WorldWideScience

Sample records for crawl space moisture

  1. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  2. A Field Study Comparison of the Energy and Moisture Performance Characteristics of Ventilated Versus Sealed Crawl Spaces in the South

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Davis; Cyrus Dastur; William E. Warren; Shawn Fitzpatrick; Christine Maurer; Rob Stevens; Terry Brennan; William Rose

    2005-06-22

    This study compared the performance of closed crawl spaces, which had sealed foundation wall vents, a sealed polyethylene film liner and various insulation and drying strategies, to traditional wall-vented crawl spaces with perimeter wall vents and polyethylene film covering 100% of the ground surface. The study was conducted at 12 owner-occupied, all electric, single-family detached houses with the same floor plan located on one cul-de-sac in the southeastern United States. Using the matched pairs approach, the houses were divided into three study groups of four houses each. Comparative data was recorded for each house to evaluate sub-metered heat pump energy consumption, relative humidity, wood moisture content, duct infiltration, house infiltration, temperature, radon, and bioaerosol levels. Findings indicated that in the humid conditions of the southeastern United States, a properly closed crawl space is a robust construction measure that produces a substantially drier crawl space and significantly reduces occupied space conditioning energy use on an annual basis.

  3. Closed Crawl Space Performance: Proof of Concept in the Production Builder Marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkin-Weber, Melissa; Dastur, Cyrus; Mauceri, Maria; Hannas, Benjamin

    2008-10-30

    This overview is intended to be a very concise, limited summary of the key project activities discussed in the detailed report that follows. Due to the large scope of this project, the detailed report is broken into three individually titled sections. Each section repeats key background information, with the goal that the sections will eventually stand alone as complete reports on the major activities of the project. The information presented herein comes from ongoing research, so please note that all observations, findings and recommendations presented are preliminary and subject to change in the future. We invite and welcome your comments and suggestions for improving the project. Advanced Energy completed its first jointly-funded crawl space research project with the Department of Energy in 2005. That project, funded under award number DE-FC26-00NT40995 and titled 'A Field Study Comparison of the Energy and Moisture Performance Characteristics of Ventilated Versus Sealed Crawl Spaces in the South' demonstrated the substantial energy efficiency and moisture management benefits that result from using properly closed crawl space foundations for residential construction instead of traditional wall vented crawl space foundations. Two activities of this first project included (1) an assessment of ten existing homes to document commonly observed energy and moisture failures associated with wall-vented crawl space foundations and (2) a detailed literature review that documented both the history of closed crawl space research and the historical lack of scientific justification for building code requirements for crawl space ventilation. The most valuable activity of the 2005 project proved to be the field demonstration of various closed crawl space techniques, which were implemented in a set of twelve small (1040 square feet), simply designed homes in eastern North Carolina. These homes had matched envelope, mechanical and architectural designs, and comparable

  4. Identification of advective entry of soil-gas radon into a crawl space covered with sheets of polyethylene foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, C.; Koopmanns, M.; Meijer, R.J. de

    1996-04-01

    To assess the effectiveness of mitigative measures against radon ( 222 Rn) entry into houses, experiments were conducted in a crawl-space house where the dirt floor of the crawl space was covered with sheets of 0.23 mm polyethylene foil fixed to the walls. The radon concentration was measured below the foil and in the crawl space together with environmental variables such as indoor-outdoor pressure differences. The experimental data was analyzed using various types of models including a simplistic mass-balance model, a regression model, and a two-dimensional numerical model based on Darcy flow or soil gas and combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. The main outcome of the work was that: (i) The soil-gas entry rate per pascal depressurization was at the order of 1 m 3 h -1 , (ii) the stack-related part of the depressurization of the crawl space (approx. 0.1 Pa deg. C -1 ) was controlled by the temperature difference between the living room of the house and the outdoors (not by the difference between the crawl space and the outdoors), (iii) that part of the wind-related depressurization that was measured by the pressure transducers seemed to force radon into the crawl space in the same proportion as the stack-related part of the depressurization, (iv) the ratio of advective and diffusive entry was approx. 0.7, when the crawl space was depressurized 1.5 Pa, (v) the effective diffusivity of the foil was found to be three orders of magnitude larger than that measured in the laboratory (the enhanced diffusivity was most likely caused by leaks in the foil and by mixing fans located in the crawl space), and (vi) there was no measurable mitigative impact of having the sheets of foil on the crawl-space floor even if the crawl space was artificially pressurized or depressurized. (au) 28 tabs., 36 ills., 61 refs

  5. Foil coverage of a crawl-space floor : Measurements and modeling of radon entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spoel, W.H.; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Meijer, R.J.

    The mitigative impact of covering the floor of a crawl space with a membrane has been studied under well-defined and controlled conditions, The measurements have been done with a homogeneous column of dry sand covered with a sheet of polyethylene foil. An air-filled volume on top of the column

  6. Emission of volatiles from spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulated crawl spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, J.B.G.A.

    2014-01-01

    The emission of (di)isocyantes, polyols and blowing agents from curing Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) was studied in a house having its crawl space recently insulated. Before insulation a blank measurement was made and he emission was followed up to 144 hours after the insolation application. The

  7. INDOOR RADON REDUCTION IN CRAWL-SPACE HOUSES: A REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis has been completed of the performance, mechanisms, and costs of alternative technologies for preventing radon entry into the living areas of houses having crawl-space foundations. Sub-membrane depressurization (SMD) is consistently the most effective technique, often ...

  8. Identification of advective entry of soil-gas radon into a crawl space covered with sheets of polyethylene foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Nucl. Safety Res. and Nucl. Facilities, Roskilde (Denmark); Koopmanns, M.; Meijer, R.J. de [Kernfysische Versneller Inst., Environmental Radioactivity Res., Groningen (Netherlands)

    1996-04-01

    To assess the effectiveness of mitigative measures against radon ({sup 222}Rn) entry into houses, experiments were conducted in a crawl-space house where the dirt floor of the crawl space was covered with sheets of 0.23 mm polyethylene foil fixed to the walls. The radon concentration was measured below the foil and in the crawl space together with environmental variables such as indoor-outdoor pressure differences. The experimental data was analyzed using various types of models including a simplistic mass-balance model, a regression model, and a two-dimensional numerical model based on Darcy flow or soil gas and combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. The main outcome of the work was that: (i) The soil-gas entry rate per pascal depressurization was at the order of 1 m{sup 3} h{sup -1}, (ii) the stack-related part of the depressurization of the crawl space (approx. 0.1 Pa deg. C{sup -1}) was controlled by the temperature difference between the living room of the house and the outdoors (not by the difference between the crawl space and the outdoors), (iii) that part of the wind-related depressurization that was measured by the pressure transducers seemed to force radon into the crawl space in the same proportion as the stack-related part of the depressurization, (iv) the ratio of advective and diffusive entry was approx. 0.7, when the crawl space was depressurized 1.5 Pa, (v) the effective diffusivity of the foil was found to be three orders of magnitude larger than that measured in the laboratory (the enhanced diffusivity was most likely caused by leaks in the foil and by mixing fans located in the crawl space), and (vi) there was no measurable mitigative impact of having the sheets of foil on the crawl-space floor even if the crawl space was artificially pressurized or depressurized. (au) 28 tabs., 36 ills., 61 refs.

  9. ARCOMEM Crawling Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Plachouras

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web is the largest information repository available today. However, this information is very volatile and Web archiving is essential to preserve it for the future. Existing approaches to Web archiving are based on simple definitions of the scope of Web pages to crawl and are limited to basic interactions with Web servers. The aim of the ARCOMEM project is to overcome these limitations and to provide flexible, adaptive and intelligent content acquisition, relying on social media to create topical Web archives. In this article, we focus on ARCOMEM’s crawling architecture. We introduce the overall architecture and we describe its modules, such as the online analysis module, which computes a priority for the Web pages to be crawled, and the Application-Aware Helper which takes into account the type of Web sites and applications to extract structure from crawled content. We also describe a large-scale distributed crawler that has been developed, as well as the modifications we have implemented to adapt Heritrix, an open source crawler, to the needs of the project. Our experimental results from real crawls show that ARCOMEM’s crawling architecture is effective in acquiring focused information about a topic and leveraging the information from social media.

  10. The mechanics of cell crawling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgemuth, Charles; Mogilner, Alex; Oster, George

    2004-03-01

    Crawling eukaryotic cells play many roles in biology. White blood cells chemotactically track down pathogens. Fibroblasts crawl and pull skin back together during wound healing. Cancer cells become metastatic and migrate to other points in the body. Therefore, understanding the physical mechanism driving crawling motility is very important. In crawling cells, a polymer meshwork, usually composed of actin filaments, provides both the structural integrity of the cell and is reponsible for the force production during migration. We present a theory that describes the dynamics of this actin gel and apply it to the crawling motility of nematode sperm cells. This model maintains the shape of the cell during crawling as occurs during the migration of Ascaris suum spermatozoa and also produces forces comparable to what has been measured in other crawling cells.

  11. Moisture effect on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of mineral oil impregnated paper insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jian; Liao Ruijin; Chen, George

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil-paper insulation sample with different moisture contents were investigated using the frequency dielectric spectroscopy (FDS) and the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) technique, respectively. The influence of moisture on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation was analysed. Results show that the moisture has great effect on the FDS and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation. In the frequency range of 10 -2 ∼10 6 Hz, the conductivity and the capacitance of oil impregnated paper increases with its moisture content. The space charge distribution of oil-paper sample with lower and higher moisture contents is very different from each other. The higher the moisture concentration of the oil impregnated paper, the easier the negative charge penetration into the insulation paper. There is a significant amount of positive charge accumulated at the paper-paper interface near to the cathode for oilpaper sample with lower moisture content. However, the positive charge appears in the middle layer paper for oil-paper sample with higher moisture content. Due to the high conductivity, the charge trapped in the oil-paper sample with higher moisture content disappears much faster than that in the oil-paper sample with lower moisture content after removing the voltage.

  12. Crawling the Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrieu, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Information about accelerator operations and the control system resides in various formats in a variety of places on the lab network. There are operating procedures, technical notes, engineering drawings, and other formal controlled documents. There are programmer references and API documentation generated by tools such as doxygen and javadoc. There are the thousands of electronic records generated by and stored in databases and applications such as electronic logbooks, training materials, wikis, and bulletin boards and the contents of text-based configuration files and log files that can also be valuable sources of information. The obvious way to aggregate all these sources is to index them with a search engine that users can then query from a web browser. Toward this end, the Google 'mini' search appliance was selected and implemented because of its low cost and its simple web-based configuration and management. In addition to crawling and indexing electronic documents, the appliance provides an API that has been used to supplement search results with live control system data such as current values of EPICS process variables and graphs of recent data from the archiver.

  13. SURVEY OF WEB CRAWLING ALGORITHMS

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul kumar; Anurag Jain; Chetan Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    The World Wide Web is the largest collection of data today and it continues increasing day by day. A web crawler is a program from the huge downloading of web pages from World Wide Web and this process is called Web crawling. To collect the web pages from www a search engine uses web crawler and the web crawler collects this by web crawling. Due to limitations of network bandwidth, time-consuming and hardware's a Web crawler cannot download all the pages, it is important to select the most im...

  14. High resolution soil moisture radiometer. [large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilheit, T. T.

    1978-01-01

    An electrically scanned pushbroom phased antenna array is described for a microwave radiometer which can provide agriculturally meaningful measurements of soil moisture. The antenna size of 100 meters at 1400 MHz or 230 meters at 611 MHz requires several shuttle launches and orbital assembly. Problems inherent to the size of the structure and specific instrument problems are discussed as well as the preliminary design.

  15. Propulsive force in front crawl swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, M.A.M.; de Groot, G.; Hollander, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the propulsive forces in front crawl arm swimming, derived from a three-dimensional kinematic analysis, these values were compared with mean drag forces. The propulsive forces during front crawl swimming using the arms only were calculated using three-dimensional kinematic analysis

  16. A synthetic aperture microwave radiometer to measure soil moisture and ocean salinity from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Hilliard, L. M.; Swift, C. T.; Ruf, C. S.; Garrett, L. B.

    1991-01-01

    A concept is presented for a microwave radiometer in space to measure soil moisture and ocean salinity as part of an 'Earth Probe' mission. The measurements could be made using an array of stick antennas. The L-band channel (1.4 GHz) would be the primary channel for determining soil moisture, with the S-band (2.65-GHz) and C-band (5.0-GHz) channels providing ancillary information to help correct for the effects of the vegetation canopy and possibly to estimate a moisture profile. A preliminary study indicates that an orbit at 450 km would provide coverage of better than 95 percent of the earth every 3 days. A 10-km resolution cell (at nadir) requires stick antennas about 9.5-m long at L-band. The S-band and C-band sticks would be substantially shorter (5 m and 2.7 m, respectively).

  17. The Costs and Benefits of Development: The Transition From Crawling to Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S

    2014-12-02

    The transition from crawling to walking requires infants to relinquish their status as experienced, highly skilled crawlers in favor of being inexperienced, lowskilled walkers. Yet infants willingly undergo this developmental transition, despite incurring costs of shaky steps, frequent falls, and inability to gauge affordances for action in their new upright posture. Why do infants persist with walking when crawling serves the purpose of independent mobility? In this article, we present an integrative analysis of the costs and benefits associated with crawling and walking that challenges prior assumptions, and reveals deficits of crawling and benefits of upright locomotion that were previously overlooked. Inquiry into multiple domains of development reveals that the benefits of persisting with walking outweigh the costs: Compared to crawlers, walking infants cover more space more quickly, experience richer visual input, access and play more with distant objects, and interact in qualitatively new ways with caregivers.

  18. RADON REDUCTION IN A CRAWL SPACE HOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is drawn from the soil into a house when low air pressure exists in the house. This is a commonplace environmental hazard in the United States, Canada, and northern Europe. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing ...

  19. On a poroviscoelastic model for cell crawling

    KAUST Repository

    Kimpton, L. S.

    2014-02-08

    In this paper a minimal, one-dimensional, two-phase, viscoelastic, reactive, flow model for a crawling cell is presented. Two-phase models are used with a variety of constitutive assumptions in the literature to model cell motility. We use an upper-convected Maxwell model and demonstrate that even the simplest of two-phase, viscoelastic models displays features relevant to cell motility. We also show care must be exercised in choosing parameters for such models as a poor choice can lead to an ill-posed problem. A stability analysis reveals that the initially stationary, spatially uniform strip of cytoplasm starts to crawl in response to a perturbation which breaks the symmetry of the network volume fraction or network stress. We also demonstrate numerically that there is a steady travelling-wave solution in which the crawling velocity has a bell-shaped dependence on adhesion strength, in agreement with biological observation.

  20. Kinematic analysis of three water polo front crawl styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Karla; Figueiredo, Pedro; De Jesus, Kelly; Pereira, Filipa; Vilas-Boas, J Paulo; Machado, Leandro; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2012-01-01

    During water polo matches, players use different front crawl styles. The purpose of this study was to conduct a kinematic analysis of three water polo front crawl styles: front crawl with head under water, front crawl with head above water, and front crawl when leading the ball. Ten proficient water polo players performed 3 × 15 m sprints in each front crawl style, which were recorded three-dimensionally by two surface and four underwater cameras. The results showed no differences in performance and several kinematic characteristics among the water polo front crawl styles. However, front crawl when leading the ball showed shorter stroke length and greater stroke frequency. Front crawl with head underwater presented greater maximal finger depth and elbow angle at mid-stroke position. Front crawl with head above water and when leading the ball showed greater trunk obliquity and maximal depth of right and left foot, and shorter kick stroke frequency. The findings suggest that proficient players learn to master front crawl with head above water to achieve top velocity. Despite the common use of the front crawl with head underwater as the basis for water polo fast displacement, coaches should emphasize the use of the specific water polo styles to attain high performance.

  1. Drive Control System for Pipeline Crawl Robot Based on CAN Bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H J [Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China); Gao, B T [Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China); Zhang, X H [Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China); Deng, Z Q [School of Mechanical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Drive control system plays important roles in pipeline robot. In order to inspect the flaw and corrosion of seabed crude oil pipeline, an original mobile pipeline robot with crawler drive unit, power and monitor unit, central control unit, and ultrasonic wave inspection device is developed. The CAN bus connects these different function units and presents a reliable information channel. Considering the limited space, a compact hardware system is designed based on an ARM processor with two CAN controllers. With made-to-order CAN protocol for the crawl robot, an intelligent drive control system is developed. The implementation of the crawl robot demonstrates that the presented drive control scheme can meet the motion control requirements of the underwater pipeline crawl robot.

  2. Drive Control System for Pipeline Crawl Robot Based on CAN Bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H J; Gao, B T; Zhang, X H; Deng, Z Q

    2006-01-01

    Drive control system plays important roles in pipeline robot. In order to inspect the flaw and corrosion of seabed crude oil pipeline, an original mobile pipeline robot with crawler drive unit, power and monitor unit, central control unit, and ultrasonic wave inspection device is developed. The CAN bus connects these different function units and presents a reliable information channel. Considering the limited space, a compact hardware system is designed based on an ARM processor with two CAN controllers. With made-to-order CAN protocol for the crawl robot, an intelligent drive control system is developed. The implementation of the crawl robot demonstrates that the presented drive control scheme can meet the motion control requirements of the underwater pipeline crawl robot

  3. On-line measurement of moisture content of powdered food using microwave free-space transmission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Park, Seong Un; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jong Heon; Lee, ChanJoo

    2006-01-01

    The moisture content of food is not only the most important quality factor but also one of the essential parameters affecting their physical and chemical properties related to storage, capability of processing and quality control. The moisture measurement technique using microwave is very attractive because that method has merits of rapid and accurate measurement in the wider range of moisture content, simple implementation and inexpensive compared with other methods. In this study, microwave free-space transmission technique was applied to measure the moisture content of powdered food. The on-line measurement system consisting of microwave system with 2.5 GHz, 7.0 GHz and 10.5 GHz, conveying device to move the food samples, inlet and outlet of the food samples, guide plate to control the thickness of the food samples, temperature sensing nit, taco-meter and central processing unit having analog to digital convert and microprocessor was constructed and its performance was evaluated.

  4. Understanding the microscopic moisture migration in pore space using DEM simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The deformation of soil skeleton and migration of pore fluid are the major factors relevant to the triggering of and damages by liquefaction. The influence of pore fluid migration during earthquake has been demonstrated from recent model experiments and field case studies. Most of the current liquefaction assessment models are based on testing of isotropic liquefiable materials. However the recent New Zealand earthquake shows much severer damages than those predicted by existing models. A fundamental cause has been contributed to the embedded layers of low permeability silts. The existence of these silt layers inhibits water migration under seismic loads, which accelerated liquefaction and caused a much larger settlement than that predicted by existing theories. This study intends to understand the process of moisture migration in the pore space of sand using discrete element method (DEM simulation. Simulations were conducted on consolidated undrained triaxial testing of sand where a cylinder sample of sand was built and subjected to a constant confining pressure and axial loading. The porosity distribution was monitored during the axial loading process. The spatial distribution of porosity change was determined, which had a direct relationship with the distribution of excess pore water pressure. The non-uniform distribution of excess pore water pressure causes moisture migration. From this, the migration of pore water during the loading process can be estimated. The results of DEM simulation show a few important observations: (1 External forces are mainly carried and transmitted by the particle chains of the soil sample; (2 Porosity distribution during loading is not uniform due to non-homogeneous soil fabric (i.e. the initial particle arrangement and existence of particle chains; (3 Excess pore water pressure develops differently at different loading stages. At the early stage of loading, zones with a high initial porosity feature higher

  5. Extracting Parallel Paragraphs from Common Crawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kúdela Jakub

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current methods for mining parallel texts from the web assume that web pages of web sites share same structure across languages. We believe that there still exists a non-negligible amount of parallel data spread across sources not satisfying this assumption. We propose an approach based on a combination of bivec (a bilingual extension of word2vec and locality-sensitive hashing which allows us to efficiently identify pairs of parallel segments located anywhere on pages of a given web domain, regardless their structure. We validate our method on realigning segments from a large parallel corpus. Another experiment with real-world data provided by Common Crawl Foundation confirms that our solution scales to hundreds of terabytes large set of web-crawled data.

  6. Evolutionary Design and Simulation of a Tube Crawling Inspection Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Michael; Howsman, Tom; ONeil, Daniel; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Robotics Assembly Team Simulation (SpaceRATS) is an expansive concept that will hopefully lead to a space flight demonstration of a robotic team cooperatively assembling a system from its constitutive parts. A primary objective of the SpaceRATS project is to develop a generalized evolutionary design approach for multiple classes of robots. The portion of the overall SpaceRats program associated with the evolutionary design and simulation of an inspection robot's morphology is the subject of this paper. The vast majority of this effort has concentrated on the use and modification of Darwin2K, a robotic design and simulation software package, to analyze the design of a tube crawling robot. This robot is designed for carrying out inspection duties in relatively inaccessible locations within a liquid rocket engine similar to the SSME. A preliminary design of the tube crawler robot was completed, and the mechanical dynamics of the system were simulated. An evolutionary approach to optimizing a few parameters of the system was utilized, resulting in a more optimum design.

  7. Traction Forces exerted by crawling cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Latorre, Baldomero; Del Alamo, Juan C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Aliseda, Alberto; Meili, Rudolph; Firtel, Richard; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2006-11-01

    We measure the forces exerted by Dictyostelium discoideum cells crawling over a deformable substrate from the displacements of fluorescent beads embedded in it. A particle tracking technique similar to PIV is used to obtain the displacements. From them, forces are computed by solving the elasto-static equation in a finite thickness slab. We will show that the finite thickness of the substrate and the distance of the beads to its surface affect substantially the results, although previous traction cytometry techniques neglected them. The measured forces are correlated to the different stages of the crawling cycle for various cell strains. It has been observed that a large fraction of the forces measured on the substrate are originated by the cell's internal tension through all the stages of motion, including the protrusion of pseudopods. This result suggests that the viscous drag exerted by the fluid in which the cells are immersed is very small compared to the forces applied by the cytoskeleton on the substrate.

  8. Effects of vegetation types on soil moisture estimation from the normalized land surface temperature versus vegetation index space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dianjun; Zhou, Guoqing

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) is a key variable that has been widely used in many environmental studies. Land surface temperature versus vegetation index (LST-VI) space becomes a common way to estimate SM in optical remote sensing applications. Normalized LST-VI space is established by the normalized LST and VI to obtain the comparable SM in Zhang et al. (Validation of a practical normalized soil moisture model with in situ measurements in humid and semiarid regions [J]. International Journal of Remote Sensing, DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2015.1055610). The boundary conditions in the study were set to limit the point A (the driest bare soil) and B (the wettest bare soil) for surface energy closure. However, no limitation was installed for point D (the full vegetation cover). In this paper, many vegetation types are simulated by the land surface model - Noah LSM 3.2 to analyze the effects on soil moisture estimation, such as crop, grass and mixed forest. The locations of point D are changed with vegetation types. The normalized LST of point D for forest is much lower than crop and grass. The location of point D is basically unchanged for crop and grass.

  9. SOIL MOISTURE SPACE-TIME ANALYSIS TO SUPPORT IMPROVED CROP MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Montoani Silva; Walbert Junior Reis dos Santos; Geraldo César de Oliveira; José Maria de Lima; Nilton Curi; João José Marques

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the water content in the soil profile is essential for an efficient management of crop growth and development. This work aimed to use geostatistical techniques in a spatio-temporal study of soil moisture in an Oxisol in order to provide that information for improved crop management. Data were collected in a coffee crop area at São Roque de Minas, in the upper São Francisco River basin, MG state, Brazil. The soil moisture was measured with a multi-sensor capacitance ...

  10. A simple interpretation of the surface temperature/vegetation index space for assessment of surface moisture status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Andersen, Jens Asger

    2002-01-01

    A simplified land surface dryness index (Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index, TVDI) based on an empirical parameterisation of the relationship between surface temperature (T-s) and vegetation index (NDVI) is suggested. The index is related to soil moisture and, in comparison to existing interpre......A simplified land surface dryness index (Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index, TVDI) based on an empirical parameterisation of the relationship between surface temperature (T-s) and vegetation index (NDVI) is suggested. The index is related to soil moisture and, in comparison to existing...... interpretations of the T-s/NDVI space, the index is conceptually and computationally straightforward. It is based on satellite derived information only, and the potential for operational application of the index is therefore large. The spatial pattern and temporal evolution in TVDI has been analysed using 37 NOAA...

  11. Computer simulation of a space SAR using a range-sequential processor for soil moisture mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, M.; Ulaby, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The ability of a spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to detect soil moisture was evaluated by means of a computer simulation technique. The computer simulation package includes coherent processing of the SAR data using a range-sequential processor, which can be set up through hardware implementations, thereby reducing the amount of telemetry involved. With such a processing approach, it is possible to monitor the earth's surface on a continuous basis, since data storage requirements can be easily met through the use of currently available technology. The Development of the simulation package is described, followed by an examination of the application of the technique to actual environments. The results indicate that in estimating soil moisture content with a four-look processor, the difference between the assumed and estimated values of soil moisture is within + or - 20% of field capacity for 62% of the pixels for agricultural terrain and for 53% of the pixels for hilly terrain. The estimation accuracy for soil moisture may be improved by reducing the effect of fading through non-coherent averaging.

  12. Using ERS spaceborne microwave soil moisture observations to predict groundwater head in space and time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanudjaja, E.H.; De Jong, S.M.; Van Geer, F.C.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    The study presented in this paper is to investigate the possibility of using spaceborne remote sensing data for groundwater head prediction. Remotely-sensed soil moisture time series of SWI (Soil Water Index) derived from ERS (European Remote Sensing) scatterometers are used to predict groundwater

  13. Comparing topic coverage in breadth-first and depth-first crawls using anchor texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samar, Thaer; Traub, Myriam C.; van Ossenbruggen, Jacco; de Vries, Arjen P.

    2016-01-01

    Web archives preserve the fast changing Web by repeatedly crawling its content. The crawling strategy has an influence on the data that is archived. We use link anchor text of two Web crawls created with different crawling strategies in order to compare their coverage of past popular topics. One of

  14. Insects are crawling in my genital warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Dhawan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old woman presented with large exophytic genital wart arising from perineum, vulva, introitus of the vagina, and inner aspect of thighs. Patient developed severe itching and formication (insect-crawling sensation in the lesions for past 1 week, though careful examination did not reveal any insects. Considering that the disease was causing psychological stress and physical symptoms, radiofrequency excision was planned. However, during the procedure, several maggots appeared from the crypts. The procedure was abandoned and maggots were removed manually. Subsequently external giant warts were removed using radiofrequency device. There was no recurrence of excised warts during 3 month follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of maggots in genital warts.

  15. A simple interpretation of the surface tenperature/vegetation index space for assessment of soil moisture status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Andersen, J.; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2002-01-01

    Remote Sensing, soil moisture, surface temperature, vegetation index, hydrology, Africa, Senegal, semiarid......Remote Sensing, soil moisture, surface temperature, vegetation index, hydrology, Africa, Senegal, semiarid...

  16. Acquisition of earthworm-like movement patterns of many-segmented peristaltic crawling robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiko Saga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, attention has been increasingly devoted to the development of rescue robots that can protect humans from the inherent risks of rescue work. Particularly, anticipated is the development of a robot that can move deeply through small spaces. We have devoted our attention to peristalsis, the movement mechanism used by earthworms. A reinforcement learning technique used for the derivation of the robot movement pattern, Q-learning, was used to develop a three-segmented peristaltic crawling robot with a motor drive. Characteristically, peristalsis can provide movement capability if at least three segments work, even if a segmented part does not function. Therefore, we had intended to derive the movement pattern of many-segmented peristaltic crawling robots using Q-learning. However, because of the necessary increase in calculations, in the case of many segments, Q-learning cannot be used because of insufficient memory. Therefore, we devoted our attention to a learning method called Actor–Critic, which can be implemented with low memory. Because Actor-Critic methods are TD methods that have a separate memory structure to explicitly represent the policy independent of the value function. Using it, we examined the movement patterns of six-segmented peristaltic crawling robots.

  17. SOIL MOISTURE SPACE-TIME ANALYSIS TO SUPPORT IMPROVED CROP MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Montoani Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the water content in the soil profile is essential for an efficient management of crop growth and development. This work aimed to use geostatistical techniques in a spatio-temporal study of soil moisture in an Oxisol in order to provide that information for improved crop management. Data were collected in a coffee crop area at São Roque de Minas, in the upper São Francisco River basin, MG state, Brazil. The soil moisture was measured with a multi-sensor capacitance (MCP probe at 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-, 60- and 100-cm depths between March and December, 2010. After adjusting the spherical semivariogram model using ordinary least squares, best model, the values were interpolated by kriging in order to have a continuous surface relating depth x time (CSDT and the soil water availability to plant (SWAP. The results allowed additional insight on the dynamics of soil water and its availability to plant, and pointed to the effects of climate on the soil water content. These results also allowed identifying when and where there was greater water consumption by the plants, and the soil layers where water was available and potentially explored by the plant root system.

  18. How do amoebae swim and crawl?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Howe

    Full Text Available The surface behaviour of swimming amoebae was followed in cells bearing a cAR1-paGFP (cyclic AMP receptor fused to a photoactivatable-GFP construct. Sensitized amoebae were placed in a buoyant medium where they could swim toward a chemoattractant cAMP source. paGFP, activated at the cell's front, remained fairly stationary in the cell's frame as the cell advanced; the label was not swept rearwards. Similar experiments with chemotaxing cells attached to a substratum gave the same result. Furthermore, if the region around a lateral projection near a crawling cell's front is marked, the projection and the labelled cAR1 behave differently. The label spreads by diffusion but otherwise remains stationary in the cell's frame; the lateral projection moves rearwards on the cell (remaining stationary with respect to the substrate, so that it ends up outside the labelled region. Furthermore, as cAR1-GFP cells move, they occasionally do so in a remarkably straight line; this suggests they do not need to snake to move on a substratum. Previously, we suggested that the surface membrane of a moving amoeba flows from front to rear as part of a polarised membrane trafficking cycle. This could explain how swimming amoebae are able to exert a force against the medium. Our present results indicate that, in amoebae, the suggested surface flow does not exist: this implies that they swim by shape changes.

  19. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-04

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spiral actin-polymerization waves can generate amoeboidal cell crawling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, A.; Aranson, I. S.; Kruse, K.

    2014-05-01

    Amoeboidal cell crawling on solid substrates is characterized by protrusions that seemingly appear randomly along the cell periphery and drive the cell forward. For many cell types, it is known that the protrusions result from polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton. However, little is known about how the formation of protrusions is triggered and whether the appearance of subsequent protrusions is coordinated. Recently, the spontaneous formation of actin-polymerization waves was observed. These waves have been proposed to orchestrate the cytoskeletal dynamics during cell crawling. Here, we study the impact of cytoskeletal polymerization waves on cell migration using a phase-field approach. In addition to directionally moving cells, we find states reminiscent of amoeboidal cell crawling. In this framework, new protrusions are seen to emerge from a nucleation process, generating spiral actin waves in the cell interior. Nucleation of new spirals does not require noise, but occurs in a state that is apparently displaying spatio-temporal chaos.

  1. RCrawler: An R package for parallel web crawling and scraping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Salim; Fakir, Mohamed

    RCrawler is a contributed R package for domain-based web crawling and content scraping. As the first implementation of a parallel web crawler in the R environment, RCrawler can crawl, parse, store pages, extract contents, and produce data that can be directly employed for web content mining applications. However, it is also flexible, and could be adapted to other applications. The main features of RCrawler are multi-threaded crawling, content extraction, and duplicate content detection. In addition, it includes functionalities such as URL and content-type filtering, depth level controlling, and a robot.txt parser. Our crawler has a highly optimized system, and can download a large number of pages per second while being robust against certain crashes and spider traps. In this paper, we describe the design and functionality of RCrawler, and report on our experience of implementing it in an R environment, including different optimizations that handle the limitations of R. Finally, we discuss our experimental results.

  2. Technology Solutions Case Study: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  3. Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate, Cocoa, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  4. Crawl-Based Analysis of Web Applications : Prospects and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Deursen, A.; Mesbah, A.; Nederlof, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review five years of research in the field of automated crawling and testing of web applications. We describe the open source Crawljax tool, and the various extensions that have been proposed in order to address such issues as cross-browser compatibility testing, web application

  5. Different profiles of the aerial start phase in front crawl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, L.; Vantorre, J.; Lemaitre, F.; Chollet, D.; Toussaint, H.M.; Vilas-Boas, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the kinematics and kinetics (jumping ability) of the aerial start phase in 11 elite front crawl sprinters. The aim was to determine whether a particular start technique leads to a short 15 m start time or whether several start profiles contribute equally well. All swimmers

  6. The African Union Peace and Security mechanism's crawl from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Union Peace and Security mechanism's crawl from design to reality: Was the Libyan crisis a depiction of severe limitations? ... of African Unity (OAU) on the 25th of May 1963 gave hope that African countries would unite in eradicating colonialism as well as facilitating economic and social development.

  7. Depolymerization-driven flow and the crawling of nematode sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgemuth, Charles

    2008-03-01

    Cell crawling motility is integral in many biological and biomedical processes, such as wound healing, cancer metastasis, and morphogenesis. A complete understanding of the mechanisms by which cells crawl is still lacking, but it is known to entail at least three separate physical processes: (i) cytoskeletal extension at the front of the cell; (ii) adhesion to the substrate at the cell front and release at the rear; and (iii) advance of the cell body. In most cells, the cytoskeletal network is composed of actin. The mechanism by which force is generated to drive translocation of the cell body is still debated. Originally, this force was attributed to an actomyosin system similar to muscle. However, nematode sperm utilize a cytoskeleton composed of a network of Major Sperm Protein (MSP) that forms non-polar filaments for which molecular motors have not been identified. The motility of these cells still exhibits all three fundamental processes required for standard crawling motility. Experiments suggest that depolymerization of the cytoskeletal network is the force-producing mechanism for pulling up the rear. In this talk I will present a mechanical model that describes how depolymerization of the cytoskeleton can drive motility. This model accounts for both cytoskeletal displacements and cytsolic (the fluid component of the cell) flow. The model accurately fits in vitro data using nematode sperm extracts where depolymerization induces contraction of MSP polymer bundles. Application of this model to cell crawling produces testable predictions about how the size and shape of a cell affect crawling speed. Experiments using Caenorhabditis elegans sperm show good agreement with the model predictions. Interestingly, the model requires that cells are anisotropically elastic, being more stiff in the direction of motion than perpendicular to it. A simple physical picture can account for this anisotropy. The model also predicts that cell speed increases with anisotropy and

  8. Hybrid focused crawling on the Surface and the Dark Web

    OpenAIRE

    Iliou, Christos; Kalpakis, George; Tsikrika, Theodora; Vrochidis, Stefanos; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Focused crawlers enable the automatic discovery of Web resources about a given topic by automatically navigating through the Web link structure and selecting the hyperlinks to follow by estimating their relevance to the topic of interest. This work proposes a generic focused crawling framework for discovering resources on any given topic that reside on the Surface or the Dark Web. The proposed crawler is able to seamlessly navigate through the Surface Web and several darknets pres...

  9. A Trap For Capturing Arthropods Crawling up Tree Boles

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Hanula; Kirsten C.P. New

    1996-01-01

    A simple trap is described that captures arthropods as they crawl up tree boles. Constructed from metal funnels, plastic sandwich containers, and specimen cups, the traps can be assembled by one person at a rate of 5 to 6 per hour and installed in 2 to 3 minutes. Specimen collection required 15 to 20 seconds per trap. In 1993, three traps were placed on each tree. In...

  10. RCrawler: An R package for parallel web crawling and scraping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Khalil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RCrawler is a contributed R package for domain-based web crawling and content scraping. As the first implementation of a parallel web crawler in the R environment, RCrawler can crawl, parse, store pages, extract contents, and produce data that can be directly employed for web content mining applications. However, it is also flexible, and could be adapted to other applications. The main features of RCrawler are multi-threaded crawling, content extraction, and duplicate content detection. In addition, it includes functionalities such as URL and content-type filtering, depth level controlling, and a robot.txt parser. Our crawler has a highly optimized system, and can download a large number of pages per second while being robust against certain crashes and spider traps. In this paper, we describe the design and functionality of RCrawler, and report on our experience of implementing it in an R environment, including different optimizations that handle the limitations of R. Finally, we discuss our experimental results.

  11. Relationship between Muscle Strength and Front Crawl Swimming Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gola Radosław

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. competitive performance in swimming depends on a number of factors including, among others, the development of relevant muscle groups. The aim of the study was to clarify the relationship between muscle strength and swimming velocity and the role of individual muscle groups in front crawl swimming. Methods. sixteen physical education university students participated in the study. The strength values, defined as torque produced during isometric contractions, of eight upper and lower extremity muscle groups were measured. Data were compared with participants' front crawl swim times in the 25m and 50m distances. Results. correlation analysis demonstrated a relationship between muscle strength and swimming velocity. statistically significant relationships were observed between swimming velocity and the torque values of the elbow flexor and shoulder extensor muscles as well as the sum of upper extremity muscle torque values (p ⋋ 0.05. Conclusions. The results indicate the need for a focus on training those muscle groups identified as having a statistically significant relationship with swimming velocity for a given distance, as the sample showed deficiencies in the strength of those muscle groups responsible for generating propulsive force in the front crawl. Additionally, the collected data can serve as a diagnostic tool in evaluating the development of muscle groups critical for swimming performance.

  12. A rare earth-based metal-organic framework for moisture removal and control in confined spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-04-13

    A method for preparing a metal-organic framework (MOF) comprising contacting one or more of a rare earth metal ion component with one or more of a tetratopic ligand component, sufficient to form a rare earth-based MOF for controlling moisture in an environment. A method of moisture control in an environment comprising adsorbing and/or desorbing water vapor in an environment using a MOF, the MOF including one or more of a rare earth metal ion component and one or more of a tetratopic ligand component. A method of controlling moisture in an environment comprising sensing the relative humidity in the environment comprising a MOF; and adsorbing water vapor on the MOF if the relative humidity is above a first level, sufficient to control moisture in an environment. The examples relate to a MOF created from 1,2,4,5-Tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl )benzene (BTEB) as tetratopic ligand, 2-fluorobenzoic acid and Y(NO3)3, Tb(NO3)3 and Yb(NO3)3 as rare earth metals.

  13. Space-based passive microwave soil moisture retrievals and the correction for a dynamic open water fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Gouweleeuw

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The large observation footprint of low-frequency satellite microwave emissions complicates the interpretation of near-surface soil moisture retrievals. While the effect of sub-footprint lateral heterogeneity is relatively limited under unsaturated conditions, open water bodies (if not accounted for cause a strong positive bias in the satellite-derived soil moisture retrieval. This bias is generally assumed static and associated with large, continental lakes and coastal areas. Temporal changes in the extent of smaller water bodies as small as a few percent of the sensor footprint size, however, can cause significant and dynamic biases. We analysed the influence of such small open water bodies on near-surface soil moisture products derived from actual (non-synthetic data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E for three areas in Oklahoma, USA. Differences between on-ground observations, model estimates and AMSR-E retrievals were related to dynamic estimates of open water fraction, one retrieved from a global daily record based on higher frequency AMSR-E data, a second derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and a third through inversion of the radiative transfer model, used to retrieve soil moisture. The comparison demonstrates the presence of relatively small areas (<0.05 of open water in or near the sensor footprint, possibly in combination with increased, below-critical vegetation density conditions (optical density <0.8, which contribute to seasonally varying biases in excess of 0.2 (m3 m−3 soil water content. These errors need to be addressed, either through elimination or accurate characterisation, if the soil moisture retrievals are to be used effectively in a data assimilation scheme.

  14. A crawling robot driven by multi-stable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Alexander; Yan, Tongxi; Chien, Brian; Wissa, A.; Tawfick, S.

    2017-09-01

    Using origami folding to construct and actuate mechanisms and machines offers attractive opportunities from small, scalable, and cheap robots to deployable adaptive structures. This paper presents the design of a bio-inspired origami crawling robot constructed by folding sheets of paper. The origami building block structure is based on the Kresling crease pattern (CP), a chiral tower with a polygonal base, which expands and contracts through coupled longitudinal and rotational motion similar to a screw. We design the origami to have multi-stable structural equilibria which can be tuned by changing the folding CP. Kinematic analysis of these structures based on rigid-plates and hinges at fold lines precludes the shape transformation associated with the bistability of the physical models. To capture the kinematics of the bi-stable origami, the panels’ deformation behavior is modeled utilizing principles of virtual folds. Virtual folds approximate material bending by hinged, rigid panels, which facilitates the development of a kinematic solution via rigid-plate rotation analysis. As such, the kinetics and stability of folded structures are investigated by assigning suitable torsional spring constants to the fold lines. The results presented demonstrate the effect of fold-pattern geometries on the snapping behavior of the bi-stable origami structure based on the Kresling pattern. The crawling robot is presented as a case study for the use of this origami structure to mimic crawling locomotion. The robot is comprised of two origami towers nested inside a paper bellow, and connected by 3D printed end plates. DC motors are used to actuate the expansion and contraction of the internal origami structures to achieve forward locomotion and steering. Beyond locomotion, this simple design can find applications in manipulators, booms, and active structures.

  15. Fast crawling methods of exploring content distributed over large graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Pinghui

    2018-03-15

    Despite recent effort to estimate topology characteristics of large graphs (e.g., online social networks and peer-to-peer networks), little attention has been given to develop a formal crawling methodology to characterize the vast amount of content distributed over these networks. Due to the large-scale nature of these networks and a limited query rate imposed by network service providers, exhaustively crawling and enumerating content maintained by each vertex is computationally prohibitive. In this paper, we show how one can obtain content properties by crawling only a small fraction of vertices and collecting their content. We first show that when sampling is naively applied, this can produce a huge bias in content statistics (i.e., average number of content replicas). To remove this bias, one may use maximum likelihood estimation to estimate content characteristics. However, our experimental results show that this straightforward method requires to sample most vertices to obtain accurate estimates. To address this challenge, we propose two efficient estimators: special copy estimator (SCE) and weighted copy estimator (WCE) to estimate content characteristics using available information in sampled content. SCE uses the special content copy indicator to compute the estimate, while WCE derives the estimate based on meta-information in sampled vertices. We conduct experiments on a variety of real-word and synthetic datasets, and the results show that WCE and SCE are cost effective and also “asymptotically unbiased”. Our methodology provides a new tool for researchers to efficiently query content distributed in large-scale networks.

  16. A cohesive page ranking and depth-first crawling scheme for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of the results collections, displayed to users of web search engines today still remains a mirage with regard to the factors used in their ranking process. In this work we combined page rank crawling method and depth first crawling method to create a hybridized method. Our major objective is to unify into one ...

  17. SMEX03 Little Washita Micronet Soil Moisture Data: Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains volumetric soil moisture, soil temperature, soil conductivity, soil salinity, and surface temperature data collected during the Soil Moisture...

  18. Conhecimento de performance com base no Teste do Desempenho Motor do Nado Crawl, na aprendizagem do nado crawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Izabel Katzer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os efeitos do conhecimento de performance (CP, com base no teste do desempenho motor do nado crawl (TDMND (Corazza et al., 2006, na aprendizagem do nado crawl. Participaram do estudo 41 adultos. Enquanto um grupo recebeu CP após boas tentativas, o outro recebeu CP após as más tentativas. O TDMNC, composto por 29 itens, foi usado para a elaboração das informações de CP, assim como para a constatação dos níveis de aprendizagem. Para ambos os grupos, independentemente do CP fornecido, foi detectada diferença entre o pré e o pós-teste, o que indica sucesso no processo de aprendizagem. No entanto, na comparação entre os pós-testes, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os grupos. A complexidade do teste e a dificuldade dos aprendizes em discriminar entre boas e más tentativas de prática são discutidos.

  19. The Relationship Between Propulsive Force in Tethered Swimming and 200-m Front Crawl Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karini B; Bento, Paulo C B; Pereira, Gleber; Rodacki, André L F

    2016-09-01

    Santos, KB, Bento, PCB, Pereira, G, and Rodacki, ALF. The relationship between propulsive force in tethered swimming and 200-m front crawl performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2500-2507, 2016-The aims of this study were to determine whether propulsive force (peak force, mean force, impulse, and rate of force development) and stroke rate change during 2 minutes of front crawl tethered swimming and to correlate them with the stroke rate and swimming velocity in 200-m front crawl swimming. Twenty-one swimmers (21.6 ± 4.8 years, 1.78 ± 0.06 m, 71.7 ± 8.1 kg), with 200-m front crawl swimming performance equivalent to 78% of the world record (140.4 ± 10.1 seconds), were assessed during 2 minutes of maximal front crawl tethered swimming (propulsive forces and stroke rate) and 200-m front crawl swimming (stroke rate and clean velocity). Propulsive forces decreased between the beginning and the middle instants (∼20%; p ≤ 0.05) but remained stable between the middle and the end instants (∼6%; p > 0.05). The peak force was positively correlated with the clean velocity in the 200-m front crawl swimming (mean r = 0.61; p swimming and 200-m front crawl swimming were positively correlated (r = 45; p≤ 0.01) at the middle instant. Therefore, the propulsive force and stroke rate changed throughout the 2 minutes of tethered swimming, and the peak force is the best propulsive force variable tested that correlated with 200-m front crawl swimming performance.

  20. Quantification of upper limb kinetic asymmetries in front crawl swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morouço, Pedro G; Marinho, Daniel A; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Marques, Mário C

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed at quantifying upper limb kinetic asymmetries in maximal front crawl swimming and to examine if these asymmetries would affect the contribution of force exertion to swimming performance. Eighteen high level male swimmers with unilateral breathing patterns and sprint or middle distance specialists, volunteered as participants. A load-cell was used to quantify the forces exerted in water by completing a 30s maximal front crawl tethered swimming test and a maximal 50 m free swimming was considered as a performance criterion. Individual force-time curves were obtained to calculate the mean and maximum forces per cycle, for each upper limb. Following, symmetry index was estimated and breathing laterality identified by questionnaire. Lastly, the pattern of asymmetries along the test was estimated for each upper limb using linear regression of peak forces per cycle. Asymmetrical force exertion was observed in the majority of the swimmers (66.7%), with a total correspondence of breathing laterality opposite to the side of the force asymmetry. Forces exerted by the dominant upper limb presented a higher decrease than from the non-dominant. Very strong associations were found between exerted forces and swimming performance, when controlling the isolated effect of symmetry index. Results point that force asymmetries occur in the majority of the swimmers, and that these asymmetries are most evident in the first cycles of a maximum bout. Symmetry index stood up as an influencing factor on the contribution of tethered forces over swimming performance. Thus, to some extent, a certain degree of asymmetry is not critical for short swimming performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Using an Integrated Naive Bayes Calssifier for Crawling Relevent Data on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihsra, A.

    2015-12-01

    In our experiments (at JPL, NASA) for DARPA Memex project, we wanted to crawl a large amount of data for various domains. A big challenge was data relevancy in the crawled data. More than 50% of the data was irrelevant to the domain at hand. One immediate solution was to use good seeds (seeds are the initial urls from where the program starts to crawl) and make sure that the crawl remains into the original host urls. This although a very efficient technique, fails under two conditions. One when you aim to reach deeper into the web; into new hosts (not in the seed list) and two when the website hosts myriad content types eg. a News website.The relevancy calculation used to be a post processing step i.e. once we had finished crawling, we trained a NaiveBayes Classifier and used it to find a rough relevancy of the web pages that we had. Integrating the relevancy into the crawling rather than after it was very important because crawling takes resources and time. To save both we needed to get an idea of relevancy of the whole crawl during run time and be able to steer its course accordingly. We use Apache Nutch as the crawler, which uses a plugin system to incorporate any new implementations and hence we built a plugin for Nutch.The Naive Bayes Parse Plugin works in the following way. It parses every page and decides, using a trained model (which is built in situ only once using the positive and negative examples given by the user in a very simple format), if it is relevant; If true, then it allows all the outlinks from that page to go to the next round of crawling; If not, then it gives the urls a second chance to prove themselves by checking some commonly expected words in the url relevant to that domain. This two tier system is very intuitive and efficient in focusing the crawl. In our initial test experiments over 100 seed urls, the results were astonishingly good with a recall of 98%.The same technique can be applied to geo-informatics. This will help scientists

  2. Weather and climate needs for Lidar observations from space and concepts for their realization. [wind, temperature, moisture, and pressure data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, D.; Korb, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    The spectrum of weather and climate needs for Lidar observations from space is discussed with emphasis on the requirements for wind, temperature, moisture, and pressure data. It is shown that winds are required to realistically depict all atmospheric scales in the tropics and the smaller scales at higher latitudes, where both temperature and wind profiles are necessary. The need for means to estimate air-sea exchanges of sensible and latent heat also is noted. A concept for achieving this through a combination of Lidar cloud top heights and IR cloud top temperatures of cloud streets formed during cold air outbreaks over the warmer ocean is outlined. Recent theoretical feasibility studies concerning the profiling of temperatures, pressure, and humidity by differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) from space and expected accuracies are reviewed. An alternative approach to Doppler Lidar wind measurements also is presented. The concept involves the measurement of the displacement of the aerosol backscatter pattern, at constant heights, between two successive scans of the same area, one ahead of the spacecraft and the other behind it a few minutes later. Finally, an integrated space Lidar system capable of measuring temperature, pressure, humidity, and winds which combines the DIAL methods with the aerosol pattern displacement concept is described.

  3. Differences in kinematics and energy cost between front crawl and backstroke below the anaerobic threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonjo, Tomohiro; McCabe, Carla; Sousa, Ana; Ribeiro, João; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Sanders, Ross

    2018-03-19

    The purpose of this study was to determine kinematic and energetic differences between front crawl and backstroke performed at the same aerobic speeds. Ten male competitive swimmers performed front crawl and backstroke at a pre-determined sub-anaerobic threshold speed to assess energy cost (through oxygen uptake measurement) and kinematics (using three-dimensional videography to determine stroke frequency and length, intra-cycle velocity fluctuation, three-dimensional wrist and ankle speeds, and vertical and lateral ankle range of motion). For detailed kinematic analysis, resultant displacement, the duration, and three-dimensional speed of the wrist during the entry, pull, push, and release phases were also investigated. There were no differences in stroke frequency/length and intra-cycle velocity fluctuation between the swimming techniques, however, swimmers had lower energy cost in front crawl than in backstroke (0.77 ± 0.08 vs 0.91 ± 0.12 kJ m -1 , p backstroke were also observed, which indirectly suggested higher propulsive efficiency in front crawl. Front crawl is less costly than backstroke, and limbs motion in front crawl is more effective than in backstroke.

  4. Small dead space heat and moisture exchangers do not impede gas exchange during noninvasive ventilation: a comparison with a heated humidifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Alexandre; Vargas, Frederic; Hilbert, Gilles; Gruson, Didier; Mousset-Hovaere, Maud; Castaing, Yves; Dreyfuss, Didier; Ricard, Jean Damien

    2010-08-01

    Adverse respiratory and gasometrical effects have been described in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) undergoing noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with standard heat and moisture exchangers (HME). We decided to evaluate respiratory parameters and arterial blood gases (ABG) of patients during NIV with small dead space HME compared with heated humidifier (HH). Prospective randomized crossover study. A 16-bed medical intensive care unit (ICU). Fifty patients receiving NIV for ARF. The effects of HME and HH on respiratory rate, minute ventilation, EtCO(2), oxygen saturation, airway occlusion pressure at 0.1 s, ABG, and comfort perception were compared during two randomly determined NIV periods of 30 min. The relative impact of HME and HH on these parameters was successively compared with or without addition of a flex tube (40 and 10 patients, respectively). No difference was observed between HME and HH regarding any of the studied parameters, whether or not a flex tube was added. If one decides to humidify patients' airways during NIV, one may do so with small dead space HME or HH without altering respiratory parameters.

  5. Moisture condensation on building envelopes in differential ventilated spaces in the tropics: quantitative assessment of influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Maisarah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventilation systems play a significant role in maintaining the indoor thermal and hygric balance. Nevertheless, the systems had been implicated to result in many problems. In the tropical climate, especially for energy efficiency purposes, building spaces are operated with differential ventilation. Such spaces operate on 24-hrs basis, some on 8-hrs while others are either naturally ventilated or served with mechanical supply-exhaust fan systems with non-conditioned outdoor air. This practice had been found to result in condensation problems. This study involves a quantitative appraisal of the effect of operative conditions and hygrothermal quality of building envelopes on condensation risk. The in-situ experiment is combined with an analytical approach to assessing the hygrothermal quality of building envelopes in a tropical climate building under differential ventilation between adjacent spaces. The case-studied building is with a known history of condensation and associated damages including mould growth. The microclimate measurement and hygrothermal performance of the wall and floor against condensation and mould growth risks had been previously reported elsewhere. As a step further, the present study evaluates the effects of various envelope insulation types and configurations together with the HVAC cooling set-points on envelope hygrothermal performance. The results revealed that overcooling the air-conditioned side increases condensation risk on the non-air-conditioned side of the envelopes. The envelopes failed criteria for surface condensation at existing operative conditions irrespective of envelope hygrothermal quality improvements. However, the envelope performed well at improved cooling operative conditions even at existing envelope hygrothermal quality. It is, therefore, important to ascertain the envelope hygrothermal quality as well the cooling operative conditions while embarking on energy efficiency operations in mechanical

  6. Potential benefits of crawl position for prone radiation therapy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boute, Bert; De Neve, Wilfried; Speleers, Bruno; Van Greveling, Annick; Monten, Christel; Van Hoof, Tom; Van de Velde, Joris; Paelinck, Leen; De Gersem, Werner; Vercauteren, Tom; Detand, Jan; Veldeman, Liv

    2017-07-01

    To investigate crawl position with the arm at the treated side alongside the body and at the opposite side above the head for prone treatment in patients requiring breast and regional lymph node irradiation. Patient support devices for crawl position were built for CT simulation and treatment. An asymmetric fork design resulted from an iterative process of prototype construction and testing. The fork's large horn supports the hemi-thorax, shoulder, and elevated arm at the nontreated side and the head. The short, narrow horn supports the arm at the treated side. Between both horns, the treated breast and its regional lymph nodes are exposed. Endpoints were pain, comfort, set-up precision, beam access to the breast and lymph nodes, and plan dose metrics. Pain and comfort were tested by volunteers (n = 9); set-up precision, beam access, and plan dose metrics were tested by means of a patient study (n = 10). The AIO™ (Orfit, Wijnegem, Belgium) prone breastboard (AIO™) was used as a reference regarding comfort and set-up precision. Pain at the sternum, the ipsilateral shoulder, upper arm, and neck was lower in crawl position than with bilateral arm elevation on AIO™. Comfort and set-up precision were better on the crawl prototype than on AIO™. In crawl position, beam directions in the coronal and near-sagittal planes have access to the breast or regional lymph nodes without traversing device components. Plan comparison between supine and crawl positions showed better dose homogeneity for the breast and lymph node targets and dose reductions to all organs at risk for crawl position. Radiation therapy for breast and regional lymph nodes in crawl position is feasible. Good comfort and set-up precision were demonstrated. Planning results support the hypothesis that breast and regional lymph nodes can be treated in crawl position with less dose to organs at risk and equal or better dose distribution in the target volumes than in supine position. The crawl

  7. An Introduction to the Nuclear Document Crawling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Jae Woong; Yoon, Sung Ho; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The NSG(Nuclear Suppliers Group) guidelines state that controls on 'technology' transfer do not apply to information 'in the public domain' or to 'basic scientific research'. According to the guidelines, 'basic scientific research' is an experimental or theoretical work undertaken principally to acquire new knowledge of the fundamental principles of phenomena and observable facts, not primarily directed towards a specific practical aim or objective. 'Technology in the public domain' means 'technology' or 'software' that has been made available without restrictions upon its further dissemination. It is a difficult problem to determine whether a document is in the public domain or it is a basic scientific research because its criteria are ambiguous and unclear. In this paper, we introduce an approach using documents on the web and a system to manage electronic documents on the web. In this paper, we proposed an approach to determine whether a document is open to public or it is a basic scientific research and we developed the document crawling system to collect open documents on the web. We can take open documents into a review process in a new way. It supports to prevent reviewers from classifying an open document into a strategic technology. It is expected to improve reliability of classification results

  8. Terrain Perception in a Shape Shifting Rolling-Crawling Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchida Masataka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrain perception greatly enhances the performance of robots, providing them with essential information on the nature of terrain being traversed. Several living beings in nature offer interesting inspirations which adopt different gait patterns according to nature of terrain. In this paper, we present a novel terrain perception system for our bioinspired robot, Scorpio, to classify the terrain based on visual features and autonomously choose appropriate locomotion mode. Our Scorpio robot is capable of crawling and rolling locomotion modes, mimicking Cebrenus Rechenburgi, a member of the huntsman spider family. Our terrain perception system uses Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF description method along with color information. Feature extraction is followed by Bag of Word method (BoW and Support Vector Machine (SVM for terrain classification. Experiments were conducted with our Scorpio robot to establish the efficacy and validity of the proposed approach. In our experiments, we achieved a recognition accuracy of over 90% across four terrain types namely grass, gravel, wooden deck, and concrete.

  9. Unsteady computational fluid dynamics in front crawl swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Mathias; Bernard, Anthony; Monnet, Tony; Lacouture, Patrick; David, Laurent

    2017-05-01

    The development of codes and power calculations currently allows the simulation of increasingly complex flows, especially in the turbulent regime. Swimming research should benefit from these technological advances to try to better understand the dynamic mechanisms involved in swimming. An unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study is conducted in crawl, in order to analyse the propulsive forces generated by the hand and forearm. The k-ω SST turbulence model and an overset grid method have been used. The main objectives are to analyse the evolution of the hand-forearm propulsive forces and to explain this relative to the arm kinematics parameters. In order to validate our simulation model, the calculated forces and pressures were compared with several other experimental and numerical studies. A good agreement is found between our results and those of other studies. The hand is the segment that generates the most propulsive forces during the aquatic stroke. As the pressure component is the main source of force, the orientation of the hand-forearm in the absolute coordinate system is an important kinematic parameter in the swimming performance. The propulsive forces are biggest when the angles of attack are high. CFD appears as a very valuable tool to better analyze the mechanisms of swimming performance and offers some promising developments, especially for optimizing the performance from a parametric study.

  10. Focused Crawling of the Deep Web Using Service Class Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocco, D; Liu, L; Critchlow, T

    2004-06-21

    Dynamic Web data sources--sometimes known collectively as the Deep Web--increase the utility of the Web by providing intuitive access to data repositories anywhere that Web access is available. Deep Web services provide access to real-time information, like entertainment event listings, or present a Web interface to large databases or other data repositories. Recent studies suggest that the size and growth rate of the dynamic Web greatly exceed that of the static Web, yet dynamic content is often ignored by existing search engine indexers owing to the technical challenges that arise when attempting to search the Deep Web. To address these challenges, we present DynaBot, a service-centric crawler for discovering and clustering Deep Web sources offering dynamic content. DynaBot has three unique characteristics. First, DynaBot utilizes a service class model of the Web implemented through the construction of service class descriptions (SCDs). Second, DynaBot employs a modular, self-tuning system architecture for focused crawling of the DeepWeb using service class descriptions. Third, DynaBot incorporates methods and algorithms for efficient probing of the Deep Web and for discovering and clustering Deep Web sources and services through SCD-based service matching analysis. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the service class discovery, probing, and matching algorithms and suggest techniques for efficiently managing service discovery in the face of the immense scale of the Deep Web.

  11. PROCESSING OF CRAWLED URBAN IMAGERY FOR BUILDING USE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tutzauer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have shown a shift from pure geometric 3D city models to data with semantics. This is induced by new applications (e.g. Virtual/Augmented Reality and also a requirement for concepts like Smart Cities. However, essential urban semantic data like building use categories is often not available. We present a first step in bridging this gap by proposing a pipeline to use crawled urban imagery and link it with ground truth cadastral data as an input for automatic building use classification. We aim to extract this city-relevant semantic information automatically from Street View (SV imagery. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs proved to be extremely successful for image interpretation, however, require a huge amount of training data. Main contribution of the paper is the automatic provision of such training datasets by linking semantic information as already available from databases provided from national mapping agencies or city administrations to the corresponding façade images extracted from SV. Finally, we present first investigations with a CNN and an alternative classifier as a proof of concept.

  12. Processing of Crawled Urban Imagery for Building Use Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutzauer, P.; Haala, N.

    2017-05-01

    Recent years have shown a shift from pure geometric 3D city models to data with semantics. This is induced by new applications (e.g. Virtual/Augmented Reality) and also a requirement for concepts like Smart Cities. However, essential urban semantic data like building use categories is often not available. We present a first step in bridging this gap by proposing a pipeline to use crawled urban imagery and link it with ground truth cadastral data as an input for automatic building use classification. We aim to extract this city-relevant semantic information automatically from Street View (SV) imagery. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) proved to be extremely successful for image interpretation, however, require a huge amount of training data. Main contribution of the paper is the automatic provision of such training datasets by linking semantic information as already available from databases provided from national mapping agencies or city administrations to the corresponding façade images extracted from SV. Finally, we present first investigations with a CNN and an alternative classifier as a proof of concept.

  13. Front Crawl Swimming Performance and Bi-Lateral Force Asymmetry during Land-Based and Tethered Swimming Tests

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Karini B.; Bento, Paulo C. Barauce; Pereira, Gleber; Payton, Carl; Rodacki, André L.F.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether land-based and tethered swimming strength tests can explain swimming performance in 200-meter front crawl and, whether these tests were able to identify bilateral symmetry in force production. In the first session, eighteen swimmers completed a maximum effort 200 m front crawl swim (swimming performance) and 15 seconds maximal effort tethered front crawl swim. In the second session, participants performed the upper extremity isometric strengt...

  14. Crawling to collapse: ecologically unsound ornamental invertebrate fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rhyne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fishery management has historically been an inexact and reactionary discipline, often taking action only after a critical stock suffers overfishing or collapse. The invertebrate ornamental fishery in the State of Florida, with increasing catches over a more diverse array of species, is poised for collapse. Current management is static and the lack of an adaptive strategy will not allow for adequate responses associated with managing this multi-species fishery. The last decade has seen aquarium hobbyists shift their display preference from fish-only tanks to miniature reef ecosystems that include many invertebrate species, creating increased demand without proper oversight. The once small ornamental fishery has become an invertebrate-dominated major industry supplying five continents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we analyzed the Florida Marine Life Fishery (FLML landing data from 1994 to 2007 for all invertebrate species. The data were organized to reflect both ecosystem purpose (in the wild and ecosystem services (commodities for each reported species to address the following question: Are ornamental invertebrates being exploited for their fundamental ecosystem services and economic value at the expense of reef resilience? We found that 9 million individuals were collected in 2007, 6 million of which were grazers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The number of grazers now exceeds, by two-fold, the number of specimens collected for curio and ornamental purposes altogether, representing a major categorical shift. In general, landings have increased 10-fold since 1994, though the number of licenses has been dramatically reduced. Thus, despite current management strategies, the FLML Fishery appears to be crawling to collapse.

  15. Student drinking patterns and blood alcohol concentration on commercially organised pub crawls in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    Commercial student pub crawls are associated with high levels of alcohol consumption, and are of growing concern amongst public health and student bodies. However, little is currently known about drinking behaviours whilst participating in these events. A questionnaire was implemented amongst 227 students attending commercial pub crawls across three UK events. Questions established alcohol consumption patterns up to the point of interview and throughout the remaining night out, and pub crawl experience. Breathalyser tests were used to measure breath alcohol concentration (converted to blood alcohol concentration [BAC]) at interview. Analyses used chi squared, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and logistic regression. 94.3% of participants had consumed alcohol, 90.9% of whom reported preloading. Drinkers reported consuming a median of 10.0 alcohol units (80g of pure alcohol) up to the point of interview (range one-40.6), with estimated total consumption over the evening exceeding 16units (range three-70.6). Median BAC of drinkers at the time of interview was 0.10%BAC (range 0.00-0.27). High BAC (>0.08%; at interview) was associated with having not eaten food in the four hours prior (AOR 4.8, palcohol consumption before and during commercial pub crawls should aim to alter drinking behaviours such as preloading and rapid and excessive drinking. Organisers, local authorities, universities and students should all be involved in ensuring the effective management of pub crawls, including implementation of harm prevention measures. © 2013.

  16. Can concurrent teaching promote equal biomechanical adaptations at front crawl and backstroke swimming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mário J; Barbosa, Tiago M; Morais, Jorge E; Miranda, Sérgio; Marinho, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    The biomechanical adaptations in front crawl and backstroke swimming, as influenced by the implementation of a concurrent teaching programme were analysed. Sixteen participants (19.75 ± 1.13 years) underwent a 30 weeks intervention characterized by an increasing complexity to accomplish motor skills in the following order: (i) lower limbs propulsion; (ii) lower limbs propulsion synchronized with breathing cycle; (iii) lower limbs propulsion synchronized with one upper limb action; (iv) lower limbs propulsion synchronized with both breathing cycle and one upper limb action; (v) full swimming stroke; (vi) motor trajectory of the arms stroke. Performance and biomechanics were measured at front crawl and backstroke during three time points throughout the programme. There were improvements in performance over time at front crawl (21.49 s to 19.99 s, pbackstroke (27.15 s to 24.60 s, p = 0.01). Significant improvements were found for velocity at front crawl (1.13 m/s to 1.22 m/s, pbackstroke (0.92 m/s to 1.00 m/s, pbackstroke (0.64 to 0.73 Hz, p = 0.01), while the intra-cyclic variation of the velocity decreased at front crawl (0.13 to 0.12%, p = 0.02). There was also a moderate-high inter-subject variability in response to the programme. These findings prove that a programme of 30 weeks teaching concurrently front crawl and backstroke is effective to promote similar biomechanical adaptations in low-tier swimmers. However, each subject shows an individual response to better adapt the biomechanical actions and to reach a higher level of expertise.

  17. SMEX02 Watershed Vitel Network Soil Moisture Data, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains several parameters measured for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). The parameters include soil moisture, temperature, conductivity,...

  18. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Georgia, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric soil moisture, volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and surface and soil temperature for the Georgia study...

  19. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Alabama, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set comprises gravimetric soil moisture and soil bulk density data collected during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03), which was conducted during...

  20. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set comprises gravimetric soil moisture and soil bulk density data collected during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03), which was conducted during...

  1. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric soil moisture, volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and surface and soil temperature for the Oklahoma study...

  2. SMEX03 ThetaProbe Soil Moisture Data: Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes soil moisture data measured with Delta-T Devices’ ThetaProbe ML2 sensors for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03), conducted during June...

  3. SMEX02 Iowa Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric and volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and soil temperature. This data set is part of the Soil Moisture...

  4. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric soil moisture, volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and surface and soil temperature for the Georgia study...

  5. SMEX02 Soil Moisture and Temperature Profiles, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains rainfall, soil moisture, and soil temperature data collected for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). The parameters measured are soil...

  6. Prototype crawling robotics system for remote visual inspection of high-mast light poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a project to develop a crawling robotics system for the remote visual inspection of high-mast light poles in Virginia. The first priority of this study was to develop a simple robotics application that would reduce...

  7. Crawling and Detecting Community Structure in Online Social Networks using Local Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blenn, N.; Doerr, C.; Van Kester, B.; Van Mieghem, P.

    As Online Social Networks (OSNs) become an intensive sub- ject of research for example in computer science, networking, social sci- ences etc., a growing need for valid and useful datasets is present. The time taken to crawl the network is however introducing a bias which should be minimized. Usual

  8. Crawl and crowd to bring machine translation to under-resourced languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toral Ruiz, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    We present a widely applicable methodology to bring machine translation (MT) to under-resourced languages in a cost-effective and rapid manner. Our proposal relies on web crawling to automatically acquire parallel data to train statistical MT systems if any such data can be found for the language

  9. Motor patterns associated with crawling in a soft-bodied arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Michael A; Fusillo, Steven J; Colman, Kara; Trimmer, Barry A

    2010-07-01

    Soft-bodied animals lack distinct joints and levers, and so their locomotion is expected to be controlled differently from that of animals with stiff skeletons. Some invertebrates, such as the annelids, use functionally antagonistic muscles (circumferential and longitudinal) acting on constant-volume hydrostatics to produce extension and contraction. These processes form the basis for most theoretical considerations of hydrostatic locomotion in organisms including larval insects. However, caterpillars do not move in this way, and their powerful appendages provide grip independent of their dimensional changes. Here, we show that the anterograde wave of movement seen in the crawling tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, is mediated by co-activation of dorsal and ventral muscles within a body segment, rather than by antiphasic activation, as previously believed. Furthermore, two or three abdominal segments are in swing phase simultaneously, and the activities of motor neurons controlling major longitudinal muscles overlap in more than four segments. Recordings of muscle activity during natural crawling show that some are activated during both their shortening and elongation. These results do not support the typical peristaltic model of crawling, but they do support a tension-based model of crawling, in which the substrate is utilized as an anchor to generate propulsion.

  10. Moisture conditions in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can...

  11. Site Averaged Neutron Soil Moisture: 1988 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Site averaged product of the neutron probe soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged...

  12. CLPX-Ground: ISA Soil Moisture Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of in-situ point measurements of soil moisture within three 25-km by 25-km Meso-cell Study Areas (MSAs) in northern Colorado (Fraser, North...

  13. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1989 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  14. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1988 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  15. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1987 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged...

  16. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1987 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  17. Optimal Trajectory Planning For Design of a Crawling Gait in a Robot Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMRS. Noorani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new locomotion mode to use in a crawling robot, inspired of real inchworm. The crawling device is modelled as a mobile manipulator, and for each step of its motion, the associated dynamics relations are derived using Euler-Lagrange equations. Next, the Genetic Algorithm (GA is utilized to optimize the trajectory of the free joints (active actuators in order to minimize the consumed effort (e.g. integral of square of torques over the step time. In this way, the results show a reduction of 5 to 37 percent in torque consumption in comparison with the gradient based method. Finally, numerical simulation for each step motion is presented to validate the proposed algorithm.

  18. The use of hand paddles and fins in front crawl: biomechanical and physiological responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Cardoso de Matos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Paddles and fins are used during swim training and practice as tools for improving performance. The use of these equipment can alter physiological and kinematic parameters of swimming. The purpose of this literature review was to present and discussthe effects of paddles and fins on kinematic and physiological variables in front crawl,and provide update on the topic for teachers, researchers, coaches and swimmers. Thirty articles were reviewed. To crawl, paddles can change the averages of stroke length and stroke rate, the average swimming speed, the absolute duration of the stroke phases and the index of coordination. Fins can modify the average stroke rate, the average swimming speed, the kick frequency and deep, and the energy cost. We found no studies that verified the longitudinal effects of the use of paddles and fins on these parameters.

  19. Multiscale soil moisture estimates using static and roving cosmic-ray soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJannet, David; Hawdon, Aaron; Baker, Brett; Renzullo, Luigi; Searle, Ross

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture plays a critical role in land surface processes and as such there has been a recent increase in the number and resolution of satellite soil moisture observations and the development of land surface process models with ever increasing resolution. Despite these developments, validation and calibration of these products has been limited because of a lack of observations on corresponding scales. A recently developed mobile soil moisture monitoring platform, known as the rover, offers opportunities to overcome this scale issue. This paper describes methods, results and testing of soil moisture estimates produced using rover surveys on a range of scales that are commensurate with model and satellite retrievals. Our investigation involved static cosmic-ray neutron sensors and rover surveys across both broad (36 × 36 km at 9 km resolution) and intensive (10 × 10 km at 1 km resolution) scales in a cropping district in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia. We describe approaches for converting rover survey neutron counts to soil moisture and discuss the factors controlling soil moisture variability. We use independent gravimetric and modelled soil moisture estimates collected across both space and time to validate rover soil moisture products. Measurements revealed that temporal patterns in soil moisture were preserved through time and regression modelling approaches were utilised to produce time series of property-scale soil moisture which may also have applications in calibration and validation studies or local farm management. Intensive-scale rover surveys produced reliable soil moisture estimates at 1 km resolution while broad-scale surveys produced soil moisture estimates at 9 km resolution. We conclude that the multiscale soil moisture products produced in this study are well suited to future analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals and finer-scale soil moisture models.

  20. SMEX03 Little River Micronet Soil Moisture Data: Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Parameters for this data set include precipitation, soil temperature, volumetric soil moisture, soil conductivity, and soil salinity measured in the Little River...

  1. Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment ER2 MODIS Airborne Simulator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Convection And Moisture EXperiment (CAMEX) 4 focused on the study of tropical cyclone (hurricane) development, tracking, intensification, and landfalling impacts...

  2. Deep iCrawl: An Intelligent Vision-Based Deep Web Crawler

    OpenAIRE

    R.Anita; V.Ganga Bharani; N.Nityanandam; Pradeep Kumar Sahoo

    2011-01-01

    The explosive growth of World Wide Web has posed a challenging problem in extracting relevant data. Traditional web crawlers focus only on the surface web while the deep web keeps expanding behind the scene. Deep web pages are created dynamically as a result of queries posed to specific web databases. The structure of the deep web pages makes it impossible for traditional web crawlers to access deep web contents. This paper, Deep iCrawl, gives a novel and vision-based app...

  3. A unique cytoskeleton associated with crawling in the amoeboid sperm of the nematode, Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Nematode sperm extend pseudopods and pull themselves over substrates. They lack an axoneme or the actin and myosins of other types of motile cells, but their pseudopods contain abundant major sperm protein (MSP), a family of 14-kD polypeptides found exclusively in male gametes. Using high voltage electron microscopy, a unique cytoskeleton was discovered in the pseudopod of in vitro-activated, crawling sperm of the pig intestinal nematode Ascaris suum. It consists of 5-10-nm fuzzy fibers organ...

  4. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Swietoslawski, J.; Swietoslawski, J

    2000-03-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: 'Cockroach Kill Gel' for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

  5. Can concurrent teaching promote equal biomechanical adaptations at front crawl and backstroke swimming?

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Mário; Barbosa, Tiago; Morais, Jorge; Miranda, Sérgio; Marinho, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The biomechanical adaptations in front crawl and backstroke swimming, as influenced by the implementation of a concurrent teaching programme were analysed. Methods: Sixteen participants (19.75 ± 1.13 years) underwent a 30 weeks intervention characterized by an increasing complexity to accomplish motor skills in the following order: (i) lower limbs propulsion; (ii) lower limbs propulsion synchronized with breathing cycle; (iii) lower limbs propulsion synchronized with one upper limb action; (i...

  6. Controlling swimming and crawling in a fish robot using a central pattern generator

    OpenAIRE

    Crespi, Alessandro; Lachat, Daisy; Pasquier, Ariane; Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2008-01-01

    Online trajectory generation for robots with multiple degrees of freedom is still a difficult and unsolved problem, in particular for non-steady state locomotion, that is, when the robot has to move in a complex environment with continuous variations of the speed, direction, and type of locomotor behavior. In this article we address the problem of controlling the non-steady state swimming and crawling of a novel fish robot. For this, we have designed a control architecture based on a central ...

  7. SMOS validation of soil moisture and ocen salinity (SMOS) soil moisture over watershed networks in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimation of soil moisture at large scale has been performed using several satellite-based passive microwave sensors and a variety of retrieval methods. The most recent source of soil moisture is the European Space Agency Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. A thorough validation must b...

  8. UNDERWATER STROKE KINEMATICS DURING BREATHING AND BREATH-HOLDING FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickos Vezos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of breathing on the three - dimensional underwater stroke kinematics of front crawl swimming. Ten female competitive freestyle swimmers participated in the study. Each subject swam a number of front crawl trials of 25 m at a constant speed under breathing and breath-holding conditions. The underwater motion of each subject's right arm was filmed using two S-VHS cameras, operating at 60 Hz, which were positioned behind two underwater viewing windows. The spatial coordinates of selected points were calculated using the DLT procedure with 30 control points and after the digital filtering of the raw data with a cut-off frequency of 6 Hz, the hand's linear displacements and velocities were calculated. The results revealed that breathing caused significantly increases in the stroke duration (t9 = 2.764; p < 0.05, the backward hand displacement relative to the water (t9 = 2.471; p<0.05 and the lateral displacement of the hand in the X - axis during the downsweep (t9 = 2.638; p < 0.05. On the contrary, the peak backward hand velocity during the insweep (t9 = 2.368; p < 0.05 and the displacement of the hand during the push phase (t9 = -2.297; p < 0.05 were greatly reduced when breathing was involved. From the above, it was concluded that breathing action in front crawl swimming caused significant modifications in both the basic stroke parameters and the overall motor pattern were, possibly due to body roll during breathing

  9. A unique cytoskeleton associated with crawling in the amoeboid sperm of the nematode, Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Nematode sperm extend pseudopods and pull themselves over substrates. They lack an axoneme or the actin and myosins of other types of motile cells, but their pseudopods contain abundant major sperm protein (MSP), a family of 14-kD polypeptides found exclusively in male gametes. Using high voltage electron microscopy, a unique cytoskeleton was discovered in the pseudopod of in vitro-activated, crawling sperm of the pig intestinal nematode Ascaris suum. It consists of 5-10-nm fuzzy fibers organized into 150-250-nm-thick fiber complexes, which connect to each of the moving pseudopodial membrane projections, villipodia, which in turn make contact with the substrate. Individual fibers in a complex splay out radially from its axis in all directions. The centripetal ends intercalate with fibers from other complexes or terminate in a thickened layer just beneath the pseudopod membrane. Monoclonal antibodies directed against MSP heavily label the fiber complexes as well as individual pseudopodial filaments throughout their length. This represents the first evidence that MSP may be the major filament protein in the Ascaris sperm cytoskeleton. The large fiber complexes can be seen clearly in the pseudopods of live, crawling sperm by computer-enhanced video, differential-interference contrast microscopy, forming with the villipodia at the leading edge of the sperm pseudopod. Even before the pseudopod attaches, the entire cytoskeleton and villipodia move continuously rearwards in unison toward the cell body. During crawling, complexes and villipodia in the pseudopod recede at the same speed as the spermatozoon moves forward, both disappearing at the pseudopod-cell body junction. Sections at this region of high membrane turnover reveal a band of densely packed smooth vesicles with round and tubular profiles, some of which are associated with the pseudopod plasma membrane. The exceptional anatomy, biochemistry, and phenomenology of Ascaris sperm locomotion permit direct study of

  10. Sealed Crawl Spaces with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, William [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Williamson, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Puttafunta, Srikanth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-30

    One method of code-compliance for crawlspaces is to seal and insulate the crawlspace, rather than venting to the outdoors. However, codes require mechanical ventilation; either via conditioned supply air from the HVAC system, or a continuous exhaust ventilation strategy. As the CARB's building partner, Ithaca Neighborhood Housing Services, intended to use the unvented crawlspace in a recent

  11. Sealed Crawl Spaces with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, William [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, James [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-07-01

    One method of code-compliance for crawlspaces is to seal and insulate the crawlspace, rather than venting to the outdoors. However, codes require mechanical ventilation; either via conditioned supply air from the HVAC system, or a continuous exhaust ventilation strategy. As the CARB's building partner, Ithaca Neighborhood Housing Services, intended to use the unvented crawlspace in a recent development, CARB was interested in investigating a hybrid ventilation method that includes the exhaust air from the crawlspace as a portion of an ASHRAE 62.2 compliant whole-house ventilation strategy. This hybrid ventilation method was evaluated through a series of long-term monitoring tests that observed temperature, humidity, and pressure conditions through the home and crawlspace.

  12. Efficiency analysis of the speed turns in the crawl stroke swimming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenko M.I.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary approaches to improving technique of the speed in the crawl stroke swimming, namely roll-forward turn were considered in the paper. The performance efficiency is defined by the time covering 15 meter distance. The students of the sports mastering group aged 16-20 took part in the experiment. The video recordings of the Ukrainian, European and World Championships and Deflympic Games, and also chronometration during the department trainings served as the experimental data. The research showed that white improving the technical level of turns performance, the attention should be paid to the exact performance of all the elements of the turns.

  13. Soil moisture variability across different scales in an Indian watershed for satellite soil moisture product validation

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gurjeet

    2016-05-05

    Strategic ground-based sampling of soil moisture across multiple scales is necessary to validate remotely sensed quantities such as NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) product. In the present study, in-situ soil moisture data were collected at two nested scale extents (0.5 km and 3 km) to understand the trend of soil moisture variability across these scales. This ground-based soil moisture sampling was conducted in the 500 km2 Rana watershed situated in eastern India. The study area is characterized as sub-humid, sub-tropical climate with average annual rainfall of about 1456 mm. Three 3x3 km square grids were sampled intensively once a day at 49 locations each, at a spacing of 0.5 km. These intensive sampling locations were selected on the basis of different topography, soil properties and vegetation characteristics. In addition, measurements were also made at 9 locations around each intensive sampling grid at 3 km spacing to cover a 9x9 km square grid. Intensive fine scale soil moisture sampling as well as coarser scale samplings were made using both impedance probes and gravimetric analyses in the study watershed. The ground-based soil moisture samplings were conducted during the day, concurrent with the SMAP descending overpass. Analysis of soil moisture spatial variability in terms of areal mean soil moisture and the statistics of higher-order moments, i.e., the standard deviation, and the coefficient of variation are presented. Results showed that the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of measured soil moisture decreased with extent scale by increasing mean soil moisture. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  14. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  15. Microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengkang; Mei Yu

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge is introduced. This gauge consists of a neutron moisture sensor and instruments. It is developed from the neutron moisture gauge for concrete mixer. A TECH-81 single card microcomputer is used for count, computation and display. It has the function of computing compensated quantity of sand. It can acquire the data from several neutron sensors by the multichanneling sampling, therefore it can measure moisture values of sand in several hoppers simultaneously. The precision of the static state calibration curve is 0.24% wt. The error limits of the dynamic state check is < 0.50% wt

  16. Development of an Aquarius Soil Moisture Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindlish, R.; Jackson, T. J.; Zhao, T.; Cosh, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    Aquarius observations over land offer a new resource for measuring soil moisture from space. Our objective in this investigation is to exploit the large amount of land observations that Aquarius acquires and extend the mission scope to land applications through the retrieval of soil moisture. This research increases the value and impact of the Aquarius mission by including a broader scientific community, allowing the exploration of new algorithm approaches that exploit the active-passive observations, and will contribute to a better understanding of the Earth's climate and water cycle. The first stage of our Aquarius soil moisture research focused on the use of the radiometer data because of the extensive heritage that this type of observations has in soil moisture applications. The calibration of the Aquarius radiometer over the entire dynamic range is a key element for the successful implementation of the soil moisture algorithm. Results to date indicate that the Aquarius observations are well calibrated for ocean targets but have a warm bias over land. This bias needed to be addressed if the Aquarius observations are to be used in land applications. Our approach was to use the gain and offsets computed using the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) comparisons to adjust the Aquarius brightness temperatures. The Single Channel Algorithm (SCA) was implemented using the Aquarius observations. SCA is also the baseline algorithm for the SMAP radiometer-only soil moisture product. Aquarius radiometer observations from the three beams (after bias/gain modification) along with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) surface temperature model forecast were then used to estimate soil moisture. Ancillary data inputs required for using the SCA are vegetation water content, land surface temperature, and several soil and vegetation parameters derived based on land cover. The spatial patterns of the soil moisture estimates are consistent with the climatology

  17. Constrained VPH+: a local path planning algorithm for a bio-inspired crawling robot with customized ultrasonic scanning sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Akshay; Elara, Mohan Rajesh; Elangovan, Karthikeyan

    This paper aims to develop a local path planning algorithm for a bio-inspired, reconfigurable crawling robot. A detailed description of the robotic platform is first provided, and the suitability for deployment of each of the current state-of-the-art local path planners is analyzed after an extensive literature review. The Enhanced Vector Polar Histogram algorithm is described and reformulated to better fit the requirements of the platform. The algorithm is deployed on the robotic platform in crawling configuration and favorably compared with other state-of-the-art local path planning algorithms.

  18. Mechanical Study of Standard Six Beat Front Crawl Swimming by Using Swimming Human Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Motomu

    There are many dynamical problems in front crawl swimming which have not been fully investigated by analytical approaches. Therefore, in this paper, standard six beat front crawl swimming is analyzed by the swimming human simulation model SWUM, which has been developed by the authors. First, the outline of the simulation model, the joint motion for one stroke cycle, and the specifications of calculation are described respectively. Next, contribution of each fluid force component and of each body part to the thrust, effect of the flutter kick, estimation of the active drag, roll motion, and the propulsive efficiency are discussed respectively. The following results were theoretically obtained: The thrust is produced at the upper limb by the normal drag force component. The flutter kick plays a role in raising the lower half of the body. The active drag coefficient in the simulation becomes 0.082. Buoyancy determines the primal wave of the roll motion fluctuation. The propulsive efficiency in the simulation becomes 0.2.

  19. Relative Contribution of Arms and Legs in 30 s Fully Tethered Front Crawl Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro G. Morouço

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative contribution of arm stroke and leg kicking to maximal fully tethered front crawl swimming performance remains to be solved. Twenty-three national level young swimmers (12 male and 11 female randomly performed 3 bouts of 30 s fully tethered swimming (using the whole body, only the arm stroke, and only the leg kicking. A load-cell system permitted the continuous measurement of the exerted forces, and swimming velocity was calculated from the time taken to complete a 50 m front crawl swim. As expected, with no restrictions swimmers were able to exert higher forces than that using only their arm stroke or leg kicking. Estimated relative contributions of arm stroke and leg kicking were 70.3% versus 29.7% for males and 66.6% versus 33.4% for females, with 15.6% and 13.1% force deficits, respectively. To obtain higher velocities, male swimmers are highly dependent on the maximum forces they can exert with the arm stroke (r=0.77, P<0.01, whereas female swimmers swimming velocity is more related to whole-body mean forces (r=0.81, P<0.01. The obtained results point that leg kicking plays an important role over short duration high intensity bouts and that the used methodology may be useful to identify strength and/or coordination flaws.

  20. Relative Contribution of Arms and Legs in 30 s Fully Tethered Front Crawl Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morouço, Pedro G; Marinho, Daniel A; Izquierdo, Mikel; Neiva, Henrique; Marques, Mário C

    2015-01-01

    The relative contribution of arm stroke and leg kicking to maximal fully tethered front crawl swimming performance remains to be solved. Twenty-three national level young swimmers (12 male and 11 female) randomly performed 3 bouts of 30 s fully tethered swimming (using the whole body, only the arm stroke, and only the leg kicking). A load-cell system permitted the continuous measurement of the exerted forces, and swimming velocity was calculated from the time taken to complete a 50 m front crawl swim. As expected, with no restrictions swimmers were able to exert higher forces than that using only their arm stroke or leg kicking. Estimated relative contributions of arm stroke and leg kicking were 70.3% versus 29.7% for males and 66.6% versus 33.4% for females, with 15.6% and 13.1% force deficits, respectively. To obtain higher velocities, male swimmers are highly dependent on the maximum forces they can exert with the arm stroke (r = 0.77, P swimming velocity is more related to whole-body mean forces (r = 0.81, P < 0.01). The obtained results point that leg kicking plays an important role over short duration high intensity bouts and that the used methodology may be useful to identify strength and/or coordination flaws.

  1. Front-Crawl Instantaneous Velocity Estimation Using a Wearable Inertial Measurement Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiar Aminian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the performance is a crucial task for elite sports during both training and competition. Velocity is the key parameter of performance in swimming, but swimming performance evaluation remains immature due to the complexities of measurements in water. The purpose of this study is to use a single inertial measurement unit (IMU to estimate front crawl velocity. Thirty swimmers, equipped with an IMU on the sacrum, each performed four different velocity trials of 25 m in ascending order. A tethered speedometer was used as the velocity measurement reference. Deployment of biomechanical constraints of front crawl locomotion and change detection framework on acceleration signal paved the way for a drift-free integration of forward acceleration using IMU to estimate the swimmers velocity. A difference of 0.6 ± 5.4 cm·s−1 on mean cycle velocity and an RMS difference of 11.3 cm·s−1 in instantaneous velocity estimation were observed between IMU and the reference. The most important contribution of the study is a new practical tool for objective evaluation of swimming performance. A single body-worn IMU provides timely feedback for coaches and sport scientists without any complicated setup or restraining the swimmer’s natural technique.

  2. The effect of learner's control of self-observation strategies on learning of front crawl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Priscila Garcia; Corrêa, Umberto Cesar

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of learner's control of self-observation strategies on motor skill learning. For this purpose, beginner and intermediate learner swimmers practised the front crawl. Seventy college students took part in this experiment. They comprised 40 novice learners, both male (n=19) and female (n=21), with an average age of 20.7 years (±0.44), and 30 intermediate learners, both male (n=17) and female (n=13), with an average age of 21.1 years (±0.86). The design involved a pretest (one day), four acquisition sessions (four days), and a retention test (one day). They were divided into three groups: (1) choice, which could choose to watch a video with their best or overall performance during practise; (2) yoked, which were paired to those of the choice group; and (3) control (did not watch any video). The measures included the performance of front crawl and self-efficacy. The results showed that: (1) beginners who chose a type of observation strategy had superior motor skill learning; (2) for intermediate learners, self-observation promoted better motor learning, regardless of the control of choices; (3) self-observation improved self-efficacy beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, T.J.; Schmugge, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture. Remote measurements from space afford the possibility of obtaining frequent, global sampling of soil moisture over a large fraction of the Earth's land surface. Microwave measurements have the benefit of being largely unaffected by cloud cover and variable surface solar illumination, but accurate soil moisture estimates are limited to regions that have either bare soil or low to moderate amounts of vegetation cover. A particular advantage of passive microwave sensors is that in the absence of significant vegetation cover soil moisture is the dominant effect on the received signal. The spatial resolutions of passive microwave soil moisture sensors currently considered for space operation are in the range 10–20 km. The most useful frequency range for soil moisture sensing is 1–5 GHz. System design considerations include optimum choice of frequencies, polarizations, and scanning configurations, based on trade-offs between requirements for high vegetation penetration capability, freedom from electromagnetic interference, manageable antenna size and complexity, and the requirement that a sufficient number of information channels be available to correct for perturbing geophysical effects. This paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods. Particularly promising are methods for optimally assimilating passive microwave data into hydrologic models. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects on microwave observations of within-footprint spatial heterogeneity of vegetation cover and subsurface soil characteristics, and to assess the limitations imposed by heterogeneity on the retrievability of large-scale soil moisture information from remote observations

  4. Soil Moisture Profiles and Temperature Data from SoilSCAPE Sites, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains in-situ soil moisture profile and soil temperature data collected at 20-minute intervals at SoilSCAPE (Soil moisture Sensing Controller and...

  5. SMEX02 Sliced Core Soil Moisture Data, Walnut Creek Watershed, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes sliced soil core moisture data collected during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02), conducted during June and July 2002 in the Walnut...

  6. Spatial and temporal structure within moisture measurements of a stormwater control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture sensing is a mature soil research technology commonly applied to agriculture. Such sensors may be appropriated for use in novel stormwater research applications. Knowledge of moisture (with respect to space and time) in infiltration based stormwater control measures (SCM...

  7. Developing an Automatic Crawling System for Populating a Digital Repository of Professional Development Resources: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-ran; Yang, Chris; Tosaka, Yuji; Ping, Qing; Mimouni, Houda El

    2016-01-01

    This study is a part of the larger project that develops a sustainable digital repository of professional development resources on emerging data standards and technologies for data organization and management in libraries. Toward that end, the project team developed an automated workflow to crawl for, monitor, and classify relevant web objects…

  8. Do We Really Need to Catch Them All? A New User-Guided Social Media Crawling Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Fredrik; Bródka, Piotr; Boldt, Martin; Johnson, Henric

    2017-12-01

    With the growing use of popular social media services like Facebook and Twitter it is challenging to collect all content from the networks without access to the core infrastructure or paying for it. Thus, if all content cannot be collected one must consider which data are of most importance. In this work we present a novel User-guided Social Media Crawling method (USMC) that is able to collect data from social media, utilizing the wisdom of the crowd to decide the order in which user generated content should be collected to cover as many user interactions as possible. USMC is validated by crawling 160 public Facebook pages, containing content from 368 million users including 1.3 billion interactions, and it is compared with two other crawling methods. The results show that it is possible to cover approximately 75% of the interactions on a Facebook page by sampling just 20% of its posts, and at the same time reduce the crawling time by 53%. In addition, the social network constructed from the 20% sample contains more than 75% of the users and edges compared to the social network created from all posts, and it has similar degree distribution.

  9. Front Crawl Swimming Performance and Bi-Lateral Force Asymmetry during Land-Based and Tethered Swimming Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karini B. dos Santos, Paulo C. Barauce Bento, Gleber Pereira, Carl Payton, André L.F. Rodacki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate whether land-based and tethered swimming strength tests can explain swimming performance in 200-meter front crawl and, whether these tests were able to identify bilateral symmetry in force production. In the first session, eighteen swimmers completed a maximum effort 200 m front crawl swim (swimming performance and 15 seconds maximal effort tethered front crawl swim. In the second session, participants performed the upper extremity isometric strength test. Peak force production of tethered swimming and isometric strength tests were significantly correlated for the strongest and weakest sides (r = 0.58 and r = 0.63, respectively; p < 0.05, but only peak force production during tethered swimming correlated with 200 m swimming performance time (r = -0.55, p < 0.05. Bilateral asymmetries in peak force and rate of force development were similar between the tethered swimming and isometric strength tests (peak force: 13%, p = 0.24; rate of force development: 15%, p = 0.88 However, both tests detected significant difference of peak force and rate of force development between body sides. The tethered swimming test can partially explain the 200 m front crawl swimming performance. In addition, the land-based and tethered swimming tests may be used to identify bilateral asymmetry of swimming

  10. Front Crawl Swimming Performance and Bi-Lateral Force Asymmetry during Land-Based and Tethered Swimming Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Karini B; Bento, Paulo C Barauce; Pereira, Gleber; Payton, Carl; Rodacki, André L F

    2017-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether land-based and tethered swimming strength tests can explain swimming performance in 200-meter front crawl and, whether these tests were able to identify bilateral symmetry in force production. In the first session, eighteen swimmers completed a maximum effort 200 m front crawl swim (swimming performance) and 15 seconds maximal effort tethered front crawl swim. In the second session, participants performed the upper extremity isometric strength test. Peak force production of tethered swimming and isometric strength tests were significantly correlated for the strongest and weakest sides (r = 0.58 and r = 0.63, respectively; p force production during tethered swimming correlated with 200 m swimming performance time (r = -0.55, p force and rate of force development were similar between the tethered swimming and isometric strength tests (peak force: 13%, p = 0.24; rate of force development: 15%, p = 0.88) However, both tests detected significant difference of peak force and rate of force development between body sides. The tethered swimming test can partially explain the 200 m front crawl swimming performance. In addition, the land-based and tethered swimming tests may be used to identify bilateral asymmetry of swimming.

  11. A 200-m All-out Front-crawl Swim Modifies Competitive Swimmers' Shoulder Joint Position Sense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uematsu, A.; Kurita, Y.; Inoue, K.; Okuno, K.; Hortobagyi, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an all-out-effort 200-m front-crawl swim trial affects competitive swimmers' shoulder joint position sense. On Day 1, we measured shoulder joint position sense before and after the swim trial, and on Day 2 before and after 2 min of seated rest. On both days, shoulder

  12. Staged Event-Driven Architecture As A Micro-Architecture Of Distributed And Pluginable Crawling Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Siwik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many crawling systems available on the market but they are rather close systems dedicated for performing particular kind and class of tasks with predefined set of scope, strategy etc. In real life however there are meaningful groups of users (e.g. marketing, criminal or governmental analysts requiring not just a yet another crawling system dedicated for performing predefined tasks. They need rather easy-to-use, user friendly all-in-one studio for not only executing and running internet robots and crawlers, but also for (graphical (redefining and (recomposing crawlers according to dynamically changing requirements and use-cases. To realize the above-mentioned idea, Cassiopeia framework has been designed and developed. One has to remember, however, that enormous size and unimaginable structural complexity of WWW network are the reasons that, from a technical and architectural point of view, developing effective internet robots – and the more so developing a framework supporting graphical robots’ composition – becomes a really challenging task. The crucial aspect in the context of crawling efficiency and scalability is concurrency model applied. There are two the most typical concurrency management models i.e. classical concurrency based on the pool of threads and processes and event-driven concurrency. None of them are ideal approaches. That is why, research on alternative models is still conducted to propose efficient and convenient architecture for concurrent and distributed applications. One of promising models is staged event-driven architecture mixing to some extent both of above mentioned classical approaches and providing some additional benefits such as splitting application into separate stages connected by events queues – what is interesting taking requirements about crawler (recomposition into account. The goal of this paper is to present the idea and the PoC  implementation of Cassiopeia framework, with the special

  13. A wall-crawling robot for reactor vessel inspection in advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelt, P.F.; Crane, C.; Feng, L.; Abidi, M.; Tosunoglu, S.

    1994-01-01

    A consortium of four universities and the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has designed a prototype wall-crawling robot to perform weld inspection in advanced nuclear reactors. Design efforts for the reactor vessel inspection robot (RVIR) concentrated on the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor because it presents the most demanding environment in which such a robot must operate. The RVIR consists of a chassis containing two sets of suction cups that can alternately grasp the side of the vessel being inspected, providing both locomotion and steering functions. Sensors include three CCD cameras and a weld inspection device based on new shear-wave technology. The restrictions of the inspection environment presented major challenges to the team. These challenges were met in the prototype, which has been tested in a non-radiation, room-temperature mockup of the robot work environment and shown to perform as expected. (author)

  14. A wall-crawling robot for reactor vessel inspection in advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelt, P.F.; Crane, C.; Feng, L.; Abidi, M.; Tosunoglu, S.

    1994-01-01

    A consortium of four universities and the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has designed a prototype wall-crawling robot to perform weld inspection in advanced nuclear reactors. Design efforts for the reactor vessel inspection robot (RVIR) concentrated on the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor because it presents the most demanding environment in which such a robot must operate. The RVIR consists of a chassis containing two sets of suction cups that can alternately grasp the side of the vessel being inspected, providing both locomotion and steering functions. Sensors include three CCD cameras and a weld inspection device based on new shear-wave technology. The restrictions of the inspection environment presented major challenges to the team. These challenges were met in the prototype, which has been tested in a non-radiation, room-temperature mockup of the robot work environment and shown to perform as expected

  15. Shape memory alloy-based small crawling robots inspired by C. elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuk, Hyunwoo; Kim, Daeyeon; Shin, Jennifer H [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Honggu; Jo, Sungho, E-mail: shjo@kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: j_shin@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Computer Science, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Inspired by its simple musculature, actuation and motion mechanisms, we have developed a small crawling robot that closely mimics the model organism of our choice: Caenorhabditis elegans. A thermal shape memory alloy (SMA) was selected as an actuator due to the similarities of its properties to C. elegans muscles. Based on the anatomy of C. elegans, a 12-unit robot was designed to generate a sinusoidal undulating motion. Each body unit consisting of a pair of SMA actuators is serially connected by rigid links with an embedded motion control circuit. A simple binary operation-based motion control mechanism was implemented using a microcontroller. The assembled robot can execute C. elegans-like motion with a 0.17 Hz undulation frequency. Its motion is comparable to that of a real worm.

  16. You'll never crawl alone: Neurophysiological evidence for experience-dependent motor resonance in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein; Hunnius, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    stronger motor resonance for observation of actions that are established in one's motor repertoire. In the present study we extend previous findings that were based on expert motor skills in adults to the natural development of actions in infants. To investigate the effect of natural motor experience......Lately, neuroscience is showing a great interest in examining the functional and neural mechanisms which support action observation and understanding. Recent studies have suggested that our motor skills crucially affect the way in which we perceive the actions generated by others, by showing...... on motor resonance during action observation, 14- to 16-month-old infants' EEG was recorded during observation of action videos. Stronger mu- and betadesynchronizations were found for observation of crawling compared to walking videos and the size of the effect was strongly related to the infant's own...

  17. PRATICE CRAWL – MENTAL DISTABILITIES: ADULT CHOICE OF DRIVE TECHNOLOGY ADAPTED COMPETITORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Redon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Of the two schools most stressed about the act of propelling the crawl, crawl in practice, which is the most efficient swimming, the two modes of propulsion favorites are "The outstretched arm" next to the called swimmer paddling and "The arm bent S-shaped" under the so-called swimmer impeller (N. Lanotte, S. Lem, 2012 The debate is not yet settled (Potdevin F; Pelayo P. 2006. Any swimmer has a strategy for managing its own resources considering the cost / benefit of each stroke technique report, with the aim of improving strength (Arellano, R. (1992, its movement and hence its performance (Joshua, 1992 in retarded placed in individual practice crawl competition, open to different technical conditions, what is the movement that is most often practiced, according to "the outstretched arm" or "folded S-shaped arm "under the swimmer? Methods: We record video (Pk Chollet - 2003, during two Regional championships in France adapted swim organized by the French Federation of Adapted Sport tests crawl in Division 1 Division 2 and Division 3 according to the latest regulations for implementation first time. We question the choice: "The outstretched arm" or "arm bent S-shaped" under the swimmer, by interviews (Y.Meynaud; Duclos D.1996 professional supervisors or volunteers before tests their competitors and we competitors are questioning after their trials. Results: It appears on the video that all competitors swim the "arms outstretched" The point of view of professional or volunteer supervisors: no of them are not asked for the choice of method of propulsion is best for their competitors as they say swimming techniques they teach in their club are the same as for all disabled or not competitors. The point of view of competitors: For competitors the method of propulsion "outstretched arm" seems to them the most effective. Method "arm S" Their demand coordination of movement more difficult to obtain in the context of mental disability

  18. Distributed Web-Scale Infrastructure For Crawling, Indexing And Search With Semantic Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dlugolinsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe our work in progress in the scope of web-scale informationextraction and information retrieval utilizing distributed computing. Wepresent a distributed architecture built on top of the MapReduce paradigm forinformation retrieval, information processing and intelligent search supportedby spatial capabilities. Proposed architecture is focused on crawling documentsin several different formats, information extraction, lightweight semantic annotationof the extracted information, indexing of extracted information andfinally on indexing of documents based on the geo-spatial information foundin a document. We demonstrate the architecture on two use cases, where thefirst is search in job offers retrieved from the LinkedIn portal and the second issearch in BBC news feeds and discuss several problems we had to face duringthe implementation. We also discuss spatial search applications for both casesbecause both LinkedIn job offer pages and BBC news feeds contain a lot of spatialinformation to extract and process.

  19. CPC Soil Moisture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The monthly data set consists of a file containing 1/2 degree monthly averaged soil moisture water height equivalents for the globe from 1948 onwards. Values are...

  20. The Relationship between Anthropometric Characteristics and Crawl and Breaststroke Performance in Adolescent Girl Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Yazdani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anthropometric characteristics and crawl and breaststroke performance in adolescent girl swimmers with an emphasis on ratio of length and width of limbs to the height of subjects. Methods: Twenty adolescent female swimmers voluntarily participated in this study. Anthropometric variables, including height , length of thigh, leg, foot, arm, forearm and hand , arm span, widths of pelvic, shoulders, knees, wrists and ankles were measured using a tape measure and caliper. Then the ratio of length and width of limbs to the height of subjects was calculated. Pearson correlation test at a significance level of 0.05 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Significant relationship were found between crawl record and subjects’ height, thigh, arm and forearm lengths, arm span, shoulder width, the ratios of arm, palm and foot length to the height and ratio of arm span to height (p<0.05. Also, the relationship between breaststroke record and subjects’ height, arm and thigh lengths, arm span, shoulder and palm widths, the ratios of forearm and thigh lengths to the height, ratio of shoulder girdle width to height and ratio of shoulder girdle to pelvic width were all found to be significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: In addition to the effect of anthropometric characteristics such as height, arm, forearm, thigh lengths, arm span, palm and shoulder girdle widths on the performance of adolescent girl swimmers, the ratios of limb lengths and widths to the height and ratio of shoulder girdle to pelvic width were positively related with swimming record. Thus, it is recommended that to achieve better results in swimming talent, coaches consider the ratio of limbs to the height.

  1. Crawling The Web for Libre: Selecting, Integrating, Extending and Releasing Open Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truslove, I.; Duerr, R. E.; Wilcox, H.; Savoie, M.; Lopez, L.; Brandt, M.

    2012-12-01

    Libre is a project developed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Libre is devoted to liberating science data from its traditional constraints of publication, location, and findability. Libre embraces and builds on the notion of making knowledge freely available, and both Creative Commons licensed content and Open Source Software are crucial building blocks for, as well as required deliverable outcomes of the project. One important aspect of the Libre project is to discover cryospheric data published on the internet without prior knowledge of the location or even existence of that data. Inspired by well-known search engines and their underlying web crawling technologies, Libre has explored tools and technologies required to build a search engine tailored to allow users to easily discover geospatial data related to the polar regions. After careful consideration, the Libre team decided to base its web crawling work on the Apache Nutch project (http://nutch.apache.org). Nutch is "an open source web-search software project" written in Java, with good documentation, a significant user base, and an active development community. Nutch was installed and configured to search for the types of data of interest, and the team created plugins to customize the default Nutch behavior to better find and categorize these data feeds. This presentation recounts the Libre team's experiences selecting, using, and extending Nutch, and working with the Nutch user and developer community. We will outline the technical and organizational challenges faced in order to release the project's software as Open Source, and detail the steps actually taken. We distill these experiences into a set of heuristics and recommendations for using, contributing to, and releasing Open Source Software.

  2. Buffer moisture protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Peura, J.

    2013-11-01

    With the present knowledge, bentonite blocks have to be protected from the air relative humidity and from any moisture leakages in the environment that might cause swelling of the bentonite blocks during the 'open' installation phase before backfilling. The purpose of this work was to design the structural reference solution both for the bottom of the deposition hole and for the buffer moisture protection and dewatering system with their integrated equipment needed in the deposition hole. This report describes the Posiva's reference solution for the buffer moisture protection system and the bottom plate on basis of the demands and functional requirements set by long-term safety. The reference solution with structural details has been developed in research work made 2010-2011. The structural solution of the moisture protection system has not yet been tested in practice. On the bottom of the deposition hole a copper plate which protects the lowest bentonite block from the gathered water is installed straight to machined and even rock surface. The moisture protection sheet made of EPDM rubber is attached to the copper plate with an inflatable seal. The upper part of the moisture protection sheet is fixed to the collar structures of the lid which protects the deposition hole in the disposal tunnel. The main function of the moisture protection sheet is to protect bentonite blocks from the leaking water and from the influence of the air humidity at their installation stage. The leaking water is controlled by the dewatering and alarm system which has been integrated into the moisture protection liner. (orig.)

  3. Brown Boveri moves to fourth generation MSRs [moisture separator reheaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckh, P. von

    1987-01-01

    The fourth, space saving, generation of moisture separator reheaters from Brown Boveri and Cie (BBC) consists of two types of high velocity moisture separators, 'Mops' and 'Scrups', and the small size reheater, 'Road' . The design of the unit is described, together with operational experience. (author)

  4. 24 CFR 3285.204 - Ground moisture control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ground moisture control. 3285.204 Section 3285.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... moisture control. (a) Vapor retarder. If the space under the home is to be enclosed with skirting or other...

  5. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  6. Composite advanced polymers for low moisture and oxygen permeability Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I program addresses NASA?s need for long duration shelf stable food by developing a high oxygen/moisture barrier...

  7. Site Averaged Neutron Soil Moisture: 1987-1989 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Site averaged product of the neutron probe soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged...

  8. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1987-1989 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  9. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1987-1989 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged...

  10. SMEX02 Watershed Soil Moisture Data, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set combines data for several parameters measured for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). The parameters include bulk density, gravimetric and...

  11. Aquarius L2 Swath Single Orbit Soil Moisture V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Level-2 global soil moisture estimates derived from the NASA Aquarius passive microwave radiometer on the Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas...

  12. CLPX-Ground: ISA Soil Moisture Measurements, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of in-situ point measurements of soil moisture within three 25-km by 25-km Meso-cell Study Areas (MSAs) in northern Colorado (Fraser, North...

  13. SMAPVEX12 PALS Soil Moisture Data V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains soil moisture data obtained by the Passive Active L-band System (PALS) aircraft instrument. The data were collected as part of SMAPVEX12, the...

  14. SMEX03 Watershed Ground Soil Moisture Data: Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set combines data for several parameters measured for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03). The parameters include bulk density, gravimetric and...

  15. Global atmospheric moisture variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; James, Bonnie F.; Chi, Kay; Huang, Huo-Jin

    1989-01-01

    Research efforts during FY-88 have focused on completion of several projects relating to analysis of FGGE data during SOP-1 and on expanded studies of global atmospheric moisture. In particular, a revised paper on the relationship between diabatic heating and baroclinicity in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) was submitted. A summary of completed studies on diagnostic convective parameterization was presented at the Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography Convergence last February. These investigations of diabatic heating in the SPCZ have demonstrated the requirement for a more quantitative description of atmospheric moisture. As a result, efforts were directed toward use of passive remote microwave measurements from the Nimbus-7 SMMR and the DOD's Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI/I) as critical sources of moisture data. Activities this year are summarized.

  16. Multilayer moisture barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  17. Front Crawl Sprint Performance: A Cluster Analysis of Biomechanics, Energetics, Coordinative, and Anthropometric Determinants in Young Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Silva, Ana; Sampaio, António; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the determinants of front crawl sprint performance of young swimmers using a cluster analysis. 103 swimmers, aged 11- to 13-years old, performed 25-m front crawl swimming at 50-m pace, recorded by two underwater cameras. Swimmers analysis included biomechanics, energetics, coordinative, and anthropometric characteristics. The organization of subjects in meaningful clusters, originated three groups (1.52 ± 0.16, 1.47 ± 0.17 and 1.40 ± 0.15 m/s, for Clusters 1, 2 and 3, respectively) with differences in velocity between Cluster 1 and 2 compared with Cluster 3 (p = .003). Anthropometric variables were the most determinants for clusters solution. Stroke length and stroke index were also considered relevant. In addition, differences between Cluster 1 and the others were also found for critical velocity, stroke rate and intracycle velocity variation (p energetics (swimming efficiency) are determinant domains to young swimmers sprint performance.

  18. Rainfall estimation by inverting SMOS soil moisture estimates: a comparison of different methods over Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing of soil moisture has reached a level of maturity and accuracy for which the retrieved products can be used to improve hydrological and meteorological applications. In this study, the soil moisture product from the European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) is used...

  19. Integrin activation by P-Rex1 is required for selectin-mediated slow leukocyte rolling and intravascular crawling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Jan M; Rossaint, Jan; Block, Helena; Welch, Heidi; Zarbock, Alexander

    2013-03-21

    Integrin activation is essential for the function of leukocytes. Impaired integrin activation on leukocytes is the hallmark of the leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome in humans, characterized by impaired leukocyte recruitment and recurrent infections. In inflammation, leukocytes collect different signals during the contact with the microvasculature, which activate signaling pathways leading to integrin activation and leukocyte recruitment. We report the role of P-Rex1, a Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchanging factor, in integrin activation and leukocyte recruitment. We find that P-Rex1 is required for inducing selectin-mediated lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) extension that corresponds to intermediate affinity and induces slow leukocyte rolling, whereas P-Rex1 is not involved in the induction of the high-affinity conformation of LFA-1 obligatory for leukocyte arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrate that P-Rex1 is involved in Mac-1-dependent intravascular crawling. In vivo, both LFA-1-dependent slow rolling and Mac-1-dependent crawling are defective in P-Rex1(-/-) leukocytes, whereas chemokine-induced arrest and postadhesion strengthening remain intact in P-Rex1-deficient leukocytes. Rac1 is involved in E-selectin-mediated slow rolling and crawling. In vivo, in an ischemia-reperfusion-induced model of acute kidney injury, abolished selectin-mediated integrin activation contributed to decreased neutrophil recruitment and reduced kidney damage in P-Rex1-deficient mice. We conclude that P-Rex1 serves distinct functions in LFA-1 and Mac-1 activation.

  20. The relation between crawling and 9-month-old infants' visual prediction abilities in spatial object processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Claudia; Jovanovic, Bianca; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2017-06-01

    We examined whether 9-month-old infants' visual prediction abilities in the context of spatial object processing are related to their crawling ability. A total of 33 9-month-olds were tested; half of them crawled for 7.6weeks on average. A new visual prediction paradigm was developed during which a three-dimensional three-object array was presented in a live setting. During familiarization, the object array rotated back and forth along the vertical axis. While the array was moving, two target objects of it were briefly occluded from view and uncovered again as the array changed its direction of motion. During the test phase, the entire array was rotated around 90° and then rotated back and forth along the horizontal axis. The targets remained at the same position or were moved to a modified placement. We recorded infants' eye movements directed at the dynamically covered and uncovered target locations and analyzed infants' prediction rates. All infants showed higher prediction rates at test and when the targets' placement was modified. Most importantly, the results demonstrated that crawlers had higher prediction rates during test trials as compared with non-crawlers. Our study supports the assumption that crawling experience might enhance 9-month-old infants' ability to correctly predict complex object movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells exhibit firm adhesion, crawling, spreading and transmigration across aortic endothelial cells: effects of chemokines and shear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Chamberlain

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties and may be useful in the therapy of diseases such as arteriosclerosis. MSCs have some ability to traffic into inflamed tissues, however to exploit this therapeutically their migratory mechanisms need to be elucidated. This study examines the interaction of murine MSCs (mMSCs with, and their migration across, murine aortic endothelial cells (MAECs, and the effects of chemokines and shear stress. The interaction of mMSCs with MAECs was examined under physiological flow conditions. mMSCs showed lack of interaction with MAECs under continuous flow. However, when the flow was stopped (for 10 min and then started, mMSCs adhered and crawled on the endothelial surface, extending fine microvillous processes (filopodia. They then spread extending pseudopodia in multiple directions. CXCL9 significantly enhanced the percentage of mMSCs adhering, crawling and spreading and shear forces markedly stimulated crawling and spreading. CXCL9, CXCL16, CCL20 and CCL25 significantly enhanced transendothelial migration across MAECs. The transmigrated mMSCs had down-regulated receptors CXCR3, CXCR6, CCR6 and CCR9. This study furthers the knowledge of MSC transendothelial migration and the effects of chemokines and shear stress which is of relevance to inflammatory diseases such as arteriosclerosis.

  2. How crawling and manual object exploration are related to the mental rotation abilities of 9-month-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun eSchwarzer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment examined whether the mental rotation ability of 9-month-old infants was related to their abilities to crawl and manually explore objects. Forty-eight 9-month-old infants were tested; half of them had been crawling for an average of 9.3 weeks. The infants were habituated to a video of a simplified Shepard-Metzler object rotating back and forth through a 240° angle around the longitudinal axis of the object. They were tested with videos of the same object rotating through a previously unseen 120° angle and with a mirror image of the display. All of the infants also participated in a manual object exploration task, in which they freely explored 5 toy blocks. The results showed that the crawlers looked significantly longer at the novel (mirror object than at the familiar object, independent of their manual exploration scores. The non-crawlers looking times, in contrast, were influenced by the manual exploration scores. The infants who did not spontaneously explore the toy blocks tended to show a familiarity preference, whereas those who explored the toy blocks preferred to look at the novel object. Thus, all of the infants were able to master the mental rotation task but it seemed to be the most complex process for infants who had no crawling experience and who did not spontaneously explore objects.

  3. Effect of swim speed on leg-to-arm coordination in unilateral arm amputee front crawl swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborough, Conor; Daly, Daniel; Payton, Carl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of swimming speed on leg-to-arm coordination in competitive unilateral arm amputee front crawl swimmers. Thirteen well-trained swimmers were videotaped underwater during three 25-m front crawl trials (400 m, 100 m and 50 m pace). The number, duration and timing of leg kicks in relation to arm stroke phases were identified by video analysis. Within the group, a six-beat kick was predominantly used (n = 10) although some swimmers used a four-beat (n = 2) or eight-beat kick (n = 1). Swimming speed had no significant effect on the relative duration of arm stroke and leg kick phases. At all speeds, arm stroke phases were significantly different (P kicking phases of both legs were not different. Consequently, leg-to-arm coordination was asymmetrical. The instant when the leg kicks ended on the affected side corresponded with particular positions of the unaffected arm, but not with the same positions of the affected arm. In conclusion, the ability to dissociate the movements of the arms from the legs demonstrates that, because of their physical impairment, unilateral arm amputee swimmers functionally adapt their motor organisation to swim front crawl.

  4. Root-zone soil moisture estimation from assimilation of downscaled Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumedah, Gift; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Merlin, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    The crucial role of root-zone soil moisture is widely recognized in land-atmosphere interaction, with direct practical use in hydrology, agriculture and meteorology. But it is difficult to estimate the root-zone soil moisture accurately because of its space-time variability and its nonlinear relationship with surface soil moisture. Typically, direct satellite observations at the surface are extended to estimate the root-zone soil moisture through data assimilation. But the results suffer from low spatial resolution of the satellite observation. While advances have been made recently to downscale the satellite soil moisture from Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission using methods such as the Disaggregation based on Physical And Theoretical scale Change (DisPATCh), the assimilation of such data into high spatial resolution land surface models has not been examined to estimate the root-zone soil moisture. Consequently, this study assimilates the 1-km DisPATCh surface soil moisture into the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) to better estimate the root-zone soil moisture. The assimilation is demonstrated using the advanced Evolutionary Data Assimilation (EDA) procedure for the Yanco area in south eastern Australia. When evaluated using in-situ OzNet soil moisture, the open loop was found to be 95% as accurate as the updated output, with the updated estimate improving the DisPATCh data by 14%, all based on the root mean square error (RMSE). Evaluation of the root-zone soil moisture with in-situ OzNet data found the updated output to improve the open loop estimate by 34% for the 0-30 cm soil depth, 59% for the 30-60 cm soil depth, and 63% for the 60-90 cm soil depth, based on RMSE. The increased performance of the updated output over the open loop estimate is associated with (i) consistent estimation accuracy across the three soil depths for the updated output, and (ii) the deterioration of the open loop output for deeper soil depths. Thus, the

  5. The urban moisture climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas L. Sisterson

    1977-01-01

    Data collected on 26 July 1974 as a part of project METROMEX in St. Louis show the three-dimensional structure of the urban moisture field. Mesoscale dry regions at the urban surface, corresponding to large residential and light industrial land-use characterization, were responsible for a reduction in specific humidity in the urban mixing layer. Anthropogenic sources...

  6. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bunmi

    Matured leaves of Ocimum gratissimum were harvested and the extracts used to cure. Suya (an intermediate moisture meat). O. gratissimum leaves were collected from. Oyo state south west region of Nigeria, rinsed in distilled water and squeezed to extract the fluid. The meat used was Semi membranosus muscle from beef ...

  7. Developing a methodology for estimating the drag in front-crawl swimming at various velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Kenzo; Nakashima, Motomu; Takagi, Hideki

    2017-03-21

    We aimed to develop a new method for evaluating the drag in front-crawl swimming at various velocities and at full stroke. In this study, we introduce the basic principle and apparatus for the new method, which estimates the drag in swimming using measured values of residual thrust (MRT). Furthermore, we applied the MRT to evaluate the active drag (Da) and compared it with the passive drag (Dp) measured for the same swimmers. Da was estimated in five-stages for velocities ranging from 1.0 to 1.4ms -1 ; Dp was measured at flow velocities ranging from 0.9 to 1.5ms -1 at intervals of 0.1ms -1 . The variability in the values of Da at MRT was also investigated for two swimmers. According to the results, Da (Da=32.3 v 3.3 , N=30, R 2 =0.90) was larger than Dp (Dp=23.5 v 2.0 , N=42, R 2 =0.89) and the variability in Da for the two swimmers was 6.5% and 3.0%. MRT can be used to evaluate Da at various velocities and is special in that it can be applied to various swimming styles. Therefore, the evaluation of drag in swimming using MRT is expected to play a role in establishing the fundamental data for swimming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Involvement of Crawling and Attached Ciliates in the Aggregation of Particles in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Arregui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological community in activated sludge wastewater plants is organized within this ecosystem as bioaggregates or flocs, in which the biotic component is embedded in a complex matrix comprised of extracellular polymeric substances mainly of microbial origin. The aim of this work is to study the role of different floc-associated ciliates commonly reported in wastewater treatment plants-crawling Euplotes and sessile Vorticella- in the formation of aggregates. Flocs, in experiments with ciliates and latex beads, showed more compactation and cohesion among particles than those in the absence of ciliates. Ciliates have been shown to contribute to floc formation through different mechanisms such as the active secretion of polymeric substances (extrusomes, their biological activities (movement and feeding strategies, or the cysts formation capacity of some species. Staining with lectins coupled to fluorescein showed that carbohydrate of the matrix contained glucose, manose, N-acetyl-glucosamine and galactose. Protein fraction revealed over the latex beads surfaces could probably be of bacterial origin, but nucleic acids represented an important fraction of the extracellular polymeric substances of ciliate origin.

  9. Domain adaptation of statistical machine translation with domain-focused web crawling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecina, Pavel; Toral, Antonio; Papavassiliou, Vassilis; Prokopidis, Prokopis; Tamchyna, Aleš; Way, Andy; van Genabith, Josef

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of domain adaptation of statistical machine translation (SMT) by exploiting domain-specific data acquired by domain-focused crawling of text from the World Wide Web. We design and empirically evaluate a procedure for automatic acquisition of monolingual and parallel text and their exploitation for system training, tuning, and testing in a phrase-based SMT framework. We present a strategy for using such resources depending on their availability and quantity supported by results of a large-scale evaluation carried out for the domains of environment and labour legislation, two language pairs (English-French and English-Greek) and in both directions: into and from English. In general, machine translation systems trained and tuned on a general domain perform poorly on specific domains and we show that such systems can be adapted successfully by retuning model parameters using small amounts of parallel in-domain data, and may be further improved by using additional monolingual and parallel training data for adaptation of language and translation models. The average observed improvement in BLEU achieved is substantial at 15.30 points absolute.

  10. Examining the social ecology of a bar-crawl: An exploratory pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Clapp

    Full Text Available Many of the problems associated with alcohol occur after a single drinking event (e.g. drink driving, assault. These acute alcohol problems have a huge global impact and account for a large percentage of unintentional and intentional injuries in the world. Nonetheless, alcohol research and preventive interventions rarely focus on drinking at the event-level since drinking events are complex, dynamic, and methodologically challenging to observe. This exploratory study provides an example of how event-level data may be collected, analyzed, and interpreted. The drinking behavior of twenty undergraduate students enrolled at a large Midwestern public university was observed during a single bar crawl event that is organized by students annually. Alcohol use was monitored with transdermal alcohol devices coupled with ecological momentary assessments and geospatial data. "Small N, Big Data" studies have the potential to advance health behavior theory and to guide real-time interventions. However, such studies generate large amounts of within subject data that can be challenging to analyze and present. This study examined how to visually display event-level data and also explored the relationship between some basic indicators and alcohol consumption.

  11. TACIT: An open-source text analysis, crawling, and interpretation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Morteza; Johnson, Kate M; Garten, Justin; Boghrati, Reihane; Hoover, Joe; Balasubramanian, Vijayan; Singh, Anurag; Shankar, Yuvarani; Pulickal, Linda; Rajkumar, Aswin; Parmar, Niki Jitendra

    2017-04-01

    As human activity and interaction increasingly take place online, the digital residues of these activities provide a valuable window into a range of psychological and social processes. A great deal of progress has been made toward utilizing these opportunities; however, the complexity of managing and analyzing the quantities of data currently available has limited both the types of analysis used and the number of researchers able to make use of these data. Although fields such as computer science have developed a range of techniques and methods for handling these difficulties, making use of those tools has often required specialized knowledge and programming experience. The Text Analysis, Crawling, and Interpretation Tool (TACIT) is designed to bridge this gap by providing an intuitive tool and interface for making use of state-of-the-art methods in text analysis and large-scale data management. Furthermore, TACIT is implemented as an open, extensible, plugin-driven architecture, which will allow other researchers to extend and expand these capabilities as new methods become available.

  12. Inspiratory muscle fatigue after race-paced swimming is not restricted to the front crawl stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Mitch; Iggleden, Colin; Tourell, Alice; Castle, Sophie; Honey, Jo

    2012-10-01

    The occurrence of inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) has been documented after front crawl (FC) swimming of various distances. Whether IMF occurs after other competitive swimming strokes is not known. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of all 4 competitive swimming strokes on the occurrence of IMF after race-paced swimming and to determine whether the magnitude of IMF was related to the breathing pattern adopted and hence breathing frequency (f(b)). Eleven, nationally ranked, youth swimmers completed four 200-m swims (one in each competitive stroke) on separate occasions. The order of the swims, which consisted of FC, backstroke (BK), breaststroke (BR), and butterfly (FLY), was randomized. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) was assessed before (after a swimming and inspiratory muscle warm-up) and after each swim with f(b) calculated post swim from recorded data. Inspiratory muscle fatigue was evident after each 200-m swim (p 0.05) was observed between f(b) and the change in MIP (FC: r = -0.456; BK: r = 0.218; BR: r = 0.218; and FLY: r = 0.312). These results demonstrate that IMF occurs in response to 200-m race-paced swimming in all strokes and that the magnitude of IMF is similar between strokes when breathing is ad libitum occurring no less than 1 breath (inhalation) every third stroke.

  13. Fast-crawling cell types migrate to avoid the direction of periodic substratum stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okimura, Chika; Ueda, Kazuki; Sakumura, Yuichi; Iwadate, Yoshiaki

    2016-07-03

    To investigate the relationship between mechanical stimuli from substrata and related cell functions, one of the most useful techniques is the application of mechanical stimuli via periodic stretching of elastic substrata. In response to this stimulus, Dictyostelium discoideum cells migrate in a direction perpendicular to the stretching direction. The origins of directional migration, higher migration velocity in the direction perpendicular to the stretching direction or the higher probability of a switch of migration direction to perpendicular to the stretching direction, however, remain unknown. In this study, we applied periodic stretching stimuli to neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells, which migrate perpendicular to the direction of stretch. Detailed analysis of the trajectories of HL-60 cells and Dictyostelium cells obtained in a previous study revealed that the higher probability of a switch of migration direction to that perpendicular to the direction of stretching was the main cause of such directional migration. This directional migration appears to be a strategy adopted by fast-crawling cells in which they do not migrate faster in the direction they want to go, but migrate to avoid a direction they do not want to go.

  14. Effect of velocity and added resistance on selected coordination and force parameters in front crawl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Christophe; Brazier, Tim; Button, Chris; Seifert, Ludovic; Chollet, Didier

    2011-10-01

    The effect of (a) increasing velocity and (b) added resistance was examined on the stroke (stroke length, stroke rate [SR]), coordination (index of coordination [IdC], propulsive phases), and force (impulse and peaks) parameters of 7 national-level front crawl swimmers (17.14 ± 2.73 years of swimming; 57.67 ± 1.62 seconds in the 100-m freestyle). The additional resistance was provided by a specially designed parachute. Parachute swimming (PA) and free-swimming (F) conditions were compared at 5 velocities per condition. Video footage was used to calculate the stroke and coordination parameters, and sensors allowed the determination of force parameters. The results showed that (a) an increase in velocity (V) led to increases in SR, IdC, propulsive phase duration, and peak propulsive force (p force impulse per cycle, whatever the condition (PA or F); and (b) in PA conditions, significant increases in the IdC, propulsive phase duration, and force impulse and a decrease in SR were recorded at high velocities (p force parameters, whereas the PA condition enhanced the continuity of propulsive action and force development. Added resistance, that is, "parachute training," can be used for specific strength training purposes as long as swimming is performed near maximum velocity.

  15. Position Estimation of an Epicardial Crawling Robot on the Beating Heart by Modeling of Physiological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan A.; del Agua, Diego Moral; Zenati, Marco A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    HeartLander, a small mobile robot designed to provide treatments to the surface of the beating heart, overcomes a major difficulty of minimally invasive cardiac surgery, providing a stable operating platform. This is achieved inherently in the way the robot adheres to and crawls over the surface of the heart. This mode of operation does not require physiological motion compensation to provide this stable environment; however, modeling of physiological motion is advantageous in providing more accurate position estimation as well as synchronization of motion to the physiological cycles. The work presented uses an Extended Kalman Filter framework to estimate parameters of non-stationary Fourier series models of the motion of the heart due to the respiratory and cardiac cycles as well as the position of the robot as it moves over the surface of the heart. The proposed method is demonstrated in the laboratory with HeartLander operating on a physiological motion simulator. Improved performance is demonstrated in comparison to the filtering methods previously used with HeartLander. The use of detected physiological cycle phases to synchronize locomotion of HeartLander is also described. PMID:23066511

  16. GeoWeb Crawler: An Extensible and Scalable Web Crawling Framework for Discovering Geospatial Web Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of the World-Wide Web (WWW technology, people can easily share content on the Web, including geospatial data and web services. Thus, the “big geospatial data management” issues start attracting attention. Among the big geospatial data issues, this research focuses on discovering distributed geospatial resources. As resources are scattered on the WWW, users cannot find resources of their interests efficiently. While the WWW has Web search engines addressing web resource discovery issues, we envision that the geospatial Web (i.e., GeoWeb also requires GeoWeb search engines. To realize a GeoWeb search engine, one of the first steps is to proactively discover GeoWeb resources on the WWW. Hence, in this study, we propose the GeoWeb Crawler, an extensible Web crawling framework that can find various types of GeoWeb resources, such as Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC web services, Keyhole Markup Language (KML and Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc (ESRI Shapefiles. In addition, we apply the distributed computing concept to promote the performance of the GeoWeb Crawler. The result shows that for 10 targeted resources types, the GeoWeb Crawler discovered 7351 geospatial services and 194,003 datasets. As a result, the proposed GeoWeb Crawler framework is proven to be extensible and scalable to provide a comprehensive index of GeoWeb.

  17. Measuring Kinematic Variables in Front Crawl Swimming Using Accelerometers: A Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Callaway

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective data on swimming performance is needed to meet the demands of the swimming coach and athlete. The purpose of this study is to use a multiple inertial measurement units to calculate Lap Time, Velocity, Stroke Count, Stroke Duration, Stroke Rate and Phases of the Stroke (Entry, Pull, Push, Recovery in front crawl swimming. Using multiple units on the body, an algorithm was developed to calculate the phases of the stroke based on the relative position of the body roll. Twelve swimmers, equipped with these devices on the body, performed fatiguing trials. The calculated factors were compared to the same data derived to video data showing strong positive results for all factors. Four swimmers required individual adaptation to the stroke phase calculation method. The developed algorithm was developed using a search window relative to the body roll (peak/trough. This customization requirement demonstrates that single based devices will not be able to determine these phases of the stroke with sufficient accuracy.

  18. Workshop on moisture buffer capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003......Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003...

  19. WindSat/Coriolis surface soil moisture (LPRM) L2 V001 (LPRM_WINDSAT_SOILM2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WindSat/Coriolis surface soil moisture (LPRM) L2 V001 is a Level 2 (swath) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin)...

  20. Moisture Metrics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchmann, Mark

    2011-08-31

    the goal of this project was to determine the optimum moisture levels for biomass processing for pellets commercially, by correlating data taken from numerous points in the process, and across several different feedstock materials produced and harvested using a variety of different management practices. This was to be done by correlating energy consumption and material through put rates with the moisture content of incoming biomass ( corn & wheat stubble, native grasses, weeds, & grass straws), and the quality of the final pellet product.This project disseminated the data through a public website, and answering questions form universities across Missouri that are engaged in biomass conversion technologies. Student interns from a local university were employed to help collect data, which enabled them to learn firsthand about biomass processing.

  1. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  2. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  3. An updated protocol to assess arm swimming power in front crawl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Castells, R; Izquierdo, M; Arellano, R

    2013-04-01

    Mechanical power output is a reliable predictor of swim speed in front crawl. However, a complete power curve (power vs. load) has not been described for swimming, and intra-cycle power has not been assessed. The purpose of this study was to examine intra-cycle power output at propulsive phases and to determine maximum swimming power, the corresponding load and swimming speed. 18 swimmers (age 22.10±4.31years, height 1.79±0.07 m, arm span 1.85±0.08 m and body mass 76.74±9.00 kg) performed a swim power test. It consisted of 12.5 m all-out swims with only the arms, with a load attached to the swimmer. A linear encoder and a load cell recorded intra-cycle speed and force in each trial. The test was recorded with 2 underwater cameras. Intra-cycle power was obtained for propulsive stroke phases (pull: 60.32±18.87 W; push: 71.21±21.06 W). Peak power was 114.37±33.16 W. Mean maximum swim power was 66.49 W (0.86 W/kg), which was reached at a swimming velocity of 0.75 m/s with a 47.07% of the individual maximal load. Significant positive correlation (r=0.76, pswim power and maximum swim speed was observed. These results suggest that the proposed test may be a training tool that is relatively simple to implement and would provide swimmers and coaches with quick feedback. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Crawling Big Data in a New Frontier for Socioeconomic Research: Testing with social tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Borrero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tags, keywords freely chosen by users for annotating resources, offers a new way for organizing and retrieving web resources that closely reflect the users’ interests and preferences, and also automatically generate folksonomies. Social tagging systems have gained increasing popularity as a method for annotating and categorizing a wide range of different web resources. They also attract researchers in social sciences because they offer a huge quantity of user-generated annotations that reveal the interests of millions of people. To date, the study using digital trace data methods continues to lack a theoretical framework, particularly in social science research. This paper presents a methodology to use big data from Web 2.0 in social research. At the same time, it applies a method to extract data from a particular social bookmarking site (Delicious and shows the sort of results that this type of analysis can offer to social scientists. The illustration is made around the topic globalization of agriculture Using data crawled from a large social tagging system, can have an important impact in the discovering of latent patterns, which is basic in order to provide effective recommendations to different actors. In this paper a sample of 851 users, 526 URLs and 1,700 tags from the Delicious classification system on the subject of globalization were retrieved and analysed. Through the analysis main users and websites around globalization issues in Delicious emerged, and also the most important tags that were applied by users to describe the globalization of agriculture were discovered. The implications of these methodology and findings for further research are discussed.

  5. Modeling temperature and moisture fields in conditioned spaces using zonal approach, including sorption phenomena in buildings materials; Modelisation thermo-hydro-aeraulique des locaux climatises selon l'approche zonale (prise en compte des phenomenes de sorption d'humidite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro Mendoca, K.

    2004-05-15

    Building simulation models represent in our days an important tool for building conception and performance analysis. Although moisture interacts in many ways with the whole building affecting therefore its behavior, frequently these models neglects the interactions between them. In addition, in most of them, indoor air conditions are considered uniform, which is a non-realistic assumption in conditioned spaces. In this work, a model to predict temperature and moisture fields in conditioned spaces, using zonal approach, is proposed. This method is based in dividing spatially a room in a relative small number of zones, typically on the order of tens to hundreds, where the state variables of air are considered uniform, with the exception of pressure that varies hydrostatically. While not as fine-grained as CFD simulation, zonal models do give useful information about temperature and moisture distributions that is important in comfort analysis. The proposed model was structured in three groups of sub-models representing the three building domains: indoor air, envelope and HVAC system. The indoor air sub-model is related to the indoor air space, where airflow speed can be considered weak. The envelope sub-model is related to the radiation exchanges between envelope and its neighborhood, and to the simultaneous heat and mass transfers across the envelope material. This latest can be represented by four sub-models of different complexity levels, with two of them taking into account moisture adsorption and desorption by building materials. Concerning to the HVAC system model, it refers to the whole system that means equipment, control and specific airflow from equipment. All sub-models were coupled into a modular simulation environment, SPARK, well-adapted to compare different models. The applicability of the proposed model is shown by two examples. The first one shows the importance of considering moisture sorption phenomena in the prediction of indoor air conditions

  6. Evaluating ESA CCI Soil Moisture in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-01-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASAs Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), however these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we use East Africa as a case study to evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM). Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we found substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies were well correlated (R greater than 0.5) with modeled, seasonal soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons at seasonal time scales to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can add information to a convergence of evidence framework that traditionally relies on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  7. Terrestrial Ecosystem Science 2017 ECRP Annual Report: Tropical Forest Response to a Drier Future: Turnover Times of Soil Organic Matter, Roots, Respired CO2, and CH4 Across Moisture Gradients in Time and Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Karis J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-30

    The overall goal of my Early Career research is to constrain belowground carbon turnover times for tropical forests across a broad range in moisture regimes. My group is using 14C analysis and modeling to address two major objectives: quantify age and belowground carbon turnover times across tropical forests spanning a moisture gradient from wetlands to dry forest; and identify specific areas for focused model improvement and data needs through site-specific model-data comparison and belowground carbon modeling for tropic forests.

  8. On-line moisture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Mijak, D.G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk material. Nuclear-based analysers measure the total hydrogen content in the sample and do not differentiate between free and combined moisture. Such analysers may also be sensitive to material presentation and elemental composition. Very low frequency electromagnetic probes, such as capacitance or conductance probes, operate in the frequency region where the DC conductivity dominates much of the response, which is a function not only of moisture content but also of ionic composition and chemistry. These problems are overcome using microwave transmission techniques, which also have the following advantages, as a true bulk moisture analysis is obtained, because a high percentage of the bulk material is analysed; the moisture estimate is mostly insensitive to any biased presentation of moisture, for example due to stratification of bulk material with different moisture content and because no physical contact is made between the sensor and the bulk material. This is

  9. A Framework for Assessing Soil Moisture Deficit and Crop Water Stress at Multiple Space and Time Scales Under Climate Change Scenarios Using Model Platform, Satellite Remote Sensing, and Decision Support System

    KAUST Repository

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    2016-11-03

    Better understanding of water cycle at different space–time scales would be a key for sustainable water resources, agricultural production, and ecosystems health in the twenty-first century. Efficient agricultural water management is necessary for sustainability of the growing global population. This warrants better predictive tools for aridity (based on precipitation, temperature, land use, and land cover), root zone (~top 1 m) soil moisture deficit, and crop water stress at farm, county, state, region, and national level, where decisions are made to allocate and manage the water resources. It will provide useful strategies for not only efficient water use but also for reducing potential risk of crop failure due to agricultural drought. Leveraging heavily on ongoing multiscale hydrologic modeling, data assimilation, soil moisture dynamics, and inverse model development research activities, and ongoing Land Data Assimilation (LDAS) and National Climate Assessment (NCA) indexing efforts we are developing a drought assessment framework. The drought assessment platform includes: (1) developing disaggregation methods for extracting various field-scale (1-km or less) climate indicators from the (SMOS, VIIRS, SMAP, AMSR-2) satellite / LDAS-based soil moisture in conjunction with a multimodel simulation–optimization approach using ensemble of Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer, SVAT (Noah, CLM, VIC, Mosaic in LIS) models; (2) predicting farm/field-scale long-term root zone soil moisture status under various land management and climate scenarios for the past decades in hindcast mode and for the next decades in forecast mode across the USA using effective land surface parameters and meteorological input from Global Circulation Model (GCM) outputs; (3) assessing the potential risk of agricultural drought at different space–time scales across the USA based on predicted root zone soil moisture; and (4) evaluating various water management and cropping practices (e

  10. Moisture content measurement in paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomklao, P.; Kuntinugunetanon, S.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture content is an important quantity for agriculture product, especially in paddy. In principle, the moisture content can be measured by a gravimetric method which is a direct method. However, the gravimetric method is time-consuming. There are indirect methods such as resistance and capacitance methods. In this work, we developed an indirect method based on a 555 integrated circuit timer. The moisture content sensor was capacitive parallel plates using the dielectric constant property of the moisture. The instrument generated the output frequency that depended on the capacitance of the sensor. We fitted a linear relation between periods and moisture contents. The measurement results have a standard uncertainty of 1.23 % of the moisture content in the range of 14 % to 20 %.

  11. Drought monitoring with soil moisture active passive (SMAP) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok; Vu, Tue; Veettil, Anoop Valiya; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-09-01

    Recent launch of space-borne systems to estimate surface soil moisture may expand the capability to map soil moisture deficit and drought with global coverage. In this study, we use Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture geophysical retrieval products from passive L-band radiometer to evaluate its applicability to forming agricultural drought indices. Agricultural drought is quantified using the Soil Water Deficit Index (SWDI) based on SMAP and soil properties (field capacity and available water content) information. The soil properties are computed using pedo-transfer function with soil characteristics derived from Harmonized World Soil Database. The SMAP soil moisture product needs to be rescaled to be compatible with the soil parameters derived from the in situ stations. In most locations, the rescaled SMAP information captured the dynamics of in situ soil moisture well and shows the expected lag between accumulations of precipitation and delayed increased in surface soil moisture. However, the SMAP soil moisture itself does not reveal the drought information. Therefore, the SMAP based SWDI (SMAP_SWDI) was computed to improve agriculture drought monitoring by using the latest soil moisture retrieval satellite technology. The formulation of SWDI does not depend on longer data and it will overcome the limited (short) length of SMAP data for agricultural drought studies. The SMAP_SWDI is further compared with in situ Atmospheric Water Deficit (AWD) Index. The comparison shows close agreement between SMAP_SWDI and AWD in drought monitoring over Contiguous United States (CONUS), especially in terms of drought characteristics. The SMAP_SWDI was used to construct drought maps for CONUS and compared with well-known drought indices, such as, AWD, Palmer Z-Index, sc-PDSI and SPEI. Overall the SMAP_SWDI is an effective agricultural drought indicator and it provides continuity and introduces new spatial mapping capability for drought monitoring. As an

  12. Biophysical Determinants of Front-Crawl Swimming at Moderate and Severe Intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, João; Toubekis, Argyris G; Figueiredo, Pedro; de Jesus, Kelly; Toussaint, Huub M; Alves, Francisco; Vilas-Boas, João P; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2017-02-01

    To conduct a biophysical analysis of the factors associated with front-crawl performance at moderate and severe swimming intensities, represented by anaerobic-threshold (vAnT) and maximal-oxygen-uptake (vV̇O 2 max) velocities. Ten high-level swimmers performed 2 intermittent incremental tests of 7 × 200 and 12 × 25 m (through a system of underwater push-off pads) to assess vAnT, and vV̇O 2 max, and power output. The 1st protocol was videotaped (3D reconstruction) for kinematic analysis to assess stroke frequency (SF), stroke length (SL), propelling efficiency (η P ), and index of coordination (IdC). V̇O 2 was measured and capillary blood samples (lactate concentrations) were collected, enabling computation of metabolic power. The 2nd protocol allowed calculating mechanical power and performance efficiency from the ratio of mechanical to metabolic power. Neither vAnT nor vV̇O 2 max was explained by SF (0.56 ± 0.06 vs 0.68 ± 0.06 Hz), SL (2.29 ± 0.21 vs 2.06 ± 0.20 m), η P (0.38 ± 0.02 vs 0.36± 0.03), IdC (-12.14 ± 5.24 vs -9.61 ± 5.49), or metabolic-power (1063.00 ± 122.90 vs 1338.18 ± 127.40 W) variability. vV̇O 2 max was explained by power to overcome drag (r = .77, P ≤ .05) and η P (r = .72, P ≤ .05), in contrast with the nonassociation between these parameters and vAnT; both velocities were well related (r = .62, P ≤ .05). The biomechanical parameters, coordination, and metabolic power seemed not to be performance discriminative at either intensity. However, the increase in power to overcome drag, for the less metabolic input, should be the focus of any intervention that aims to improve performance at severe swimming intensity. This is also true for moderate intensities, as vAnT and vV˙O2max are proportional to each other.

  13. Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a robotic arm and its flow field: application to the crawl stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hideki; Nakashima, Motomu; Ozaki, Takashi; Matsuuchi, Kazuo

    2014-04-11

    This study aims to clarify the mechanisms by which unsteady hydrodynamic forces act on the hand of a swimmer during a crawl stroke. Measurements were performed for a hand attached to a robotic arm with five degrees of freedom independently controlled by a computer. The computer was programmed so the hand and arm mimicked a human performing the stroke. We directly measured forces on the hand and pressure distributions around it at 200 Hz; flow fields underwater near the hand were obtained via 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV). The data revealed two mechanisms that generate unsteady forces during a crawl stroke. One is the unsteady lift force generated when hand movement changes direction during the stroke, leading to vortex shedding and bound vortex created around it. This bound vortex circulation results in a lift that contributes to the thrust. The other occurs when the hand moves linearly with a large angle of attack, creating a Kármán vortex street. This street alternatively sheds clockwise and counterclockwise vortices, resulting in a quasi-steady drag contributing to the thrust. We presume that professional swimmers benefit from both mechanisms. Further studies are necessary in which 3D flow fields are measured using a 3D PIV system and a human swimmer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of the hand's acceleration and the relative contribution of drag and lift forces in front crawl swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Boli, Alexia; Aggeloussis, Nikolaos; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Toubekis, Argyris; Mavromatis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the hand's acceleration on the propulsive forces and the relative contribution of the drag and lift on their resultant force in the separate phases of the front crawl underwater arm stroke. Ten female swimmers swam one trial of all-out 25-m front crawl. The underwater motion of each swimmer's right hand was recorded using four camcorders and four periscope systems. Anatomical landmarks were digitised, and the propulsive forces generated by the swimmer's hand were estimated from the kinematic data in conjunction with hydrodynamic coefficients. When the hand's acceleration was taken into account, the magnitude of the propulsive forces was greater, with the exception of the mean drag force during the final part of the underwater arm stroke. The mean drag force was greater than the mean lift force in the middle part, while the mean lift force was greater than the mean drag force in the final part of the underwater arm stroke. Thus, swimmers should accelerate their hands from the beginning of their backward motion, press the water with large pitch angles during the middle part and sweep with small pitch angles during the final part of their underwater arm stroke.

  15. A 200-m All-out Front-crawl Swim Modifies Competitive Swimmers' Shoulder Joint Position Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, A; Kurita, Y; Inoue, K; Okuno, K; Hortobágyi, T; Suzuki, S

    2015-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an all-out-effort 200-m front-crawl swim trial affects competitive swimmers' shoulder joint position sense. On Day 1, we measured shoulder joint position sense before and after the swim trial, and on Day 2 before and after 2 min of seated rest. On both days, shoulder joint position sense was measured in the seated position using electromagnetic movement sensors in a position-matching paradigm. An investigator abducted participants' left (reference) shoulder joint in the frontal plane to test angles of 90°, 135°, and 180°. Participants then actively abducted the right (indicator) shoulder joint to match the position of the left, reference arm. After the 200-m all-out front-crawl swim trial, the indicator relative to the reference angle differed by 4.4° toward adduction at the 180° (vertical) testing position (Pshoulder joint position sense error and increase variation in matching error in horizontal arm position. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Moisture damage and asthma: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Anne M; Hyvärinen, Anne; Korppi, Matti; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla; Renz, Harald; Pfefferle, Petra I; Remes, Sami; Genuneit, Jon; Pekkanen, Juha

    2015-03-01

    Excess moisture and visible mold are associated with increased risk of asthma. Only a few studies have performed detailed home visits to characterize the extent and location of moisture damage and mold growth. Structured home inspections were performed in a birth cohort study when the children were 5 months old (on average). Children (N = 398) were followed up to the age of 6 years. Specific immunoglobulin E concentrations were determined at 6 years. Moisture damage and mold at an early age in the child's main living areas (but not in bathrooms or other interior spaces) were associated with the risk of developing physician-diagnosed asthma ever, persistent asthma, and respiratory symptoms during the first 6 years. Associations with asthma ever were strongest for moisture damage with visible mold in the child's bedroom (adjusted odds ratio: 4.82 [95% confidence interval: 1.29-18.02]) and in the living room (adjusted odds ratio: 7.51 [95% confidence interval: 1.49-37.83]). Associations with asthma ever were stronger in the earlier part of the follow-up and among atopic children. No consistent associations were found between moisture damage with or without visible mold and atopic sensitization. Moisture damage and mold in early infancy in the child's main living areas were associated with asthma development. Atopic children may be more susceptible to the effects of moisture damage and mold. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moist......The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...... and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. The first...... part of the Thesis consists of a theory and literature review on the moisture storage and transport processes (Chapter 2), on the non-Fickian moisture transport (Chapter 3)and on the methods for determining the moisture properties (Chapter 4). In the second part, the conducted experimental work...

  18. Neutron moisture measurement in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thony, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This method is generally used for soil moisture determination but also for moisture in building materials. After a review of neutron interaction with matter (elastic and inelastic scattering, radiative capture and absorption with emission of charged particles) and of the equipment (source, detector and counting), gravimetric and chemical calibration are described and accuracy of measurement is discussed. 5 refs [fr

  19. To Glide or Not to Glide.... Response to Havriluk's Comment on "Arm Coordination and Performance Level in the 400-m Front Crawl"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Christophe; Seifert, Ludovic; Chollet, Didier

    2012-01-01

    We recently published an article on arm coordination and performance level in 400-m front-crawl swimming in Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (Schnitzler, Seifert, & Chollet, 2011). The index of coordination (IdC) was used to quantify interarm coordination. Our results showed that expert swimmers exhibited lower IdC than recreational…

  20. MoistureMap: A soil moisture monitoring, prediction and reporting system for sustainable land and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiger, C.; Walker, J. P.; Barrett, D. J.; Gurney, R. J.; Kerr, Y. H.; Kim, E. J.; Lemarshall, J.

    2009-12-01

    A prototype soil moisture monitoring, prediction and reporting system is being developed for Australia, with the Murrumbidgee catchment as the demonstration catchment. The system will provide current and future soil moisture information and its uncertainty at 1km resolution, by combining weather, climate and land surface model predictions with soil moisture data from ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite; the first-ever dedicated microwave soil moisture mission. A major aspect of this project is developing and testing the soil moisture retrieval algorithms to be used for SMOS and verifying SMOS data for Australian conditions, through a number of airborne campaigns. The key elements of this project will develop and test innovative techniques for monitoring, prediction and reporting of 1km resolution soil moisture content from ground-, air- and space-based measurements for Australian conditions. The ground based and air-borne data will be used for: (i) calibration/validation of the SMOS satellite; (ii) development and verification of surface soil moisture retrieval algorithm components of the SMOS Simulator; (iii) development and verification of soil hydraulic property estimation; and (iv) verification of 1km moisture from MoistureMap. The Murrumbidgee catchment is an 80,000km2 watershed located in south-eastern Australia, with a large diversity in climatic, topographic and land cover characteristics making it an excellent demonstration test-bed for SMOS Simulator and MoistureMap developments. The Murrumbidgee River Catchment has been instrumented and monitored for soil moisture and supporting data for more than 7 years. The existing network of monitoring sites, data management systems, data sets, and detailed knowledge of the catchment provide an ideal basis for the field work and data requirements of this study. The soil moisture prediction model to be used is CSIRO Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE), a column model based on Richards

  1. Space Shuttle Discovery rolls out to Launch Pad 39A for Oct. 5 launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    As the sun crawls from below the horizon at right, Space Shuttle Discovery crawls up Launch Pad 39A and its resting spot next to the fixed service structure (FSS) (seen at left). The powerful silhouette dwarfs people and other vehicles near the FSS. Discovery is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on mission STS-92. Making the 100th Space Shuttle mission launched from Kennedy Space Center, Discovery will carry two pieces of hardware for the International Space Station, the Z1 truss, which is the cornerstone truss of the Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. Discovery also will be making its 28th flight into space, more than any of the other orbiters to date.

  2. TMI/TRMM surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km daytime V001 (LPRM_TMI_DY_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TMI/TRMM surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km daytime V001 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land...

  3. SMAP/Sentinel-1 L2 Radiometer/Radar 30-Second Scene 3 km EASE-Grid Soil Moisture V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level-2 (L2) soil moisture product provides estimates of land surface conditions retrieved by both the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) radiometer during...

  4. Understanding natural moisturizing mechanisms: implications for moisturizer technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Prem; Nole, Greg; Johnson, Anthony W

    2009-07-01

    Dry skin and moisturization are important topics because they impact the lives of many individuals. For most individuals, dry skin is not a notable concern and can be adequately managed with current moisturizing products. However, dry skin can affect the quality of life of some individuals because of the challenges of either harsh environmental conditions or impaired stratum corneum (SC) dry skin protection processes resulting from various common skin diseases. Dry skin protection processes of the SC, such as the development of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), are complex, carefully balanced, and easily perturbed. We discuss the importance of the filaggrin-NMF system and the composition of NMF in both healthy and dry skin, and also reveal new insights that suggest the properties required for a new generation of moisturizing technologies.

  5. Investigation on Inter-Limb Coordination and Motion Stability, Intensity and Complexity of Trunk and Limbs during Hands-Knees Crawling in Human Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shenglan; Chen, Xiang; Cao, Shuai; Yu, Yi; Zhang, Xu

    2017-03-28

    This study aimed to investigate the inter-limb coordination pattern and the stability, intensity, and complexity of the trunk and limbs motions in human crawling under different speeds. Thirty healthy human adults finished hands-knees crawling trials on a treadmill at six different speeds (from 1 km/h to 2.5 km/h). A home-made multi-channel acquisition system consisting of five 3-axis accelerometers (ACC) and four force sensors was used for the data collection. Ipsilateral phase lag was used to represent inter-limb coordination pattern during crawling and power, harmonic ratio, and sample entropy of acceleration signals were adopted to depict the motion intensity, stability, and complexity of trunk and limbs respectively. Our results revealed some relationships between inter-limb coordination patterns and the stability and complexity of trunk movement. Trot-like crawling pattern was found to be the most stable and regular one at low speed in the view of trunk movement, and no-limb-pairing pattern showed the lowest stability and the greatest complexity at high speed. These relationships could be used to explain why subjects tended to avoid no-limb-pairing pattern when speed was over 2 km/h no matter which coordination type they used at low speeds. This also provided the evidence that the central nervous system (CNS) chose a stable inter-limb coordination pattern to keep the body safe and avoid tumbling. Although considerable progress has been made in the study of four-limb locomotion, much less is known about the reasons for the variety of inter-limb coordination. The research results of the exploration on the inter-limb coordination pattern choice during crawling from the standpoint of the motion stability, intensity, and complexity of trunk and limbs sheds light on the underlying motor control strategy of the human CNS and has important significance in the fields of clinical diagnosis, rehabilitation engineering, and kinematics research.

  6. Response of grassland ecosystems to prolonged soil moisture deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Morgan A.; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E.; Barnes, Mallory L.; Hottenstein, John D.; Moran, M. Susan

    2014-05-01

    species assemblage. The magnitude of change was related to the precipitation regime, where grasslands in hyper-arid and humid regimes were least likely to be affected by prolonged soil moisture deficit, and semiarid and mesic grasslands were most likely to be impacted, depending on the duration of the deficit. These results were applied to a large grassland region in Australia with soil moisture estimates from the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) sensor to demonstrate the continental-scale potential of this application with satellite measurements. These results are even more relevant for application with the higher-resolution NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) products to be available in 2015.

  7. Remote technology review: mobile robots continue to march (and crawl, roll, walk, slither, climb and swim) into action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meieran, H.

    1991-01-01

    Mobile robots are performing an increasing range of tasks in nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities as well as in a wide spectrum of other hazardous industries and environments. The total number of such systems, many of which can be used in the nuclear industry, that have been, are being or will be built, now exceeds 350 separate units manufactured by more than 168 suppliers in 19 countries. In addition to being used in nuclear power plants themselves, they are being, or can be, employed in a variety of other nuclear applications, including hot cells, fuel reprocessing facilities, research establishments, waste sites, uranium mines, and decommissioning projects. The survey results reported here provide current statistics regarding terrestrial based mobile robots and remote teleoperator controlled vehicles (referred to collectively as mobile robots), underwater crawling and swimming robots (the latter known as remotely operated vehicles (ROVs)) and pipecrawlers. (author)

  8. Modeling soil moisture-reflectance

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Etienne; Decamps, Henri

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Spectral information on soil is not easily available as vegetation and farm works prevent direct observation of soil responses. However, there is an increasing need to include soil reflectance values in spectral unmixing algorithms or in classification approaches. In most cases, the impact of soil moisture on the reflectance is unknown and therefore ignored. The objective of this study was to model reflectance changes due to soil moisture in a real field situation usin...

  9. Advances, experiences, and prospects of the International Soil Moisture Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigo, W.; van Oevelen, P. J.; Drusch, M.; Wagner, W.; Scipal, K.; Mecklenburg, S.

    2012-12-01

    In 2009, the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN; http:www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at) was initiated as a platform to support calibration and validation of soil moisture products from remote sensing and land surface models, and to advance studies on the behavior of soil moisture over space and time. This international initiative is fruit of continuing coordinative efforts of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) in cooperation with the Group of Earth Observation (GEO) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). The decisive financial incentive was given by the European Space Agency (ESA) who considered the establishment of the network critical for optimizing the soil moisture products from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. The ISMN collects and harmonizes ground-based soil moisture data sets from a large variety of individually operating networks and makes them available through a centralized data portal. Meanwhile, almost 6000 soil moisture data sets from over 1300 sites, distributed among 34 networks worldwide, are contained in the database. The steadily increasing number of organizations voluntarily contributing to the ISMN, and the rapidly increasing number of studies based on the network show that the portal has been successful in reaching its primary goal to promote easy data accessibility to a wide variety of users. Recently, several updates of the system were performed to keep up with the increasing data amount and traffic, and to meet the requirements of many advanced users. Many datasets from operational networks (e.g., SCAN, the US Climate Reference Network, COSMOS, and ARM) are now assimilated and processed in the ISMN on a fully automated basis in near-real time. In addition, a new enhanced quality control system is currently being implemented. This presentation gives an overview of these recent developments, presents some examples of important scientific results based on the ISMN, and sketches an outlook for

  10. Use of digital images to estimate soil moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João F. C. dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze the relation between the moisture and the spectral response of the soil to generate prediction models. Samples with different moisture contents were prepared and photographed. The photographs were taken under homogeneous light condition and with previous correction for the white balance of the digital photograph camera. The images were processed for extraction of the median values in the Red, Green and Blue bands of the RGB color space; Hue, Saturation and Value of the HSV color space; and values of the digital numbers of a panchromatic image obtained from the RGB bands. The moisture of the samples was determined with the thermogravimetric method. Regression models were evaluated for each image type: RGB, HSV and panchromatic. It was observed the darkening of the soil with the increase of moisture. For each type of soil, a model with best fit was observed and to use these models for prediction purposes, it is necessary to choose the model with best fit in advance, according to the soil characteristics. Soil moisture estimation as a function of its spectral response by digital image processing proves promising.

  11. Australian Soil Moisture Field Experiments in Support of Soil Moisture Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Walker, Jeff; Rudiger, Christopher; Panciera, Rocco

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale field campaigns provide the critical fink between our understanding retrieval algorithms developed at the point scale, and algorithms suitable for satellite applications at vastly larger pixel scales. Retrievals of land parameters must deal with the substantial sub-pixel heterogeneity that is present in most regions. This is particularly the case for soil moisture remote sensing, because of the long microwave wavelengths (L-band) that are optimal. Yet, airborne L-band imagers have generally been large, heavy, and required heavy-lift aircraft resources that are expensive and difficult to schedule. Indeed, US soil moisture campaigns, have been constrained by these factors, and European campaigns have used non-imagers due to instrument and aircraft size constraints. Despite these factors, these campaigns established that large-scale soil moisture remote sensing was possible, laying the groundwork for satellite missions. Starting in 2005, a series of airborne field campaigns have been conducted in Australia: to improve our understanding of soil moisture remote sensing at large scales over heterogeneous areas. These field data have been used to test and refine retrieval algorithms for soil moisture satellite missions, and most recently with the launch of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, to provide validation measurements over a multi-pixel area. The campaigns to date have included a preparatory campaign in 2005, two National Airborne Field Experiments (NAFE), (2005 and 2006), two campaigns to the Simpson Desert (2008 and 2009), and one Australian Airborne Cal/val Experiment for SMOS (AACES), just concluded in the austral spring of 2010. The primary airborne sensor for each campaign has been the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR), a 6-beam pushbroom imager that is small enough to be compatible with light aircraft, greatly facilitating the execution of the series of campaigns, and a key to their success. An

  12. 7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Moisture, Uniformity of Size, Defects § 52.3185 Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits for the applicable grades and kind and...

  13. In vivo imaging of epithelial wound healing in the cnidarian Clytia hemisphaerica demonstrates early evolution of purse string and cell crawling closure mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Zach; Zellner, Katie; Kyriazes, Harry; Kraus, Christine M; Reynier, Jean-Baptiste; Malamy, Jocelyn E

    2017-12-19

    All animals have mechanisms for healing damage to the epithelial sheets that cover the body and line internal cavities. Epithelial wounds heal either by cells crawling over the wound gap, by contraction of a super-cellular actin cable ("purse string") that surrounds the wound, or some combination of the two mechanisms. Both cell crawling and purse string closure of epithelial wounds are widely observed across vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting early evolution of these mechanisms. Cnidarians evolved ~600 million years ago and are considered a sister group to the Bilateria. They have been much studied for their tremendous regenerative potential, but epithelial wound healing has not been characterized in detail. Conserved elements of wound healing in bilaterians and cnidarians would suggest an evolutionary origin in a common ancestor. Here we test this idea by characterizing epithelial wound healing in live medusae of Clytia hemisphaerica. We identified cell crawling and purse string-mediated mechanisms of healing in Clytia epithelium that appear highly analogous of those seen in higher animals, suggesting that these mechanisms may have emerged in a common ancestor. Interestingly, we found that epithelial wound healing in Clytia is 75 to >600 times faster than in cultured cells or embryos of other animals previously studied, suggesting that Clytia may provide valuable clues about optimized healing efficiency. Finally, in Clytia, we show that damage to the basement membrane in a wound gap causes a rapid shift between the cell crawling and purse string mechanisms for wound closure. This is consistent with work in other systems showing that cells marginal to a wound choose between a super-cellular actin cable or lamellipodia formation to close wounds, and suggests a mechanism underlying this decision. 1. Cell crawling and purse string mechanisms of epithelial wound healing likely evolved before the divergence of Cnidaria from the bilaterian lineage ~ 600mya 2. In

  14. Relation Between the Rainfall and Soil Moisture During Different Phases of Indian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varikoden, Hamza; Revadekar, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture is a key parameter in the prediction of southwest monsoon rainfall, hydrological modelling, and many other environmental studies. The studies on relationship between the soil moisture and rainfall in the Indian subcontinent are very limited; hence, the present study focuses the association between rainfall and soil moisture during different monsoon seasons. The soil moisture data used for this study are the ESA (European Space Agency) merged product derived from four passive and two active microwave sensors spanning over the period 1979-2013. The rainfall data used are India Meteorological Department gridded daily data. Both of these data sets are having a spatial resolution of 0.25° latitude-longitude grid. The study revealed that the soil moisture is higher during the southwest monsoon period similar to rainfall and during the pre-monsoon period, the soil moisture is lower. The annual cycle of both the soil moisture and rainfall has the similitude of monomodal variation with a peak during the month of August. The interannual variability of soil moisture and rainfall shows that they are linearly related with each other, even though they are not matched exactly for individual years. The study of extremes also exhibits the surplus amount of soil moisture during wet monsoon years and also the regions of surplus soil moisture are well coherent with the areas of high rainfall.

  15. Relation Between the Rainfall and Soil Moisture During Different Phases of Indian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varikoden, Hamza; Revadekar, J. V.

    2018-03-01

    Soil moisture is a key parameter in the prediction of southwest monsoon rainfall, hydrological modelling, and many other environmental studies. The studies on relationship between the soil moisture and rainfall in the Indian subcontinent are very limited; hence, the present study focuses the association between rainfall and soil moisture during different monsoon seasons. The soil moisture data used for this study are the ESA (European Space Agency) merged product derived from four passive and two active microwave sensors spanning over the period 1979-2013. The rainfall data used are India Meteorological Department gridded daily data. Both of these data sets are having a spatial resolution of 0.25° latitude-longitude grid. The study revealed that the soil moisture is higher during the southwest monsoon period similar to rainfall and during the pre-monsoon period, the soil moisture is lower. The annual cycle of both the soil moisture and rainfall has the similitude of monomodal variation with a peak during the month of August. The interannual variability of soil moisture and rainfall shows that they are linearly related with each other, even though they are not matched exactly for individual years. The study of extremes also exhibits the surplus amount of soil moisture during wet monsoon years and also the regions of surplus soil moisture are well coherent with the areas of high rainfall.

  16. The use of remotely sensed soil moisture data in large-scale models of the hydrological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Gurney, R. J.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Manabe (1982) has reviewed numerical simulations of the atmosphere which provided a framework within which an examination of the dynamics of the hydrological cycle could be conducted. It was found that the climate is sensitive to soil moisture variability in space and time. The challenge arises now to improve the observations of soil moisture so as to provide up-dated boundary condition inputs to large scale models including the hydrological cycle. Attention is given to details regarding the significance of understanding soil moisture variations, soil moisture estimation using remote sensing, and energy and moisture balance modeling.

  17. SMAP L2 Radar Half-Orbit 3 km EASE-Grid Soil Moisture V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Active soil moisture estimates onto a 3-km global Earth-fixed grid, based on radar backscatter measurements acquired when the SMAP spacecraft is travelling from...

  18. LPRM/WindSat/Coriolis L2 Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 2 (swath) data set¿s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  19. Composite advanced polymers for low moisture and oxygen permeability, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I program addresses NASA?s need for long duration shelf stable food by developing a high oxygen/moisture barrier...

  20. SMEX02 Watershed Soil Moisture Data, Walnut Creek, Iowa, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set combines data for several parameters measured for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). Data were collected in crop fields, using a variety of...

  1. SMEX03 Little River Micronet Soil Moisture Data: Georgia, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data for this study were collected from the Little River Watershed (LRW) Micronet regional study areas of southeastern Georgia, US using in situ soil moisture...

  2. SAFARI 2000 Soil Properties, Moisture, and Temp., Skukuza and Mongu, 1999-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Soil moisture and temperature profile sensors were deployed at flux tower sites in Mongu, Zambia and Skukuza, South Africa. In addition, thermal infrared sensors...

  3. SAFARI 2000 Soil Properties, Moisture, and Temp., Skukuza and Mongu, 1999-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Soil moisture and temperature profile sensors were deployed at flux tower sites in Mongu, Zambia and Skukuza, South Africa. In addition, thermal infrared...

  4. Aquarius L3 Gridded 1-Degree Monthly Soil Moisture Climatology V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Level-3 gridded monthly global soil moisture climatology estimates derived from the NASA Aquarius passive microwave radiometer on the Satélite...

  5. Aquarius L3 Gridded 1-Degree Annual Soil Moisture V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Level-3 gridded annual global soil moisture estimates derived from the NASA Aquarius passive microwave radiometer on the Satélite de...

  6. Aquarius L3 Gridded 1-Degree Weekly Soil Moisture V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Level-3 gridded weekly global soil moisture estimates derived from the NASA Aquarius passive microwave radiometer on the Satélite de...

  7. Aquarius L3 Gridded 1-Degree Seasonal Soil Moisture V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Level-3 gridded seasonal global soil moisture estimates derived from the NASA Aquarius passive microwave radiometer on the Satélite de...

  8. Aquarius L3 Gridded 1-Degree Daily Soil Moisture V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Level-3 gridded daily global soil moisture estimates derived from the NASA Aquarius passive microwave radiometer on the Satélite de...

  9. Aquarius L3 Gridded 1-Degree Monthly Soil Moisture V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Level-3 gridded monthly global soil moisture estimates derived from the NASA Aquarius passive microwave radiometer on the Satélite de...

  10. Aquarius L3 Gridded 1-Degree Seasonal Soil Moisture Climatology V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Level-3 gridded seasonal global soil moisture climatology estimates derived from the NASA Aquarius passive microwave radiometer on the...

  11. Nanomaterials-Based Water and Moisture Impermeable Barrier for Food Packaging, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to develop flexible food packaging materials with an effective barrier against oxygen and moisture. This technology will build on sol-gel...

  12. Nanomaterials-Based Water and Moisture Impermeable Barrier for Food Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to develop flexible food packaging materials with an effective barrier against oxygen and moisture. This technology will build on sol-gel...

  13. LBA-ECO CD-04 Soil Moisture Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports continuous high-resolution frequency-domain reflectometry measurements of soil moisture to 10 m depth and precipitation data near...

  14. LBA-ECO CD-04 Soil Moisture Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports continuous high-resolution frequency-domain reflectometry measurements of soil moisture to 10 m depth and precipitation data near each of the...

  15. Monthly Summaries of Soil Temperature and Soil Moisture at Oil Contamination Sites in Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To determine the effects of oil spills on soil temperature and moisture, soil climate stations were built at existing contamination sites -- Scott Base, Marble...

  16. Soil CO2 Flux, Moisture, Temperature, and Litterfall, La Selva, Costa Rica, 2003-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates, soil moisture, relative humidity (RH), temperature, and litterfall from six types of...

  17. Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) Data Obtained During the Convection And Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LASE_CAMEX3 data are Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment water vapor and aerosol data measurements taken during the 3rd Convection and Moisture Experiment...

  18. Monthly Summaries of Soil Temperature and Soil Moisture in Mongolia, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains soil temperature and soil moisture data from the Delger (White Bloom) site in Mongolia. Other variables include wind speed, wind direction,...

  19. SMAP L3 Radiometer Global Daily 36 km EASE-Grid Soil Moisture V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily global composite of up-to 30 half-orbit L2_SM_P soil moisture estimates based on radiometer brightness temperature measurements acquired by the SMAP radiometer...

  20. LPRM/TMI/TRMM L2 Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 2 (swath) data set’s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  1. SMAP Enhanced L3 Radiometer Global Daily 9 km EASE-Grid Soil Moisture V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily global composite of up to 30 half-orbit L2_SM_P soil moisture estimates based on radiometer brightness temperature measurements acquired by the SMAP radiometer...

  2. SMAP L2 Radiometer Half-Orbit 36 km EASE-Grid Soil Moisture V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Passive soil moisture estimates onto a 36-km global Earth-fixed grid, based on radiometer measurements acquired when the SMAP spacecraft is travelling from North to...

  3. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, F

    2011-05-01

    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Global Soil Moisture from the Aquarius/SAC-D Satellite: Description and Initial Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Thomas; Cosh, Michael; Zhao, Tianjie; O'Neil, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Aquarius satellite observations over land offer a new resource for measuring soil moisture from space. Although Aquarius was designed for ocean salinity mapping, our objective in this investigation is to exploit the large amount of land observations that Aquarius acquires and extend the mission scope to include the retrieval of surface soil moisture. The soil moisture retrieval algorithm development focused on using only the radiometer data because of the extensive heritage of passive microwave retrieval of soil moisture. The single channel algorithm (SCA) was implemented using the Aquarius observations to estimate surface soil moisture. Aquarius radiometer observations from three beams (after bias/gain modification) along with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction model forecast surface temperatures were then used to retrieve soil moisture. Ancillary data inputs required for using the SCA are vegetation water content, land surface temperature, and several soil and vegetation parameters based on land cover classes. The resulting global spatial patterns of soil moisture were consistent with the precipitation climatology and with soil moisture from other satellite missions (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System and Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity). Initial assessments were performed using in situ observations from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Little Washita and Little River watershed soil moisture networks. Results showed good performance by the algorithm for these land surface conditions for the period of August 2011-June 2013 (rmse = 0.031 m(exp 3)/m(exp 3), Bias = -0.007 m(exp 3)/m(exp 3), and R = 0.855). This radiometer-only soil moisture product will serve as a baseline for continuing research on both active and combined passive-active soil moisture algorithms. The products are routinely available through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration data archive at the National Snow and Ice Data Center.

  5. Biokinematic characteristics of technique of swimming the crawl on the chest of the qualified swimmers with consequences of infantile cerebral paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Bosko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine biokinematic characteristics of technique of swimming the crawl on the chest of disabled sportsmen with consequences of infantile cerebral paralysis (ICP. Material & Methods: analysis and synthesis of data of scientific and methodical literature, video filming, computer video analysis, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: materials of the research of biokinematic characteristics of technique of swimming the crawl on the chest of disabled sportsmen with spastic diplegia and hemiparetic form, which are describing features of technique of swimming of disabled persons with consequences of infantile cerebral paralysis, are presented. Conclusions: it is recorded that the received results of the biomechanical analysis of movements of the qualified swimmers expand knowledge of regularities of physical actions of sportsmen with consequences ICP.

  6. Moisture Sorption in Porous Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    2007-01-01

    pressure and weight data can be "translated" to pore geometry by known physical relationships. In this context, analytical descriptions are important which can relate moisture condensation in pore structures to ambient vapor pressure. Such a description, the extended BET-relation, is presented...... physical parameters, the so-called BET-parameters: The heat property factor, C, and the pore surface, SBET (derived from the so-called uni-molecular moisture content uBET). A software ‘SORP07’ has been developed to handle any calculations made in the paper. For readers who have a special interest...... in the subject considered this software is available on request to the author. Keywords: Porous materials, moisture, adsorption, desorption, BET-parameters....

  7. Análise do tempo de reação a partir do desempenho motor de adolescentes praticantes do nado Crawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ribas Smidt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o tempo de reação simples (TRS e de escolha (TRE e o desempenho no nado crawl em diferentes níveis de aprendizagem. Fizeram parte deste estudo 26 sujeitos com idade média de 12.15 anos divididos em dois grupos: iniciantes (G1 e avançados (G2. Avaliou-se o tempo de reação (TR por meio de um software e o nado crawl com o Teste de Desempenho Motor do Nado Crawl. Os resultados demonstraram diferença no TRS com média de G1 = .341s e G2 = .271s (t = ˗ 3.670; p = .001; TE= 0.60 e no TRE com média de G1= .651s e G2= . 492s (t = ˗ 4.016; p = .001; TE= 0.63, indicando que no estágio avançado os aprendizes possuem melhores tempos de resposta. Uma correlação moderada encontrou-se entre G1 (iniciante e TRE (avançado (r = - 0.560; p = 0.046, e G2 (avançado e TRS (avançado (r = - 0.685; p = 0.010. Conclui-se que o TR é importante para o sucesso na performance do nado crawl uma vez que seu aprimoramento resulta em menores gastos de tempo em indivíduos em estágio avançado.

  8. Assessment of the SMAP Passive Soil Moisture Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Steven K.; Bindlish, Rajat; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Njoku, Eni; Jackson, Tom; Colliander, Andreas; Chen, Fan; Burgin, Mariko; Dunbar, Scott; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; hide

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission was launched on January 31, 2015. The observatory was developed to provide global mapping of high-resolution soil moisture and freeze-thaw state every two to three days using an L-band (active) radar and an L-band (passive) radiometer. After an irrecoverable hardware failure of the radar on July 7, 2015, the radiometer-only soil moisture product became the only operational Level 2 soil moisture product for SMAP. The product provides soil moisture estimates posted on a 36 kilometer Earth-fixed grid produced using brightness temperature observations from descending passes. Within months after the commissioning of the SMAP radiometer, the product was assessed to have attained preliminary (beta) science quality, and data were released to the public for evaluation in September 2015. The product is available from the NASA Distributed Active Archive Center at the National Snow and Ice Data Center. This paper provides a summary of the Level 2 Passive Soil Moisture Product (L2_SM_P) and its validation against in situ ground measurements collected from different data sources. Initial in situ comparisons conducted between March 31, 2015 and October 26, 2015, at a limited number of core validation sites (CVSs) and several hundred sparse network points, indicate that the V-pol Single Channel Algorithm (SCA-V) currently delivers the best performance among algorithms considered for L2_SM_P, based on several metrics. The accuracy of the soil moisture retrievals averaged over the CVSs was 0.038 cubic meter per cubic meter unbiased root-mean-square difference (ubRMSD), which approaches the SMAP mission requirement of 0.040 cubic meter per cubic meter.

  9. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...... the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account...

  10. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  11. Spatial variability of soil moisture retrieved by SMOS satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Mateusz; Marczewski, Wojciech; Usowicz, Boguslaw; Rojek, Edyta; Slominski, Jan; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2015-04-01

    Standard statistical methods assume that the analysed variables are independent. Since the majority of the processes observed in the nature are continuous in space and time, this assumption introduces a significant limitation for understanding the examined phenomena. In classical approach, valuable information about the locations of examined observations is completely lost. However, there is a branch of statistics, called geostatistics, which is the study of random variables, but taking into account the space where they occur. A common example of so-called "regionalized variable" is soil moisture. Using in situ methods it is difficult to estimate soil moisture distribution because it is often significantly diversified. Thanks to the geostatistical methods, by employing semivariance analysis, it is possible to get the information about the nature of spatial dependences and their lengths. Since the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission launch in 2009, the estimation of soil moisture spatial distribution for regional up to continental scale started to be much easier. In this study, the SMOS L2 data for Central and Eastern Europe were examined. The statistical and geostatistical features of moisture distributions of this area were studied for selected natural soil phenomena for 2010-2014 including: freezing, thawing, rainfalls (wetting), drying and drought. Those soil water "states" were recognized employing ground data from the agro-meteorological network of ground-based stations SWEX and SMUDP2 data from SMOS. After pixel regularization, without any upscaling, the geostatistical methods were applied directly on Discrete Global Grid (15-km resolution) in ISEA 4H9 projection, on which SMOS observations are reported. Analysis of spatial distribution of SMOS soil moisture, carried out for each data set, in most cases did not show significant trends. It was therefore assumed that each of the examined distributions of soil moisture in the adopted scale satisfies

  12. Chemotaxis of Caenorhabditis elegans in complex media: crawling, burrowing, 2D and 3D swimming, and controlled fluctuations hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amar; Bilbao, Alejandro; Rahman, Mizanur; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful genetic model, essential for studies in diverse areas ranging from behavior to neuroscience to aging, and locomotion and chemotaxis are the two key observables used. We combine our recently developed theory of nematode locomotion and turning maneuvers [Phys. Fluids 25, 081902 (2013)] with simple models of chemosensation to analyze nematode chemotaxis strategies in 2D and 3D environments. We show that the sharp-turn (pirouette) chemotaxis mechanism is efficient in diverse media; in particular, the nematode does not need to adjust the sensing or motion-control parameters to efficiently chemotax in 2D crawling, 3D burrowing, and 2D or 3D swimming. In contrast, the graduate-turn mechanism becomes inefficient in swimming, unless a phase-shift is introduced between the sensing signal and modulation of body wave to generate the gradual turn. We hypothesize that there exists a new ``controlled fluctuations'' chemotaxis mechanism, in which the nematode changes the intensity of undulation fluctuations to adjust the persistence length of the trajectory in response to a variation in chemoattractant concentration. Supported by NSF Grant No. CBET 1059745.

  13. The Effects of Leg Kick on Swimming Speed and Arm-Stroke Efficiency in the Front Crawl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Ricardo Peterson; de Souza Castro, Flávio Antônio; Figueiredo, Pedro; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Zamparo, Paola

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the effects of swimming pace on the relative contribution of leg kick to swimming speed and to compare arm-stroke efficiency (ηF) assessed when swimming with the arms only (SAO) and while swimming front crawl (FCS) using individual and fixed adjustments to arm-stroke and leg-kick contribution to forward speed. Twenty-nine master swimmers (21 men, 8 women) performed SAO and FCS at 6 self-selected speeds from very slow to maximal. The average swimming speed (v), stroke frequency (SF), and stroke length (SL) were assessed in the central 10 m of the swimming pool. Then, a 2nd-order polynomial regression was used to obtain values of v at paired SF. The percentage difference in v between FCS and SAO, for each paired SF, was used to calculate the relative contributions of the arm stroke (AC) and leg kick (LC) to FCS. Then ηF was calculated using the indirect "paddle-wheel" approach in 3 different ways: using general, individual, and no adjustments to AC. The LC increased with SF (and speed) from -1% ± 4% to 11% ± 1% (P arm stroke and leg kick should be individually estimated to reduce errors when calculating arm-stroke efficiency at different speeds and in different swimmers.

  14. Comparative analysis of active drag using the MAD system and an assisted towing method in front crawl swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosa, Daniel P; Toussaint, Huub M; Mason, Bruce R; Burkett, Brendan

    2012-12-01

    The measurement of active drag in swimming is a biomechanical challenge. This research compared two systems: (i) measuring active drag (MAD) and (ii) assisted towing method (ATM). Nine intermediate-level swimmers (19.7 ± 4.4 years) completed front crawl trials with both systems during one session. The mean (95% confidence interval) active drag for the two systems, at the same maximum speed of 1.68 m/s (1.40-1.87 m/s), was significantly different (p = .002) with a 55% variation in magnitude. The mean active drag was 82.3 N (74.0-90.6 N) for the MAD system and 148.3 N (127.5-169.1 N) for the ATM system. These differences were attributed to variations in swimming style within each measurement system. The inability to measure the early catch phase and kick, along with the fixed length and depth hand place requirement within the MAD system generated a different swimming technique, when compared with the more natural free swimming ATM protocol. A benefit of the MAD system was the measurement of active drag at various speeds. Conversely, the fixed towing speed of the ATM system allowed a natural self-selected arm stroke (plus kick) and the generation of an instantaneous force-time profile.

  15. Quantifying stroke coordination during the breathing action in front-crawl swimming using an instantaneous net drag force profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosa, Danielle P; Sayers, Mark G L; Burkett, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    This study used both an instantaneous net drag force profile and a symmetry timing to evaluate the effect of the breathing action on stroke coordination. Twenty elite swimmers completed a total of six randomised front-crawl towing trials: (i) three breathing trials and (ii) three non-breathing trials. The net drag force was measured using an assisted towing device mounted upon a Kistler force platform, and this equipment towed the swimmer at a constant speed. The net drag force profile was used to create a stroke symmetry index for each swimming trial. Analysis using the symmetry indices identified that the majority of participants demonstrated an asymmetrical instantaneous net drag force stroke profile in both the breathing and non-breathing conditions, despite no significant differences in the time from finger-tip entry to finger-tip exit. Within the breathing condition, the faster swimmers compared to the slower swimmers demonstrated a lesser percentage of overlap between stroke phases on their breathing stroke side. During the non-breathing condition, the faster participants compared to the slower swimmers recorded a reduction in the percentage of overlap between stroke phases and less duration in the underwater stroke on their breathing stroke side. This study identified that the majority of participants demonstrated an asymmetrical net drag force profile within both conditions; however, asymmetry was less prevalent when examining with only the timing symmetry index.

  16. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  17. Empirical Soil Moisture Estimation with Spaceborne L-band Polarimetric Radars: Aquarius, SMAP, and PALSAR-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, M. S.; van Zyl, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally, substantial ancillary data is needed to parametrize complex electromagnetic models to estimate soil moisture from polarimetric radar data. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) baseline radar soil moisture retrieval algorithm uses a data cube approach, where a cube of radar backscatter values is calculated using sophisticated models. In this work, we utilize the empirical approach by Kim and van Zyl (2009) which is an optional SMAP radar soil moisture retrieval algorithm; it expresses radar backscatter of a vegetated scene as a linear function of soil moisture, hence eliminating the need for ancillary data. We use 2.5 years of L-band Aquarius radar and radiometer derived soil moisture data to determine two coefficients of a linear model function on a global scale. These coefficients are used to estimate soil moisture with 2.5 months of L-band SMAP and L-band PALSAR-2 data. The estimated soil moisture is compared with the SMAP Level 2 radiometer-only soil moisture product; the global unbiased RMSE of the SMAP derived soil moisture corresponds to 0.06-0.07 cm3/cm3. In this study, we leverage the three diverse L-band radar data sets to investigate the impact of pixel size and pixel heterogeneity on soil moisture estimation performance. Pixel sizes range from 100 km for Aquarius, over 3, 9, 36 km for SMAP, to 10m for PALSAR-2. Furthermore, we observe seasonal variation in the radar sensitivity to soil moisture which allows the identification and quantification of seasonally changing vegetation. Utilizing this information, we further improve the estimation performance. The research described in this paper is supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2017. All rights reserved.

  18. Humidifiers: Air Moisture Eases Skin, Breathing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humidifiers: Air moisture eases skin, breathing symptoms Humidifiers can ease problems caused by dry air. But they need regular maintenance. Here ... that emit water vapor or steam to increase moisture levels in the air (humidity). There are several ...

  19. AMSR-E/Aqua surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km ascending V002 (LPRM_AMSRE_A_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR-E/Aqua surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km ascending V002 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil moisture,...

  20. 7 CFR 868.207 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.207 Section 868.207 Agriculture... Application of Standards § 868.207 Moisture. Water content in rough rice as determined by an approved device..., “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other equipment that is approved by the...

  1. 7 CFR 868.258 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.258 Section 868.258 Agriculture... Governing Application of Standards § 868.258 Moisture. Water content in brown rice for processing as... purpose of this paragraph, “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other...

  2. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1715 - Moisture control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Moisture control. 154.1715 Section 154.1715 Shipping... § 154.1715 Moisture control. When a vessel is carrying sulfur dioxide, the master shall ensure that: (a... a cargo tank carrying sulfur dioxide during discharging or tank breathing has a moisture content...

  4. Absolute moisture sensing for cotton bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the recent prevalence of moisture restoration systems in cotton gins, more and more gins are putting moisture back into the bales immediately before the packaging operation. There are two main reasons for this recent trend, the first is that it has been found that added moisture at the bale pre...

  5. Interior moisture design loads for residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Iain S. Walker

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology to obtain design values for indoor boundary conditions for moisture design calculations for residences. This is part of a larger effort by ASHRAE Standard Project Committee 160P, Design Criteria for Moisture Control in Buildings, to formulate criteria for moisture design loads, analysis techniques, and material and building performance...

  6. Nematode survival in relation to soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Established nematode populations are very persistent in the soil. It is known that they need sufficient soil moisture for movement, feeding and reproduction (fig. 5), and that there are adverse soil moisture conditions which they cannot survive. The influence of soil moisture on survival

  7. Reprodutibilidade da curva força-tempo do estilo "Crawl" em protocolo de curta duração Reliability of front-Crawl's force-time curve in a short duration protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Carvalho Barbosa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a reprodutibilidade dos parâmetros biomecânicos da curva força-tempo do estilo "Crawl" em um protocolo de 10 s no nado atado. Dezesseis nadadores do sexo masculino (idade: 20,4 ± 4,0 anos; tempo na prova de 100 m livre: 53,68 ± 0,99 s realizaram dois esforços máximos de 10 s no nado atado. Os parâmetros força pico, força média, taxa de desenvolvimento de força, impulso, duração da braçada, tempo para atingir a força pico e força mínima foram representados pela média de oito braçadas consecutivas obtidas em cada tentativa. Utilizou-se o teste t para observar as diferenças entre os esforços para cada parâmetro. O nível de significância estabelecido foi de 5%. A reprodutibilidade relativa foi medida pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson e a consistência entre as duas tentativas pelo coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI. A reprodutibilidade absoluta foi verificada pelo coeficiente de variação (CV. Não foi demonstrada diferença estatisticamente significante para nenhum parâmetro biomecânico quando comparados os dois esforços. Os elevados CCI e baixos CV indicaram alta consistência interna dos parâmetros analisados. Conclui-se que os parâmetros biomecânicos analisados a partir do nado atado são reprodutíveis quando empregado protocolo de curta duração o que demonstra a possibilidade de utilização do protocolo com alto grau de confiabilidade, por parte de treinadores e atletas.The aim of the present study was to analyze the reliability of biomechanical parameters of the front-Crawl's force-time curve in a 10-s protocol. Sixteen national competitive male swimmers (20.4 ± 4.0 years; 100-m best time: 53.68 ± 0.99 s performed two 10-s maximal efforts in tethered swimming. Peak force, average force, impulse, rate of force development, stroke duration, time to peak force and minimum force were represented by the mean of eight consecutive strokes obtained in each

  8. Opto-thermal moisture content and moisture depth profile measurements in organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, P.; Guo, X.; Cui, Y.Y.; Imhof, R.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Opto-thermal transient emission radiometry(OTTER) is a infrared remote sensing technique, which has been successfully used in in vivo skin moisture content and skin moisture depth profiling measurements.In present paper, we extend this moisture content measurement capability to analyze the moisture

  9. The soil moisture velocity equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Fred L.; Allen, Myron B.; Lai, Wencong; Zhu, Jianting; Seo, Mookwon; Douglas, Craig C.; Talbot, Cary A.

    2017-06-01

    Numerical solution of the one-dimensional Richards' equation is the recommended method for coupling groundwater to the atmosphere through the vadose zone in hyperresolution Earth system models, but requires fine spatial discretization, is computationally expensive, and may not converge due to mathematical degeneracy or when sharp wetting fronts occur. We transformed the one-dimensional Richards' equation into a new equation that describes the velocity of moisture content values in an unsaturated soil under the actions of capillarity and gravity. We call this new equation the Soil Moisture Velocity Equation (SMVE). The SMVE consists of two terms: an advection-like term that accounts for gravity and the integrated capillary drive of the wetting front, and a diffusion-like term that describes the flux due to the shape of the wetting front capillarity profile divided by the vertical gradient of the capillary pressure head. The SMVE advection-like term can be converted to a relatively easy to solve ordinary differential equation (ODE) using the method of lines and solved using a finite moisture-content discretization. Comparing against analytical solutions of Richards' equation shows that the SMVE advection-like term is >99% accurate for calculating infiltration fluxes neglecting the diffusion-like term. The ODE solution of the SMVE advection-like term is accurate, computationally efficient and reliable for calculating one-dimensional vadose zone fluxes in Earth system and large-scale coupled models of land-atmosphere interaction. It is also well suited for use in inverse problems such as when repeat remote sensing observations are used to infer soil hydraulic properties or soil moisture.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummarySince its original publication in 1922, the so-called Richards' equation has been the only rigorous way to couple groundwater to the land surface through the unsaturated zone that lies between the water table and land surface. The soil

  10. Evaluation of Moisture Buffer Effects by Performing Whole-Building Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Mendes, Nathan; K., Grau

    2004-01-01

    The humidity of rooms and the moisture conditions of materials in the enclosure of buildings depend much on each other because of the moisture exchange that takes place over the interior surfaces. These moisture influences also depend strongly on the thermal conditions of indoor spaces...... and enclosure elements of buildings. In turn, the moisture and humidity conditions have significant impact on how buildings are operated. In hot, humid climates, it may be desirable to keep the ventilation rates low in order to avoid too high indoor humidity, while in cold climates, ventilation can be used...... to keep the humidity low enough to ensure only a small risk of moisture damage in the building enclosure. In either case, the indoor humidity has a direct or indirect impact on the energy performance of the HVAC system of a building. To analyze this situation, it is today possible to benefit from some...

  11. Evaluation of Assimilated SMOS Soil Moisture Data for US Cropland Soil Moisture Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengwei; Sherstha, Ranjay; Crow, Wade; Bolten, John; Mladenova, Iva; Yu, Genong; Di, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensed soil moisture data can provide timely, objective and quantitative crop soil moisture information with broad geospatial coverage and sufficiently high resolution observations collected throughout the growing season. This paper evaluates the feasibility of using the assimilated ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS)Mission L-band passive microwave data for operational US cropland soil surface moisture monitoring. The assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are first categorized to match with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) survey based weekly soil moisture observation data, which are ordinal. The categorized assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are compared with NASSs survey-based weekly soil moisture data for consistency and robustness using visual assessment and rank correlation. Preliminary results indicate that the assimilated SMOS soil moisture data highly co-vary with NASS field observations across a large geographic area. Therefore, SMOS data have great potential for US operational cropland soil moisture monitoring.

  12. Moisture-driven fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2011-01-01

    process, suggesting that sealing the ends of timber logs while in the green moisture state could considerably reduce the development of end-cracks. The initial moisture content and the shrinkage properties of the wood varied markedly from pith to bark. The importance of taking material inhomogeneities......Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood...... and with the cracking behaviour of Norway spruce discs. The spruce was dried from green moisture content down to equilibrium moisture content at 23°C and 64% relative humidity. Moisture-related strains and crack development were measured using a digital image correlation system, Aramis. The moisture gradient...

  13. Four decades of microwave satellite soil moisture observations : Part 2. Product validation and inter-satellite comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karthikeyan, L.; Pan, Ming; Wanders, Niko; Kumar, D. Nagesh; Wood, Eric F.

    2017-01-01

    Soil moisture is widely recognized as an important land surface variable that provides a deeper knowledge of land-atmosphere interactions and climate change. Space-borne passive and active microwave sensors have become valuable and essential sources of soil moisture observations at global scales.

  14. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission Status and Science Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Entin, Jared K.

    2016-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observatory was launched January 31, 2015, and its L-band radiometer and radar instruments became operational since mid-April 2015. The SMAP radiometer has been operating flawlessly, but the radar transmitter ceased operation on July 7. This paper provides a status summary of the calibration and validation of the SMAP instruments and the quality assessment of its soil moisture and freeze/thaw products. Since the loss of the radar in July, the SMAP project has been conducting two parallel activities to enhance the resolution of soil moisture products. One of them explores the Backus Gilbert optimum interpolation and de-convolution techniques based on the oversampling characteristics of the SMAP radiometer. The other investigates the disaggregation of the SMAP radiometer data using the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic radar data to obtain soil moisture products at about 1 to 3 kilometers resolution. In addition, SMAP's L-band data have found many new applications, including vegetation opacity, ocean surface salinity and hurricane ocean surface wind mapping. Highlights of these new applications will be provided.

  15. CAN BLOOD GAS AND ACID-BASE PARAMETERS AT MAXIMAL 200 METERS FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING BE DIFFERENT BETWEEN FORMER COMPETITIVE AND RECREATIONAL SWIMMERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Kapus

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether maximal 200 m front crawl swimming strategies and breathing patterns influenced blood gas and acid-base parameters in a manner which gives advantage to former competitive swimmers in comparison with their recreational colleagues. Twelve former competitive male swimmers (the CS group and nine recreational male swimmers (the RS group performed a maximal 200 m front crawl swimming with self- selected breathing pattern. Stroke rate (SR and breathing frequency (BF were measured during the swimming test. Measures also included blood lactate concentration ([LA] and parameters of blood acid-base status before and during the first minute after the swimming test. The CS group swam faster then the RS group. Both groups have similar and steady SR throughout the swimming test. This was not matched by similar BF in the CS group but matched it very well in the RS group (r = 0.89. At the beginning of swimming test the CS group had low BF, but they increased it throughout the swimming test. The BF at the RS group remained constant with only mirror variations throughout the swimming test. Such difference in velocity and breathing resulted in maintaining of blood Po2 from hypoxia and Pco2 from hypercapnia. This was similar in both groups. [LA] increased faster in the CS group than in the RS group. On the contrary, the rate of pH decrease remained similar in both groups. The former competitive swimmers showed three possible advantages in comparison to recreational swimmers during maximal 200 m front crawl swimming: a more dynamic and precise regulation of breathing, more powerful bicarbonate buffering system and better synchronization between breathing needs and breathing response during swimming

  16. Microstructure and ultrastructure of alfalfa seeds with different moisture contents after satellite carrying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Peng; Li Jian; Zhang Yunwei; Liu Ruohan

    2009-01-01

    Seeds with different moisture contents (9%, 11%, 13%, 15%, 17%) of Medicago sativa L. cv. Zhongmu No. 1 were boarded on the Shijian-8 satellite and then the microscopic and ultrastructure were observed. The results showed that spongy tissue and leaf palisade of plant after space flight were different to their control. The impact of on spongy cells was more obvious than the palisade cells; greater chloroplasts, empty and crack overflow mitochondria were observed. More starch grain were found at the samples cultured from 15% and 17% moisture content treatment, which was analyzed that starch grains in leaf cell was affected by the moisture content of seeds. (authors)

  17. An impact of an enriched visual - verbal information remittance, regarding crawl style swimming, learning and teaching effects basing on AWF students in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaca M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to define an enriched impact, visual -verbal information remittance in a swimming teaching process affecting free style progression. Research was done in academic year 2007/2008 and involved 158 students from AWF in Cracow. The main exploratory method was a natural pedagogic experiment. Experimental factor was a teaching method relied on an enriched visual - verbal information remittance. Acquired research scores reveal that the apply teaching method focused on the auto observation and self-assessment of one's own skills (with the use of parallel display, improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning crawl technique process.

  18. SMAP Radiometer Soil Moisture Downscaling in CONUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, B.; Lakshmi, V.; Bindlish, R.; Jackson, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing technology has been providing soil moisture observations for the study of the global hydrological cycle for land-air interactions, ecology and agriculture. Passive microwave sensors that have provided operational products include AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System), AMSR2 (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2), SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), as and SMAP (Soil Moisture Active/Passive). The SMAP radiometer provides soil moisture with a grid resolution of 9 km. However, higher spatial resolution soil moisture is still required for various applications in weather, agriculture and watershed studies. This study focuses on providing a higher resolution product by downscaling the SMAP soil moisture over CONUS (Contiguous United States). This algorithm is based on the long term thermal inertia relationship between daily temperature variation and average soil moisture modulated by vegetation. This relationship is modeled using the variables from the NLDAS (North America Land Data Assimilation System) and LTDR (Land Long Term Data Record) from 1981-2016 and is applied to calculate 1 km soil moisture from MODIS land data products and then used to downscale SMAP Level-3 9 km radiometer soil moisture to 1 km over CONUS. The downscaled results are evaluated by comparison with in situ observations from ISMN (International Soil Moisture Network), SMAPVEX (SMAP Validation Experiment), MESONET (Mesoscale Network), Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) and other established networks.

  19. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  20. LBA-ECO CD-05 Understory Fuel Stick Moisture, km 67 Site, Para, Brazil: 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains moisture content measurements for fuel sticks located in the forest understory of the rainfall exclusion experimental site, Tapajos National...

  1. LPRM/AMSR2/GCOM-W1 L2 Downscaled Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 2 (swath) data set¿s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  2. LPRM/AMSR2/GCOM-W1 L3 Descending Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 3 (gridded) data set¿s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  3. LPRM/AMSR2/GCOM-W1 L3 Ascending Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 3 (gridded) data set¿s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  4. AMSR-E/Aqua L2B Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Parms, & QC EASE-Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-2B land surface product includes surface soil moisture and vegetation/roughness water content interpretive information on a global 25 km...

  5. LPRM/AMSR2/GCOM-W1 L2 Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 2 (swath) data set¿s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  6. LPRM/WindSat/Coriolis L3 Night Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 3 (gridded) data set¿s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  7. LPRM/WindSat/Coriolis L3 Day Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 3 (gridded) data set¿s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  8. SMAP L3 Radar/Radiometer Global Daily 9 km EASE-Grid Soil Moisture V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily global composite of up-to 15 half-orbit L2_SM_AP soil moisture estimates based on radiometer brightness temperature and radar backscatter measurements acquired...

  9. LPRM/AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Ascending Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 3 (gridded) data set’s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  10. LPRM/AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Descending Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 3 (gridded) data set’s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  11. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Surface Soil Moisture, Interpretive Parms, & QC EASE-Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 daily land product includes surface soil moisture, vegetation/roughness water content interpretive information, and TBs on global 25 km...

  12. LBA-ECO CD-05 Understory Fuel Stick Moisture, km 67 Site, Para, Brazil: 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains moisture content measurements for fuel sticks located in the forest understory of the rainfall exclusion experimental site, Tapajos...

  13. De-noising of microwave satellite soil moisture time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun-Hsu; Ryu, Dongryeol; Western, Andrew; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The use of satellite soil moisture data for scientific and operational hydrologic, meteorological and climatological applications is advancing rapidly due to increasing capability and temporal coverage of current and future missions. However evaluation studies of various existing remotely-sensed soil moisture products from these space-borne microwave sensors, which include AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer) on Aqua satellite, SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission and ASCAT (Advanced Scatterometer) on MetOp-A satellite, found them to be significantly different from in-situ observations, showing large biases and different dynamic ranges and temporal patterns (e.g., Albergel et al., 2012; Su et al., 2012). Moreover they can have different error profiles in terms of bias, variance and correlations and their performance varies with land surface characteristics (Su et al., 2012). These severely impede the effort to use soil moisture retrievals from multiple sensors concurrently in land surface modelling, cross-validation and multi-satellite blending. The issue of systematic errors present in data sets should be addressed prior to renormalisation of the data for blending and data assimilation. Triple collocation estimation technique has successfully yielded realistic error estimates (Scipal et al., 2008), but this method relies on availability of large number of coincident data from multiple independent satellite data sets. In this work, we propose, i) a conceptual framework for distinguishing systematic periodic errors in the form of false spectral resonances from non-systematic errors (stochastic noise) in remotely-sensed soil moisture data in the frequency domain; and ii) the use of digital filters to reduce the variance- and correlation-related errors in satellite data. In this work, we focus on the VUA-NASA (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam with NASA) AMSR-E, CATDS (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, CNES) SMOS and TUWIEN (Vienna University of

  14. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić; Vesna Lelas; Zoran Herceg; Marija Badanjak

    2010-01-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food) and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as...

  15. Piecing together the puzzle: Improving event content coverage for real-time sub-event detection using adaptive microblog crawling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarchuk, Laurissa; Wang, Xinyue; Poslad, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    In an age when people are predisposed to report real-world events through their social media accounts, many researchers value the benefits of mining user generated content from social media. Compared with the traditional news media, social media services, such as Twitter, can provide more complete and timely information about the real-world events. However events are often like a puzzle and in order to solve the puzzle/understand the event, we must identify all the sub-events or pieces. Existing Twitter event monitoring systems for sub-event detection and summarization currently typically analyse events based on partial data as conventional data collection methodologies are unable to collect comprehensive event data. This results in existing systems often being unable to report sub-events in real-time and often in completely missing sub-events or pieces in the broader event puzzle. This paper proposes a Sub-event detection by real-TIme Microblog monitoring (STRIM) framework that leverages the temporal feature of an expanded set of news-worthy event content. In order to more comprehensively and accurately identify sub-events this framework first proposes the use of adaptive microblog crawling. Our adaptive microblog crawler is capable of increasing the coverage of events while minimizing the amount of non-relevant content. We then propose a stream division methodology that can be accomplished in real time so that the temporal features of the expanded event streams can be analysed by a burst detection algorithm. In the final steps of the framework, the content features are extracted from each divided stream and recombined to provide a final summarization of the sub-events. The proposed framework is evaluated against traditional event detection using event recall and event precision metrics. Results show that improving the quality and coverage of event contents contribute to better event detection by identifying additional valid sub-events. The novel combination of

  16. Relações entre desempenho em 200m nado crawl e variáveis cinéticas do teste de nado estacionário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Antônio de Souza Castro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é relacionar o desempenho (DES em 200m nado crawl e variáveis cinéticas do teste de nado estacionário (TNE: impulso total (IMP, taxa de variação de impulso (TIMP e pico de força (PF. De 12 nadadores competitivos (idade média de 18,3 ± 2,9 anos foram obtidos IMP, TIMP, PF e DES em 200m nado crawl (este transformado em unidades pontuais. Com o desempenho (711,8 ± 29,1 pontos, o IMP (2663,6 ± 150,6 N·s apresentou correlação (r = 0,876; p < 0,001, enquanto a TIMP (-24,45 ± 14,38 N e o PF (217,48 ± 29,10 N não apresentaram correlações (r = -0,553; p = 0,062 e r = -0,19; p= 0,714; respectivamente. O impulso total obtido no TNE pode ser utilizado como parâmetro de avaliação da capacidade de força aplicada ao longo do tempo e como preditor do desempenho na prova de 200m nado livre.

  17. Portable neutron moisture gage for the moisture determination of structure parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnisch, M.

    1985-01-01

    For determining the moisture of structure parts during building or before repairing a portable neutron moisture gage consisting of a neutron probe and pulse analyzer has been developed. The measuring process, calibration, and prerequisites of application are briefly discussed

  18. Validation of soil moisture ocean salinity (SMOS) satellite soil moisture products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface soil moisture state controls the partitioning of precipitation into infiltration and runoff. High-resolution observations of soil moisture will lead to improved flood forecasts, especially for intermediate to large watersheds where most flood damage occurs. Soil moisture is also key in d...

  19. The international soil moisture network: A data hosting facility for global in situ soil moisture measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    In situ measurements of soil moisture are invaluable for calibrating and validating land surface models and satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. In addition, long-term time series of in situ soil moisture measurements themselves can reveal trends in the water cycle related to climate or land co...

  20. Probing bias reduction to improve comparability of lint cotton water and moisture contents at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) reference method is specific for water in lint cotton and was designed for samples conditioned to moisture equilibrium, thus limiting its biases. There is a standard method for moisture content – weight loss – by oven drying (OD), just not for equilibrium moisture c...

  1. Incorporation of Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures in the ECMWF Soil Moisture Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Muñoz-Sabater

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available For more than a decade, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF has used in-situ observations of 2 m temperature and 2 m relative humidity to operationally constrain the temporal evolution of model soil moisture. These observations are not available everywhere and they are indirectly linked to the state of the surface, so under various circumstances, such as weak radiative forcing or strong advection, they cannot be used as a proxy for soil moisture reinitialization in numerical weather prediction. Recently, the ECMWF soil moisture analysis has been updated to be able to account for the information provided by microwave brightness temperatures from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission of the European Space Agency (ESA. This is the first time that ECMWF uses direct information of the soil emission from passive microwave data to globally adjust the estimation of soil moisture by a land-surface model. This paper presents a novel version of the ECMWF Extended Kalman Filter soil moisture analysis to account for remotely sensed passive microwave data. It also discusses the advantages of assimilating direct satellite radiances compared to current soil moisture products, with a view to an operational implementation. A simple assimilation case study at global scale highlights the potential benefits and obstacles of using this new type of information in a global coupled land-atmospheric model.

  2. An Overview of Production and Validation of the SMAP Passive Soil Moisture Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S.; O'Neill, P.; Njoku, E.; Jackson, T.; Bindlish, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is an L-band mission scheduled for launch in Jan. 2015. The SMAP instruments consist of a radar and a radiometer to obtain complementary information from space for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state research and applications. By utilizing novel designs in antenna construction, retrieval algorithms, and acquisition hardware, SMAP provides a capability for global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with unprecedented accuracy, resolution, and coverage. This improvement in hydrosphere state measurement is expected to advance our understanding of the processes that link the terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles, improve our capability in flood prediction and drought monitoring, and enhance our skills in weather and climate forecast. For swath-based soil moisture measurement, SMAP generates three operational geophysical data products: (1) the radiometer-only soil moisture product (L2_SM_P) posted at 36-kilometer resolution, (2) the radar-only soil moisture product (L2_SM_A) posted at 3-kilometers resolution, and (3) the radar-radiometer combined soil moisture product (L2_SM_AP) posted at 9-kilometers resolution. Each product draws on the strengths of the underlying sensor(s) and plays a unique role in hydroclimatological and hydrometeorological applications. A full suite of SMAP data products is given in Table 1.

  3. Run, Walk, Crawl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Rachee; Ghobadi, Monia; Förster, Klaus-Tycho

    2017-01-01

    Fiber optic cables are the workhorses of today's Internet services. Operators spend millions of dollars to purchase, lease and maintain their optical backbone, making the efficiency of fiber essential to their business. In this work, we make a case for adapting the capacity of optical links based...... on their signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We show two immediate benefits of this by analyzing the SNR of over 2000 links in an optical backbone over a period of 2.5 years. First, the capacity of 80% of IP links can be augmented by 75% or more, leading to an overall capacity gain of 145 Tbps in a large optical...... backbone in North America. Second, at least 25% of link failures are caused by SNR degradation, not complete loss-of-light, highlighting the opportunity to replace link failures by link flaps wherein the capacity is adjusted according to the new SNR. Given these benefits, we identify the disconnect between...

  4. Estimation of soil moisture and its effect on soil thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil moisture is an important parameter of the earth's climate system. Regression model for estimation of soil moisture at various depths has been developed using the amount of moisture near the surface layer. The estimated values of soil moisture are tested with the measured moisture values and it is found that the ...

  5. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This research conducted a field trial to test the sensor in a commercial...

  6. 7 CFR 868.307 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.307 Section 868.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Application of Standards § 868.307 Moisture. Water content in milled rice as determined by an FGIS approved...

  7. Microwave moisture sensing of wet bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensing of moisture in very wet lint bales is unique due to the fact that moisture distribution is typically non-uniform and can in some instances be highly localized. This issue is even further complicated by the use of a sensor that reads only a portion of the bale and/or with a sensor that provid...

  8. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed at the USDA, ARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This res...

  9. Moisture detection in composites by terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Paweł; Pałka, Norbert; Opoka, Szymon; Wandowski, Tomasz; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2015-07-01

    The application of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) in many branches of industry has been increasing steadily. Many research works focus on damage identification for structures made out of such materials. However, not only delaminations, cracks or other damage can have a negative influence of GFRP parts performance. Previous research proved that fluid absorption influences the mechanical performance of composites. GFRP parts can be contaminated by moisture or release agent during manufacturing, while fuel, hydraulic fluid and moisture ingression into the composite can be the in-service treats. In the reported research authors focus on moisture detection. There are numerous sources of moisture such as post manufacturing NDT inspection with ultrasonics coupled by water or exposition to moisture during transportation and in service. An NDT tool used for the research is a terahertz (THz) spectrometer. The device uses an electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz range (0.1-3 THz) and allows for reflection and transmission measurements. The spectrometer is equipped with moving table that allows for XY scanning of large objects such as GFRP panels. In the conducted research refractive indices were experimentally extracted from the materials of interest (water and GFRP). Time signals as well as C-scans were analysed for samples with moisture contamination. In order to be sure that the observed effects are related to moisture contamination reference measurements were conducted. The obtained results showed that the THz NDT technique can detect moisture hidden under a GFRP with multiple layers.

  10. Comparison of moisture management methods for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different moisture management methods were compared for biodegradation efficiency in sandy and organic soils. The conventional method consisted in maintaining the soil moisture at approximately 50 to 75% field capacity accompanied by daily aeration and mixing. In the test method, the soil was allowed to dry out ...

  11. Soil moisture from operational meteorological satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W; Naeimi, V.; Scipal, K.; De Jeu, R.A.M.; Fernandez, M.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, unforeseen advances in monitoring soil moisture from operational satellite platforms have been made, mainly due to improved geophysical retrieval methods. In this study, four recently published soil-moisture datasets are compared with in-situ observations from the REMEDHUS

  12. Soil moisture from Operational Meteorological Satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.; Naeimi, V.; Scipal, K.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, unforeseen advances in monitoring soil moisture from operational satellite platforms have been made, mainly due to improved geophysical retrieval methods. In this study, four recently published soil-moisture datasets are compared with in-situ observations from the REMEDHUS

  13. Heat and moisture exchanger: importance of humidification in anaesthesia and ventilatory breathing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Vandana

    2008-08-01

    Adequate humidification is vital to maintain homeostasis of the airway. Heat and moisture exchangers conserve some of the exhaled water, heat and return them to inspired gases. Many heat and moisture exchangers also perfom bacterial/viral filtration and prevent inhalation of small particles. Heat and moisture exchangers are also called condenser humidifier, artificial nose, etc. Most of them are disposable devices with exchanging medium enclosed in a plastic housing. For adult and paediatric age group different dead space types are available. Heat and moisture exchangers are helpful during anaesthesia and ventilatory breathing system. To reduce the damage of the upper respiratory tract through cooling and dehydration inspiratory air can be heated and humidified, thus preventing the serious complications.

  14. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Adrian Eng-Choon; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements. (paper)

  15. Moisture management properties of Cupro knitted fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durur, G.; Oner, E.; Gunduz, G.

    2017-10-01

    On the purpose of analysing the moisture management behaviour of Cupro blend knitted fabrics made of Ne 40/1 and Ne 56/1 cotton/Cupro blend yarns, which have single jersey, 1x1 rib and interlock knitting types were systematically produced. Multi-dimensional liquid transport properties of the produced fabric were measured on the Moisture Management Tester (MMT). The air permeability and some structural properties of the fabrics were also measured, and the results were evaluated taking into account moisture management properties. According to results, it is observed that moisture management capacity and permeability of Cupro blends produced from finer yarns were higher than those of fabrics from coarse count yarns. Generally, Cupro blend knitted fabrics showed good moisture management properties.

  16. Calibration of Soil Moisture Measurement Using Pr2 Moisture Meter and Gravimetric-Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research study strongly focused on creating strong mechanism for measuring and evaluating soil moisture content comparing PR2 capacitance moisture meter and gravimetric approach. PR2 moisture meter shows a better performance accuracy of ± 6%; 0.06 m 3 /m 3 and intercept a0 =1.8; indicating the field is heavy clay. It measures to 1000 mm depth with high precision; while realistic result could not be obtained from gravimetric method at this measuring depth. Therefore, effective soil moisture measuring, monitoring and evaluation can be achieved with PR2 moisture meter.

  17. Effect of Initial Moisture on the Adsorption and Desorption Equilibrium Moisture Contents of Polished Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Satoshi; Amaratunga, K.S.P.; Tanaka, Fumihiko; Hori, Yoshiaki; 村田, 敏; 田中, 史彦; 堀, 善昭

    1993-01-01

    The moisture adsorption and desorption properties for polished rice have been measured using a dynamic ventilatory method. Air temperatures of 10,20,30 and 40℃, relative humidities of 50,60,70,80 and 90%, and five levels of initial moisture contents ranging approximately from 8% to 19% d.b. were used to obtain moisture content data. The value of equilibrium moisture content for each initial moisture content at the range of air condition was determined by a method of nonlinear least squares. R...

  18. Evaluation of SMAP, SMOS, and AMSR2 soil moisture retrievals against observations from two networks on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingying; Yang, Kun; Qin, Jun; Cui, Qian; Lu, Hui; La, Zhu; Han, Menglei; Tang, Wenjun

    2017-06-01

    Two soil moisture and temperature monitoring networks were established in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during recent years. One is located in a semihumid area (Naqu) of central TP and consists of 56 soil moisture and temperature measurement (SMTM) stations, the other is located in a semiarid area (Pali) of southern TP and consists of 21 SMTM stations. In this study, the station data are used to evaluate soil moisture retrievals from three microwave satellites, i.e., the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) of NASA, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) of European Space Agency, and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. It is found that the SMAP retrievals tend to underestimate soil moisture in the two TP networks, mainly due to the negative biases in the effective soil temperature that is derived from a climate model. However, the SMAP product well captures the amplitude and temporal variation of the soil moisture. The SMOS product performs well in Naqu network with acceptable error metrics but fails to capture the temporal variation of soil moisture in Pali network. The AMSR2 products evidently exaggerate the temporal variation of soil moisture in Naqu network but dampen it in Pali network, suggesting its retrieval algorithm needs further improvements for the TP.

  19. MoisturEC: a new R program for moisture content estimation from electrical conductivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2018-01-01

    Noninvasive geophysical estimation of soil moisture has potential to improve understanding of flow in the unsaturated zone for problems involving agricultural management, aquifer recharge, and optimization of landfill design and operations. In principle, several geophysical techniques (e.g., electrical resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and nuclear magnetic resonance) offer insight into soil moisture, but data‐analysis tools are needed to “translate” geophysical results into estimates of soil moisture, consistent with (1) the uncertainty of this translation and (2) direct measurements of moisture. Although geostatistical frameworks exist for this purpose, straightforward and user‐friendly tools are required to fully capitalize on the potential of geophysical information for soil‐moisture estimation. Here, we present MoisturEC, a simple R program with a graphical user interface to convert measurements or images of electrical conductivity (EC) to soil moisture. Input includes EC values, point moisture estimates, and definition of either Archie parameters (based on experimental or literature values) or empirical data of moisture vs. EC. The program produces two‐ and three‐dimensional images of moisture based on available EC and direct measurements of moisture, interpolating between measurement locations using a Tikhonov regularization approach.

  20. MoisturEC: A New R Program for Moisture Content Estimation from Electrical Conductivity Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Werkema, Dale; Lane, John W

    2018-03-06

    Noninvasive geophysical estimation of soil moisture has potential to improve understanding of flow in the unsaturated zone for problems involving agricultural management, aquifer recharge, and optimization of landfill design and operations. In principle, several geophysical techniques (e.g., electrical resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and nuclear magnetic resonance) offer insight into soil moisture, but data-analysis tools are needed to "translate" geophysical results into estimates of soil moisture, consistent with (1) the uncertainty of this translation and (2) direct measurements of moisture. Although geostatistical frameworks exist for this purpose, straightforward and user-friendly tools are required to fully capitalize on the potential of geophysical information for soil-moisture estimation. Here, we present MoisturEC, a simple R program with a graphical user interface to convert measurements or images of electrical conductivity (EC) to soil moisture. Input includes EC values, point moisture estimates, and definition of either Archie parameters (based on experimental or literature values) or empirical data of moisture vs. EC. The program produces two- and three-dimensional images of moisture based on available EC and direct measurements of moisture, interpolating between measurement locations using a Tikhonov regularization approach. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Binned level-3 Sea Surface Salinity from the European Space Agency Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) in support of the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) data quality monitoring system (DQMS) from 2010-06-01 to 2016-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0151732)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data quality monitoring system (DQMS) for the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellites level-2 sea surface salinity (SSS) swath data was developed by the...

  2. Global SMOS Soil Moisture Retrievals using the Land Parameter Retrieval Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schalie, Robin; de Jeu, Richard; Kerr, Yann; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nemesio; Alyaari, Amen; Drusch, Matthias; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Dolman, Han

    2015-04-01

    The Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) is a methodology that retrieves soil moisture from low frequency dual polarized microwave measurements and has been extensively tested on C-, X- and Ku-band frequencies. Its performance on L-band is tested here by using observations from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. These observations have potential advantages compared to higher frequencies: a low sensitivity to cloud and vegetation contamination, an increased thermal sampling depth and a greater sensitivity to soil moisture fluctuations. These features make it desirable to add SMOS-derived soil moisture retrievals to the existing European Space Agency (ESA) long-term climatological soil moisture data record, to be harmonized with other passive microwave soil moisture estimates from the LPRM. SMOS measures brightness temperature at a range of incidence angles, different incidence angles bins (42.5°, 47.5°, 52.5° and 57.5°) were combined and tested for both ascending and descending swaths. Two SMOS LPRM algorithm parameters, the single scattering albedo and roughness, were optimized against soil moisture from MERRA-Land, ERA-Interim/Land and AMSR-E LPRM over the period of July 2010 to December 2010. The SMOS LPRM soil moisture retrievals, using the optimized parameters, were then evaluated against the latest SMOS Level 3 (L3) soil moisture product and a set of in situ networks over the period of July 2010 to December 2013. The evaluation against SMOS L3 result in very high correlations over many parts of the world (>0.85), which is in line with earlier findings when SMOS LPRM was compared to SMOS L3 over the OzNet sites in southeast Australia. This study is part of an ESA project (de Jeu et al., this conference, session CL 5.7).

  3. Near Surface Soil Moisture Controls Beyond the Darcy Support Scale: A Remote Sensing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, B.; Gaur, N.

    2014-12-01

    Variability observed in near-surface soil moisture is a function of spatial and temporal scale and an understanding of the same is required in numerous environmental and hydrological applications. Past literature has focused largely on the Darcy support scale of measurement for generating knowledge about soil moisture variability and the factors causing it. With the advent of a remote sensing era, it is essential to develop a comprehensive understanding of soil moisture variability and the factors creating it at the remote sensing footprint scale. This understanding will facilitate knowledge transfer between scales which remains an area of active research. In this study, we have presented the hierarchy of controls that physical factors namely, soil, vegetation and topography exert on soil moisture distributions from airborne remote sensor footprint scale (~800 m) to a satellite footprint scale (12800 m) across 3 hydro-climates- humid (Iowa), sub-humid (Oklahoma) and semi-arid (Arizona). We evaluated the effect of physical factors on soil moisture variability at coarse spatial support scales but fine (daily) temporal spacing scales which are typical of remotely sensed soil moisture data. The hierarchy or ranking scheme defined in the study is a function of the areal extent of controls of the different physical factors and the magnitude of their effect in creating spatial variability of soil moisture. We found that even though the areal influence of soil on soil moisture variability remained significant at all scales, it decreased as we went from airborne scale to coarser scales whereas the influence of topography and vegetation increased for all three hydro-climates. The magnitude of the effect of these factors, however, was dependent on antecedent soil moisture conditions and hydro-climate.

  4. NOAA Soil Moisture Products System (SMOPS) Daily Blended Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Soil Moisture Operational Products System (SMOPS) combines soil moisture retrievals from multiple satellite sensors to provide a global soil moisture map with...

  5. Data Assimilation to Extract Soil Moisture Information from SMAP Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kolassa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares different methods to extract soil moisture information through the assimilation of Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP observations. Neural network (NN and physically-based SMAP soil moisture retrievals were assimilated into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Catchment model over the contiguous United States for April 2015 to March 2017. By construction, the NN retrievals are consistent with the global climatology of the Catchment model soil moisture. Assimilating the NN retrievals without further bias correction improved the surface and root zone correlations against in situ measurements from 14 SMAP core validation sites (CVS by 0.12 and 0.16, respectively, over the model-only skill, and reduced the surface and root zone unbiased root-mean-square error (ubRMSE by 0.005 m 3 m − 3 and 0.001 m 3 m − 3 , respectively. The assimilation reduced the average absolute surface bias against the CVS measurements by 0.009 m 3 m − 3 , but increased the root zone bias by 0.014 m 3 m − 3 . Assimilating the NN retrievals after a localized bias correction yielded slightly lower surface correlation and ubRMSE improvements, but generally the skill differences were small. The assimilation of the physically-based SMAP Level-2 passive soil moisture retrievals using a global bias correction yielded similar skill improvements, as did the direct assimilation of locally bias-corrected SMAP brightness temperatures within the SMAP Level-4 soil moisture algorithm. The results show that global bias correction methods may be able to extract more independent information from SMAP observations compared to local bias correction methods, but without accurate quality control and observation error characterization they are also more vulnerable to adverse effects from retrieval errors related to uncertainties in the retrieval inputs and algorithm. Furthermore, the results show that using global bias correction approaches without a

  6. Impact of a Merged Precipitation Data on Global Soil Moisture Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runhua; Houser, Paul R.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate soil moisture information has proved to be important to climate simulations and climate and weather forecasts. However, many difficulties exist that limit our understanding of soil moisture distribution and variability. One of them is the lack of accurate precipitation with appropriate spatial and temporal resolution. Precipitation as an input forcing to the land surface greatly influences soil moisture characteristics and variability. To improve precipitation data quality, an algorithm has been developed to generate a spatially and temporally continuous 3-hourly global precipitation data for the period of 1987 to present. This precipitation product is a combination of the precipitation from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) with the Goddard Earth Observing System-1 Data Assimilation System (GEOS-1 DAS) employing a Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS). In this study we investigate the impact of this merged/analyzed precipitation data on the global soil moisture variability using an Off-line Land-surface GEOS Assimilation (OLGA) system. Two OLGA integrations starting from 1987 to 1993 are performed forced with the analyzed and GEOS-1 DAS precipitation respectively. We examine the spatial and temporal characteristics of soil moisture variability in response to the analyzed precipitation. The influence of this merged precipitation on the soil moisture variability and regional hydrological budget is estimated throughout the comparison with the results forced with the GEOS-1 DAS precipitation only. In the OLGA the sut@-grid scale horizontal heterogeneity is explicitly represented on the tile space. This provides a means to assess the role of the surface moisture heterogeneity in the interaction with the surface atmosphere and surface hydrological budget, and to validate OLGA results at tile space with in situ observation. ABRACOS (Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study), FIFE (First ISLSCP Field Experiment) I and HAPEX data will

  7. Surface moisture estimation in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yitong

    Surface moisture is an important parameter because it modifies urban microclimate and surface layer meteorology. The primary objectives of this paper are: 1) to analyze the impact of surface roughness from buildings on surface moisture in urban areas; and 2) to quantify the impact of surface roughness resulting from urban trees on surface moisture. To achieve the objectives, two hypotheses were tested: 1) the distribution of surface moisture is associated with the structural complexity of buildings in urban areas; and 2) The distribution and change of surface moisture is associated with the distribution and vigor of urban trees. The study area is Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. In the part of the morphology of urban trees, Warren Township was selected due to the limitation of tree inventory data. To test the hypotheses, the research design was made to extract the aerodynamic parameters, such as frontal areas, roughness length and displacement height of buildings and trees from Terrestrial and Airborne LiDAR data, then to input the aerodynamic parameters into the urban surface energy balance model. The methodology was developed for comparing the impact of aerodynamic parameters from LiDAR data with the parameters that were derived empirically from land use and land cover data. The analytical procedures are discussed below: 1) to capture the spatial and temporal variation of surface moisture, daily and hourly Land Surface Temperature (LST) were downscaled from 4 km to 1 km, and 960 m to 30 m, respectively, by regression between LST and various components that impact LST; 2) to estimate surface moisture, namely soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET), land surfaces were classified into soil, vegetation, and impervious surfaces, using Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA); 3) aerodynamic parameters of buildings and trees were extracted from Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR data; 4) the Temperature-Vegetation-Index (TVX) method, and the Two-Source-Energy-Balance (TSEB

  8. Moisture-induced stresses in glulam frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Gislason, Oskar V

    2016-01-01

    Wood is a hygroscopic and moisture-sensitive material that seeks to achieve equilibrium moisture content (EMC) with its surrounding environment. For softwood timber structures exposed to variations in climate throughout their service life, this behaviour results in variable moisture-content gradi......Wood is a hygroscopic and moisture-sensitive material that seeks to achieve equilibrium moisture content (EMC) with its surrounding environment. For softwood timber structures exposed to variations in climate throughout their service life, this behaviour results in variable moisture...... by hand. Accordingly, there is a need for advanced computer tools to study how the long-term stress behaviour of timber structures is affected by creep and cyclic variations in climate. A beam model to simulate the overall hygro-mechanical and visco-elastic behaviour of (inhomogeneous) glulam structures...... is presented. A two-dimensional transient, non-linear moisture transport model for wood is also developed and linked with this beam model. The combined models are used to study the long-term deformations and stresses in a curved frame structure exposed to both mechanical loading and cyclic climate conditions...

  9. Development of a neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron moisture gauge fabricated for measuring the moisture content of coke is described. It has an americium-beryllium source placed beside a boron coated neutron counter which is a slow neutron detector. The fast neutrons emitted by the radioactive source are slowed down by the hydrogen nuclei present in the material either as bound hydrogen or as a hydrogen of the water. Measure of the slowed down i.e. thermal neutrons (their density) is proportional to the total hydrogen content of the material. The instrument is installed as an ''on-line'' measuring device to estimate the moisture content of coke at the weighing hopper feeding the skip car. The accuracy of measurement is dependent on the moisture content, i.e. higher accuracy is obtained for higher moisture content. At low moisture content, the effect of the bound hydrogen other than that of the water on low moisture readings is pronounced. Effect of bulk density on the accuracy of measurement is not very significant as long as the coke size is constant. The error is in the range of +- 1.1%. (M.G.B.)

  10. Challenges in measuring moisture content of feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiex, N; Richardson, C R

    2003-12-01

    Accurate determination of the moisture (water) content in individual feed ingredients and mixed feeds is critical throughout the feed industry. Most analytical methods used to determine apparent water content of feedstuffs are empirical, estimating water by evaporation and loss of weight on drying (oven drying methods). These methods differ greatly in effectiveness, resulting in bias. Bias associated with measuring the water content of feedstuffs is a concern not only because of the lack of confidence in the moisture value itself, but also because moisture determinations affect accurate quantification and expression of other nutrient values. Methods for determining moisture in feeds have frequently been borrowed from the cereal, forage, or other applications without validating the extension of the method. Methods such as Karl Fischer titration measure water by direct comparison to a calibration standard for water and can be used as reference methods for the evaluation of empirical methods. The objective of this paper is to review methods for determining moisture, review comparisons among moisture methods for various feedstuffs, make recommendations for a reference method, and make general recommendations toward improving the results of moisture testing. The need to evaluate and improve moisture methods and standardize practices in laboratories is evident from this study. It also is evident that the methods appropriate for a specific feed ingredient or feed should not be extended to all feeds without proper validation to the new matrices. Part of the validation for empirical methods should be comparison to Karl Fischer or other the direct methods. It also is recommended that the results obtained using oven methods not be termed "moisture;" rather, they should be termed "loss on drying," and the drying conditions should become part of the term.

  11. A Round Robin evaluation of AMSR-E soil moisture retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelbach, Heidi; Hirschi, Martin; Nicolai-Shaw, Nadine; Gruber, Alexander; Dorigo, Wouter; de Jeu, Richard; Parinussa, Robert; Jones, Lucas A.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale and long-term soil moisture observations based on remote sensing are promising data sets to investigate and understand various processes of the climate system including the water and biochemical cycles. Currently, the ESA Climate Change Initiative for soil moisture develops and evaluates a consistent global long-term soil moisture data set, which is based on merging passive and active remotely sensed soil moisture. Within this project an inter-comparison of algorithms for AMSR-E and ASCAT Level 2 products was conducted separately to assess the performance of different retrieval algorithms. Here we present the inter-comparison of AMSR-E Level 2 soil moisture products. These include the public data sets from University of Montana (UMT), Japan Aerospace and Space Exploration Agency (JAXA), VU University of Amsterdam (VUA; two algorithms) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). All participating algorithms are applied to the same AMSR-E Level 1 data set. Ascending and descending paths of scaled surface soil moisture are considered and evaluated separately in daily and monthly resolution over the 2007-2011 time period. Absolute values of soil moisture as well as their long-term anomalies (i.e. removing the mean seasonal cycle) and short-term anomalies (i.e. removing a five weeks moving average) are evaluated. The evaluation is based on conventional measures like correlation and unbiased root-mean-square differences as well as on the application of the triple collocation method. As reference data set, surface soil moisture of 75 quality controlled soil moisture sites from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) are used, which cover a wide range of vegetation density and climate conditions. For the application of the triple collocation method, surface soil moisture estimates from the Global Land Data Assimilation System are used as third independent data set. We find that the participating algorithms generally display a better

  12. Soil moisture content with global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnikov, K.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    The potential greenhouse-gas-induced changes in soil moisture, particularly the desiccation of the Northern Hemisphere contents in summer, are discussed. To check the conclusions based on climate models the authors have used long-term measurements of contemporary soil moisture in the USSR and reconstructions of soil moisture for the last two epochs that were warmer than the present, namely, the Holocene optimum, 5,000-6,000 years ago, and the last interglacial, about 125,000 years ago. The analysis shows that there is a considerable disagreement between the model results and the empirical data

  13. Cone penetrometer moisture probe acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1996-04-23

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 (Prototype Cone Penetrometer Moisture Probe Acceptance Test Procedure) and WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 (Cone Penetrometer Moisture Probe Acceptance Test Procedure). The master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 can be found in Appendix A and the master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 can be found in Appendix B. Also included with this report is a matrix showing design criteria of the cone penetrometer moisture probe and the verification method used (Appendix C).

  14. Digital radioisotope moisture-density meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychvarov, N.; Vankov, I.; Dimitrov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The primary information from the detectors of a combined radioisotope moisture-density meter is obtained as pulses, their counting rate being functionally dependent on the humidity per unit volume and the wet density. However, most practical cases demand information on the moisture per unit weight and the mass density of the dry skeleton. The paper describes how the proposed electronic circuit processes the input primary information to obtain the moisture in weight % and the mass density of the dry skeleton in g/cm 3 . (authors)

  15. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  16. Electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide/moisture control technology for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Sudar, M.; Cusick, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Regenerable CO2/moisture removal techniques that reduce the expendables and logistics requirements are needed to sustain people undertaking EVAs for the Space Station. Here, the development of electrochemically regenerable CO2 absorption (ERCA) technology to replace the nonregenerable LiOH absorber for the advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is reported. During EVA the ERCA uses a mechanism involving gas absorption into a liquid absorbent for the removal and storage of the metabolically produced CO2 and moisture. Following the EVA, the expended absorbent is regenerated onboard the Space Station by an electrochemical CO2 concentrator. The ERCA concept has the ability to effectively satisfy the high metabolic CO2 and moisture removal requirements of PLSS applications. This paper defines the ERCA concept and its advantages for the PLSS application, reviews breadboard test data, and presents physical characteristics of the breadboard and projected flight hardware.

  17. Prenatal exposure to vanilla or alcohol induces crawling after these odors in the neonate rat: The role of mu and kappa opioid receptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Aranda-Fernández, P Ezequiel; Chotro, M Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    Rat fetuses can perceive chemosensory stimuli derived from their mother's diet, and they may learn about those stimuli. In previous studies we have observed that prenatal exposure to alcohol during the last days of gestation increases the acceptance and liking of an alcohol flavor in infant and adolescent rats. While these results were not found after prenatal exposure to vanilla, cineole or anise, suggesting that the pharmacological properties of alcohol, mediated by the opioid system, underlie the effects observed with this drug. Considering that other studies report enhanced acceptance of non-alcohol flavors experienced prenatally when subjects were tested before infancy, we explore the possibility of observing similar results if testing 1-day old rats exposed prenatally to vanilla. Using an "odor-induced crawling" testing procedure, it was observed that neonates exposed prenatally to vanilla or alcohol crawl for a longer distance towards the experienced odor than to other odors or than control pups. Blocking mu, but not kappa opioid receptors, reduced the attraction of vanilla odor to neonates exposed to vanilla in utero, while the response to alcohol in pups exposed prenatally to this drug was affected by both antagonists. Results confirm that exposure to a non-alcohol odor enhances postnatal responses to it, observable soon after birth, while also suggesting that the mu opioid receptor system plays an important role in generating this effect. The results also imply that with alcohol exposure, the prenatal opioid system is wholly involved, which could explain the longer retention of the enhanced attraction to alcohol following prenatal experience with the drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) Product Specification Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Kim, Gi-Kong; Lucchesi, Robert A.; Smith, Edmond B.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product generated by the SMAP Project. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will enhance the accuracy and the resolution of space-based measurements of terrestrial soil moisture and freeze-thaw state. SMAP data products will have a noteworthy impact on multiple relevant and current Earth Science endeavors. These include: Understanding of the processes that link the terrestrial water, the energy and the carbon cycles, Estimations of global water and energy fluxes over the land surfaces, Quantification of the net carbon flux in boreal landscapes Forecast skill of both weather and climate, Predictions and monitoring of natural disasters including floods, landslides and droughts, and Predictions of agricultural productivity. To provide these data, the SMAP mission will deploy a satellite observatory in a near polar, sun synchronous orbit. The observatory will house an L-band radiometer that operates at 1.40 GHz and an L-band radar that operates at 1.26 GHz. The instruments will share a rotating reflector antenna with a 6 meter aperture that scans over a 1000 km swath.

  19. Moisture Control Guidance for Commercial and Public ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance to designers, construction mangers, and building operation/maintenance managers to improve IEQ and reduce risks of encountering IEQ problems due to insufficient moisture control. EPA will be producing a document entitled

  20. Advanced moisture modeling of polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Long term moisture exposure has been shown to affect the mechanical performance of polymeric composite structures. This reduction : in mechanical performance must be considered during product design in order to ensure long term structure survival. In...

  1. Moisture buffer capacity of different insulation materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on the possibilities of utilizing the absorptive ability of porous materials to create passive control of humidity variations in the indoor air. These variations result in peaks in the indoor air humidity due to moisture production, or in the exterior building envelope...... lead to more durable constructions. In this paper, a large range of very different thermal insulation materials have been tested in specially constructed laboratory facilities to determine their moisture buffer capacity. Both isothermal and nonisothermal experimental set-ups have been used...... are discussed, and different ways are presented how to determine the moisture buffer capacity of the materials using partly standard material parameters and partly parameters determined from the actual measurements. The results so far show that the determination of moisture buffer capacity is very sensitive...

  2. Moisture related test protocols for HVS testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide guidance on the possible methodologies for evaluating specifically moisture related pavement response using the Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS), this paper describes the objectives, potential effects and available methods...

  3. Moisture Buffer Value of Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut; Time, Berit

    2007-01-01

    When building materials are in contact with indoor air they have some effect to moderate the variations of indoor humidity in occupied buildings. But so far there has been a lack of a standardized quantity to characterize the moisture buffering capability of materials. It has been the objective...... of a recent Nordic project to define such a quantity, and to declare it in the form of a NORDTEST method. The Moisture Buffer Value is the figure that has been developed in the project as a way to appraise the moisture buffer effect of materials, and the value is described in the paper. Also explained...... is a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested for determination of their Moisture Buffer Value. Finally, the paper presents some of the results of a Round Robin Test on various typical building materials that has been carried out in the project....

  4. Moisture separator reheaters for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Michizo; Yonemura, Katsutoshi

    1974-01-01

    In the light water reactor plants using BWRS or PWRS, the pressure and temperature of steam at the inlet of turbines are low, and the steam is moist, as compared with the case of thermal power plants. Therefore, moisture separator/reheaters are used between high and low pressure turbines. The steam from a high pressure turbine enters a manifold, and goes zigzag through vertical plate separator elements, its moisture is removed from the steam. Then, after being reheated with the steam bled from the high pressure turbine and directly from a reactor, the steam is fed into a low pressure turbine. The development and test made on the components of a moisture separaotr/reheater and the overall model experiment are described together with the mechanism of moisture separation and reheating. (Mori, K.)

  5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Trackbed Moisture Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    In this initial phase, conducted from March 2015 through December 2016, Vista Clara and its subcontractor Zetica Rail successfully developed and tested a man-portable, non-invasive spot-check nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) moisture sensor that dire...

  6. The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruza, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.

  7. Radar Mapping of Surface Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Dubois, P. C.; van Zyl, J.

    1997-01-01

    Intended as an overview aimed at potential users of remotely sensed spatial distributions and temporal variations of soil moisture, this paper begins with an introductory section on the fundamentals of radar imaging and associated attributes.

  8. Heat and Moisture transport of socks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komárková, P.; Glombíková, V.; Havelka, A.

    2017-10-01

    Investigating the liquid moisture transport and thermal properties is essential for understanding physiological comfort of clothes. This study reports on an experimental investigation of moisture management transport and thermal transport on the physiological comfort of commercially available socks. There are subjective evaluation and objective measurements. Subjective evaluation of the physiological comfort of socks is based on individual sensory perception of probands during and after physical exertion. Objective measurements were performed according to standardized methods using Moisture Management tester for measuring the humidity parameters and C-term TCi analyzer for thermal conductivity and thermal effusivity. The obtained values of liquid moisture transport and thermal properties were related to the material composition and structure of the tested socks. In summary, these results show that objective measurement corresponds with probands feelings.

  9. Moisture Transport Through Sprayed Concrete Tunnel Linings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, Karl Gunnar; Geving, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Waterproofing of permanent sprayed concrete tunnel linings with sprayed membranes in a continuous sandwich structure has been attempted since 2000 and has seen increased use in some countries. The main function of a sprayed membrane from a waterproofing perspective is to provide crack bridging and hence prevent flow of liquid water into the tunnel through cracks and imperfections in the concrete material. However, moisture can migrate through the concrete and EVA-based membrane materials by capillary and vapor diffusion mechanisms. These moisture transport mechanisms can have an influence on the degree of saturation, and may influence the pore pressures in the concrete material as well as risk of freeze-thaw damage of the concrete and membrane. The paper describes a detailed study of moisture transport material parameters, moisture condition in tunnel linings and climatic conditions tunnels in hard rock in Norway. These data have been included in a hygrothermal simulation model in the software WUFI for moisture transport to substantiate moisture transport and long-term effects on saturation of the concrete and membrane material. The findings suggest that EVA-based membranes exhibit significant water absorption and vapor transport properties although they are impermeable to liquid water flow. State-of-the-art sprayed concrete material applied with the wet mix method exhibits very low hydraulic conductivities, lower than 10-14 m/s, thus saturated conductive water flow is a very unlikely dominant transport mechanism. Moisture transport through the lining structure by capillary flow and vapor diffusion are calculated to approximately 3 cm3/m2 per day for lining thicknesses in the range of 25-35 cm and seasonal Nordic climate variations. The calculated moisture contents in the tunnel linings from the hygrothermal simulations are largely in agreement with the measured moisture contents in the tunnel linings. The findings also indicate that the concrete material exhibits

  10. SMAP Soil Moisture Data To Improve Remotely Sensed Global Estimates of Evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, A. J.; Fisher, J.; Goulden, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Surface water availability limits plant productivity and the ability to transport water from the soil to the atmosphere in over 1/3rd of earth's vegetated land. Quantifying evapotranspiration (ET) across large areas requires the integration of satellite-observed land surface variables into physical or empirical equations that govern the transfer of mass and energy from land to the atmosphere. Many satellite ET algorithms have been developed to compute ET globally, but the current methods of two widely-used ET algorithms rely on implicit representation of soil moisture, limiting their capacity to impose proper physical constraints on ET under water limiting conditions. The successful launch of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite provides the first space-based soil moisture observations with the fidelity and the necessary spatio-temporal resolution to integrate directly into remote sensing ET algorithms and compare to in situ observations. Here we incorporate SMAP soil moisture observations into two widely used ET algorithms, the Priestley Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) ET model and the Penman Monteith MOD16. We present new soil moisture stress formulation and parameterization for each algorithm and evaluate model performance before and after soil moisture integration across a suite of in situ observations spanning a range of plant functional types and climates.

  11. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as monolayer value of two commercial powdered whey protein isolates before and after tribomechanical micronisation and enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. At the same time it was necessary to evaluate the best moisture sorption isotherm equation to fit the experimental data. The equilibrium moisture contents in investigated samples were determined using standard gravimetric method at 20 °C. The range of water activities was 0.11 to 0.75. The monolayer moisture content was estimated from sorption data using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB models. The results have shown that tribomechanically treated whey protein isolates as well as protein hydrolizates had lower monolayer moisture content values as well as higher corresponding water activity. Therefore, in spite of the fact that they have lower moisture content, they can be storage at higher relative humidity compared to untreated samples. BET model gave better fit to experimental sorption data for a water activity range from 0.11-0.54, while GAB model gave the closest fit for a water activity to 0.75.

  12. Ground-based investigation of soil moisture variability within remote sensing footprints during the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) Hydrology Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Famiglietti, J.S.; Devereaux, J.A.; Laymon, C.A.; Tsegaye, T.; Houser, P.R.; Jackson, T.J.; Graham, S.T.; Rodell, M.; Oevelen, van P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Surface soil moisture content is highly variable in both space and time. While remote sensing provides an effective methodology for mapping surface moisture content over large areas, it averages within-pixel variability thereby masking the underlying heterogeneity observed at the land surface. This

  13. Brightness Temperature and Soil Moisture Validation at Different Scales During the SMOS Validation Campaign in the Rur and Erft Catchments, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montzka, Carsten; Bogena, Heye R.; Weihermüller, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite was launched in November 2009 and delivers now brightness temperature and soil moisture products over terrestrial areas on a regular three-day basis. In 2010, several airborne campaigns were conducted to validate the SMOS...

  14. SCAT/ASCAT Soil Moisture Data: Enhancements in the TU Wien Method for Soil Moisture Retrieval From ERS and METOP Scatterometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, V.; Wagner, W.; Bartalis, Z.

    2009-05-01

    Active microwave remote sensing observations of the scatterometers onboard the European Remote Sensing (ERS) and METeorological OPerational (METOP) satellites have been proven to be valuable for monitoring surface soil moisture globally using the so-called TU Wien change detection method. The METOP satellite series carrying ASCAT (Advanced Scatteromer) instrument for the next 15 years will ensure the continuity of soil moisture retrieval from scatterometers' data for more than 30 years considering the available ERS-1&2 Scatterometer (SCAT) observations dataset. With the aim of implementing a near real-time system for operational soil moisture remote sensing at EUMETSAT, the Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing at Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien) has developed an improved soil moisture retrieval algorithm to cope with some of the limitations found in the earlier method. The new algorithm has been implemented on a discrete global grid with 12.5 km quasi-equal grid spacing and includes a correction method to reduce azimuthal anisotropy of backscatter signal, new techniques for calculation of the model parameters and incorporates a comprehensive error modeling. The error analysis provides not only the quality information about the product but also facilitates accurate determination of historically driest/wettest conditions during the retrieval process. Enhancements made in the TU Wien retrieval algorithm result in a more uniform performance of the model and, consequently, a spatially consistent soil moisture product with a better spatial resolution.

  15. Evaluation of the ESA CCI soil moisture product using ground-based observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo, W.A.; Gruber, A.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Wagner, W.; Stacke, T.; Loew, A.; Albergel, C.; Brocca, L; Chung, D.; Parinussa, R.M.; Kidd, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the skill of a new, merged soil moisture product (ECV_SM) that has been developed in the framework of the European Space Agency's Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy and Climate Change Initiative projects. The product combines in a synergistic way the soil

  16. IRIS - A concept for microwave sensing of soil moisture and ocean salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Njoku, E.

    1997-01-01

    A concept is described for passive microwave sensing of soil moisture and ocean salinity from space. The Inflatable Radiometric Imaging System (IRIS) makes use of a large-diameter, offset-fed, parabolic-torus antenna with multiple feeds, in a conical pushbroom configuration.

  17. Shrub encroachment alters sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature and moisture 2115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrub encroachment into grasslands creates a mosaic of different soil microsites ranging from open spaces to well-developed shrub canopies, and it is unclear how this affects the spatial variability in soil respiration characteristics, such as the sensitivity to soil temperature and moisture. This i...

  18. Measurement of heat and moisture exchanger efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, M

    2013-09-01

    Deciding between a passive heat and moisture exchanger or active humidification depends upon the level of humidification that either will deliver. Published international standards dictate that active humidifiers should deliver a minimum humidity of 33 mg.l(-1); however, no such requirement exists, for heat and moisture exchangers. Anaesthetists instead have to rely on information provided by manufacturers, which may not allow comparison of different devices and their clinical effectiveness. I suggest that measurement of humidification efficiency, being the percentage moisture returned and determined by measuring the temperature of the respired gases, should be mandated, and report a modification of the standard method that will allow this to be easily measured. In this study, different types of heat and moisture exchangers for adults, children and patients with a tracheostomy were tested. Adult and paediatric models lost between 6.5 mg.l(-1) and 8.5 mg.l(-1) moisture (corresponding to an efficiency of around 80%); however, the models designed for patients with a tracheostomy lost between 16 mg.l(-1) and 18 mg.l(-1) (60% efficiency). I propose that all heat and moisture exchangers should be tested in this manner and percentage efficiency reported to allow an informed choice between different types and models. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. Moisture Controls on Soil Respiration Sources in a Pine Forest on Santa Cruz Island, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, M. S.; Ambrose, A.; Boot, C. M.; Dawson, T. E.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Schimel, J.; Still, C. J.; Williams, P.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation will include results from a study in a coastal pine forest/chaparral ecosystem on Santa Cruz Island, California characterized by a Mediterranean type climate. However, in this coastal ecosystem, fog and low-level clouds enhance summertime moisture availability through shading and fog-drip. Thus, the summer has many small fog-drip events, while the winter has fewer, larger rain events. Not surprisingly, moisture and moisture pulses drive carbon fluxes and dynamics in this ecosystem. We used automated measurements of soil respiration, soil pore space CO2 profiles, pine sap flux, as well as targeted measurements of soil nutrient/microbial dynamics, radiocarbon soil respiration source partitioning, and manipulations of water to assess how moisture/moisture pulses influence ecosystem metabolism over diel, episodic (moisture pulse), and seasonal time scales. On the diel time scale, the fraction of soil respiration from autotrophic sources was generally greater during the day than at night. Seasonally, changes in soil respiration fluxes were largely determined by variation in autotrophic respiration, with autotrophic rates more than doubling in the winter versus summer. Pine sap flux responded to winter rain events but not to summer fog-drip, suggesting that summer fog-water inputs are insufficient to significantly affect belowground pine activity. In contrast, summertime fog-drip and cloud shading enhanced soil respiration primarily through microbial decomposition, by reducing microbial drought stress in surface soil/litter. Finally, moisture manipulations in the laboratory showed more soil carbon released following one large pulse (rain event) versus multiple smaller pulses (fog events) of moisture.

  20. Calculating crop water requirement satisfaction in the West Africa Sahel with remotely sensed soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Gregory J. Husak,; Molly Brown,; Carroll, Mark L.; Funk, Christopher C.; Soni Yatheendradas,; Kristi Arsenault,; Christa Peters-Lidard,; Verdin, James

    2015-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will provide soil moisture data with unprecedented accuracy, resolution, and coverage, enabling models to better track agricultural drought and estimate yields. In turn, this information can be used to shape policy related to food and water from commodity markets to humanitarian relief efforts. New data alone, however, do not translate to improvements in drought and yield forecasts. New tools will be needed to transform SMAP data into agriculturally meaningful products. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility and efficiency of replacing the rainfall-derived soil moisture component of a crop water stress index with SMAP data. The approach is demonstrated with 0.1°-resolution, ~10-day microwave soil moisture from the European Space Agency and simulated soil moisture from the Famine Early Warning Systems Network Land Data Assimilation System. Over a West Africa domain, the approach is evaluated by comparing the different soil moisture estimates and their resulting Water Requirement Satisfaction Index values from 2000 to 2010. This study highlights how the ensemble of indices performs during wet versus dry years, over different land-cover types, and the correlation with national-level millet yields. The new approach is a feasible and useful way to quantitatively assess how satellite-derived rainfall and soil moisture track agricultural water deficits. Given the importance of soil moisture in many applications, ranging from agriculture to public health to fire, this study should inspire other modeling communities to reformulate existing tools to take advantage of SMAP data.

  1. Initial Validation of ASCAT Soil Moisture Data with In-Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, W.; Naeimi, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) is part of the payload of three METOP satellites which constitute the EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) - Europe's first polar orbiting operational meteorological satellite system. It was designed solely for operational wind monitoring over the oceans, but research with its successor instrument, the scatterometer on board of ERS-1 and ERS-2, has shown that it can also be used for monitoring soil moisture over land surfaces. Therefore, in a cooperation between EUMETSAT and the Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien) a near-real-time (NRT) processing system has been set at EUMETSAT which was declared operational 11 December 2008. The ASCAT soil moisture product is produced in near real-time by EUMETSAT, using the so-called WARP-NRT software originally developed by TU Wien and prototyped for EUMETSAT. ASCAT soil moisture is a Level 2 product delivered in orbit geometry at two different grid spacing: 25 km and 12.5 km. The two products are derived directly and on the same grid as the equivalent ASCAT Level 1b backscatter products, hence the resolution of the soil moisture values is approximately 50/35 km respectively. The ASCAT Level 2 Soil Moisture product is disseminated via EUMETCast-Europe, channel "EPS-3" within 2h from sensing in BUFR format. This poster shows initial validation results of ASCAT soil moisture using in-situ soil moisture observations from different networks in Europe and North America. The initial results show that ASCAT soil moisture data compare slightly more favorably to the in-situ measurements as published results with the ERS scatterometer. It is believed that this is due to some algorithmic improvements, a higher temporal sampling rate and, possibly, the higher radiometric accuracy of ASCAT.

  2. Using Whole-House Field Tests to Empirically Derive Moisture Buffering Model Inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, J.; Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.; Hancock, E.

    2014-08-01

    Building energy simulations can be used to predict a building's interior conditions, along with the energy use associated with keeping these conditions comfortable. These models simulate the loads on the building (e.g., internal gains, envelope heat transfer), determine the operation of the space conditioning equipment, and then calculate the building's temperature and humidity throughout the year. The indoor temperature and humidity are affected not only by the loads and the space conditioning equipment, but also by the capacitance of the building materials, which buffer changes in temperature and humidity. This research developed an empirical method to extract whole-house model inputs for use with a more accurate moisture capacitance model (the effective moisture penetration depth model). The experimental approach was to subject the materials in the house to a square-wave relative humidity profile, measure all of the moisture transfer terms (e.g., infiltration, air conditioner condensate) and calculate the only unmeasured term: the moisture absorption into the materials. After validating the method with laboratory measurements, we performed the tests in a field house. A least-squares fit of an analytical solution to the measured moisture absorption curves was used to determine the three independent model parameters representing the moisture buffering potential of this house and its furnishings. Follow on tests with realistic latent and sensible loads showed good agreement with the derived parameters, especially compared to the commonly-used effective capacitance approach. These results show that the EMPD model, once the inputs are known, is an accurate moisture buffering model.

  3. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes

  4. Measurement of water content in semi-humid sandy land by using IAE-II neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qi

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of using a neutron moisture gauge to study moisture change in semi-humid sandy land was affirmed. The gauge is compact and can rapidly take measurements with small errors. It is found that both the inter-substance boundary surface and the space formed in fixing the neutron tube affect obviously the precision of measurements in the survey process. The calibration variance is the most important part of total uncertainty in measurements

  5. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission Status and Science Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Entin, Jared

    2017-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observatory was launched January 31, 2015, and its L-band radiometer and radar instruments became operational during April 2015. This paper provides a summary of the quality assessment of its baseline soil moisture and freeze/thaw products as well as an overview of new products. The first new product explores the Backus Gilbert optimum interpolation based on the oversampling characteristics of the SMAP radiometer. The second one investigates the disaggregation of the SMAP radiometer data using the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to obtain soil moisture products at about 1 to 3 km resolution. In addition, SMAPs L-band data have been found useful for many scientific applications, including depictions of water cycles, vegetation opacity, ocean surface salinity and hurricane ocean surface wind mapping. Highlights of these new applications will be provided.The SMAP soil moisture, freeze/taw state and SSSprovide a synergistic view of water cycle. For example, Fig.7 illustrates the transition of freeze/thaw state, change of soilmoisture near the pole and SSS in the Arctic Ocean fromApril to October in 2015 and 2016. In April, most parts ofAlaska, Canada, and Siberia remained frozen. Melt onsetstarted in May. Alaska, Canada, and a big part of Siberia havebecome thawed at the end of May; some freshwater dischargecould be found near the mouth of Mackenzie in 2016, but notin 2015. The soil moisture appeared to be higher in the Oband Yenisei river basins in Siberia in 2015. As a result,freshwater discharge was more widespread in the Kara Seanear the mouths of both rivers in June 2015 than in 2016. TheNorth America and Siberia have become completely thawedin July. After June, the freshwater discharge from other riversinto the Arctic, indicated by blue, also became visible. Thefreeze-up started in September and the high latitude regionsin North America and Eurasia became frozen. Comparing

  6. development and testing of a capacitive digital soil moisture metre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    moisture meter developed was compared with gravimetric method for soil moisture determination on fifteen soil samples added different level of water during calibration process. The results revealed a relatively linear relationship between the moisture content process and the digital soil moisture meter. The regression ...

  7. 40 CFR 75.37 - Missing data procedures for moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Missing data procedures for moisture... data procedures for moisture. (a) The owner or operator of a unit with a continuous moisture monitoring system shall substitute for missing moisture data using the procedures of this section. (b) Where no...

  8. development and testing of a capacitive digital soil moisture metre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digital soil moisture meter developed was compared with gravimetric method for soil moisture determination on fifteen soil samples added different level of water during calibration process. The results revealed a relatively linear relationship between the moisture content process and the digital soil moisture meter.

  9. Drying and control of moisture content and dimensional changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman

    2010-01-01

    The discussion in this chapter is concerned with moisture content determination, recommended moisture content values, drying methods, methods of calculating dimensional changes, design factors affecting such changes in structures, and moisture content control during transit, storage, and construction. Data on green moisture content, fiber saturation point, shrinkage,...

  10. Groundwater and Soil Moisture Conditions from GRACE Data Assimilation L4 7-days 0.125 x 0.125 degree V2.0 (GRACEDADM_CLSM0125US_7D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Scientists at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center generate groundwater and soil moisture drought indicators each week. They are based on terrestrial water storage...

  11. Moisture monitoring in waste disposal surface barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelik, Alex; Huebner, Christof

    2003-05-01

    Surface barriers for waste disposal sites should prevent waste water and gas emission into the environment. It is necessary to assess their proper operation by monitoring the water regime of the containment. A set of three new water content measuring devices has been developed that provide an economical solution for monitoring the moisture distribution and water dynamic. They will give an early warning service if the barrier system is at risk of being damaged. The cryo soil moisture sensor 'LUMBRICUS' is an in situ self-calibrating absolute water content measuring device. It measures moisture profiles at spot locations down to 2.5 m depth with an accuracy of better than 1.5% and a depth resolution of 0.03 m. The sensor inherently measures density changes and initial cracks of shrinking materials like clay minerals. The large area soil moisture sensor 'TAUPE' is a moisture sensitive electric cable network to be buried in the mineral barrier material of the cover. A report will be given with results and experiences on an exemplary installation at the Waste Disposal Facility Karlsruhe-West. 800 m2 of the barrier construction have been continuously monitored since December 1997. Volumetric water content differences of 1.5% have been detected and localised within 4 m. This device is already installed in two other waste disposal sites. A modified 'TAUPE' was constructed for the control of tunnels and river dams as well. Thin sheet moisture sensor 'FORMI' is specifically designed for moisture measurements in liners like bentonite, textile and plastic. Due to its flexibility it follows the curvature of the liner. The sensor measures independently from neighbouring materials and can be matched to a wide range of different thickness of the material. The sensors are patented in several countries.

  12. Quality Assurance of Rice and Paddy Moisture Measurements in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhaneti, T.; Keawprasert, T.; Puuntharo, P.; Triarun, W.

    2017-10-01

    A bilateral comparison in moisture measurement between the National Institute of Metrology Thailand (NIMT) and the Central Bureau of Weights and Measures (CBWM) was organized for quality assuring of rice and paddy moisture measurement in Thailand. The bilateral comparison was conducted by using the same batch of sample and moisture meter as transfer device. It consisted of two parts: moisture measurement in rice and in paddy. A rice moisture meter belonging to CBWM and rice standards prepared at the nominal moisture content of 10 %, 12 %, 14 % and 16 % at NIMT, were used for rice moisture comparison, while a paddy moisture meter belonging to NIMT and paddy standards prepared at the nominal moisture content of 12 %, 14 %, 16 % and 18 % at CBWM, were used for paddy moisture comparison. Both laboratories measured the moisture content of a sample by using the standard method in ISO 712 and used that sample to calibrate a moisture meter by means of the method based on ISO 7700-1. Since the moisture content of the sample can change during the comparison, correction values in moisture content between the standard value and the reading value from the moisture meter are used as calibration results for the comparison evaluation. For the rice moisture comparison, differences in the correction value measured by the two laboratories vary from 0.18 % to 0.46 %, with their combined comparison uncertainty of 0.37 % (k= 2). The main contribution to the difference comes from the standard values from both laboratories differing from 0.27 % to 0.53 %, as the rice standard was found to drift in moisture content less than 0.05 %. Similarly to the rice moisture comparison, differences in the correction value for the paddy moisture measurement range from 0.08 % to 0.56 % with the combined comparison uncertainty of 0.38 % (k = 2), whereas the stability in moisture content of the paddy sample at NIMT was found to be within 0.12 %.

  13. Effects of moisture barrier and initial moisture content on the storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two factors examined were moisture barrier at three levels namely: thick lining, thin lining and non-lining. The other factor included initial moisture content of the produce, namely, turgid and partially wilted. Partial wilting of the produce was achieved by exposing freshly harvested materials at ambient temperature to dry ...

  14. Effectiveness of modified 1-hour air-oven moisture methods for determining popcorn moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two of the most commonly used approved grain moisture air-oven reference methods are the air oven method ASAE S352.2, which requires long heating time (72-h) for unground samples, and the AACC 44-15.02 air-oven method, which dries a ground sample for 1 hr, but there is specific moisture measurement ...

  15. Microwave moisture measurement of cotton fiber moisture content in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The moisture content of cotton fiber is an important fiber property, but it is often measured by a laborious, time-consuming laboratory oven drying method. A program was implemented to establish the capabilities of a laboratory microwave moisture measurement instrument to perform rapid, precise and...

  16. LPRM/AMSR2/GCOM-W1 L3 Descending Downscaled Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 3 (gridded) data set¿s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  17. LPRM/AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Descending and 2-Layer Palmer Water Balance Model Root Zone Soil Moisture V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 3 (gridded) root-zone soil moisture product is derived via the assimilation of Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM)/Advanced Microwave Scanning...

  18. LPRM/AMSR2/GCOM-W1 L3 Ascending Downscaled Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 3 (gridded) data set¿s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  19. AMSR-E/Aqua level 3 global monthly Surface Soil Moisture Standard Deviation V005 (AMSRE_STDMO) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The dataset contains global monthly soil moisture statistics (standard deviation ) for 1 by 1 degree grid cells. The source for the data is AMSR-E daily estimates of...

  20. Structure of the urban moisture field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisterson, D.L.; Dirks, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    In the 26 July 1974 case study in St. Louis as a part of Project METROMEX, aircraft and surface network stations were used to determine specific humidity and potential temperature patterns near the surface and at two levels within the mixing layer. From the data acquired at these three levels, three-dimensional analyses of the moisture fields in the mixing layer were constructed. The mesoscale dry regions observed throughout the mixing layer correspond to the more impervious surfaces of the urban area. From energy budget considerations, latent heat fluxes are small over these impervious surfaces owing to the large runoff of precipitation and the lack of moisture retention capabilities. Hence, urbanization obviously alters the local energy budget. Surface boundary layer conditions are determined by heat and moisture fluxes. A new internal boundary layer within the city is formed after the breakdown of the radiation inversion in order to compensate for the alteration of sensible heat and latent heat energies. Hence, isolated semistagnant urban air is replenished by moisture only as quickly as evapotranspiration from impervious surfaces will allow. The city surface, therefore, is not a sink of moisture, but rather a reduced source relative to rural areas

  1. Collective Impacts of Orography and Soil Moisture on the Soil Moisture-Precipitation Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamovic, Adel; Schlemmer, Linda; Schär, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    Ensembles of convection-resolving simulations with a simplified land surface are conducted to dissect the isolated and combined impacts of soil moisture and orography on deep-convective precipitation under weak synoptic forcing. In particular, the deep-convective precipitation response to a uniform and a nonuniform soil moisture perturbation is investigated both in settings with and without orography. In the case of horizontally uniform perturbations, we find a consistently positive soil moisture-precipitation feedback, irrespective of the presence of low orography. On the other hand, a negative feedback emerges with localized perturbations: a dry soil heterogeneity substantially enhances rain amounts that scale linearly with the dryness of the soil, while a moist heterogeneity suppresses rain amounts. If the heterogeneity is located in a mountainous region, the relative importance of soil moisture heterogeneity decreases with increasing mountain height: A mountain 500 m in height is sufficient to neutralize the local soil moisture-precipitation feedback.

  2. Assessing the Impacts of Urbanization-Associated Land Use/Cover Change on Land Surface Temperature and Surface Moisture: A Case Study in the Midwestern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitong Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization-associated land use and land cover (LULC changes lead to modifications of surface microclimatic and hydrological conditions, including the formation of urban heat islands and changes in surface runoff pattern. The goal of the paper is to investigate the changes of biophysical variables due to urbanization induced LULC changes in Indianapolis, USA, from 2001 to 2006. The biophysical parameters analyzed included Land Surface Temperature (LST, fractional vegetation cover, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI, impervious fractions evaporative fraction, and soil moisture. Land cover classification and changes and impervious fractions were obtained from the National Land Cover Database of 2001 and 2006. The Temperature-Vegetation Index (TVX space was created to analyze how these satellite-derived biophysical parameters change during urbanization. The results showed that the general trend of pixel migration in response to the LULC changes was from the areas of low temperature, dense vegetation cover, and high surface moisture conditions to the areas of high temperature, sparse vegetation cover, and low surface moisture condition in the TVX space. Analyses of the T-soil moisture and T-NDWI spaces revealed similar changed patterns. The rate of change in LST, vegetation cover, and moisture varied with LULC type and percent imperviousness. Compared to conversion from cultivated to residential land, the change from forest to commercial land altered LST and moisture more intensively. Compared to the area changed from cultivated to residential, the area changed from forest to commercial altered 48% more in fractional vegetation cover, 71% more in LST, and 15% more in soil moisture Soil moisture and NDWI were both tested as measures of surface moisture in the urban areas. NDWI was proven to be a useful measure of vegetation liquid water and was more sensitive to the land cover changes comparing to soil moisture. From a change forest to

  3. Desempenho em 200 m nado crawl: índice de coordenação, tempo propulsivo e cinemática de nado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Franken

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n3p311   O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar índice de coordenação, tempo propulsivo, duração das fases da braçada e parâmetros cinemáticos ao longo de 200 m nado crawl. Variáveis foram comparadas entre os quatro trechos de 50 m (T1 a T4 em quinze nadadores competitivos (idade: 21,1 ± 7,1 anos; estatura: 180,1 ± 6,1 cm; envergadura: 187,3 ± 8,1 cm; massa corporal: 72,1 ± 10,1 kg; melhor desempenho na prova: 77,5 ± 4,7% do recorde mundial. Obtiveram-se os dados com duas câmeras de vídeo (60 Hz - acopladas a um carrinho sobre trilhos na lateral da piscina, para imagens simultâneas do plano sagital do nadador: abaixo da linha da água e acima da linha da água. Frequência média de ciclos, comprimento de braçada (assumida como a distância média percorrida pelo corpo a cada ciclo e velocidade média de nado foram obtidos com cronometragem manual. Ao longo dos 200 m, o índice de coordenação não se alterou (p > 0,05, mas houve incremento da frequência de ciclos (p < 0,05 e redução da distância percorrida por ciclo (p < 0,05. Entre T1 e T2, houve incremento do tempo propulsivo (p < 0,05 e entre T1 e T4, da duração da fase de puxada (p < 0,05. Velocidade de nado diminuiu apenas entre T1 e T2 (p < 0,05. Ao longo de 200 m nado crawl, nadadores bem treinados incrementam tempo propulsivo, duração da fase de puxada e frequência de ciclos de braçadas, tais mudanças podem ser devidas à tentativa de manutenção da velocidade ao longo dos 200 m.

  4. Control of Moisture Ingress into Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, M. D.

    2005-02-01

    During long-term exposure of photovoltaic modules to environmental stress, the ingress of water into the module is correlated with decreased performance. By using diffusivity measurements for water through encapsulants such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), we have modeled moisture ingress using a finite-element analysis with atmospheric data from various locations such as Miami, Florida. This analysis shows that because of the high diffusivity of EVA, even an impermeable glass back-sheet alone is incapable of preventing significant moisture ingress from the edges for a 20-year lifecycle. This result has led us to investigate ways to protect modules from moisture through the use of different encapsulating chemistries and materials.

  5. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  6. Quantifying the effects of soil temperature, moisture and sterilization on elemental mercury formation in boreal soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannu, Ravinder; Siciliano, Steven D; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2014-10-01

    Soils are a source of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) to the atmosphere, however the effects of soil temperature and moisture on Hg(0) formation is not well defined. This research quantifies the effect of varying soil temperature (278-303 K), moisture (15-80% water filled pore space (WFPS)) and sterilization on the kinetics of Hg(0) formation in forested soils of Nova Scotia, Canada. Both, the logarithm of cumulative mass of Hg(0) formed in soils and the reduction rate constants (k values) increased with temperature and moisture respectively. Sterilizing soils significantly (p soils and our results highlight two key processes: (i) a fast abiotic process that peaks at 45% WFPS and depletes a small pool of Hg(0) and; (ii) a slower, rate limiting biotic process that generates a large pool of reducible Hg(II). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Moisture sorption in naturally coloured cotton fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Ö.; De Clerck, K.

    2017-10-01

    Increasing environmental concerns have stimulated an interest in naturally coloured cottons. As many commercial and technical performance aspects of cotton fibres are influenced by their response towards atmospheric humidity, an in-depth research on moisture sorption behaviour of these fibres using dynamic vapour sorption is carried out. Significant differences were observed in sorption capacity and hysteresis behaviour of brown and green cotton fibres. These differences are mainly attributed to the variations in maturity and crystallinity index of the fibres. This study provides valuable insights into the moisture sorption behaviour of naturally coloured cotton fibres.

  8. Localized leak detection using moisture sensitive tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddle, P.

    1984-01-01

    In the United States the concept of localized leak detection has become an accepted monitoring method for existing conditions such as intergranular stress corrosion cracking and for conditions which may be present in pipes which are inaccessible to currently used monitoring systems. Among the options which exist for augmented localized leak detection systems are moisture sensitive tape and acoustic emission. Choice of system depends upon the number of locations to be monitored, the environment, total installed cost and operating cost. The Techmark multiplex moisture sensitive tape system is described. (U.K.)

  9. Overview of soil moisture measurements with neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Aagje; Steele-Dunne, Susan; van de Giesen, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture measurements are useful for hydrological and agricultural applications. Soil moisture can be measured with a range of in-situ sensors in the soil, such as probes based on the difference in dielectric permittivity of wet and dry soil. At a large scale of tenths of kilometres, soil moisture can be measured with microwave remote sensing from satellites. At the intermediate scale, detection methods such as GPS reflectometry and the use of cosmic rays have been developed recently. One of the principles that can be used to measure soil moisture, is the difference in behaviour of neutrons in wet and dry soil. Neutrons are massive, electrically neutral particles that transfer their energy easily to light atoms, such as hydrogen. Therefore, in wet soil, neutrons lose their energy quickly. In dry soil, they scatter elastically from the heavy atoms and can be detected. The amount of detected neutrons is therefore inversely correlated with the amount of hydrogen in the soil. In this research we look for an overview of the possibilities to measure soil moisture with neutrons and how neutrons can be detected. Neutrons can be used to measure at the point scale and at a larger scale of approximately 1 km. We discuss in-situ measurements, in which a neutron source is put into the soil. Immediately next to the source is a detector, that counts the amount of neutrons that scatters back if the soil is dry. At a larger scale or measurement volume, we discuss the measurement of soil moisture with neutrons from cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are charged particles, accelerated by astrophysical sources (such as a Supernova). When the particles enter the atmosphere, they interact with the atmospheric atoms and form a shower. At sea level, we find several types of particles, such as muons and neutrons. We discuss why neutrons would be more useful for soil moisture measurements than other particles and how the use of cosmic-ray neutrons influences the measurement volume. Here we

  10. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  11. An Arduino Based Citizen Science Soil Moisture Sensor in Support of SMAP and GLOBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; Das, N. N.; Rajasekaran, E.; Jeyaram, R.; Lohrli, C.; Hovhannesian, H.; Fairbanks, G.

    2017-12-01

    Citizen science allows individuals anywhere in the world to engage in science by collecting environmental variables. One of the longest running platforms for the collection of in situ variables is the GLOBE program, which is international in scope and encourages students and citizen scientists alike to collect in situ measurements. NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission, which has been acquiring global soil moisture measurements every 3 days of the top 5 cm of the soil since 2015, has partnered with the GLOBE program to engage students from around the world to collect in situ soil moisture and help validate SMAP measurements. The current GLOBE SMAP soil moisture protocol consists in collecting a soil sample, weighing, drying and weighing it again in order to determine the amount of water in the soil. Preparation and soil sample collection can take up to 20 minutes and drying can take up to 3 days. We have hence developed a soil moisture measurement device based on Arduino- microcontrollers along with off-the-shelf and homemade sensors that are accurate, robust, inexpensive and quick and easy to use so that they can be implemented by the GLOBE community and citizen scientists alike. In addition, we have developed a phone app, which interfaces with the Arduino, displays the soil moisture value and send the measurement to the GLOBE database. This talk will discuss building, calibration and validation of the soil moisture measuring device and assessing the quality of the measurements collected. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. SMOS CATDS Level 3 products, Soil Moisture and Brightness Temperature: Presentation and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthon, Lucie; Mialon, Arnaud; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Cabot, François; Bircher, Simone; Jacquette, Elsa; Quesney, Arnaud; Kerr, Yann H.

    2013-04-01

    The ESA's (European Space Agency) SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission, operating since November 2009, is the first satellite dedicated to measuring surface soil moisture and ocean salinity. The CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) has developed the CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS) ground segment. It provides spatial and temporal synthesis products (referred to as Level 3) of soil moisture, which are now covering the whole SMOS operation period since January 2010. These products have different time resolutions: daily products, 3-day global products (insuring a complete coverage of the Earth's surface), 10-day composite products, and monthly averaged products. Moreover, a new product provides brightness temperatures at H and V polarizations which are computed at fixed incidence angles every 5 degrees. All the CATDS products are presented in the NetCDF format on the EASE grid (Equal Area Scalable Earth grid) with a spatial resolution of ~ 25*25 km². The soil moisture Level 3 algorithm is based on ESA's Level 2 retrieval scheme with the improvement of using several overpasses (3 at most) over a 7-day window. Using many revisits is expected to improve the quality of the retrieved soil moisture. This communication aims at presenting the CATDS soil moisture and brightness temperature products as well as other geophysical parameters retrieved on the side, such as the vegetation optical depth or the dielectric constant of the surface. Furthermore, we illustrate the validation of this database, including the comparison of the Level 3 soil moisture to in-situ measurements available from various sites (Australia, US, southwest of France, Spain, Denmark, West Africa, French Alps), spanning different surface conditions.

  13. SMOS/SMAP Synergy for SMAP Level 2 Soil Moisture Algorithm Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Thomas J.; Zhao, Tianjie; Cosh, Michael; Chan, Steven; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Colliander, Andreas; Kerr, Yann

    2011-01-01

    Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite has been proposed to provide global measurements of soil moisture and land freeze/thaw state at 10 km and 3 km resolutions, respectively. SMAP would also provide a radiometer-only soil moisture product at 40-km spatial resolution. This product and the supporting brightness temperature observations are common to both SMAP and European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. As a result, there are opportunities for synergies between the two missions. These include exploiting the data for calibration and validation and establishing longer term L-band brightness temperature and derived soil moisture products. In this investigation we will be using SMOS brightness temperature, ancillary data, and soil moisture products to develop and evaluate a candidate SMAP L2 passive soil moisture retrieval algorithm. This work will begin with evaluations based on the SMOS product grids and ancillary data sets and transition to those that will be used by SMAP. An important step in this analysis is reprocessing the multiple incidence angle observations provided by SMOS to a global brightness temperature product that simulates the constant 40 degree incidence angle observations that SMAP will provide. The reprocessed brightness temperature data provide a basis for evaluating different SMAP algorithm alternatives. Several algorithms are being considered for the SMAP radiometer-only soil moisture retrieval. In this first phase, we utilized only the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA), which is based on the radiative transfer equation and uses the channel that is most sensitive to soil moisture (H-pol). Brightness temperature is corrected sequentially for the effects of temperature, vegetation, roughness (dynamic ancillary data sets) and soil texture (static ancillary data set). European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) estimates of soil temperature for the top layer (as provided as part of the SMOS

  14. Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Forward Brightness Temperature Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Peipmeier, Jeffrey; Kim, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the US National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007) [1]. It is to measure the global soil moisture and freeze/thaw from space. One of the spaceborne instruments is an L-band radiometer with a shared single feedhorn and parabolic mesh reflector. While the radiometer measures the emission over a footprint of interest, unwanted emissions are also received by the antenna through the antenna sidelobes from the cosmic background and other error sources such as the Sun, the Moon and the galaxy. Their effects need to be considered accurately, and the analysis of the overall performance of the radiometer requires end-to-end performance simulation from Earth emission to antenna brightness temperature, such as the global simulation of L-band brightness temperature simulation over land and sea [2]. To assist with the SMAP radiometer level 1B algorithm development, the SMAP forward brightness temperature simulator is developed by adapting the Aquarius simulator [2] with necessary modifications. This poster presents the current status of the SMAP forward brightness simulator s development including incorporating the land microwave emission model and its input datasets, and a simplified atmospheric radiative transfer model. The latest simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the ability of supporting the SMAP L1B algorithm development.

  15. Errors in the calculation of sub-soil moisture probe by equivalent moisture content technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmipathy, A.V.; Gangadharan, P.

    1982-01-01

    The size of the soil sample required to obtain the saturation response, with a neutron moisture probe is quite large and this poses practical problems of handling and mixing large amounts of samples for absolute laboratory calibration. Hydrogenous materials are used as a substitute for water in the equivalent moisture content technique, for calibration of soil moisture probes. In this it is assumed that only hydrogen of the bulk sample is responsible for the slowing down of fast neutrons and the slow neutron countrate is correlated to equivalent water content by considering the hydrogen density of sample. It is observed that the higher atomic number elements present in water equivalent media also affect the response of the soil moisture probe. Hence calculations, as well as experiments, were undertaken to know the order of error introduced by this technique. The thermal and slow neutron flux distribution around the BF 3 counter of a sub-soil moisture probe is calculated using three group diffusion theory. The response of the probe corresponding to different equivalent moisture content of hydrogenous media, is calculated taking into consideration the effective length of BF 3 counter. Soil with hydrogenous media such as polyethylene, sugar and water are considered for calculation, to verify the suitability of these materials as substitute for water during calibration of soil moisture probe. Experiments were conducted, to verify the theoretically calculated values. (author)

  16. Preliminary results of an attempt to provide soil moisture datasets in order to verify numerical weather prediction models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassardo, C. [Torino Univ., Torino (Italy). Dipartimento di fisica generale Amedeo Avogadro; Loglisci, N. [ARPA, Torino (Italy). Servizio meteorologico regionale

    2005-03-15

    In the recent years, there has been a significant growth in the recognition of the soil moisture importance in large-scale hydrology and climate modelling. Soil moisture is a lower boundary condition, which rules the partitioning of energy in terms of sensible and latent heat flux. Wrong estimations of soil moisture lead to wrong simulation of the surface layer evolution and hence precipitations and cloud cover forecasts could be consequently affected. This is true for large scale medium-range weather forecasts as well as for local-scale short range weather forecasts, particularly in those situations in which local convection is well developed. Unfortunately; despite the importance of this physical parameter there are only few soil moisture data sets sparse in time and in space around in the world. Due to this scarcity of soil moisture observations, we developed an alternative method to provide soil moisture datasets in order to verify numerical weather prediction models. In this paper are presented the preliminary results of an attempt to verify soil moisture fields predicted by a mesoscale model. The data for the comparison were provided by the simulations of the diagnostic land surface scheme LSPM (Land Surface Process Model), widely used at the Piedmont Regional Weather Service for agro-meteorological purposes. To this end, LSPM was initialized and driven by Synop observations, while the surface (vegetation and soil) parameter values were initialized by ECOCLIMAP global dataset at 1km{sup 2} resolution.

  17. Preliminary results of an attempt to provide soil moisture datasets in order to verify numerical weather prediction models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassardo, C.; Loglisci, N.

    2005-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been a significant growth in the recognition of the soil moisture importance in large-scale hydrology and climate modelling. Soil moisture is a lower boundary condition, which rules the partitioning of energy in terms of sensible and latent heat flux. Wrong estimations of soil moisture lead to wrong simulation of the surface layer evolution and hence precipitations and cloud cover forecasts could be consequently affected. This is true for large scale medium-range weather forecasts as well as for local-scale short range weather forecasts, particularly in those situations in which local convection is well developed. Unfortunately; despite the importance of this physical parameter there are only few soil moisture data sets sparse in time and in space around in the world. Due to this scarcity of soil moisture observations, we developed an alternative method to provide soil moisture datasets in order to verify numerical weather prediction models. In this paper are presented the preliminary results of an attempt to verify soil moisture fields predicted by a mesoscale model. The data for the comparison were provided by the simulations of the diagnostic land surface scheme LSPM (Land Surface Process Model), widely used at the Piedmont Regional Weather Service for agro-meteorological purposes. To this end, LSPM was initialized and driven by Synop observations, while the surface (vegetation and soil) parameter values were initialized by ECOCLIMAP global dataset at 1km 2 resolution

  18. The Relationship between an Invasive Shrub and Soil Moisture: Seasonal Interactions and Spatially Covarying Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong He

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that positive relationships between invasive plants and soil can contribute to further plant invasions. However, it remains unclear whether these relations remain unchanged throughout the growing season. In this study, spatial sequences of field observations along a transect were used to reveal seasonal interactions and spatially covarying relations between one common invasive shrub (Tartarian Honeysuckle, Lonicera tatarica and soil moisture in a tall grassland habitat. Statistical analysis over the transect shows that the contrast between soil moisture in shrub and herbaceous patches vary with season and precipitation. Overall, a negatively covarying relationship between shrub and soil moisture (i.e., drier surface soils at shrub microsites exists during the very early growing period (e.g., May, while in summer a positively covarying phenomenon (i.e., wetter soils under shrubs is usually evident, but could be weakened or vanish during long precipitation-free periods. If there is sufficient rainfall, surface soil moisture and leaf area index (LAI often spatially covary with significant spatial oscillations at an invariant scale (which is governed by the shrub spatial pattern and is about 8 m, but their phase relation in space varies with season, consistent with the seasonal variability of the co-varying phenomena between shrub invasion and soil water content. The findings are important for establishing a more complete picture of how shrub invasion affects soil moisture.

  19. Integration of GIS, Geostatistics, and 3-D Technology to Assess the Spatial Distribution of Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, M.; Tsegaye, T.; Tadesse, W.; Coleman, T. L.; Fahsi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of near surface soil moisture is of fundamental importance to many physical, biological, biogeochemical, and hydrological processes. However, knowledge of these space-time dynamics and the processes which control them remains unclear. The integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and geostatistics together promise a simple mechanism to evaluate and display the spatial and temporal distribution of this vital hydrologic and physical variable. Therefore, this research demonstrates the use of geostatistics and GIS to predict and display soil moisture distribution under vegetated and non-vegetated plots. The research was conducted at the Winfred Thomas Agricultural Experiment Station (WTAES), Hazel Green, Alabama. Soil moisture measurement were done on a 10 by 10 m grid from tall fescue grass (GR), alfalfa (AA), bare rough (BR), and bare smooth (BS) plots. Results indicated that variance associated with soil moisture was higher for vegetated plots than non-vegetated plots. The presence of vegetation in general contributed to the spatial variability of soil moisture. Integration of geostatistics and GIS can improve the productivity of farm lands and the precision of farming.

  20. A study of soil moisture variability for landmine detection by the neutron technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdić Senada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the space and temporal variability of soil moisture experimental data acquired at a few locations near landmine fields in the Tuzla Canton, as well as on the quantification of the statistical nature of soil moisture data on a small spatial scale. Measurements of soil water content at the surface were performed by an electro-magnetic sensor over 1 25, and 100 m2 grids, at intervals of 0.2, 0.5, and 1 m, respectively. The sampling of soil moisture at different spatial resolutions and over different grid sizes has been investigated in order to achieve the quantification of the statistical nature of soil moisture distribution. The statistical characterization of spatial variability was performed through variogram and correlogram analysis of measurement results. The temporal variability of the said samples was examined over a two-season period. For both sampling periods, the spatial correlation length is about 1 to 2 m, respectively, or less. Thus, sampling should be done on a larger spatial scale, in order to capture the variability of the investigated areas. Since the characteristics of many landmine sensors depend on soil moisture, the results of this study could form a useful data base for multisensor landmine detection systems with a promising performance.

  1. Moisture diffusion parameter characteristics for epoxy composites and neat resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, E. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The moisture absorption characteristics of two graphite/epoxy composites and their corresponding cured neat resins were studied in high humidity and water immersion environments at elevated temperatures. Moisture absorption parameters, such as equilibrium moisture content and diffusion coefficient derived from data taken on samples exposed to high humidity and water soak environments, were compared. Composite swelling in a water immersion environment was measured. Tensile strengths of cured neat resin were measured as a function of their equilibrium moisture content after exposure to different moisture environments. The effects of intermittent moderate tensile loads on the moisture absorption parameters of composite and cured neat resin samples were determined.

  2. Quantifying the effect of media limitations on outbreak data in a global online web-crawling epidemic intelligence system, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, David; Zelenev, Alexei; Brownstein, John S

    2013-11-08

    This is the first study quantitatively evaluating the effect that media-related limitations have on data from an automated epidemic intelligence system. We modeled time series of HealthMap's two main data feeds, Google News and Moreover, to test for evidence of two potential limitations: first, human resources constraints, and second, high-profile outbreaks "crowding out" coverage of other infectious diseases. Google News events declined by 58.3%, 65.9%, and 14.7% on Saturday, Sunday and Monday, respectively, relative to other weekdays. Events were reduced by 27.4% during Christmas/New Years weeks and 33.6% lower during American Thanksgiving week than during an average week for Google News. Moreover data yielded similar results with the addition of Memorial Day (US) being associated with a 36.2% reduction in events. Other holiday effects were not statistically significant. We found evidence for a crowd out phenomenon for influenza/H1N1, where a 50% increase in influenza events corresponded with a 4% decline in other disease events for Google News only. Other prominent diseases in this database - avian influenza (H5N1), cholera, or foodborne illness - were not associated with a crowd out phenomenon. These results provide quantitative evidence for the limited impact of editorial biases on HealthMap's web-crawling epidemic intelligence.

  3. Changes in force production and stroke parameters of trained able-bodied and unilateral arm-amputee female swimmers during a 30 s tethered front-crawl swim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey Jane; Sanders, Ross H; Payton, Carl J

    2014-01-01

    This study examined changes in the propulsive force and stroke parameters of arm-amputee and able-bodied swimmers during tethered swimming. Eighteen well-trained female swimmers (nine unilateral arm amputees and nine able-bodied) were videotaped performing maximal-effort 30 s front-crawl swims, while attached to a load cell mounted on a pool wall. Tether force, stroke rate, stroke phase durations and inter-arm angle were quantified. The able-bodied group produced significantly higher mean and maximum tether forces than the amputee group. The mean of the intra-cyclic force peaks was very similar for both groups. Mean and maximum tether force had significant negative associations with 100 m swim time, for both groups. Both groups exhibited a similar fatigue index (relative decrease in tether force) during the test, but the amputees had a significantly greater stroke rate decline. A significant positive association between stroke rate decline and fatigue index was obtained for the able-bodied group only. Inter-arm angle and relative phase durations did not change significantly during the test for either group, except the recovery phase duration of the arm amputees, which decreased significantly. This study's results can contribute to the development of a more evidence-based classification system for swimmers with a disability.

  4. Efeitos de diferentes padrões respiratórios no desempenho e na organização temporal das braçadas do nado "Crawl" Effects of different breathing patterns on the performance and the arm stroke in the front Crawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Apolinario

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos de diferentes padrões respiratórios no desempenho e na organização temporal das braçadas do nado "Crawl" de atletas de elite. Vinte e um jovens atletas do gênero masculino participaram de forma voluntária do estudo. Eles foram filmados nadando 25 m do nado "Crawl", em velocidade máxima, em quatro condições de respiração: inspiração para o lado preferido (LP; para o lado não preferido (LNP; bilateral (B; e, sem respiração (S. Duas filmadoras digitais (60 fps captaram as imagens que foram analisadas através do "software" Kinovea 0.8.7 nos 10 metros centrais do percurso. Para análise foram consideradas medidas de desempenho e de organização temporal das braçadas. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o padrão respiratório afeta o desempenho de atletas jovens de elite. Mostraram que, em termos de velocidade, tempo, frequência e comprimento de braçada, é mais vantajosa a condição de nadar "Crawl" em apneia (S que em qualquer das condições com inspiração (B, LP e LNP. Portanto, o padrão preferido de respiração, não necessariamente, corresponde ao mais eficiente em termos do desempenho. Assim, professores e técnicos de Natação deveriam incentivar a prática e o emprego do padrão em apneia como estratégia tática para nadadores velocistas. Em relação à braçada, os resultados mostraram que diante da modificação do padrão respiratório, nadadores peritos jovens mantêm a estrutura temporal das braçadas direita e esquerda (aspectos invariantes da braçada bem como a coordenação entre os braços inalterada enquanto efetuam ajustes na fase aérea da braçada (aspectos variantes. Assim sendo, atletas jovens de elite apresentam braçada com relativa autonomia frente ao componente respiração e nadam efetuando ajustes considerando a economia de recursos.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different breathing patterns on the performance and

  5. Field experiments on airborne moisture transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldengarm, J.; Gids, W.F. de

    1990-01-01

    Within the framework of the Dutch participation in the IEA Annex XIV “Condensation” field experiments have been carried out to study airbome moisture transport in realistic circumstances. The experiments were done in an unoccupied 3-story dwelling in Leidschendam in the Netherlands. Some of the

  6. Localized leak detection utilizing moisture sensitive tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddle, P.

    1984-01-01

    Moisture sensitive tape (MST) has been used in various nuclear power plants to detect leaks in reactor piping systems. The sensor assembly consists of MST, transponder, and sensor carrier, and is installed on the exterior of thermal insulation. The components, applications, installation, and purchasing information are discussed in the paper

  7. Moisture in organic coatings - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, G.K. van der; Adan, O.C.G.

    1999-01-01

    A review is given on transport and equilibrium sorption of moisture in polymer films and organic coatings. Polymeric material forms the continuous phase of a coating and is therefore important for transport properties. Besides polymer, coatings consist of pigments and fillers and various additives,

  8. AMSR2 Soil Moisture Product Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindlish, R.; Jackson, T.; Cosh, M.; Koike, T.; Fuiji, X.; de Jeu, R.; Chan, S.; Asanuma, J.; Berg, A.; Bosch, D.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) is part of the Global Change Observation Mission-Water (GCOM-W) mission. AMSR2 fills the void left by the loss of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) after almost 10 years. Both missions provide brightness temperature observations that are used to retrieve soil moisture. Merging AMSR-E and AMSR2 will help build a consistent long-term dataset. Before tackling the integration of AMSR-E and AMSR2 it is necessary to conduct a thorough validation and assessment of the AMSR2 soil moisture products. This study focuses on validation of the AMSR2 soil moisture products by comparison with in situ reference data from a set of core validation sites. Three products that rely on different algorithms were evaluated; the JAXA Soil Moisture Algorithm (JAXA), the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), and the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA). Results indicate that overall the SCA has the best performance based upon the metrics considered.

  9. Analysis of Joint Masonry Moisture Content Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Adding insulation to the interior side of walls of masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw, have known solutions, but wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content & relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100% RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated versus non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15%) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  10. Moisture movements in render on brick wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Munch, Thomas Astrup; Thorsen, Peter Schjørmann

    2003-01-01

    A three-layer render on brick wall used for building facades is studied in the laboratory. The vertical render surface is held in contact with water for 24 hours simulating driving rain while it is measured with non-destructive X-ray equipment every hour in order to follow the moisture front...

  11. SOME MOISTURE DEPENDENT THERMAL PROPERTIES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermal heat conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal heat diffusivity and bulk density of Prosopis africana seeds were determined as a function of moisture content. Specific heat capacity was measured by the method of mixture while the thermal heat conductivity was measured by the guarded hot plate method.

  12. Model of moisture absorption by adhesive joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla Mora, Veronica; Mieloszyk, Magdalena; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2018-01-01

    Adhesive joints offer many advantages over traditional mechanical joining systems. Nonetheless, their use is limited since they can be adversely affected by extreme temperatures and humidity conditions. Moisture contamination (even 1-3% of the sample weight) in an adhesive can alter its tensile strength and compromise the structural integrity of the joint. Moisture absorption processes can be monitored using methods based on fibre Bragg grating sensors embedded in the adhesive material. In the present paper, a finite element model of an adhesive joint between composite elements was analysed using the commercial code Abaqus™. The investigation contains two main parts: a thermal analysis and a hygro-mechanical analysis. The achieved results were verified using experimental investigation results for a sample with embedded fibre Bragg grating sensors that were applied to monitor the moisture-induced strains in the adhesive joint. The achieved numerical results show good agreement with the experimental ones for all considered analyses. The presented models can also be used for the determination of moisture content in an adhesive layer especially in a range of 1.5-2.5% of the water content.

  13. Assessment of NGNP Moisture Ingress Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Landman

    2011-04-01

    An assessment of modular HTGR moisture ingress events, making use of a phenomena identification and ranking process, was conducted by a panel of experts in the related areas for the U.S. next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) design. Consideration was given mainly to the prismatic core gas-cooled reactor configurations incorporating a steam generator within the primary circuit.

  14. Effect of Pyrodextrinization, Crosslinking and Heat- Moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lipids, protein, carbohydrates, soluble sugars, and ascorbic acid [1]. Therefore, starch modification is commonly ... Moisture, ash, total protein, and total fat content of the native parkia starch were carried out according to ..... black bean, chickpea, lentil, navy bean and pinto bean cultivarswn in Canada. Food Chem. 2002; 78:.

  15. Soil moisture and temperature algorithms and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture has matured over the past decade as a result of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) program of JAXA. This program has resulted in improved algorithms that have been supported by rigorous validation. Access to the products and the valida...

  16. Moisture availability limits subalpine tree establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Harvey, Brian J; Rodman, Kyle C; Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T

    2018-03-01

    In the absence of broad-scale disturbance, many temperate coniferous forests experience successful seedling establishment only when abundant seed production coincides with favorable climate. Identifying the frequency of past establishment events and the climate conditions favorable for seedling establishment is essential to understanding how climate warming could affect the frequency of future tree establishment events and therefore future forest composition or even persistence of a forest cover. In the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, research on the sensitivity of establishment of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa)-two widely distributed, co-occurring conifers in North America-to climate variability has focused on the alpine treeline ecotone, leaving uncertainty about the sensitivity of these species across much of their elevation distribution. We compared annual germination dates for >450 Engelmann spruce and >500 subalpine fir seedlings collected across a complex topographic-moisture gradient to climate variability in the Colorado Front Range. We found that Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir established episodically with strong synchrony in establishment events across the study area. Broad-scale establishment events occurred in years of high soil moisture availability, which were characterized by above-average snowpack and/or cool and wet summer climatic conditions. In the recent half of the study period (1975-2010), a decrease in the number of fir and spruce establishment events across their distribution coincided with declining snowpack and a multi-decadal trend of rising summer temperature and increasing moisture deficits. Counter to expected and observed increases in tree establishment with climate warming in maritime subalpine forests, our results show that recruitment declines will likely occur across the core of moisture-limited subalpine tree ranges as warming drives increased moisture deficits. © 2018 by the

  17. A comparison of the moisture gauge and the neutron log in air-filled holes at NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearst, J.R.; Carlson, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Two methods are commonly used to measure water content of geologic materials by neutron diffusion. One is used mostly in agricultural, mining and civil engineering areas and is called a moisture gauge. The other is used principally in petroleum and mineral exploration, and is called a neutron log. Both are used at NTS, the moisture gauge principally in tunnels, the neutron log in vertical drilled holes. There is little communication between the two industrial groups, and the measurement instruments have evolved with very different operational characteristics, and one important physics difference, the source to detector spacing. The moisture gauge has a very short, 0-6 cm, spacing, with little internal shielding, and count increases with water. In contrast, the neutron log has a long spacing, 30-50 cm, substantial internal shielding, and exhibits decreasing count with increasing water. Because of its short spacing the moisture gauge gives better bed resolution than the neutron log. Because its count increases with water, the moisture gauge is more strongly affected by water in the borehole, especially in dry formations. In these conditions the neutron log is the method of choice. In air-filled holes, if source size or logging time is not a constraint, the relative sensitivity of the two tools to water is determined by the relative strengths of borehole effects as fluid, holesize, or tool-wall gap. If source size is a constraint for safety reasons, the short spacing provides higher countrates for a given detector efficiency and thus better relative precision in determining the true count. If source size is limited because of detector or electronics saturation, the short spacing will be better at high water content, while the long spacing will be better at low water content. In any case the short spacing may have an advantage because it can make better contact with the hole wall and it can be more easily corrected for gap

  18. Experimental study of moisture uptake of polyurethane foam subjected to a heat sink below 30 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. B.; Chen, J. Y.; Gan, Z. H.; Qiu, L. M.; Zhang, K. H.; Yang, R. P.; Ma, X. J.; Liu, Z. H.

    2014-01-01

    Rigid closed-cell foam is widely used to thermally insulate liquid hydrogen and oxygen tanks of space launch vehicles due to its lightweight, mechanical strength and thermal-insulating performance. Up to now, little information is available on the intrusion of moisture into the foam that subjects one side to liquid hydrogen temperatures and the other side to room temperatures and high relative humidity. A novel cryogenic moisture uptake apparatus has been designed and fabricated to measure the moisture uptake into the polyurethane foam. For safety and convenience, two identical single-stage pulse tube cryocoolers instead of liquid hydrogen are used to cool one side of the foam specimen to the lowest temperature of 26 K. Total of eight specimens in three groups, according to whether there is a butt-joint or weathering period, are tested respectively for both 5 h and 9 h. The additional weight due to moisture uptake of the foam for the 26 K cases is compared to previous measurements at 79 K. The results are instructive for the applications of foam to the insulation of liquid hydrogen tanks in space launch vehicles.

  19. Evaluation of random cascade hierarchical and statistical arrangement model in disaggregation of SMOS soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, M.; Magagi, R.; Goita, K.

    2013-12-01

    are applied to the soil moisture products before application of disaggregation method. The disaggregation is also done by using an improved version of the model, i.e. Random Cascade Hierarchical and Statistical Arrangement (RCHSA) model (Shrestha et al., 2004). In this model, the spatial correlation parameter is used to improve the reliability of the model. The results show that by comparison with RC model, the RCHSA method could improve the accuracy of disaggregation up to about 0.05 (m3/m3). References Over, T. M., and Gupta, V. K., A space-time theory of mesoscale rainfall using random cascades, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 101, No. D21, p. 26319-26331, 1996. Shrestha, R. K., Tachikawa, Y., and Takara, K., Downscaling spatial rainfall field from global scale to local scale using improved multiplicative random cascade method, Annuals of Disas. Prev. Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., p. 47, 2004.

  20. Predicting root zone soil moisture with satellite near-surface moisture data in semiarid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, S.; Baldwin, D. C.; Keller, K.; Smithwick, E. A. H.; Caylor, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most critical variables in semiarid environment is the soil water content that represents a controlling factor for both ecological and hydrological processes. Soil moisture monitoring over large scales may be extremely useful, but it is limited by the fact that most of the available tools provides only surface measurements not representative of the effective amount of water stored in the subsurface. Therefore, a methodology able to infer root-zone soil moisture starting from surface measurements is highly desirable. Recently a new simplified formulation has been introduced to provide a formal description of the mathematical relationship between surface measurements and root-zone soil moisture (Manfreda et al., HESS 2014). This is a physically based approach derived from the soil water balance equation, where different soil water loss functions have been explored in order to take into account for the non-linear processes governing soil water fluxes. The study highlighted that the soil loss function is the key for such relationship that is therefore strongly influenced by soil type and physiological plant types. The new formulation has been tested on soil moisture based on measurements taken from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) and the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) databases. The method sheds lights on the physical controls for soil moisture dynamics and on the possibility to use such a simplified method for the description of root-zone soil moisture. Furthermore, the method has been also couple with an Enasamble Kalman Filter (EnKF) in order to optimize its performances for the large scale monitoring based the new satellite near-surface moisture data (SMAP). The optimized SMAR-EnKF model does well in both wet and dry climates and across many different soil types (51 SCAN locations) providing a strategy for real-time soil moisture monitoring.

  1. Disaggregation of remotely sensed soil moisture under all sky condition using machine learning approach in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kim, H.; Choi, M.; Kim, K.

    2016-12-01

    Estimating spatiotemporal variation of soil moisture is crucial to hydrological applications such as flood, drought, and near real-time climate forecasting. Recent advances in space-based passive microwave measurements allow the frequent monitoring of the surface soil moisture at a global scale and downscaling approaches have been applied to improve the spatial resolution of passive microwave products available at local scale applications. However, most downscaling methods using optical and thermal dataset, are valid only in cloud-free conditions; thus renewed downscaling method under all sky condition is necessary for the establishment of spatiotemporal continuity of datasets at fine resolution. In present study Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique was utilized to downscale a satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. The 0.1 and 0.25-degree resolution of daily Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) L3 soil moisture datasets from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) were disaggregated over Northeast Asia in 2015. Optically derived estimates of surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and its cloud products were obtained from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the purpose of downscaling soil moisture in finer resolution under all sky condition. Furthermore, a comparison analysis between in situ and downscaled soil moisture products was also conducted for quantitatively assessing its accuracy. Results showed that downscaled soil moisture under all sky condition not only preserves the quality of AMSR2 LPRM soil moisture at 1km resolution, but also attains higher spatial data coverage. From this research we expect that time continuous monitoring of soil moisture at fine scale regardless of weather conditions would be available.

  2. Global retrieval of soil moisture and vegetation properties using data-driven methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nemesio; Richaume, Philippe; Kerr, Yann

    2017-04-01

    for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Finally, retrievals using radiative transfer models can also be used as a reference SM dataset for the training phase. This approach was used to retrieve soil moisture from ASMR-E, as mentioned above, and also to implement the official European Space Agency (ESA) SMOS soil moisture product in Near-Real-Time. We will finish with a discussion of the retrieval of vegetation parameters from SMOS observations using data-driven methods.

  3. CFD modelling of moisture interactions between air and constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Woloszyn, Monika; Hohota, Raluca

    2005-01-01

    There is a strong demand for accurate moisture modelling since moisture poses a risk for both the constructions and the indoor climate. Thus, in this investigation there is special focus on moisture modelling. The paper describes a new model based on a CFD tool that is enhanced to include both...

  4. Foundation products have a measureable impact on moisturization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley-Bowles, Tricia; Liguori, Jillian; Razuri, Farrah; Hubschmitt, Amber; Litchauer, Jill; Aucar, Betty; De Mul, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Multifunctional products are becoming more prevalent in the color cosmetics market. We evaluated four foundation products for in vivo moisturizing benefits using the mini-regression test method. We found that statistically significant long-lasting moisturization was provided by the foundations tested, but only if hygroscopic moisturizing ingredients were present.

  5. The study of high precision neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengkang; Bao Guanxiong; Sang Hai; Zhu Yuzhen

    1993-01-01

    The principle, structure and calibration experiment of the high precision neutron moisture gauge (insertion type) are described. The gauge has been appraised. The precision of the measuring moisture of coke is lower than 0.5%, and the range of the measuring moisture is 2%-12%. The economic benefit of the gauge application is good

  6. Origin and fate of atmospheric moisture over continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ent, R.J.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Schaefli, B.; Steele-Dunne, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long debate on the extent to which precipitation relies on terrestrial evaporation (moisture recycling). In the past, most research focused on moisture recycling within a certain region only. This study makes use of new definitions of moisture recycling to study the complete process

  7. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances for moisture meters. 801.6 Section 801.6... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.6 Tolerances for moisture meters. (a) The maintenance tolerances for Motomco 919 moisture meters used in performing official inspection services shall be: (1...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average moisture content. 51.2561 Section 51.2561... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement of the grades, except when...

  9. Estimation of improved resolution soil moisture in vegetated areas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mina Moradizadeh

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... main goal of this study is to develop a downscaling approach to improve the spatial resolution of soil moisture estimates with ... illustrated that the soil moisture variability is effectively captured at 5 km spatial scales without a significant degradation .... the ability of Vis/IR sensors in soil moisture sensing and ...

  10. Variability of soil moisture and its relationship with surface albedo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    30 N latitude) are used to study the diurnal, monthly and seasonal soil moisture variations. The effect of rainfall on diurnal and seasonal soil moisture is discussed. We have investigated relationships of soil moisture with sur- face albedo and soil thermal diffusivity. The diurnal variation of surface albedo appears as a.

  11. A soil moisture network for SMOS validation in Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bircher, Simone; Skou, N.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission (SMOS) acquires surface soil moisture data of global coverage every three days. Product validation for a range of climate and environmental conditions across continents is a crucial step. For this purpose, a soil moisture and soil temperature sensor...

  12. Dielectric properties for prediction of moisture content in Vidalia onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave Sensing provides a means for nondestructively determining the amount of moisture in materials by sensing the dielectric properties of the material. In this study, dielectric properties of Vidalia onions were analyzed for moisture dependence at 13.36 GHz and 23°C for moisture content betwee...

  13. SHRINKAGE AND MOISTURE LOSS OF DRIED MELON SEEDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed that fresh melon seeds dried to 7.4% moisture content(wb) lost 539.2 grams of moisture per kilogram dry matter and the percentage shrinkage of the seeds was 33.9%. Graphs of moisture loss in grams per kilogram dry matter were plotted against percentage shrinkage. A straight line relationship was ...

  14. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to...

  15. Moisture dependence of radon transport in concrete : Measurements and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozmuta, [No Value; van der Graaf, ER; de Meijer, RJ

    2003-01-01

    The moisture dependence of the radon-release rate of concrete was measured under well controlled conditions. It was found that the radon-release rate almost linearly increases up to moisture contents of 50 to 60%. At 70 to 80% a maximum was found and for higher moisture contents the radon-release

  16. [Prediction of litter moisture content in Tahe Forestry Bureau of Northeast China based on FWI moisture codes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Jin, Sen; Di, Xue-Ying

    2014-07-01

    Canadian fire weather index system (FWI) is the most widely used fire weather index system in the world. Its fuel moisture prediction is also a very important research method. In this paper, litter moisture contents of typical forest types in Tahe Forestry Bureau of Northeast China were successively observed and the relationships between FWI codes (fine fuel moisture code FFMC, duff moisture code DMC and drought code DC) and fuel moisture were analyzed. Results showed that the mean absolute error and the mean relative error of models.established using FWI moisture code FFMC was 14.9% and 70.7%, respectively, being lower than those of meteorological elements regression model, which indicated that FWI codes had some advantage in predicting litter moisture contents and could be used to predict fuel moisture contents. But the advantage was limited, and further calibration was still needed, especially in modification of FWI codes after rainfall.

  17. Predicting psychrometric conditions in biocontaminant microenvironments with a microclimate heat and moisture transfer model -- description and field comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, M J; Roos, C; Gu, L; Spolek, G

    2004-08-01

    A numerical model is described that is designed to model psychrometric conditions in biocontaminant microenvironments, such as in bedding and the base of carpets for dust-mites, and on the surface of linings for molds. The model is very general and can include room air, other room components, other zones including the outdoors, other rooms and any subfloor space. Mechanical plant can be modeled. Good agreement between modeled and field results are reported for the complex case of an occupied bed and for the microclimate in the base of a carpet, before and after its timber floor above a crawl space was retrofitted with insulation. Biocontaminants such as dust-mites and molds can pose serious health problems. Understanding microclimates in biocontaminant microhabitats, when coupled with biologic models, will make it possible to predict how the life cycles of these biocontaminants are affected as these conditions change. In turn, this will suggest which interventions that modify indoor climate and microclimate are likely to control these biocontaminants. Furthermore such interventions might include indoor humidity control, changing building insulation and ventilation levels, covering mattresses, use of electric blankets, use of carpet heating, etc. Such models will provide a fast way for screening for interventions that are likely to be effective in the control of biocontaminants.

  18. Instrument for measuring moisture in wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werme, L.

    1980-06-01

    A method to determine the moisture content in wood chips, in batch and on-line, has been investigated. The method can be used for frozen and non frozen chips. Samples of wood chips are thawn and dryed with microwaves. During the drying the sample is weighed continously and the rate of drying is measured. The sample is dried t 10 percent moisture content. The result is extrapolated to the drying rate zero. The acccuracy at the method is 1.6 to 1.7 percent for both frozen and non frozen chips. The accuracy of the method is considered acceptable, but sofisticated sampling equipment is necessary. This makes the method too complex to make the instrument marketable.

  19. Effects of atmospheric moisture on rock resistivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R.

    1973-01-01

    This study examines the changes in resistivity of rock samples as induced by atmospheric moisture. Experiments were performed on samples of hematitic sandstone, pyrite, and galena. The sandstone underwent a change in resistivity of four orders of magnitude when it was measured in a vacuum of 500 ntorr and in air of 37% relative humidity. Pyrite and galena showed no variations in resistivity when they were measured under the same conditions. These results, plus others obtained elsewhere, indicate that rocks of the resistive type are affected in their electrical properties by atmospheric moisture, whereas rocks of the conductive type are not. The experimental evidence obtained is difficult to reconcile with a model of aqueous electrolytic conduction on the sample surface. It is instead suggested that adsorbed water molecules alter the surface resistivity in a manner similar to that observed in semiconductors and insulators.

  20. Moisture properties of the lightweight brick body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čáchová, Monika; Koňáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Keppert, Martin; Černý, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Brick have been used for thousands years and during that time they went throw the long development. One of the possibilities how to changed properties of ceramic products is to change material compositions. This article is focused on utilization of lightening additives. Commonly used sawdust is compared with straw. The matter of measurement was to determine its influence on moisture properties. Basic physical properties were measured as well, since mainly open porosity has influence on water transport. Achieved results proved that utilization of straw leads to open porosity decrease. Particularly the amount of small pores (diameter under 1µm) went down. Regarding the moisture properties water vapor transport ability was decreased by adding straw in to the ceramic, while ability of water liquid transport remained unaffected.

  1. Neutron moisture gaging of agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, S.; Janout, Z.; Kovacik, M.

    1987-01-01

    The design is described of a neutron moisture gage which consists of a measuring probe, neutron detector, small electronic recording device and a 241 Am-Be radionuclide source. The neutron detector consists of a surface barrier semiconductor silicon detector and a conversion layer of lithium fluoride. The detection of triton which is the reaction product of lithium with neutrons by the silicon detector is manifested as a voltage pulse. The detector has low sensitivity for fast neutrons and for gamma radiation and is suitable for determining moisture values in large volume samples. Verification and calibration measurements were carried out of chernozem, brown soil and podzolic soils in four series. The results are tabulated. Errors of measurement range between 0.8 to 1.0%. The precision of measurement could be improved by the calibration of the device for any type of soil. (E.S.). 4 tabs., 6 refs., 5 figs

  2. A Polarimetric First-Order Model of Soil Moisture Effects on the DInSAR Coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zwieback

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in soil moisture between two radar acquisitions can impact the observed coherence in differential interferometry: both coherence magnitude |Υ| and phase Φ are affected. The influence on the latter potentially biases the estimation of deformations. These effects have been found to be variable in magnitude and sign, as well as dependent on polarization, as opposed to predictions by existing models. Such diversity can be explained when the soil is modelled as a half-space with spatially varying dielectric properties and a rough interface. The first-order perturbative solution achieves–upon calibration with airborne L band data–median correlations ρ at HH polarization of 0.77 for the phase Φ, of 0.50 for |Υ|, and for the phase triplets ≡ of 0.56. The predictions are sensitive to the choice of dielectric mixing model, in particular the absorptive properties; the differences between the mixing models are found to be partially compensatable by varying the relative importance of surface and volume scattering. However, for half of the agricultural fields the Hallikainen mixing model cannot reproduce the observed sensitivities of the phase to soil moisture. In addition, the first-order expansion does not predict any impact on the HV coherence, which is however empirically found to display similar sensitivities to soil moisture as the co-pol channels HH and VV. These results indicate that the first-order solution, while not able to reproduce all observed phenomena, can capture some of the more salient patterns of the effect of soil moisture changes on the HH and VV DInSAR signals. Hence it may prove useful in separating the deformations from the moisture signals, thus yielding improved displacement estimates or new ways for inferring soil moisture.

  3. Assimilation of SMOS Retrieved Soil Moisture into the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay B.; Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    Soil moisture is a crucial variable for weather prediction because of its influence on evaporation and surface heat fluxes. It is also of critical importance for drought and flood monitoring and prediction and for public health applications such as monitoring vector-borne diseases. Land surface modeling benefits greatly from regular updates with soil moisture observations via data assimilation. Satellite remote sensing is the only practical observation type for this purpose in most areas due to its worldwide coverage. The newest operational satellite sensor for soil moisture is the Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) instrument aboard the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) has implemented the assimilation of SMOS soil moisture observations into the NASA Land Information System (LIS), an integrated modeling and data assimilation software platform. We present results from assimilating SMOS observations into the Noah 3.2 land surface model within LIS. The SMOS MIRAS is an L-band radiometer launched by the European Space Agency in 2009, from which we assimilate Level 2 retrievals [1] into LIS-Noah. The measurements are sensitive to soil moisture concentration in roughly the top 2.5 cm of soil. The retrievals have a target volumetric accuracy of 4% at a resolution of 35-50 km. Sensitivity is reduced where precipitation, snowcover, frozen soil, or dense vegetation is present. Due to the satellite's polar orbit, the instrument achieves global coverage twice daily at most mid- and low-latitude locations, with only small gaps between swaths.

  4. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Barron; Moran, M. Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Brown, Molly E.

    2014-05-01

    The launch of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission in 2014 will provide global soil moisture and freeze-thaw measurements at moderate resolution (9 km) with latency as short as 24 hours. The resolution, latency and global coverage of SMAP products will enable new applications in the fields of weather, climate, drought, flood, agricultural production, human health and national security. To prepare for launch, the SMAP mission has engaged more than 25 Early Adopters. Early Adopters are users who have a need for SMAP-like soil moisture or freeze-thaw data, and who agreed to apply their own resources to demonstrate the utility of SMAP data for their particular system or model. In turn, the SMAP mission agreed to provide Early Adopters with simulated SMAP data products and pre-launch calibration and validation data from SMAP field campaigns, modeling, and synergistic studies. The applied research underway by Early Adopters has provided fundamental knowledge of how SMAP data products can be scaled and integrated into users' policy, business and management activities to improve decision-making efforts. This presentation will cover SMAP applications including weather and climate forecasting, vehicle mobility estimation, quantification of greenhouse gas emissions, management of urban potable water supply, and prediction of crop yield. The presentation will end with a discussion of potential international applications with focus on the ESA/CEOS TIGER Initiative entitled "looking for water in Africa", the United Nations (UN) Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) which carries a specific mandate focused on Africa, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which lists soil moisture as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV), and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) which reported a food and nutrition crisis in the Sahel.

  5. Effect of Pyrodextrinization, Crosslinking and Heat- Moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Pyrodextrinization (PD), cross-linking (CL), and heat-moisture treatment (HMT) reduced the swelling power to 6.73, 4.17 and 5.57 g/g, respectively but increased solubility by 59.0, 41, 41.5 and 39.5 %, respectively, and tended to decrease gelatinization enthalpy (ÄH). Starch yield was 25.7 % on a whole seed basis.

  6. Analysis of Joist Masonry Moisture Content Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-10-08

    There are many existing buildings with load-bearing mass masonry walls, whose energy performance could be improved with the retrofit of insulation. However, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw have known solutions. But wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content & relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100% RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated vs. non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15%) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  7. Measured moisture properties for alternative insulation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Padfield, Tim

    1999-01-01

    During the past few years there has been a growing interest in using alternative insulation products in buildings. Among these products are the organic materials cellulose fibre, flax and sheep's wool as well as the inorganic perlite. The organic materials are regarded with some suspicion, becaus...... of their hygroscopicity. This paper describes two of the moisture-related properties of these materials: the water sorption and the water vapour transmission. For reference, some mineral fibre products are studied as well....

  8. Soil moisture sensors based on metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Kitić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper novel miniature metamaterial-based soil moisture sensors are presented. The sensors are based on resonant-type metamaterials and employ split-ring resonators (SRR, spiral resonators and fractal SRRs to achieve small dimensions, high sensitivity, and compatibility with standard planar fabrication technologies. All these features make the proposedsensors suitable for deployment in agriculture for precise mapping of soil humidity.

  9. Automated Greenhouse : Temperature and soil moisture control

    OpenAIRE

    Attalla, Daniela; Tannfelt Wu, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis an automated greenhouse was built with the purpose of investigating the watering system’s reliability and if a desired range of temperatures can be maintained. The microcontroller used to create the automated greenhouse was an Arduino UNO. This project utilizes two different sensors, a soil moisture sensor and a temperature sensor. The sensors are controlling the two actuators which are a heating fan and a pump. The heating fan is used to change the temperature and the pump is ...

  10. A Literature Review on the Study of Moisture in Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautschold, Olivia Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-25

    This literature review covers the main chemical and physical interactions between moisture and the polymer matrix. Fickian versus Non-Fickian diffusion behaviors are discussed in approximating the characteristics of moisture sorption. Also, bound water and free water sorbed in polymers are distinguished. Methods to distinguish between bound and free water include differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The difference between moisture sorption and water sorption is considered, as well as the difficulties associated with preventing moisture sorption. Furthermore, specific examples of how moisture sorption influences polymers include natural fiber-polymer composites, starch-based biodegradable thermoplastics, and thermoset polyurethane and epoxies.

  11. Moisture Buffer Effect and its Impact on Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mingjie; Qin, Menghao; Chen, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    The moisture buffer effect of building materials may have great influence on indoor hygrothermal environment. In order to characterize the moisture buffering ability of materials, the basic concept of moisture buffer value (MBV) is adopted. Firstly, a theoretical correction factor is introduced...... in this paper. The moisture uptake/release by hygroscopic materials can be calculated with the factor and the basic MBV. Furthermore, the validation of the correction factor is carried out. The impact of moisture buffering on indoor environment is assessed by using numerical simulations. The results show...

  12. CFD modelling of moisture interactions between air and constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Woloszyn, Monika; Hohota, Raluca

    2005-01-01

    There is a strong demand for accurate moisture modelling since moisture poses a risk for both the constructions and the indoor climate. Thus, in this investigation there is special focus on moisture modelling. The paper describes a new model based on a CFD tool that is enhanced to include both...... detailed modelling of airflows in rooms and heat and moisture transfer in walls by applying them as fluid walls. In a 3D configuration the impact of different boundary conditions are investigated and the results are discussed. The changes of boundary conditions that are studied are velocity, moisture...

  13. Implementation of sorption hysteresis in multi-Fickian moisture transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Svensson, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    In the cellular structure of wood, bound-water diffusion and water-vapor diffusion interact via sorption in a complex moisture-transportation system. At low relative humidities, moisture transport may be modeled by a Fickian diffusion equation with a good approximation. At higher relative......-35% in moisture content. Hence, for a precise moisture content computation, sorption hysteresis must be taken into account. The present paper explains the relation between sorption hysteresis and multi-Fickian moisture transport, and clarifies how models for the two phenomena are coupled. To illustrate...

  14. Simple grain moisture content determination from microwave measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraszewski, A.W.; Trabelsi, S.; Nelson, S.O.

    1998-01-01

    Moisture content of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., is expressed as a function of the ratio of microwave attenuation and phase shift, measured at 16.8 GHz, and grain temperature. Validation of the calibration equation indicated that moisture content was obtained with an uncertainty less than +/- 0.45% moisture at the 95% confidence level, independent of density variation, at temperatures from -1 degree C to 42 degrees C, and moisture contents from 10% to 19%. Moisture determination does not depend on the layer thickness of the wheat norits bulk density. No differences between two wheat cultivars were observed in the measurement data

  15. New method measures moisture and true dry mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.

    The moisture content of wood can be determined by measuring the nuclear magnetic resonance of free water hydrogen atoms in wood. Nanassy studied NMR curves for six types of wood and obtained the calibration curve by reducing the moisture content in steps by 4% moisture down to ca. 1% moisture and then by gradually wetting the wood. The initial material was fresh wood. For each step he measured the intensity of the free water hydrogen signal. If the sample weight is known the dry matter content (dry weight) and moisture content of the sample can be derived from the measured NMR signal. (J.P.)

  16. Impacts of single and recurrent wildfires on topsoil moisture regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pelayo, Oscar; Malvar, Maruxa; van den Elsen, Erik; Hosseini, Mohammadreza; Coelho, Celeste; Ritsema, Coen; Bautista, Susana; Keizer, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    The increasing fire recurrence on forest in the Mediterranean basin is well-established by future climate scenarios due to land use changes and climate predictions. By this, shifts on mature pine woodlands to shrub rangelands are of major importance on forest ecosystems buffer functions, since historical patterns of established vegetation help to recover from fire disturbances. This fact, together with the predicted expansion of the drought periods, will affect feedback processes of vegetation patterns since water availability on these seasons are driven by post-fire local soil properties. Although fire impacts of soil properties and water availability has been widely studied using the fire severity as the main factor, little research is developed on post-fire soil moisture patterns, including the fire recurrence as a key explanatory variable. The following research investigated, in pine woodlands of north central Portugal, the short-term consequences (one year after a fire) of wildfire recurrence on the surface soil moisture content (SMC) and on effective soil water (SWEFF, parameter that includes actual daily soil moisture, soil field capacity-FC and permanent wilting point-PWP). The study set-up includes analyses at two fire recurrence scenarios (1x- and 4x-burnt since 1975), at a patch level (shrub patch/interpatch) and at two soil depths (2.5 and 7.5 cm) in a nested approach. Understanding how fire recurrence affects water in soil over space and time is the main goal of this research. The use of soil moisture sensors in a nested approach, the rainfall features and analyses on basic soil properties as soil organic matter, texture, bulk density, pF curves, soil water repellency and soil surface components will establish which factors has the largest role in controlling soil moisture behavior. Main results displayed, in a seasonal and yearly basis, no differences on SMC as increasing fire recurrence (1x- vs 4x-burnt) neither between patch/interpatch microsites at

  17. Use of Soil Moisture Variability in Artificial Neural Network Retrieval of Soil Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Veenendaal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Passive microwave remote sensing is one of the most promising techniques for soil moisture retrieval. However, the inversion of soil moisture from brightness temperature observations is not straightforward, as it is influenced by numerous factors such as surface roughness, vegetation cover, and soil texture. Moreover, the relationship between brightness temperature, soil moisture and the factors mentioned above is highly non-linear and ill-posed. Consequently, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs have been used to retrieve soil moisture from microwave data, but with limited success when dealing with data different to that from the training period. In this study, an ANN is tested for its ability to predict soil moisture at 1 km resolution on different dates following training at the same site for a specific date. A novel approach that utilizes information on the variability of soil moisture, in terms of its mean and standard deviation for a (sub region of spatial dimension up to 40 km, is used to improve the current retrieval accuracy of the ANN method. A comparison between the ANN with and without the use of the variability information showed that this enhancement enables the ANN to achieve an average Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of around 5.1% v/v when using the variability information, as compared to around 7.5% v/v without it. The accuracy of the soil moisture retrieval was further improved by the division of the target site into smaller regions down to 4 km in size, with the spatial variability of soil moisture calculated from within the smaller region used in the ANN. With the combination of an ANN architecture of a single hidden layer of 20 neurons and the dual-polarized brightness temperatures as input, the proposed use of variability and sub-region methodology achieves an average retrieval accuracy of 3.7% v/v. Although this accuracy is not the lowest as comparing to the research in this field, the main contribution is the ability of ANN in

  18. SMALT - Soil Moisture from Altimetry project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard; Benveniste, Jérôme; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Berry, Philippa; Wagner, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sebastian; Egido, Alejandro

    Soil surface moisture is a key scientific parameter; however, it is extremely difficult to measure remotely, particularly in arid and semi-arid terrain. This paper outlines the development of a novel methodology to generate soil moisture estimates in these regions from multi-mission satellite radar altimetry. Key to this approach is the development of detailed DRy Earth ModelS (DREAMS), which encapsulate the detailed and intricate surface brightness variations over the Earth’s land surface, resulting from changes in surface roughness and composition. DREAMS have been created over a number of arid and semi-arid deserts worldwide to produce historical SMALT timeseries over soil moisture variation. These products are available in two formats - a high resolution track product which utilises the altimeter’s high frequency content alongtrack and a multi-looked 6” gridded product at facilitate easy comparison/integeration with other remote sensing techniques. An overview of the SMALT processing scheme, covering the progression of the data from altimeter sigma0 through to final soil moisture estimate, is included along with example SMALT products. Validation has been performed over a number of deserts by comparing SMALT products with other remote sensing techniques, results of the comparison between SMALT and Metop Warp 5.5 are presented here. Comparisons with other remote sensing techniques have been limited in scope due to differences in the operational aspects of the instruments, the restricted geographical coverage of the DREAMS and the low repeat temporal sampling rate of the altimeter. The potential to expand the SMALT technique into less arid areas has been investigated. Small-scale comparison with in-situ and GNSS-R data obtained by the LEiMON experimental campaign over Tuscany, where historical trends exist within both SMALT and SMC probe datasets. A qualitative analysis of unexpected backscatter characteristics in dedicated dry environments is performed

  19. The Effect of Temperature on Moisture Transport in Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Xi, Yunping

    2017-08-09

    Most concrete structures and buildings are under temperature and moisture variations simultaneously. Thus, the moisture transport in concrete is driven by the moisture gradient as well as the temperature gradient. This paper presents an experimental approach for determining the effect of different temperature gradients on moisture distribution profiles in concrete. The effect of elevated temperatures under isothermal conditions on the moisture transport was also evaluated, and found not to be significant. The non-isothermal tests show that the temperature gradient accelerates the moisture transport in concrete. The part of increased moisture transfer due to the temperature gradient can be quantified by a coupling parameter D HT , which can be determined by the present test data. The test results indicated that D HT is not a constant but increases linearly with the temperature variation. A material model was developed for D HT based on the experimental results obtained in this study.

  20. Moisture buffering phenomenon and its impact on building energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mingjie; Qin, Menghao; Rode, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Moisture buffering is the ability of surface materials in the indoor environment to moderate the indoor humidity variations through adsorption or desorption. Materials with high moisture buffering capacity could be used to passively control the indoor moisture condition and consequently improve...... the indoor environmental quality and reduce the latent heat load of buildings. In order to characterize the moisture buffering ability of materials, the basic concept of moisture buffer value (MBV) is adopted. The paper first proposes a new mathematical expression of basic MBV, and then introduces...... a theoretical correction factor that could be used together with the MBV to calculate the moisture uptake/release by hygroscopic materials exposed to different types of humidity variations. Secondly, a simplified two-bottle test method is proposed to measure the MBV in the present study. The impact of moisture...

  1. Combined NMR moisture, temperature and pressure measurements during heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pel L.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For model validation, quantitative measurements of the evolution of moisture, temperature, and pressure distributions in time are needed. For this purpose, we have developed an NMR setup to measure the moisture transport in heated building materials. The measured combined moisture content and temperature profiles give a unique insight in the moisture transport and dehydration kinetics inside concrete during fire. These measurements give the first quantitative proof for the build-up of a moisture peak due to the vapor pressure build-up. In this study we have also combined for the first time the measurement of the moisture and temperature profiles with the measurement of the pressure at one position, which show that the pressure build up is directly related to the moisture profiles.

  2. New Physical Algorithms for Downscaling SMAP Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, M.; Ghafari, E.; Babaeian, E.; Davary, K.; Farid, A.; Jones, S. B.; Tuller, M.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission provides new means for estimation of surface soil moisture at the global scale. However, for many hydrological and agricultural applications the spatial SMAP resolution is too low. To address this scale issue we fused SMAP data with MODIS observations to generate soil moisture maps at 1-km spatial resolution. In course of this study we have improved several existing empirical algorithms and introduced a new physical approach for downscaling SMAP data. The universal triangle/trapezoid model was applied to relate soil moisture to optical/thermal observations such as NDVI, land surface temperature and surface reflectance. These algorithms were evaluated with in situ data measured at 5-cm depth. Our results demonstrate that downscaling SMAP soil moisture data based on physical indicators of soil moisture derived from the MODIS satellite leads to higher accuracy than that achievable with empirical downscaling algorithms. Keywords: Soil moisture, microwave data, downscaling, MODIS, triangle/trapezoid model.

  3. Quality Assessment of the CCI ECV Soil Moisture Product Using ENVISAT ASAR Wide Swath Data over Spain, Ireland and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pratola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, great progress has been made by the scientific community in generating satellite-derived global surface soil moisture products, as a valuable source of information to be used in a variety of applications, such as hydrology, meteorology and climatic modeling. Through the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI, the most complete and consistent global soil moisture (SM data record based on active and passive microwaves sensors is being developed. However, the coarse spatial resolution characterizing such data may be not sufficient to accurately represent the moisture conditions. The objective of this work is to assess the quality of the CCI Essential Climate Variable (ECV SM product by using finer spatial resolution Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR Wide Swath and in situ soil moisture data taken over three regions in Europe. Ireland, Spain, and Finland have been selected with the aim of assessing the spatial and temporal representativeness of the ECV SM product over areas that differ in climate, topography, land cover and soil type. This approach facilitated an understanding of the extent to which geophysical factors, such as soil texture, terrain composition and altitude, affect the retrieved ECV SM product values. A good temporal and spatial agreement has been observed between the three soil moisture datasets for the Irish and Spanish sites, while poorer results have been found at the Finnish sites. Overall, the two different satellite derived products capture the soil moisture temporal variations well and are in good agreement with each other.

  4. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjong; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Won, Seunggun; Ahn, Heekwon

    2016-05-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS's optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust's coarse particle size and bulking effect.

  5. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjong Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS’s optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30% for aerobic composting due to the sawdust’s coarse particle size and bulking effect.

  6. AMSR2/GCOM-W1 surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 10 km x 10 km ascending V001 (LPRM_AMSR2_DS_A_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR2/GCOM-W1 surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 10 km x 10 km ascending V001 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil moisture,...

  7. The SMOS Validation Campaign 2010 in the Upper Danube Catchment: A Data Set for Studies of Soil Moisture, Brightness Temperature, and Their Spatial Variability Over a Heterogeneous Land Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. dall' Amico, Johanna; Schlenz, Florian; Loew, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission has been launched by the European Space Agency (ESA) in November 2009. It is the worldwide first satellite dedicated to retrieve soil moisture information at the global scale, with a high temporal resolution, and from spaceborne L-band radiometry...

  8. AMSR-E/Aqua surface soil moisture (LSMEM) L3 1 day 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V001 (WC_LSMEM_SOILM_025) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR-E/Aqua surface soil moisture (LSMEM) L3 1 day 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V001 is a global, 10-year (2002-2011) data set. It is created from soil moisture...

  9. Analysis of soil moisture memory from observations in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, R.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2012-08-01

    Soil moisture is known to show distinctive persistence characteristics compared to other quantities in the climate system. As soil moisture is governing land-atmosphere feedbacks to a large extent, its persistence can provide potential to improve seasonal climate predictions. So far, many modeling studies have investigated the nature of soil moisture memory, with consistent, but model-dependent results. This study investigates soil moisture memory in long-term observational records based on data from five stations across Europe. We investigate spatial and seasonal variations in soil moisture memory and identify their main climatic drivers. Also, we test an existing framework and introduce an extension thereof to approximate soil moisture memory and evaluate the contributions of its driving processes. At the analyzed five sites, we identify the variability of initial soil moisture divided by that of the accumulated forcing over the considered time frame as a main driver of soil moisture memory that reflects the impact of the precipitation regime and of soil and vegetation characteristics. Another important driver is found to be the correlation of initial soil moisture with subsequent forcing that captures forcing memory as it propagates to the soil and also land-atmosphere interactions. Thereby, the role of precipitation is found to be dominant for the forcing. In contrast to results from previous modeling studies, the runoff and evapotranspiration sensitivities to soil moisture are found to have only a minor influence on soil moisture persistence at the analyzed sites. For the central European sites, the seasonal cycles of soil moisture memory display a maximum in late summer and a minimum in spring. An opposite seasonal cycle is found at the analyzed site in Italy. High soil moisture memory is shown to last up to 40 days in some seasons at most sites. Extremely dry or wet states of the soil tend to increase soil moisture memory, suggesting enhanced prediction

  10. Event-scale soil moisture dynamics in open evergreen woodlands of southwest Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Parra, F. J.; Schnabel, S.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Á.

    2012-04-01

    Rangelands with a disperse tree cover occupy large areas in the southwestern part of the Iberian Pensinsula and are also found in other parts of the Mediterranean. In these grazed, savannah-like ecosystems water constitutes an important limiting factor for vegetation growth because of the strong summer dry period, being annual potential evapotranspiration nearly twice the annual rainfall amount. Previous studies by other authors have found lower values of soil water content below the tree canopy as compared to the open spaces, covered only by herbaceous vegetation. The differences of soil moisture between tree covered and open areas vary along the year, commonly being highest during autumn, low when water content is close to saturation and the inverse during summer. Our studies indicate that the spatial variation of soil moisture is more complex. The main objective of this study is to analyze soil moisture dynamics at the event scale below tree canopies (Quercus ilex) and in the open spaces. Because soils are commonly very shallow (Cambisols) and a high concentration of grass roots is found in the upper five centimetres, soil moisture measurements were carried out at 5, 10, 15 and 30 cm depth. The study area is located in Extremadura. Soil moisture is measured continuously with a time resolution of 30 minutes using capacitive sensors and rainfall is registered in 5-minute intervals. Data from the hydrological year 2010-11 are presented here. The main factors which produced variations in soil moisture in the upper 5 cm were amount and duration of the rainfall event. Rainfall intensity was also significantly related with an increase of the water content. At greater depth (30 cm) soil moisture was more related with antecedent rainfall, as for example the amount of precipitation registered 30 and 45 days prior to the event. Maximum increases produced by a rainstorm were approximately 0.20 m3m-3 in grasslands and 0.17 m3m-3 below tree canopy. However, in the uppermost

  11. The role of rock moisture on regulating hydrologic and solute fluxes in the critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, D. M.; Druhan, J. L.; Hahm, W. J.; Wang, J.; Murphy, C.; Cargill, S.; Dietrich, W. E.; Tune, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    In environments where the vadose zone extends below the soil layer into underlying weathered bedrock, the water held in the weathering -generated pores can be an important source of moisture to vegetation. The heterogeneous distribution of pore space in weathered bedrock, furthermore, controls the subsurface water flowpaths that dictate how water is partitioned in the critical zone (CZ) and evolves geochemically. Here, we present the results of direct monitoring of the fluxes of water and solutes through the deep CZ using a novel vadose zone monitoring system (VMS) as well as geophysical logging and sampling in a network of deep wells across a steep hillslope in Northern California. At our study site (Eel River CZO), multi-year monitoring reveals that a significant fraction of incoming rainfall (up to 30%) is seasonally stored in the fractures and matrix of the upper 12 m of weathered bedrock as rock moisture. Intensive geochemical and geophysical observations distributed from the surface to the depth of unweathered bedrock indicate that the seasonal addition and depletion of rock moisture has key implications for hydrologic and geochemical processes. First, rock moisture storage provides an annually consistent water storage reservoir for use by vegetation during the summer, which buffers transpiration fluxes against variability in seasonal precipitation. Second, because the timing and magnitude of groundwater recharge and streamflow are controlled by the annual filling and drainage of the rock moisture, rock moisture regulates the partitioning of hydrologic fluxes. Third, we find that rock moisture dynamics—which influence the myriad geochemical and microbial processes that weather bedrock—strongly correspond with the observed vertical weathering profile. As a result of the coupling between chemical weathering reactions and hydrologic fluxes, the geochemical composition of groundwater and streamflow is influenced by the temporal dynamics of rock moisture. Our

  12. Soil moisture monitoring in Candelaro basin, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, C.; Gigante, V.; Iacobellis, V.

    2012-04-01

    applications. First records of the wireless underground network system indicate the presence of interesting patterns in space-time variability of volumetric soil moisture content, that provide evidence of the combined process of vertical infiltration and lateral flow. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The research in this work is supported by the MIRAGE FP7 project (Grant agreement n. 211732).

  13. Estimating Surface Soil Moisture in a Mixed-Landscape using SMAP and MODIS/VIIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Di, L.; Xiao, J.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture, a critical parameter of earth ecosystem linking land surface and atmosphere, has been widely applied in many application (Di, 1991; Njoku et al. 2003; Western 2002; Zhao et al. 2014; McColl et al. 2017) from regional to continental or even global scale. The advent of satellite-based remote sensing, particular in the last two decades, has proven successful for mapping the surface soil moisture (SSM) from space (Petropoulos et al. 2015; Kim et al. 2015; Molero et al. 2016). The current soil moisture products, however, is not able to fully characterize the spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture at mixed landscape types (Albergel et al. 2013; Zeng et al. 2015). In this research, we derived the SSM at 1-km spatial resolution by using sensor observation and high-level products from SMAP and MODIS/VIIRS as well as metrorological, landcover, and soil data. Specifically, we proposed a practicable method to produce the originally planned SMAP L3_SM_A with comparable quality by downscaling the SMAP L3_SM_P product through a proved method, the geographically weighted regression method at mixed landscape in southern New Hampshire. This estimated SSM was validated using the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) from Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).

  14. Water movement in building walls: interfaces influence on the moisture flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J. M. P. Q.; de Freitas, V. P.; Guimarães, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    Most building elements are a composite of different material layers; however the majority of the works presented in literature were developed for multi-layered elements with perfect contact interface, without resistance. Experimental results presented in literature showed that a considerable hydraulic resistance could be created by the imperfect contact between two porous building materials. Moisture transport in multi-layered building elements can deviate from the moisture transport found for the combination of the single material elements, so the assumption of perfect hydraulic contact could lead to significant errors in predicting the moisture transport. This work presents an experimental campaign and a critical analysis of water absorption in samples of two different building materials (clay brick and autoclaved aerated concrete) with and without joints at different positions (heights) and different contact configurations (natural contact and air space between layers). The results show that when the moisture reaches the interface there is a slowing of the wetting process due to the interfaces hygric resistance. The interfaces hygric resistance, in the AAC samples, is only observed for the joint located from a distance of 2 cm of the wetting plane. The penetration coefficient of the two building materials analysed is very different. Finally, the evolution of the distribution of liquid in the porous medium was analysed in terms of the Boltzmann transform method and anomalous diffusion equation.

  15. Evaluation of gravimetric ground truth soil moisture data collected for the agricultural soil moisture experiment, 1978 Colby, Kansas, aircraft mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, L. M.; Phinney, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Soil moisture data acquired to support the development of algorithms for estimating surface soil moisture from remotely sensed backscattering of microwaves from ground surfaces are presented. Aspects of field uniformity and variability of gravimetric soil moisture measurements are discussed. Moisture distribution patterns are illustrated by frequency distributions and contour plots. Standard deviations and coefficients of variation relative to degree of wetness and agronomic features of the fields are examined. Influence of sampling depth on observed moisture content an variability are indicated. For the various sets of measurements, soil moisture values that appear as outliers are flagged. The distribution and legal descriptions of the test fields are included along with examinations of soil types, agronomic features, and sampling plan. Bulk density data for experimental fields are appended, should analyses involving volumetric moisture content be of interest to the users of data in this report.

  16. Testing a Regenerative Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Removal Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Button, Amy; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.; Curley, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration supported the development of a new vacuum-desorbed regenerative carbon dioxide and humidity control technology for use in short duration human spacecraft. The technology was baselined for use in the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle s Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Termed the Carbon Dioxide And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS), the unit was developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and has undergone extensive testing at Johnson Space Center. The tests were performed to evaluate performance characteristics under range of operating conditions and human loads expected in future spacecraft applications, as part of maturation to increase its readiness for flight. Early tests, conducted at nominal atmospheric pressure, used human metabolic simulators to generate loads, with later tests making us of human test subjects. During these tests many different test cases were performed, involving from 1 to 6 test subjects, with different activity profiles (sleep, nominal and exercise). These tests were conducted within the airlock portion of a human rated test chamber sized to simulate the Orion cabin free air volume. More recently, a test was completed that integrated the CAMRAS with a simulated suit loop using prototype umbilicals and was conducted at reduced atmospheric pressure and elevated oxygen levels. This paper will describe the facilities and procedures used to conduct these and future tests, and provide a summary of findings.

  17. Atmospheric attenuation relative to earth-viewing orbital sensors. [atmospheric moisture effects on microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. C.; Jayroe, R. R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Earth viewing space missions offer exciting new possibilities in several earth resources disciplines - geography, hydrology, agriculture, geology, and oceanography, to name a few. A most useful tool in planning experiments and applying space technology to earth observation is a statistical description of atmospheric parameters. Four dimensional atmospheric models and a world wide cloud model are used to produce atmospheric attenuation models to predict degradation effects for all classes of sensors for application to earth sensing experiments from spaceborne platforms. To insure maximum utility and application of these products, the development of an interaction model of microwave energy and atmospheric variables provides a complete description of the effects of atmospheric moisture upon microwaves.

  18. Moisture Control Handbook: New, low-rise, residential construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corp., Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); Carmody, J. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Underground Space Center

    1991-10-01

    Moisture problems are prevalent all over North America, almost independent of climate. They are viewed as one of the single largest factors limiting the useful service life of a building. Elevated levels of moisture in buildings also can lead to serious health effects for occupants. Until recently, very little consensus on moisture control existed in the building community. The information available was typically incomplete, contradictory, usually limited to specific regions, and in many cases misleading. A need to develop a document which presented the issues relating to moisture from a building science or ``systems`` approach existed. This handbook attempts to fill that need and illustrates that energy-efficient, tight envelope design is clearly part of the solution to healthy buildings when interior relative humidity, temperature, and pressure are controlled simultaneously. The first three chapters of the handbook present the basic principles of moisture problems and solutions in buildings. Chapter 1 -- Mold, Mildew, and Condensation, examines surface moisture problems. Chapter 2 -- Moisture Movement, examines how building assemblies get wet from both the exterior and interior. Chapter 3 -- Wetting and Drying of Building Assemblies, introduces the concepts of acceptable performance, moisture balance, and the redistribution of moisture within building assemblies. Chapters 4 through 6 apply the concepts outlined in the previous chapters and present specific moisture control practices for three basic US climate zones. The advantages and disadvantages of several wall, foundation, and roof assemblies are discussed for each climate zone.

  19. Soil moisture memory at sub-monthly time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoll, K. A.; Entekhabi, D.

    2017-12-01

    For soil moisture-climate feedbacks to occur, the soil moisture storage must have `memory' of past atmospheric anomalies. Quantifying soil moisture memory is, therefore, essential for mapping and characterizing land-atmosphere interactions globally. Most previous studies estimate soil moisture memory using metrics based on the autocorrelation function of the soil moisture time series (e.g., the e-folding autocorrelation time scale). This approach was first justified by Delworth and Manabe (1988) on the assumption that monthly soil moisture time series can be modelled as red noise. While this is a reasonable model for monthly soil moisture averages, at sub-monthly scales, the model is insufficient due to the highly non-Gaussian behavior of the precipitation forcing. Recent studies have shown that significant soil moisture-climate feedbacks appear to occur at sub-monthly time scales. Therefore, alternative metrics are required for defining and estimating soil moisture memory at these shorter time scales. In this study, we introduce metrics, based on the positive and negative increments of the soil moisture time series, that can be used to estimate soil moisture memory at sub-monthly time scales. The positive increments metric corresponds to a rapid drainage time scale. The negative increments metric represents a slower drying time scale that is most relevant to the study of land-atmosphere interactions. We show that autocorrelation-based metrics mix the two time scales, confounding physical interpretation. The new metrics are used to estimate soil moisture memory at sub-monthly scales from in-situ and satellite observations of soil moisture. Reference: Delworth, Thomas L., and Syukuro Manabe. "The Influence of Potential Evaporation on the Variabilities of Simulated Soil Wetness and Climate." Journal of Climate 1, no. 5 (May 1, 1988): 523-47. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1988)0012.0.CO;2.

  20. On moisture migration in a heated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki

    1985-10-01

    Transient moisture migration in a slab of porous concrete being heated at one surface was analyzed with consideration of evaporation and condensation effects. Analysis was made in the existence of non-condensable fluid (air). Since partial differential equations which describe the total system are very complicated, the existence of similar solution is assumed under the condition of low dry-wet interface temperature. Then, partial differential equations were transformed into ordinary differential equations. Solutions were obtained for two boundary conditions of a permeable outer surface and a impermeable outer surface. (author)

  1. Moisture supply in Danish single-family houses – the influence of occupant behaviour and type of room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eva B.; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2017-01-01

    . The study focuses on the dependency of number and age of occupants, occupants’ time spent in the house, square meters living space, ventilation habits and type of room. Moisture supply depends on the type of room; bathroom, basement and living room have the highest values. None of the other parameters seems......According to ISO 13788, the internal moisture supply in dwellings can be described by humidity classes defined by outdoor temperature, occupancy and ventilation. Hygrothermal measurements in indoor air in 500 Danish single-family houses were made to investigate if this corresponds with reality...

  2. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

    2014-05-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  3. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Danny S. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Cummings, Jamie E. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Vieira, Robin K. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fairey, III, Phillip W. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sherwin, John S. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Jr., Charles [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Hoak, David [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Beal, David [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  4. Assessing Landscape-Scale Soil Moisture Distribution Using Auxiliary Sensing Technologies and Multivariate Geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, C.; Castrignanò, A.; Mueller, T.; Zourarakis, D.; Zhu, J.

    2013-12-01

    It is important to assess soil moisture to develop strategies to better manage its availability and use. At the landscape scale, soil moisture distribution derives from an integration of hydrologic, pedologic and geomorphic processes that cause soil moisture variability (SMV) to be time, space, and scale-dependent. Traditional methods to assess SMV at this scale are often costly, labor intensive, and invasive, which can lead to inadequate sampling density and spatial coverage. Fusing traditional sampling techniques with georeferenced auxiliary sensing technologies, such as geoelectric sensing and LiDAR, provide an alternative approach. Because geoelectric and LiDAR measurements are sensitive to soil properties and terrain features that affect soil moisture variation, they are often employed as auxiliary measures to support less dense direct sampling. Georeferenced proximal sensing acquires rapid, real-time, high resolution data over large spatial extents that is enriched with spatial, temporal and scale-dependent information. Data fusion becomes important when proximal sensing is used in tandem with more sparse direct sampling. Multicollocated factorial cokriging (MFC) is one technique of multivariate geostatistics to fuse multiple data sources collected at different sampling scales to study the spatial characteristics of environmental properties. With MFC sparse soil observations are supported by more densely sampled auxiliary attributes to produce more consistent spatial descriptions of scale-dependent parameters affecting SMV. This study uses high resolution geoelectric and LiDAR data as auxiliary measures to support direct soil sampling (n=127) over a 40 hectare Central Kentucky (USA) landscape. Shallow and deep apparent electrical resistivity (ERa) were measured using a Veris 3100 in tandem with soil moisture sampling on three separate dates with ascending soil moisture contents ranging from plant wilting point to field capacity. Terrain features were produced

  5. Digital neutron moisture meter for moisture determination in the cokes and building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibovski, R.; Igel'ski, A.; Kiyanya, K.; Kiyanya, S.; Mnikh, Eh.; Sledzevski, R.; Verba, V.

    1979-01-01

    Description is given of the digital neutron moisture gage for measuring water content in coke or in dry building materials. The device can work independently with indication of the results to personnel carrying out control operation and adjustment of the process or as a part of an automated control system with supplying the results of measurements in a form of analogous signals or electric pulses in the preselected code. The moisture gage described consists of two units: measuring probes with containers and the desk with power supply and the system for digital processing of a radiometric signal. The measuring probe consists of the asotopic fast neutrons source; helium proportional counter of slow neutrons and a pulse amplifier. The probe is mounted in the bunker with the material measured and is located inside the protective tube made of the weare-resistant material. To obtain high accuracy of measurements and to obtain the measuring instrument's reading immediately in the units of moisture measurement, the digizal converter circuit for radiometric signals processing is used. The The digital converter circuit cited, can be applied to any calibration dependence of linear type with initial value. The block diagram of the device is given. The device described permits to measure the moisture content in the metallurgy coks and in the building materials in one minute and with the error not more than 0.5% [ru

  6. A Novel Bias Correction Method for Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS Soil Moisture: Retrieval Ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyoung Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bias correction is a very important pre-processing step in satellite data assimilation analysis, as data assimilation itself cannot circumvent satellite biases. We introduce a retrieval algorithm-specific and spatially heterogeneous Instantaneous Field of View (IFOV bias correction method for Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS soil moisture. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to present the probabilistic presentation of SMOS soil moisture using retrieval ensembles. We illustrate that retrieval ensembles effectively mitigated the overestimation problem of SMOS soil moisture arising from brightness temperature errors over West Africa in a computationally efficient way (ensemble size: 12, no time-integration. In contrast, the existing method of Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF matching considerably increased the SMOS biases, due to the limitations of relying on the imperfect reference data. From the validation at two semi-arid sites, Benin (moderately wet and vegetated area and Niger (dry and sandy bare soils, it was shown that the SMOS errors arising from rain and vegetation attenuation were appropriately corrected by ensemble approaches. In Benin, the Root Mean Square Errors (RMSEs decreased from 0.1248 m3/m3 for CDF matching to 0.0678 m3/m3 for the proposed ensemble approach. In Niger, the RMSEs decreased from 0.14 m3/m3 for CDF matching to 0.045 m3/m3 for the ensemble approach.

  7. Atmospheric moisture's influence on fire behavior: surface moisture and plume dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian E. Potter; Joseph J. Charney; Lesley A. Fusina

    2006-01-01

    Nine measures of atmospheric surface moisture are tested for statistical relationships with fire size and number of fires using data from the Great Lakes region of the United States. The measures include relative humidity, water vapor mixing ratio, mixing ratio deficit, vapor pressure, vapor pressure deficit, dew point temperature, dew point depression, wet bulb...

  8. Effective moisture diffusivity, moisture sorption, thermo-physical properties and infrared drying kinetics of germinated paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawan Tirawanichakul

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and relative humidity (RH dependence of moisture sorption phenomena for agricultural products provide valuable information related to the thermodynamics of the system. So the equilibrium moisture contents (EMC, effective moisture diffusivity (Deff and thermo-physical properties in terms of void fraction, specific heat capacity, and the apparent density of germinated non-waxy Suphanburi 1 paddy were evaluated. Five commonly cited EMC equations were fitted to the experimental data among temperatures of 40-60°C correlating with RH of 0-90%. The results showed that the modified GAB equation was the best function for describing experimental results while those evaluated thermo-physical properties depended on moisture content. To determine drying kinetics model, the simulated values using Midilli et al. (2002 model and Page’s model was the best fitting to exact drying kinetics values for infrared (IR and hot air (HA drying, respectively. Finally, the Deff value of paddy dried with IR and HA sources were also evaluated and the calculated Deff value of both HA and IR drying was in order of 10-9 m2/s.

  9. A Conceptual Approach to Assimilating Remote Sensing Data to Improve Soil Moisture Profile Estimates in a Surface Flux/Hydrology Model. Part 1; Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, William L.; Laymon, Charles A.; Inguva, Ramarao; Schamschula, Marius; Caulfield, John

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the amount of water in the soil is of great importance to many earth science disciplines. Soil moisture is a key variable in controlling the exchange of water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. Thus, soil moisture information is valuable in a wide range of applications including weather and climate, runoff potential and flood control, early warning of droughts, irrigation, crop yield forecasting, soil erosion, reservoir management, geotechnical engineering, and water quality. Despite the importance of soil moisture information, widespread and continuous measurements of soil moisture are not possible today. Although many earth surface conditions can be measured from satellites, we still cannot adequately measure soil moisture from space. Research in soil moisture remote sensing began in the mid 1970s shortly after the surge in satellite development. Recent advances in remote sensing have shown that soil moisture can be measured, at least qualitatively, by several methods. Quantitative measurements of moisture in the soil surface layer have been most successful using both passive and active microwave remote sensing, although complications arise from surface roughness and vegetation type and density. Early attempts to measure soil moisture from space-borne microwave instruments were hindered by what is now considered sub-optimal wavelengths (shorter than 5 cm) and the coarse spatial resolution of the measurements. L-band frequencies between 1 and 3 GHz (10-30 cm) have been deemed optimal for detection of soil moisture in the upper few centimeters of soil. The Electronically Steered Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR), an aircraft-based instrument operating a 1,4 GHz, has shown great promise for soil moisture determination. Initiatives are underway to develop a similar instrument for space. Existing space-borne synthetic aperture radars (SARS) operating at C- and L-band have also shown some potential to detect surface wetness. The

  10. Integrating Real-time and Manual Monitored Soil Moisture Data to Predict Hillslope Soil Moisture Variations with High Temporal Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Lv, Ligang; Zhou, Zhiwen; Liao, Kaihua

    2016-04-01

    Spatial-temporal variability of soil moisture 15 has been remaining an challenge to be better understood. A trade-off exists between spatial coverage and temporal resolution when using the manual and real-time soil moisture monitoring methods. This restricted the comprehensive and intensive examination of soil moisture dynamics. In this study, we aimed to integrate the manual and real-time monitored soil moisture to depict the hillslope dynamics of soil moisture with good spatial coverage and temporal resolution. Linear (stepwise multiple linear regression-SMLR) and non-linear models (support vector machines-SVM) were used to predict soil moisture at 38 manual sites (collected 1-2 times per month) with soil moisture automatically collected at three real-time monitoring sites (collected every 5 mins). By comparing the accuracies of SMLR and SVM for each manual site, optimal soil moisture prediction model of this site was then determined. Results show that soil moisture at these 38 manual sites can be reliably predicted (root mean square errorsindex, profile curvature, and relative difference of soil moisture and its standard deviation influenced the selection of prediction model since they related to the dynamics of soil water distribution and movement. By using this approach, hillslope soil moisture spatial distributions at un-sampled times and dates were predicted after a typical rainfall event. Missing information of hillslope soil moisture dynamics was then acquired successfully. This can be benefit for determining the hot spots and moments of soil water movement, as well as designing the proper soil moisture monitoring plan at the field scale.

  11. WindSat/Coriolis surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km daytime V001 (LPRM_WINDSAT_DY_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WindSat/Coriolis surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km daytime V001 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil...

  12. WindSat/Coriolis surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km nighttime V001 (LPRM_WINDSAT_NT_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WindSat/Coriolis surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km nighttime V001 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil...

  13. Calibration of neutron moisture meters on stony soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, R.V.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory methods (Greacen, 1981), as well as field methods (Watt and Jackson, 1981) for calibrating neutron moisture meters in stone-free soils have been described. None of these methods is practical in soils stony enough to prevent augering or repacking of the soil. This note describes a technique to calibrate neutron moisture meters in soils with stone content up to 60%. The slope of the relationship between neutron count ratio and soil water content of a neutron moisture meter varies by up to 10% for a range of Canterbury stony-soil types. This variation means that calibrations are site specific. The method of calibration is to measure the count ratio on an in situ soil and then to determine the volumetric moisture content of the measured soil.This is repeated over a range of soil moistures to derive a linear regression between soil moisture and count ratio

  14. Using lamb waves tomonitor moisture absorption thermally fatigues composite laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sun; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Nondestructive evaluation for material health monitoring is important in aerospace industries. Composite laminates are exposed to heat cyclic loading and humid environment depending on flight conditions. Cyclic heat loading and moisture absorption may lead to material degradation such as matrix breaking, debonding, and delamination. In this paper, the moisture absorption ratio was investigated by measuring the Lamb wave velocity. The composite laminates were manufactured and subjected to different thermal aging cycles and moisture absorption. For various conditions of these cycles, not only changes in weight and also ultrasonic wave velocity were measured, and the Lamb wave velocity at various levels of moisture on a carbon-epoxy plate was investigated. Results from the experiment show a linear correlation between moisture absorption ratio and Lamb wave velocity at different thermal fatigue stages. The presented method can be applied as an alternative solution in the online monitoring of composite laminate moisture levels in commercial flights.

  15. Guidelines on the prevention of built-in moisture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of built-in-moisture, a number of buildings in Denmark were attacked by moulds even before the users moved in. Therefore, the Danish Building Regulations have since 2008 stipulated that building structures and materials must not, on moving in, have a moisture content that is liable...... to increase the risk of mould growth. In some cases, authorities can demand that this should be documented by a moisture specialist. The paper describes a voluntary Danish guideline on how to comply with the requirements and the intentions in the Danish Building Regulations concerning the handling of moisture...... at each stage of the building process spanning from the proposal phase to delivery of the building and the 1-year and 5-year inspections. This includes categorising a specific building in a humidity risk class as the risk for moisture damages is related both to the expected exposure to moisture during...

  16. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating...... the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...... estimator is verified on a couple of sets of measurement data, from which it is concluded that the designed estimator estimates the real coal moisture content....

  17. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating...... the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...... estimator is verified on a couple sets of measurement data, from which it is concluded that the designed estimator estimates the real coal moisture content....

  18. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering by enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Roels, Staf

    2009-01-01

    The significance of interior humidity in attaining sustainable, durable, healthy and comfortable buildings is increasingly recognised. Given their significant interaction, interior humidity appraisals need a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering. While...... suggested protocols for the simple and fast measurement of the moisture buffer potential of interior elements allow qualitative assessment, none of these are currently dependable for a wide range of moisture production regimes. In response to these flaws, this paper introduces the production......-adaptive characterisation of the moisture buffer potential of interior elements and corroborates their superposition toward a room-enclosure moisture buffer potential. It is verified that this enables qualitative comparison of enclosures in relation to interior moisture buffering. It is moreover demonstrated that it forms...

  19. Sources of glacial moisture in Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Paleoclimatic records from Mesoamerica document the interplay between Atlantic and Pacific sources of precipitation during the last glacial stage and Holocene. Today, and throughout much of the Holocene, the entire region receives its principal moisture in the summer from an interaction of easterly trade winds with the equatorial calms. Glacial records from sites east of 95?? W in Guatemala, Florida, northern Venezuela and Colombia record dry conditions before 12 ka, however. West of 95?? W, glacial conditions were moister than in the Holocene. For example, pollen and diatom data show that Lake Pa??tzcuaro in the central Mexican highlands was cool, deep and fresh during this time and fossil pinyon needles in packrat middens in Chihuahua, Sonora, Arizona, and Texas indicate cooler glacial climates with increased winter precipitation. Cold Gulf of Mexico sea-surface temperatures and reduced strength of the equatorial calms can explain arid full and late glacial environments east of 95?? W whereas an intensified pattern of winter, westerly air flow dominated hydrologic balances as far south as 20?? N. Overall cooler temperatures may have increased effective moisture levels during dry summer months in both areas. ?? 1997 INQUA/ Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. The neutronic method for measuring soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couchat, Ph.

    1967-01-01

    The three group diffusion theory being chosen as the most adequate method for determining the response of the neutron soil moisture probe, a mathematical model is worked out using a numerical calculation programme with Fortran IV coding. This model is fitted to the experimental conditions by determining the effect of different parameters of measuring device: channel, fast neutron source, detector, as also the soil behaviour under neutron irradiation: absorbers, chemical binding of elements. The adequacy of the model is tested by fitting a line through the image points corresponding to the couples of experimental and theoretical values, for seven media having different chemical composition: sand, alumina, line stone, dolomite, kaolin, sandy loam, calcareous clay. The model chosen gives a good expression of the dry density influence and allows α, β, γ and δ constants to be calculated for a definite soil according to the following relation which gives the count rate of the soil moisture probe: N = (α ρ s +β) H v +γ ρ s + δ. (author) [fr