensional thermal Green's function for electron propagation in a magnetic field developed in closed form. The longitudinal-electrostatic plasmon dispersion relation is discussed in the low wave-number regime with nonlocal corrections, and Bernstein mode structure is studied for arbitrary wavenumber. All regimes of magnetic field strength and statistics are investigated. The class of integrals treated here should have broad applicability in other two-dimensional and finite slab plasma studies.The two-dimensional static shielding law in a magnetic field is analyzed for low wavenumber, and for large distances we find V (r) approx. = Q/k 2 2 r 3 . The inverse screening length k 0 =2πe 2 partial rho/ partialxi (rho= density, xi= chemical potential) is evaluated in all regimes of magnetic field strength and all statistical regimes. k 0 exhibits violent DHVA oscillatory behavior in the degenerate zero-temperature case at higher field strengths, and the shielding is complete when xi =r'hω/subc/ but there is no shielding when xi does not = r'hω/subc/. A careful analysis confirms that there is no shielding at large distances in the degenerate quantum strong field limit h3π/subc/>xi. Since shielding does persist in the nondegenerate quantum strong field limit hω/subc/>KT, there should be a pronounced change in physical properties that depend on shielding if the system is driven through a high field statistical transition. Finally, we find that the zero field two-dimensional Friedel--Kohn ''wiggle'' static shielding phenomenon is destroyed by the dispersal of the zero field continuum of electron states into the discrete set of Landau-quantized orbitals due to the imposition of the magnetic field

  20. Clot lysis time in platelet-rich plasma: method assessment, comparison with assays in platelet-free and platelet-poor plasmas, and response to tranexamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panes, Olga; Padilla, Oslando; Matus, Valeria; Sáez, Claudia G; Berkovits, Alejandro; Pereira, Jaime; Mezzano, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Fibrinolysis dysfunctions cause bleeding or predisposition to thrombosis. Platelets contain several factors of the fibrinolytic system, which could up or down regulate this process. However, the temporal relationship and relative contributions of plasma and platelet components in clot lysis are mostly unknown. We developed a clot lysis time (CLT) assay in platelet-rich plasma (PRP-CLT, with and without stimulation) and compared it to a similar one in platelet-free plasma (PFP) and to another previously reported test in platelet-poor plasma (PPP). We also studied the differential effects of a single dose of tranexamic acid (TXA) on these tests in healthy subjects. PFP- and PPP-CLT were significantly shorter than PRP-CLT, and the three assays were highly correlated (p plasma PAI-1, von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides (p platelet aggregation/secretion, platelet counts, and pro-coagulant tests to explore factor X activation by platelets, PRP clotting time, and thrombin generation in PRP. Among all the studied variables, PFP-CLT was independently associated with plasma PAI-1, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides and, additionally, stimulated PRP-CLT was also independently associated with plasma fibrinogen. A single 1 g dose of TXA strikingly prolonged all three CLTs, but in contrast to the results without the drug, the lysis times were substantially shorter in non-stimulated or stimulated PRP than in PFP and PPP. This standardized PRP-CLT may become a useful tool to study the role of platelets in clot resistance and lysis. Our results suggest that initially, the platelets enmeshed in the clot slow down the fibrinolysis process. However, the increased clot resistance to lysis induced by TXA is overcome earlier in platelet-rich clots than in PFP or PPP clots. This is likely explained by the display of platelet pro-fibrinolytic effects. Focused research is needed to disclose the mechanisms for the relationship between CLT and plasma

  1. SHIP2 associates with intersectin and recruits it to the plasma membrane in response to EGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingwei; Vandenbroere, Isabelle; Pirson, Isabelle

    2008-09-03

    We identified intersectin1 (ITSN1) as a new binding partner of the SH2 domain containing inositol 5-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2). The interaction between SHIP2 and ITSN1 was confirmed in vivo. Src homology 3D, A, C, and E domains of ITSN1 were shown to be implicated in the interaction. In response to epidermal growth factor, SHIP2 expression could recruit the ITSN1 short form (ITSN1-S) to the cell membrane, while SHIP2 overexpression did not modulate the ITSN-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. Our data provide a molecular link between SHIP2 and ITSN1 which are involved in receptor endocytosis regulation.

  2. Effects of supplementing mid-lactation dairy cows with seaweed and vitamin E on plasma and milk α-tocopherol and antibody response to immunization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidane, A; Nesheim, I L; Larsen, H J S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to compare the effects of supplementing mid-lactation dairy cows with all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (SyntvE), RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate (NatvE) or seaweed meal (Seaweed) in the presence of a Control group (no supplemental vitamin E or seaweed......) on the concentration of α-tocopherol in plasma and milk, and antibody response following immunization. The hypothesis was that supplementation of dairy cows with vitamin E, regardless of its form, would increase plasma and milk α-tocopherol compared to the control diet and this incremental response would be bigger...... with NatvE than SyntvE. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that vitamin E, regardless of its form, will provide an improved adaptive immune response to immunization than the Control diet, and cows supplemented with Seaweed meal would produce better adaptive immune response following immunization than cows...

  3. A SIMPLE AND RAPID MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD TO SCREEN FISH PLASMA SAMPLES FOR ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE BIOMARKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we describe and evaluate the performance of a simple and rapid mass spectral method for screening fish plasma for estrogen-responsive biomarkers using matrix assisted laster desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) couopled with a short...

  4. Elevation of plasma gonadotropin concentration in response to mammalian gonadotropin releasing hormone (GRH) treatment of the male brown trout as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crim, L.W.; Cluett, D.M.

    1974-01-01

    Rapid increase of the plasma gonadotropin concentration as measured by radioimmunoassay has been demonstrated in response to GRH treatment of the sexually mature male brown trout. Peak gonadotropin values were observed within 15 minutes of GRH treatment, however, the return to baseline values was prolonged compared with the mammalian response. These data support the concept that the brain, operating via releasing hormones, plays a role in the control of pituitary hormone secretion in fish

  5. Association between Polymorphisms in the Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Cluster and the Plasma Triacylglycerol Response to an n-3 PUFA Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Vohl

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, a large inter-individual variability in the plasma lipid response to an omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA supplementation is observed in different studies. Genetic variations may influence plasma lipid responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a supplementation with n-3 PUFA on the plasma lipid profile in relation to the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene cluster. A total of 208 subjects from Quebec City area were supplemented with 3 g/day of n-3 PUFA, during six weeks. In a statistical model including the effect of the genotype, the supplementation and the genotype by supplementation interaction, SNP rs174546 was significantly associated (p = 0.02 with plasma triglyceride (TG levels, pre- and post-supplementation. The n-3 supplementation had an independent effect on plasma TG levels and no significant genotype by supplementation interaction effects were observed. In summary, our data support the notion that the FADS gene cluster is a major determinant of plasma TG levels. SNP rs174546 may be an important SNP associated with plasma TG levels and FADS1 gene expression independently of a nutritional intervention with n-3 PUFA.

  6. Association of blood eosinophils and plasma periostin with FEV1 response after 3-month inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonist treatment in stable COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Yun; Lee, Hyun; Koh, Won-Jung; Kim, Seonwoo; Jeong, Ina; Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Woo Jin; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Sin, Don D; Lim, Seong Yong; Lee, Sang-Do

    2016-01-01

    COPD patients with increased airway eosinophilic inflammation show a favorable response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in combination with a long-acting bronchodilator. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant correlation of sputum eosinophilia with blood eosinophils and periostin. We investigated whether high blood eosinophils and plasma periostin were associated with an improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) after 3-month treatment with ICS/long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) in stable COPD patients. Blood eosinophils and plasma periostin levels were measured in 130 stable COPD subjects selected from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. Subjects began a 3-month ICS/LABA treatment after washout period. High blood eosinophils (>260/µL, adjusted odds ratio =3.52, P=0.009) and high plasma periostin (>23 ng/mL, adjusted odds ratio =3.52, P=0.013) were significantly associated with FEV1 responders (>12% and 200 mL increase in FEV1 from baseline after treatment). Moreover, the addition of high blood eosinophils to age, baseline positive bronchodilator response, and FEV1 eosinophils and high plasma periostin were associated with improved lung function after 3-month ICS/LABA treatment. In particular, high blood eosinophils, in combination with age and baseline lung function parameters, might be a possible biomarker for identification of COPD patients with favorable FEV1 improvement in response to ICS/LABA treatment.

  7. Synthesis and design of waveguide band-stop filters without out-of-band spurious responses for plasma diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montejo-Garai, José R.; Leal-Sevillano, Carlos A.; Ruiz-Cruz, Jorge A.; Rebollar, Jesús M.; Estrada, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A rigorous systematic design process based on circuit synthesis is proposed for band-stop filters. ► The new compact E-plane waveguide structure reduces drastically the unwanted resonances in a very large pass band. ► The manufacturing process together with the computation effort is significantly reduced. ► Experimental results validate the state-of-art electrical responses. - Abstract: Band-stop or notch filters play a crucial role in plasma diagnosis systems to protect receivers from the stray radiation. In this work, a rigorous design process based on circuit synthesis in addition to an extremely compact E-plane waveguide structure is proposed for this kind of filters. On the one hand, the transfer function verifying the rejection specification is analytically obtained, fixing the minimum number of required cavities. On the other hand, a coupling structure that reduces drastically the unwanted resonances in filters with a very large pass band requirement, is presented. This coupling between the rejection cavities and the main rectangular waveguide has additional advantages; (a) unlike typical inductive irises, large coupling coefficients can be implemented (b) a pure E-plane configuration is achieved, which simplifies the manufacturing and also reduces significantly the computational effort. Experimental validation is demonstrated by two pseudo-elliptic fifth-order band-stop filters fabricated and measured in Ka and V bands. In both cases, the filters are free of spurious resonances in their total operation bands.

  8. Prediction of inflammatory responses induced by biomaterials in contact with human blood using protein fingerprint from plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Anna E; Nilsson, Per H; Huang, Shan; Fromell, Karin; Hamad, Osama A; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Rosengren-Holmberg, Jenny P; Sandholm, Kerstin; Teramura, Yuji; Nicholls, Ian A; Nilsson, Bo; Ekdahl, Kristina N

    2015-01-01

    Inappropriate complement activation is often responsible for incompatibility reactions that occur when biomaterials are used. Complement activation is therefore a criterion included in legislation regarding biomaterials testing. However, no consensus is yet available regarding appropriate complement-activation-related test parameters. We examined protein adsorption in plasma and complement activation/cytokine release in whole blood incubated with well-characterized polymers. Strong correlations were found between the ratio of C4 to its inhibitor C4BP and generation of 10 (mainly pro-inflammatory) cytokines, including IL-17, IFN-γ, and IL-6. The levels of complement activation products correlated weakly (C3a) or not at all (C5a, sC5b-9), confirming their poor predictive values. We have demonstrated a direct correlation between downstream biological effects and the proteins initially adhering to an artificial surface after contact with blood. Consequently, we propose the C4/C4BP ratio as a robust, predictor of biocompatibility with superior specificity and sensitivity over the current gold standard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards a better preclinical model of PTSD: characterizing animals with weak extinction, maladaptive stress responses and low plasma corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, Roman; Diwan, Mustansir; Nobrega, José N; Hamani, Clement

    2015-02-01

    Most of the available preclinical models of PTSD have focused on isolated behavioural aspects and have not considered individual variations in response to stress. We employed behavioural criteria to identify and characterize a subpopulation of rats that present several features analogous to PTSD-like states after exposure to classical fear conditioning. Outbred Sprague-Dawley rats were segregated into weak- and strong-extinction groups on the basis of behavioural scores during extinction of conditioned fear responses. Animals were subsequently tested for anxiety-like behaviour in the open-field test (OFT), novelty suppressed feeding (NSF) and elevated plus maze (EPM). Baseline plasma corticosterone was measured prior to any behavioural manipulation. In a second experiment, rats underwent OFT, NSF and EPM prior to being subjected to fear conditioning to ascertain whether or not pre-stress levels of anxiety-like behaviours could predict extinction scores. We found that 25% of rats exhibit low extinction rates of conditioned fear, a feature that was associated with increased anxiety-like behaviour across multiple tests in comparison to rats showing strong extinction. In addition, weak-extinction animals showed low levels of corticosterone prior to fear conditioning, a variable that seemed to predict extinction recall scores. In a separate experiment, anxiety measures taken prior to fear conditioning were not predictive of a weak-extinction phenotype, suggesting that weak-extinction animals do not show detectable traits of anxiety in the absence of a stressful experience. These findings suggest that extinction impairment may be used to identify stress-vulnerable rats, thus providing a useful model for elucidating mechanisms and investigating potential treatments for PTSD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. TIP-1 translocation onto the cell plasma membrane is a molecular biomarker of tumor response to ionizing radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailun Wang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor response to treatment has been generally assessed with anatomic and functional imaging. Recent development of in vivo molecular and cellular imaging showed promise in time-efficient assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of a prescribed regimen. Currently, the in vivo molecular imaging is limited with shortage of biomarkers and probes with sound biological relevance. We have previously shown in tumor-bearing mice that a hexapeptide (HVGGSSV demonstrated potentials as a molecular imaging probe to distinguish the tumors responding to ionizing radiation (IR and/or tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment from those of non-responding tumors.In this study we have studied biological basis of the HVGGSSV peptide binding within the irradiated tumors by use of tumor-bearing mice and cultured cancer cells. The results indicated that Tax interacting protein 1 (TIP-1, also known as Tax1BP3 is a molecular target that enables the selective binding of the HVGGSSV peptide within irradiated xenograft tumors. Optical imaging and immunohistochemical staining indicated that a TIP-1 specific antibody demonstrated similar biodistribution as the peptide in tumor-bearing mice. The TIP-1 antibody blocked the peptide from binding within irradiated tumors. Studies on both of human and mouse lung cancer cells showed that the intracellular TIP-1 relocated to the plasma membrane surface within the first few hours after exposure to IR and before the onset of treatment associated apoptosis and cell death. TIP-1 relocation onto the cell surface is associated with the reduced proliferation and the enhanced susceptibility to the subsequent IR treatment.This study by use of tumor-bearing mice and cultured cancer cells suggested that imaging of the radiation-inducible TIP-1 translocation onto the cancer cell surface may predict the tumor responsiveness to radiation in a time-efficient manner and thus tailor radiotherapy of cancer.

  11. Response to ''Comment on 'Interaction of two solitary waves in quantum electron-positron-ion plasma''' [Phys. Plasmas 18, 084701 (2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yanxia; Lin Maimai; Shi Yuren; Duan Wenshan; Liu Zongming

    2011-01-01

    According to the comments of Akbari-Moghanjoughi that the electron-positron-ion(e-p-i) plasmas parameters σ representing the ratio of the positron to electron Fermi-temperature and p standing for the positron to electron number-density ratio are related by the equation of p σ 3/2 . Based on this conclusion, we have replaced the Figs. 1-6 (Ref. 1) in the present paper.

  12. Oscillatory processes in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallin, E.

    1980-01-01

    The oscillatory process play an important part in plasma evolution, In hot plasma in particular, the interactions between the oscillation modes are preponderant in relation to the binary collisions between particles. The nonlineary interactions between collective plasma oscillations can generate, in this case, a non-balanced steady state of plasma (steady turbulence). The paper elucidates some aspects of the oscillatory phenomena which contribute to the plasma state evolution, especially of hot plasma. A major part of the paper is devoted to the study of parametric instabilities in plasma and their role in increasing the temperature of plasma components (electrons, ions). Both parametric instabilities in plasma in the vicinity of thermodynamic balance and parametric processes is steady turbulent plasma are analysed - in relation to additional heating of hot plasma. An important result of the thesis refers to the drowing-up of a non-lineary interaction model between the oscillation modes in turbulent plasma, being responsible for the electromagnetic radiation in hot plasma. On the basis of the model suggested in the paper the existence of a low frequency radiative mode in hot plasma in a turbulent state, can be demonstrated. Its frequency could be even lower than plasma frequency in the field of long waves be even lower than plasma frequency in the field of long waves. Such a radiative mode was detected experimentally in focussed plasma installations. (author)

  13. Matrix- and plasma-derived peptides promote tissue-specific injury responses and wound healing in diabetic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Anthony R; Massey, Conner J; Cronk, Stephen M; Iafrati, Mark D; Herman, Ira M

    2016-07-02

    Non-healing wounds are a major global health concern and account for the majority of non-traumatic limb amputations worldwide. However, compared to standard care practices, few advanced therapeutics effectively resolve these injuries stemming from cardiovascular disease, aging, and diabetes-related vasculopathies. While matrix turnover is disrupted in these injuries, debriding enzymes may promote healing by releasing matrix fragments that induce cell migration, proliferation, and morphogenesis, and plasma products may also stimulate these processes. Thus, we created matrix- and plasma-derived peptides, Comb1 and UN3, which induce cellular injury responses in vitro, and accelerate healing in rodent models of non-healing wounds. However, the effects of these peptides in non-healing wounds in diabetes are not known. Here, we interrogated whether these peptides stimulate healing in a diabetic porcine model highly reminiscent of human healing impairments in type 1 and type 2-diabetes. After 3-6 weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, full-thickness wounds were surgically created on the backs of adult female Yorkshire swine under general anesthesia. Comb1 and UN3 peptides or sterile saline (negative control) were administered to wounds daily for 3-7 days. Following sacrifice, wound tissues were harvested, and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed for wound closure, angiogenesis and granulation tissue deposition, along with quantitative molecular analyses of factors critical for angiogenesis, epithelialization, and dermal matrix remodeling. Comb1 and UN3 significantly increase re-epithelialization and angiogenesis in diabetic porcine wounds, compared to saline-treated controls. Additionally, fluorescein-conjugated Comb1 labels keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and vascular endothelial cells in porcine wounds, and Far western blotting reveals these cell populations express multiple fluorescein-Comb1-interacting proteins in vitro. Further

  14. Plasma glucosylceramide and ceramide in type 1 Gaucher disease patients: correlations with disease severity and response to therapeutic intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groener, J. E. M.; Poorthuis, B. J. H. M.; Kuiper, S.; Hollak, C. E. M.; Aerts, J. M. F. G.

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of plasma glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and ceramide (Cer) were determined in a cohort of type 1 Gaucher disease patients. In plasma of untreated patients, GlcCer concentrations were on average 3-fold increased (median Gaucher: 17.5 nmol/ml, range: 6.5-45.5 (n=27); median control: 5.9

  15. Comparative response of platelet fV and plasma fV to activated protein C and relevance to a model of acute traumatic coagulopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Campbell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC has been linked to an increase in activated protein C (aPC from 40 pM in healthy individuals to 175 pM. aPC exerts its activity primarily through cleavage of active coagulation factor Va (fVa. Platelets reportedly possess fVa which is more resistant to aPC cleavage than plasma fVa; this work examines the hypothesis that normal platelets are sufficient to maintain coagulation in the presence of elevated aPC. METHODS: Coagulation responses of normal plasma, fV deficient plasma (fVdp, and isolated normal platelets in fVdp were conducted: prothrombin (PT tests, turbidimetry, and thromboelastography (TEG, including the dose response of aPC on the samples. RESULTS: PT and turbidimetric assays demonstrate that normal plasma is resistant to aPC at doses much higher than those found in ATC. Additionally, an average physiological number of washed normal platelets (200,000 platelets/mm3 was sufficient to eliminate the anti-coagulant effects of aPC up to 10 nM, nearly two orders of magnitude above the ATC concentration and even the steady-state pharmacological concentration of human recombinant aPC, as measured by TEG. aPC also demonstrated no significant effect on clot lysis in normal plasma samples with or without platelets. CONCLUSIONS: Although platelet fVa shows slightly superior resistance to aPC's effects compared to plasma fVa in static models, neither fVa is sufficiently cleaved in simulations of ATC or pharmacologically-delivered aPC to diminish coagulation parameters. aPC is likely a correlative indicator of ATC or may play a cooperative role with other activity altering products generated in ATC.

  16. Relationship of plasma proadrenomedullin and cortisol levels with systemic inflammatory response and target organ damage in children with sepsis after burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship of plasma proadrenomedullin (pro-ADM and cortisol (Cor levels with systemic inflammatory response and target organ damage in children with sepsis after burn. Methods: A total of 30 children with sepsis after burn who were treated in the hospital between August 2014 and August 2016 were collected as observation group, and 30 normal children who received vaccination in the hospital during the same period were collected as normal control group. The pro-ADM and Cor levels in plasma as well as the levels of inflammatory factors, myocardial injury markers and intestinal barrier function indexes in serum of the two groups were determined. Pearson test was used to assess the correlation of plasma pro-ADM and Cor levels with systemic inflammatory response and target organ damage in patients with sepsis after burn. Results: Plasma pro-ADM and Cor levels in observation group were higher than those in normal control group. Serum inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels in observation group were higher than those in normal control group; serum myocardial injury markers CK-MB, cTnⅠ and NT-proBNP levels were higher than those in normal control group; serum intestinal barrier function indexes ET, DAO and D-L levels were higher than those in normal control group. Conclusion: Plasma pro-ADM and Cor levels increase in patients with sepsis after burn, and are highly consistent with systemic inflammatory response and target organ injury.

  17. Understanding the Effect of Gas Dynamics in Plasma Gun Performance for Simulating Fusion Wall Response to Disruption Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Will; Underwood, Thomas; Righetti, Fabio; Cappelli, Mark

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the suitability of a pulsed coaxial plasma accelerator to simulate the interaction of edge-localized modes with plasma first wall materials is investigated. Experimental measurements derived from a suite of diagnostics are presented that focus on both the properties of the plasma flow and the manner in which such jets couple with material interfaces. Specific emphasis is placed on quantifying the variation in these properties using tungsten tokens exposed to the plasma plume as the gun volume is progressively filled with more neutral gas. These results are mapped to the operational dynamics of the gun via a time-resolved Schlieren cinematic visualization of the density gradient within the flow. Resulting videos indicate the existence of two distinct modes with vastly different characteristic timescales, spatial evolution, and plasma properties. Time resolved quantification of the associated plasma heat flux for both modes, including a range spanning 150 MW m-2 - 10 GW m-2, is presented using both a fast thermocouple gauge and an IR camera. Both diagnostics in conjunction with a heat transfer model provide an accurate description of the energy transfer dynamics and operational characteristics of plasma guns. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Program.

  18. Non-linear signal response functions and their effects on the statistical and noise cancellation properties of isotope ratio measurements by multi-collector plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, W.

    2013-01-01

    A nebulizer-centric response function model of the analytical inductively coupled argon plasma ion source was used to investigate the statistical frequency distributions and noise reduction factors of simultaneously measured flicker noise limited isotope ion signals and their ratios. The response function model was extended by assuming i) a single gaussian distributed random noise source (nebulizer gas pressure fluctuations) and ii) the isotope ion signal response is a parabolic function of the nebulizer gas pressure. Model calculations of ion signal and signal ratio histograms were obtained by applying the statistical method of translation to the non-linear response function model of the plasma. Histograms of Ni, Cu, Pr, Tl and Pb isotope ion signals measured using a multi-collector plasma mass spectrometer were, without exception, negative skew. Histograms of the corresponding isotope ratios of Ni, Cu, Tl and Pb were either positive or negative skew. There was a complete agreement between the measured and model calculated histogram skew properties. The nebulizer-centric response function model was also used to investigate the effect of non-linear response functions on the effectiveness of noise cancellation by signal division. An alternative noise correction procedure suitable for parabolic signal response functions was derived and applied to measurements of isotope ratios of Cu, Ni, Pb and Tl. The largest noise reduction factors were always obtained when the non-linearity of the response functions was taken into account by the isotope ratio calculation. Possible applications of the nebulizer-centric response function model to other types of analytical instrumentation, large amplitude signal noise sources (e.g., lasers, pumped nebulizers) and analytical error in isotope ratio measurements by multi-collector plasma mass spectrometry are discussed. - Highlights: ► Isotope ion signal noise is modelled as a parabolic transform of a gaussian variable. ► Flicker

  19. D-serine plasma concentration is a potential biomarker of (R,S)-ketamine antidepressant response in subjects with treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddel, Ruin; Luckenbaugh, David A; Xie, Ying; Villaseñor, Alma; Brutsche, Nancy E; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Ramamoorthy, Anuradha; Lorenzo, Maria Paz; Garcia, Antonia; Bernier, Michel; Torjman, Marc C; Barbas, Coral; Zarate, Carlos A; Wainer, Irving W

    2015-01-01

    (R,S)-ketamine is a rapid and effective antidepressant drug that produces a response in two thirds of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). The underlying biochemical differences between a (R,S)-ketamine responder (KET-R) and non-responder (KET-NR) have not been definitively identified but may involve serine metabolism. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between baseline plasma concentrations of D-serine and its precursor L-serine and antidepressant response to (R,S)-ketamine in TRD patients. Plasma samples were obtained from 21 TRD patients at baseline, 60 min before initiation of the (R,S)-ketamine infusion. Patients were classified as KET-Rs (n = 8) or KET-NRs (n = 13) based upon the difference in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores at baseline and 230 min after infusion, with response defined as a ≥50 % decrease in MADRS score. The plasma concentrations of D-serine and L-serine were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Baseline D-serine plasma concentrations were significantly lower in KET-Rs (3.02 ± 0.21 μM) than in KET-NRs (4.68 ± 0.81 μM), p < 0.001. A significant relationship between baseline D-serine plasma concentrations and percent change in MADRS at 230 min was determined using a Pearson correlation, r = 0.77, p < 0.001, with baseline D-serine explaining 60 % of the variance in (R,S)-ketamine response. The baseline concentrations of L-serine (L-Ser) in KET-Rs were also significantly lower than those measured in KET-NRs (66.2 ± 9.6 μM vs 242.9 ± 5.6 μM, respectively; p < 0.0001). The results demonstrate that the baseline D-serine plasma concentrations were significantly lower in KET-Rs than in KET-NRs and suggest that this variable can be used to predict an antidepressant response following (R,S)-ketamine administration.

  20. Synthesis and design of waveguide band-stop filters without out-of-band spurious responses for plasma diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montejo-Garai, Jose R., E-mail: jr@etc.upm.es [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Teoria de Circuitos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 20840 (Spain); Leal-Sevillano, Carlos A. [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Teoria de Circuitos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 20840 (Spain); Ruiz-Cruz, Jorge A. [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/Fco. Tomas y Valiente 11, Madrid 28409 (Spain); Rebollar, Jesus M. [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Teoria de Circuitos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 20840 (Spain); Estrada, Teresa [T. Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion Euratom-CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rigorous systematic design process based on circuit synthesis is proposed for band-stop filters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The new compact E-plane waveguide structure reduces drastically the unwanted resonances in a very large pass band. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The manufacturing process together with the computation effort is significantly reduced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental results validate the state-of-art electrical responses. - Abstract: Band-stop or notch filters play a crucial role in plasma diagnosis systems to protect receivers from the stray radiation. In this work, a rigorous design process based on circuit synthesis in addition to an extremely compact E-plane waveguide structure is proposed for this kind of filters. On the one hand, the transfer function verifying the rejection specification is analytically obtained, fixing the minimum number of required cavities. On the other hand, a coupling structure that reduces drastically the unwanted resonances in filters with a very large pass band requirement, is presented. This coupling between the rejection cavities and the main rectangular waveguide has additional advantages; (a) unlike typical inductive irises, large coupling coefficients can be implemented (b) a pure E-plane configuration is achieved, which simplifies the manufacturing and also reduces significantly the computational effort. Experimental validation is demonstrated by two pseudo-elliptic fifth-order band-stop filters fabricated and measured in Ka and V bands. In both cases, the filters are free of spurious resonances in their total operation bands.

  1. Responses of proenkephalin Peptide F to aerobic exercise stress in the plasma and white blood cell biocompartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Fragala, Maren S; van Henegouwen, Wendy R H Beijersbergen; Gordon, Scott E; Bush, Jill A; Volek, Jeff S; Triplett, N Travis; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Flanagan, Shawn D; Hooper, David R; Luk, Hui-Ying; Mastro, Andrea M

    2013-04-01

    Proenkephalin Peptide F [107-140] is an enkephalin-containing peptide found predominantly within the adrenal medulla, co-packaged with epinephrine within the chromaffin granules. In vivo studies indicate that Peptide F has classic opioid analgesia effects; in vitro studies suggest potential immune cell interactions. In this investigation we examined patterns of Peptide F concentrations in different bio-compartments of the blood at rest and following sub-maximal cycle exercise to determine if Peptide F interacts with the white blood cell (WBC) bio-compartment during aerobic exercise. Eight physically active men (n=8) performed sub-maximal (80-85% V˙O2peak) cycle ergometer exercise for 30 min. Plasma Peptide F and WBC Peptide F immunoreactivity were examined pre-exercise, mid-exercise and immediately post-, 5-min post-, 15-min post-, 30-min post- and 60-min post-exercise and at similar time-points during a control condition (30 min rest). Peptide F concentrations significantly (pexercise, compared to pre-exercise concentrations. No significant increases in Peptide F concentrations in the WBC fraction were observed during or after exercise. However, a significant decrease was observed at 30 min post-exercise. An ultradian pattern of Peptide F distribution was apparent during rest. Furthermore, concentrations of T cells, B cells, NK cells, and total WBCs demonstrated significant changes in response to aerobic exercise. Data indicated that Peptide F was bound in significant molar concentrations in the WBC fraction and that this biocompartment may be one of the tissue targets for binding interactions. These data indicate that Peptide F is involved with immune cell modulation in the white blood circulatory biocompartment of blood. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Responses of plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids to intravenous insulin tolerance tests in dairy cows during a 670-day lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J; Macmillan, K L; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic response of dairy cows undergoing an extended lactation to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) was investigated. Twelve multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in late winter in a pasture-based system were managed for a 670-d lactation by delaying rebreeding. Four 5-wk experimental periods commenced at approximately 73, 217, 422, and 520 d in milk (DIM). Cows were offered a diet of perennial ryegrass (73 and 422 DIM) or pasture hay and silage (217 and 520 DIM) supplemented with 1 kg dry matter (DM) of grain (control; CON) or 6 kg DM of grain (GRN). Daily energy intake was approximately 160 and 215 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow for CON and GRN, respectively. At all other times, cows were managed as a single herd and grazed pasture supplemented with grain to an estimated daily intake of 180 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow. Cows were fitted with a jugular catheter during the final week of each experimental period. An ITT using 0.12 IU of insulin/kg of body weight (BW) was conducted on each cow at approximately 100, 250, 460, and 560 DIM. Cows in the GRN treatment had greater milk yield, milk solids yield, and BW than cows in the CON treatment. Within treatment, individual cow responses to the ITT were highly variable. Plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations declined at all stages of lactation. The clearance rate of plasma glucose was slower before 300 DIM than after 300 DIM, which indicates greater inhibition of hepatic glucose synthesis and uptake of glucose by insulin-dependent tissues later in the lactation. The clearance rate, area under the curve, and recovery of plasma NEFA were greatest at 100 DIM, indicating greater responsiveness to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in early lactation, but also greater lipolytic responsiveness. The variation in response to the ITT was mostly a result of DIM rather than diet. However, the plasma NEFA response showed interactions between diet and DIM, indicating that energy intake

  3. Time-series responses of swine plasma metabolites to ingestion of diets containing myo-inositol or phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowieson, Aaron J; Roos, Franz F; Ruckebusch, Jean-Paul; Wilson, Jonathan W; Guggenbuhl, Patrick; Lu, Hang; Ajuwon, Kolapo M; Adeola, Olayiwola

    2017-12-01

    The effect of the ingestion of diets containing either myo-inositol or exogenous phytase on plasma metabolites was examined using 29 kg barrows. The diets were: control (maize, soya, rapeseed, rice bran), control plus 2 g/kg myo-inositol, control plus 1000 phytase units (FYT)/kg or 3000 FYT/kg exogenous phytase. Pigs were housed in a PigTurn device and blood was collected, from jugular catheters, via an automated system at -30, (30 min before feeding), 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min post-feeding. The addition of 2 g/kg myo-inositol to the basal diet resulted in an increase in plasma myo-inositol concentration that was evident 45-60 min after diet introduction and persisted to 360 min post-feeding. Similarly, supplementation of the basal diet with either 1000 or 3000 FYT/kg exogenous phytase resulted in an increase in plasma myo-inositol concentration that was still rising 360 min post-feeding. Plasma P concentration was increased over time by the addition of 1000 and 3000 FYT/kg phytase, but not by the addition of myo-inositol. Other plasma metabolites examined were not affected by dietary treatment. It can be concluded that oral delivery of myo-inositol results in rapid increase in plasma myo-inositol concentrations that peak approximately 45-60 min after feeding. Use of supplemental phytase achieves similar increases in myo-inositol concentration in plasma but the appearance is more gradual. Furthermore, supplementation of pig diets with exogenous phytase results in rapid appearance of P in plasma that may be sustained over time relative to diets with no added phytase.

  4. Plasma Membrane CRPK1-Mediated Phosphorylation of 14-3-3 Proteins Induces Their Nuclear Import to Fine-Tune CBF Signaling during Cold Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziyan; Jia, Yuxin; Ding, Yanglin; Shi, Yiting; Li, Zhen; Guo, Yan; Gong, Zhizhong; Yang, Shuhua

    2017-04-06

    In plant cells, changes in fluidity of the plasma membrane may serve as the primary sensor of cold stress; however, the precise mechanism and how the cell transduces and fine-tunes cold signals remain elusive. Here we show that the cold-activated plasma membrane protein cold-responsive protein kinase 1 (CRPK1) phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins. The phosphorylated 14-3-3 proteins shuttle from the cytosol to the nucleus, where they interact with and destabilize the key cold-responsive C-repeat-binding factor (CBF) proteins. Consistent with this, the crpk1 and 14-3-3κλ mutants show enhanced freezing tolerance, and transgenic plants overexpressing 14-3-3λ show reduced freezing tolerance. Further study shows that CRPK1 is essential for the nuclear translocation of 14-3-3 proteins and for 14-3-3 function in freezing tolerance. Thus, our study reveals that the CRPK1-14-3-3 module transduces the cold signal from the plasma membrane to the nucleus to modulate CBF stability, which ensures a faithfully adjusted response to cold stress of plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fasting plasma triglycerides predict the glycaemic response to treatment of Type 2 diabetes by gastric electrical stimulation. A novel lipotoxicity paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovitz, H E; Ludvik, B; Yaniv, I; Haddad, W; Schwartz, T; Aviv, R

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-stimulatory, meal-mediated electrical stimulation of the stomach (TANTALUS-DIAMOND) improves glycaemic control and causes modest weight loss in patients with Type 2 diabetes who are inadequately controlled on oral anti-diabetic medications. The magnitude of the glycaemic response in clinical studies has been variable. A preliminary analysis of data from patients who had completed 6 months of treatment indicated that the glycaemic response to the electrical stimulation was inversely related to the baseline fasting plasma triglyceride level. Method An analysis of 40 patients who had had detailed longitudinal studies for 12 months. Results Twenty-two patients with fasting plasma triglycerides ≤ 1.7 mmol/l had mean decreases in HbA1c after 3, 6 and 12 months of gastric contraction modulation treatment of −15 ± 2.1 mmol/mol (−1.39 ± 0.20%), −16 ± 2.2 mmol/mol (−1.48 ± 0.20%) and −14 ± 3.0 mmol/mol (−1.31 ± 0.26%), respectively. In contrast, 18 patients with fasting plasma triglyceride > 1.7 mmol/l had mean decreases in HbA1c of −7 ± 1.7 mmol/mol (−0.66 ± 0.16%), −5 ± 1.6 mmol/mol (−0.44 ± 0.18%) and −5 ± 1.7 mmol/mol (−0.42 ± 0.16%), respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient between fasting plasma triglyceride and decreases in HbA1c at 12 months of treatment was 0.34 (P triglycerides, while it progressively improved in patients with low fasting plasma triglycerides. Patients with low fasting plasma triglycerides had a tendency to lose more weight than those with high fasting plasma triglycerides, but this did not achieve statistical significance. Conclusions The data presented suggest the existance of a triglyceride lipotoxic mechanism that interferes with gastric/neural mediated pathways that can regulate glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The data suggest the existence of a triglyceride lipotoxic pathway that interferes with gastric/neural mediated pathways that can regulate glycaemic control

  6. B7h-expressing dendritic cells and plasma B cells mediate distinct outcomes of ICOS costimulation in T cell-dependent antibody responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larimore Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ICOS-B7h costimulatory receptor-ligand pair is required for germinal center formation, the production of isotype-switched antibodies, and antibody affinity maturation in response to T cell-dependent antigens. However, the potentially distinct roles of regulated B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in T cell-dependent antibody responses have not been defined. Results We generated transgenic mice with lineage-restricted B7h expression to assess the cell-type specific roles of B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in regulating T cell-dependent antibody responses. Our results show that endogenous B7h expression is reduced on B cells after activation in vitro and is also reduced in vivo on antibody-secreting plasma B cells in comparison to both naïve and germinal center B cells from which they are derived. Increasing the level of B7h expression on activated and plasma B cells in B-B7hTg mice led to an increase in the number of antibody-secreting plasma cells generated after immunization and a corresponding increase in the concentration of antigen-specific high affinity serum IgG antibodies of all isotypes, without affecting the number of responding germinal center B cells. In contrast, ICOS costimulation mediated by dendritic cells in DC-B7hTg mice contributed to germinal center formation and selectively increased IgG2a production without affecting the overall magnitude of antibody responses. Conclusions Using transgenic mice with lineage-restricted B7h expression, we have revealed distinct roles of ICOS costimulation mediated by dendritic cells and B cells in the regulation of T cell-dependent antibody responses.

  7. Effect of Age on Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin, Glucagon, Ghrelin, CCK, GIP, and GLP-1 Responses to Whey Protein Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Giezenaar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein-rich supplements are used widely to prevent and manage undernutrition in older people. We have previously shown that healthy older, compared to younger, adults have less suppression of energy intake by whey protein—although the effects of age on appetite-related gut hormones are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the acute effects of whey protein loads on blood glucose and plasma gut hormone concentrations in older and younger adults. Sixteen healthy older (eight men, eight women; mean ± SEM: age: 72 ± 1 years; body mass index: 25 ± 1 kg/m2 and 16 younger (eight men, eight women; 24 ± 1 years; 23 ± 0.4 kg/m2 adults were studied on three occasions in which they ingested 30 g (120 kcal or 70 g (280 kcal whey protein, or a flavored-water control drink (~2 kcal. At regular intervals over 180 min, blood glucose and plasma insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 concentrations were measured. Plasma ghrelin was dose-dependently suppressed and insulin, glucagon, CCK, GIP, and GLP-1 concentrations were dose-dependently increased by the whey protein ingestion, while blood glucose concentrations were comparable during all study days. The stimulation of plasma CCK and GIP concentrations was greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, orally ingested whey protein resulted in load-dependent gut hormone responses, which were greater for plasma CCK and GIP in older compared to younger adults.

  8. Experience of high-nitrogenous steel powder application in repairs and surface hardening of responsible parts for power equipment by plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakov, A. S.; Kardonina, N. I.

    2016-02-01

    The questions of the application of novel diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders for repair and surface hardening of responsible parts of power equipment by plasma spraying are considered. The appropriateness of the method for operative repair of equipment and increasing its service life is justified. General data on the structure, properties, and manufacture of nitrogen-, aluminum-, and chromium-containing steel powders that are economically alloyed using diffusion are described. It is noted that the nitrogen release during the decomposition of iron nitrides, when heating, protects the powder particles from oxidation in the plasma jet. It is shown that the coating retains 50% of nitrogen that is contained in the powder. Plasma spraying modes for diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders are given. The service properties of plasma coatings based on these powders are analyzed. It is shown that the high-nitrogenous steel powders to a nitrogen content of 8.9 wt % provide the necessary wear resistance and hardness of the coating and the strength of its adhesion to the substrate and corrosion resistance to typical aggressive media. It is noted that increasing the coating porosity promotes stress relaxation and increases its thickness being limited with respect to delamination conditions in comparison with dense coatings on retention of the low defectiveness of the interface and high adhesion to the substrate. The examples of the application of high-nitrogenous steel powders in power engineering during equipment repairs by service companies and overhaul subdivisions of heat power plants are given. It is noted that the plasma spraying of diffusion-alloyed high-nitrogenous steel powders is a unique opportunity to restore nitrided steel products.

  9. Response of plasma facing components in Tokamaks due to intense energy deposition using Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genco, Filippo

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFC) due to various plasma instabilities is still a major concern for the successful development of fusion energy and represents a significant research obstacle in the community. It is of great importance to fully understand the behavior and lifetime expectancy of PFC under both low energy cycles during normal events and highly energetic events as disruptions, Edge-Localized Modes (ELM), Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), and Run-away electron (RE). The consequences of these high energetic dumps with energy fluxes ranging from 10 MJ/m2 up to 200 MJ/m 2 applied in very short periods (0.1 to 5 ms) can be catastrophic both for safety and economic reasons. Those phenomena can cause a) large temperature increase in the target material b) consequent melting, evaporation and erosion losses due to the extremely high heat fluxes c) possible structural damage and permanent degradation of the entire bulk material with probable burnout of the coolant tubes; d) plasma contamination, transport of target material into the chamber far from where it was originally picked. The modeling of off-normal events such as Disruptions and ELMs requires the simultaneous solution of three main problems along time: a) the heat transfer in the plasma facing component b) the interaction of the produced vapor from the surface with the incoming plasma particles c) the transport of the radiation produced in the vapor-plasma cloud. In addition the moving boundaries problem has to be considered and solved at the material surface. Considering the carbon divertor as target, the moving boundaries are two since for the given conditions, carbon doesn't melt: the plasma front and the moving eroded material surface. The current solution methods for this problem use finite differences and moving coordinates system based on the Crank-Nicholson method and Alternating Directions Implicit Method (ADI). Currently Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods are widely used for solving

  10. The acute metabolic response to breads with contrasting content and composition of arabinoxylans and ß-glucan - metabolomics analysis of plasma from porto-arterial catheterized pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    A liquid chromatography–MS (LC-MS) metabolomics analysis of plasma from portal–arterial catheterised pigs fed breads prepared with whole-grain rye or wheat flour with added concentrated arabinoxylan (AX) or β-glucan (BG) was conducted. Comparison of the effects of concentrated fibres with whole...... of available carbohydrate was similar for the five breads but varied in the content of protein. Plasma was collected continuously for 4 h after feeding. Glucose levels in the portal vein were reduced postprandially in response to the AX, GR and RK breads that had high contents of AX compared with WF bread (P...... contents in the breads and leucine uptake significantly affected insulin secretion in the mesenteric artery...

  11. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program we are developing a neutral-beam source, the intense, pulsed ion-neutral source (IPINS), for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of using certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  12. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the MFE Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program, we are developing the intense, pulsed neutral-beam source (IPINS) for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of utilizing certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  13. ABNORMAL PLASMA NORADRENALINE RESPONSE AND EXERCISE INDUCED ALBUMINURIA IN TYPE-1 (INSULIN-DEPENDENT) DIABETES-MELLITUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOOGENBERG, K; DULLAART, RPF

    1992-01-01

    Submaximal exercise provokes an abnormal elevation in albuminuria in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Plasma catecholamines might be involved in this phenomenon by a renal vasoconstrictive effect. Twelve healthy subjects (Controls: albuminuria It is concluded that the exercise-induced

  14. Computational study of plasma-assisted photoacoustic response from gold nanoparticles irradiated by off-resonance ultrafast laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatef, Ali; Darvish, Behafarid; Sajjadi, Amir Yousef

    2017-01-01

    The gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are capable of enhancing the incident laser field in the form of scattered near field for even an off-resonance irradiation where the incident laser wavelength is far away from the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). If the intensity of the pulse laser is large enough, this capability can be employed to generate a highly localized free electron (plasma) in the vicinity of the particles. The generated plasma can absorb more energy during the pulse, and this energy deposition can be considered as an energy source for structural mechanics calculations in the surrounding media to generate a photoacoustic (PA) signal. To show this, in this paper, we model plasma-mediated PA pressure wave propagation from a 100-nm AuNPs and the surrounding media irradiated by an ultrashort pulse laser. In this model, the AuNP is immersed in water and the laser pulse width is ranging from 70 fs to 2 ps at the wavelength of 800 nm (off-resonance). Our results qualitatively show the substantial impact of the energy deposition in plasma on the PA signal through boosting the pressure amplitudes up to ∼1000 times compared to the conventional approach.

  15. Computational study of plasma-assisted photoacoustic response from gold nanoparticles irradiated by off-resonance ultrafast laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatef, Ali, E-mail: alih@nipissingu.ca; Darvish, Behafarid [Nipissing University, Nipissing Computational Physics Laboratory (NCPL), Department of Computer Science and Mathematics (Canada); Sajjadi, Amir Yousef [Massachusetts General Hospital, Cutaneous Biology Research Center (United States)

    2017-02-15

    The gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are capable of enhancing the incident laser field in the form of scattered near field for even an off-resonance irradiation where the incident laser wavelength is far away from the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). If the intensity of the pulse laser is large enough, this capability can be employed to generate a highly localized free electron (plasma) in the vicinity of the particles. The generated plasma can absorb more energy during the pulse, and this energy deposition can be considered as an energy source for structural mechanics calculations in the surrounding media to generate a photoacoustic (PA) signal. To show this, in this paper, we model plasma-mediated PA pressure wave propagation from a 100-nm AuNPs and the surrounding media irradiated by an ultrashort pulse laser. In this model, the AuNP is immersed in water and the laser pulse width is ranging from 70 fs to 2 ps at the wavelength of 800 nm (off-resonance). Our results qualitatively show the substantial impact of the energy deposition in plasma on the PA signal through boosting the pressure amplitudes up to ∼1000 times compared to the conventional approach.

  16. Effect of Maillard browning reaction on protein utilization and plasma amino acid response by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakas, S M; Lee, T C; Wolke, R E; Meade, T L

    1985-12-01

    The effect of the Maillard browning reaction in the diet of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) on growth and amino acid availability was investigated. Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis methods were applied for the detection of the losses of amino acids in a model protein browning system. Arginine and lysine exhibited the greatest losses in the mixture of fish protein isolate and glucose stored for 40 d at 37 degrees C. The apparent digestibility and absorption of individual amino acids, particularly lysine, was lower in trout fed browned protein than in those fed the control protein. Plasma lysine levels were significantly depressed, while the plasma levels of glucose and most other amino acids were elevated in relation to the loss in nutritive value of dietary protein after browning. The early Maillard reaction derivative of lysine, epsilon-deoxy-fructosyl-lysine, was recovered from browned protein (by using the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis procedure) and from the plasma of trout fed browned protein. Analysis of plasma free amino acids provided an indication of lysine bioavailability and identified lysine as the first-limiting amino acid in the diets containing browned protein.

  17. Identification of Estrogen-responsive Vitelline Envelope Protein Fragments from Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Plasma Using Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma protein biomarkers associated with exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 17β-estradiol were isolated and identified using novel sample preparation techniques and state-of-the-art mass spectrometry and bioinformatics approaches. Juvenile male and female trout ...

  18. Local and systemic response to intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge during long-term manipulated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernay, M C M B; Wellnitz, O; Kreipe, L; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2012-05-01

    The metabolic load during periods of high milk production in dairy cows causes a variety of changes of metabolite blood concentrations including dramatically decreased glucose levels. These changes supposedly impair the immune system. The goal of this study was, therefore, to evaluate adaptations of the cow's immune system in response to an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation during a 3-d modification of plasma glucose and insulin induced by different clamp infusions. Seventeen midlactating dairy cows received a hypoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp induced by insulin infusion (HypoG; n=5), a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp induced by insulin and glucose infusion (EuG; n=6), or infusion of saline solution (NaCl; n=6) for 56 h. At 48 h of infusion, 2 udder quarters were challenged with 200 μg of Escherichia coli LPS. At 48 h of infusion (immediately before LPS challenge), tumor necrosis factor α, lactoferrin, and serum amyloid A (SAA) mRNA abundance was increased in HypoG and Il-1β mRNA abundance was decreased in EuG. After LPS challenge, plasma glucose concentration did not decrease, although plasma insulin increased simultaneously in all groups either due to enhanced endogenous release (NaCl) or due to increased insulin infusion rate (HypoG; EuG). Plasma cortisol, rectal temperatures, and milk somatic cell count of challenged quarters increased, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were similarly decreased across treatments. In mammary biopsies, increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-10, and SAA were observed in LPS-treated quarters of all groups, with a more pronounced increase in IL-1β, IL-10, and SAA expression in EuG. Nuclear factor-κB mRNA expression was upregulated in NaCl and EuG but not in HypoG in response to LPS. Lactoferrin, toll-like receptor 4, and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression was increased in LPS-treated quarters of EuG only, and 5-lipoxygenase mRNA expression was decreased

  19. Regulatory T cell frequency, but not plasma IL-33 levels, represents potential immunological biomarker to predict clinical response to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddur, Mohan S; Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Das, Mrinmoy; Prakhar, Praveen; Sharma, Varun K; Singh, Vikas; Rabin, Magalie; Trinath, Jamma; Balaji, Kithiganahalli N; Bolgert, Francis; Vallat, Jean-Michel; Magy, Laurent; Kaveri, Srini V; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2017-03-20

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a polyspecific pooled immunoglobulin G preparation and one of the commonly used therapeutics for autoimmune diseases including those of neurological origin. A recent report in murine model proposed that IVIG expands regulatory T (T reg ) cells via induction of interleukin 33 (IL-33). However, translational insight on these observations is lacking. Ten newly diagnosed Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) patients were treated with IVIG at the rate of 0.4 g/kg for three to five consecutive days. Clinical evaluation for muscular weakness was performed by Medical Research Council (MRC) and modified Rankin scoring (MRS) system. Heparinized blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 4-5 weeks post-IVIG therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stained for surface CD4 and intracellular Foxp3, IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and were analyzed by flow cytometry. IL-33 and prostaglandin E2 in the plasma were measured by ELISA. The fold changes in plasma IL-33 at week 1 showed no correlation with the MRC and MRS scores at weeks 1, 2, and ≥4 post-IVIG therapy. Clinical recovery following IVIG therapy appears to be associated with T reg cell response. Contrary to murine study, there was no association between the fold changes in IL-33 at week 1 and T reg cell frequency at weeks 1, 2, and ≥4 post-IVIG therapy. T reg cell-mediated clinical response to IVIG therapy in GBS patients was associated with reciprocal regulation of effector T cells-expressing TNF-α. T reg cell expansion by IVIG in patients with autoimmune diseases lack correlation with IL-33. T reg cell frequency, but not plasma IL-33 levels, represents potential immunological biomarker to predict clinical response to IVIG therapy.

  20. Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene variants may associate with negative symptom response and plasma concentrations of prolactin in schizophrenia after amisulpride treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Ho, Pei-Shen; Liang, Chih-Sung; Yen, Che-Hung; Lu, Ru-Band; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is involved in the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms and may be associated with a therapeutic response to antipsychotic drugs. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between COMT variants, plasma prolactin level, and the therapeutic effectiveness of amisulpride treatment in patients with schizophrenia. A 12-week naturalistic study of amisulpride treatment was carried out in 185 Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. The patients were screened for 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the COMT gene. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess the improvement of psychopathological symptoms from the baseline to the end point in each subject. For better presentation of time-course changes in response status, a mixed model for repeated-measures (MMRM) analysis of symptom improvement during the 12-week treatment period was conducted. The change in plasma prolactin level after amisulpride treatment was also examined (n=51). No significant differences in the genotype frequencies of the COMT variants investigated were observed between responders and non-responders. Moreover, an MMRM analysis of psychopathological symptom improvement during the 12-week treatment course showed that it depended significantly on COMT variants (rs4680, rs4633, and rs6267), particularly regarding changes in negative symptoms. The increase in plasma prolactin levels observed was influenced by the COMT rs4680 variant and was positively correlated with a reduction in PANSS negative scores. Our results suggest that variation of the COMT gene is associated with treatment response regarding negative symptoms and prolactin changes after amisulpride treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of feeding barley or hay alone or in combination with molassed sugar beet pulp on the metabolic responses in plasma and caecum of horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R B; Austbø, Dag; Blache, D

    2016-01-01

    only (HAY), hay and molassed SBP (HAY + SBP), hay and pelleted barley (BAR), and hay, pelleted barley and molassed SBP (BAR + SBP). The amount of barley (2 g starch/kg body weight (BW)) fed in the test meals was similar for the BAR and BAR + SBP diets. Each diet was fed for 16 days followed by data...... to the large intestine in response to the dietary carbohydrate composition. In conclusion, there was no effect of adding molassed SBP to a meal of barley compared to feeding barley alone, and fluctuations in plasma and caecal variables were more stable when feeding hay and molassed SBP than feeding barley...

  2. Semisolid meal enriched in oat bran decreases plasma glucose and insulin levels, but does not change gastrointestinal peptide responses or short-term appetite in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juvonen, Kristiina R.; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Lyly, Marika

    2011-01-01

    types and amounts of DF exert are still poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the effects of wheat and oat brans alone and as combination in semisolid food matrix on postprandial appetite profile and gastrointestinal (GI) hormonal responses. Twenty healthy, normal-weight subjects (5...... including 5 g wheat bran DF + 5 g oat bran DF. Blood samples were drawn before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min after the test meals to determine plasma glucose, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and serum insulin concentrations. Subjective profiles of appetite were assessed using visual analogue scales (VAS...

  3. Temporal responses of cutaneous blood flow and plasma catecholamine concentrations to histamine H1- or H2-receptor stimulation in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U; Alsbjørn, B; Thuesen, B

    1988-01-01

    continuously with a laser Doppler flowmeter, and noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations were determined in blood samples drawn every 15 min. The infusion of histamine caused an immediate and sustained vasodilatation. The Concomitant infusion of mepyramine prevented the immediate vasodilatation, but had...... noradrenaline, while the increase during concomitant H1-receptor blockade was delayed but achieved the level observed during the histamine infusion. The response to histamine during H2-receptor blockade was small and transient. The rise in plasma adrenaline was not significant. These findings suggest...

  4. Plasma and brain angiotensin concentrations associated with water response behavior in the desert anuran, Scaphiopus couchii under natural conditions in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William E; Hillyard, Stanley D; Propper, Catherine R

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial amphibians obtain water by absorption across a specialized region of the ventral skin and exhibit a behavior, the water absorption response (WR) to place that region in contact with moist surfaces. Spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus couchii) spend dry months of the year in burrows, then emerge during brief periods of summer rainfall and seek water sources for rehydration and reproduction. We tested the hypothesis that these toads have changes in plasma and/or central angiotensin concentrations that are associated with seasonal emergence and WR behavior. Immunoreactive concentrations of combined angiotensin II and III (ir-ANG) were measured in plasma samples and microdissected regions of brain tissue taken from toads moving across the road or toads showing WR behavior in shallow puddles on the road. Plasma ir-ANG concentrations were not significantly different between these groups, but were significantly higher in the periventricular region of the hypothalamus in toads showing WR behavior. Concentrations in other brain regions, while highly variable among individuals, were not different between groups. Within the context of the natural history of a specialized desert toad, these results support the hypothesis that ir-ANG is associated with WR behavior in spadefoot toads in a manner analogous to oral drinking exhibited by other vertebrate clades. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical signs and hematologic, cytokine, and plasma nitric oxide alterations in response to Strongylus vulgaris infection in helminth-naïve ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jeremy D; Seahorn, Thomas L; Klei, Thomas R; Hosgood, Giselle; Horohov, David W; Moore, Rustin M

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of infection with Strongylus vulgaris on serum cytokines and plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in helminth-naive ponies. Group 1 (n = 21) was given 500 S. vulgaris L3 larvae and group 2 (n = 7) received a saline control. Ponies were monitored daily for clinical signs, and blood was collected for complete blood cell counts and serum cytokines (TNF, IL-1, IL-6) quantification. Group 1 ponies were depressed, anorexic, and febrile for variable periods of time. Plasma NO was increased on day 21 in group 1 and on days 9 and 21 in group 2. Significant increases in total white blood cell counts, fibrinogen, and plasma protein concentrations in group 1 were found. Significant decreases in red blood cell counts and packed cell volume were also noted in group 1. There were no differences in serum cytokines across time in either group of ponies. Despite the lack of proinflammatory cytokine induction with the apparent inflammatory response to S. vulgaris there is evidence of a potential role of NO.

  6. Plasma ceramide levels are altered in low and normal birth weight men in response to short-term high-fat overfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2018-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) individuals have an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals. We hypothesised that LBW individuals exhibit an increased fatty acid flux into lipogenesis in non-adipose tissue with a resulting...... accumulation of lipotoxic lipids, including ceramides, in the blood. Therefore, we measured fasting plasma levels of 27 ceramides in 18 young, healthy, LBW men and 25 NBW controls after an isocaloric control diet and a 5-day high-fat, high-calorie diet by HPLC-HRMS. LBW men did not show elevated plasma......:0–18:1/d18:1–18:0 and d18:1–24:2/d18:2–24:1 levels and increased the d18:0–24:1a level in response to overfeeding. Plasma d18:0–24:1a and total ceramide levels were positively associated with the fasting blood glucose level and endogenous glucose production after the control diet, and the total ceramide...

  7. Effects of platelet rich plasma and chondrocyte co-culture on MSC chondrogenesis, hypertrophy and pathological responses

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezanifard, Rouhallah; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Hanaee Ahvaz, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Regarding the inadequate healing capability of cartilage tissue, cell-based therapy is making the future of cartilage repair and regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have shown great promise in cartilage regeneration. However, a yet-unresolved issue is the emergence of hypertrophic and pathologic markers during in vitro MSC chondrogenesis. Articular chondrocytes (AC) can suppress the undesired hypertrophy when co-cultured with MSC. On the other hand, platelet rich plasma (PRP), is consi...

  8. Temporal features of the outflow of heavy ionospheric ions in response to a high altitude plasma cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Hwang, K.S.; Torr, D.G.; Richards, P.

    1989-01-01

    Using a hydrodynamic model for the plasma, it is demonstrated that the auroral plasma cavity is capable of drawing an appreciably large flux of oxygen ions, which are normally gravitationally bound. This escape mechanism of O + does not involve any additional heating or acceleration of the plasma in the ionosphere. The temporal evolution of the outflow shows that it starts near the cavity and penetrates into the ionosphere with a flux front moving down with the ion-acoustic speed. A steady outflow is reached in a few hours for a cavity at a height of one R e if the cavity is maintained. This time reduces to + (Γ o + ) increases; for the lower edge of the cavity in the altitude range 3-10 x 10 3 km, the steady flux is found to be in the range 10 9 > Γ o + (cm -3 s -1 ) > 10 7 . An analysis for the steady state shows that outflow is controlled by the density scale height in the cavity

  9. Phospholipid composition and a polybasic motif determine D6 PROTEIN KINASE polar association with the plasma membrane and tropic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Inês C R; Shikata, Hiromasa; Zourelidou, Melina; Heilmann, Mareike; Heilmann, Ingo; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2016-12-15

    Polar transport of the phytohormone auxin through PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers is essential for the spatiotemporal control of plant development. The Arabidopsis thaliana serine/threonine kinase D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) is polarly localized at the plasma membrane of many cells where it colocalizes with PINs and activates PIN-mediated auxin efflux. Here, we show that the association of D6PK with the basal plasma membrane and PINs is dependent on the phospholipid composition of the plasma membrane as well as on the phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinases PIP5K1 and PIP5K2 in epidermis cells of the primary root. We further show that D6PK directly binds polyacidic phospholipids through a polybasic lysine-rich motif in the middle domain of the kinase. The lysine-rich motif is required for proper PIN3 phosphorylation and for auxin transport-dependent tropic growth. Polybasic motifs are also present at a conserved position in other D6PK-related kinases and required for membrane and phospholipid binding. Thus, phospholipid-dependent recruitment to membranes through polybasic motifs might not only be required for D6PK-mediated auxin transport but also other processes regulated by these, as yet, functionally uncharacterized kinases. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomic Profiling Reveals Alterations in Mouse Plasma and Liver in Response to Fava Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Man; Du, Guankui; Zhong, Guobing; Yan, Dongjing; Zeng, Huazong; Cai, Wangwei

    2016-01-01

    Favism is a life-threatening hemolytic anemia resulting from the intake of fava beans by susceptible individuals with low erythrocytic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity. However, little is known about the metabolomic changes in plasma and liver after the intake of fava beans in G6PD normal and deficient states. In this study, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to analyze the plasma and liver metabolic alterations underlying the effects of fava beans in C3H- and G6PD-deficient (G6PDx) mice, and to find potential biomarkers and metabolic changes associated with favism. Our results showed that fava beans induced oxidative stress in both C3H and G6PDx mice. Significantly, metabolomic differences were observed in plasma and liver between the control and fava bean treated groups of both C3H and G6PDx mice. The levels of 7 and 21 metabolites in plasma showed significant differences between C3H-control (C3H-C)- and C3H fava beans-treated (C3H-FB) mice, and G6PDx-control (G6PDx-C)- and G6PDx fava beans-treated (G6PDx-FB) mice, respectively. Similarly, the levels of 7 and 25 metabolites in the liver showed significant differences between C3H and C3H-FB, and G6PDx and G6PDx-FB, respectively. The levels of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine were significantly increased in the plasma of both C3H-FB and G6PDx-FB mice. In the liver, more metabolic alterations were observed in G6PDx-FB mice than in C3H-FB mice, and were involved in a sugar, fatty acids, amino acids, cholesterol biosynthesis, the urea cycle, and the nucleotide metabolic pathway. These findings suggest that oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine may be potential biomarkers of the response to fava beans in C3H and G6PDx mice and therefore that oleic acid and linoleic acid may be involved in oxidative stress induced by fava beans. This study demonstrates that G6PD activity in mice can affect their metabolic pathways in response to fava beans.

  11. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomic Profiling Reveals Alterations in Mouse Plasma and Liver in Response to Fava Beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Xiao

    Full Text Available Favism is a life-threatening hemolytic anemia resulting from the intake of fava beans by susceptible individuals with low erythrocytic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activity. However, little is known about the metabolomic changes in plasma and liver after the intake of fava beans in G6PD normal and deficient states. In this study, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to analyze the plasma and liver metabolic alterations underlying the effects of fava beans in C3H- and G6PD-deficient (G6PDx mice, and to find potential biomarkers and metabolic changes associated with favism. Our results showed that fava beans induced oxidative stress in both C3H and G6PDx mice. Significantly, metabolomic differences were observed in plasma and liver between the control and fava bean treated groups of both C3H and G6PDx mice. The levels of 7 and 21 metabolites in plasma showed significant differences between C3H-control (C3H-C- and C3H fava beans-treated (C3H-FB mice, and G6PDx-control (G6PDx-C- and G6PDx fava beans-treated (G6PDx-FB mice, respectively. Similarly, the levels of 7 and 25 metabolites in the liver showed significant differences between C3H and C3H-FB, and G6PDx and G6PDx-FB, respectively. The levels of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine were significantly increased in the plasma of both C3H-FB and G6PDx-FB mice. In the liver, more metabolic alterations were observed in G6PDx-FB mice than in C3H-FB mice, and were involved in a sugar, fatty acids, amino acids, cholesterol biosynthesis, the urea cycle, and the nucleotide metabolic pathway. These findings suggest that oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine may be potential biomarkers of the response to fava beans in C3H and G6PDx mice and therefore that oleic acid and linoleic acid may be involved in oxidative stress induced by fava beans. This study demonstrates that G6PD activity in mice can affect their metabolic pathways in response to fava beans.

  12. Response of plasma glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids to intravenous glucose tolerance tests in dairy cows during a 670-day lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Moate, P J; Wales, W J; Macmillan, K L; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated the metabolic response of dairy cows undergoing an extended lactation to a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. The experiment used 12 multiparous Holstein cows that calved in late winter in a seasonally calving pasture-based system and were managed for a 670-d lactation by delaying rebreeding. In each of four 5-wk experimental periods commencing at approximately 73, 217, 422, and 520 (±9.1) days in milk (DIM), cows were offered a diet of perennial ryegrass (73 and 422 DIM) or pasture hay and silage (217 and 520 DIM) supplemented with 1kg of DM grain (control; CON) or 6kg of DM grain (GRN) as a ration. Daily energy intake was approximately 160 and 215 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow for the CON and GRN treatments, respectively. At all other times, cows were managed as a single herd and grazed pasture supplemented with grain to an estimated minimum daily total intake of 180 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow. Cows were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter during the final week of each experimental period. The standard intravenous glucose tolerance test using 0.3g of glucose per kilogram of body weight was performed on each cow at approximately 100, 250, 460, and 560 DIM. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) responses were measured. Milk yield, milk solids yield, body weight, and basal plasma glucose were greater in the GRN compared with the CON treatment. The area under the plasma response curve relative to baseline (AUC) for glucose, insulin, and NEFA and their apparent fractional clearance rates indicated varied whole body responsiveness to insulin in terms of glucose metabolism throughout the 670-d lactation. The glucose AUC 0 to 20 min postinfusion was increased at 560 DIM, indicating reduced utilization of glucose by the mammary gland at this stage of lactation. The NEFA clearance rate, 6 to 30 min postinfusion, was greater at 460 and 560 DIM. These data indicated an

  13. Phytosterol stearate esters elicit similar responses on plasma lipids and cholesterol absorption but different responses on fecal neutral sterol excretion and hepatic free cholesterol in male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Mark M; Hang, Jiliang; Dussault, Patrick H; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-07-01

    The dietary impact of specific phytosterols incorporated into phytosterol fatty acid esters has not been elucidated. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that phytosterol esters containing different sterol moieties (sitosterol, sitostanol, or stigmasterol) but the same fatty acid moiety (stearic acid) produce different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Male Syrian hamsters were fed sitosterol, sitostanol, and stigmasterol stearate esters (25 g/kg diet) in an atherogenic diet containing cholesterol (1.2 g/kg) and coconut oil (80 g/kg). The phytosterol stearates produced no decrease in cholesterol absorption or plasma non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol despite a reduction in liver free cholesterol in hamsters fed both sitosterol and sitostanol stearate diets. In addition, sitosterol stearate significantly increased fecal esterified and total neutral sterol excretion. Stigmasterol stearate did not differ from control in neutral sterol excretion, plasma lipids, or hepatic lipid concentration. Sitosterol stearate demonstrated the highest level of net intestinal hydrolysis, whereas sitostanol and stigmasterol stearate equivalently demonstrated the lowest. The cholesterol-lowering effect in liver-but not plasma-and the limited presence of fecal free sterols indicate that intact (unhydrolyzed) phytosterol stearates may impact cholesterol metabolism by mechanisms unrelated to the role of free phytosterols. The consumption of phytosterol esters at 2.5% of the diet elicited only modest impacts on cholesterol metabolism, although sitosterol stearate had a slightly greater therapeutic impact by lowering liver free cholesterol and increasing esterified and total neutral sterol fecal excretion, possibly due to a greater level of intestinal hydrolysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma and Mucosal Immunoglobulin M, Immunoglobulin A, and Immunoglobulin G Responses to the Vibrio cholerae O1 Protein Immunome in Adults With Cholera in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Richelle C; Nakajima, Rie; Liang, Li; Jasinskas, Al; Berger, Amanda; Leung, Daniel T; Kelly, Meagan; Xu, Peng; Kovác, Pavol; Giffen, Samantha R; Harbison, James D; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; Calderwood, Stephen B; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Harris, Jason B; Felgner, Philip L; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

    2017-07-01

    Cholera is a severe dehydrating illness of humans caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139. Identification of immunogenic V. cholerae antigens could lead to a better understanding of protective immunity in human cholera. We probed microarrays containing 3652 V. cholerae antigens with plasma and antibody-in-lymphocyte supernatant (ALS, a surrogate marker of mucosal immune responses) from patients with severe cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 in Bangladesh and age-, sex-, and ABO-matched Bangladeshi controls. We validated a subset of identified antigens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, we identified 608 immunoreactive V. cholerae antigens in our screening, 59 of which had higher immunoreactivity in convalescent compared with acute-stage or healthy control samples (34 in plasma, 39 in mucosal ALS; 13 in both sample sets). Identified antigens included cholera toxin B and A subunits, V. cholerae O-specific polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide, toxin coregulated pilus A, sialidase, hemolysin A, flagellins (FlaB, FlaC, and FlaD), phosphoenolpyruvate-protein phosphotransferase, and diaminobutyrate-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase. This study is the first antibody profiling of the mucosal and systemic antibody responses to the nearly complete V. cholerae O1 protein immunome; it has identified antigens that may aid in the development of an improved cholera vaccine. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  15. Potential drops supported by ion density cavities in the dynamic response of a plasma diode to an applied field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, M.; Torven, S.

    1990-06-01

    Experiments have shown that an applied voltage drop may either be supported by a cathode sheath or by a quasi-linear variation over the plasma lasting for several electron transit times. In the latter case an ion density cavity existed initially. An analytical model and numerical simulations are used to show that a cavity gives rise to a quasi-linear potential variation for applied voltage drops below a certain critical value. For larger values the drop concentrates to a cathode sheath. The quasi-linear profile steepens to a double layer for large cavity depths. (authors)

  16. Space plasmas 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, N.E.; Hines, K.C.; Kowalenko, V.

    1981-01-01

    The longitudinal dielectric response of an ultra-degenerate relativistic plasma composed of electrons and positrons is considered. The relativistic Hartree self-consistent field method is used to investigate the dispersion relations and damping parameters of such a plasma in the presence of a magnetic field. These properties must be studied in the various regimes appropriate for a relativistic plasma as detailed by Tsytovich and Jancovici

  17. Physicochemical properties and enhanced cellullar responses of biocompatible polymeric scaffolds treated with atmospheric pressure plasma using O2 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Uk; Park, So-Young; Kang, Yoon-Hee; Jeong, Se-Young; Choi, Sae-Hae; Jahng, Yoon-Young; Chung, Gook-Hyun; Kim, Moon-Bum; Cho, Chae-Ryong

    2011-01-01

    Biocompatible polymeric scaffolds were fabricated by mixing 5 wt.% poly(ε-caprolactone) (P) with 4 wt.% gelatin (G) and 1.6 wt.% Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (D). These PGD scaffolds were also treated with atmospheric pressure (AP) plasma using O 2 reactive gas (to create O-PGD scaffolds). The physicochemical and mechanical properties of the PGD scaffolds were characterized by in vitro biodegradability tests, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, and tensile strength measurements. The wettability and hydrophilic properties of the scaffold surface were improved remarkably by adding G and D to P, and by subsequent oxygen-assisted AP plasma treatment. An MTT assay, a cell attachment efficiency assay, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy revealed that Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO)-K1 cells exhibited higher cell attachment and viability on the PGD and O-PGD scaffolds than on the P and PG scaffolds. Furthermore, the long-term viability of the CHO cells on the PGD and O-PGD scaffolds without exchanging the cell culture media was significantly improved compared to their viability on the P and PG scaffolds. Overall, the PGD and O-PGD scaffolds are expected to be useful as cell growth supporting biomaterials in tissue engineering.

  18. Plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine responses to different nutritional conditions (fasting/postprandial) in patients with phenylketonuria: effect of sample timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spronsen, F J; van Rijn, M; van Dijk, T; Smit, G P; Reijngoud, D J; Berger, R; Heymans, H S

    1993-10-01

    To evaluate the adequacy of dietary treatment in patients with phenylketonuria, the monitoring of plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations is of great importance. The preferable time of blood sampling in relation to the nutritional condition during the day, however, is not known. It was the aim of this study to define guidelines for the timing of blood sampling with a minimal burden for the patient. Plasma concentrations of phenylalanine and tyrosine were measured in nine patients with phenylketonuria who had no clinical evidence of tyrosine deficiency. These values were measured during the day both after a prolonged overnight fast, and before and after breakfast. Phenylalanine showed a small rise during prolonged fasting, while tyrosine decreased slightly. After an individually tailored breakfast, phenylalanine remained stable, while tyrosine showed large fluctuations. It is concluded that the patient's nutritional condition (fasting/postprandial) is not important in the evaluation of the phenylalanine intake. To detect a possible tyrosine deficiency, however, a single blood sample is not sufficient and a combination of a preprandial and postprandial blood sample on the same day is advocated.

  19. Methylated Glutathione S-transferase 1 (mGSTP1) is a potential plasma free DNA epigenetic marker of prognosis and response to chemotherapy in castrate-resistant prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mahon, K L; Qu, W; Devaney, J; Paul, C; Castillo, L; Wykes, R J; Chatfield, M D; Boyer, M J; Stockler, M R; Marx, G; Gurney, H; Mallesara, G; Molloy, P L; Horvath, L G; Clark, S J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glutathione S-transferase 1 (GSTP1) inactivation is associated with CpG island promoter hypermethylation in the majority of prostate cancers (PCs). This study assessed whether the level of circulating methylated GSTP1 (mGSTP1) in plasma DNA is associated with chemotherapy response and overall survival (OS). Methods: Plasma samples were collected prospectively from a Phase I exploratory cohort of 75 men with castrate-resistant PC (CRPC) and a Phase II independent validation cohort ...

  20. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  1. Radiation response of plasma protein and albumin of peripheral blood and its modification by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine) in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandchahal, K.K.; Routh, J.; Mathur, S.; Bhartiya, H.C.

    1990-01-01

    Changes in the total protein and albumin level in the blood of six week and three week old Swiss albino mice exposed to a sublethal dose of 2.2 Gy of gamma rays after an intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg body weight of the radioprotector drug MPG (2-Mercaptopropionylglycine) were studied. The results were compared with those obtained from animals irradiated with the same dose of gamma rays in the absence of the drug. Animals were sacrificed at one, three, five, seven and 14 days after irradiation. The drug has been found to modify the levels of plasma protein and albumin in the blood of the irradiated animals. The depletion observed was less marked in the drug treated animals than their respective controls. The observations have been discussed in light of relevant literature. (orig.) [de

  2. Background diet and fat type alters plasma lipoprotein response but not aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Alice; Matthan, Nirupa R; Spartano, Nicole L; Butkowski, Ann E; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2013-12-01

    Dietary modification alters plasma lipoprotein profiles and atherosclerotic lesion progression in humans and some animal models. Variability in response to diet induced atherosclerosis has been reported in hamsters. Assessed was the interaction between background diet composition and dietary fat type on aortic cholesterol accumulation, lipoprotein profiles, hepatic lipids and selected genes. F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (20/group) were fed (12 weeks) semi-purified or non-purified diets containing either 10 % (w/w) coconut oil or safflower oil and 0.15 % (w/w) cholesterol. The non-purified diets relative to semi-purified diets resulted in significantly higher TC (72 % [percent difference] and 38 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) and nHDL-C (84 and 61 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively), and lower HDL-C (-47 and -45 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) concentrations. Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in the hamsters fed the non-purified coconut oil-supplemented diets were three- to fourfold higher than non-purified safflower oil-supplemented, and both semi-purified diets. With the exception of HDL-C, a significant effect of fat type was observed in TC, nHDL-C and triacylglycerol (all P < 0.05) concentrations. Regardless of diet induced differences in lipoprotein profiles, there was no significant effect on aortic cholesterol accumulation. There was an inverse relationship between plasma nHDL-C and triacylglycerol, and hepatic cholesteryl ester content (P < 0.001). Diet induced differences in hepatic gene transcription (LDL receptor, apoB-100, microsomal transfer protein) were not reflected in protein concentrations. Although hamsters fed non-purified and/or saturated fatty acid-supplemented diets had more atherogenic lipoprotein profiles compared to hamsters fed semi-purified and/or polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented diets these differences were not reflected in aortic cholesterol accumulation.

  3. RESTING PLASMA AgRP LEVELS RESPONSE TO EXERCISE-CONJUGATED DIET AND ONLY DIET IN OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE SEDENTARY FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Delphan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agouti-related peptide (AgRP is an orexigenic neuropeptide produced mainly in the arcuate nucleus (ARC of the hypothalamus, which leads to positive energy balance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the resting plasma AgRP levels’ response to exercise-conjugated diet and only diet in overweight and obese sedentary female college students. Thirty subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. Experimental group 1 experienced 12 days of researchers’ proposed diet (D, experimental group 2 experienced 12 days of researchers’ proposed diet (every day with 12-day running training (the intensity was 60 to 70�0heart rate maximum for 50 minutes every other day (AED and the control group remained sedentary with a normal diet in this period. Blood samples were collected 24 hours before and after the enforced protocol. Body fat percentage (BF�20of subjects was measured using the 3-point method. Plasma AgRP levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. The data were analysed by Leven, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test. At the end of the protocols, the resting plasma AgRP in the D group increased significantly (p0.05. Body weight and BMI were significantly reduced for both experimental groups (P<0.001. Body fat percentage in the AED group was decreased (p<0.001 and no change was observed in the D group. The present results indicate that the AED is better than the D protocol because it leads to stability of AgRP, which may prevent lipogenesis and ultimately reduce body fat percentage.

  4. An acute bout of whole body passive hyperthermia increases plasma leptin, but does not alter glucose or insulin responses in obese type 2 diabetics and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Eric; Newmire, Dan E; Crandall, Craig G; Hooper, Philip L; Ben-Ezra, Vic

    2016-07-01

    Acute and chronic hyperthermic treatments in diabetic animal models repeatedly improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that an acute 1h bout of hyperthermic treatment improves glucose, insulin, and leptin responses to an oral glucose challenge (OGTT) in obese type 2 diabetics and healthy humans. Nine obese (45±7.1% fat mass) type 2 diabetics (T2DM: 50.1±12y, 7.5±1.8% HbA1c) absent of insulin therapy and nine similar aged (41.1±13.7y) healthy non-obese controls (HC: 33.4±7.8% fat mass, Pwhole body passive hyperthermia treatment via head-out hot water immersion (1h resting in 39.4±0.4°C water) that increased internal temperature above baseline by ∆1.6±0.4°C or a control resting condition. Twenty-four hours post treatments, a 75g OGTT was administered to evaluate changes in plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and leptin concentrations. Hyperthermia itself did not alter area under the curve for plasma glucose, insulin, or C-peptide during the OGTT in either group. Fasting absolute and normalized (kg·fat mass) plasma leptin was significantly increased (P<0.01) only after the hyperthermic exposure by 17% in T2DM and 24% in HC groups (P<0.001) when compared to the control condition. These data indicate that an acute hyperthermic treatment does not improve glucose tolerance 24h post treatment in moderate metabolic controlled obese T2DM or HC individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Response to Therapeutic Plasma Exchange as a Rescue Treatment in Clinically Isolated Syndromes and Acute Worsening of Multiple Sclerosis: A Retrospective Analysis of 90 Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Ehler

    Full Text Available Experience with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE for acute relapses in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS or multiple sclerosis (MS patients has been derived from small and inhomogeneous patient populations so far. In the present study, we retrospectively evaluated features associated with TPE response in a larger cohort of CIS and MS patients with acute worsening of disease.Ninety CIS and MS patients with acute relapses or acute worsening of symptoms were firstly treated with TPE. The population consisted of 62 women and 28 men with a median age of 38 years (range 18-69 years.Primary endpoint was the clinical response to TPE, focused on the functional improvement of the target neurologic deficit. Secondary endpoint was an improvement in expanded disability status scale (EDSS scoring.A clinical response to TPE was observed in 65 out of 90 patients (72.2%, with marked improvement in 18 (20.0% and moderate improvement in 47 out of 90 patients (52.2%. The median EDSS was reduced from 3.75 before to 3.0 after TPE (p = 0.001. Response to TPE was significantly more frequent in patients with relapsing courses of disease (CIS, RR-MS, p = 0.001, no disease modifying drugs (p = 0.017, gadolinium-positive (Gd+ MRI lesions (p = 0.001 and EDSS ≤ 5.0 before TPE (p = 0.014. In the multiple logistic regression analysis only the detection of Gd+ MRI lesions was significantly altered (p = 0.004.Clinical response to TPE was achieved in the majority of our patients. We identified clinical and diagnostic features in CIS and MS relapses that might be helpful to identify patients responding to TPE. Gd+ MRI lesions before treatment were the best predictor of the response to TPE in our cohort.

  6. The plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.G.

    1989-12-01

    The term 'Plasma Universe', coined by Hannes Alfven, emphasices the fact that plasma phenomena discovered in the laboratory and in accessible regions of space. must be important also in the rest of the universe, which consists almost entirely of matter in the plasma state. Relevant aspect of this concept will be discussed. They include the response of the plasma to electric currents, the support of magnetic-field aligned electric fields, violation of the frozen-field condition, rapid release of magnetically stored energy, acceleration of charged particles, chemical separation, and filamentary and cellular structures. (authors)

  7. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  8. Effects of dietary dandelion extracts on growth performance, body composition, plasma biochemical parameters, immune responses and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaohong; Sun, Zhenzhu; Chen, Shu; Chen, Silin; Huang, Zhong; Zhou, Chuanpeng; Zou, Cuiyun; Liu, Qingying; Ye, Huaqun; Lin, Heizhao; Ye, Chaoxia; Wang, Anli

    2017-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary dandelion extracts (DE) supplementation on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition, plasma biochemical indices, immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities, and resistance to the pathogen Vibrio harveyi in Trachinotus ovatus. A basal diet supplemented with DE at 0, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 10.00 g kg -1 were fed to golden pompano for 8 weeks. The study indicated that dietary supplementation with DE could significantly improve final body weight (FBW), weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency ratio (FER), feed intake (FI), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and protein deposit rate (PDR) (P Vibrio harveyi, significant higher post-challenge survival was observed in fish fed DE supplement (P growth performance, feed utilization, body protein deposit, immune ability, hepatic and plasma antioxidative enzyme activities and improve its resistance to infection by Vibrio harveyi. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  10. Predictor-based multivariable closed-loop system identification of the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch external plasma response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, K Erik J; Brunsell, Per R; Drake, James R [Fusion Plasma Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH Stockholm), Sweden (Association EURATOM-VR) (Sweden); Rojas, Cristian R; Hjalmarsson, Haakan, E-mail: erik.olofsson@ee.kth.se [Automatic Control, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-08-15

    The usage of computationally feasible overparametrized and nonregularized system identification signal processing methods is assessed for automated determination of the full reversed-field pinch external plasma response spectrum for the experiment EXTRAP T2R. No assumptions on the geometry of eigenmodes are imposed. The attempted approach consists of high-order autoregressive exogenous estimation followed by Markov block coefficient construction and Hankel matrix singular value decomposition. It is seen that the obtained 'black-box' state-space models indeed can be compared with the commonplace ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) resistive thin-shell model in cylindrical geometry. It is possible to directly map the most unstable autodetected empirical system pole to the corresponding theoretical resistive shell MHD eigenmode.

  11. Predictor-based multivariable closed-loop system identification of the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch external plasma response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, K. Erik J.; Brunsell, Per R.; Rojas, Cristian R.; Drake, James R.; Hjalmarsson, Håkan

    2011-08-01

    The usage of computationally feasible overparametrized and nonregularized system identification signal processing methods is assessed for automated determination of the full reversed-field pinch external plasma response spectrum for the experiment EXTRAP T2R. No assumptions on the geometry of eigenmodes are imposed. The attempted approach consists of high-order autoregressive exogenous estimation followed by Markov block coefficient construction and Hankel matrix singular value decomposition. It is seen that the obtained 'black-box' state-space models indeed can be compared with the commonplace ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) resistive thin-shell model in cylindrical geometry. It is possible to directly map the most unstable autodetected empirical system pole to the corresponding theoretical resistive shell MHD eigenmode.

  12. Application of Response Surface Methodology for characterization of ozone production from Multi-Cylinder Reactor in non-thermal plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian See, Tan; Zulazlan Shah Zulkifli, Ahmad; Mook Tzeng, Lim

    2018-04-01

    Ozone is a reactant which can be applied for various environmental treatment processes. It can be generated via atmospheric air non-thermal plasmas when sufficient voltages are applied through a combination of electrodes and dielectric materials. In this study, the concentration of ozone generated via two different configurations of multi-cylinder dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor (3 x 40 mm and 10 x 10 mm) was investigated. The influence of the voltage and the duty cycle to the concentration of ozone generated by each configuration was analysed using response surface methodology. Voltage was identified as significant factor to the ozone production process. However, the regressed model was biased towards one of the configuration, leaving the predicted results of another configuration to be out of range.

  13. Response to Comment on 'On Higher-Order Corrections to Gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson Equations in the Long Wavelength Limit [Phys. Plasmas 16,044506 (2009)]'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.; Kolesnikov, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    We show in this Response that the nonlinear Poisson's equation in our original paper derived from the drift kinetic approach can be verified by using the nonlinear gyrokinetic Poisson's equation of Dubin et al. (Phys. Fluids 26, 3524 (1983)). This nonlinear contribution in φ 2 is indeed of the order of k # perpendicular# 4 in the long wavelength limit and remains finite for zero ion temperature, in contrast to the nonlinear term by Parra and Catto (Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50, 065014 (2008)), which is of the order of k # perpendicular# 2 and diverges for T i → 0. For comparison, the leading term for the gyrokinetic Poisson's equation in this limit is of the order of k # perpendicular# 2 φ.

  14. The plasma membrane H+ -ATPase AHA2 contributes to the root architecture in response to different nitrogen supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Młodzińska, Ewa; Kłobus, Grażyna; Christensen, Monica Daugbjerg

    2015-01-01

    of lateral root primordia, root elongation and increase the root biomass. However, the signal transduction mechanisms, which enable roots to sense changes in different mineral environments and match their growth and development patterns to actual conditions in the soil, are still unknown. Most recent...... comments have focused on one of the essential macroelements, namely nitrogen, and its role in the modification of the root architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana. As yet, not all elements of the signal transduction pathway leading to the perception of the nitrate stimulus, and hence to anatomical changes...... of the root, which allow for adaptation to variable ion concentrations in the soil, are known. Our data demonstrate that primary and lateral root length were shorter lower in aha2 mutant lines compared to wild-type plants in response to a variable nitrogen source. This suggests that the plasma membrane proton...

  15. Anorectic response to the trichothecene T-2 toxin correspond to plasma elevations of the satiety hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and peptide YY3-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Kun; Zhang, Hua; Yue, Jianming; Gu, Wei; Gu, Chao; Zhang, Haibin; Wu, Wenda

    2018-04-22

    T-2 toxin, a potent type A trichothecene mycotoxin, is produced by various Fusarium species and can negatively impact animal and human health. Although anorexia induction is a common hallmark of T-2 toxin-induced toxicity, the underlying mechanisms for this adverse effect are not fully understood. The goal of this study was to determine the roles of two gut satiety hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and Peptide YY 3-36 (PYY 3-36 ) in anorexia induction by T-2 toxin. Elevations of plasma GIP and PYY 3-36 markedly corresponded to anorexia induction following oral exposure to T-2 toxin using a nocturnal mouse anorexia model. Direct administration of exogenous GIP and PYY 3-36 similarly induced anorectic responses. Furthermore, the GIP receptor antagonist Pro3GIP dose-dependently attenuated both GIP- and T-2 toxin-induced anorectic responses. Pretreatment with NPY2 receptor antagonist JNJ-31020028 induced a dose-dependent attenuation of both PYY 3-36 - and T-2 toxin-induced anorectic responses. To summarize, these findings suggest that both GIP and PYY 3-36 might be critical mediators of anorexia induction by T-2 toxin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. On-demand Antimicrobial Treatment with Antibiotic-Loaded Porous Silicon Capped with a pH-Responsive Dual Plasma Polymer Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasani, Roshan B; Szili, Endre J; Rajeev, Gayathri; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2017-07-04

    Chronic wounds are a major socio-economic problem. Bacterial infections in such wounds are a major contributor to lack of wound healing. An early indicator of wound infection is an increase in pH of the wound fluid. Herein, we describe the development of a pH-responsive drug delivery device that can potentially be used for wound decontamination in situ and on-demand in response to an increase in the pH of the wound environment. The device is based on a porous silicon film that provides a reservoir for encapsulation of an antibiotic within the pores. Loaded porous silicon is capped with dual plasma polymer layers of poly(1,7-octadiene) and poly(acrylic acid), which provide a pH-responsive barrier for on-demand release of the antibiotic. We demonstrate that release of the antibiotic is inhibited in aqueous buffer at pH 5, whereas the drug is released in a sustainable manner at pH 8. Importantly, the released drug was bacteriostatic against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound pathogen. In the future, incorporation of the delivery device into wound dressings could potentially be utilized for non-invasive decontamination of wounds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Insulin Sensitivity and Plasma Glucose Response to Aerobic Exercise in Pregnant Women at Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaby, Heba; Elsayed, Enas; Fawzy, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the common complications that occur during pregnancy. Early intervention is essential to prevent the development of the disease in the non-pregnant state but also helpful in preventing the occurrence of GDM. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of aerobic exercises on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma glucose level in pregnant women with risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. Forty multigravidae women between 20-24 weeks of gestation with risk for GDM were randomly selected (age range was 25-35 years), body mass index ranged from 30-35 kg/m 2 . Women were divided into two equal groups: intervention group (A), which followed an aerobic exercise program in the form of walking on treadmill, three times weekly until the end of 37 weeks of gestation in addition to diet control. Control group (B) which received diet control with usual care given by obstetricians and midwives. Evaluation of the women in both groups was carried out before and after treatment program through assessment of fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. There was a highly statistically significance decrease in fasting blood glucose level, fasting insulin level in both groups where the p value was 0.0001 favoring group (A). Moderate intensity of aerobic exercises were effective in reducing fasting blood glucose level and fasting insulin level in pregnant women with risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.

  18. Plasma response to m/n  =  3/1 resonant magnetic perturbation at J-TEXT Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiming; Li, Jianchao; Wang, Nengchao; Yu, Q.; Chen, Jie; Cheng, Zhifeng; Chen, Zhipeng; Ding, Yonghua; Jin, Hai; Li, Da; Li, Mao; Liu, Yang; Rao, Bo; Zhu, Lizhi; Zhuang, Ge; the J-TEXT Team

    2016-09-01

    The influence of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) with a large m/n  =  3/1 component on electron density has been studied at J-TEXT tokamak by using externally applied static and rotating RMPs, where m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode number, respectively. The detailed time evolution of electron density profile, measured by the polarimeter-interferometer, shows that the electron density n e first increases (decreases) inside (around/outside) of the 3/1 rational surface (RS), and it is increased globally later together with enhanced edge recycling. Associated with field penetration, the toroidal rotation around the 3/1 RS is accelerated in the co-I p direction and the poloidal rotation is changed from the electron to ion diamagnetic drift direction. Spontaneous unlocking-penetration circles occur after field penetration if the RMPs amplitude is not strong enough. For sufficiently strong RMPs, the 2/1 locked mode is also triggered due to mode coupling, and the global density is increased. The field penetration threshold is found to be linearly proportional to n eL (line-integrated density) at the 3/1 RS but to (n eL)0.73 for n e at the plasma core. In addition, for rotating RMPs with a large 3/1 component, field penetration causes a global increase in electron density.

  19. GLUT3 is present in Clone 9 liver cells and translocates to the plasma membrane in response to insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defries, Danielle M; Taylor, Carla G; Zahradka, Peter

    2016-08-26

    Clone 9 cells have been reported to express only the GLUT1 facilitative glucose transporter; however, previous studies have not examined Clone 9 cells for GLUT3 content. The current study sought to profile the presence of glucose transporters in Clone 9 cells, H4IIE hepatoma cells, and L6 myoblasts and myotubes. While the other cell types contained the expected complement of transporters, Clone 9 cells had GLUT3 which was previously not reported. Interestingly, both GLUT3 mRNA and protein were detected in Clone 9 cells, but only mRNA for GLUT1 was detected. Glucose transport in Clone 9 cells was insulin-sensitive in a concentration-dependent manner, concomitant with the presence of GLUT3 in the plasma membrane after insulin treatment. Although basal glucose uptake was unaffected, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was abolished with siRNA-mediated GLUT3 knockdown. These results contradict previous reports that Clone 9 cells exclusively express GLUT1 and suggest GLUT3 is a key insulin-sensitive glucose transporter required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by Clone 9 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlation between plasma homovanillic acid levels and the response to atypical antipsychotics in male patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Ichiro; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs-olanzapine, perospirone, and quetiapine-on plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) in male patients with chronic schizophrenia. In this prospective, open-label study, the subjects were 30 inpatients who were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, criteria for schizophrenia. The authors switched patients from typical antipsychotic drugs to olanzapine, perospirone, or quetiapine. Each patient gave informed consent for the research. pHVA was assessed before and after switching medications. After the switch, the authors found a significant improvement in psychotic symptoms, nonsignificant improvement in extrapyramidal symptoms, and a nonsignificant reduction in pHVA. In addition, the baseline pHVA correlated positively with the score changes from baseline in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) total, positive, and negative symptoms in the group with a whole sample and in the olanzapine-treated group, and with the score changes in the BPRS total and positive symptoms in the quetiapine-treated group. Our findings indicated that the preswitching pHVA levels could be used to predict changes in the psychotic symptoms of male patients with chronic schizophrenia when switching to atypical antipsychotic drugs.

  1. Soya milk exerts different effects on plasma amino acid responses and incretin hormone secretion compared with cows' milk in healthy, young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Tan, Kevin Wei Jie; Siow, Phei Ching; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-10-01

    Apart from the well-known action of insulin, the mechanism by which soya and cows' milk improve postprandial glycaemia control was examined. In total, twelve healthy, young, Chinese men were studied on three separate occasions, in random order with isovolumetric (322 ml) control water, soya milk and cows' milk. Plasma total amino acid concentrations increased 30 min after test meals consumption and were higher after soya milk (230 %) and cow milk (240 %) consumption compared with water. Cows' milk ingestion induced higher branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) (40 %) than soya milk. Postprandial incretin concentrations increased after meal consumption. Cows' milk meal was accompanied by higher incremental AUC (iAUC) (170 %) for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) compared with soya milk and control (P=0·06). However, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) concentrations increased to significantly greater levels after soya milk consumption (iAUC 60 % higher) compared with cows' milk and control. Consumption of both soya and cows' milk with carbohydrates induced a similar reduction in glycaemic response through a different mechanism, beyond insulin action. Plasma amino acids (alanine and arginine), and incretins in particular (GIP was stimulated), may be involved in the hyperinsulinaemia after soya milk meals. However, BCAA and GLP-1 release may be responsible for the reduced glycaemia after cows' milk consumption by delaying gastric emptying. This could be the result of different milk protein/amino acid composition, but also differences in milk carbohydrate composition (i.e. lactose v. sucrose). It can be concluded that soya milk is a good alternative to cows' milk with regard to glycaemic regulation, with different mechanisms involved.

  2. Chronic activation of plasma renin is log-linearly related to dietary sodium and eliminates natriuresis in response to a pulse change in total body sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjolby, Mads; Bie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    rate, urine flow, plasma potassium, and plasma renin activity did not change. The results indicate that sodium excretion is controlled by neurohumoral mechanisms that are quite resistant to acute changes in plasma volume and colloid osmotic pressure and are not down-regulated within 2 h. With previous......Cl administration increased PV (+6.3-8.9%) and plasma sodium concentration (~2%) and decreased plasma protein concentration (-6.4-8.1%). Plasma ANG II and aldosterone concentrations decreased transiently. Potassium excretion increased substantially. Sodium excretion, arterial blood pressure, glomerular filtration...

  3. The Prognostic Value of Plasma Epstein-Barr Viral DNA and Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Advanced-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Li-Ting; Tang, Lin-Quan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Zhang, Lu; Guo, Shan-Shan; Guo, Ling; Mo, Hao-Yuan; Zhao, Chong; Guo, Xiang; Cao, Ka-Jia; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Bei, Jin-Xin; Hong, Ming-Huang; Shao, Jian-Yong; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun; Mai, Hai-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the prognostic value of the plasma load of Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) DNA and the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in advanced-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients and Methods: In all, 185 consecutive patients with stage III to IVb NPC treated with NACT followed by concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) were prospectively enrolled. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), and the secondary endpoints included locoregional relapse–free survival (LRFS) and distant metastasis–free survival (DMFS). Results: EBV DNA was detected in 165 (89%) patients before treatment but was undetectable in 127 (69%) patients after NACT. Detectable EBV DNA levels after NACT were correlated with poor prognosis (3-year PFS 71.8% vs 85.2%, P=.008 and 3-year DMFS 82.5% vs 92.3%, P=.013). An unsatisfactory tumor response (stable disease or disease progression) after NACT was also correlated with poor clinical outcome (3-year PFS 71.1% vs 85.9%, P=.005 and 3-year LRFS 82.7% vs 93.5%, P=.012). Multivariate analysis showed that the EBV DNA level after NACT (hazard ratio [HR] 2.31, 95% CI 1.18-4.54, P=.015) and the tumor response to NACT (HR 2.84, 95% CI 1.42-5.67, P=.003) were both significant prognostic factors for PFS. Multivariate analysis also showed that EBV DNA after NACT was the only significant predictor of DMFS (HR 2.99, 95% CI 1.25-7.15, P=.014) and that tumor response to NACT was the only significant predictor of LRFS (HR 3.31, 95% CI 1.21-9.07, P=.020). Conclusion: Detectable EBV DNA levels and an unsatisfactory tumor response (stable disease or disease progression) after NACT serve as predictors of poor prognosis for patients with advanced-stage NPC. These findings will facilitate further risk stratification, early treatment modification, or both before CCRT.

  4. The Prognostic Value of Plasma Epstein-Barr Viral DNA and Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Advanced-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Li-Ting; Tang, Lin-Quan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Zhang, Lu; Guo, Shan-Shan; Guo, Ling; Mo, Hao-Yuan; Zhao, Chong; Guo, Xiang; Cao, Ka-Jia; Qian, Chao-Nan [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Bei, Jin-Xin [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Hong, Ming-Huang [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Good Clinical Practice Center, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Shao, Jian-Yong [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Department of Molecular Diagnostics, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Mai, Hai-Qiang, E-mail: maihq@sysucc.org.cn [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To explore the prognostic value of the plasma load of Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) DNA and the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in advanced-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients and Methods: In all, 185 consecutive patients with stage III to IVb NPC treated with NACT followed by concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) were prospectively enrolled. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), and the secondary endpoints included locoregional relapse–free survival (LRFS) and distant metastasis–free survival (DMFS). Results: EBV DNA was detected in 165 (89%) patients before treatment but was undetectable in 127 (69%) patients after NACT. Detectable EBV DNA levels after NACT were correlated with poor prognosis (3-year PFS 71.8% vs 85.2%, P=.008 and 3-year DMFS 82.5% vs 92.3%, P=.013). An unsatisfactory tumor response (stable disease or disease progression) after NACT was also correlated with poor clinical outcome (3-year PFS 71.1% vs 85.9%, P=.005 and 3-year LRFS 82.7% vs 93.5%, P=.012). Multivariate analysis showed that the EBV DNA level after NACT (hazard ratio [HR] 2.31, 95% CI 1.18-4.54, P=.015) and the tumor response to NACT (HR 2.84, 95% CI 1.42-5.67, P=.003) were both significant prognostic factors for PFS. Multivariate analysis also showed that EBV DNA after NACT was the only significant predictor of DMFS (HR 2.99, 95% CI 1.25-7.15, P=.014) and that tumor response to NACT was the only significant predictor of LRFS (HR 3.31, 95% CI 1.21-9.07, P=.020). Conclusion: Detectable EBV DNA levels and an unsatisfactory tumor response (stable disease or disease progression) after NACT serve as predictors of poor prognosis for patients with advanced-stage NPC. These findings will facilitate further risk stratification, early treatment modification, or both before CCRT.

  5. Response to platelet-activating factor in human platelets stored and aged in plasma. Decrease in aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and receptor affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.D.; Morrison, W.J.; Klachko, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Human platelet concentrates were stored in polyolefin bags at 22 to 24 degrees C on a horizontal shaker for up to 8 days. At different intervals, aliquots of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were removed aseptically and five variables, i.e., platelet counts, morphology, platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and [3H]PAF binding to platelet receptors, were studied. The number of platelets did not change during the 8 days of storage. Scanning electron microscopy of the platelets revealed a gradual morphologic change from biconcave flat discs to irregular, crenated forms. The PAF-induced aggregation of platelets declined with time of storage. A decrease to 50 percent of the Day 1 aggregatory response to PAF was evident on Day 2, and there was a further decline to about 20 percent by Day 6. Similarly, PAF receptor-coupled phosphoinositide turnover, as monitored by 32P incorporation into individual phosphoinositides, decreased dramatically with storage. After 2 to 3 days of storage, the phosphoinositide turnover was reduced to 50 percent of the original response, and it continued to decline to about 25 percent of original response by Day 5 or 6. The binding of [3H]PAF to washed human platelets indicated subtle changes between Days 2 and 4, which became more noticeable by Day 6. These results have raised the possibility of changes in the number of the receptors and/or their affinity for the ligand during storage. We conclude that although the number of platelets was maintained during storage for 8 days, a general deterioration of their responses to PAF occurred at the levels of cell surface receptor, transmembrane signaling (phosphoinositide turnover), and response (aggregation)

  6. Evidence of major genes for plasma HDL, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels at baseline and in response to 20 weeks of endurance training: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, P; Borecki, I B; Rankinen, T; Després, J-P; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed major gene effects for baseline HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, and their training responses (post-training minus baseline) in 527 individuals from 99 White families and 326 individuals from 113 Black families in the HERITAGE Family Study. The baseline phenotypes were adjusted for the effects of age and BMI, and the training response phenotypes were adjusted for the effects of age, BMI, and their respective baseline values, within each of the sex-by-generation-by-race groups, prior to genetic analyses. In Whites, we found that LDL-C at baseline and HDL-C training response were under influence of major recessive genes (accounting for 2--30 % of the variance) and multifactorial (polygenic and familial environmental) effects. Interactions of these major genes with sex, age, and BMI were tested, and found to be nonsignificant. In Blacks, we found that baseline HDL-C was influenced by a major dominant gene without a multifactorial component. This major gene effect accounted for 45 % of the variance, and exhibited no significant genotype-specific interactions with age, sex, and BMI. Evidence of major genes for the remaining phenotypes at baseline and in response to endurance training were not found in both races, though some were influenced by major effects that did not follow Mendelian expectations or were with ambiguous transmission from parents to offspring. In summary, major gene effects that influence baseline plasma HDL-C and LDL-C levels as well as changes in HDL-C levels in response to regular exercise were detected in the current study.

  7. Plasmas for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2013-09-01

    economic potential. This ambivalent situation fundamentally requires a responsible use of plasma sources, which are specifically designated for biomedical applications. To enable physicians as well as life scientists to decide whether a given plasma source is really suitable for medical applications or biological experiments, a meaningful and mandatory spectrum of indicators has to be compiled to allow for a basic estimation of the potential of this plasma source.

  8. Plasma Taurine, Diabetes Genetic Predisposition, and Changes of Insulin Sensitivity in Response to Weight-Loss Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Ceglarek, Uta; Huang, Tao; Wang, Tiange; Heianza, Yoriko; Ma, Wenjie; Bray, George A; Thiery, Joachim; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2016-10-01

    Taurine metabolism disturbance is closely linked to obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Previous evidence suggested that the preventative effects of taurine on diabetes might be through regulating the expression levels of diabetes-related genes. We estimated whether blood taurine levels modified the overall genetic susceptibility to diabetes on improvement of insulin sensitivity in a randomized dietary trial. We genotyped 31 diabetes-associated variants to calculate a genetic risk score (GRS) and measured plasma taurine levels and glycemic traits among participants from the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) trial. Seven-hundred eleven overweight or obese participants (age 30-70 y; 60% females) had genetic variants genotyped and blood taurine levels measured. Participants went on 2-year weight-loss diets, which were different in macronutrient composition. Improvements in glycemic traits were measured. We found that baseline taurine levels significantly modified the effects of diabetes GRS on changes in fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) during the 2-year diet intervention (P-interaction = .04, .01, .002, respectively), regardless of weight loss. High baseline taurine levels were associated with a less reduction in both glucose and HOMA-IR among the participants with the lowest tertile of diabetes GRS (both P = .02), and with a greater reduction in both insulin and HOMA-IR among those with the highest tertile of diabetes GRS (both P = .04). Our data suggest that blood taurine levels might differentially modulate the effects of diabetes-related genes on improvement of insulin sensitivity among overweight/obese patients on weight-loss diets.

  9. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognitive responses in urban children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian eCalderon-Garciduenas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children. We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1 and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty g of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11± 3.4 days (range 9 to 24 days to 18 children (10.55yrs, SD =1.45; 11F/7M. Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p=0.0002. Fifteen children (83% showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

  10. Association of blood eosinophils and plasma periostin with FEV1 response after 3-month inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonist treatment in stable COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park HY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hye Yun Park,1 Hyun Lee,1 Won-Jung Koh,1 Seonwoo Kim,2 Ina Jeong,3 Hyeon-Kyoung Koo,4 Tae-Hyung Kim,5 Jin Woo Kim,6 Woo Jin Kim,7 Yeon-Mok Oh,8 Don D Sin,9 Seong Yong Lim,10,* Sang-Do Lee8,* On behalf of the KOLD Study Group 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 2Biostatistics Team, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul, Korea; 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, National Medical Center, Seoul, Korea; 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Korea; 5Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do, Korea; 6Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Uijeongbu St Mary’s Hospital, Gyunggi-do, Korea; 7Department of Internal Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, Korea; 8Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 9Respiratory Division, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 10Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: COPD patients with increased airway eosinophilic inflammation show a favorable response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS in combination with a long-acting bronchodilator. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant correlation of sputum eosinophilia with blood eosinophils and periostin. We investigated whether high blood eosinophils and plasma periostin were associated

  11. Plasma state. The universe's fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, Th.

    2004-01-01

    The plasma is the fourth state of matter, obtained at a very high temperature by the separation of the electrons from their nuclei. Plasma represents 99% of the visible mass of our present day universe and was the unique state of matter at its very beginning. Plasmas are present in the core of stars and in the interstellar environment. More closer to us, they are responsible of spectacular phenomena, like aurora borealis, lightning, comet queues etc.. This book makes a review of the different types of plasmas (electromagnetic, Earth's plasmas, spatial plasmas, solar plasmas, astrophysical plasmas). One chapter presents the thermonuclear fusion as future energy source. Another one treats of the chaos and turbulence inside plasmas. Some applications of plasmas are reviewed: MHD and ionic propulsion systems, MHD energy conversion and MHD generators, thermo-ionic converters, solid-state plasmas, particle accelerators, coherent radiation sources, 'Zeta' machines, X-ray lasers, isotopic separation, non-neutral plasmas and charged beams, free-electrons lasers, electrons and positrons plasmas, industrial applications (etching and cleaning, manufacturing of solar cells, flat screens, industrial reactors, waste treatment, cold plasma-assisted sterilization, effluents decontamination etc.). A last chapter makes an overview of the modern research in plasma physics. (J.S.)

  12. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner. An annular or solid relativistic electron beam is used to heat a plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to implosion. (U.K.)

  13. Methylated Glutathione S-transferase 1 (mGSTP1) is a potential plasma free DNA epigenetic marker of prognosis and response to chemotherapy in castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, K L; Qu, W; Devaney, J; Paul, C; Castillo, L; Wykes, R J; Chatfield, M D; Boyer, M J; Stockler, M R; Marx, G; Gurney, H; Mallesara, G; Molloy, P L; Horvath, L G; Clark, S J

    2014-10-28

    Glutathione S-transferase 1 (GSTP1) inactivation is associated with CpG island promoter hypermethylation in the majority of prostate cancers (PCs). This study assessed whether the level of circulating methylated GSTP1 (mGSTP1) in plasma DNA is associated with chemotherapy response and overall survival (OS). Plasma samples were collected prospectively from a Phase I exploratory cohort of 75 men with castrate-resistant PC (CRPC) and a Phase II independent validation cohort (n=51). mGSTP1 levels in free DNA were measured using a sensitive methylation-specific PCR assay. The Phase I cohort identified that detectable baseline mGSTP1 DNA was associated with poorer OS (HR, 4.2 95% CI 2.1-8.2; P<0.0001). A decrease in mGSTP1 DNA levels after cycle 1 was associated with a PSA response (P=0.008). In the Phase II cohort, baseline mGSTP1 DNA was a stronger predictor of OS than PSA change after 3 months (P=0.02). Undetectable plasma mGSTP1 after one cycle of chemotherapy was associated with PSA response (P=0.007). We identified plasma mGSTP1 DNA as a potential prognostic marker in men with CRPC as well as a potential surrogate therapeutic efficacy marker for chemotherapy and corroborated these findings in an independent Phase II cohort. Prospective Phase III assessment of mGSTP1 levels in plasma DNA is now warranted.

  14. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  15. Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 in Plasma from Soluble Leishmania Antigen-Stimulated Whole Blood as a Potential Biomarker of the Cellular Immune Response to Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Ibarra-Meneses

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available New biomarkers are needed to identify asymptomatic Leishmania infection as well as immunity following vaccination or treatment. With the aim of finding a robust biomarker to assess an effective cellular immune response, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 was examined in plasma from soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA-stimulated whole blood collected from subjects living in a Leishmania infantum-endemic area. MCP-1, expressed 110 times more strongly than IL-2, identified 87.5% of asymptomatic subjects and verified some asymptomatic subjects close to the cutoff. MCP-1 was also significantly elevated in all patients cured of visceral leishmaniasis (VL, unlike IL-2, indicating the specific memory response generated against Leishmania. These results show MCP-1 to be a robust candidate biomarker of immunity that could be used as a marker of cure and to both select and follow the population in vaccine phase I–III human clinical trials with developed rapid, easy-to-use field tools.

  16. Optimization of non-thermal plasma efficiency in the simultaneous elimination of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene from polluted airstreams using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpoor, Ali Asghar; Jonidi Jafari, Ahmad; Hosseinzadeh, Ahmad; Khani Jazani, Reza; Bargozin, Hasan

    2018-01-01

    Treatment with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) is a new and effective technology applied recently for conversion of gases for air pollution control. This research was initiated to optimize the efficient application of the NTP process in benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal. The effects of four variables including temperature, initial BTEX concentration, voltage, and flow rate on the BTEX elimination efficiency were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The constructed model was evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The model goodness-of-fit and statistical significance was assessed using determination coefficients (R 2 and R 2 adj ) and the F-test. The results revealed that the R 2 proportion was greater than 0.96 for BTEX removal efficiency. The statistical analysis demonstrated that the BTEX removal efficiency was significantly correlated with the temperature, BTEX concentration, voltage, and flow rate. Voltage was the most influential variable affecting the dependent variable as it exerted a significant effect (p < 0.0001) on the response variable. According to the achieved results, NTP can be applied as a progressive, cost-effective, and practical process for treatment of airstreams polluted with BTEX in conditions of low residence time and high concentrations of pollutants.

  17. Plasma cortisol levels in response to a cold pressor test did not predict appetite or ad libitum test meal intake in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geliebter, Allan; Gibson, Charlisa D; Hernandez, Dominica B; Atalayer, Deniz; Kwon, Anne; Lee, Michelle I; Mehta, Nandini; Phair, Donna; Gluck, Marci E

    2012-12-01

    Heightened cortisol response to stress due to hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may stimulate appetite and food intake. In this study, we assessed cortisol responsivity to a cold pressor test (CPT) as well as appetite ratings and subsequent test meal intake (TMI) in obese women. Following an overnight fast on two counterbalanced days, 20 obese women immersed their non-dominant hand for 2min in ice water (CPT) or warm water (WW) as a control. Plasma cortisol (ng/ml), heart rate, and blood pressure, as well as ratings of stress, pain, and appetite, were serially acquired. An ad libitum liquid meal was offered at 45min and intake measured covertly. Fasting cortisol was higher at 15min (mean peak cortisol) following the CPT compared to WW. Higher stress was reported at 2 and 15min for the CPT compared to WW. Pain, an indirect marker of the acute stress, systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased following the CPT at 2min compared to WW. Hunger decreased after the CPT at 2 and 15min, and desire to eat ratings were lower following CPT compared to WW. Subjects did not have greater test meal intake (TMI) following CPT compared to WW. There was also no significant relationship between cortisol levels following stress and TMI, indicating that cortisol did not predict subsequent intake in obese women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensitivity of transient synchrotron radiation to tokamak plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.; Kritz, A.H.

    1988-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from a hot plasma can inform on certain plasma parameters. The dependence on plasma parameters is particularly sensitive for the transient radiation response to a brief, deliberate, perturbation of hot plasma electrons. We investigate how such a radiation response can be used to diagnose a variety of plasma parameters in a tokamak. 18 refs., 13 figs

  19. Comprehensive growth performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, gene expressions and cell death morphology responses to a daily corticosterone injection course in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaisen, Gamal M K; Eshak, Mariam G; Elkaiaty, Ahmed M; Atta, Abdel-Rahman M M; Mashaly, Magdi M; Abass, Ahmed O

    2017-01-01

    The massive meat production of broiler chickens make them continuously exposed to potential stressors that stimulate releasing of stress-related hormones like corticosterone (CORT) which is responsible for specific pathways in biological mechanisms and physiological activities. Therefore, this research was conducted to evaluate a wide range of responses related to broiler performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, related gene expressions and cell death morphology during and after a 7-day course of CORT injection. A total number of 200 one-day-old commercial Cobb broiler chicks were used in this study. From 21 to 28 d of age, broilers were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups with 5 replicates of 20 birds each; the first group received a daily intramuscular injection of 5 mg/kg BW corticosterone dissolved in 0.5 ml ethanol:saline solution (CORT group), while the second group received a daily intramuscular injection of 0.5 ml ethanol:saline only (CONT group). Growth performance, including body weight (BW), daily weight gain (DG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FC), were calculated at 0, 3 and 7 d after the start of the CORT injections. At the same times, blood samples were collected in each group for hematological (TWBC's and H/L ratio), T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation and plasma biochemical assays (total protein, TP; free triiodothyronine hormone, fT3; aspartate amino transaminase, AST; and alanine amino transaminase, ALT). The liver, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen were dissected and weighed, and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (IGF-1) in liver and cell-death-program gene (caspase-9) in bursa were analyzed for each group and time; while the apoptotic/necrotic cells were morphologically detected in the spleen. From 28 to 35 d of age, broilers were kept for recovery period without CORT injection and the same sampling and parameters were repeated at the end (at 14 d after initiation of the CORT injection). In

  20. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Responses Require Actions of the Melanocortin-2 Receptor Accessory Protein on the Extracellular Surface of the Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sundeep; Dolan, Terrance M; Maben, Zachary J; Hinkle, Patricia M

    2015-11-13

    The melanocortin-2 (MC2) receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates responses to ACTH. The MC2 receptor acts in concert with the MC2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) that is absolutely required for ACTH binding and signaling. MRAP has a single transmembrane domain and forms a highly unusual antiparallel homodimer that is stably associated with MC2 receptors at the plasma membrane. Despite the physiological importance of the interaction between the MC2 receptor and MRAP, there is little understanding of how the accessory protein works. The dual topology of MRAP has made it impossible to determine whether highly conserved and necessary regions of MRAP are required on the intracellular or extracellular face of the plasma membrane. The strategy used here was to fix the orientation of two antiparallel MRAP molecules and then introduce inactivating mutations on one side of the membrane or the other. This was achieved by engineering proteins containing tandem copies of MRAP fused to the amino terminus of the MC2 receptor. The data firmly establish that only the extracellular amino terminus (Nout) copy of MRAP, oriented with critical segments on the extracellular side of the membrane, is essential. The transmembrane domain of MRAP is also required in only the Nout orientation. Finally, activity of MRAP-MRAP-MC2-receptor fusion proteins with inactivating mutations in either MRAP or the receptor was rescued by co-expression of free wild-type MRAP or free wild-type receptor. These results show that the basic MRAP-MRAP-receptor signaling unit forms higher order complexes and that these multimers signal. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  2. Targeting Ongoing DNA Damage in Multiple Myeloma: Effects of DNA Damage Response Inhibitors on Plasma Cell Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Herrero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs and a subset of myeloma patients with poor prognosis exhibit high levels of replication stress (RS, leading to DNA damage. In this study, we confirmed the presence of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs in several HMCLs by measuring γH2AX and RAD51 foci and analyzed the effect of various inhibitors of the DNA damage response on MM cell survival. Inhibition of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR, the main kinase mediating the response to RS, using the specific inhibitor VE-821 induced more cell death in HMCLs than in control lymphoblastoid cells and U266, an HMCL with a low level of DNA damage. The absence of ATR was partially compensated by ataxia telangiectasia-mutated protein (ATM, since chemical inhibition of both kinases using VE-821 and KU-55933 significantly increased the death of MM cells with DNA damage. We found that ATM and ATR are involved in DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR in MM. Inhibition of both kinases resulted in a stronger inhibition that may underlie cell death induction, since abolition of HR using two different inhibitors severely reduced survival of HMCLs that exhibit DNA damage. On the other hand, inhibition of the other route involved in DSB repair, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ, using the DNA-PK inhibitor NU7441, did not affect MM cell viability. Interestingly, we found that NHEJ inhibition did not increase cell death when HR was simultaneously inhibited with the RAD51 inhibitor B02, but it clearly increased the level of cell death when HR was inhibited with the MRE11 inhibitor mirin, which interferes with recombination before DNA resection takes place. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that MM cells with ongoing DNA damage rely on an intact HR pathway, which thereby suggests therapeutic opportunities. We also show that inhibition of HR after the initial step of end resection might be more appropriate for inducing MM cell death, since it

  3. Response to 'Comment on 'Pinch current limitation effect in plasma focus'' [Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 076101 (2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Saw, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    The main point of the comment [Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 076101 (2009)] is that Eq. (2) and consequentially Eq. (3) of the commented paper [Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021503 (2008)] require correction. The alternative equation suggested in the comment is derived using Kirchhoff's voltage rule. The comment consider only the energy distribution in the inductive components and the resultant equation confirms a progressive lowering of the I pinch /I peak ratio as the static inductance L 0 is reduced, lowering from 0.87 to 0.31 as L 0 is reduced from 100 to 5 nH according to the revised formula corresponding to Eq. (3), compared to 0.63-0.25 according to Eq. (3). This progressive lowering of the ratio I pinch /I peak due to the inductive energy distribution is one of two factors responsible for the pinch current limitation. The other factor is the progressive reduction in the L-C interaction time compared to the current dip duration denoted by δ cap in Eq. (2). The comment does not deal with δ cap at all; hence, its conclusion based on inductive energy distribution only is not useful, since in the low L 0 region when pinch current limitation begins to manifest, δ cap becomes more and more the dominant factor. In any case, the results of the paper do not depend on Eqs. (2) and (3), which are used in the paper only for illustrative purposes

  4. A curve-fitting approach to estimate the arterial plasma input function for the assessment of glucose metabolic rate and response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriens, Dennis; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Oyen, Wim J G; Visser, Eric P

    2009-12-01

    For the quantification of dynamic (18)F-FDG PET studies, the arterial plasma time-activity concentration curve (APTAC) needs to be available. This can be obtained using serial sampling of arterial blood or an image-derived input function (IDIF). Arterial sampling is invasive and often not feasible in practice; IDIFs are biased because of partial-volume effects and cannot be used when no large arterial blood pool is in the field of view. We propose a mathematic function, consisting of an initial linear rising activity concentration followed by a triexponential decay, to describe the APTAC. This function was fitted to 80 oncologic patients and verified for 40 different oncologic patients by area-under-the-curve (AUC) comparison, Patlak glucose metabolic rate (MR(glc)) estimation, and therapy response monitoring (Delta MR(glc)). The proposed function was compared with the gold standard (serial arterial sampling) and the IDIF. To determine the free parameters of the function, plasma time-activity curves based on arterial samples in 80 patients were fitted after normalization for administered activity (AA) and initial distribution volume (iDV) of (18)F-FDG. The medians of these free parameters were used for the model. In 40 other patients (20 baseline and 20 follow-up dynamic (18)F-FDG PET scans), this model was validated. The population-based curve, individually calibrated by AA and iDV (APTAC(AA/iDV)), by 1 late arterial sample (APTAC(1 sample)), and by the individual IDIF (APTAC(IDIF)), was compared with the gold standard of serial arterial sampling (APTAC(sampled)) using the AUC. Additionally, these 3 methods of APTAC determination were evaluated with Patlak MR(glc) estimation and with Delta MR(glc) for therapy effects using serial sampling as the gold standard. Excellent individual fits to the function were derived with significantly different decay constants (P AUC from APTAC(AA/iDV), APTAC(1 sample), and APTAC(IDIF) with the gold standard (APTAC(sampled)) were 0

  5. Plasma centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevskij, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The review of the most important studies on the isotope separation processes in the rotating plasma is presented. The device is described and the characteristics of operation of the pulse plasma centrifuges with weakly and strongly ionized plasma as well as the stationary plasma centrifuges with the medium weak ionization and devices, applying the stationary vacuum arc with the high ionization rate and the stationary beam-plasma discharge with complete ionization, are presented. The possible mechanisms of the isotope separation in plasma centrifuges are considered. The specific energy consumption for isotope separation in these devices is discussed [ru

  6. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  7. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  8. Regular activity breaks combined with physical activity improve postprandial plasma triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, and insulin responses in healthy, normal weight adults: A randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Ashleigh R; Fenemor, Stephen P; Perry, Tracy L; Rehrer, Nancy J; Cameron, Claire M; Skeaff, C Murray; Peddie, Meredith C

    Compared with prolonged sitting, regular activity breaks immediately lower postprandial glucose and insulin, but not triglyceride responses. Postprandial triglycerides can be lowered by physical activity but the effect is often delayed by ∼12 to 24 hours. The objective of the study was to determine whether regular activity breaks affect postprandial triglyceride response in a delayed manner similar to physical activity. In a randomized crossover trial, 36 adults (body mass index 23.9 kg/m 2 [standard deviation 3.9]) completed four 2-day interventions: (1) prolonged sitting (SIT); (2) prolonged sitting with 30 minutes of continuous walking (60% VO 2max ), at the end of Day 1 (SIT + PA D1 ); (3) Sitting with 2 minutes of walking (60% VO 2max ) every 30 minutes (RAB); (4) A combination of the continuous walking and regular activity breaks in 2 and 3 above (RAB + PA D1 ). Postprandial plasma triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, and insulin responses were measured in venous blood over 5 hours on Day 2. Compared with SIT, both RAB (difference: -43.61 mg/dL·5 hours; 95% confidence interval [CI] -83.66 to -2.67; P = .035) and RAB + PA D1 (-65.86 mg/dL·5 hours; 95% CI -112.14 to -19.58; P = .005) attenuated triglyceride total area under the curve (tAUC). RAB + PA D1 produced the greatest reductions in insulin tAUC (-23%; 95% CI -12% to -31%; P glucose tAUC (P = .290). Postprandial triglyceride response is attenuated by regular activity breaks, when measured ∼24 hours after breaks begin. Combining regular activity breaks with 30 minutes of continuous walking further improves insulinemic and lipidemic responses. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma growth hormone, cortisol and testosterone responses to repeated and intermittent ergometer exercise at different pedalling rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BH Opaszowski

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of the hormonal response to the repeated and intermittent exercises at different rates. Nine students of the physical education (age: 24.1±0.39 years; body mass: 81.2±10.17kg; height: 182.1±7.32 cm; VO2max – 4.121±0.697 l O2/min performed in the laboratory conditions series of 5 efforts on the cycle ergometer lasting for 3 min with the loading of 250 W and divided with 2 min intervals. In the first day the pedalling rate amounted to 45circ/min (W45, in the second day to 80circ/min (W80. In both cases the work performed (225 kJ, time lasting and power of efforts were the same. The growth hormone (GH, testosterone (T and cortisol (C were denoted in the capillary blood taken with the immuno-enzymatic methods from the finger tip. The anabolic – catabolic index (T/C was also determined. The blood acid – alkali balance parameters were registered using the gas analyser Ciba-Corning 248. The blood was taken: before effort, after third effort (13 min, immediately after fifth effort (23 min and 30 min after the test. Series of the repeated and intermittent exercises caused the significant (P<0.05 lowering of the capillary blood pH, respectively from: 7.392–7.409 before effort to: 7.316±0.092 (W45 and 7.287±0.068 (W80 after fifth effort. The differences between W45 and W80 were statistically insignificant. The highest concentrations of GH and T were noticed after all efforts in both series. The T concentration grew significantly, similarly in both series: W45 –5.8±1.93 and W80 –5.9±1.59 ng/ml from the restful level ≈ 4.6 ng/ml. The significant differentiation of the response on different pedalling rates was observed in case of GH. The highest GH concentration amounted to: 7.7±5.43 ng/ml after W45 and after W80 to: 16.8±6.68 ng/ml. The GH concentration changes presented lower level (P<0.05 during work performed with the smaller rate i.e.: 45circ/min. As regards cortisol (C, the significant

  10. A proposal for both plasma ion- and electron-temperature diagnostics under simultaneous incidence of particles and x-rays into a semiconductor on the basis of a proposed model for a semiconductor detector response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numakura, T; Cho, T; Kohagura, J; Hirata, M; Minami, R; Yoshida, M; Nakashima, Y; Tamano, T; Yatsu, K; Miyoshi, S

    2003-01-01

    A method is proposed for obtaining radial profiles of plasma temperatures of both plasma ion (T i ) and electron (T e ) simultaneously by the use of a semiconductor detector array. The method is based on our developed particle-response model for a semiconductor detector; in particular, the response theory is constructed for giving the applicability in particle energies ranging down to a kiloelectronvolt. Calculated results from our model are in fairly good agreement with experimental data on the detector response of incident particle beams with energies in the range 100 eV to a few kiloelectronvolts. On the basis of the verification of the proposed model, an idea of the use of a developed semiconductor detector array covered with 'reliably unbreakable' ultrathin SiO 2 'dead-layer filters' having various nanometre-order thicknesses is applied for simultaneous T i and T e analyses by using charge-exchange neutral particles and x-rays from plasmas. Radial profiles of T i and T e are obtained in a single plasma discharge alone, and the data reliability is independently cross-checked by a radial scan of a conventional charge-exchange neutral-particle analyser system as well as a 50-channel microchannel plate x-ray diagnostics system in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

  11. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of providing electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner to implode a structured microsphere. An annular relativistic electron beam is used to heat an annular plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the annular plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to convergence to implode the structured microsphere. (U.K.)

  12. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid; Badii, Khashayar; Norouzi, Mohammad; Malek, Kaveh

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO2 nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R2 = 0.9996, Adjusted R2 = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  13. A facile and selective approach for enrichment of l-cysteine in human plasma sample based on zinc organic polymer: Optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Sonia; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Ostovan, Abbas; Javadian, Hamedreza; Mansoorkhani, Mohammad Javad Khoshnood; Taghipour, Tahere

    2018-02-05

    In this research, a facile and selective method was described to extract l-cysteine (l-Cys), an essential α-amino acid for anti-ageing playing an important role in human health, from human blood plasma sample. The importance of this research was the mild and time-consuming synthesis of zinc organic polymer (Zn-MOP) as an adsorbent and evaluation of its ability for efficient enrichment of l-Cys by ultrasound-assisted dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (UA-DMSPE) method. The structure of Zn-MOP was investigated by FT-IR, XRD and SEM. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for the experimental data to reach the best optimum conditions. The quantification of l-Cys was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection set at λ=230nm. The calibration graph showed reasonable linear responses towards l-Cys concentrations in the range of 4.0-1000μg/L (r 2 =0.999) with low limit of detection (0.76μg/L, S/N=3) and RSD≤2.18 (n=3). The results revealed the applicability and high performance of this novel strategy in detecting trace l-Cys by Zn-MOP in complicated matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Variability of plasma homovanillic acid over 13 months in patients with schizophrenia; relationship with the clinical response and the Wisconsin card sort test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumárraga, Mercedes; González-Torres, Miguel A; Arrue, Aurora; Dávila, Ricardo; Dávila, Wendy; Inchausti, Lucía; Pérez-Cabeza, Lucía; Fernández-Rivas, Aránzazu; Bustamante, Sonia; Basterreche, Nieves; Guimón, José

    2011-08-01

    In the present study we have measured, on a monthly basis, the concentration of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) in schizophrenic patients during 13 months of their pharmacological treatment. The average pHVA values of each patient were within the range of 7.30-17.70 ng/ml and the coefficients of variation for each patient (CV %) were within the range of 13-33%. Half of the patients that showed higher pHVA CV% values also showed higher scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale at the beginning of the study, and improved more after 6 months, when compared to the remaining 50% with lower CV% values. There was no significant relationship between the scores of the Wisconsin Card Sort Test and the concentration or the CV% of the pHVA of each patient. A greater variability in the pHVA may be associated with a greater plasticity of the dopaminergic system and a better clinical response.

  15. The correlation between the levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and tumour response and survival after preoperative radiochemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblak, Irena; Velenik, Vaneja; Anderluh, Franc; Mozina, Barbara; Ocvirk, Janja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse whether the level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) 1 is associated with the tumour response and survival to preoperative radiochemotherapy in rectal cancer patients. Ninety-two patients with histologically confirmed non-metastatic rectal cancer of clinical stage I– III were treated with preoperative radiochemotherapy, surgery and postoperative chemotherapy. Plasma TIMP-1 concentrations were measured prior to the start of the treatment with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Median follow-up time was 68 months (range: 3–93 months) while in survivors it was 80 months (range: 68–93 months). The 5-year locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) rates for all patients were 80.2%, 56.4%, 63.7% and 52.2%, respectively. The median TIMP-1 level was 185 ng/mL (range: 22–523 ng/mL) and the mean level (±standard deviation) was 192 (±87) ng/mL. Serum TIMP-1 levels were found to be significantly increased in patients with preoperative CRP>12 mg/L and in those who died from rectal cancer or had cT4 tumours. No correlation was established for age, gender, carcinoembriogenic antigene (CEA) level, platelets count, histopathological grade, response to preoperative therapy, resectability and disease reappearance. On univariate analysis, various parameters favourably influenced one or more survival endpoints: TIMP-1 <170 ng/mL, CRP <12 mg/L, platelets count <290 10E9/L, CEA <3.4mg/L, age <69 years, male gender, early stage disease (cN0 and/or cT2–3), radical surgery (R0) and response to preoperative radiochemotherapy. In multivariate model, LRC was favourably influenced by N-downstage, DFS by lower CRP and N-downstage, DSS by lower CRP and N-downstage and OS by lower TIMP-1 level, lower CRP and N-downstage. Although we did not find any association between pretreatment serum TIMP-1 levels and primary tumour response to preoperative

  16. Physiological and Transcriptional Responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to d-Limonene Show Changes to the Cell Wall but Not to the Plasma Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Timothy C. R.; Nielsen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Monoterpenes can, upon hydrogenation, be used as light-fraction components of sustainable aviation fuels. Fermentative production of monoterpenes in engineered microorganisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has gained attention as a potential route to deliver these next-generation fuels from renewable biomass. However, end product toxicity presents a formidable problem for microbial synthesis. Due to their hydrophobicity, monoterpene inhibition has long been attributed to membrane interference, but the molecular mechanism remains largely unsolved. In order to gain a better understanding of the mode of action, we analyzed the composition and structural integrity of the cell envelope as well as the transcriptional response of yeast cells treated with an inhibitory amount of d-limonene (107 mg/liter). We found no alterations in membrane fluidity, structural membrane integrity, or fatty acid composition after the solvent challenge. A 4-fold increase in the mean fluorescence intensity per cell (using calcofluor white stain) and increased sensitivity to cell wall-degrading enzymes demonstrated that limonene disrupts cell wall properties. Global transcript measurements confirmed the membrane integrity observations by showing no upregulation of ergosterol or fatty acid biosynthesis pathways, which are commonly overexpressed in yeast to reinforce membrane rigidity during ethanol exposure. Limonene shock did cause a compensatory response to cell wall damage through overexpression of several genes (ROM1, RLM1, PIR3, CTT1, YGP1, MLP1, PST1, and CWP1) involved with the cell wall integrity signaling pathway. This is the first report demonstrating that cell wall, rather than plasma membrane, deterioration is the main source of monoterpene inhibition. We show that limonene can alter the structure and function of the cell wall, which has a clear effect on cytokinesis. PMID:23542628

  17. Thermo-responsive wound dressings by grafting chitosan and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) to plasma-induced graft polymerization modified non-woven fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jyh-Ping; Kuo, Chang-Yi; Lee, Wen-Li

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and chitosan were grafted to polypropylene non-wovens. ► An easily stripped off thermo-responsive wound dressing was developed. ► The wound dressing is biocompatible, has antibacterial and wound healing abilities. ► The bigraft non-woven will be a potential wound dressing for biomedical use. - Abstract: To obtain a chitosan wound dressings with temperature-responsive characteristics, polypropylene (PP) non-woven fabric (NWF) was modified by direct current pulsed oxygen plasma-induced grafting polymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) to improve hydrophilicity and to introduce carboxylic acid groups. Conjugation of chitosan and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) followed by using water-soluble carbodiimide as a coupling agent to form a novel bigraft PP-g-chitosan-g-PNIPAAm wound dressing. The amount of chitosan and PNIPAAm grafted to PP-g-chitosan-g-PNIPAAm were 83.0 ± 4.6 μg/cm 2 and 189.5 ± 8.2 μg/cm 2 , respectively. The surface chemical composition and microstructure of the NWF were studied by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The linkages between AAc, chitosan, and PNIPAAm were confirmed with the formation of amide bonds. Physical properties of the NWF were characterized and potentials of these NWFs as wound dressings were evaluated using SD rat as the animal model. NWFs contained PNIPAAm were better than those contained only chitosan in wound healing rates and the wound areas covered by PP-g-chitosan-g-PNIPAAm wound dressings healed completely in 17 days.

  18. Dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities

  19. Plasma chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the fundamental theory and various applications of ion mobility spectroscopy. Plasma chromatography developed from research on the diffusion and mobility of ions. Topics considered include instrument design and description (e.g., performance, spectral interpretation, sample handling, mass spectrometry), the role of ion mobility in plasma chromatography (e.g., kinetic theory of ion transport), atmospheric pressure ionization (e.g., rate equations), the characterization of isomers by plasma chromatography (e.g., molecular ion characteristics, polynuclear aromatics), plasma chromatography as a gas chromatographic detection method (e.g., qualitative analysis, continuous mobility monitoring, quantitative analysis), the analysis of toxic vapors by plasma chromatography (e.g., plasma chromatograph calibration, instrument control and data processing), the analysis of semiconductor devices and microelectronic packages by plasma chromatography/mass spectroscopy (e.g., analysis of organic surface contaminants, analysis of water in sealed electronic packages), and instrument design and automation (hardware, software)

  20. Increased cellular immune responses and CD4+ T-cell proliferation correlate with reduced plasma viral load in SIV challenged recombinant simian varicella virus - simian immunodeficiency virus (rSVV-SIV vaccinated rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahar Bapi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An effective AIDS vaccine remains one of the highest priorities in HIV-research. Our recent study showed that vaccination of rhesus macaques with recombinant simian varicella virus (rSVV vector – simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV envelope and gag genes, induced neutralizing antibodies and cellular immune responses to SIV and also significantly reduced plasma viral loads following intravenous pathogenic challenge with SIVMAC251/CX1. Findings The purpose of this study was to define cellular immunological correlates of protection in rSVV-SIV vaccinated and SIV challenged animals. Immunofluorescent staining and multifunctional assessment of SIV-specific T-cell responses were evaluated in both Experimental and Control vaccinated animal groups. Significant increases in the proliferating CD4+ T-cell population and polyfunctional T-cell responses were observed in all Experimental-vaccinated animals compared with the Control-vaccinated animals. Conclusions Increased CD4+ T-cell proliferation was significantly and inversely correlated with plasma viral load. Increased SIV-specific polyfunctional cytokine responses and increased proliferation of CD4+ T-cell may be crucial to control plasma viral loads in vaccinated and SIVMAC251/CX1 challenged macaques.

  1. ITER plasma safety interface models and assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Bartels, H-W.; Honda, T.; Amano, T.; Boucher, D.; Post, D.; Wesley, J.

    1996-01-01

    Physics models and requirements to be used as a basis for safety analysis studies are developed and physics results motivated by safety considerations are presented for the ITER design. Physics specifications are provided for enveloping plasma dynamic events for Category I (operational event), Category II (likely event), and Category III (unlikely event). A safety analysis code SAFALY has been developed to investigate plasma anomaly events. The plasma response to ex-vessel component failure and machine response to plasma transients are considered

  2. Plasma Science Committee (PLSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Plasma Science Committee (PLSC) is a standing committee under the auspices of the Board on Physics and Astronomy, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications of the National Academy of Sciences--National Research Council. Plasma sciences represent a broad and diverse field. The PLSC has accepted the responsibility of monitoring the continuing development and assessing the general health of the field as whole. Although select advisory bodies have been created to address specific issues that affect plasma science, such as the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC), the PLSC provides a focus for the plasma science community that is unique and essential. The membership of the PLSC is drawn from research laboratories in universities, industry, and government. Areas of expertise on the committee include accelerators and beams, space physics, astrophysics, computational physics and applied mathematics, fusion plasmas, fundamental experiments and theory, radiation sources, low temperature plasmas, and plasma-surface interactions. The PLSC is well prepared to respond to requests for studies on specific issues. This report discusses ion of the PLSC work

  3. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid; Badii, Khashayar; Norouzi, Mohammad; Malek, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The potential of immobilized TiO_2 and ZnO nanophotocatalysts for the removal of reactive dye was investigated. • Optimum decolorization conditions have been determined. • The immobilized nanophotocatalysts decolorized azo dyes completely from a textile effluent within 60 min. • Photocatalytic decolorization rates obeyed the pseudo-first-order rate. - Abstract: In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO_2 nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box–Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R"2 = 0.9996, Adjusted R"2 = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  4. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid, E-mail: m.ghoreishian.1985@gmail.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Badii, Khashayar [Department of Environmental Researches, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norouzi, Mohammad [Graduate Program of Biomedical Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Malek, Kaveh [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The potential of immobilized TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanophotocatalysts for the removal of reactive dye was investigated. • Optimum decolorization conditions have been determined. • The immobilized nanophotocatalysts decolorized azo dyes completely from a textile effluent within 60 min. • Photocatalytic decolorization rates obeyed the pseudo-first-order rate. - Abstract: In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO{sub 2} nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box–Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R{sup 2} = 0.9996, Adjusted R{sup 2} = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  5. Monocrotaline pyrrole-induced megalocytosis of lung and breast epithelial cells: Disruption of plasma membrane and Golgi dynamics and an enhanced unfolded protein response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Shah, Mehul; Patel, Kirit; Sehgal, Pravin B.

    2006-01-01

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline (MCT) initiates pulmonary hypertension by inducing a 'megalocytosis' phenotype in target pulmonary arterial endothelial, smooth muscle and Type II alveolar epithelial cells. In cultured endothelial cells, a single exposure to the pyrrolic derivative of monocrotaline (MCTP) results in large cells with enlarged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi and increased vacuoles. However, these cells fail to enter mitosis. Largely based upon data from endothelial cells, we proposed earlier that a disruption of the trafficking and mitosis-sensor functions of the Golgi (the 'Golgi blockade' hypothesis) may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to MCTP-induced megalocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the applicability of the Golgi blockade hypothesis to epithelial cells. MCTP induced marked megalocytosis in cultures of lung A549 and breast MCF-7 cells. This was associated with a change in the distribution of the cis-Golgi scaffolding protein GM130 from a discrete juxtanuclear localization to a circumnuclear distribution consistent with an anterograde block of GM130 trafficking to/through the Golgi. There was also a loss of plasma membrane caveolin-1 and E-cadherin, cortical actin together with a circumnuclear accumulation of clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and α-tubulin. Flotation analyses revealed losses/alterations in the association of caveolin-1, E-cadherin and CHC with raft microdomains. Moreover, megalocytosis was accompanied by an enhanced unfolded protein response (UPR) as evidenced by nuclear translocation of Ire1α and glucose regulated protein 58 (GRP58/ER-60/ERp57) and a circumnuclear accumulation of PERK kinase and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). These data further support the hypothesis that an MCTP-induced Golgi blockade and enhanced UPR may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to enlargement of ER and Golgi and subsequent megalocytosis

  6. Response to „Comment on Avalanche proton-boron fusion based on elastic nuclear collisions” [Phys. Plasmas 23, 094703 (2016)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eliezer, S.; Hora, H.; Korn, Georg; Nissim, N.; Val, J.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 9 (2016), s. 1-2, č. článku 094704. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser-produced plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.115, year: 2016

  7. Mechanisms of Plasma Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, David

    2015-09-01

    In this talk, I address research directed towards biomedical applications of atmospheric pressure plasma such as sterilization, surgery, wound healing and anti-cancer therapy. The field has seen remarkable growth in the last 3-5 years, but the mechanisms responsible for the biomedical effects have remained mysterious. It is known that plasmas readily create reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS (or RONS), in addition to a suite of other radical and non-radical reactive species, are essential actors in an important sub-field of aerobic biology termed ``redox'' (or oxidation-reduction) biology. It is postulated that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) can trigger a therapeutic shielding response in tissue in part by creating a time- and space-localized, burst-like form of oxy-nitrosative stress on near-surface exposed cells through the flux of plasma-generated RONS. RONS-exposed surface layers of cells communicate to the deeper levels of tissue via a form of the ``bystander effect,'' similar to responses to other forms of cell stress. In this proposed model of CAP therapeutics, the plasma stimulates a cellular survival mechanism through which aerobic organisms shield themselves from infection and other challenges.

  8. KINETIC THEORY OF PLASMA WAVES: Part II: Homogeneous Plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2010-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold

  9. Kinetic theory of plasma waves: Part II homogeneous plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2000-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold

  10. Kinetic theory of plasma waves - Part II: Homogeneous plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves axe discussed in the limit of the cold

  11. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    1961-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  12. Plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To recycle a coolant in a sealed hollow portion formed interiorly of a plasma limiter itself to thereby to cause direct contact between the coolant and the plasma limiter and increase of contact area therebetween to cool the plasma limiter. Structure: The heat resulting from plasma generated during operation and applied to the body of the plasma limiter is transmitted to the coolant, which recycles through an inlet and outlet pipe, an inlet and outlet nozzle and a hollow portion to hold the plasma limiter at a level less than a predetermined temperature. On the other hand, the heater wire is, at the time of emergency operation, energized to heat the plasma limiter, but this heat is transmitted to the limiter body to increase the temperature thereof. However, the coolant recycling the hollow portion comes into direct contact with the limiter body, and since the plasma limiter surround the hollow portion, the heat amount transmitted from the limiter body to the coolant increases to sufficiently cool the plasma limiter. (Yoshihara, H.)

  13. Effects of aripiprazole and the Taq1A polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor gene on the clinical response and plasma monoamine metabolites level during the acute phase of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Itaru; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Katsumi, Akihiko; Mori, Azuma; Kanno, Keiko; Yang, Qiaohui; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Numata, Yoshihiko; Niwa, Shin-Ichi

    2012-02-01

    The Taq1A polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene could be related to the response to antipsychotics. We examined the effects of the Taq1A polymorphism on the plasma monoamine metabolites during the treatment of schizophrenia with aripiprazole, a DRD2 partial agonist. Thirty Japanese patients with schizophrenia were treated with aripiprazole for 6 weeks. We measured plasma levels of homovanillic acid (pHVA) and 3-methoxy-4hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG) before and after treatment. The Taq1A polymorphism was genotyped with polymerase chain reaction. Aripiprazole improved the acute symptoms of schizophrenia and decreased pHVA in responders (P = 0.023) but not in nonresponders (P = 0.28). Although A1 allele carriers showed a tendency to respond to aripiprazole (61.5%) compared to A1 allele noncarriers (29.4%) (P = 0.078), there was not statistically significant difference in the response between the 2 genotype groups. There were significant effect for response (P = 0.013) and genotype × response interaction (P = 0.043) on the change of pHVA. The changes of pHVA differ between responders and nonresponders in A1 allele carriers but not in A1 allele noncarriers. There were no genotype or response effects or genotype × response interaction on the changes of the plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4hydroxyphenylglycol. Our preliminary results suggest that Taq1A polymorphism may be partly associated with changes in pHVA during acute schizophrenia.

  14. Bridge between fusion plasma and plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    In the present review, relationship between fusion plasma and processing plasma is discussed. From boundary-plasma studies in fusion devices new applications such as high-density plasma sources, erosion of graphite in a hydrogen plasma, formation of helium bubbles in high-melting-point metals and the use of toroidal plasmas for plasma processing are emerging. The authors would like to discuss a possibility of knowledge transfer from fusion plasmas to processing plasmas. (T. Ikehata)

  15. The influence of platelets, plasma and red blood cells on functional haemostatic assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsen, Louise; Johansson, Pär I.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri

    2011-01-01

    concentrates, fresh frozen plasma and stored RBC. Pure platelets were investigated by removing plasma components from platelet concentrates by diafiltration against the platelet storage solution Intersol. Plasma was readded by diafiltration against plasma in Intersol. Haemostatic function was evaluated by TEG...... plasma from platelet concentrates eliminated the TEG response and diminished the Multiplate aggregation response, but readding plasma to the pure platelet concentrates restored the response. Each of the elements in whole blood, plasma, platelets and RBC, affected the Multiplate and TEG results...

  16. Investigation of hybrid plasma-catalytic removal of acetone over CuO/γ-Al2O3 catalysts using response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinbo; Tu, Xin; Mei, Danhua; Zheng, Chenghang; Zhou, Jinsong; Gao, Xiang; Luo, Zhongyang; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2016-07-01

    In this work, plasma-catalytic removal of low concentrations of acetone over CuO/γ-Al2O3 catalysts was carried out in a cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The combination of plasma and the CuO/γ-Al2O3 catalysts significantly enhanced the removal efficiency of acetone compared to the plasma process using the pure γ-Al2O3 support, with the 5.0 wt% CuO/γ-Al2O3 catalyst exhibiting the best acetone removal efficiency of 67.9%. Catalyst characterization was carried out to understand the effect the catalyst properties had on the activity of the CuO/γ-Al2O3 catalysts in the plasma-catalytic reaction. The results indicated that the formation of surface oxygen species on the surface of the catalysts was crucial for the oxidation of acetone in the plasma-catalytic reaction. The effects that various operating parameters (discharge power, flow rate and initial concentration of acetone) and the interactions between these parameters had on the performance of the plasma-catalytic removal of acetone over the 5.0 wt% CuO/γ-Al2O3 catalyst were investigated using central composite design (CCD). The significance of the independent variables and their interactions were evaluated by means of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results showed that the gas flow rate was the most significant factor affecting the removal efficiency of acetone, whilst the initial concentration of acetone played the most important role in determining the energy efficiency of the plasma-catalytic process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, D. G

    1989-01-01

    ... Swanson, D.G. (Donald Gary), D a t e - Plasma waves. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Plasma waves. QC718.5.W3S43 1989 ISBN 0-12-678955-X I. Title. 530.4'4 88-34388 Printed in the United Sta...

  18. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1991-06-01

    The Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division continues to study a broad range of problems originating in plasma physics. Its principal focus is fusion plasma physics, and most particularly topics of particular significance for the world magnetic fusion program. During the calendar year 1990 we explored a wide range of topics including RF-induced transport as a plasma control mechanism, edge plasma modelling, further statistical analysis of L and H mode tokamak plasmas, antenna design, simulation of the edge of a tokamak plasma and the L-H transition, interpretation of the CCT experimental results at UCLA, turbulent transport, studies in chaos, the validity of moment approximations to kinetic equations and improved neoclassical modelling. In more basic studies we examined the statistical mechanisms of Coulomb systems and applied plasma ballooning mode theory to conventional fluids in order to obtain novel fluid dynamics stability results. In space plasma physics we examined the problem of reconnection, the effect of Alfven waves in space environments, and correct formulation of boundary conditions of the Earth for waves in the ionosphere

  19. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Cosmic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfven, H [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA)

    1981-01-01

    The properties of space plasmas are analyzed, based on laboratory results and data obtained by in situ measurements in the magnetosphere (including the heliosphere). Attention is given to the question of how much knowledge can be gained by a systematic comparison of different regions of plasma, and plasmas are considered with linear dimensions varying from laboratory size up to the Hubble distance. The traditional magnetic field description of plasmas is supplemented by an electric current description and it is demonstrated that many problems are easier to understand with a dualistic approach. Using the general plasma properties obtained, the origin and evolution of the solar system is summarized and the evolution and present structure of the universe (cosmology) is discussed.

  1. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam which is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10 17 to 10 20 electrons per cubic centimeter. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. The high-temperature plasma can be used to heat a high Z material to generate radiation. Alternatively, a tunable radiation source is produced by using a moderate Z gas or a mixture of high Z and low Z gas as the target plasma. (author)

  2. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  3. Response of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine to dietary protein deficiency and/or whole body gamma-irradiation in desert rodent and albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; El-Husseini, M.; Saleh, F.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of whole body gamma-irradiation on the levels of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine was studied in the desert rodent, Psammomys obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats, the levels of uric acid in plasma and urine were higher in the animals kept on high protein diets than in those maintained on non-protein ones. Radiation exposure caused a significant increase in uric acid concentration both in plasma and urine of albino rats, whereas in Psammomys obesus obesus, it exerted a significant drop in uric acid concentration in blood paralleling a marked rise in the daily uric acid excretion in the urine, especially with the high radiation level of 1170 r. Creatinine concentrations in plasma and urine of albino rats were higher than the corresponding values in Psammomys obesus obesus. Radiation exposure in general caused an increase in the creatinine concentration in blood and a decrease in its concentration in urine. Plasma creatine was shown to increase due to the effect of radiation exposure. This runs in parallel with the increase in the excretion of creatine in urine. Creatinuria observed in whole body irradiation is obviously caused by a defect in the ability of skeletal muscle to take up creatine from blood. Such abnormality could be the result of direct damage to the muscle caused by incident radiation

  4. Response of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine to dietary protein deficiency and/or whole body gamma-irradiation in desert rodent and albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushdy, H M; El-Husseini, M; Saleh, F [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    1985-01-01

    The effect of whole body gamma-irradiation on the levels of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine was studied in the desert rodent, Psammomys obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats, the levels of uric acid in plasma and urine were higher in the animals kept on high protein diets than in those maintained on non-protein ones. Radiation exposure caused a significant increase in uric acid concentration both in plasma and urine of albino rats, whereas in Psammomys obesus obesus, it exerted a significant drop in uric acid concentration in blood paralleling a marked rise in the daily uric acid excretion in the urine, especially with the high radiation level of 1170 r. Creatinine concentrations in plasma and urine of albino rats were higher than the corresponding values in Psammomys obesus obesus. Radiation exposure in general caused an increase in the creatinine concentration in blood and a decrease in its concentration in urine. Plasma creatine was shown to increase due to the effect of radiation exposure. This runs in parallel with the increase in the excretion of creatine in urine. Creatinuria observed in whole body irradiation is obviously caused by a defect in the ability of skeletal muscle to take up creatine from blood. Such abnormality could be the result of direct damage to the muscle caused by incident radiation.

  5. Plasma position control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Haruhiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct position control stably to various plasmas and reduce the burden on the control coil power source. Constitution: Among the proportional, integration and differentiation controls, a proportional-differentiation control section and an integration control section are connected in parallel. Then, a signal switching circuit is disposed to the control signal input section for the proportional-differentiation control section such that either a present position of plasmas or deviation between the present plasma position and an aimed value can be selected as a control signal depending on the control procedures or the state of the plasmas. For instance, if a rapid response is required for the control, the deviation between the present plasma position and the aimed value is selected as the input signal to conduct proportional, integration and differentiation controls. While on the other hand, if it is intended to reduce the burden on the control coil power source, it is adapted such that the control signal inputted to the proportional-differentiation control section itself can select the present plasma position. (Yoshihara, H.)

  6. Low Temperature Plasma Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, David

    2013-10-01

    Ionized gas plasmas near room temperature are used in a remarkable number of technological applications mainly because they are extraordinarily efficient at exploiting electrical power for useful chemical and material transformations near room temperature. In this tutorial address, I will focus on the newest area of low temperature ionized gas plasmas (LTP), in this case operating under atmospheric pressure conditions, in which the temperature-sensitive material is living tissue. LTP research directed towards biomedical applications such as sterilization, surgery, wound healing and anti-cancer therapy has seen remarkable growth in the last 3-5 years, but the mechanisms responsible for the biomedical effects have remained mysterious. It is known that LTP readily create reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS (or RONS), in addition to a suite of other radical and non-radical reactive species, are essential actors in an important sub-field of aerobic biology termed ``redox'' (or oxidation-reduction) biology. I will review the evidence suggesting that RONS generated by plasmas are responsible for their observed therapeutic effects. Other possible bio-active mechanisms include electric fields, charges and photons. It is common in LTP applications that synergies between different mechanisms can play a role and I will review the evidence for synergies in plasma biomedicine. Finally, I will address the challenges and opportunities for plasma physicists to enter this novel, multidisciplinary field.

  7. Nonlocality of plasma fluctuations and transport in magnetically confined plasmas nonlocal plasma transport and radial structural formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    Experimental evidence and underlying physical processes of nonlocal characters and structural formation in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas are reviewed. Radial profiles of the plasmas exhibit characteristic structures, depending on the various confinement regimes. Profile stiffness subjected to some global constraint and rapid plasma responses to applied plasma perturbation result from nonlocal transport. Once the plasma is free from the constraint, the plasma state can be changed to a new state exhibiting various types of prominent structural formation such as an internal transport barrier. (author)

  8. Plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-04-01

    Traditionally the views in our cosmic environment have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasma. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If we try to base a model of the universe on the plasma phenomena mentioned we find that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasma. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasma are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model we apply it to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4-5 bilions years ago with an accuracy of better than 1 percent

  9. Plasma omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and monounsaturated fatty acids are altered by chronic social stress and predict endocrine responses to acute stress in titi monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disturbances in fatty acid (FA) metabolism may link chronic psychological stress, endocrine responsiveness, and psychopathology. Therefore, lipid metabolome-wide responses and their relationships with endocrine (cortisol; insulin; adiponectin) responsiveness to acute stress (AS) were assessed in a ...

  10. Uric acid but not apple polyphenols is responsible for the rise of plasma antioxidant activity after apple juice consumption in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Krol, Maciej; Krol, Bogusław; Zwolinska, Anna; Kolodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Kasielski, Marek; Padula, Gianluca; Grebowski, Jacek; Grębocki, Jacek; Kazmierska, Paulina; Kazimierska, Paulina; Miatkowski, Marcin; Markowski, Jarosław; Nowak, Dariusz

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether (1) rapid consumption of 1 L of apple juice increases blood antioxidant capacity, measured as ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and serum 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, and (2) apple polyphenols or fructose-induced elevation of plasma uric acid contributes to post-juice increase of blood antioxidant activity. The study involved 12 (mean age 32 ± 5 years, mean body weight 73 ± 7 kg) healthy nonsmoking subjects. Tested subjects consumed 1 L of clear apple juice and then FRAP; serum DPPH-scavenging activity, serum uric acid, and total plasma phenolics and quercetin levels were measured just before juice ingestion and 1, 2.5, and 4 hours after ingestion. This was repeated 3 times with 4-day intervals, but volunteers drank either 1 L of clear apple juice without polyphenols (placebo), or 1 L of cloudy apple juice (positive control), or 1 L of water (negative control) at the time. All juices had similar content of sugars (i.e., saccharose, glucose, and fructose) and precisely defined composition of phenolics and antioxidant activity. Consumption of all 3 juices transiently increased FRAP and serum DPPH-scavenging activity, with peak values at 1 hour post-juice ingestion. This was paralleled by the rise of serum uric acid, but no significant changes in plasma total phenolics and quercetin levels were observed after all dietary interventions. At the same time, no substantial differences were found between juices (especially between clear apple juice and clear apple juice without polyphenols) concerning the measured variables. A strong significant correlation was noted instead between serum uric acid and plasma antioxidant activity at all analyzed time points, before and after juice ingestion. Plasma total phenolics and quercetin levels were not associated with FRAP and serum DPPH radical-scavenging activity. We have demonstrated that rapid consumption of apple juice increased plasma antioxidant activity in

  11. Plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the AEB - Natal University summer school on plasma physics held in Durban during January 1979. The following topics were discussed: Tokamak devices; MHD stability; trapped particles in tori; Tokamak results and experiments; operating regime of the AEB Tokamak; Tokamak equilibrium; high beta Tokamak equilibria; ideal Tokamak stability; resistive MHD instabilities; Tokamak diagnostics; Tokamak control and data acquisition; feedback control of Tokamaks; heating and refuelling; neutral beam injection; radio frequency heating; nonlinear drift wave induced plasma transport; toroidal plasma boundary layers; microinstabilities and injected beams and quasilinear theory of the ion acoustic instability

  12. Plasma centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehata, Takashi; Mase, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    The plasma centrifuge is one of statistical isotope separation processes which uses the centrifugal force of a J x B driven rotating plasma in a magnetic field to give rise to the mass-dependent radial transport of isotopic ions. The system has been developed as an alternative to the gas centrifuge because a much higher rotational velocity and separation factor have been achieved. In this review, the physical aspects of the plasma centrifuge followed by the recent experimental achievements are described, especially in comparison with the gas centrifuge. (author)

  13. The glycemic, insulinemic and plasma amino acid responses to equi-carbohydrate milk meals, a pilot- study of bovine and human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnerud, Ulrika; Holst, Jens Juul; Östman, Elin

    2012-01-01

    Dairy proteins, in particular the whey fraction, exert insulinogenic properties and facilitate glycemic regulation through a mechanism involving elevation of certain plasma amino acids, and stimulation of incretins. Human milk is rich in whey protein and has not been investigated in this respect....

  14. Distinct physiological, plasma amino acid, and liver transcriptome responses to purified dietary beef, chicken, fish, and pork proteins in young rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Shangxin; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Li, Mengjie; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xinglian; Müller, M.R.; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Young rats received semi-synthetic diets for 1 wk that differed only
    regarding protein source; casein (reference) was replaced by beef, chicken, fish, or pork proteins.
    Compared to casein, all proteins, except pork, increased total plasma AA concentrations.
    Pork protein reduced adipose

  15. Plant Defense Response to Fungal Pathogens (Activation of Host-Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase by Elicitor-Induced Enzyme Dephosphorylation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, R.; Barkla, B. J.; Higgins, V. J.; Blumwald, E.

    1994-01-01

    Elicitor preparations containing the avr5 gene products from race 4 of Cladosporium fulvum and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cells near isogenic for the resistance gene Cf5 were used to investigate events following the treatment of host plasma membranes with elicitor. A 4-fold increase in H+-ATPase activity, coincident with the acidification of the extracellular medium, was detected immediately after elicitor treatment. The elicitor-induced stimulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was inhibited by okadaic acid but not by staurosporine, suggesting that protein dephosphorylation was required for increased H+-ATPase activity. This observation was confirmed by [gamma]-32P labeling and immunodetection of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. Effects of guanidine nucleotide analogs and mastoparan on the ATPase activity suggested the role of GTP-binding proteins in mediating the putative elicitor-receptor binding, resulting in activation of a phosphatase(s), which in turn stimulates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by dephosphorylation. PMID:12232073

  16. A curve-fitting approach to estimate the arterial plasma input function for the assessment of glucose metabolic rate and response to treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, D.; Geus-Oei, L.F. de; Oyen, W.J.G.; Visser, E.P.

    2009-01-01

    For the quantification of dynamic (18)F-FDG PET studies, the arterial plasma time-activity concentration curve (APTAC) needs to be available. This can be obtained using serial sampling of arterial blood or an image-derived input function (IDIF). Arterial sampling is invasive and often not feasible

  17. The Effect of the Arg389Gly Beta-1 Adrenoceptor Polymorphism on Plasma Renin Activity and Heart Rate and the Genotype-Dependent Response to Metoprolol Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten; Andersen, Jon T; Jimenez-Solem, Espen

    2012-01-01

    A gene-drug interaction has been indicated between beta-1 selective beta-blockers and the Arg389Gly polymorphism (rs1801253) in the adrenergic beta-1 receptor gene (ADRB1). We studied the effect of the ADRB1 Arg389Gly polymorphism on plasma renin activity (PRA) and heart rate (HR) and the genotype...

  18. A comparison of plasma and prostate lycopene in response to typical servings of tomato soup, sauce or juice in men before prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Elizabeth M; Hadley, Craig W; Moran, Nancy E; Riedl, Kenneth M; Gong, Michael C; Pohar, Kamal; Schwartz, Steven J; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-08-28

    Tomato product consumption and estimated lycopene intake are hypothesised to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. To define the impact of typical servings of commercially available tomato products on resultant plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations, men scheduled to undergo prostatectomy (n 33) were randomised either to a lycopene-restricted control group ( < 5 mg lycopene/d) or to a tomato soup (2-2¾ cups prepared/d), tomato sauce (142-198 g/d or 5-7 ounces/d) or vegetable juice (325-488 ml/d or 11-16·5 fluid ounces/d) intervention providing 25-35 mg lycopene/d. Plasma and prostate carotenoid concentrations were measured by HPLC. Tomato soup, sauce and juice consumption significantly increased plasma lycopene concentration from 0·68 (sem 0·1) to 1·13 (sem 0·09) μmol/l (66 %), 0·48 (sem 0·09) to 0·82 (sem 0·12) μmol/l (71 %) and 0·49 (sem 0·12) to 0·78 (sem 0·1) μmol/l (59 %), respectively, while the controls consuming the lycopene-restricted diet showed a decline in plasma lycopene concentration from 0·55 (sem 0·60) to 0·42 (sem 0·07) μmol/l ( - 24 %). The end-of-study prostate lycopene concentration was 0·16 (sem 0·02) nmol/g in the controls, but was 3·5-, 3·6- and 2·2-fold higher in tomato soup (P= 0·001), sauce (P= 0·001) and juice (P= 0·165) consumers, respectively. Prostate lycopene concentration was moderately correlated with post-intervention plasma lycopene concentrations (r 0·60, P =0·001), indicating that additional factors have an impact on tissue concentrations. While the primary geometric lycopene isomer in tomato products was all-trans (80-90 %), plasma and prostate isomers were 47 and 80 % cis, respectively, demonstrating a shift towards cis accumulation. Consumption of typical servings of processed tomato products results in differing plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations. Factors including meal composition and genetics deserve further evaluation to determine their impacts on lycopene absorption and

  19. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  20. Laser Plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -focusing in a plasma ... Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India; Tata Consultancy Services, Gurgaon, India; Ideal Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad, India; Center for Research in Cognitive, ...

  1. Plasma will…

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 3 (2016), s. 486-487 ISSN 0007-0963 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma * ionized gas Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  2. Plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, M.G.

    1984-03-01

    IREQ was contracted by the Canadian Electrical Association to review plasma technology and assess the potential for application of this technology in Canada. A team of experts in the various aspects of this technology was assembled and each team member was asked to contribute to this report on the applications of plasma pertinent to his or her particular field of expertise. The following areas were examined in detail: iron, steel and strategic-metals production; surface treatment by spraying; welding and cutting; chemical processing; drying; and low-temperature treatment. A large market for the penetration of electricity has been identified. To build up confidence in the technology, support should be provided for selected R and D projects, plasma torch demonstrations at full power, and large-scale plasma process testing

  3. Plasma metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of surface contamination of the films due to plasma treatment was observed but was easily removed by argon ion cleaning. Hydrogen plasma reduction of glass supported silver(l) nitrate and palladium(ll) acetate films reveals that this metallization technique is applicable to a wide variety of metal salts and supports, and has also shown the ability of plasma reduction to retain the complex 'fern-like' structures seen for spin coated silver(l) nitrate layers. Some metal salts are susceptible to decomposition by X-rays. The reduction of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride films by soft X-rays to produce nanoscopic gold particles has been studied. The spontaneous reduction of these X-ray irradiated support gold(lll) chloride films on exposure to the atmosphere to produce gold rich metallic films has also been reported. (author)

  4. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  5. Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveryaev, V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2012-09-15

    The success in achieving peaceful fusion power depends on the ability to control a high temperature plasma, which is an object with unique properties, possibly the most complicated object created by humans. Over years of fusion research a new branch of science has been created, namely plasma diagnostics, which involves knowledge of almost all fields of physics, from electromagnetism to nuclear physics, and up-to-date progress in engineering and technology (materials, electronics, mathematical methods of data treatment). Historically, work on controlled fusion started with pulsed systems and accordingly the methods of plasma parameter measurement were first developed for short lived and dense plasmas. Magnetically confined hot plasmas require the creation of special experimental techniques for diagnostics. The diagnostic set is the most scientifically intensive part of a plasma device. During many years of research operation some scientific tasks have been solved while new ones arose. New tasks often require significant changes in the diagnostic system, which is thus a very flexible part of plasma machines. Diagnostic systems are designed to solve several tasks. As an example here are the diagnostic tasks for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER: (1) Measurements for machine protection and basic control; (2) Measurements for advanced control; (3) Additional measurements for performance evaluation and physics. Every new plasma machine is a further step along the path to the main goal - controlled fusion - and nobody knows in advance what new phenomena will be met on the way. So in the planning of diagnostic construction we should keep in mind further system upgrading to meet possible new scientific and technical challenges. (author)

  6. The diverse applications of plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukul; Dubey, Shivani; Darwhekar, Gajanan; Jain, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences.

  7. The diverse applications of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mukul; Darwhekar, Gajanan; Dubey, Shivani; Jain, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences

  8. The diverse applications of plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mukul, E-mail: mukulsharma@acropolis.edu.in; Darwhekar, Gajanan, E-mail: gdarwhekar@acropolis.edu.in [Acropolis Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Indore MP India (India); Dubey, Shivani, E-mail: dubeyshivani08@rediffmail.com [Mata Gujri College of Professional Studies, Indore MP India (India); Jain, Sudhir Kumar, E-mail: sudhirkjain1@rediffmail.com [School of Studies in Microbiology, Vikram University, Ujjain MP India (India)

    2015-07-31

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences.

  9. Rat Tumor Response to the Vascular-Disrupting Agent 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-Acetic Acid as Measured by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Plasma 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid Levels, and Tumor Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley D. McPhail

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The dose-dependent effects of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA on rat GH3 prolactinomas were investigated in vivo. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI was used to assess tumor blood flow/permeability pretreatment and 24 hours posttreatment with 0, 100, 200, or 350 mg/kg DMXAA. DCE-MRI data were analyzed using Ktrans and the integrated area under the gadolinium time curve (IAUGC as response biomarkers. Highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the plasma concentration of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA following treatment to provide an index of increased vessel permeability and vascular damage. Finally, tumor necrosis was assessed by grading hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections cut from the same tumors investigated by MRI. Both tumor Ktrans and IAUGC were significantly reduced 24 hours posttreatment with 350 mg/kg DMXAA only, with no evidence of dose response. HPLC demonstrated a significant increase in plasma 5-HIAA 24 hours posttreatment with 200 and 350 mg/kg DMXAA. Histologic analysis revealed some evidence of tumor necrosis following treatment with 100 or 200 mg/kg DMXAA, reaching significance with 350 mg/kg DMXAA. The absence of any reduction in Ktrans or IAUGC following treatment with 200 mg/kg, despite a significant increase in 5-HIAA, raises concerns about the utility of established DCE-MRI biomarkers to assess tumor response to DMXAA.

  10. A Lipidomics Approach to Assess the Association Between Plasma Sphingolipids and Verbal Memory Performance in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Undertaking Cardiac Rehabilitation: A C18:0 Signature for Cognitive Response to Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mahwesh; Herrmann, Nathan; Dinoff, Adam; Mielke, Michelle M; Oh, Paul I; Shammi, Prathiba; Cao, Xingshan; Venkata, Swarajya Lakshmi Vattem; Haughey, Norman J; Lanctôt, Krista L

    2017-01-01

    Early subtle deficits in verbal memory, which may indicate early neural risk, are common in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). While exercise can improve cognition, cognitive response to exercise is heterogeneous. Sphingolipids have been associated with the development and progression of CAD, and impairments in sphingolipid metabolism may play roles in neurodegeneration and in the neural adaptation response to exercise. In this study, change in plasma concentrations of sphingolipids was assessed in relation to change in verbal memory performance and in other cognitive domains among CAD subjects undertaking a 6-month cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. Patients with CAD (n = 120, mean age = 64±6 y, 84% male, years of education = 16±3) underwent CR with neuropsychological assessments and blood collected at baseline, 3-, and 6-months. Z-scores based on age, gender, and education were combined for verbal memory, visuospatial memory, processing speed, executive function, and global cognition tasks to calculate cognitive domain Z-scores. Plasma sphingolipid concentrations were measured from fasting blood samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Mixed models were used to identify sphingolipids significantly associated with performance in verbal memory and other cognitive domains, adjusting for potential confounders. A decrease in ceramide C18:0 concentration was significantly associated with improvement in verbal memory performance (b[SE] = -0.51 [0.25], p = 0.04), visuospatial memory (b[SE] = -0.44 [0.22], p = 0.05), processing speed (b[SE] = -0.89 [0.32], p = 0.007), and global cognition (b[SE] = -1.47 [0.59], p = 0.01) over 6 months of CR. Plasma ceramide C18:0 concentrations may be a sensitive marker of cognitive response to exercise in patients with CAD.

  11. Plasma treatment of onychomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zilan; Roe, Jeff; Grammer, Tim; Him, Yeon-Ho; Graves, David B.

    2015-09-01

    Onychomycosis or fungal infection of the toenail or fingernail is a common affliction. Approximately 10% of the world's adult population is estimated to suffer from onychomycosis. Current treatment options such as topical creams, oral drugs, or laser treatments are generally limited by a variety of problems. We present results for an alternative onychomycosis treatment scheme using atmospheric pressure cold air plasmas. Using thinned cow hoof as a model nail material, we tested the ability of various plasma sources to act through the model nail to eradicate either bacteria or fungus deposited on the opposite side. Following 20 minute exposure to a surface microdischarge (SMD) device operating in room air, we observed a ~ 2 log reduction of E. coli. A similar result was obtained against T. rubrum after 45 min plasma treatment. NOx species concentration penetrating through the model nail as well as uptake into the nail were measured as a function of nail thickness. We propose that these plasma-generated species, or perhaps their reaction products, are responsible for at least part of the observed anti-microbial effect. We also explore the use of ultraviolet light acting in synergy with plasma-generated chemical species.

  12. Plasma glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D predicts the change in insulin sensitivity in response to a low-fat but not a low-carbohydrate diet in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dona L; O'Brien, Kevin D; D'Alessio, David A; Brehm, Bonnie J; Deeg, Mark A

    2008-04-01

    Although circulating glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD), a minor high-density lipoprotein-associated protein, is elevated in patients with insulin resistance or high triglycerides, no information is available on the effect of weight loss or changes in insulin sensitivity on circulating GPI-PLD levels. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of weight loss and changes in insulin sensitivity on plasma GPI-PLD levels. Forty-two nondiabetic obese women were included in the study, which involved a 3-month dietary intervention randomizing patients to a low-fat or a low-carbohydrate diet. The study's main outcome measures were plasma GPI-PLD levels and insulin sensitivity as estimated by the homeostasis model assessment. The very low carbohydrate diet group lost more weight after 3 months (-7.6 +/- 3.2 vs -4.2 +/- 3.5 kg, P low-fat diet, whereas baseline insulin sensitivity correlated with the change in insulin sensitivity in response to the low-carbohydrate diet. Plasma GPI-PLD may serve as a clinical tool to determine the effect of a low-fat diet on insulin sensitivity.

  13. Comparative Response of Platelet fV and Plasma fV to Activated Protein C and Relevance to a Model of Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-12

    through a series of centrifugation steps: 200 g for 10 min with minimal braking separated platelet rich plasma (PRP) which was collected and stored at...localization of fVa and phospholipid as a result of platelet deposition accelerates thrombin generation and fibrin formation/crosslinking at sites of...is ineffective at inhibiting both platelet adhesion and fibrin formation in blood flow models except at extreme Figure 7. aPC concentrations below 10

  14. Do 14-3-3 proteins and plasma membrane H+-ATPases interact in the barley epidermis in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, C.; Andersen, C.H.; Borch, J.

    2002-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins form a family of highly conserved proteins with central roles in many eukaryotic signalling networks. In plants, they bind to and activate the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, creating a binding site for the phytotoxin fusicoccin. Barley 14-3-3 transcripts accumulate in the epidermis upon...... inoculation with the powdery mildew fungus. We have isolated a cDNA encoding a plasma membrane H+-ATPase (HvHA1), which is also induced by powdery mildew attack. The C-terminal domain of this H+-ATPase interacts with 14-3-3 proteins in the yeast two-hybrid system. Inoculation with the powdery mildew fungus......, or treatment with fusicoccin, results in an increase in fusicoccin binding ability of barley leaf membranes. Overlay assays show a fungus-induced increase in binding of digoxygenin-labelled 14-3-3 protein to several proteins including a 100 kDa membrane protein, probably the plasma membrane H...

  15. Correlations of plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration with ambulatory blood pressure responses to nebivolol and valsartan, alone and in combination, in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Thomas D; Bakris, George; Oparil, Suzanne; Weber, Michael A; Li, Huiling; Mallick, Madhuja; Bharucha, David B; Chen, ChunLin; Ferguson, William G

    2015-11-01

    After demonstration of the antihypertensive efficacy of the combination of the beta-blocker nebivolol and the angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan in an 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (N = 4161), we now report the effects of this treatment on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in a substudy (n = 805). Plasma renin activity increased with valsartan (54%-73%) and decreased with nebivolol (51%-65%) and the combination treatment (17%-39%). Plasma aldosterone decreased with individual treatments (valsartan, 11%-22%; nebivolol, 20%-26%), with the largest reduction (35%) observed with maximum combination dose (20 mg nebivolol/320 mg valsartan). Baseline ln(plasma renin activity) correlated with the 8-week reductions in 24-hour systolic and diastolic BP following treatments with the combination (all doses combined, P = .003 and P valsartan. Baseline ln(aldosterone) correlated with 24-hour systolic and diastolic BP reductions following combination treatment only (P < .001 and P = .005). The implications of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system effects of this beta blocker-angiotensin receptor blocker combination should be explored further. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A High Antioxidant Spice Blend Attenuates Postprandial Insulin and Triglyceride Responses and Increases Some Plasma Measures of Antioxidant Activity in Healthy, Overweight Men123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Teeter, Danette L.; Chen, C-Y. Oliver; Vanden Heuvel, John P.; West, Sheila G.

    2011-01-01

    There is much interest in the potential of dietary antioxidants to attenuate in vivo oxidative stress, but little characterization of the time course of plasma effects exists. Culinary spices have demonstrated potent in vitro antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to examine whether adding 14 g of a high antioxidant spice blend to a 5060-kJ (1200 kcal) meal exerted significant postprandial effects on markers of plasma antioxidant status and metabolism. Healthy overweight men (n = 6) consumed a control and spiced meal in a randomized crossover design with 1 wk between testing sessions. Blood was sampled prior to the meal and at 30-min intervals for 3.5 h (total of 8 samples). Mixed linear models demonstrated a treatment × time interaction (P spiced meal, respectively. Adding spices to the meal significantly increased the ferric reducing antioxidant power, such that postprandial increases following the spiced meal were 2-fold greater than after the control meal (P = 0.009). The hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of plasma also was increased by spices (P = 0.02). There were no treatment differences in glucose, total thiols, lipophilic ORAC, or total ORAC. The incorporation of spices into the diet may help normalize postprandial insulin and TG and enhance antioxidant defenses. PMID:21697300

  17. Cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook discusses the following topics: Phenomenological description of a direct current glow discharge; the plasma (temperature distribution and measurement, potential variation, electron energy distribution function, charge neutralization, wall potentials, plasma oscillations); Production of charge carriers (ions, electrons, ionization in the cathode zone, negative glowing zone, Faraday dark space, positive column, anode zone, hollow cathode discharges); RF-discharges (charge carrier production, RF-Shields, scattering mechanisms); Sputtering (ion-surface interaction, kinetics, sputtering yield and energy distribution, systems and conditions, film formation and stresses, contamination, bias techniques, multicomponent film deposition, cohesion, magnetrons, triode systems, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition); Dry etching (sputter etching, reactive etching, topography, process control, quantitative investigations); Etching mechanisms (etching of Si and SiO 2 with CF 4 , of III/V-compound-semiconductors, combination of isotrope and anisotrope etching methods, surface cleaning); ion beam systems (applications, etching); Dyclotron-resonance-systems (electron cyclotron resonance systems, whistler-sources and 'resonant inductive plasma etching'); Appendix (electron energy distribution functions, Bohm's transition zone, plasma oscillations, scattering cross sections and mean free path, metastable states, Child-Langmuir-Schottky equation, loss mechanisms, charge carrier distribution in the positive column, breakdown at high frequencies, motion in a magnetic field, skin depth of an electric field for a HF-discharge, whistler waves, dispersion relations for plane wave propagation). (orig.) With 138 figs

  18. Plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.

    1989-01-01

    Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of DpT burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating systems with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various function of heating, which are: - plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, -non-inductive, steady-pstate current drive, - plasma profile control, -neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (author). 43 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs

  19. Demeter high resolution observations of the ionospheric thermal plasma response to magnetospheric energy input during the magnetic storm of November 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution Demeter plasma and wave observations were available during one of the geomagnetic storms of November 2004 when the ionospheric footprint of the plasmasphere was pushed below 64 degrees in the midnight sector. We report here onboard observations of thermal/suprathermal plasma and HF electric field variations with a temporal resolution of 0.4 s, which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 3 km. Local perturbations of the plasma parameters at the altitude of 730 km are analysed with respect to the variation of the field-aligned currents, electron and proton precipitation and large-scale electric fields, measured in-situ by Demeter and by remote optical methods from the IMAGE/Polar satellites.

    Flow monitoring in the 21:00 and 24:00 MLT sectors during storm conditions reveals two distinct regions of O+ outflow, i.e. the region of the field-aligned currents, which often comprises few layers of opposite currents, and the region of velocity reversal toward dusk at sub-auroral latitudes. Average upward O+ velocities are identical in both local time sectors and vary between 200 and 450 m s−1, with an exception of a few cases of higher speed (~1000 m s−1 outflow, observed in the midnight sector. Each individual outflow event does not indicate any heating process of the thermal O+ population. On the contrary, the temperature of the O+, outflowing from auroral latitudes, is found to be even colder than that of the ambient ion plasma. The only ion population which is observed to be involved in the heating is the O+ with energies a few times higher than the thermal energy. Such a population was detected at sub-auroral latitudes in the region of duskward flow reversal. Its temperature raises up to a few eV inside the layer of sheared velocity.

    A deep decrease in the H+ density at heights and latitudes, where, according to the IRI model

  20. Demeter high resolution observations of the ionospheric thermal plasma response to magnetospheric energy input during the magnetic storm of November 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution Demeter plasma and wave observations were available during one of the geomagnetic storms of November 2004 when the ionospheric footprint of the plasmasphere was pushed below 64 degrees in the midnight sector. We report here onboard observations of thermal/suprathermal plasma and HF electric field variations with a temporal resolution of 0.4 s, which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 3 km. Local perturbations of the plasma parameters at the altitude of 730 km are analysed with respect to the variation of the field-aligned currents, electron and proton precipitation and large-scale electric fields, measured in-situ by Demeter and by remote optical methods from the IMAGE/Polar satellites. Flow monitoring in the 21:00 and 24:00 MLT sectors during storm conditions reveals two distinct regions of O+ outflow, i.e. the region of the field-aligned currents, which often comprises few layers of opposite currents, and the region of velocity reversal toward dusk at sub-auroral latitudes. Average upward O+ velocities are identical in both local time sectors and vary between 200 and 450 m s−1, with an exception of a few cases of higher speed (~1000 m s−1 outflow, observed in the midnight sector. Each individual outflow event does not indicate any heating process of the thermal O+ population. On the contrary, the temperature of the O+, outflowing from auroral latitudes, is found to be even colder than that of the ambient ion plasma. The only ion population which is observed to be involved in the heating is the O+ with energies a few times higher than the thermal energy. Such a population was detected at sub-auroral latitudes in the region of duskward flow reversal. Its temperature raises up to a few eV inside the layer of sheared velocity. A deep decrease in the H+ density at heights and latitudes, where, according to the IRI model, these ions are expected to comprise ~50% of the positive charge, indicates that the thermospheric balance

  1. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  2. Modeling plasma behavior in a plasma electrode Pockels cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boley, C.D.; Rhodes, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The authors present three interrelated models of plasma behavior in a plasma electrode Pockels cell (PEPC). In a PEPC, plasma discharges are formed on both sides of a thin, large-aperture electro-optic crystal (typically KDP). The plasmas act as optically transparent, highly conductive electrodes, allowing uniform application of a longitudinal field to induce birefringence in the crystal. First, they model the plasma in the thin direction, perpendicular to the crystal, via a one-dimensional fluid model. This yields the electron temperature and the density and velocity profiles in this direction as functions of the neutral pressure, the plasma channel width, and the discharge current density. Next, they model the temporal response of the crystal to the charging process, combining a circuit model with a model of the sheath which forms near the crystal boundary. This model gives the time-dependent voltage drop across the sheath as a function of electron density at the sheath entrance. Finally, they develop a two-dimensional MHD model of the planar plasma, in order to calculate the response of the plasma to magnetic fields. They show how the plasma uniformity is affected by the design of the current return, by the longitudinal field from the cathode magnetron, and by fields from other sources. This model also gives the plasma sensitivity to the boundary potential at which the top and bottom of the discharge are held. They validate these models by showing how they explain observations in three large Pockels cells built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  3. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1989-08-01

    A cursory examination of the research activities of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division for the calendar year 1988 shows the effects of the gradual transformation of the group. Although our principal activity, fusion plasma physics research, is unchanged, the work shows closer ties to problems relevant to present experiments than previously. Most notable is the concentrated effort on tokamak equilibrium and transport. We are exploring the implication of turbulence induced transport, resistive MHD effects, neoclassical transport, and possible interpretations of transport based on classical phenomena. In addition, one of our members has chosen to focus on problems of enhanced statistical methods for interpretation of experiments. All of this activity preceded the Tokamak Transport Initiative and reflects our active involvement and concern with the world-wide tokamak program. Since equilibrium and transport are by no means the only theoretical plasma physics problems affecting fusion devices we continue substantial efforts in wave propagation and heating, particle simulation of plasmas, stability theory, enhancement of numerical algorithms, and general plasma physics. We are attempting to develop effective numerical schemes for the Boltzmann equation, adaptive grid methods for MHD, and particle simulation of boundary and antenna effects. Many of these topics reflect our continuing concern to maintain a modest effort in the development of theoretical models and tools for problems of real significance to fusion, but not necessarily of immediate highest priority. We select problems which we expect to become extremely important in the future. Our space plasma physics activities, funded by agencies other than DOE, transfers knowledge learned in fusion plasma physics to another area and conversely stimulates work also relevant to fusion problems

  4. Electron plasma waves and plasma resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R N; Braithwaite, N St J

    2009-01-01

    In 1929 Tonks and Langmuir predicted of the existence of electron plasma waves in an infinite, uniform plasma. The more realistic laboratory environment of non-uniform and bounded plasmas frustrated early experiments. Meanwhile Landau predicted that electron plasma waves in a uniform collisionless plasma would appear to be damped. Subsequent experimental work verified this and revealed the curious phenomenon of plasma wave echoes. Electron plasma wave theory, extended to finite plasmas, has been confirmed by various experiments. Nonlinear phenomena, such as particle trapping, emerge at large amplitude. The use of electron plasma waves to determine electron density and electron temperature has not proved as convenient as other methods.

  5. ''Dusty plasmas''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.; Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de

    1989-09-01

    The field of ''dusty plasmas'' promises to be a very rewarding topic of research for the next decade or so, not only from the academic point of view where the emphasis is on developing the theory of the often complex collective and non-linear processes, but also from the point of view of applications in astrophysics, space physics, environmental and energy research. In this ''comment'' we should like to sketch the current development of this fast growing and potentially very important research area. We will discuss the new features of ''dusty'' plasmas in the most general terms and then briefly mention some successful applications and effects which have already been examined. (author)

  6. Plasma heating by non-linear wave-Plasma interaction | Echi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We simulate the non-linear interaction of waves with magnetized tritium plasma with the aim of determining the parameter values that characterize the response of the plasma. The wave-plasma interaction has a non-conservative Hamiltonian description. The resulting system of Hamilton's equations is integrated numerically ...

  7. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  8. Force response of an equilibrium magnetized plasma to an abrupt change in the heating power as a manifestation of the Le Chatelier principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilkin, I.S.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that plasma that is in a force equilibrium with a magnetic field (τ f >>τ A,S ) responds to an abrupt (τ f E ) change in the heating power according to the Le Chatelier principle: it completely balances the effect of this change with respect to transverse degrees of freedom, i.e., at a level of two-thirds of the change in the net heating power. Here, τ A,S , τ f , and τ E are, respectively, the characteristic Alfven (or ion-sound) inertial time, the time during which the heating power changes, and the energy confinement time

  9. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years...

  10. Burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R ampersand D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration

  11. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Christensen, N J

    1991-01-01

    -induced hypoglycaemia with total autonomic blockade (alpha-adrenoceptor blockade combined with beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atropine); and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without any autonomic blockade. In the experiments without autonomic blockade the peripheral venous hematocrit increased, plasma volume decreased......, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased. In both experiments with autonomic blockade the increase in venous haematocrit was abolished, yet plasma volume decreased, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin...... increased in these experiments. Thus, the changes in plasma volume and composition in response to hypoglycaemia are due to the combined actions of adrenaline and of insulin....

  12. Physicochemical properties and enhanced cellullar responses of biocompatible polymeric scaffolds treated with atmospheric pressure plasma using O{sub 2} gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun-Uk; Park, So-Young; Kang, Yoon-Hee [Department of Nano Fusion Technology, Pusan National University, Busan 609735 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Se-Young [Division of Cogni-mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Miryang 627706 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sae-Hae; Jahng, Yoon-Young; Chung, Gook-Hyun [Division of Biological Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moon-Bum [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chae-Ryong, E-mail: crcho@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Nano Fusion Technology, Pusan National University, Busan 609735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-08

    Biocompatible polymeric scaffolds were fabricated by mixing 5 wt.% poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (P) with 4 wt.% gelatin (G) and 1.6 wt.% Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (D). These PGD scaffolds were also treated with atmospheric pressure (AP) plasma using O{sub 2} reactive gas (to create O-PGD scaffolds). The physicochemical and mechanical properties of the PGD scaffolds were characterized by in vitro biodegradability tests, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, and tensile strength measurements. The wettability and hydrophilic properties of the scaffold surface were improved remarkably by adding G and D to P, and by subsequent oxygen-assisted AP plasma treatment. An MTT assay, a cell attachment efficiency assay, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy revealed that Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO)-K1 cells exhibited higher cell attachment and viability on the PGD and O-PGD scaffolds than on the P and PG scaffolds. Furthermore, the long-term viability of the CHO cells on the PGD and O-PGD scaffolds without exchanging the cell culture media was significantly improved compared to their viability on the P and PG scaffolds. Overall, the PGD and O-PGD scaffolds are expected to be useful as cell growth supporting biomaterials in tissue engineering.

  13. Hamiltonian study of the response of a tokamak plasma to the ion cyclotron heating wave: minor heating and current generation by the fast wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoulet, A.

    1990-06-01

    The role of additional Heatings, such as the Ion Cyclotron Heating, is to raise magnetic fusion plasmas to higher temperatures, to satisfy the ignition condition. The understanding of the wave absorption mechanisms by the plasma first requires a precise description of the particle individual trajectories. The Hamiltonian mechanics, through action-angle variables, allows this description, and makes the computation of the wave-particle interaction easier. We then derive a quantitative evaluation of the intrinsic stochasticity for ionic trajectories perturbated by the fast wave. This stochasticity, combinated to the collisional effects, gives the validity domain for a quasilinear approximation of the evolution equation. This equation is then written under a variational formulation, and solved semi-analytically. Results conclude to the importance of the Hamiltonian chaos in the formation of the deeply anisotropic distribution tails, encountered in minority heating scenarios. Direct interaction of the electrons and the fast wave is similarly analysed. The influence of the various parameters (wave spectrum, magnetic configuration, frequency,...) is then examined in order to optimize this scenario of fast wave current drive in tokamaks [fr

  14. Comparison of hollow cathode discharge plasma configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnell, Casey C; Farnell, Cody C; Williams, John D

    2011-01-01

    Hollow cathodes used in plasma contactor and electric propulsion devices provide electrons for sustaining plasma discharges and enabling plasma bridge neutralization. Life tests show erosion on hollow cathodes exposed to the plasma environment produced in the region downstream of these devices. To explain the observed erosion, plasma flow field measurements are presented for hollow cathode generated plasmas using both directly immersed probes and remotely located plasma diagnostics. Measurements on two cathode discharge configurations are presented: (1) an open, no magnetic field configuration and (2) a setup simulating the discharge chamber environment of an ion thruster. In the open cathode configuration, large amplitude plasma potential oscillations, ranging from 20 to 85 V within a 34 V discharge, were observed using a fast response emissive probe. These oscillations were observed over a dc potential profile that included a well-defined potential hill structure. A remotely located electrostatic analyzer (ESA) was used to measure the energy of ions produced within the plasma, and energies were detected that met, and in some cases exceeded, the peak oscillatory plasma potentials detected by the emissive probe. In the ion thruster discharge chamber configuration, plasma potentials from the emissive probe again agreed with ion energies recorded by the remotely located ESA; however, much lower ion energies were detected compared with the open configuration. A simplified ion-transit model that uses temporal and spatial plasma property measurements is presented and used to predict far-field plasma streaming properties. Comparisons between the model and remote measurements are presented.

  15. Proteomics and the dynamic plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprenger, Richard R; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2010-01-01

    plasma membrane is of particular interest, by not only serving as a barrier between the "cell interior" and the external environment, but moreover by organizing and clustering essential components to enable dynamic responses to internal and external stimuli. Defining and characterizing the dynamic plasma...... the challenges in functional proteomic studies of the plasma membrane. We review the recent progress in MS-based plasma membrane proteomics by presenting key examples from eukaryotic systems, including mammals, yeast and plants. We highlight the importance of enrichment and quantification technologies required...... for detailed functional and comparative analysis of the dynamic plasma membrane proteome....

  16. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, F.S.; Hunter, R.O. Jr.; Pereira, N.R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-01-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed

  17. Marshall N. Rosenbluth Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Award Talk: The Ultrafast Nonlinear Response of Air Molecules and its Effect on Femtosecond Laser Plasma Filaments in Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hsin

    2012-10-01

    When exceeding the critical power Pcr, an intense laser pulse propagating in a gas collapses into one or multiple ``filaments,'' which can extend meters in length with weakly ionized plasma and local intensity ˜ 10^13 W/cm^2 radially confined in a diameter of 1995).[0pt] [2] A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).[0pt] [3] V. Loriot et al., Opt. Express 17, 13429 (2009).[0pt] [4] P. B'ejot et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).[0pt] [5] Y.-H. Chen et al., Opt. Express 15, 7458 (2007); Opt. Express 15, 11341 (2007).[0pt] [6] J. K. Wahlstrand et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 103901 (2011).[0pt] [7] Y.-H. Chen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 215005 (2010).

  18. Corticosterone stress response and plasma metabolite levels during breeding and molt in a free-living migratory songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Tyler; Gow, Elizabeth A; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2011-04-01

    Many birds face energetic trade-offs between different life history stages, such as reproductive effort, feather molt and the non-breeding period. Little is known about how physiological measures of condition (corticosterone, plasma metabolites) in free-living birds change from nesting stages to the post-breeding molt period or whether this is influenced by prior reproductive effort. We evaluated whether corticosterone (CORT) and plasma metabolite levels vary with date, nest stage and sex in a free-living migratory songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). We also tested whether (1) baseline CORT levels early in the season were predictive of subsequent reproductive success and (2) whether prior reproductive effort influenced CORT levels and blood metabolites during molt. Baseline CORT levels decreased with date during both the incubation stage and nestling stage, but did not vary significantly across stage of breeding season. Stress-induced CORT declined with date during incubation and varied significantly across breeding stage, with lower levels during feather molt. Profiles of the metabolites of β-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, and triglyceride did not vary significantly with date or breeding stage. Only triglycerides varied significantly with sex, with females having higher levels than males. Reproductive output was highly variable (0-10 fledglings per season) but baseline CORT levels in females during the first incubation period of the season was not related to subsequent reproductive output. Prior reproductive effort, measured as the cumulative number of young hatched during the breeding season, was positively related to stress-induced CORT during molt. High reproductive effort in wood thrush appears to have physiological carry-over effects into the molt period which could potentially affect rate of molt and preparation for fall migration. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, plasma markers of endothelial function, and adrenergic vasoconstrictor responses in type 1 diabetes under near-normoglycemic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huvers, F C; De Leeuw, P W; Houben, A J; De Haan, C H; Hamulyak, K; Schouten, H; Wolffenbuttel, B H; Schaper, N C

    It is unknown whether and to what extent changes in various endothelial functions and adrenergic responsiveness are related to the development of microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes. Therefore, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilatation, endothelium-dependent

  20. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A

    1985-01-01

    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  1. Magnetic Field Analysis of Plasma Guide in Galathea Trimyx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xianji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available You Galathea Trimyx is a kind of small size, multipole magnetic confinement devices in controlled thermonuclear fusion. Plasma guide is one of important part in Galathea Trimyx which is responsible for transporting fast and slow plasma bunches ejected from plasma gun. The distribution and uniformity of magnetic field in completed plasma guide is analyzed in detail, including in x -axis direction and in z-axis direction. On the basis, the motion of plasma in the guide is discussed.

  2. Plasma shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Nakayama, Takahide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent concentration of plasma currents to the plasma center upon plasma shutdown in a torus type thermonuclear device by the injection of fuels to the plasma center thereby prevent plasma disruption at the plasma center. Constitution: The plasma shutdown device comprises a plasma current measuring device that measures the current distribution of plasmas confined within a vacuum vessel and outputs a control signal for cooling the plasma center when the plasma currents concentrate to the plasma center and a fuel supply device that supplies fuels to the plasma center for cooling the center. The fuels are injected in the form of pellets into the plasmas. The direction and the velocity of the injection are set such that the pellets are ionized at the center of the plasmas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Nonlinear modulation of ion acoustic waves in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharuthram, R.; Shukla, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    The quasistatic plasma slow response to coherent ion acoustic waves in a magnetized plasma is considered. A multidimensional cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation is derived. It is found that the ion acoustic waves remain modulationally stable against oblique perturbations

  4. Relativistic degenerate electron plasma in an intense magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delsante, A.E.; Frankel, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    The dielectric response function for a dense, ultra-degenerate relativistic electron plasma in an intense uniform magnetic field is presented. Dispersion relations for plasma oscillations parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field are obtained

  5. Effect of the achondroplasia mutation on FGFR3 dimerization and FGFR3 structural response to fgf1 and fgf2: A quantitative FRET study in osmotically derived plasma membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-07-01

    The G380R mutation in the transmembrane domain of FGFR3 is a germline mutation responsible for most cases of Achondroplasia, a common form of human dwarfism. Here we use quantitative Fӧster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and osmotically derived plasma membrane vesicles to study the effect of the achondroplasia mutation on the early stages of FGFR3 signaling in response to the ligands fgf1 and fgf2. Using a methodology that allows us to capture structural changes on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane in response to ligand binding to the extracellular domain of FGFR3, we observe no measurable effects of the G380R mutation on FGFR3 ligand-bound dimer configurations. Instead, the most notable effect of the achondroplasia mutation is increased propensity for FGFR3 dimerization in the absence of ligand. This work reveals new information about the molecular events that underlie the achondroplasia phenotype, and highlights differences in FGFR3 activation due to different single amino-acid pathogenic mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troussel, Ph; Villette, B; Emprin, B; Oudot, G; Tassin, V; Bridou, F; Delmotte, F; Krumrey, M

    2014-01-01

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods.

  7. Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals in obese men and women: influence of insulin resistance on plasma triglyceride responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff, Karen L; Grudziak, Joanne; Townsend, Raymond R; Dunn, Tamara N; Grant, Ryan W; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L; Cummings, Bethany P; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2009-05-01

    Compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with meals elevates postprandial plasma triglycerides and lowers 24-h insulin and leptin profiles in normal-weight women. The effects of fructose, compared with glucose, ingestion on metabolic profiles in obese subjects has not been studied. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages consumed with meals on hormones and metabolic substrates in obese subjects. The study had a within-subject design conducted in the clinical and translational research center. Participants included 17 obese men (n = 9) and women (n = 8), with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m(2). Subjects were studied under two conditions involving ingestion of mixed nutrient meals with either glucose-sweetened beverages or fructose-sweetened beverages. The beverages provided 30% of total kilocalories. Blood samples were collected over 24 h. Area under the curve (24 h AUC) for glucose, lactate, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, uric acid, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acids was measured. Compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, fructose consumption was associated with lower AUCs for insulin (1052.6 +/- 135.1 vs. 549.2 +/- 79.7 muU/ml per 23 h, P glucose consumption. Increases of TGs were augmented in obese subjects with insulin resistance, suggesting that fructose consumption may exacerbate an already adverse metabolic profile present in many obese subjects.

  8. Effect of neonatal or adult heat acclimation on plasma fT3 level, testicular thyroid receptors expression in male rats and testicular steroidogenesis in vitro in response to triiodothyronine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowicka, B; Chrusciel, M; Zmijewska, A; Kotwica, G

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of heat acclimation of neonatal and adult rats on their testes response to in vitro treatment with triiodothyronine (T3). Four groups of rats were housed from birth as: 1) control (CR) at 20°C for 90 days, 2) neonatal heat-acclimated (NHA) at 34°C for 90 days, 3) adult heat-acclimated (AHA) at 20°C for 45 days followed by 45 days at 34°C and 4) de-acclimated (DA) at 34°C for 45 days followed by 45 days at 20°C. Blood plasma and both testes were harvested from 90-day old rats. Testicular slices were then submitted to in vitro treatment with T3 (100 ng/ml) for 8 h. Plasma fT3 level was lower in AHA, NHA and DA groups than in CR group. Basal thyroid hormone receptor α1 (Thra1) expression was higher in testes of NHA and DA and β1 receptor (Thrb1) in DA rats vs. other groups. In the in vitro experiment, T3: 1) decreased Thra1 expression in all groups and Thrb1 in DA group, 2) increased Star expression in CR, NHA and DA groups, and Hsd17b3 expression in NHA group, 3) decreased the expression of Cyp11a1 in NHA and DA groups, and Cyp19a1 in all the groups, 4) did not affect the activity of steroidogenic enzymes and steroid secretion (A4, T, E2) in all the groups. These results indicate, that heat acclimation of rats, depending on their age, mainly affects the testicular expression of steroidogenic enzymes in response to short-lasting treatment with T3.

  9. Comparisons of the effect of naturally acquired maternal pertussis antibodies and antenatal vaccination induced maternal tetanus antibodies on infant's antibody secreting lymphocyte responses and circulating plasma antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of trans-placental tetanus toxoid (TT) and pertussis (PT) antibodies on an infant's response to vaccination in the context of antenatal immunization with tetanus but not with pertussis. 38 mothers received a single dose of TT vaccine during pregnancy...

  10. The relationship between zinc intake and serum/plasma zinc concentration in pregnant and lactating women: A systematic review with dose-response meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall Moran, V.; Skinner, A.L.; Warthon Medina, M.; Patel, S.; Dykes, F.; Souverein, O.W.; Dullemeijer, C.; Lowe, N.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Recommendations for zinc intake during pregnancy and lactation vary widely across Europe. Using data on zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status reported in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies can provide estimates of dose–response relationships that may be used for

  11. Weight loss moderately affects the mixed meal challenge response of the plasma metabolome and transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in abdominally obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazelzadeh, Parastoo; Hangelbroek, Roland W.J.; Joris, Peter J.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Esser, Diederik; Afman, Lydia; Hankemeier, Thomas; Jacobs, Doris M.; Mihaleva, Velitchka V.; Kersten, Sander; Duynhoven, van John; Boekschoten, Mark V.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The response to dietary challenges has been proposed as a more accurate measure of metabolic health than static measurements performed in the fasted state. This has prompted many groups to explore the potential of dietary challenge tests for assessment of diet and lifestyle induced

  12. Effects of concentration of Ag nanoparticles on surface structure and in vitro biological responses of oxide layer on pure titanium via plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ki Ryong; Kim, Yeon Sung; Kim, Gye Won [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hae Woong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Young Gun, E-mail: younggun@ynu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Hyuk, E-mail: dhshin@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles were embedded into the oxide surface without any compositional changes. • Oxide layer from the electrolyte with 0.1 g/l Ag nanoparticles could disinfect all bacteria. • With increasing Ag nanoparticles, bone-forming ability and cell proliferation rate decrease. - Abstract: This study was to investigate how Ag nanoparticles with various concentrations affect the surface structure and in vitro biological properties of oxide layers on the pure titanium produced by a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process. For this aim, PEO processes were carried out at an AC current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} for 300 s in potassium pyrophosphate (K{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) electrolytes containing 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 g/l Ag nanoparticles. Structural investigations using scanning electron microscopy evidenced that the oxide layers showed the successful incorporation of Ag nanoparticles, and the topographical deformation of the porous surface was found when the concentration of Ag nanoparticles was more than 0.1 g/l. Based on the anti-bacterial activity of all oxide layers, the Ag nanoparticles uniformly spread were of considerable importance in triggering the disinfection of E. coli bacteria. The bone forming abilities and cell (MC3T3-E1) proliferation rates of oxide layers produced in electrolytes containing 0 and 0.1 g/l Ag nanoparticles were higher than those containing 0.3 and 0.5 g/l Ag nanoparticles. Consequently, the oxide layer on pure titanium via PEO process in the electrolyte with 0.1 g/l Ag nanoparticles exhibited better the bioactivity accompanying the anti-bacterial activity.

  13. Recent measurements of electron density profiles of plasmas in PLADIS I, a plasma disruption simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J. III; Sharp, G.; Gahl, J.M. Kuznetsov, V.; Rockett, P.; Hunter, J.

    1995-01-01

    Tokamak disruption simulation experiments are being conducted at the University of New Mexico (UNM) using the PLADIS I plasma gun system. PLADIS I is a high power, high energy coaxial plasma gun configured to produce an intense plasma beam. First wall candidate materials are placed in the beam path to determine their response under disruption relevant energy densities. An optically thick vapor shield plasma has been observed to form above the target surface in PLADIS I. Various diagnostics have been used to determine the characteristics of the incident plasma and the vapor shielding plasma. The cross sectional area of the incident plasma beam is a critical characteristic, as it is used in the calculation of the incident plasma energy density. Recently, a HeNe interferometer in the Mach-Zehnder configuration has been constructed and used to probe the electron density of the incident plasma beam and vapor shield plasma. The object beam of the interferometer is scanned across the plasma beam on successive shots, yielding line integrals of beam density on different chords through the plasma. Data from the interferometer is used to determine the electron density profile of the incident plasma beam as a function of beam radius. This data is then used to calculate the effective beam area. Estimates. of beam area, obtained from other diagnostics such as damage targets, calorimeter arrays and off-axis measurements of surface pressure, will be compared with data from the interferometer to obtain a better estimate of the beam cross sectional area

  14. Pentraxin 3 plasma levels at graft-versus-host disease onset predict disease severity and response to therapy in children given haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Dander, Erica; De Lorenzo, Paola; Bottazzi, Barbara; Quarello, Paola; Vinci, Paola; Balduzzi, Adriana; Masciocchi, Francesca; Bonanomi, Sonia; Cappuzzello, Claudia; Prunotto, Giulia; Pavan, Fabio; Pasqualini, Fabio; Sironi, Marina; Cuccovillo, Ivan; Leone, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD) remains a major complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with a significant proportion of patients failing to respond to first-line systemic corticosteroids. Reliable biomarkers predicting disease severity and response to treatment are warranted to improve its management. Thus, we sought to determine whether pentraxin 3 (PTX3), an acute-phase protein produced locally at the site of inflammation, could represent a novel acute G...

  15. Plasma focus breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1981-09-01

    Instead of using linear accelerators, it is possible to breed fissile fuels with the help of high current plasma focus device. A mechanism of accelerating proton beam in plasma focus device to high energy would be a change of inductance in plasma column because of rapid growth of plasma instability. A possible scheme of plasma focus breeder is also proposed. (author)

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation study of plasma jets and plasma-surface contact in coaxial plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Vivek; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-06-01

    Recent experiments by Loebner et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 44, 1534 (2016)] studied the effect of a hypervelocity jet emanating from a coaxial plasma accelerator incident on target surfaces in an effort to mimic the transient loading created during edge localized mode disruption events in fusion plasmas. In this paper, we present a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model to simulate plasma jet formation and plasma-surface contact in this coaxial plasma accelerator experiment. The MHD system of equations is spatially discretized using a cell-centered finite volume formulation. The temporal discretization is performed using a fully implicit backward Euler scheme and the resultant stiff system of nonlinear equations is solved using the Newton method. The numerical model is employed to obtain some key insights into the physical processes responsible for the generation of extreme stagnation conditions on the target surfaces. Simulations of the plume (without the target plate) are performed to isolate and study phenomena such as the magnetic pinch effect that is responsible for launching pressure pulses into the jet free stream. The simulations also yield insights into the incipient conditions responsible for producing the pinch, such as the formation of conductive channels. The jet-target impact studies indicate the existence of two distinct stages involved in the plasma-surface interaction. A fast transient stage characterized by a thin normal shock transitions into a pseudo-steady stage that exhibits an extended oblique shock structure. A quadratic scaling of the pinch and stagnation conditions with the total current discharged between the electrodes is in qualitative agreement with the results obtained in the experiments. This also illustrates the dominant contribution of the magnetic pressure term in determining the magnitude of the quantities of interest.

  17. Response to FESAC survey, non-fusion connections to Fusion Energy Sciences. Applications of the FES-supported beam and plasma simulation code, Warp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grote, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vay, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-29

    The Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee’s subcommittee on non-fusion applications (FESAC NFA) is conducting a survey to obtain information from the fusion community about non-fusion work that has resulted from their DOE-funded fusion research. The subcommittee has requested that members of the community describe recent developments connected to the activities of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. Two questions in particular were posed by the subcommittee. This document contains the authors’ responses to those questions.

  18. Common variants in the hERG (KCNH2) voltage-gated potassium channel are associated with altered fasting and glucose-stimulated plasma incretin and glucagon responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Mahendran, Yuvaraj; Jonsson, Anna

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with long QT syndrome due to rare loss-of-function mutations in the human ether-á-go-go-related gene (hERG) have prolonged QT interval, risk of arrhythmias, increased secretion of insulin and incretins and impaired glucagon response to hypoglycemia. This is caused by a dysfun......BACKGROUND: Patients with long QT syndrome due to rare loss-of-function mutations in the human ether-á-go-go-related gene (hERG) have prolonged QT interval, risk of arrhythmias, increased secretion of insulin and incretins and impaired glucagon response to hypoglycemia. This is caused...... by a dysfunctional Kv11.1 voltage-gated potassium channel. Based on these findings in patients with rare variants in hERG, we hypothesized that common variants in hERG may also lead to alterations in glucose homeostasis. Subsequently, we aimed to evaluate the effect of two common gain-of-function variants in hERG...... in hERG on QT-interval and circulation levels of incretins, insulin and glucagon. The Danish population-based Inter99 cohort (n = 5895) was used to assess the effect of common variants on QT-interval. The Danish ADDITION-PRO cohort was used (n = 1329) to study genetic associations with levels of GLP-1...

  19. Rice calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK17 targets plasma membrane intrinsic protein and sucrose phosphate synthase and is required for a proper cold stress response

    KAUST Repository

    Almadanim, M. Cecília

    2017-01-19

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are involved in plant tolerance mechanisms to abiotic stresses. Although CDPKs are recognized as key messengers in signal transduction, the specific role of most members of this family remains unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that OsCPK17 plays a role in rice cold stress response by analyzing OsCPK17 knockout, silencing, and overexpressing rice lines under low temperature. Altered OsCPK17 gene expression compromises cold tolerance performance, without affecting the expression of key cold stress-inducible genes. A comparative phosphoproteomic approach led to the identification of six potential in vivo OsCPK17 targets, which are associated with sugar and nitrogen metabolism, and with osmotic regulation. To test direct interaction, in vitro kinase assays were performed, showing that the sucrose phosphate synthase OsSPS4, and the aquaporin OsPIP2;1/OsPIP2;6 are phosphorylated by OsCPK17 in a calcium-dependent manner. Altogether, our data indicates that OsCPK17 is required for a proper cold stress response in rice, likely affecting the activity of membrane channels and sugar metabolism.

  20. Plasma Free Metanephrines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Plasma Free Metanephrines Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic ... Images View Sources Ask Us Also Known As Plasma Metanephrines Formal Name Fractionated Plasma Free Metanephrines (Metanephrine ...