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Sample records for crate interrogation system

  1. System for automatic crate recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Kukla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes usage of computer vision and artificial intelligence methods for application. The method solves abuse of reverse vending machine. This topic has been solved as innovation voucher for the South Moravian Region. It was developed by Mendel university in Brno (Department of informatics – Faculty of Business and Economics and Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Engineering – Faculty of Agronomy together with the Czech subsidiary of Tomra. The project is focused on a possibility of integration industrial cameras and computers to process recognition of crates in the verse vending machine. The aim was the effective security system that will be able to save hundreds-thousands financial loss. As suitable development and runtime platform there was chosen product ControlWeb and VisionLab developed by Moravian Instruments Inc.

  2. System Interconnect Bus (SIB) compatible multi crate CAMAC Controller (CC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, K.; Borkar, S.P.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; D'Costa, C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes design of SIB compatible crate controller with PC interface. SIB is a general-purpose parallel 1/O interface bus used for connecting multi crate system with single PC-interface. The crate controller comprises of a dedicated PC-AT add-on SIB interface card and two width CAMAC module designed to work at station 24 and station 25 of CAMAC crate. PC Interface card (SIBINT) is used for communication between PC/AT host computer and CAMAC Crates. The controller module incorporates a set of registers, logic to generate CAMAC data way timing. Transmission protocol used is RS485 standard. This controller is used for multiple CAMAC crates system, interfaced to PC, using a 60 core twisted pair flat ribbon cable. The crate controller is developed for use in process control, general-purpose data acquisition and control system and laboratory automation. Sustained data transfer rate achieved by controller is 115 Kword/sec each word being 32 bits in length. (author)

  3. Manually-Operated Crate Dismantlement System for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffitte, John; Lagos, Leo; Morales, Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory currently possesses between 500 and 800 fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates that contain hazardous materials that need to be decontaminated. To access the hazardous material, a system is needed to dismantle the crate. Currently, crates are dismantled by workers using hand-held tools. This technique has numerous disadvantages. One disadvantage is that it is difficult for a worker to hold the tool for an extended period of time in the awkward angles and positions necessary to fully size-reduce the crate. Other disadvantages of using hand tools include managing power cords and vacuum hoses, which become entangled or can act as tripping hazards. In order to improve the crate opening and size-reduction task, Florida International University's Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) is developing a manually operated crate dismantlement system. This versatile system is expected to greatly increase worker efficiency while decreasing fatigue and the possibility of accidents. (authors)

  4. A CAMAC-system crate interface based on EUR 6100 standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolstenholme, P.; Verelst, H.; Parker, C.R.C.B.

    1980-01-01

    The particle beams in the Intersecting Storage Rings of the CERN accelerator are controlled by means of a CAMAC Branch Highway and three CAMAC Serial Highway Systems. The highway controllers, housed in system crates, are driven by crate controllers interfaced to the control computers. The crate controllers are implemented as auxiliary controllers and are PROM based to allow N, A and F to be generated from a small zone of computer addresses and are largely transparent to the host computer. The concept has enabled standard modules and techniques taken from the Serial Highway to be adopted for use in system crates. (Auth.)

  5. Evaluation of drop versus trickle-feeding systems for crated or group-penned gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, L E; McGlone, J J

    2006-04-01

    A total of 160 gilts were used to evaluate the effects of pen vs. crated housing systems and drop- vs. trickle-fed feeding systems on sow productivity, occurrence of lesions during farrowing and weaning, immune measures, and behavioral responses during 2 consecutive gestation periods. Of the 160 eligible gilts, 117 farrowed in parity 1, and of those, 72 farrowed in parity 2. The gilts were randomly assigned to represent 1 of 4 factorially arranged treatment groups: pen drop-fed, crate drop-fed, pen trickle-fed, or crate trickle-fed. Replicate blocks were used for each parity with 5 sows per block initially in each treatment. At weaning, sows housed in pens had greater (P trickle-feeding system. Lesions scores and all other productivity measures did not differ among treatments. An interaction was observed for percentage of neutrophil phagocytosis (P trickle-fed sows, but in crates, drop-fed sows had a tendency for lower phagocytosis than trickle-fed sows. All other immune measures were not different among treatments. The occurrence of oral-nasal-facial (ONF) behaviors (chewing, rooting, and rubbing) and active behaviors increased, and lying behavior decreased (P trickle-feeding systems. None of the environments evaluated were associated with significant physiological stress responses among the sows. Thus, sows were able to adapt within each environment through behavioral mechanisms without the need to invoke major physiological adjustments.

  6. Emulation of MS DOS Operational System on the Autonomous Crate-Controller with I8086 microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hons, Z.; Cizek, P.; Streit, V.

    1988-01-01

    KM-DOS operating system for CAMAC autonomous crate-controller based on Intel 8086/8087 microprocessor connected with Pravec-16 IBM PC is described. The KM-DOS system fully emulates the MS DOS environment on the CAMAC controller. Thus ASSEMBLER, FORTRAN, C and PASCAL programs compiled and linked on IBM PC and compatible can be run on the CAMAC controller and parall work of both computers is enabled

  7. Single-crate stand-alone CAMAC control system for a negative ion source test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juras, R.C.; Ziegler, N.F.

    1979-01-01

    A single-crate CAMAC system was configured to control a negative ion source development facility at ORNL and control software was written for the crate microcomputer. The software uses inputs from a touch panel and a shaft encoder to control the various operating parameters of the test facility and uses the touch panel to display the operating status. Communication to and from the equipment at ion source potential is accomplished over optical fibers from an ORNL-built CAMAC module. A receiver at ion source potential stores the transmitted data and some of these stored values are then used to control discrete parameters of the ion source (i.e., power supply on or off). Other stored values are sent to a multiplexed digital-to-analog converter to provide analog control signals. A transmitter at ion source potential transmits discrete status information and several channels of analog data from an analog-to-digital converter back to the ground-potential receiver where it is stored to be read and displayed by the software

  8. Clinical records anonymisation and text extraction (CRATE): an open-source software system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Rudolf N

    2017-04-26

    Electronic medical records contain information of value for research, but contain identifiable and often highly sensitive confidential information. Patient-identifiable information cannot in general be shared outside clinical care teams without explicit consent, but anonymisation/de-identification allows research uses of clinical data without explicit consent. This article presents CRATE (Clinical Records Anonymisation and Text Extraction), an open-source software system with separable functions: (1) it anonymises or de-identifies arbitrary relational databases, with sensitivity and precision similar to previous comparable systems; (2) it uses public secure cryptographic methods to map patient identifiers to research identifiers (pseudonyms); (3) it connects relational databases to external tools for natural language processing; (4) it provides a web front end for research and administrative functions; and (5) it supports a specific model through which patients may consent to be contacted about research. Creation and management of a research database from sensitive clinical records with secure pseudonym generation, full-text indexing, and a consent-to-contact process is possible and practical using entirely free and open-source software.

  9. Optimization of periodical interrogation of transducers of radioisotope measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashchenko, A.S.; Kaznakov, V.P.; Korolev, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    Certain methods are examined of optimizing periodic interrogation of sensors connected in a definite sequence to device for data processing in a system for controlling production processes. It is shown that in designing multiinput radioisotope measurement systems with a centralized data processing, the choice of the method of organizing periodic interrogation should be made with account for the conditions existing in each specific case

  10. Interrogating resilience in health systems development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pas, Remco; Ashour, Majdi; Kapilashrami, Anuj; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    The Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems Research was themed around 'Resilient and responsive health systems for a changing world.' This commentary is the outcome of a panel discussion at the symposium in which the resilience discourse and its use in health systems development was critically interrogated. The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West-Africa added momentum for the wider adoption of resilient health systems as a crucial element to prepare for and effectively respond to crisis. The growing salience of resilience in development and health systems debates can be attributed in part to development actors and philanthropies such as the Rockefeller Foundation. Three concerns regarding the application of resilience to health systems development are discussed: (1) the resilience narrative overrules certain democratic procedures and priority setting in public health agendas by 'claiming' an exceptional policy space; (2) resilience compels accepting and maintaining the status quo and excludes alternative imaginations of just and equitable health systems including the socio-political struggles required to attain those; and (3) an empirical case study from Gaza makes the case that resilience and vulnerability are symbiotic with each other rather than providing a solution for developing a strong health system. In conclusion, if the normative aim of health policies is to build sustainable, universally accessible, health systems then resilience is not the answer. The current threats that health systems face demand us to imagine beyond and explore possibilities for global solidarity and justice in health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Repetitive Interrogation of 2-Level Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestage, John D.; Chung, Sang K.

    2010-01-01

    Trapped ion clocks derive information from a reference atomic transition by repetitive interrogations of the same quantum system, either a single ion or ionized gas of many millions of ions. Atomic beam frequency standards, by contrast, measure reference atomic transitions in a continuously replenished "flow through" configuration where initial ensemble atomic coherence is zero. We will describe some issues and problems that can arise when atomic state selection and preparation of the quantum atomic system is not completed, that is, optical pumping has not fully relaxed the coherence and also not fully transferred atoms to the initial state. We present a simple two-level density matrix analysis showing how frequency shifts during the state-selection process can cause frequency shifts of the measured clock transition. Such considerations are very important when a low intensity lamp light source is used for state selection, where there is relatively weak relaxation and re-pumping of ions to an initial state and much weaker 'environmental' relaxation of the atomic coherence set-up in the atomic sample.

  12. Control panel for CMC 8080 crate controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masayuki Inokuchi

    1978-01-01

    The main features of Control Panel for CAMAC Crate Controller CMC 8080 are described. The control panel can be directly connected with CRATE CONTROLLER's front panel connector with a 50 lines cable without any changes in CMC 8080 system circuits. (author)

  13. CC80-A microcomputer crate controller for CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, H.V.

    1976-11-01

    A microcomputer crate controller has been developed for use in CAMAC based instrumentation, control, and data processing systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This unit may be used in multicrate branch highway systems to provide local processing capability within each crate, or in a single crate to form a stand-alone CAMAC system

  14. System design considerations for fast-neutron interrogation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micklich, B.J.; Curry, B.P.; Fink, C.L.; Smith, D.L.; Yule, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    Nonintrusive interrogation techniques that employ fast neutrons are of interest because of their sensitivity to light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. The primary requirement of a fast-neutron inspection system is to determine the value of atomic densities, or their ratios, over a volumetric grid superimposed on the object being interrogated. There are a wide variety of fast-neutron techniques that can provide this information. The differences between the various nuclear systems can be considered in light of the trade-offs relative to the performance requirements for each system's components. Given a set of performance criteria, the operational requirements of the proposed nuclear systems may also differ. For instance, resolution standards will drive scanning times and tomographic requirements, both of which vary for the different approaches. We are modelling a number of the fast-neutron interrogation techniques currently under consideration, to include Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS), Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA), and its variant, 14-MeV Associated Particle Imaging (API). The goals of this effort are to determine the component requirements for each technique, identify trade-offs that system performance standards impose upon those component requirements, and assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches. In determining the component requirements, we will consider how they are driven by system performance standards, such as image resolution, scanning time, and statistical uncertainty. In considering the trade-offs between system components, we concentrate primarily on those which are common to all approaches, for example: source characteristics versus detector array requirements. We will then use the analysis to propose some figures-of-merit that enable performance comparisons between the various fast-neutron systems under consideration. The status of this ongoing effort is presented

  15. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Croft, S; Chard-Mj, P; Estop, J R; Martancik, D; Sheila-Melton; Young, B

    2003-01-01

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nucli...

  16. Noncontact power/interrogation system for smart structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillman, William B., Jr.; Durkee, S.

    1994-05-01

    The field of smart structures has been largely driven by the development of new high performance designed materials. Use of these materials has been generally limited due to the fact that they have not been in use long enough for statistical data bases to be developed on their failure modes. Real time health monitoring is therefore required for the benefits of structures using these materials to be realized. In this paper a non-contact method of powering and interrogating embedded electronic and opto-electronic systems is described. The technique utilizes inductive coupling between external and embedded coils etched on thin electronic circuit cards. The technique can be utilized to interrogate embedded sensors and to provide > 250 mW for embedded electronics. The system has been successfully demonstrated with a number of composite and plastic materials through material thicknesses up to 1 cm. An analytical description of the system is provided along with experimental results.

  17. Methods and systems using encapsulated tracers and chemicals for reservoir interrogation and manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jeffery; Aines, Roger D; Duoss, Eric B; Spadaccini, Christopher M

    2014-11-04

    An apparatus, method, and system of reservoir interrogation. A tracer is encapsulating in a receptacle. The receptacle containing the tracer is injected into the reservoir. The tracer is analyzed for reservoir interrogation.

  18. A CAMAC seven-crate system on-line with an HP2116B computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernenko, S.P.; Chernykh, E.V.; Filatova, N.A.; Ivanov, A.B.; Kolpakov, I.F.; Nikityuk, N.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Zanevsky, Yu.V.

    1975-01-01

    A branch of seven CAMAC on-line with an HP2116B computer is described. This system is used for data acquisition from a Cherenkov 90-channel spectrometer, 32 magnetostrictive chambers, 20 registers of the proportional chambers, scalers, and hodoscope registers

  19. General Purpose Crate (GPC) for control applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kundan; Munda, Deepak K.; Jain, Mamta; Archunan, M.; Barua, P.; Ajith Kumar, B.P.

    2011-01-01

    A General Purpose Crate (GPC) capable of handling digital and analog Inputs/Outputs signals has been developed at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, for accelerator control system applications. The system includes back-plane bus with on board plugged-in single board computer with PC104 and Ethernet interface, running Linux operating system. The bus control logic is designed on the back-plane pcb itself, making the system more rugged. The various types of digital and analog input/output modules can be plugged into the back plane bus randomly with standard euro connectors, which provides highly reliable and dust free contacts. Maximum eight modules can be inserted into the crate. The total power consumption for various types of modules and back-plane controller is approximately 50 watts. The multi-output DC power supply from COSEL has been used in the crate. The general purpose crate is software compatible with the CAMAC crates used in the accelerator control system. (author)

  20. Performance of an optical identification and interrogation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, A.; Ghosh, A. K.; Verma, P.; Cheng, S.

    2008-04-01

    A free space optics based identification and interrogation system has been designed. The applications of the proposed system lie primarily in areas which require a secure means of mutual identification and information exchange between optical readers and tags. Conventional RFIDs raise issues regarding security threats, electromagnetic interference and health safety. The security of RF-ID chips is low due to the wide spatial spread of radio waves. Malicious nodes can read data being transmitted on the network, if they are in the receiving range. The proposed system provides an alternative which utilizes the narrow paraxial beams of lasers and an RSA-based authentication scheme. These provide enhanced security to communication between a tag and the base station or reader. The optical reader can also perform remote identification and the tag can be read from a far off distance, given line of sight. The free space optical identification and interrogation system can be used for inventory management, security systems at airports, port security, communication with high security systems, etc. to name a few. The proposed system was implemented with low-cost, off-the-shelf components and its performance in terms of throughput and bit error rate has been measured and analyzed. The range of operation with a bit-error-rate lower than 10-9 was measured to be about 4.5 m. The security of the system is based on the strengths of the RSA encryption scheme implemented using more than 1024 bits.

  1. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. Stephen Croft; Mr. David Martancik; Dr. Brian Young; Dr. Patrick MJ Chard; Dr. Robert J Estop; Sheila Melton; Gaetano J. Arnone

    2003-01-13

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.

  2. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, Stephen; Martancik, David; Young, Brian; Chard MJ, Patrick; Estop J, Robert; Sheila Melton; Arnone, Gaetano J.

    2003-01-01

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL

  3. VICbus: A standard inter-crate bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkman, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    VICbus is a standard inter-crate cable bus being developed by a working group of the ISO/IEC. Derived from an initiative of the VMEbus Working Group of ESONE, VICbus aims to provide users of multi-crate VMEbus and other backplane bus systems with a standard inter-crate connection. Multi-drop operation is provided for up to 31 devices on a cable of maximum 100 metres in length. Two data transfer protocols are specified, compelled (asynchronous) transfers for transparent interconnection of backplane bus systems (VMEbus in the first instance), and high-speed, non-compelled (synchronous) transfers between VICbus interfaces. A limited interrupt mechanism is specified, as well as simple, but efficient arbitration technique. Conventional technology is employed: copper cables, existing transcievers, and differential signal transmission, together with proven low-level protocols. Data transfer rates in excess of 30 Mbyte/s will be possible on a cable length of 30 metres

  4. Intelligent CAMAC crate controller incorporating a transputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, T.; Ueda, I.; Anraku, K.

    1995-01-01

    A CAMAC crate controller module having a built-in transputer was developed, being named the ''Intelligent CAMAC Crate Controller (ICCC)''. Due to the transputer's architecture, multiple ICCCs can be networked by simple serial link connections. The control programs are developed in Occam or C language, which support conccurrent algorithms and their implementation in transputer networks. Each ICCC controls the front-end CAMAC modules in the crate, operates in parallel, and interpretes commands from the host computer. Data read from the modules is concurrently and autonomously processed, and then transmitted to the network where it is gathered into the host computer file system. The present paper describes the ICCC's hardware and software using a simple configuration network. Our particular device application for a balloon-borne experiment is also discussed, i.e., a data acquisition system networking twenty-seven transputers. ((orig.))

  5. Evaluation of waste crate counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.R.; Shaw, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    A novel nondestructive measurement system has been developed to perform combined gamma-ray, passive neutron, and active neutron analyses of radioactive waste packaged in large crates. The system will be used to examine low level and transuranic waste at the Waste Receiving and Processing facility at Westinghouse-Hanford Corp. Prior to delivery of the system, an extensive evaluation of its performance characteristics will be conducted. The evaluation is to include an assessment of the mechanical properties of the system, gamma-ray attenuation correction algorithms, instrument response as a function of source positions, performance of the high resolution gamma-ray detector for ''hot spot'' and isotopic analyses, active and passive neutron counter response, instrument sensitivity, matrix effects, and packaging effects. This report will discuss the findings of the evaluation program, to date, and indicate future directions for the program

  6. Miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Lopatin, Craig

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes recent progress conducted towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver TM) system based on multi-channel integrated optic sensor (InOSense TM) microchip technology. The hybrid InOSense TM microchip technology enables the integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogator systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation. The FBG-Transceiver system uses active optoelectronic components monolithically integrated to the InOSense TM microchip, a microprocessor controlled signal processing electronics board capable of processing the FBG sensors signals related to stress-strain and temperature as well as vibration and acoustics. The FBG-Transceiver TM system represents a new, reliable, highly robust technology that can be used to accurately monitor the status of an array of distributed fiber optic Bragg grating sensors installed in critical infrastructures. Its miniature package, low power operation, and state-of-the-art data communications architecture, all at a very affordable price makes it a very attractive solution for a large number of SHM/NDI applications in aerospace, naval and maritime industry, civil structures like bridges, buildings and dams, the oil and chemical industry, and for homeland security applications. The miniature, cost-efficient FBG-Transceiver TM system is poised to revolutionize the field of structural health monitoring and nondestructive inspection market. The sponsor of this program is NAVAIR under a DOD SBIR contract.

  7. Optical measuring system with an interrogator and a polymer-based single-mode fibre optic sensor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical measuring system comprising a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system (102), an optical interrogator (101), and an optical arrangement (103) interconnecting the optical interrogator (101) and the polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor...... system (102). The invention further relates to an optical interrogator adapted to be connected to a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system via an optical arrangement. The interrogator comprises a broadband light source arrangement (104) and a spectrum analysing arrangement which receives...

  8. Passive neutron interrogation in systems with a poorly characterized detection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubi, Chen; Oster, Elad; Ocherashvilli, Aharon; Pedersen, Bent; Hutszy, Janus

    2014-01-01

    Passive neutron interrogation for fissile mass estimation, relying on neutrons coming from spontaneous fission events, is considered a standard NDT procedure in the nuclear safeguard and safety community. Since most structure materials are (relatively) transparent to neutron radiation, passive neutron interrogation is considered highly effective in the analysis of dirty, poorly characterized samples. On the other hand, since a typical passive interrogation assembly is based on 3He detectors, neutrons from additional neutron sources (mainly (α,n) reactions and induced fissions in the tested sample) cannot be separated from the main spontaneous fission source through energetic spectral analysis. There for, applying the passive interrogation methods the implementation of Neutron Multiplicity Counting (NMC) methods for separation between the main fission source and the additional sources. Applying NMC methods requires a well characterized system, in the sense that both system die away time and detection efficiency must be well known (and in particular, independent of the tested sample)

  9. A CAMAC crate controller KK009 for the Pravetz-16 and IBM PC/XT personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, A.; Churin, I.N.

    1988-01-01

    A CAMAC crate controller and a computer bus adapter for the Pravetz 16 and IBM PC/XT personal computers are described. The following features are included in the controller: operation under program control; access to CAMAC registers treated as memory locations corresponding to given N, A, F; hardware for fast LAM processing and execution of multi-crate commands; device up to 7 crates in one CAMAC system; built-in hardware for controller and crate dataway test

  10. Characterization of a FBG sensor interrogation system based on a mode-locked laser scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Javier; Fraile-Peláez, Francisco Javier; Zheng, Di; Barrera, David; Sales, Salvador

    2017-10-02

    This paper is focused on the characterization of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation system based on a fiber ring laser with a semiconductor optical amplifier as the gain medium, and an in-loop electro-optical modulator. This system operates as a switchable active (pulsed) mode-locked laser. The operation principle of the system is explained theoretically and validated experimentally. The ability of the system to interrogate an array of different FBGs in wavelength and spatial domain is demonstrated. Simultaneously, the influence of several important parameters on the performance of the interrogation technique has been investigated. Specifically, the effects of the bandwidth and the reflectivity of the FBGs, the SOA gain, and the depth of the intensity modulation have been addressed.

  11. Evaluation of a prototype air transport system for use in a crate handling and size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the design features and evaluation, under simulated active conditions, of a purpose designed remotely operated air transporter system. The paper concludes by recommending that an air transporter, based on this concept, is considered for the alpha active facility. (author)

  12. Evaluation of a prototype air transport system for use in a crate handling and size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.T.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes the design features and evaluation, under simulated active conditions, of a purpose designed remotely operated air transporter system. The paper concludes by recommending that an air transporter, based on this concept, is considered for the alpha active facility. (author)

  13. Enhancing the performance of a tensioned metastable fluid detector based active interrogation system for the detection of SNM in interrogation source in moderated/reflected geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, T. F.; Hagen, A. R.; Archambault, B. C.; Taleyarkhan, R. P.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the development of a SNM detection system for interrogating 1m3 cargos via the combination of a D-D neutron interrogation source (with and without reflectors) and tensioned metastable fluid detectors (TMFDs). TMFDs have been previously shown (Taleyarkhan et al., 2008; Grimes et al., 2015; Grimes and Taleyarkhan, 2016; Archambault et al., 2017; Hagen et al., 2016) to be capable of using Threshold Energy Neutron Analysis (TENA) techniques to reject the ∼2.45 MeV D-D interrogating neutrons while still remaining sensitive to >2.45 MeV neutrons resulting from fission in the target (HEU) material. In order to enhance the performance, a paraffin reflector was included around the accelerator head. This reflector was used to direct neutrons into the package to increase the fission signal, lower the energy of the interrogating neutrons to increase the fission cross-section with HEU, and, also to direct interrogating neutrons away from the detectors in order to enhance the required discrimination between interrogating and fission neutrons. Experiments performed with a 239 Pu-Be neutron source and MnO2 indicated that impressive performance gains could be made by placing a parabolic paraffin moderator between the interrogation source and an air-filled cargo container with HEU placed at the center. However, experiments with other cargo fillers (as specified in the well-known ANSI N42.41-2007 report), and with HEU placed in locations other than the center of the package indicated that other reflector geometries might be superior due to over-"focusing" and the increased solid angle effects due to the accommodation of the moderator geometry. The best performance for the worst case of source location and box fill was obtained by placing the reflector only behind the D-D neutron source rather than in front of it. Finally, it was shown that there could be significant gains in the ability to detect concealed SNM by operating the system in multiple geometric

  14. A l-nCi/g sensitivity transuranic waste assay system using pulsed neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, W.E.; Atencio, J.D.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed thermal neutron interrogation system and have demonstrated a sub-1-nCi/g assay sensitivity for high density TRU wastes contained in 200-liter barrels. We detect prompt fission neutrons, resulting in greatly enhanced sensitivity compared to techniques in which delayed fission neutrons are detected. We observe a linear assay response over at least three orders of magnitude in 235 U (or 239 Pu) mass. We also have measured a flat (to +-10%) interrogation flux profile throughout the volume of a 200-liter barrel filled with 200 kg of sand and vermiculite, which indicates flatness of response to fissile material at different locations within the barrel

  15. Hi-speed versatile serial crate controller for CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horelick, D.

    1984-10-01

    A serial crate controller, primarily for use in the SLC CAMAC control system, has been designed, and has been in use for about 2 years. The design supports a party line approach, with up to 16 crates on a single twisted pair for data transfers, plus another pair for prompt L response. The bit rate is 5 megabits/s, and complete transaction times of about 10 μs are achieved for 16-bit data transfers over cables up to 1000 feet long. One of the primary objects of the design was simplicity - there are approximately 60 chips in the two-board unit

  16. Auxiliary/Master microprocessor CAMAC Crate Controller applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, E.

    1975-01-01

    The need for further sophistication of an already complex serial CAMAC control system at Fermilab led to the development of an Auxilary/Master CAMAC Crate Controller. The controller contains a Motorola 6800 microprocessor, 2K bytes of RAM, and 8K bytes of PROM memory. Bussed dataway lines are time shared with CAMAC signals to provide memory expansion and direct addressing of peripheral devices without the need of external cabling. The Auxiliary/Master Crate Controller (A/MCC) can function as either a Master, i.e., stand alone, crate controller or as an Auxiliary controller to Fermilab's Serial Crate Controller (SCC). Two modules, one single- and one double-width, make up an A/MCC. The microprocessor has one nonmaskable and one maskable vectored interrupt. Time sharing the dataway between SCC programmed and block transfer generated dataway cycles and A/MCC operations still allows a 99 percent microprocessor CPU busy time. Since the conception of the A/MCC, there has been an increasing number of control system-related projects proposed which would not have been possible or would have been very difficult to implement without such a device. The first such application now in use at Fermilab is a stand-alone control system for a mass spectrometer experiment in the Main Ring Internal Target Area. This application in addition to other proposed A/MCC applications, both stand-alone and auxiliary, is discussed

  17. Guidelines for calculating and enhancing detection efficiency of PIT tag interrogation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and reliance on stationary PIT tag interrogation systems to monitor fish populations, guidelines are offered to inform users how best to use limited funding and human resources to create functional systems that maximize a desired level of detection and precision. The estimators of detection efficiency and their variability as described by Connolly et al. (2008) are explored over a span of likely performance metrics. These estimators were developed to estimate detection efficiency without relying on a known number of fish passing the system. I present graphical displays of the results derived from these estimators to show the potential efficiency and precision to be gained by adding an array or by increasing the number of PIT-tagged fish expected to move past an interrogation system.

  18. Guidelines to indirectly measure and enhance detection efficiency of stationary PIT tag interrogation systems in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Patrick J.; Wolf, Keith; O'Neal, Jennifer S.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and reliance on stationary PIT tag interrogation systems to monitor fish populations, guidelines are offered to inform users how best to use limited funding and human resources to create functional systems that maximize a desired level of detection and precision. The estimators of detection efficiency and their variability as described by Connolly et al. (2008) are explored over a span of likely performance metrics. These estimators were developed to estimate detection efficiency without relying on a known number of fish passing the system. I present graphical displays of the results derived from these estimators to show the potential efficiency and precision to be gained by adding an array or by increasing the number of PIT-tagged fish expected to move past an interrogation system.

  19. A Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation System with Self-Adaption Threshold Peak Detection Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weifang; Li, Yingwu; Jin, Bo; Ren, Feifei; Wang, Hongxun; Dai, Wei

    2018-04-08

    A Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) interrogation system with a self-adaption threshold peak detection algorithm is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this study. This system is composed of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and advanced RISC machine (ARM) platform, tunable Fabry-Perot (F-P) filter and optical switch. To improve system resolution, the F-P filter was employed. As this filter is non-linear, this causes the shifting of central wavelengths with the deviation compensated by the parts of the circuit. Time-division multiplexing (TDM) of FBG sensors is achieved by an optical switch, with the system able to realize the combination of 256 FBG sensors. The wavelength scanning speed of 800 Hz can be achieved by a FPGA+ARM platform. In addition, a peak detection algorithm based on a self-adaption threshold is designed and the peak recognition rate is 100%. Experiments with different temperatures were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the system. Four FBG sensors were examined in the thermal chamber without stress. When the temperature changed from 0 °C to 100 °C, the degree of linearity between central wavelengths and temperature was about 0.999 with the temperature sensitivity being 10 pm/°C. The static interrogation precision was able to reach 0.5 pm. Through the comparison of different peak detection algorithms and interrogation approaches, the system was verified to have an optimum comprehensive performance in terms of precision, capacity and speed.

  20. A Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation System with Self-Adaption Threshold Peak Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifang Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG interrogation system with a self-adaption threshold peak detection algorithm is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this study. This system is composed of a field programmable gate array (FPGA and advanced RISC machine (ARM platform, tunable Fabry–Perot (F–P filter and optical switch. To improve system resolution, the F–P filter was employed. As this filter is non-linear, this causes the shifting of central wavelengths with the deviation compensated by the parts of the circuit. Time-division multiplexing (TDM of FBG sensors is achieved by an optical switch, with the system able to realize the combination of 256 FBG sensors. The wavelength scanning speed of 800 Hz can be achieved by a FPGA+ARM platform. In addition, a peak detection algorithm based on a self-adaption threshold is designed and the peak recognition rate is 100%. Experiments with different temperatures were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the system. Four FBG sensors were examined in the thermal chamber without stress. When the temperature changed from 0 °C to 100 °C, the degree of linearity between central wavelengths and temperature was about 0.999 with the temperature sensitivity being 10 pm/°C. The static interrogation precision was able to reach 0.5 pm. Through the comparison of different peak detection algorithms and interrogation approaches, the system was verified to have an optimum comprehensive performance in terms of precision, capacity and speed.

  1. Crate counter for normal operating loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlan, R.A.

    A lithium-loaded zinc sulfide scintillation counter to closely assay plutonium in waste packaged in 1.3 by 1.3 by 2.13m crates was built. In addition to assays for normal operating loss accounting, the counter will allow safeguards verification immediately before shipment of the crates for burial. The counter should detect approximately 10 g of plutonium in 1000 kg of waste

  2. Non-invasive biosensor and wilreless interrogating system for hypoglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Saukesi, K.

    2002-11-01

    Hypoglycemia - abnormal decrease in blood sugar - is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chiralit of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin.It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or laptop computer.

  3. Noninvasive biosensor and wireless interrogating system for glucose in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

    2003-07-01

    Hypoglycemia-abnormal decrease in blood sugar-is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chirality of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin. It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or a laptop computer.

  4. Development of a Liquid Scintillator-Based Active Interrogation System for LEU Fuel Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavietes, Anthony D.; Plenteda, Romano; Mascahrenas, Nicholas; Cronholm, L. Marie; Aspinall, Michael; Joyce, Malcolm; Tomanin, Alice; Peerani, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA, in collaboration with the Joint Research Center (Ispra, IT) and Hybrid Instruments (Lancaster, UK), has developed a full scale, liquid scintillator-based active interrogation system to determine uranium (U) mass in fresh fuel assemblies. The system implements an array of moderate volume (∼1000 ml) liquid scintillator detectors, a multichannel pulse shape discrimination (PSD) system, and a high-speed data acquisition and signal processing system to assess the U content of fresh fuel assemblies. Extensive MCNPX-PoliMi modelling has been carried out to refine the system design and optimize the detector performance. These measurements, traditionally performed with 3 He-based assay systems (e.g., Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar [UNCL], Active Well Coincidence Collar [AWCC]), can now be performed with higher precision in a fraction of the acquisition time. The system uses a high-flash point, non-hazardous scintillating fluid (EJ309) enabling their use in commercial nuclear facilities and achieves significantly enhanced performance and capabilities through the combination of extremely short gate times, adjustable energy detection threshold, real-time PSD electronics, and high-speed, FPGA-based data acquisition. Given the possible applications, this technology is also an excellent candidate for the replacement of select 3 He-based systems. Comparisons to existing 3 He-based active interrogation systems are presented where possible to provide a baseline performance reference. This paper will describe the laboratory experiments and associated modelling activities undertaken to develop and initially test the prototype detection system. (authors)

  5. Electronics system for transuranic waste assays using a photon interrogation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.O.; Lawrence, R.S.

    1979-12-01

    This report documents the development of electronics for a neutron detection system used in experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of a photon interrogation technique for transuranic (TRU) waste assays. The system consists of the neutron detection and signal conditioning circuits, variable time-gate generators, and a data acquisition system. The data acquisition system is configured using commercially available scalers, timers, teletype, and control components. The remainder of the system, with the exception of the neutron detectors, uses components designed in-house. The neutron detection system consists of 3 He proportional counters installed in a polyethylene moderator assembly. The counters are direct-coupled to a high-count-rate, current-sensitive preamplifier. The preamplifier and an additional two-stage amplifier are also installed in the moderator assembly. Signal conditioning includes baseline restoration and fast discrimination. A variable time-gate generator with logic gates allows for separation of prompt and delayed neutron counts, and generation of prompt and delayed deadtimes. The 3 He proportional counters will detect not only the neutrons from the TRU waste sample, but also the high-energy photons used to induce fission in the sample. The burst of photons (gamma flash) tends to overload and paralyze the electronics. This system has been designed to recover from a worst-case gamma flash overload within 10 microseconds. The system has met all the requirements generated for the photon interrogation experiments

  6. Independent programmable CAMAC crate controller based on KR580IK80A microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, O.V.; Andronov, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The RTKAM-2 independent programmable CAMAC crate controller is designed for use as a remote terminal in systems for automation of physics research. The built-in 12K-byte RAM is automatically changed to 24-bit organization in exchanges with the crate dataway. A nonstandard 24-level priority-interrupt system allows an LAM-request routing to be accessed in 5.5 μsec. Communication with the base computer is through a two conductor line

  7. Performance of a remote interrogation system for the in-hospital evaluation of cardiac implantable electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Suneet; Younge, Kevin; King-Ellison, Kelly; Hammill, Eric; Stein, Kenneth

    2016-08-01

    Patients with a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) often need device interrogation in an in-hospital environment. A diagnosis-only, remote interrogation device and process for CIED interrogation was developed to address this situation. Here, we describe our initial clinical experience with this system. The LATITUDE Consult Communicator is a stand-alone interrogation-only device used to read the patient's implanted CIED. Once retrieved, the data are securely transmitted via an analog phone line to a central server. The clinician can request a review of the transmitted data at any time. Following FDA approval, we determined the usage and performance of the system. Communicators (n = 53) were installed in 42 hospital facilities. The most common location was in the emergency department (n = 32, 60 %). There were 509 discreet transmissions, which were categorized as follows: no arrhythmia episodes in the past 72 h and no out of range measurements (n = 174, 34 %); arrhythmia episodes in past 72 h but no out of range measurements (n = 170, 33 %); and further review recommended (n = 130, 26 %). (In 35 [7 %] instances, interrogation without analysis was requested.) The further review interrogations were then sub-divided into those of a non-urgent and urgent nature. Overall, only 53 (10 %) of the 509 transmissions were classified as urgent. Clinicians had access to full technical consultation in ≤15 min in 89 % of instances. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of a new diagnosis-only, remote interrogation device and remote evaluation process for the interrogation of CIEDs in an in-hospital environment.

  8. Methods and systems for Raman and optical cross-interrogation in flow-through silicon membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Letant, Sonia E.

    2014-09-09

    Cross-interrogating photonic detection systems and methods are shown. A flow through photonic crystal membrane with a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate is provided with pores which are distributed along multiple regions. The pores of one region have walls to which a first type of target specific anchor can be attached, while pores of another region have walls to which a second type of target specific anchor can be attached. An optical arrangement out-of-plane to the SERS substrate is also provided for enhanced sensitivity and identification of target organisms.

  9. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the feasibility of computer interrogation of experts for WISAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wight, L.H.

    1980-05-01

    Simulation of the response of a waste repository to events that could initiate a fault tree to breach and failure is currently a keystone to the Battelle Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). The repository simulation, which is part of the Disruptive Event Analysis Task, models the repository for its entire design life, one million years. This is clearly a challenging calculation, requiring input unlike any other response analysis by virtue of the long design life of the facility. What technology will provide design criteria for a million year design life. Answers to questions like this can, to some extent, be based on data, but always require some subjective judgments. The subjectivity, which is sometimes driven by inadequate or incomplete data or by a lack of understanding of the physical process, is therefore a crucial ingredient in an analysis of initiating events. Because of the variety of possible initiating events (glaciation, man-caused disruption, volcanism, etc.), many expert opinions will be solicited as input. The complexity of the simulation, the variety of experts involved, and the volume of applicable data all suggest that there may be a more direct, economical method to solicit the expert opinion. This report addresses the feasibility of such a system. Background information is presented that demonstrates the advantages of a computer interrogation system over conventional interrogation and assessment techniques. In the subsequent three sections the three elements - structure and decomposition, scaling, and synthesis - that are basic to any interrogation and assessment technique are reviewed. The interrelationship are schematically illustrated between these three fundamental elements and, therefore, serves as a useful guide to these three sections. Each of these three sections begins with a recommended approach to the particular element and ends with an illustration of representative dialogue.

  10. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the feasibility of computer interrogation of experts for WISAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, L.H.

    1980-05-01

    Simulation of the response of a waste repository to events that could initiate a fault tree to breach and failure is currently a keystone to the Battelle Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). The repository simulation, which is part of the Disruptive Event Analysis Task, models the repository for its entire design life, one million years. This is clearly a challenging calculation, requiring input unlike any other response analysis by virtue of the long design life of the facility. What technology will provide design criteria for a million year design life. Answers to questions like this can, to some extent, be based on data, but always require some subjective judgments. The subjectivity, which is sometimes driven by inadequate or incomplete data or by a lack of understanding of the physical process, is therefore a crucial ingredient in an analysis of initiating events. Because of the variety of possible initiating events (glaciation, man-caused disruption, volcanism, etc.), many expert opinions will be solicited as input. The complexity of the simulation, the variety of experts involved, and the volume of applicable data all suggest that there may be a more direct, economical method to solicit the expert opinion. This report addresses the feasibility of such a system. Background information is presented that demonstrates the advantages of a computer interrogation system over conventional interrogation and assessment techniques. In the subsequent three sections the three elements - structure and decomposition, scaling, and synthesis - that are basic to any interrogation and assessment technique are reviewed. The interrelationship are schematically illustrated between these three fundamental elements and, therefore, serves as a useful guide to these three sections. Each of these three sections begins with a recommended approach to the particular element and ends with an illustration of representative dialogue

  11. Monitoring system including an electronic sensor platform and an interrogation transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Robert L.; Sheets, Larry R.

    2003-09-23

    A wireless monitoring system suitable for a wide range of remote data collection applications. The system includes at least one Electronic Sensor Platform (ESP), an Interrogator Transceiver (IT) and a general purpose host computer. The ESP functions as a remote data collector from a number of digital and analog sensors located therein. The host computer provides for data logging, testing, demonstration, installation checkout, and troubleshooting of the system. The IT transmits signals from one or more ESP's to the host computer to the ESP's. The IT host computer may be powered by a common power supply, and each ESP is individually powered by a battery. This monitoring system has an extremely low power consumption which allows remote operation of the ESP for long periods; provides authenticated message traffic over a wireless network; utilizes state-of-health and tamper sensors to ensure that the ESP is secure and undamaged; has robust housing of the ESP suitable for use in radiation environments; and is low in cost. With one base station (host computer and interrogator transceiver), multiple ESP's may be controlled at a single monitoring site.

  12. Ageing and recycling of plastic crates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Rotteveel, R.T.; Wisse, J.D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Plastic crates will deteriorate and ultimately fail due to brittle fracture if, either during use or storage, they are exposed to sunlight. The time to failure depends on the UV stability of the polymer used, but in particular also on the conditions of use, such as time of exposure, height of the

  13. Development and application of a hybrid transport methodology for active interrogation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royston, K.; Walters, W.; Haghighat, A. [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech., 900 N Glebe Rd., Arlington, VA 22203 (United States); Yi, C.; Sjoden, G. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, Georgia Tech, 801 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A hybrid Monte Carlo and deterministic methodology has been developed for application to active interrogation systems. The methodology consists of four steps: i) neutron flux distribution due to neutron source transport and subcritical multiplication; ii) generation of gamma source distribution from (n, 7) interactions; iii) determination of gamma current at a detector window; iv) detection of gammas by the detector. This paper discusses the theory and results of the first three steps for the case of a cargo container with a sphere of HEU in third-density water cargo. To complete the first step, a response-function formulation has been developed to calculate the subcritical multiplication and neutron flux distribution. Response coefficients are pre-calculated using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code. The second step uses the calculated neutron flux distribution and Bugle-96 (n, 7) cross sections to find the resulting gamma source distribution. In the third step the gamma source distribution is coupled with a pre-calculated adjoint function to determine the gamma current at a detector window. The AIMS (Active Interrogation for Monitoring Special-Nuclear-Materials) software has been written to output the gamma current for a source-detector assembly scanning across a cargo container using the pre-calculated values and taking significantly less time than a reference MCNP5 calculation. (authors)

  14. A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Interrogation System Based on a Linearly Wavelength-Swept Thermo-Optic Laser Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Hwi Don; Kim, Hyo Jin; Cho, Jae Du; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2014-01-01

    A linearized wavelength-swept thermo-optic laser chip was applied to demonstrate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation system. A broad tuning range of 11.8 nm was periodically obtained from the laser chip for a sweep rate of 16 Hz. To measure the linear time response of the reflection signal from the FBG sensor, a programmed driving signal was directly applied to the wavelength-swept laser chip. The linear wavelength response of the applied strain was clearly extracted with an R-squared value of 0.99994. To test the feasibility of the system for dynamic measurements, the dynamic strain was successfully interrogated with a repetition rate of 0.2 Hz by using this FBG sensor interrogation system. PMID:25177803

  15. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  16. RF-Station control crate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuzekom, M.G. van; Es, J.T. van.

    1992-01-01

    This report gives a description of the electronic control-system for the RF-station of AmPS. The electronics form the connection between the computer-system and the hardware of the RF-station. Only the elements of the systems which are not described in the other NIKHEF-reports are here discussed in detail. (author). 7 figs

  17. Performance Optimization Design for a High-Speed Weak FBG Interrogation System Based on DFB Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yiqiang; Li, Zhengying; Wang, Yiming; Liu, Siqi; Dai, Yutang; Gong, Jianmin; Wang, Lixin

    2017-06-22

    A performance optimization design for a high-speed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system based on a high-speed distributed feedback (DFB) swept laser is proposed. A time-division-multiplexing sensor network with identical weak FBGs is constituted to realize high-capacity sensing. In order to further improve the multiplexing capacity, a waveform repairing algorithm is designed to extend the dynamic demodulation range of FBG sensors. It is based on the fact that the spectrum of an FBG keeps stable over a long period of time. Compared with the pre-collected spectra, the distorted spectra waveform are identified and repaired. Experimental results show that all the identical weak FBGs are distinguished and demodulated at the speed of 100 kHz with a linearity of above 0.99, and the range of dynamic demodulation is extended by 40%.

  18. Performance Optimization Design for a High-Speed Weak FBG Interrogation System Based on DFB Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqiang Yao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A performance optimization design for a high-speed fiber Bragg grating (FBG interrogation system based on a high-speed distributed feedback (DFB swept laser is proposed. A time-division-multiplexing sensor network with identical weak FBGs is constituted to realize high-capacity sensing. In order to further improve the multiplexing capacity, a waveform repairing algorithm is designed to extend the dynamic demodulation range of FBG sensors. It is based on the fact that the spectrum of an FBG keeps stable over a long period of time. Compared with the pre-collected spectra, the distorted spectra waveform are identified and repaired. Experimental results show that all the identical weak FBGs are distinguished and demodulated at the speed of 100 kHz with a linearity of above 0.99, and the range of dynamic demodulation is extended by 40%.

  19. Post-weaning social and cognitive performance of piglets raised pre-weaning either in a complex multi-suckling group housing system or in a conventional system with a crated sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwamerongen, S E; Mendl, M; Held, S; Soede, N M; Bolhuis, J E

    2017-09-01

    We studied the social and cognitive performance of piglets raised pre-weaning either in a conventional system with a sow in a farrowing crate (FC) or in a multi-suckling (MS) system in which 5 sows and their piglets could interact in a more physically enriched and spacious environment. After weaning at 4 weeks of age, 8 groups of 4 litter-mates per pre-weaning housing treatment were studied under equal and enriched post-weaning housing conditions. From each pen, one pair consisting of a dominant and a submissive pig was selected, based on a feed competition test (FCT) 2 weeks post-weaning. This pair was used in an informed forager test (IFT) which measured aspects of spatial learning and foraging strategies in a competitive context. During individual training, submissive (informed) pigs learned to remember a bait location in a testing arena with 8 buckets (the same bucket was baited in a search visit and a subsequent relocation visit), whereas dominant (non-informed) pigs always found the bait in a random bucket (search visits only). After learning their task, the informed pigs' individual search visit was followed by a pairwise relocation visit in which they were accompanied by the non-informed pig. Effects of pre-weaning housing treatment were not distinctly present regarding the occurrence of aggression in the FCT and the learning performance during individual training in the IFT. During paired visits, informed and non-informed pigs changed their behaviour in response to being tested pairwise instead of individually, but MS and FC pigs showed few distinct behavioural differences.

  20. Compact multichannel high-resolution micro-electro-mechanical systems-based interrogator for Fiber Bragg grating sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganziy, Denis; Rose, Bjarke; Bang, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel type of compact high-resolution multichannel micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based interrogator, where we replace the linear detector with a digital micromirror device (DMD). The DMD is typically cheaper and has better pixel sampling than an InGaAs detector used...

  1. Portable fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system for in-situ interrogation of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Cosci, Alessandro; Teixeira Rosa, Ramon Gabriel; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Kurachi, Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy and lifetime techniques are potential methods for optical diagnosis and characterization of biological tissues with an in-situ, fast, and noninvasive interrogation. Several diseases may be diagnosed due to differences in the fluorescence spectra of targeted fluorophores, when, these spectra are similar, considering steady-state fluorescence, others may be detected by monitoring their fluorescence lifetime. Despite this complementarity, most of the current fluorescence lifetime systems are not robust and portable, and not being feasible for clinical applications. We describe the assembly of a fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system in a suitcase, its characterization, and validation with clinical measurements of skin lesions. The assembled system is all encased and robust, maintaining its mechanical, electrical, and optical stability during transportation, and is feasible for clinical measurements. The instrument response function measured was about 300 ps, and the system is properly calibrated. At the clinical study, the system showed to be reliable, and the achieved spectroscopy results support its potential use as an auxiliary tool for skin diagnostics.

  2. Portable fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system for in-situ interrogation of biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Cosci, Alessandro; Teixeira Rosa, Ramon Gabriel; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Kurachi, Cristina

    2017-10-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy and lifetime techniques are potential methods for optical diagnosis and characterization of biological tissues with an in-situ, fast, and noninvasive interrogation. Several diseases may be diagnosed due to differences in the fluorescence spectra of targeted fluorophores, when, these spectra are similar, considering steady-state fluorescence, others may be detected by monitoring their fluorescence lifetime. Despite this complementarity, most of the current fluorescence lifetime systems are not robust and portable, and not being feasible for clinical applications. We describe the assembly of a fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system in a suitcase, its characterization, and validation with clinical measurements of skin lesions. The assembled system is all encased and robust, maintaining its mechanical, electrical, and optical stability during transportation, and is feasible for clinical measurements. The instrument response function measured was about 300 ps, and the system is properly calibrated. At the clinical study, the system showed to be reliable, and the achieved spectroscopy results support its potential use as an auxiliary tool for skin diagnostics. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  3. Rewiring cells: synthetic biology as a tool to interrogate the organizational principles of living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashor, Caleb J; Horwitz, Andrew A; Peisajovich, Sergio G; Lim, Wendell A

    2010-01-01

    The living cell is an incredibly complex entity, and the goal of predictively and quantitatively understanding its function is one of the next great challenges in biology. Much of what we know about the cell concerns its constituent parts, but to a great extent we have yet to decode how these parts are organized to yield complex physiological function. Classically, we have learned about the organization of cellular networks by disrupting them through genetic or chemical means. The emerging discipline of synthetic biology offers an additional, powerful approach to study systems. By rearranging the parts that comprise existing networks, we can gain valuable insight into the hierarchical logic of the networks and identify the modular building blocks that evolution uses to generate innovative function. In addition, by building minimal toy networks, one can systematically explore the relationship between network structure and function. Here, we outline recent work that uses synthetic biology approaches to investigate the organization and function of cellular networks, and describe a vision for a synthetic biology toolkit that could be used to interrogate the design principles of diverse systems.

  4. Use of the CAMAC-MULTIBUS combined protocol for organizing multi-processor operation in a crate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glejbman, Eh.M.

    1985-01-01

    Problems of developing electronic units for large on-line systems for nuclear-physical experiments automation and developed on the base of principles of distributed control and data processing are discussed. Crates with simultaneous disposition and operation of CAMAC moduli (EUR-4100) and those realizing the MULTIBUS hardcopy log in dataway are described. It is attained due to sharing the CAMAC and the MULTIBUS hardcopy logs in the crate dataway. Application of job scheduler and executor moduli in the MULTIBUS interface permits to organize multiprocessor operation and to obtain separation of data stream as well as to increase total computational capacity in the crate

  5. Development of the QA/QC Procedures for a Neutron Interrogation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obhodas, Jasmina; Sudac, Davorin; Valkovic, Vladivoj [Ruder Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-07-01

    In order to perform QA/QC procedures for a system dedicated to the neutron interrogation of objects for the presence of threat materials one needs to perform measurements of reference materials (RM) having the same (or similar) atomic ratios as real materials. It is well known that explosives, drugs, and various other benign materials, contain chemical elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen in distinctly different quantities. For example, a high carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) is characteristic of drugs. Explosives can be differentiated by measurement of both C/O and nitrogen-to-oxygen (N/O) ratios. The C/N ratio of the chemical warfare agents, coupled with the measurement of elements such as fluorine and phosphorus, clearly differentiate them from the conventional explosives. Correlations between theoretical values and experimental results obtained in laboratory conditions for C/O and N/C ratios of simulants of hexogen (RDX), TNT, DLM2, TATP, cocaine, heroin, yperite, tetranitromethane, peroxide methylethyl-ketone, nitromethane and ethyleneglycol dinitrate are presented. (authors)

  6. Intelligent CAMAC crate controller with CC-A2 functionality and VICbus interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erven, W.; Holzer, J.; Kopp, H.; Loevenich, H.W.; Meiling, W.; Zwoll, K.; Bovier, J.; Re, G.; Worm, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that for nuclear physics experiments at the Julich Cooler Synchrotron COSY a data acquisition system is under development. With this background, and in order to enhance existing CAMAC systems, an intelligent CAMAC crate controller with CC-A2 functionality was developed. The main enhancement is the replacement of the Branch Highway with a new standard of inter-crate connection: the VICbus. The other highlights are: optional use of a Motorola 68030 microprocessor as CAMAC list-processor and optimization of CAMAC blocktransfers, optional Ethernet or Cheapernet connection. This controller is commercially available from CES, Geneva and called VCC 2117

  7. High Pressure Sensing and Dynamics Using High Speed Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, G. [LANL; Sandberg, R. L. [LANL; Lalone, B. M. [NSTec; Marshall, B. R. [NSTec; Grover, M. [NSTec; Stevens, G. D. [NSTec; Udd, E. [Columbia Gorge Research

    2014-06-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are developing into useful sensing tools for measuring high pressure dynamics in extreme environments under shock loading conditions. Approaches using traditional diode array coupled FBG interrogation systems are often limited to readout speeds in the sub-MHz range. For shock wave physics, required detection speeds approaching 100 MHz are desired. We explore the use of two types of FBG sensing systems that are aimed at applying this technology as embedded high pressure probes for transient shock events. Both approaches measure time resolved spectral shifts in the return light from short (few mm long) uniform FBGs at 1550 nm. In the first approach, we use a fiber coupled spectrometer to demultiplex spectral channels into an array (up to 12) of single element InGaAs photoreceivers. By monitoring the detectors during a shock impact event with high speed recording, we are able to track the pressure induced spectral shifting in FBG down to a time resolution of 20 ns. In the second approach, developed at the Special Technologies Lab, a coherent mode-locked fiber laser is used to illuminate the FBG sensor. After the sensor, wavelength-to-time mapping is accomplished with a chromatic dispersive element, and entire spectra are sampled using a single detector at the modelocked laser repetition rate of 50 MHz. By sampling with a 12 GHz InGaAs detector, direct wavelength mapping in time is recorded, and the pressure induced FBG spectral shift is sampled at 50 MHz. Here, the sensing systems are used to monitor the spectral shifts of FBGs that are immersed into liquid water and shock compressed using explosives. In this configuration, the gratings survive to pressures approaching 50 kbar. We describe both approaches and present the measured spectral shifts from the shock experiments.

  8. High pressure sensing and dynamics using high speed fiber Bragg grating interrogation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.; Sandberg, R. L.; Lalone, B. M.; Marshall, B. R.; Grover, M.; Stevens, G.; Udd, E.

    2014-06-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are developing into useful sensing tools for measuring high pressure dynamics in extreme environments under shock loading conditions. Approaches using traditional diode array coupled FBG interrogation systems are often limited to readout speeds in the sub-MHz range. For shock wave physics, required detection speeds approaching 100 MHz are desired. We explore the use of two types of FBG sensing systems that are aimed at applying this technology as embedded high pressure probes for transient shock events. Both approaches measure time resolved spectral shifts in the return light from short (few mm long) uniform FBGs at 1550 nm. In the first approach, we use a fiber coupled spectrometer to demultiplex spectral channels into an array (up to 12) of single element InGaAs photoreceivers. By monitoring the detectors during a shock impact event with high speed recording, we are able to track the pressure induced spectral shifting in FBG down to a time resolution of 20 ns. In the second approach, developed at the Special Technologies Lab, a coherent mode-locked fiber laser is used to illuminate the FBG sensor. After the sensor, wavelength-to-time mapping is accomplished with a chromatic dispersive element, and entire spectra are sampled using a single detector at the modelocked laser repetition rate of 50 MHz. By sampling with a 12 GHz InGaAs detector, direct wavelength mapping in time is recorded, and the pressure induced FBG spectral shift is sampled at 50 MHz. Here, the sensing systems are used to monitor the spectral shifts of FBGs that are immersed into liquid water and shock compressed using explosives. In this configuration, the gratings survive to pressures approaching 50 kbar. We describe both approaches and present the measured spectral shifts from the shock experiments.

  9. Low-Level Test of the New Read-Out-Driver (ROD) Module and Back-of-Crate (BOC) Module for ATLAS IBL Data Acquisition System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hanindhito, Bagus

    2014-01-01

    During first long shutdown of The Large Hadron Collider, most of experiment infrastructures at CERN will be upgraded for preparation to operate at higher energy thus can open new possibilities to discover the unknown in particle physics. ATLAS, which is the biggest particle detector at CERN, will also be upgraded by constructing new pixel sensor layer. This new pixel sensor layer is called ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL will be installed between the existing pixel sensor and new, smaller radius beam pipe. The installation of IBL will introduce new level of radiation and pixel occupancy. Therefore, it requires development of new technologies to supports the ATLAS IBL upgrade and also improve the physics performance of the existing pixel sensor. One of the important key technologies that must be upgraded is data acquisition system. The development of new front-end ASIC, the FE-I4, to answer the challenge in data acquisition system will require new off-detector electronics. The new off-detector electronics ...

  10. Coherent pulse interrogation system for fiber Bragg grating sensing of strain and pressure in dynamic extremes of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, George; Jaime, Marcelo; Balakirev, Fedor; Mielke, Chuck H; Azad, Abul; Marshall, Bruce; La Lone, Brandon M; Henson, Bryan; Smilowitz, Laura

    2015-06-01

    A 100 MHz fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system is described and applied to strain and pressure sensing. The approach relies on coherent pulse illumination of the FBG sensor with a broadband short pulse from a femtosecond modelocked erbium fiber laser. After interrogation of the FBG sensor, a long multi-kilometer run of single mode fiber is used for chromatic dispersion to temporally stretch the spectral components of the reflected pulse from the FBG sensor. Dynamic strain or pressure induced spectral shifts in the FBG sensor are detected as a pulsed time domain waveform shift after encoding by the chromatic dispersive line. Signals are recorded using a single 35 GHz photodetector and a 50 G Samples per second, 25 GHz bandwidth, digitizing oscilloscope. Application of this approach to high-speed strain sensing in magnetic materials in pulsed magnetic fields to ~150 T is demonstrated. The FBG wavelength shifts are used to study magnetic field driven magnetostriction effects in LaCoO3. A sub-microsecond temporal shift in the FBG sensor wavelength attached to the sample under first order phase change appears as a fractional length change (strain: ΔL/L-4) in the material. A second application used FBG sensing of pressure dynamics to nearly 2 GPa in the thermal ignition of the high explosive PBX-9501 is also demonstrated. Both applications demonstrate the use of this FBG interrogation system in dynamical extreme conditions that would otherwise not be possible using traditional FBG interrogation approaches that are deemed too slow to resolve such events.

  11. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedt, J.-M; Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  12. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedt, J.-M [SENSeOR, 32 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France); Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S. [Department of Time and Frequency, FEMTO-ST, 32 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France)

    2010-01-15

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  13. SVX Sequence Crate Custom J1 Backplane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utes, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Custom J1 Backplane is a full length (21 slot) user specified custom 3U backplane to be used in the J1 position. Slot spacing is identical to that used for VME (0.8-inch), and each backplane shall fit into a standard Eurocard VME style crate. The purpose of the Custom J1 Backplane is to: (1) Provide +5 volt power to slots 1 through 21; (2) Provide -5.2 volt power to slots 1 through 21; (3) Provide five bits of geographic addressing to slots 2 through 21. Slot 2 will have all five bits pulled low; slot 21 will have the value 10100. See Appendix A; (4) Route a differential 1553 signal from a triaxial bulkhead connector to slots 2 through 11. This differential signal is bussed as a daisy chain. A 75 ohm resistor to ground shall be located near the last destination slot for each of these two signals; (5) Route a second differential 1553 signal from a triaxial bulkhead connector to slots 12 through 21. This differential signal is bussed as a daisy chain. A 75 ohm resistor to ground shall be located near the last destination slot for each of these two signals; (6) Route two NRZ signals and two Clock signals from slot 1 to each of slots 2 through 21. These are individual signals, not bussed.

  14. Aircraft interrogation and display system: A ground support equipment for digital flight systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A microprocessor-based general purpose ground support equipment for electronic systems was developed. The hardware and software are designed to permit diverse applications in support of aircraft flight systems and simulation facilities. The implementation of the hardware, the structure of the software, describes the application of the system to an ongoing research aircraft project are described.

  15. O julgamento de Sócrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Sampaio de Moraes Godoy

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Trata da historiografia jurídica e dasrelações entre direito, história e verdade.Vale-se de referências literárias ao julgamentode Sócrates, colhida em textos de contemporâneosdo filósofo, identificando tessiturade narrativas que atestam incongruência,relativismo e construído cultural clássico natradição ocidental. Indica abordagens mais recentes,como a de Isidor Stone, não aceita pelatradição acadêmica. Instiga, na medida em quepretende invocar que a história do direito émenos o que aconteceu e mais o que o narradorpretende inventariar. Denuncia aspectos damiragem helênica, contribuindo na construçãodos saberes críticos na feição contemporâneodos textos de filosofia do direito.It deals with juridical historiographyand the relations between right, history andtruth. It relies on literary references on thetrial of Socrates, collected from texts of histime, identifying the narrative webbing thatwitnesses incongruence, relativism, andclassic cultural constructs of western tradition.It also points out novel approaches,like that of Isidor Stone, which is not acceptedby the academic tradition. It instigates, onceit intends to invoke that history of law is lesswhat happened than what the narrator wantsit to be. It denounces aspects of the helenicmirage, contributing to the construction ofcritical knowledge in the making of contemporarytexts on philosophy of law.

  16. Solving problems by interrogating sets of knowledge systems: Toward a theory of multiple knowledge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekorvin, Andre

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose is to develop a theory for multiple knowledge systems. A knowledge system could be a sensor or an expert system, but it must specialize in one feature. The problem is that we have an exhaustive list of possible answers to some query (such as what object is it). By collecting different feature values, in principle, it should be possible to give an answer to the query, or at least narrow down the list. Since a sensor, or for that matter an expert system, does not in most cases yield a precise value for the feature, uncertainty must be built into the model. Also, researchers must have a formal mechanism to be able to put the information together. Researchers chose to use the Dempster-Shafer approach to handle the problems mentioned above. Researchers introduce the concept of a state of recognition and point out that there is a relation between receiving updates and defining a set valued Markov Chain. Also, deciding what the value of the next set valued variable is can be phrased in terms of classical decision making theory such as minimizing the maximum regret. Other related problems are examined.

  17. Development of high sensitivity eight-element multiplexed fiber laser acoustic pressure hydrophone array and interrogation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Sun, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiaolei; Li, Shujuan; Song, Zhiqiang; Wang, Meng; Guo, Jian; Ni, Jiasheng; Wang, Chang; Peng, Gangding; Xu, Xiangang

    2017-09-01

    Fiber laser hydrophones have got widespread concerns due to the unique advantages and broad application prospects. In this paper, the research results of the eight-element multiplexed fiber laser acoustic pressure array and the interrogation system are introduced, containing low-noise distributed feedback fiber laser (DFB-FL) fabrication, sensitivity enhancement packaging, and interferometric signal demodulation. The frequency response range of the system is 10Hz-10kHz, the laser frequency acoustic pressure sensitivity reaches 115 dB re Hz/Pa, and the equivalent noise acoustic pressure is less than 60μPa/Hz1/2. The dynamic range of the system is greater than 120 dB.

  18. Interrogating CGPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Jain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of teaching and assessment in the higher education in India is passing through a phase of transition. Many of the universities in India have adopted the semester system with credit- and grade-based evaluation of students. These systems are functionally different from the annual system of teaching and evaluation based on marks and percentage. The grade-based system of evaluation is recommended for its virtues and is accepted as a progressive step toward reforms in the higher education system. However, a critical evaluation of the new system vis-à-vis the older one is necessary. The objective of this article is to focus on some of the issues associated with the calculation of grade point average (in absolute grading, to focus on the anomalies created thereby in conversion of grade point average to percentage, and to suggest alternatives to minimize the arbitrariness so that the examinee is not penalized. The present work illustrates the problems inherent in the grading system using examples from Indian universities. Subsequently, the probable reasons for the problems are discussed. Finally, simple alternative measures are suggested to overcome the shortcomings of the grading system.

  19. MEMS Fabry-Perot sensor interrogated by optical system-on-a-chip for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Cheng; Bae, Hyungdae; Gupta, Ashwani; Bryden, Kenneth; Yu, Miao

    2013-09-23

    We present a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based Fabry-Perot (FP) sensor along with an optical system-on-a-chip (SOC) interrogator for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing. The sensor employs a simple structure with an air-backed silicon membrane cross-axially bonded to a 45° polished optical fiber. This structure renders two cascaded FP cavities, enabling simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing in close proximity along the optical axis. The optical SOC consists of a broadband source, a MEMS FP tunable filter, a photodetector, and the supporting circuitry, serving as a miniature spectrometer for retrieving the two FP cavity lengths. Within the measured pressure and temperature ranges, experimental results demonstrate that the sensor exhibits a good linear response to external pressure and temperature changes.

  20. Neutron interrogator assay system for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant waste canisters and spent fuel: preliminary description and operating procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.; Close, D.A.; Speir, L.G.

    1978-05-01

    A neutron interrogation assay system is being designed for the measurement of waste canisters and spent fuel packages at the new Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to be operated by Allied Chemical Corp. The assay samples consist of both waste canisters from the fluorinel dissolution process and spent fuel assemblies. The assay system is a 252 Cf ''Shuffler'' that employs a cyclic sequence of fast-neutron interrogation with a 252 Cf source followed by delayed-neutron counting to determine the 235 U content

  1. CC-3 CAMAC crate controller for IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, A.N.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Bairi, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    The specifications and implementation details of CAMAC Crate Controller CC-3 for IBM-PC compatible as a host computer, having capability to transfer high speed data with direct memory access (DMA) scheme and logic to execute CAMAC cycles directly from the crate controller, to implement the block algorithms specified in ANSI/IEEE Std. 683-1976 (Reaff-1981) are described. The maximum data transfer rate measured with 8 bit interface of PC-AT is 240K byte per second. This work is carried out under Seventh Five Year Plan Project on Modernisation of reactor Control Instrumentation and Development of CAMAC and Fastbus Instrumentation. (author). 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 appendixes

  2. AN/UPX-41(C) IFF Interrogator Compatibility with the National Airspace System : Top-Level Test Plan Chesapeake Fixed-Base Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-04

    In 2012, the Navy requested spectrum certification for the shipboard AN/UPX-41(C) Digital Interrogator System, Software Version 5.5 with Mode 5. : Current operating conditions for the Navys AN/UPX-41(C) are the same as restrictions imposed on the ...

  3. Classifying threats with a 14-MeV neutron interrogation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strellis, Dan; Gozani, Tsahi

    2005-01-01

    SeaPODDS (Sea Portable Drug Detection System) is a non-intrusive tool for detecting concealed threats in hidden compartments of maritime vessels. This system consists of an electronic neutron generator, a gamma-ray detector, a data acquisition computer, and a laptop computer user-interface. Although initially developed to detect narcotics, recent algorithm developments have shown that the system is capable of correctly classifying a threat into one of four distinct categories: narcotic, explosive, chemical weapon, or radiological dispersion device (RDD). Detection of narcotics, explosives, and chemical weapons is based on gamma-ray signatures unique to the chemical elements. Elements are identified by their characteristic prompt gamma-rays induced by fast and thermal neutrons. Detection of RDD is accomplished by detecting gamma-rays emitted by common radioisotopes and nuclear reactor fission products. The algorithm phenomenology for classifying threats into the proper categories is presented here.

  4. Psychological Perspectives on Interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrij, Aldert; Meissner, Christian A; Fisher, Ronald P; Kassin, Saul M; Morgan, Charles A; Kleinman, Steven M

    2017-11-01

    Proponents of "enhanced interrogation techniques" in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation methods are ineffective. First, they are likely to increase resistance by the subject rather than facilitate cooperation. Second, the threatening and adversarial nature of harsh interrogation is often inimical to the goal of facilitating the retrieval of information from memory and therefore reduces the likelihood that a subject will provide reports that are extensive, detailed, and accurate. Third, harsh interrogation methods make lie detection difficult. Analyzing speech content and eliciting verifiable details are the most reliable cues to assessing credibility; however, to elicit such cues subjects must be encouraged to provide extensive narratives, something that does not occur in harsh interrogations. Evidence is accumulating for the effectiveness of rapport-based information-gathering approaches as an alternative to harsh interrogations. Such approaches promote cooperation, enhance recall of relevant and reliable information, and facilitate assessments of credibility. Given the available evidence that torture is ineffective, why might some laypersons, policymakers, and interrogation personnel support the use of torture? We conclude our review by offering a psychological perspective on this important question.

  5. Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Dennis R [Oakland, CA; Pohl, Bertram A [Berkeley, CA; Dougan, Arden D [San Ramon, CA; Bernstein, Adam [Palo Alto, CA; Prussin, Stanley G [Kensington, CA; Norman, Eric B [Oakland, CA

    2008-04-15

    A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

  6. Incorporation of Photon Analysis into an Active Interrogation System for Shielded Uranium Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canion, Bonnie E. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The main goal of this project is to investigate how photon and neutron signatures from an Associated Particle Imaging (API) Deuterium-Tritium (DT) neutron generator detector system can be used to non-destructively predict the enrichment of uranium in an unknown configuration of shielded uranium.

  7. Interrogating the justice system in a multi-ethnic state: a study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Law is a major instrument of maintaining cohesion in any given society. Its formulation, codification or unification as well as interpretation are major factors in determining the credibility of the criminal justice system and the level of legal conformity. The letter and spirit of the law are defeated when its formation, modulations, ...

  8. Determination of alpha activity and fissile mass content in solid waste by systems using neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Lacruche, G.; Berne, R.; Auge, J.; Martin Deidier, L.; Butez, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Quantitative control (determination of heavy nuclides and alpha activity) of alpha radioactive wastes is necessary, particularly to determine if the waste is in accordance with the surface storage limits. In order to reduce the uncertainty on the alpha activity resulting from unknown isotopic composition, inhomogeneity of heavy nuclides in the matrix, combination of several methods is necessary. In the paper we present the Cadarache development work in the NDA of solid waste using the Californium shuffler, 14 Mev neutron generator, and also passive techniques such as neutron emission measurement and gamma spectrometry. Experimental systems combining active and passive methods are presented (COSAC, BANCO, DANAIDE, PROMETHEE)

  9. Uniform spacing interrogation of a Fourier domain mode-locked fiber Bragg grating sensor system using a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hwi Don; Jung, Eun Joo; Jeong, Myung Yung; Chen, Zhongping; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2013-01-01

    A novel linearized interrogation method is presented for a Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system. In a high speed regime over several tens of kHz modulations, a sinusoidal wave is available to scan the center wavelength of an FDML wavelength-swept laser, instead of a conventional triangular wave. However, sinusoidal wave modulation suffers from an exaggerated non-uniform wavelength-spacing response in demodulating the time-encoded parameter to the absolute ...

  10. Neutron interrogation systems using pyroelectric crystals and methods of preparation thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Vincent; Meyer, Glenn A.; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Rusnak, Brian; Sampayan, Stephen; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Wang, Li-Fang; Harris, John; Morse, Jeff

    2017-08-01

    According to one embodiment, an apparatus includes a pyroelectric crystal, a deuterated or tritiated target, an ion source, and a common support coupled to the pyroelectric crystal, the deuterated or tritiated target, and the ion source. In another embodiment, a method includes producing a voltage of negative polarity on a surface of a deuterated or tritiated target in response to a temperature change of a pyroelectric crystal, pulsing a deuterium ion source to produce a deuterium ion beam, accelerating the deuterium ion beam to the deuterated or tritiated target to produce a neutron beam, and directing the ion beam onto the deuterated or tritiated target to make neutrons using a voltage of the pyroelectric crystal and/or an HGI surrounding the pyroelectric crystal. The directionality of the neutron beam is controlled by changing the accelerating voltage of the system. Other apparatuses and methods are presented as well.

  11. Interrogation, and detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Howard A.; Depp, Steven W.; Koelle, Alfred R.; Freyman, Robert W.

    1978-02-21

    The specification relates to a telemetering apparatus comprising a generator which generates at least a single frequency rf signal, a transponder for receiving that signal and for amplitude modulating it in accordance with information selected for transmission, an antenna on the transponder for reflecting the amplitude modulated signal, and a receiver which is preferably located at the generator. The receiver processes the signal to determine the information carried thereby.

  12. Campylobacter genotypes from poultry transportation crates indicate a source of contamination and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, R; Colles, F M; McCarthy, N D; Maiden, M C J; Sheppard, S K

    2011-01-01

    Crates used to transport live poultry can be contaminated with Campylobacter, despite periodic sanitization, and are potential vectors for transmission between flocks. We investigated the microbial contamination of standard and silver ion containing crates in normal use and the genetic structure of associated Campylobacter populations. Bacteria from crates were enumerated by appropriate culture techniques, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to determine the genetic structure of Campylobacters isolated from standard and silver ion containing crates. Compared to standard crates, counts of bacteria, including Campylobacter, were consistently lower on silver ion containing crates throughout the decontamination process. In total, 16 different sequence types were identified from 89 Campylobacter jejuni isolates from crates. These were attributed to putative source population (chicken, cattle, sheep, the environment, wild bird) using the population genetic model, structure. Most (89%) were attributed to chicken, with 22% attribution to live chicken and 78% to retail poultry meat. MLST revealed a progressive shift in allele frequencies through the crate decontamination process. Campylobacter on crates survived for at least 3 h after sanitization, a period of time equivalent to the journey from the processing plant to the majority of farms in the catchment, showing the potential for involvement of crates in transmission. Inclusion of a silver ion biocide in poultry transportation crates to levels demonstrating acceptable antibacterial activity in vitro reduces the level of bacterial contamination during normal crate use compared to standard crates. Molecular analysis of Campylobacter isolates indicated a change in genetic structure of the population with respect to the poultry-processing plant sanitization practice. The application of a sustainable antimicrobial to components of poultry processing may contribute to reducing the levels of Campylobacter

  13. SVX Sequence Crate Custom J2/J3 Backplane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utes, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Custom J2/J3 Backplane is a full length (21 slot) user specified custom 3U backplane to be used in both the J2 and J3 positions. Slot spacing is identical to that used for VME (0.8-inch), and each backplane shall fit into a standard Eurocard VME style crate. The purpose of the Custom J2/J3 Backplane is to send and receive control and clock signals from the SVX chips via 3M pleated foil cables (Slots 2-21), and in slot 1, accept a cable connector and route its signal through to a signal distribution board.

  14. Interrogation: General vs. Local.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeannette

    This paper proposes a set of hypotheses on the nature of interrogration as a possible language universal. Examples and phrase structure rules and diagrams are given. Examining Tamazight and English, genetically unrelated languages with almost no contact, the author distinguishes two types of interrogation: (1) general, querying acceptability to…

  15. Interrogating Planar Cyclooctatetraenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hensel, Thomas

    ]circulenes were established. The antiaromaticity of the formal COT core of the hetero[8]circulenes was interrogated by comparison of the respective 13C-NMR carbon shifts with those of 3,6-dimethoxycarbazole (the starting material), tetrahydroxy intermediate and literature values. No uniform paratropic...

  16. Modeling and Interrogative Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Douglas R.

    Three studies to determine the effects of adult models on interrogative strategies of children (ages 6-11) are reviewed. Two issues are analyzed: (1) the comparative effectiveness of various types of modeling procedures for changing rule-governed behaviors, and (2) the interaction between observational learning and the developmental level of the…

  17. SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Tak Pui; Antolak, Arlyn

    2007-01-01

    High fidelity, three-dimensional computer models based on a CAD drawing of an intermodal cargo container, representative payload objects, and detector array panels were developed to simulate the underlying physical events taking place during active interrogation. These computer models are used to assess the performance of interrogation systems with different sources and detection schemes. In this presentation, we will show that the use oversimplified models, such as analyzing homogenized payloads only, can lead to errors in determining viable approaches for interrogation

  18. Opto-box: Optical modules and mini-crate for ATLAS pixel and IBL detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertsche David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules which process and transfer optoelectronic data. Many novel solutions were developed for the custom design and manufacturing. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35×10x8 cm3. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits, were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain. This conference proceeding is in support of the poster presented at the International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics (ICNFP 2015 [1].

  19. Micro elements for interrogating magnetoelastic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Cai

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports a new approach for interrogating a magnetoelastic sensor\\'s resonant frequency. Previously, the frequency of a magnetoelastic sensor was measured by using a large-scale solenoid coil of at least some millimeters both in diameter and length. Planar structures of straight-line and rectangular spiral coil are designed, fabricated and tested to interrogate the resonant frequency of a magnetoelastic sensor. A sensor of 4 mm length is measured to have a resonant frequency of 551 kHz in air. The ability to interrogate a magnetoelastic sensor with such microscale elements is a step towards the miniaturization of a magnetoelastic sensor system and integration of such a system in a microfluidics device. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  1. Uniform spacing interrogation of a Fourier domain mode-locked fiber Bragg grating sensor system using a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwi Don; Jung, Eun Joo; Jeong, Myung Yung; Chen, Zhongping; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2014-01-01

    A novel linearized interrogation method is presented for a Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system. In a high speed regime over several tens of kHz modulations, a sinusoidal wave is available to scan the center wavelength of an FDML wavelength-swept laser, instead of a conventional triangular wave. However, sinusoidal wave modulation suffers from an exaggerated non-uniform wavelength-spacing response in demodulating the time-encoded parameter to the absolute wavelength. In this work, the calibration signal from a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer shares the FDML wavelength-swept laser for FBG sensors to convert the time-encoded FBG signal to the wavelength-encoded uniform-spacing signal. PMID:24489440

  2. Uniform spacing interrogation of a Fourier domain mode-locked fiber Bragg grating sensor system using a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwi Don; Jeong, Myung Yung; Chen, Zhongping; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jung, Eun Joo

    2013-01-01

    A novel linearized interrogation method is presented for a Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system. In a high speed regime over several tens of kHz modulations, a sinusoidal wave is available to scan the center wavelength of an FDML wavelength-swept laser, instead of a conventional triangular wave. However, sinusoidal wave modulation suffers from an exaggerated non-uniform wavelength-spacing response in demodulating the time-encoded parameter to the absolute wavelength. In this work, the calibration signal from a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer shares the FDML wavelength-swept laser for FBG sensors to convert the time-encoded FBG signal to the wavelength-encoded uniform-spacing signal. (paper)

  3. Uniform spacing interrogation of a Fourier domain mode-locked fiber Bragg grating sensor system using a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwi Don; Jung, Eun Joo; Jeong, Myung Yung; Chen, Zhongping; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2013-06-01

    A novel linearized interrogation method is presented for a Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system. In a high speed regime over several tens of kHz modulations, a sinusoidal wave is available to scan the center wavelength of an FDML wavelength-swept laser, instead of a conventional triangular wave. However, sinusoidal wave modulation suffers from an exaggerated non-uniform wavelength-spacing response in demodulating the time-encoded parameter to the absolute wavelength. In this work, the calibration signal from a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer shares the FDML wavelength-swept laser for FBG sensors to convert the time-encoded FBG signal to the wavelength-encoded uniform-spacing signal.

  4. Photon interrogation annual report for FY 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieschmidt, E.B.; Johnson, L.O.; Lawrence, R.S.; Vegors, S.H. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Summaries of experimental information and information from vendors is presented to show the adequacy of the photon interrogation technique for transuranic waste assay. An instrument system is described which has high immunity to gamma flash and has good high count rate capabilities. Comparison of the progress of the program with a schedule presented at its inception is presented

  5. Gregory Vlastos y los estudios sobre el Sócrates histórico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Trueba Atienza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a abordagem de Sócrates por Gregory Vlastos em “The historical Socrates and Athenian Democracy”, trabalho publicado na revista Political Theory (1983, e sua repercussão.

  6. Recommendations for CAMAC Serial Highway drivers and LAM Graders for the SCC-L2 Serial Crate Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The functional requirements of Drivers for the CAMAC Serial Highway defined in IEEE Standard 595-1976 are described. The description is independent of the implementation, and in particular no assumption is made about the boundary between hardware and software within the Driver. Topics covered are the user interface, the supporting system services required, demand handling, and a detailed discussion of the message analysis for various levels of error recovery. An appendix describes the recommended features of LAM Graders for use with the Serial Crate Controller Type L2 of IEEE Std 595-1976

  7. Dual reference point temperature interrogating method for distributed temperature sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xin; Ju, Fang; Chang, Jun; Wang, Weijie; Wang, Zongliang

    2013-01-01

    A novel method based on dual temperature reference points is presented to interrogate the temperature in a distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system. This new method is suitable to overcome deficiencies due to the impact of DC offsets and the gain difference in the two signal channels of the sensing system during temperature interrogation. Moreover, this method can in most cases avoid the need to calibrate the gain and DC offsets in the receiver, data acquisition and conversion. An improved temperature interrogation formula is presented and the experimental results show that this method can efficiently estimate the channel amplification and system DC offset, thus improving the system accuracy. (letter)

  8. Advanced FBG sensing through rapid spectral interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzler, Wesley; Newman, Jason; Wilding, Daniel; Zhu, Zixu; Lowder, Tyson; Selfridge, Richard; Schultz, Stephen; Wirthlin, Michael

    2008-03-01

    A fiber Brag grating sensor interrogator has been developed which is capable of gathering vectors of information from individual fiber Bragg gratings by capturing the full optical spectrum 3 kHz. Using a field programmable gate array with high speed digital-to-analog converters and analog-to-digital components, plus a kilohertz rate MEMS optical filter, the optical spectrum can be scanned at rates in excess of 10 million nanometers per second, allowing sensor sampling rates of many kilohertz while maintaining the necessary resolution to understand sensor changes. The autonomous system design performs all necessary detection and processing of multiple sensors and allows spectral measurements to be exported as fast as Ethernet, USB, or RS232 devices can receive it through a memory mapped interface. The high speed - full spectrum - fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator enables advanced interrogation of dynamic strain and temperature gradients along the length of a sensor, as well as the use of each sensor for multiple stimuli, such as in temperature compensation. Two examples are described, showing interrogation of rapid laser heating in an optical fiber, as well as complex strain effects in a beam that had an engineered defect.

  9. Police practices and perceptions regarding juvenile interrogation and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jessica R; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2007-01-01

    Recent media coverage has highlighted cases in which young suspects were wrongly convicted because they provided interrogation-induced false confessions. Although youth may be more highly suggestible and easily influenced by authority than adults, police are trained to use the same psychologically coercive and deceptive tactics with youth as with adults. This investigation is the first standard documentation of the reported interrogation practices of law enforcement and police beliefs about the reliability of these techniques and their knowledge of child development. Participants were 332 law enforcement officers who completed surveys about interrogation procedures and developmental issues pertaining to youth. Results indicated that, while police acknowledge some developmental differences between youth and adults, there were indications that (1) how police perceive youth in general and how they perceive and treat them in the interrogation context may be contradictory and (2) their general view is that youth can be dealt with in the same manner as adults. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Interrogating personhood and dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Paul; Gilleard, Chris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To interrogate the concept of personhood and its application to care practices for people with dementia. Method: We outline the work of Tom Kitwood on personhood and relate this to conceptualisations of personhood in metaphysics and in moral philosophy. Results: The philosophical concept of personhood has a long history. The metaphysical tradition examines the necessary and sufficient qualities that make up personhood such as agency, consciousness, identity, rationality and second-order reflexivity. Alternative viewpoints treat personhood as a matter of degree rather than as a superordinate category. Within moral philosophy personhood is treated as a moral status applicable to some or to all human beings. Conclusion: In the light of the multiple meanings attached to the term in both metaphysics and moral philosophy, personhood is a relatively unhelpful concept to act as the foundation for developing models and standards of care for people with dementia. Care, we suggest, should concentrate less on ambiguous and somewhat abstract terms such as personhood and focus instead on supporting people's existing capabilities, while minimising the harmful consequences of their incapacities. PMID:26708149

  11. The dynamic nature of interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Christopher E; Miller, Jeaneé C; Redlich, Allison D

    2016-06-01

    Building on a substantial body of literature examining interrogation methods employed by police investigators and their relationship to suspect behaviors, we analyzed a sample of audio and video interrogation recordings of individuals suspected of serious violent crimes. Existing survey research has focused on the tactics reportedly used, at what rate, and under what conditions; observational studies detail which methods are actually employed. With a few notable exceptions, these foundational studies were static examinations of interrogation methods that documented the absence or presence of various approaches. In the present study, we cast interrogation as a dynamic phenomenon and code the recordings in 5-min intervals to examine how interrogation methods and suspect cooperation change over time. Employing the interrogation taxonomy framework, particularly 4 discrete domains-rapport and relationship building, emotion provocation, presentation of evidence, and confrontation/competition-we found that the emphasis of the domains varied across interrogations and were significantly different when suspects confessed versus when they denied involvement. In regression models, suspect cooperation was positively influenced by the rapport and relationship building domain, though it was negatively impacted by presentation of evidence and confrontation/competition. Moreover, we found that the negative effects of confrontation/competition on suspect cooperation lasted for up to 15 min. The implications of the findings for practice and future research include the benefits of a rapport-based approach, the deleterious effects of accusatorial methods, and the importance of studying when, not just if, certain interrogation techniques are employed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. An Electronic Model of the ATLAS Phase-1 Upgrade Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter Front End Crate Baseplane

    CERN Document Server

    Porter, Ryan

    This thesis presents an electrical model of two pairs of interconnects of the ATLAS Phase-1 Upgrade Hadronic Endcap Front End Crate prototype baseplane. Stripline transmission lines of the baseplane are modeled using Keysight Technologies' Electromagnetic Professional's (EMPro) 3D electromagnetic simulation (Finite Element Method) and the connectors are modeled using built-in models in Keysight Technologies' Advanced Design System (ADS). The model is compared in both the time and frequency domain to measured Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) traces and S-parameters. The S-parameters of the model are found to be within $5\\%$ of the measured S-parameters for transmission and reflection, and range from $25\\%$ below to $100\\%$ above for forward and backward crosstalk. To make comparisons with measurements, the cables used to connect the prototype HEC baseplane to the measurement system had to be included in the model. Plots of the S-parameters of a model without these cables are presented for one pair of interconne...

  13. In-situ measurement of texture and elastic strains with HIPPO-CRATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartig, Ch.; Vogel, S.C.; Mecking, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the micromechanical interaction between constituents of a metallic material during elastic and plastic deformation are analyzed by comparing experimental results with modeling predictions. This comparison aims at determining the locally acting internal stresses, the spatial distribution of strains and the rules allowing deriving the macroscopic behavior of the material from the behavior of its microscopic constituents. We report the application of a new deformation apparatus CRATES, which allows measuring texture and crystal lattice spacings, and from these crystal lattice strains, using neutron diffraction. From the in-situ measured elastic lattice strains ε hkl the corresponding local stresses can be derived. The deformation apparatus allows uni-axial tensile or compressive deformation up to 100 kN and is specifically designed for use in the HIPPO neutron time-of-flight diffractometer. In this paper, we report initial results on an iron-copper model system (Fe100, Fe33Cu67, Fe67Cu33, vol.%) and commercial magnesium alloys (Mg-AZ31 and Mg-AZ80). Finite element calculations using a crystal-plastic constitutive law, allowing for shear and hardening of crystallographic slip-systems, were used for the interpretation of the measurements

  14. crates l'impenetrable i l'amor platònic

    OpenAIRE

    Pàmias i Massana, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Un investigador de la UAB ha publicat un article en què es reinterpreta un passatge del diàleg El Banquet de Plató per establir que la fortalesa del filòsof Sòcrates radica en la seva capacitat de resistir la seducció. Així, Sòcrates coneix el desig, però només l'exerceix quan es tracta de veritable amor. Aquesta nova interpretació permet apropar-nos al nucli de la doctrina de l'amor platònic.

  15. Technology for Polymer Optical Fiber Bragg Grating Fabrication and Interrogation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganziy, Denis

    The aim of this project is to develop a new, high-quality interrogator for FBG sensor systems, which combines high performance with costeffectiveness. The work includes the fields of optical system design, signal processing, and algorithm investigation. We present an efficient and fast peak...... analyze and investigate errors and drawbacks, which are typical for spectrometer-based interrogators: undersampling, grating internal reflection, photo response nonuniformity, pixel crosstalk and temperature and long term drift. We propose a novel type of multichannel Digital Micromirror Device (DMD......) based interrogator, where the linear detector is replaced with a commercially available DMD, which leads to cost reduction and better performance. Original optical design, which utilizes advantages of a retro-reflect optical scheme, has been developed in Zemax. We test the presented interrogator...

  16. Software Development to Assist in the Processing and Analysis of Data Obtained Using Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    A fiber Bragg grating is a portion of a core of a fiber optic stand that has been treated to affect the way light travels through the strand. Light within a certain narrow range of wavelengths will be reflected along the fiber by the grating, while light outside that range will pass through the grating mostly undisturbed. Since the range of wavelengths that can penetrate the grating depends on the grating itself as well as temperature and mechanical strain, fiber Bragg gratings can be used as temperature and strain sensors. This capability, along with the light-weight nature of the fiber optic strands in which the gratings reside, make fiber optic sensors an ideal candidate for flight testing and monitoring in which temperature and wing strain are factors. A team of NASA Dryden engineers has been working to advance the fiber optic sensor technology since the mid 1990 s. The team has been able to improve the dependability and sample rate of fiber optic sensor systems, making them more suitable for real-time wing shape and strain monitoring and capable of rivaling traditional strain gauge sensors in accuracy. The sensor system was recently tested on the Ikhana unmanned aircraft and will be used on the Global Observer unmanned aircraft. Since a fiber Bragg grating sensor can be placed every halfinch on each optic fiber, and since fibers of approximately 40 feet in length each are to be used on the Global Observer, each of these fibers will have approximately 1,000 sensors. A total of 32 fibers are to be placed on the Global Observer aircraft, to be sampled at a rate of about 50 Hz, meaning about 1.6 million data points will be taken every second. The fiber optic sensors system is capable of producing massive amounts of potentially useful data; however, methods to capture, record, and analyze all of this data in a way that makes the information useful to flight test engineers are currently limited. The purpose of this project is to research the availability of software

  17. Interrogation of an object for dimensional and topographical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Doug L [Richland, WA; Severtsen, Ronald H [Richland, WA; Hall, Thomas E [Richland, WA; Sheen, David M [Richland, WA

    2003-01-14

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to interrogate a clothed individual with electromagnetic radiation to determine one or more body measurements at least partially covered by the individual's clothing. The invention further includes techniques to interrogate an object with electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter and/or microwave range to provide a volumetric representation of the object. This representation can be used to display images and/or determine dimensional information concerning the object.

  18. Real time interrogation technique for fiber Bragg grating enhanced fiber loop ringdown sensors array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlong; Li, Ruoming; Shi, Yuechun; Zhang, Jintao; Chen, Xiangfei; Liu, Shengchun

    2015-06-01

    A novel fiber Bragg grating aided fiber loop ringdown (FLRD) sensor array and the wavelength-time multiplexing based interrogation technique for the FLRD sensors array are proposed. The interrogation frequency of the system is formulated and the interrelationships among the parameters of the system are analyzed. To validate the performance of the proposed system, a five elements array is experimentally demonstrated, and the system shows the capability of real time monitoring every FLRD element with interrogation frequency of 125.5 Hz.

  19. Epithermal interrogation of fissile waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coop, K.L.; Hollas, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    Self-shielding of interrogating thermal neutrons in lumps of fissile material can be a major source of error in transuranic waste assay using the widely employed differential dieaway technique. We are developing a new instrument, the combined thermal/epithermal neutron (CTEN) interrogation instrument to detect the occurrence of self- shielding and mitigate its effects. Neutrons are moderated in the graphite walls of the CTEN instrument to provide an interrogating flux of epithermal and thermal neutrons. The induced prompt fission neutrons are detected in proportional counters. We report the results of measurements made with the CTEN instrument, using minimal and highly self-shielding plutonium and uranium sources in 55 gallon drums containing a variety of mock waste matrices. Fissile isotopes and waste forms for which the method is most applicable, and limitations associated with the hydrogen content of the waste package/matrix are described

  20. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  1. Energetics of sows and gilts in gestation crates in the cold.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Curtis, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    Seventy pregnant sows and gilts in gestation crates with unbedded concrete-slat floors and partitions in common (which permitted contact by neighbors) in a closed house with air temperature 10 to 12 degrees C during cold weather were studied for 3 wk. The animals' lower critical temperature and

  2. To Make an Omelette You Have to Break the Egg Crate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, H. Dickson

    1982-01-01

    A study of instructional change in three schools reveals that a change strategy should take advantage of existing communication networks. Where there is little interdependence among teachers, administrators need to encourage its growth and replace the egg crate form of organization with arrangements that increase teacher interaction. (MLF)

  3. Chemical Eradication of the Ring Rot Bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus on Potato Storage Crates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, L.H.; Lamers, J.G.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Mendes, O.; Berg, van den W.; Tjou-Tam-Sin, N.N.A.; Jilesen, C.J.T.J.; Spoorenberg, P.M.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Four commercially available disinfection products were tested for their efficacy against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), causative agent of bacterial ring rot, on wooden potato storage crates. Each of these products represented a different class of biocide, i.e. organic acids

  4. Esculturas de Hipócrates, Galeno y Manuel Plata Azuero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Albornoz Plata

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Dos agradables y emotivas sorpresas hemos experimentado en la tarde de hoy:

    Bellas obras de arte son las esculturas de Hipócrates y Galeno, que parecen saludar a todos los visitantes de la Academia al penetrar al salón principal. Por eso he querido recordar brevemente lo que estos personajes representan en la historia de la Medicina mundial y nacional.

    I. Hipócrates.

    Hipócrates.Nació en la isla griega de Cos, en el mar Egeo, en el año 4,60 A.c. Estudió medicina en Selymbria y sus maestros fueron Gorgias de Leontini y Demócrates. Muere en Tesalia a los 85 años. Fue muy distinguido por Platón y Aristóteles y es considerado universalmente como el Padre de la Medicina.

    Laennec, el famoso clínico francés del siglo XIX, lo consideró como genial por haber descrito tanto la sucusión torácica como la facies de los moribundos: ambas, en su honor, llevan el calificativo de “hipocráticas”. Hipócrates sostenía que la misma naturaleza cura las enfermedades. El “Corpus Hipocraticum”, que llegó hasta el Renacimiento por vía de los romanos y de los árabes, compendia el conocimiento médico de toda la antigüedad.

    El Juramento Hipocrático es su gran legado para los médicos: todos nosotros hemos prometido cumplirlo fielmente...

  5. The behaviour and welfare of sows and piglets in farrowing crates or lactation pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C; Verdon, M; Cronin, G M; Hemsworth, P H

    2017-07-01

    Temporary confinement during parturition and early postpartum may provide an intermediary step preceding loose housing that offers improvement in sow and piglet welfare. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the implications of replacing farrowing crates (FCs) with an alternative housing system from 3 days postpartum until weaning. In each experiment sows farrowed in FCs and were randomly allocated at day 3 of lactation to either a FC or a pen with increased floor space (lactation pen (LP)) until weaning. In experiment 1, piglet growth and sow and piglet skin injuries were recorded for 32 sows and 128 focal piglets in these litters. Behaviour around nursing and piglet behavioural time budgets were also recorded for 24 of these litters (96 focal piglets for time budgets). In experiment 2, measures of skin injury and behavioural time budgets were conducted on 28 sows and 112 focal piglets. The behavioural response of sows to piglet vocalisation (maternal responsiveness test (MRT)) was also assessed. In experiment 3, piglet mortality from day 3 of lactation until weaning was recorded in 672 litters over 12 months. While housing did not affect piglet weight gain in experiment 1, or piglet skin injuries in experiments 1 or 2, sows in both experiments sustained more injuries in LP than FC (experiment 1, 2.9 v. 1.4; experiment 2, 2.5 v. 0.8 lesions/sow; P0.05). Thus, housing sows and litters in LP from day 3 of lactation minimises piglet mortality while improving maternal behaviour in sows and social behaviour in piglets.

  6. A comparative analysis of lumbar spine mechanics during barbell- and crate-lifting: implications for occupational lifting task assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Jackie D; Carnegie, Danielle R; Welsh, Timothy N; Beach, Tyson A C

    2018-03-19

    To compare the effects of object handled and handgrip used on lumbar spine motion and loading during occupational lifting task simulations. Eight male and eight female volunteers performed barbell and crate lifts with a pronated (barbell) and a neutral (crate) handgrip. The mass of barbells/crates lifted was identical across the objects and fixed at 11.6 and 9.3 kg for men and women, respectively. The initial heights of barbells/crates were individualized to mid-shank level. Body segment kinematics and foot-ground reaction kinetics were collected, and then input into an electromyography-assisted dynamic biomechanical model to quantify lumbar spine motion and loading. Lumbar compression and net lumbosacral moment magnitudes were 416 N and 17 Nm lower when lifting a barbell than when lifting a crate (p  0.392) or flexion/extension velocities (p > 0.085). Crate- and barbell-lifting tasks can be used interchangeably if assessing lifting mechanics based on peak spine motion variables. If assessments are based on the spine loading responses to task demands, however, then crate- and barbell-lifting tasks cannot be used interchangeably.

  7. Language style matching and police interrogation outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, Beth H.; Taylor, Paul J; Snook, Brent; Conchie, Stacey M.; Bennell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the coordination of interrogator and suspects’ verbal behavior in interrogations. Sixty-four police interrogations were examined at the aggregate and utterance level using a measure of verbal mimicry known as Language Style Matching. Analyses revealed an interaction between

  8. 8 CFR 343b.3 - Interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interrogation. 343b.3 Section 343b.3 Aliens... NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.3 Interrogation. When Form N-565 presents a prima facie... issuance of the certificate. Interrogation of the applicant shall be conducted before the application is...

  9. BST-PINK PANTHER. An intelligent CAMAC crate controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troester, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A technical and functional description of the PINK system for intelligent, distributed data acquisition, data formatting, and data reduction is presented. The system has been developed to bypass some of the constraints of CAMAC when collecting data with the high-resolution π 0 spectrometers of the Basel-Stockholm-Thessaloniki (BST) Collaboration at CERN. (orig.)

  10. Autonomous controller (JCAM 10) for CAMAC crate with 8080 (INTEL) microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallice, P.; Mathis, M.

    1975-01-01

    The CAMAC crate autonomous controller JCAM-10 is designed around an INTEL 8080 microprocessor in association with a 5K RAM and 4K REPROM memory. The concept of the module is described, in which data transfers between CAMAC modules and the memory are optimised from software point of view as well as from execution time. In fact, the JCAM-10 is a microcomputer with a set of 1000 peripheral units represented by the CAMAC modules commercially available

  11. Fiber-MZI-based FBG sensor interrogation: comparative study with a CCD spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bhargab; Chandra, Vikash

    2016-10-10

    We present an experimental comparative study of the two most commonly used fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation techniques: a charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometer and a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (F-MZI). Although the interferometric interrogation technique is historically known to offer the highest sensitivity measurements, very little information exists regarding how it compares with the current commercially available spectral-characteristics-based interrogation systems. It is experimentally established here that the performance of a modern-day CCD spectrometer interrogator is very close to a F-MZI interrogator with the capability of measuring Bragg wavelength shifts with sub-picometer-level accuracy. The results presented in this research study can further be used as a guideline for choosing between the two FBG sensor interrogator types for small-amplitude dynamic perturbation measurements down to nano-level strain.

  12. Use of Insulated Covers over Product Crates to Reduce Losses in Amaranth during Shipping Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizanne Wheeler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amaranth is a leafy vegetable with high nutrient content which is sensitive to temperature and low relative humidity. Delays in shipment to market may result in significant losses, therefore improved packaging to minimize mechanical damage and reduce moisture loss are desirable. Amaranth was stored in three types of consumer packages, bunches, clamshells and thin plastic bags, within vented plastic crates. Pallet loads were either covered with insulated material or not, while awaiting transportation. Results indicated covering pallets improved the color and overall quality while reducing weight loss and wilting. Covered crates had a “good” (7.6/9.0 overall quality while uncovered averaged 5.5/9.0 or “moderate” quality. There were significant differences in consumer package type, with the bagged amaranth having almost “excellent” quality (8.8/9.0 compared to “good-fair” quality in clamshells (6.2/9.0 and “poor-fair” quality in the control bunches (4.7/9.0. Amaranth stored in thin plastic bags was better in quality and color, with less weight loss and wilting, however, temperatures at the end of six hours of storage were higher and this may lead to microbial growth. Storage of amaranth in thin bags or clamshell packages, within plastic crates covered with insulated pallet covers while awaiting shipping resulted in improved overall quality and color.

  13. Nest building and posture changes and activity budget of gilts housed in pens and crates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Inger Lise; Vasdal, Guro; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2014-01-01

    was born until 8 h after the birth of the first piglet. There was no significant effect of the sows breeding value on any of the sow behaviours. Sows housed in pens spent significantly more time nest building than crated sows from 4 to 12 h prepartum (P ...The aim of the present work was to study nest building, posture changes and the overall activity budget of gilts in pens vs. crates. Twenty-three HB gilts (high piglet survival day 5) and 21 LB gilts (low piglet survival day 5) were video recorded from day 110 in pregnancy to four days after...... farrowing in either a farrowing pen or farrowing crate. The gilts were provided with 2 kg of chopped straw daily from day 113 of pregnancy until farrowing in both environments. Nest building and other activity measures of the sows were analysed using continuous sampling the last 12 h before the first piglet...

  14. Development of fiber optic sensing interrogators for launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, M. P.; Buck, T. C.; Eder, B.; Reutlinger, A.; McKenzie, I.

    2017-11-01

    We present our work about the development of two complementary interrogation schemes based on fiber optic sensing for the use of structural and thermal monitoring of Ariane launchers. The advantages of fiber optic sensing in particular light-weight, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and the possibility of sensor distribution along optical fibers are driving factors for utilization of this technology in space crafts [1]. The edge-filter (EF) and scanning-laser (SL) interrogators for determination of the mean wavelength of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have been implemented as two separate demonstrators. Within this paper we describe the functional principles of both interrogators. Furthermore we present test results where the developed systems have been used for readout of FBG sensors which are implemented in an Ariane structural demonstrator during thermal, thermal-vacuum and vibration tests. Functionality of both systems is demonstrated and their potential for further development towards space qualified systems is shown. Since the performance characteristics of the two systems are different from each other, they are dedicated for different sensing applications on a launcher. The EF sensor interrogator provides a sample rate of 20 kHz at a number of 4 connected sensors and supports parallel readout and aliasing free operation. Therefore it is best suited for high priority measurement. Structural monitoring which requires the acquisition of real time sensor information in order to support control of the launcher is one operation area for a future EF system. The SL interrogator provides an overall measurement rate of 1 kHz at a number of 24 connected sensors distributed on three sensor channels. It can be adapted to any sensors that have design wavelengths lying within the output spectrum of the laser diode. Furthermore the number of overall sensors to be read out with this system can be adapted easily. Thermal mapping of satellite panels is one possible

  15. Data acquisition system for Experiment E866 at the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashktorab, K.; LeVine, M.J.; Scheetz, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Experiment E866 consists of two spectrometers and related detectors for investigations of collisions of relativistic beams of Au ions with fixed targets at the Brookhaven AGS. The data acquisition system, consisting of 11 CPUs in a single VME crate, gathers data from 8 Camac crates and 6 Fastbus crates

  16. The effect of crate height on the behavior of female turkeys during commercial pre-slaughter transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Guido; Capello, Katia; Stefani, Anna Lisa; Tripepi, Luca; Garbo, Angelica; Speri, Marina; Trolese, Matteo; Brichese, Michele; Marangon, Stefano; Bonfanti, Lebana

    2017-10-01

    Limited information is available on suitable height of transport crates for turkeys. We compared behaviors and physiological indicators of four groups of 10 female turkeys each confined in either conventional (38.5 cm height) or experimental (77 cm height) crates during six commercial pre-slaughter transportations for 86 km (76 ± 4 min) along two tracts with one-lane streets, crossroads, bends, roundabouts (S1 and S2) and a highway tract (H) between S1 and S2. Only 36% of birds in the higher crates maintained a standing position. In conventional versus experimental crates, the frequency of rising attempts was five/bird/hour versus less than one/bird/hour, while wing flapping was seven/bird/hour versus 20/bird/hour, and balance loss was one versus four/bird/hour. The behaviors of both groups differed significantly according to the route tract, with a lower frequency of stress-related behaviors at H. No scratches, fractures or hematomas were detected in any birds after transportation. Crate height had no significant effect on hemato-biochemical markers. These results suggest that crates enabling a standing position may increase potentially dangerous behaviors. Moreover, busy and curvy routes should be avoided, as they may contribute to increasing the frequency of stress-related behaviors. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Innocence and resisting confession during interrogation: effects on physiologic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyll, Max; Madon, Stephanie; Yang, Yueran; Lannin, Daniel G; Scherr, Kyle; Greathouse, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    Innocent suspects may not adequately protect themselves during interrogation because they fail to fully appreciate the danger of the situation. This experiment tested whether innocent suspects experience less stress during interrogation than guilty suspects, and whether refusing to confess expends physiologic resources. After experimentally manipulating innocence and guilt, 132 participants were accused and interrogated for misconduct, and then pressured to confess. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and preejection period (PEP) responses quantified stress reactions. As hypothesized, the innocent evidenced smaller stress responses to interrogation for SBP, DBP, HR, and RSA than did the guilty. Furthermore, innocents who refused to confess exhibited greater sympathetic nervous system activation, as evidenced by shorter PEPs, than did innocent or guilty confessors. These findings suggest that innocent suspects underestimate the threat of interrogation and that resisting pressures to confess can diminish suspects' physiologic resources and lead to false confessions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Photon interrogation annual report for FY-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieschmidt, E.B.; Tsang, F.Y.; Lawrence, R.S.; Vegors, S.H. Jr.

    1980-12-01

    The Photon Interrogation Technique is being developed for the assay of transuranic materials. A description of source and detector geometry, die-away times and photon flux measurements is given. Considerable effort during FY-1980 was devoted to collimator construction and shielding materials and configurations. Boric acid was found to be a very efficient shielding material for this application. Descriptions and results of these efforts are presented. Results of photon flux determinations, system response to source position and their effects on accuracy are discussed. Changes in the detector system produced a considerable efficiency increase and instrumentation changes brought improved performance. The instrument system with additions can obtain neutron spectral information. A schedule for further development of the system is presented

  19. Basic concepts underlying fast-neutron-based contraband interrogation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.L.; Guenther, P.T.; Smith, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    All accelerator-based fast-neutron contraband interrogation systems have many closely interrelated subsystems, whose performance parameters will be critically interdependent. For optimal overall performance, a systems analysis design approach is required. This paper provides a general overview of the interrelationships and the tradeoffs to be considered for optimization of nonaccelerator subsystems

  20. AWG Filter for Wavelength Interrogator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Richard J. (Inventor); Costa, Joannes M. (Inventor); Faridian, Fereydoun (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Sotoudeh, Vahid (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A wavelength interrogator is coupled to a circulator which couples optical energy from a broadband source to an optical fiber having a plurality of sensors, each sensor reflecting optical energy at a unique wavelength and directing the reflected optical energy to an AWG. The AWG has a detector coupled to each output, and the reflected optical energy from each grating is coupled to the skirt edge response of the AWG such that the adjacent channel responses form a complementary pair response. The complementary pair response is used to convert an AWG skirt response to a wavelength.

  1. Active interrogation using energetic protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Christopher L.; Chung, Kiwhan; Greene, Steven J.; Hogan, Gary E.; Makela, Mark; Mariam, Fesseha; Milner, Edward C.; Murray, Matthew; Saunders, Alexander; Spaulding, Randy; Wang, Zhehui; Waters, Laurie; Wysocki, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Energetic proton beams provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and they can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections and neutron yields for delayed neutrons and gamma rays using 800 MeV and 4 GeV proton beams with a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Measurements of neutron energies yield suggest a signature unique to fissile material. Results are presented in this paper.

  2. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  3. The Sociocultural Psychology as a Postformal Theory of Academic Achievement: Interrogating Formal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Chetan

    2013-01-01

    The present paper interrogates the dominance of formal education. As formal education system relies on ability based academic achievement as a goal, exploring post-formal approaches, such as sociocultural notion of academic achievement is the hallmark of present paper. An attempt is made to interrogate the existing cultural dominance in formal…

  4. On velocity space interrogation regions of fast-ion collective Thomson scattering at ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    the collective scattering in well-defined regions in velocity space, here dubbed interrogation regions. Since the CTS instrument measures entire spectra of scattered radiation, many different interrogation regions are probed simultaneously. We here give analytic expressions for weight functions describing...... the interrogation regions, and we show typical interrogation regions of the proposed ITER CTS system. The backscattering system with receivers on the low-field side is sensitive to fast ions with pitch |p| = |v/v| ... scattering system with receivers on the high-field side would be sensitive to co- and counter-passing fast ions in narrow interrogation regions with pitch |p| > 0.6–0.8. Additionally, we use weight functions to reconstruct 2D fast-ion distribution functions, given two projected 1D velocity distribution...

  5. Bright Lights and Questions: Using Mutual Interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Aishikin; Alangui, Willy; Barton, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Mutual Interrogation is a research methodology for ethnomathematics proposed by Alangui in 2006 in an attempt to avoid the potential inequality set up when a restricted cultural practice is viewed through the lens of the near-universal and highly developed research domain of mathematics. Using three significant examples of mutual interrogation in…

  6. Interrogative constructions in Danish Sign Language (DSL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Julie

    This study investigates the primary types of interrogative constructions: Polar and content questions. The aim is to identify how and in which types of interrogative constructions the non-manual patterns described by Engberg-Pedersen (1993, 1998)are used. Furthermore, the aim is to identify...

  7. Wireless interrogation of passive antenna sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, S; Huang, H

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we discovered that the resonant frequency of a microstrip patch antenna is sensitive to mechanical strains or crack presence in the ground plane. Based on this principle, antenna sensors have been demonstrated to measure strain and detect crack in metallic structures. This paper presents a wireless method to remotely interrogate a dual-frequency antenna sensor. An interrogation horn antenna was used to irradiate the antenna sensor with a linear chirp microwave signal. By implementing a light-activated switch at the sensor node and performing signal processing of the backscattered signals, the resonant frequencies of the antenna sensor along both polarizations can be measured remotely. Since the antenna sensor does not need a local power source and can be interrogated wirelessly, electric wiring can be eliminated. The sensor implementation, the signal processing and the experimental setup that validate the remote interrogation of the antenna sensor are presented. A power budget model has also been established to estimate the maximum interrogation range

  8. Steering and timing system solutions at the COSY accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongers, N.; Hacker, U.; Henn, K.; Simon, M.; Vashegyi, T.; Weinert, A.

    1994-01-01

    Two components of the COSY control system are discussed. One is the system for control of the correction magnet power converters and the other is the timing system. The power converters are controlled by VME crate systems, each crate being able to control up to four power converters. The timing system consists of a VME timing system transmitter, a transmission network and receivers in the power converter crates. Figures for the resolution required and achieved are given. ((orig.))

  9. Steering and timing system solutions at the COSY accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongers, N [KFA, Juelich (Germany); Hacker, U [KFA, Juelich (Germany); Henn, K [KFA, Juelich (Germany); Simon, M [KFA, Juelich (Germany); Vashegyi, T [KFA, Juelich (Germany); Weinert, A [KFA, Juelich (Germany)

    1994-12-15

    Two components of the COSY control system are discussed. One is the system for control of the correction magnet power converters and the other is the timing system. The power converters are controlled by VME crate systems, each crate being able to control up to four power converters. The timing system consists of a VME timing system transmitter, a transmission network and receivers in the power converter crates. Figures for the resolution required and achieved are given. ((orig.))

  10. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel is...

  11. IGA resistance of TT Alloy 690 and concentration behavior of Broached Egg Crate tube support configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kusakabe, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Arioka, K.; Ochi, T.

    1992-01-01

    In order to improve the reliability of the Steam Generator (SG), TT Alloy 690 and BEC (Broached Egg Crate) type tube support plate has been developed. Some tests are carried out to heighten the reliability for these improvements all the more and the following results are obtained. (1) SERT test (Slow Extension Rate Test) made clear that TT690 has less IGA susceptibility in comparison with MA600. (2) The alkaline susceptibility on the occurrence of IGA/SCC on TT690 and MA600 obtained by SERT corresponds to that obtained by Model Boiler test. (3) By model boiler test, superior concentration behaviors for BEC type tube support plate configuration have been recognized in comparison with Drill type. This result is obtained by the joint research of the five utilities (Kansai Epco, Hokkaido Epco, Shikoku Epco, Kyushu Epco, JAPCO) and MHI

  12. Sobre a presença de Sócrates na psicanálise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Lo Bianco

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Não tendo deixado uma obra escrita, podemos dizer que o pensamento de Sócrates que chega até nós é fundado sobre um ponto básico, central e caro também à experiência psicanalítica: o da presença diante do outro. O artigo examina as características que cercam o exercício do procedimento socrático, ressaltando o impacto que ele tem sobre o interlocutor. Procura, em seguida, tomar a sua riqueza de princípios para ver, com as lentes da própria psicanálise, em que estes oferecem algumas condições de possibilidade para o melhor desenvolvimento de suas formulações.

  13. Catching the Cyber Spy: ARL's Interrogator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Long, Kerry S

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory has designed a network-based intrusion detection framework, Interrogator, which addresses the constantly changing threat environment that Department of Defense networks...

  14. A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO THE PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF THE INVESTIGATOR ON A PERSON BEING INTERROGATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cherevko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is an interaction with a person being interrogated organized by an investigator with the use of his interests, needs and other individual-mental features, his reinforcement, which must be done through secretive, invisible influence in an organized situation encouraging to do deeds desirable for investigation. The object of the research is interrogation as the most psychologized investigative action. The methodological basis of the research is made by the systematic and logical approach aimed at neutralization of watchfulness of the interrogated, penetration into his inner world influencing both rational and irrational spheres of mental make-up, actualization of the unity of understanding and experience. In this research general scientific and specific scientific methods of cognition are used. General scientific methods of the research are represented by systemic structural, comparative, formal and legal, statistical methods. The approach to the psychological impact on a person being interrogated as a systemic phenomenon has enabled to develop a conceptual model presented in the form of a diagram made up of four blocks reflecting emotional background sources of interrogation procedures, the interrogated case, interaction and basic methods of psychological influence, the leading of which is persuasion. Suggestion is purposeful influence on feelings and volitional pressure acts as pressure maintenance, complementary, used depending on the situational behaviour of the interrogated. Methods of implementation of each of these methods of psychological influence are also considered in this article.

  15. Rattling nucleons: New developments in active interrogation of special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runkle, Robert C.; Chichester, David L.; Thompson, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    Active interrogation is a vigorous area of research and development due to its promise of offering detection and characterization capabilities of special nuclear material in environments where passive detection fails. The primary value added by active methods is the capability to penetrate shielding - special nuclear material itself, incidental materials, or intentional shielding - and advocates hope that active interrogation will provide a solution to the problem of detecting shielded uranium, which is at present the greatest obstacle to interdiction efforts. The technique also provides a unique benefit for quantifying nuclear material in high background-radiation environments, an area important for nuclear material safeguards and material accountancy. Progress has been made in the field of active interrogation on several fronts, most notably in the arenas of source development, systems integration, and the integration and exploitation of multiple fission and non-fission signatures. But penetration of interrogating radiation often comes at a cost, not only in terms of finance and dose but also in terms of induced backgrounds, system complexity, and extended measurement times (including set up and acquisition). These costs make the calculus for deciding to implement active interrogation more subtle than may be apparent. The purpose of this review is thus to examine existing interrogation methods, compare and contrast their attributes and limitations, and identify missions where active interrogation may hold the most promise.

  16. Police interrogations through the prism of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Areh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches can be employed for information gathering from human sources, differing in their theoretical basis, goals, realisation, and ethical acceptability. The paper critically presents and compares two prevalent approaches to suspect interrogation used by the police. The older, prevalent interrogation approach focuses on obtaining suspects’ incriminating statements and admissions, which severely elevates the risk of false confessions. Consequently, this interrogation approach is termed accusatorial or coercive since suspects are forced to admit to a crime. The newer interrogation approach is the information-gathering approach, also known as the investigative interview. It focuses on gathering accurate information in order to exclude or accuse a suspect in a criminal investigation. In comparison with coercive interrogation models, the information-gathering approach has a lower probability of false confessions since suspects are exposed to significantly lower levels of psychological pressure. Moreover, it is ethically more acceptable, has scientific grounds, enables the gathering of more accurate information, and has been found to be at least as effective as the coercive approach in criminal investigations. The investigative interview relies mainly on findings from social psychology. An analysis of coercive interrogation models reveals that they have no scientific basis and as such rely mainly on uncorroborated common-sense assumptions from authorities. In developed countries, coercive interrogation models are increasingly being replaced by the information-gathering approach, a trend connected with the enforcement of high human rights standards and a higher awareness of risks associated with coercive interrogation methods by the general public, academia, and professionals alike.

  17. Nondestructive assay of subassemblies of various spent or fresh fuels by active neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, G.L.; Ricker, C.W.; Chiles, M.M.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Slaughter, G.G.

    1979-01-01

    Recent studies show that subassemblies containing various spent fuels could be assayed rapidly and accurately by a nondestructive assay system using active neutron interrogation and prompt-neutron detection. Subassembly penetration is achieved by 24-keV (Sb--Be) interrogation neutrons; the spent-fuel neutron background is overridden by using strong interrogating sources and prompt-neutron signals, and background gammas are absorbed by lead. Experiments have demonstrated the potential for assaying with better than 5% accuracy, three spent plutonium-fueled subassemblies per hour. Calculations, validated by experiments, predict even better performance for fresh or uranium-fueled subassemblies; several performance estimates are given

  18. Design of Interrogation Protocols for Radiation Dose Measurements Using Optically-Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sara A; Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Jawad, Ali H; Boria, Andrew J; Buth, Tobias J; Dawson, Alexander S; Eng, Sheldon C; Frank, Samuel J; Green, Crystal A; Jacobs, Mitchell L; Liu, Kevin; Miklos, Joseph A; Nguyen, Hien; Rafique, Muhammad; Rucinski, Blake D; Smith, Travis; Tan, Yanliang

    2017-03-01

    Optically-stimulated luminescent dosimeters are capable of being interrogated multiple times post-irradiation. Each interrogation removes a fraction of the signal stored within the optically-stimulated luminescent dosimeter. This signal loss must be corrected to avoid systematic errors in estimating the average signal of a series of optically-stimulated luminescent dosimeter interrogations and requires a minimum number of consecutive readings to determine an average signal that is within a desired accuracy of the true signal with a desired statistical confidence. This paper establishes a technical basis for determining the required number of readings for a particular application of these dosimeters when using certain OSL dosimetry systems.

  19. Development of active neutron interrogation techniques at Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, B.H.; Chard, P.M.J.; Packer, T.W.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Syme, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    Active neutron interrogation techniques capable of measuring the fissile content of a range of waste drum sizes and contents have been developed at Harwell. This paper describes measurements which have been made to investigate the behaviour of these assay systems for the difficult case of concreted waste in a heterogeneous matrix. The drums have been measured using a Cf shuffler and a differential die-away system, with supporting information obtained from a segmented gamma-scanner. Good correspondence has been observed between the two different neutron interrogation techniques. It was concluded that the measurement of highly heterogeneous wastes is likely to be more effective if calibration can be undertaken with representative artificial matrices. Further measurement and analysis remains to be undertaken

  20. Monte Carlo Simulation for LINAC Standoff Interrogation of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Shaun D.; Flaska, Marek; Miller, Thomas Martin; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2007-01-01

    The development of new techniques for the interrogation of shielded nuclear materials relies on the use of Monte Carlo codes to accurately simulate the entire system, including the interrogation source, the fissile target and the detection environment. The objective of this modeling effort is to develop analysis tools and methods-based on a relevant scenario-which may be applied to the design of future systems for active interrogation at a standoff. For the specific scenario considered here, the analysis will focus on providing the information needed to determine the type and optimum position of the detectors. This report describes the results of simulations for a detection system employing gamma rays to interrogate fissile and nonfissile targets. The simulations were performed using specialized versions of the codes MCNPX and MCNP-PoliMi. Both prompt neutron and gamma ray and delayed neutron fluxes have been mapped in three dimensions. The time dependence of the prompt neutrons in the system has also been characterized For this particular scenario, the flux maps generated with the Monte Carlo model indicate that the detectors should be placed approximately 50 cm behind the exit of the accelerator, 40 cm away from the vehicle, and 150 cm above the ground. This position minimizes the number of neutrons coming from the accelerator structure and also receives the maximum flux of prompt neutrons coming from the source. The lead shielding around the accelerator minimizes the gamma-ray background from the accelerator in this area. The number of delayed neutrons emitted from the target is approximately seven orders of magnitude less than the prompt neutrons emitted from the system. Therefore, in order to possibly detect the delayed neutrons, the detectors should be active only after all prompt neutrons have scattered out of the system. Preliminary results have shown this time to be greater than 5 ?s after the accelerator pulse. This type of system is illustrative of a

  1. Methow and Columbia Rivers studies: summary of data collection, comparison of database structure and habitat protocols, and impact of additional PIT tag interrogation systems to survival estimates, 2008-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kyle D.; Tibbits, Wesley T.; Watson, Grace A.; Newsom, Michael A.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    designed to show some initial analysis and to disseminate summary information that could potentially be used in ongoing modeling efforts by USGS, Reclamation, and University of Idaho. The second chapter documents the database of fish and habitat data collected by USGS from 2004 through 2012 and compares USGS habitat protocols to the Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program (CHaMP) protocol. The third chapter is a survival analysis of fish moving through Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag interrogation systems in the Methow and Columbia Rivers. It examines the effects of adding PIT tags and/or PIT tag interrogation systems on survival estimates of juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon.

  2. The phase interrogation method for optical fiber sensor by analyzing the fork interference pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Riqing; Qiu, Liqiang; Hu, Haifeng; Meng, Lu; Zhang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    The phase interrogation method for optical fiber sensor is proposed based on the fork interference pattern between the orbital angular momentum beam and plane wave. The variation of interference pattern with phase difference between the two light beams is investigated to realize the phase interrogation. By employing principal component analysis method, the features of the interference pattern can be extracted. Moreover, the experimental system is designed to verify the theoretical analysis, as well as feasibility of phase interrogation. In this work, the Mach-Zehnder interferometer was employed to convert the strain applied on sensing fiber to the phase difference between the reference and measuring paths. This interrogation method is also applicable for the measurements of other physical parameters, which can produce the phase delay in optical fiber. The performance of the system can be further improved by employing highlysensitive materials and fiber structures.

  3. Soil-embedded optical fiber sensing cable interrogated by Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry (B-OTDR) and optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) for embedded cavity detection and sinkhole warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanticq, V; Bourgeois, E; Delepine-Lesoille, S; Magnien, P; Dieleman, L; Vinceslas, G; Sang, A

    2009-01-01

    A soil-embedded optical fiber sensing cable is evaluated for an embedded cavity detection and sinkhole warning system in railway tunnels. Tests were performed on a decametric structure equipped with an embedded 110 m long fiber optic cable. Both Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry (B-OTDR) and optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) sensing techniques were used for cable interrogation, yielding results that were in good qualitative agreement with finite-element calculations. Theoretical and experimental comparison enabled physical interpretation of the influence of ground properties, and the analysis of embedded cavity size and position. A 5 mm embedded cavity located 2 m away from the sensing cable was detected. The commercially available sensing cable remained intact after soil collapse. Specificities of each technique are analyzed in view of the application requirements. For tunnel monitoring, the OFDR technique was determined to be more viable than the B-OTDR due to higher spatial resolution, resulting in better detection and size determination of the embedded cavities. Conclusions of this investigation gave outlines for future field use of distributed strain-sensing methods under railways and more precisely enabled designing a warning system suited to the Ebersviller tunnel specificities

  4. The development of enabling technologies for producing active interrogation beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Thomas J T; Morgado, Richard E; Wang, Tai-Sen F; Vodolaga, B; Terekhin, V; Onischenko, L M; Vorozhtsov, S B; Samsonov, E V; Vorozhtsov, A S; Alenitsky, Yu G; Perpelkin, E E; Glazov, A A; Novikov, D L; Parkhomchuk, V; Reva, V; Vostrikov, V; Mashinin, V A; Fedotov, S N; Minayev, S A

    2010-10-01

    A U.S./Russian collaboration of accelerator scientists was directed to the development of high averaged-current (∼1 mA) and high-quality (emittance ∼15 πmm mrad; energy spread ∼0.1%) 1.75 MeV proton beams to produce active interrogation beams that could be applied to counterterrorism. Several accelerator technologies were investigated. These included an electrostatic tandem accelerator of novel design, a compact cyclotron, and a storage ring with energy compensation and electron cooling. Production targets capable of withstanding the beam power levels were designed, fabricated, and tested. The cyclotron/storage-ring system was theoretically studied and computationally designed, and the electrostatic vacuum tandem accelerator at BINP was demonstrated for its potential in active interrogation of explosives and special nuclear materials.

  5. Battery-less wireless interrogation of microstrip patch antenna for strain sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X; Huang, H

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a battery-less wireless interrogation system that can measure the resonant frequency of a microstrip patch antenna with a fine resolution. Since the antenna resonant frequency is sensitive to strain-induced deformations, wireless interrogation of the antenna sensor for strain measurement was demonstrated. By implementing a microwatt impedance switching circuit at the sensor node, the antenna backscattering is amplitude modulated at the sensor node so that it can be separated from the structural backscattering at the interrogator. The sensor node can be powered by a small photocell and thus achieve battery-less operation. The operating principle of the wireless interrogation system is first described, followed by the implementation and characterization of the wireless interrogation system. The antenna resonant frequency shifts were correlated to the applied strains through a static tensile experiment. An excellent agreement between the experimental results and the analytical prediction was obtained. A power transmission model was established and validated with experimental measurements. Based on this power transmission model, we estimated that the maximum interrogation distance of the wireless strain measurement system is 26 m. (paper)

  6. Low-Cost Interrogation Technique for Dynamic Measurements with FBG-Based Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Camilo A R; Leitão, Cátia; Marques, Carlos A; Domingues, M Fátima; Alberto, Nélia; Pontes, Maria José; Frizera, Anselmo; Ribeiro, Moisés R N; André, Paulo S B; Antunes, Paulo F C

    2017-10-23

    Fiber Bragg gratings are widely used optical fiber sensors for measuring temperature and/or mechanical strain. Nevertheless, the high cost of the interrogation systems is the most important drawback for their large commercial application. In this work, an in-line Fabry-Perot interferometer based edge filter is explored in the interrogation of fiber Bragg grating dynamic measurements up to 5 kHz. Two devices an accelerometer and an arterial pulse wave probe were interrogated with the developed approach and the results were compared with a commercial interrogation monitor. The data obtained with the edge filter are in agreement with the commercial device, with a maximum RMSE of 0.05 being able to meet the requirements of the measurements. Resolutions of 3.6 pm and 2.4 pm were obtained, using the optical accelerometer and the arterial pulse wave probe, respectively.

  7. An integrated computer control system for the ANU linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, P. M.; Foote, G. S.

    1996-02-01

    One facet of the installation of the superconducting linac at the ANU is the need for computer control of a variety of systems, such as beam transport, resonator RF, cryogenics and others. To accommodate this, a number of control interfaces (for example, analogue signals and RS232 serial lines) must be employed. Ideally, all of the systems should be able to be controlled from a central location, remote from the actual devices. To this end a system based around VAX computers and VME crates has been designed and is currently being developed and implemented. A VAXstation is used to issue control messages and perform high-level functions, while VME crates containing appropriate modules (primarily DACs, ADCs and digital I/O boards) control the devices. The controllers in the VME crates are AEON rtVAX modules running a real-time operating system. Communication with the VAXstation is via DECnet, on a private ethernet to allow communication rates unaffected by unrelated network activity and potentially increasing the security of the system by providing a possible network isolation point. Also on this ethernet are a number of terminal servers to control RS232 devices. A central database contains all device control and monitoring parameters. The main control process running on the VAXstation is responsible for maintaining the current values of the parameters in the database and for dispatching control messages to the appropriate VME crate or RS232 serial line. Separate graphical interface processes allow the operator to interact with the control process, communicating through shared memory. Many graphics processes can be active simultaneously, displaying either on a single or on multiple terminals. Software running on the rtVAX controllers handles the low-level device-specific control by translating messages from the main control process to VME commands which set hardware outputs on VME modules. Similarly, requests for the value of a parameter result in the rtVAX program

  8. Firmware development and testing of the ATLAS IBL Back-Of-Crate card

    CERN Document Server

    Stramaglia, ME; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four big LHC experiments and currently its Pixel-Detector is being upgraded with a new innermost 4th layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The upgrade will result in better tracking efficiency and compensate radiation damages of the Pixel-Detector. Newly developed front-end electronics and the higher than originally planned LHC luminosity will require a complete re-design of the Off-Detector-Electronics consisting of the Back-Of-Crate card (BOC) and the Read-Out-Driver (ROD). The main purpose of the BOC card is the distribution of the LHC clock to all Pixel-Detector components as well as interfacing the detector and the higher-level-readout optically. It is equipped with three Xilinx Spartan-6 FPGAs, one BOC Control FPGA (BCF) and two BOC Main FPGAs (BMF). The BMF are responsible for the signal processing of all incoming and outgoing data. The data-path to the detector is running a 40 MHz bi-phase-mark encoded stream. This stream is delayed by a fine delay block using Spartan-6 IODELAY prim...

  9. Firmware development and testing of the ATLAS IBL Back Of Crate card

    CERN Document Server

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four big LHC experiments and currently its Pixel Detector was upgraded with a new innermost 4th layer: the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The upgrade will result in better tracking efficiency and compensate radiation damages of the Pixel-Detector. Newly developed front-end electronics and the higher than originally planned LHC luminosity required a complete re-design of the Off Detector Electronics consisting of the Back Of Crate card (BOC) and the Read Out Driver (ROD). The main purpose of the BOC card is the distribution of the LHC clock to all Pixel Detector components as well as interfacing the detector and the higher level readout optically. The data-path to the detector is running a 40 MHz bi phase mark (BPM) encoded stream. The 160 MHz 8b10b encoded data path from the detector is phase and word aligned in the firmware and then forwarded to the ROD after decoding. The ROD will send out the processed data which is then forwarded to the higher level readout by the BOC card. An overview of t...

  10. Neonatal piglet traits of importance for survival in crates and indoor pens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Juul; Berg, Peer; Jørgensen, Grete

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the same piglet traits contributed to the same causes of neonatal piglet mortality in crates (CT) and pens (PN). Gilts originating from 2 distinct genetic groups that differed in breeding value for piglet survival rate at d 5 (SR5......) were used. These were distributed to farrow in either PN or CT as follows: high-SR5 and CT (n = 30); low-SR5 and CT (n = 27); high-SR5 and PN (n = 22); and low-SR5 and PN (n = 24). Data on individual piglets were collected at birth, including interbirth interval; birth order; birth weight; rectal...... with a logit link function. No significant effect (NS) of housing was observed on the odds of a piglet being stillborn (F1,73 = 0.1, NS), being crushed (F1,53 = 1.4, NS), or dying of starvation (F1,53 = 0.3, NS). No significant differences were observed between the 2 genetic groups for any category...

  11. Effect of radiant heat at the birth site in farrowing crates on hypothermia and behaviour in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-01-01

    It has been documented that floor heating of the farrowing area in loose housed sows improves survival of piglets significantly. However, today, the majority of farrowing pens are designed with crating of sows and slatted floor at the birth site. The aim of this study was to investigate whether...... providing radiant heat at the birth site to new-born piglets in pens with crated sows reduced hypothermia, time to first milk intake and growth of the piglets during the 1st week. Second parity Danish Landrace×Yorkshire sows (n=36) were randomly divided into two groups: Control (CG) and heat (HG......). In the area behind the sow (zone 1), two radiant heat panels were mounted above the slatted floor in the HG. The farrowings were attended, and the heaters were turned on at birth of first piglet and turned off 12 h after. Birth time, time to leave zone 1, time to first contact with udder and time to first...

  12. A high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system for the ex vivo measurement of mechanical properties of crystalline lenses with laser-induced microbubbles interrogated by acoustic radiation force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sangpil; Emelianov, Stanislav; Aglyamov, Salavat; Karpiouk, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    A high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system for an ex vivo measurement of mechanical properties of an animal crystalline lens was developed and validated. We measured the bulk displacement of laser-induced microbubbles created at different positions within the lens using nanosecond laser pulses. An impulsive acoustic radiation force was applied to the microbubble, and spatio-temporal measurements of the microbubble displacement were assessed using a custom-made high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system consisting of two 25 MHz focused ultrasound transducers. One of these transducers was used to emit a train of ultrasound pulses and another transducer was used to receive the ultrasound echoes reflected from the microbubble. The developed system was operating at 1 MHz pulse repetition frequency. Based on the measured motion of the microbubble, Young’s moduli of surrounding tissue were reconstructed and the values were compared with those measured using the indentation test. Measured values of Young’s moduli of four bovine lenses ranged from 2.6 ± 0.1 to 26 ± 1.4 kPa, and there was good agreement between the two methods. Therefore, our studies, utilizing the high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system, suggest that the developed approach can be used to assess the mechanical properties of ex vivo crystalline lenses. Furthermore, the potential of the presented approach for in vivo measurements is discussed. (paper)

  13. Interrogative Suggestibility in an Adolescent Forensic Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-five juvenile offenders in residential care completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and their scores were matched for IQ and memory with those of 60 adult offenders. The juveniles gave in significantly more to interrogative pressure through negative feedback but were no more yielding to leading questions than adults. (JPS)

  14. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  15. Micro elements for interrogating magnetoelastic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Cai; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen; Mathison, Leslie C.; Chin, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    and length. Planar structures of straight-line and rectangular spiral coil are designed, fabricated and tested to interrogate the resonant frequency of a magnetoelastic sensor. A sensor of 4 mm length is measured to have a resonant frequency of 551 kHz in air

  16. Rheo: Japanese Sound Art Interrogating Digital Mediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandsø, Anette

    2014-01-01

    THe article asks in what way the Japanese sound artist Ryoichi Kurokawa's audiovisual installation Rheo 5 Horisonz (2010) is 'digital'. Using Professor Lars Elleströms concept of 'mediality, the main claim in this article is that Rheo no only uses digital tehcnology, but also interrogates digital...

  17. Adaptive interrogation for 3D-PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novara, Matteo; Scarano, Fulvio; Ianiro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    A method to adapt the shape and orientation of interrogation volumes for 3D-PIV motion analysis is introduced, aimed to increase the local spatial resolution. The main application of this approach is the detailed analysis of complex 3D and vortex-dominated flows that exhibit high vorticity in confined regions like shear layers and vortex filaments. The adaptive criterion is based on the analysis of the components of the local velocity gradient tensor, which returns the level of anisotropy of velocity spatial fluctuations. The principle to increase the local spatial resolution is based on the deformation of spherical isotropic interrogation regions, obtained by means of Gaussian weighting, into ellipsoids, with free choice of the principal axes and their directions. The interrogation region is contracted in the direction of the maximum velocity variation and elongated in the minimum one in order to maintain a constant interrogation volume. The adaptivity technique for three-dimensional PIV data takes advantage of the 3D topology of the flow, allowing increasing the spatial resolution not only in the case of shear layers, but also for vortex filaments, which is not possible for two-dimensional measurement in the plane normal to the vortex axis. The definition of the ellipsoidal interrogation region semi-axes is based on the singular values and singular directions of the local velocity gradient tensor as obtained by the singular values decomposition technique (SVD). The working principle is verified making use of numerical simulations of a shear layer and of a vortex filament. The application of the technique to data from a Tomo-PIV experiment conducted on a round jet, shows that the resolution of the shear layer at the jet exit can be considerably improved and an increase of about 25% in the vorticity peak is attained when the adaptive approach is applied. On the other hand, the peak vorticity description in the core of vortex rings is only slightly improved with

  18. Novel applications of fast neutron interrogation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1994-01-01

    The development of non-intrusive inspection methods for contraband consisting primarily of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen requires the use of fast neutrons. While most elements can be sufficiently well detected by the thermal neutron capture process, some important ones, e.g., carbon and in particular oxygen, cannot be detected by this process. Fortunately, fast neutrons, with energies above the threshold for inelastic scattering, stimulate relatively strong and specific gamma ray lines from these elements. The main lines are: 6.13 for O, 4.43 for C, and 5.11, 2.31 and 1.64 MeV for N. Accelerator-generated neutrons in the energy range of 7 to 15 MeV are being considered as interrogating radiations in a variety of non-intrusive inspection systems for contraband, from explosives to drugs and from coal to smuggled, dutiable goods. In some applications, mostly for inspection of small items such as luggage, the decision process involves a rudimentary imaging, akin to emission tomography, to obtain the localized concentration of various elements. This technique is called FNA - Fast Neutron Analysis. While this approach offers improvements over the TNA (Thermal Neutron Analysis), it is not applicable to large objects such as shipping containers and trucks. For these challenging applications, a collimated beam of neutrons is rastered along the height of the moving object. In addition, the neutrons are generated in very narrow nanosecond pulses. The point of their interaction inside the object is determined by the time of flight (TOF) method, that is measuring the time elapsed from the neutron generation to the time of detection of the stimulated gamma rays. This technique, called PFNA (Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis), thus directly provides the elemental, and by inference, the chemical composition of the material at every volume element (voxel) of the object. The various neutron-based techniques are briefly described below. ((orig.))

  19. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairrow, Nannette Lea

    Safeguarding special nuclear material (SNM) in the Department of Energy Complex is vital to the national security of the United States. Active and passive nondestructive assays are used to confirm the presence of SNM in various configurations ranging from waste to nuclear weapons. Confirmation measurements for nuclear weapons are more challenging because the design complicates the detection of a distinct signal for highly enriched uranium. The emphasis of this dissertation was to investigate a new nondestructive assay technique that provides an independent and distinct signal to confirm the presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU). Once completed and tested this assay method could be applied to confirmation measurements of nuclear weapons. The new system uses a 14-MeV neutron source for interrogation and records the arrival time of neutrons between the pulses with a high efficiency detection system. The data is then analyzed by the Feynman reduced variance method. The analysis determined the amount of correlation in the data and provided a unique signature of correlated fission neutrons. Measurements of HEU spheres were conducted at Los Alamos with the new system. Then, Monte Carlo calculations were performed to verify hypothesis made about the behavior of the neutrons in the experiment. Comparisons of calculated counting rates by the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) were made with the experimental data to confirm that the measured response reflected the desired behavior of neutron interactions in the highly enriched uranium. In addition, MCNP calculations of the delayed neutron build-up were compared with the measured data. Based on the results obtained from this dissertation, this measurement method has the potential to be expanded to include mass determinations of highly enriched uranium. Although many safeguards techniques exist for measuring special nuclear material, the number of assays that can be used to confirm HEU in shielded systems is

  20. Notes on SAW Tag Interrogation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of interrogating a single SAW RFID tag with a known ID and known range in the presence of multiple interfering tags under the following assumptions: (1) The RF propagation environment is well approximated as a simple delay channel with geometric power-decay constant alpha >/= 2. (2) The interfering tag IDs are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed random samples from a probability distribution of tag ID waveforms with known second-order properties, and the tag of interest is drawn independently from the same distribution. (3) The ranges of the interfering tags are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed realizations of a random variable rho with a known probability distribution f(sub rho) , and the tag ranges are independent of the tag ID waveforms. In particular, we model the tag waveforms as random impulse responses from a wide-sense-stationary, uncorrelated-scattering (WSSUS) fading channel with known bandwidth and scattering function. A brief discussion of the properties of such channels and the notation used to describe them in this document is given in the Appendix. Under these assumptions, we derive the expression for the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for an arbitrary combination of transmitted interrogation signal and linear receiver filter. Based on this expression, we derive the optimal interrogator configuration (i.e., transmitted signal/receiver filter combination) in the two extreme noise/interference regimes, i.e., noise-limited and interference-limited, under the additional assumption that the coherence bandwidth of the tags is much smaller than the total tag bandwidth. Finally, we evaluate the performance of both optimal interrogators over a broad range of operating scenarios using both numerical simulation based on the assumed model and Monte Carlo simulation based on a small sample of measured tag waveforms. The performance evaluation results not only

  1. Survey of Neutron Generators for Active Interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Calvin Elroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, William L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sundby, Gary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chichester, David L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Johnson, James P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-05-02

    Some of these commercially available generators meet all of the requirements in Table 1, but there are other concerns. Most generators containing SF6 will be required to have the SF6 gas removed for shipping because of DOT regulations. However, Thermo Fisher has a DOT exemption. The P211 and B211 from Thermo Fisher meet the requirements listed in Table 1, but they are old designs and are no longer offered for sale. Also, they require 15 minutes or more of warmup before neutron output is available, and they lack a modern digital control. The nGen-300C from Starfire Industries is interesting because it is a portable system, but it uses the DD reaction for 2.5 MeV neutrons, which are not as penetrating as the 14 MeV neutrons from the DT reaction. The MP 320 from Thermo Fisher is another portable system, but the minimum pulse rate is 250 Hz, which is too fast for measurement of delayed neutrons and re-interrogation by delayed neutrons between pulses. The Genie 16 from Sodern (from France) probably meets the requirements, but the required power is probably too high for battery operation. The generators from Russia and China may be difficult to purchase, and service may not be available. The power required by some of these generators is low enough that batteries can be used. The portable units, nGen-300C and the MP320, could easily be operated with batteries. Other generators with low power requirements, as specified in the above vendors list, could possibly be operated with reason size batteries. The batteries do not need to be internal to the generator, but can be in a separate package. The availability of high capacity lithium batteries with sophisticated safety circuits makes battery operation more possible now than when lead acid batteries were used. The best path forward probably requires working with vendors of the existing systems. If Starfire Industries could be persuaded to put tritium in their nGen-300C generator, possibly in collaboration with a national

  2. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  3. Nuclear materials identification by photon interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, S.A.; Monville, M.; Padovani, E.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a preliminary modification to the Monte Carlo codes MCNP-X and MCNP-PoliMi that is aimed at simulating the neutron and photon field generated by interrogating fissile (and non-fissile) material with a high energy photon source. Photo-atomic and photo-nuclear collisions are modeled, with particular emphasis on the generation of secondary particles that are emitted as a result of these interactions. The simulations can be used to design and analyze measurements that are performed in a wide variety of scenarios. An application of the methodology to the interrogation of packages on a luggage belt conveyor is presented. Preliminary results show that it is possible to detect 5 Kg of highly enriched uranium in a package by measuring the correlation function between 2 detectors. This correlation function is based on the detection of prompt radiation from photonuclear events

  4. Natural syntax : English interrogative main clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Oresnik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural Syntax is a developing deductive theory, a branch of Naturalness Theory. The naturalnessjudgements are couched in naturalness scales, whichfollow from the basic parameters (or «axioms» listed at the beginning of the paper. The predictions of the theory are calculated in deductions, whose chief components are apair of naturalness scales and the rules governing the alignment of corresponding naturalness values. Parallel and chiastic alignments are distinguished, in complementary distribution. Chiastic alignment is mandatory in deductions limited to unnatural environments. The paper deals with English interrogative main clauses. Within these, only the interrogatives containing wh-words exclusively insitu constitute an extremely unnatural environment and require chiastic alignment. Otherwiseparallel alignment is used. Earlier publications on Natural Syntax: Kavcic 2005a,b, Oresnik 1999, 2000a,b, 200la-f   2002, 2003a-c, 2002/03, 2004. This list cites only works written in English.

  5. Wirelessly Interrogated Wear or Temperature Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2010-01-01

    Sensors for monitoring surface wear and/or temperature without need for wire connections have been developed. Excitation and interrogation of these sensors are accomplished by means of a magnetic-field-response recorder. In a sensor of the present type as in the previously reported ones, the capacitance and, thus, the resonance frequency, varies as a known function of the quantity of interest that one seeks to determine. Hence, the resonance frequency is measured and used to calculate the quantity of interest.

  6. Ultrafast Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation for Sensing in Detonation and Shock Wave Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, George; Gilbertson, Steve M

    2017-01-27

    Chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) sensors coupled to high speed interrogation systems are described as robust diagnostic approaches to monitoring shock wave and detonation front propagation tracking events for use in high energy density shock physics applications. Taking advantage of the linear distributed spatial encoding of the spectral band in single-mode CFBGs, embedded fiber systems and associated photonic interrogation methodologies are shown as an effective approach to sensing shock and detonation-driven loading processes along the CFBG length. Two approaches, one that detects spectral changes in the integrated spectrum of the CFBG and another coherent pulse interrogation approach that fully resolves its spectral response, shows that 100-MHz-1-GHz interrogation rates are possible with spatial resolution along the CFBG in the 50 µm to sub-millimeter range depending on the combination of CFBG parameters (i.e., length, chirp rate, spectrum) and interrogator design specifics. Results from several dynamic tests are used to demonstrate the performance of these high speed systems for shock and detonation propagation tracking under strong and weak shock pressure loading: (1) linear detonation front tracking in the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) PBX-9501; (2) tracking of radial decaying shock with crossover to non-destructive CFBG response; (3) shock wave tracking along an aluminum cylinder wall under weak loading accompanied by dynamic strain effects in the CFBG sensor.

  7. Progress in miniaturization of a multichannel optical fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatin, Craig M.; Mahmood, Shah; Mendoza, Edgar; Moslehi, Behzad; Black, Richard; Chau, Kelvin; Oblea, Levy

    2007-07-01

    An effort to develop a miniaturized multichannel optical fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator was initiated in 2006 under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. The goal was to develop an interrogator that would be sufficiently small and light to be incorporated into a health monitoring system for use on tactical missiles. Two companies, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) and Redondo Optics, were funded in Phase I, and this paper describes the prototype interrogators that were developed. The two companies took very different approaches: IFOS focused on developing a unit that would have a high channel count and high resolution, using off-the-shelf components, while Redondo Optics chose to develop a unit that would be very small and lightweight, using custom designed integrated optical chips. It is believed that both approaches will result in interrogators that will be significantly small, lighter, and possibly even more precise than what is currently commercially available. This paper will also briefly describe some of the sensing concepts that may be used to interrogate the health of the solid rocket motors used in many missile systems. The sponsor of this program was NAVAIR PMA 280.

  8. Revenge versus rapport: Interrogation, terrorism, and torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison, Laurence; Alison, Emily

    2017-04-01

    This review begins with the historical context of harsh interrogation methods that have been used repeatedly since the Second World War. This is despite the legal, ethical and moral sanctions against them and the lack of evidence for their efficacy. Revenge-motivated interrogations (Carlsmith & Sood, 2009) regularly occur in high conflict, high uncertainty situations and where there is dehumanization of the enemy. These methods are diametrically opposed to the humanization process required for adopting rapport-based methods-for which there is an increasing corpus of studies evidencing their efficacy. We review this emerging field of study and show how rapport-based methods rely on building alliances and involve a specific set of interpersonal skills on the part of the interrogator. We conclude with 2 key propositions: (a) for psychologists to firmly maintain the Hippocratic Oath of "first do no harm," irrespective of perceived threat and uncertainty, and (b) for wider recognition of the empirical evidence that rapport-based approaches work and revenge tactics do not. Proposition (a) is directly in line with fundamental ethical principles of practice for anyone in a caring profession. Proposition (b) is based on the requirement for psychology to protect and promote human welfare and to base conclusions on objective evidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Quantum prisoners' dilemma under enhanced interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siopsis, George; Balu, Radhakrishnan; Solmeyer, Neal

    2018-06-01

    In the quantum version of prisoners' dilemma, each prisoner is equipped with a single qubit that the interrogator can entangle. We enlarge the available Hilbert space by introducing a third qubit that the interrogator can entangle with the other two. We discuss an enhanced interrogation technique based on tripartite entanglement and analyze Nash equilibria. We show that for tripartite entanglement approaching a W-state, we calculate the Nash equilibria numerically and show that they coincide with the Pareto-optimal choice where both prisoners cooperate. Upon continuous variation between a W-state and a pure bipartite entangled state, the game is shown to have a surprisingly rich structure. The role of bipartite and tripartite entanglement is explored to explain that structure. As an application, we consider an evolutionary game based on our quantum game with a network of agents on a square lattice with periodic boundary conditions and show that the strategy corresponding to Nash equilibrium completely dominates without placing any restrictions on the initial set of strategies.

  10. Active-interrogation measurements of fast neutrons from induced fission in low-enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, J.L.; Marcath, M.J.; Flaska, M.; Pozzi, S.A.; Chichester, D.L.; Tomanin, A.; Peerani, P.

    2014-01-01

    A detection system was designed with MCNPX-PoliMi to measure induced-fission neutrons from U-235 and U-238 using active interrogation. Measurements were then performed with this system at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy on low-enriched uranium samples. Liquid scintillators measured induced fission neutrons to characterize the samples in terms of their uranium mass and enrichment. Results are presented to investigate and support the use of organic liquid scintillators with active interrogation techniques to characterize uranium containing materials. -- Highlights: • We studied low-enriched uranium using active-interrogation experiments including a deuterium–tritium neutron generator and an americium–lithium isotopic neutron source. • Liquid scintillators measured induced-fission neutrons from the active-interrogation methods. • Fast-neutron (DT) and thermal-neutron (Am–Li) interrogation resulted in the measurement of trends in uranium mass and 235 U enrichment respectively. • MCNPX-PoliMi, the Monte Carlo transport code, simulated the measured induced-fission neutron trends in the liquid scintillators

  11. Active-interrogation measurements of fast neutrons from induced fission in low-enriched uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, J.L., E-mail: jldolan@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Marcath, M.J.; Flaska, M.; Pozzi, S.A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Chichester, D.L. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Tomanin, A.; Peerani, P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra (Italy)

    2014-02-21

    A detection system was designed with MCNPX-PoliMi to measure induced-fission neutrons from U-235 and U-238 using active interrogation. Measurements were then performed with this system at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy on low-enriched uranium samples. Liquid scintillators measured induced fission neutrons to characterize the samples in terms of their uranium mass and enrichment. Results are presented to investigate and support the use of organic liquid scintillators with active interrogation techniques to characterize uranium containing materials. -- Highlights: • We studied low-enriched uranium using active-interrogation experiments including a deuterium–tritium neutron generator and an americium–lithium isotopic neutron source. • Liquid scintillators measured induced-fission neutrons from the active-interrogation methods. • Fast-neutron (DT) and thermal-neutron (Am–Li) interrogation resulted in the measurement of trends in uranium mass and {sup 235}U enrichment respectively. • MCNPX-PoliMi, the Monte Carlo transport code, simulated the measured induced-fission neutron trends in the liquid scintillators.

  12. Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected

  13. Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Frederick J.; Caldwell, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected.

  14. A VME based health monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yiming; Wang Chunhong

    2011-01-01

    It introduces a VME based health system for monitoring the working status of VME crates in the BEPCⅡ. It consists of a PC and a VME crate where a CMM (Classic Monitor System) is installed. The CMM module is responsible for collecting data from the power supply and temperature as well as fan speed inside the VME crate and send these data to the PC via the serial port. The author developed EPICS asynchronous driver by using a character-based device protocol StreamDevice. The data is saved into EPICS IOC database in character. Man-machine interface which is designed by BOY displays the running status of the VME crate including the power supply and temperature as well as fan speed. If the value of records display unusual, the color of the value will be changed into red. This can facilitate the maintenance of the VME crates. (authors)

  15. A working, VME-based, 106MHz FADC data acquisition system for the tracking detectors at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angstadt, R.G.; Chase, B.E.; Fellenz, B.J.; Johnson, M.E.; Martin, M.I.; Matulik, M.S.; Saewert, G.W.; Utes, M.J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); DeGroot, D.C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    A data acquisition system for the tracking detectors of the D0 Colliding Detector has been built and is operational, taking cosmic ray data. It is composed of 8200 channels of 106MHz 8-bit Flash Analog to Digital Converters(FADC). These are configured as sixteen channels per FADC Module, up to sixteen FADC Modules per crate, and a total of thirty-six 9U VME crates. A crate controller module, the control system interface, and a high speed data buffer/driver complete the FADC crate. Design and operation details are described. 6 refs.

  16. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-01-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system

  17. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Brandon R., E-mail: groganbr@ornl.gov; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-12-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system.

  18. Sequential interrogation of multiple FBG sensors using LPG modulation and an artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Mainak; Ghorai, S K

    2015-01-01

    Interrogating multiple fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) requires highly sensitive spectrum scanning equipment such as optical spectrum analyzers, tunable filters, acousto-optic tunable filters etc, which are expensive, bulky and time consuming. In this paper, we present a new approach for multiple FBG sensor interrogation using long-period gratings and an artificial neural network. The reflection spectra of the multiplexed FBGs are modulated by two long period gratings separately and the modulated optical intensities were detected by two photodetectors. The outputs of the detectors are then used as input in a previously trained artificial neural network to interrogate the FBG sensors. Simulations have been performed to determine the strain and wavelength shift using two and four sensors. The interrogation system has also been demonstrated experimentally for two sensors using simply supported beams in the range of 0–350 μstrain. The proposed interrogation scheme has been found to identify the perturbed FBG, and to determine strain and wavelength shift with reasonable accuracy. (paper)

  19. An Evaluation of "Miranda" Rights and Interrogation in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salseda, Lindsay M.; Dixon, Dennis R.; Fass, Tracy; Miora, Deborah; Leark, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary deficits present in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may lead to increased susceptibility to involvement in the criminal justice system. The same deficits may also cause individuals with ASD to be more vulnerable to interrogation techniques and other aspects of the legal system. Due to the increased level of vulnerability as well as…

  20. crates y la aporía ontológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre AUBENQUE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Si remitimos la dialéctica a su punto de partida socrático, es decir, a un método puramente interrogativo, hemos de comprender la aporia en un sentido radical: lejos de deberse a factores subjetivos o existenciales tales como la ignorancia de la respuesta, la aporia propiamente dicha es una cuestión que objetivamente no se puede decidir, pero que sin embargo, paradójicamente, no puede ser superada sino a través de una decisión. Se pone de manifiesto aquí que la cuestión del sentido de ser, básico en la metafísica desde Aristóteles, presenta este carácter de manera ejemplar.ABSTRACT: If we bring dialectics back to its socratic origin, i.e. to a purely interrogative method, we are at the same time led to take aporia in a radical far from being due to such subjective or existential factors as the ignorance of the answer, aporia is, strictly speaking, a question that objectively cannot be settled in one sens more than in another- to the effect that, paradoxically, it is a question upon which one has necessarily and only to decide. The point here is that the question, basic to metaphysics from Aristotle onwards, «What does mean being?» presents this character in a paradigmatic way.

  1. High-Speed Interrogation for Large-Scale Fiber Bragg Grating Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenyuan; Bai, Wei

    2018-02-24

    A high-speed interrogation scheme for large-scale fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing arrays is presented. This technique employs parallel computing and pipeline control to modulate incident light and demodulate the reflected sensing signal. One Electro-optic modulator (EOM) and one semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) were used to generate a phase delay to filter reflected spectrum form multiple candidate FBGs with the same optical path difference (OPD). Experimental results showed that the fastest interrogation delay time for the proposed method was only about 27.2 us for a single FBG interrogation, and the system scanning period was only limited by the optical transmission delay in the sensing fiber owing to the multiple simultaneous central wavelength calculations. Furthermore, the proposed FPGA-based technique had a verified FBG wavelength demodulation stability of ±1 pm without average processing.

  2. Wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors using tapered hollow Bragg waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, C; Allen, T W; Azar, A; Melnyk, A; Dennison, C R; DeCorby, R G

    2014-10-15

    We describe an integrated system for wavelength interrogation, which uses tapered hollow Bragg waveguides coupled to an image sensor. Spectral shifts are extracted from the wavelength dependence of the light radiated at mode cutoff. Wavelength shifts as small as ~10  pm were resolved by employing a simple peak detection algorithm. Si/SiO₂-based cladding mirrors enable a potential operational range of several hundred nanometers in the 1550 nm wavelength region for a taper length of ~1  mm. Interrogation of a strain-tuned grating was accomplished using a broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source, and potential for single-chip interrogation of multiplexed sensor arrays is demonstrated.

  3. Photon interrogation for bulk measurement of transuranic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieschmidt, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    Investigation and assay of high atomic number materials may be accomplished in near real-time through use of photon interrogation. Photon interrogation, as used here, involves the use of high-energy photons to induce fission and then detect neutrons associated with the fission. This technique has the advantage that the interrogating particle and the detected particle are different. The discussion here will include: (1) neutron production; (2) photon production; (3) neutron counting; (4) sensitivity; and (5) problems associated with large containers. In summary, the attributes and limitations of photon interrogation can be stated as: near real-time accountability; interrogating particle different than detected particle; ability to count prompt or delayed neutrons depending on matrix; radiography or therapy accelerators available; cannot distinguish between fission and fertile material; and interrogated material must be well characterized to obtain safeguards quality results

  4. Interrogation of weak Bragg grating sensors based on dual-wavelength differential detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui; Xia, Li

    2016-11-15

    It is shown that for weak Bragg gratings the logarithmic ratio of reflected intensities at any two wavelengths within the spectrum follows a linear relationship with the Bragg wavelength shift, with a slope proportional to their wavelength spacing. This finding is exploited to develop a flexible, efficient, and cheap interrogation solution of weak fiber Bragg grating (FBGs), especially ultra-short FBGs, in distributed sensing based on dual-wavelength differential detection. The concept is experimentally studied in both single and distributed sensing systems with ultra-short FBG sensors. The work may form the basis of new and promising FBG interrogation techniques based on detecting discrete rather than continuous spectra.

  5. Long fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation using discrete-time microwave photonic filtering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchiuti, Amelia Lavinia; Barrera, David; Sales, Salvador; Thevenaz, Luc; Capmany, José

    2013-11-18

    A novel technique for interrogating photonic sensors based on long fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is presented and experimentally demonstrated, dedicated to detect the presence and the precise location of several spot events. The principle of operation is based on a technique used to analyze microwave photonics (MWP) filters. The long FBGs are used as quasi-distributed sensors. Several hot-spots can be detected along the FBG with a spatial accuracy under 0.5 mm using a modulator and a photo-detector (PD) with a modest bandwidth of less than 1 GHz. The proposed interrogation system is intrinsically robust against environmental changes.

  6. Menipo y Sócrates en Diálogos de los Muertos 6: pederastía en el Hades

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimczuk, José Pablo

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se analiza un pasaje de Diálogos de los muertos 6 de Luciano de Samósata. En el mismo Sócrates luego de una breve charla con Menipo de Gádara mantenida en el Hades invita al cínico a "echarse" (κατάκειμαι) junto a él y los apuestos Cármides, Fedro y Alcibíades. Un análisis lexical y contextual del fragmento revela que la invitación de Sócrates esconde una intención pederástica. A partir de un estudio conjunto de la obra pretendemos explicar la causa por la cual Sócrates...

  7. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern, Abraham L; Halpern, John H; Doherty, Sean B

    2008-01-01

    Abstract After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very agg...

  8. Implementation of a level 1 trigger system using high speed serial (VXS) techniques for the 12GeV high luminosity experimental programs at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas, C.; Raydo, B.; Dong, H.; Gupta, A.; Barbosa, F.J.; Wilson, J.; Taylor, W.M.; Jastrzembski, E.; Abbott, D.

    2009-01-01

    We will demonstrate a hardware and firmware solution for a complete fully pipelined multi-crate trigger system that takes advantage of the elegant high speed VXS serial extensions for VME. This trigger system includes three sections starting with the front end crate trigger processor (CTP), a global Sub-System Processor (SSP) and a Trigger Supervisor that manages the timing, synchronization and front end event readout. Within a front end crate, trigger information is gathered from each 16 Channel, 12 bit Flash ADC module at 4 nS intervals via the VXS backplane, to a Crate Trigger Processor (CTP). Each Crate Trigger Processor receives these 500 MB/S VXS links from the 16 FADC-250 modules, aligns skewed data inherent of Aurora protocol, and performs real time crate level trigger algorithms. The algorithm results are encoded using a Reed-Solomon technique and transmission of this Level 1 trigger data is sent to the SSP using a multi-fiber link. The multi-fiber link achieves an aggregate trigger data transfer rate to the global trigger at 8 Gb/s. The SSP receives and decodes Reed-Solomon error correcting transmission from each crate, aligns the data, and performs the global level trigger algorithms. The entire trigger system is synchronous and operates at 250 MHz with the Trigger Supervisor managing not only the front end event readout, but also the distribution of the critical timing clocks, synchronization signals, and the global trigger signals to each front end readout crate. These signals are distributed to the front end crates on a separate fiber link and each crate is synchronized using a unique encoding scheme to guarantee that each front end crate is synchronous with a fixed latency, independent of the distance between each crate. The overall trigger signal latency is <3 uS, and the proposed 12GeV experiments at Jefferson Lab require up to 200KHz Level 1 trigger rate.

  9. Improved Fission Neutron Data Base for Active Interrogation of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Sara; Czirr, J. Bart; Haight, Robert; Kovash, Michael; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2013-11-06

    This project will develop an innovative neutron detection system for active interrogation measurements. Many active interrogation methods to detect fissionable material are based on the detection of neutrons from fission induced by fast neutrons or high-energy gamma rays. The energy spectrum of the fission neutrons provides data to identify the fissionable isotopes and materials such as shielding between the fissionable material and the detector. The proposed path for the project is as follows. First, the team will develop new neutron detection systems and algorithms by Monte Carlo simulations and bench-top experiments. Next, They will characterize and calibrate detection systems both with monoenergetic and white neutron sources. Finally, high-fidelity measurements of neutron emission from fissions induced by fast neutrons will be performed. Several existing fission chambers containing U-235, Pu-239, U-238, or Th-232 will be used to measure the neutron-induced fission neutron emission spectra. The challenge for making confident measurements is the detection of neutrons in the energy ranges of 0.01 – 1 MeV and above 8 MeV, regions where the basic data on the neutron energy spectrum emitted from fission is least well known. In addition, improvements in the specificity of neutron detectors are required throughout the complete energy range: they must be able to clearly distinguish neutrons from other radiations, in particular gamma rays and cosmic rays. The team believes that all of these challenges can be addressed successfully with emerging technologies under development by this collaboration. In particular, the collaboration will address the area of fission neutron emission spectra for isotopes of interest in the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI).

  10. crates, la "Piedad" y los márgenes de la convivencia cívica

    OpenAIRE

    Beneitez, José Manuel

    2006-01-01

    La polis clásica fue producto del pluralismo cívico y no conoció ningún dogmatismo de carácter político o religioso; sin embargo, la "piedad" (hósios, eusébeia) sirvió de piedra de toque para consolidar la convivencia cívica. Atenas, la primera democracia que hubo en el mundo, afamada por reinar en ella la libertad de palabra, fue la misma que silenció a Sócrates. Al célebre filósofo se le condenó a morir por no creer en los dioses de su ciudad, por haber introducido otros nuev...

  11. Some Semantic Properties of Romanian Interrogatives: "Care" and "Cine."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliu, E.

    The aim of this paper is to account for some semantic properties of Romanian interrogatives "ce" and "cine" by establishing some definite correlations between various contextual restrictions governing the use of these interrogative particles and the "meaning" which might be assigned to each of these particles in any…

  12. Laser interrogation of latent vehicle registration number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, R.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Forensic Science Center; Pelkey, G.E. [City of Livermore Police Dept., CA (United States); Grant, P.; Whipple, R.E.; Andresen, B.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Forensic Science Center

    1994-09-01

    A recent investigation involved automobile registration numbers as important evidentiary specimens. In California, as in most states, small, thin metallic decals are issued to owners of vehicles each year as the registration is renewed. The decals are applied directly to the license plate of the vehicle and typically on top of the previous year`s expired decal. To afford some degree of security, the individual registration decals have been designed to tear easily; they cannot be separated from each other, but can be carefully removed intact from the metal license plate by using a razor blade. In September 1993, the City of Livermore Police Department obtained a blue 1993 California decal that had been placed over an orange 1992 decal. The two decals were being investigated as possible evidence in a case involving vehicle registration fraud. To confirm the suspicion and implicate a suspect, the department needed to known the registration number on the bottom (completely covered) 1992 decal. The authors attempted to use intense and directed light to interrogate the colored stickers. Optical illumination using a filtered white-light source partially identified the latent number. However, the most successful technique used a tunable dye laser pumped by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. By selectively tuning the wavelength and intensity of the dye laser, backlit illumination of the decals permitted visualization of the underlying registration number through the surface of the top sticker. With optimally-tuned wavelength and intensity, 100% accuracy was obtained in identifying the sequence of latent characters. The advantage of optical techniques is their completely nondestructive nature, thus preserving the evidence for further interrogation or courtroom presentation.

  13. Increasing dynamic range of a fibre Bragg grating edge-filtering interrogator with a proportional control loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan, Nikola; Bailey, D C; Chadderdon, S L; Selfridge, R H; Schultz, S M; Webb, S; Zikry, M; Peters, K J

    2014-01-01

    We present a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) interrogator that uses a microcontroller board and a tunable optical filter in a proportional control loop to increase dynamic range and achieve high strain sensitivity. It is an edge-filtering interrogator with added proportional control loop that locks the operating wavelength to the mid-reflection point on the FBG spectrum. The interrogator separates low-frequency (LF) components of strain and measures them with extended dynamic range, while at the same time measuring high-frequency (HF) strain without loss in strain sensitivity. In this paper, we describe the implementation of the interrogator and analyse the characteristics of individual components, such as the speed and voltage resolution of the microcontroller and the tunable optical filter. We measure the performance of the proportional control loop at frequencies up to 1 kHz and characterize the system using control theory. We illustrate the limitation of the conventional interrogator to measure strains greater than 40 μϵ and demonstrate successful application of the proposed interrogator for simultaneous measurement of 450 μϵ LF strain at 50 Hz superimposed with 32 kHz HF strain. (paper)

  14. Resolution-improved in situ DNA hybridization detection based on microwave photonic interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Guo, Tuan; Wang, Xudong; Sun, Dandan; Ran, Yang; Feng, Xinhuan; Guan, Bai-ou

    2015-10-19

    In situ bio-sensing system based on microwave photonics filter (MPF) interrogation method with improved resolution is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A microfiber Bragg grating (mFBG) is used as sensing probe for DNA hybridization detection. Different from the traditional wavelength monitoring technique, we use the frequency interrogation scheme for resolution-improved bio-sensing detection. Experimental results show that the frequency shift of MPF notch presents a linear response to the surrounding refractive index (SRI) change over the range of 1.33 to 1.38, with a SRI resolution up to 2.6 × 10(-5) RIU, which has been increased for almost two orders of magnitude compared with the traditional fundamental mode monitoring technique (~3.6 × 10(-3) RIU). Due to the high Q value (about 27), the whole process of DNA hybridization can be in situ monitored. The proposed MPF-based bio-sensing system provides a new interrogation method over the frequency domain with improved sensing resolution and rapid interrogation rate for biochemical and environmental measurement.

  15. High performance multi-spectral interrogation for surface plasmon resonance imaging sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, A; Moreau, J; Canva, M; Maillart, E

    2014-04-15

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing has proven to be a valuable tool in the field of surface interactions characterization, especially for biomedical applications where label-free techniques are of particular interest. In order to approach the theoretical resolution limit, most SPR-based systems have turned to either angular or spectral interrogation modes, which both offer very accurate real-time measurements, but at the expense of the 2-dimensional imaging capability, therefore decreasing the data throughput. In this article, we show numerically and experimentally how to combine the multi-spectral interrogation technique with 2D-imaging, while finding an optimum in terms of resolution, accuracy, acquisition speed and reduction in data dispersion with respect to the classical reflectivity interrogation mode. This multi-spectral interrogation methodology is based on a robust five parameter fitting of the spectral reflectivity curve which enables monitoring of the reflectivity spectral shift with a resolution of the order of ten picometers, and using only five wavelength measurements per point. In fine, such multi-spectral based plasmonic imaging system allows biomolecular interaction monitoring in a linear regime independently of variations of buffer optical index, which is illustrated on a DNA-DNA model case. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 76 FR 44282 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ...-AG88 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by... prescribes policies prohibiting interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel, as required by section... ancillary positions, including as trainers of, and advisors to, interrogations, if the contractor personnel...

  17. Coaxial Mono-Energetic Gamma Generator for Active Interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Antolak, A.J.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Compact mono-energetic photon sources are sought for active interrogation systems to detect shielded special nuclear materials in, for example, cargo containers, trucks and other vehicles. A prototype gamma interrogation source has been designed and built that utilizes the 11B(p,gamma)12C reaction to produce 12 MeV gamma-rays which are near the peak of the photofission cross section. In particular, the 11B(p,gamma)12C resonance at 163 kV allows the production of gammas at low proton acceleration voltages, thus keeping the design of a gamma generator comparatively small and simple. A coaxial design has been adopted with a toroidal-shaped plasma chamber surrounding a cylindrical gamma production target. The plasma discharge is driven by a 2 MHz rf-power supply (capable up to 50 kW) using a circular rf-antenna. Permanent magnets embedded in the walls of the plasma chamber generate a multi-cusp field that confines the plasma and allows higher plasma densities and lower gas pressures. About 100 proton beamlets are extracted through a slotted plasma electrode towards the target at the center of the device that is at a negative 180 kV. The target consists of LaB6 tiles that are brazed to a water-cooled cylindrical structure. The generator is designed to operate at 500 Hz with 20 mu s long pulses, and a 1percent duty factor by pulsing the ion source rf-power. A first-generation coaxial gamma source has been built for low duty factor experiments and testing.

  18. Thermal neutron imaging in an active interrogation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanier, P.E.; Forman, L.; Norman, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a thermal-neutron coded-aperture imager that reveals the locations of hydrogenous materials from which thermal neutrons are being emitted. This imaging detector can be combined with an accelerator to form an active interrogation system in which fast neutrons are produced in a heavy metal target by means of excitation by high energy photons. The photo-induced neutrons can be either prompt or delayed, depending on whether neutronemitting fission products are generated. Provided that there are hydrogenous materials close to the target, some of the photo-induced neutrons slow down and emerge from the surface at thermal energies. These neutrons can be used to create images that show the location and shape of the thermalizing materials. Analysis of the temporal response of the neutron flux provides information about delayed neutrons from induced fission if there are fissionable materials in the target. The combination of imaging and time-of-flight discrimination helps to improve the signal-to-background ratio. It is also possible to interrogate the target with neutrons, for example using a D-T generator. In this case, an image can be obtained from hydrogenous material in a target without the presence of heavy metal. In addition, if fissionable material is present in the target, probing with fast neutrons can stimulate delayed neutrons from fission, and the imager can detect and locate the object of interest, using appropriate time gating. Operation of this sensitive detection equipment in the vicinity of an accelerator presents a number of challenges, because the accelerator emits electromagnetic interference as well as stray ionizing radiation, which can mask the signals of interest.

  19. Optically powered and interrogated rotary position sensor for aircraft engine control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillman, W. B.; Crowne, D. H.; Woodward, D. W.

    A throttle level angle (TLA) sensing system is described that utilizes a capacitance based rotary position transducer that is powered and interrogated via light from a single multimode optical fiber. The system incorporates a unique GaAs device that serves as both a power converter and optical data transmitter. Design considerations are discussed, and the fabrication and performance of the sensor system are detailed.

  20. Safety and efficiency of emergency department interrogation of cardiac devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, James F; Peacock, W Frank; Migeed, Madgy; Hunter, Sara A; Daughtery, John C; McCleese, Ian C; Hiestand, Brian C

    2016-12-01

    Patients with implanted cardiac devices may wait extended periods for interrogation in emergency departments (EDs). Our purpose was to determine if device interrogation could be done safely and faster by ED staff. Prospective randomized, standard therapy controlled, trial of ED staff device interrogation vs. standard process (SP), with 30-day follow-up. Eligibility criteria: ED presentation with a self-report of a potential device related complaint, with signed informed consent. SP interrogation was by company representative or hospital employee. Of 60 patients, 42 (70%) were male, all were white, with a median (interquartile range) age of 71 (64 to 82) years. No patient was lost to follow up. Of all patients, 32 (53%) were enrolled during business hours. The overall median (interquartile range) ED vs. SP time to interrogation was 98.5 (40 to 260) vs. 166.5 (64 to 412) minutes (P=0.013). While ED and SP interrogation times were similar during business hours, 102 (59 to 138) vs. 105 (64 to 172) minutes (P=0.62), ED interrogation times were shorter vs. SP during non-business hours; 97 (60 to 126) vs. 225 (144 to 412) minutes, P=0.002, respectively. There was no difference in ED length of stay between the ED and SP interrogation, 249 (153 to 390) vs. 246 (143 to 333) minutes (P=0.71), regardless of time of presentation. No patient in any cohort suffered an unplanned medical contact or post-discharge adverse device related event. ED staff cardiac device interrogations are faster, and with similar 30-day outcomes, as compared to SP.

  1. An adaptive sampling and windowing interrogation method in PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, R.; Scarano, F.; Riethmuller, M. L.

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a cross-correlation based PIV image interrogation algorithm that adapts the number of interrogation windows and their size to the image properties and to the flow conditions. The proposed methodology releases the constraint of uniform sampling rate (Cartesian mesh) and spatial resolution (uniform window size) commonly adopted in PIV interrogation. Especially in non-optimal experimental conditions where the flow seeding is inhomogeneous, this leads either to loss of robustness (too few particles per window) or measurement precision (too large or coarsely spaced interrogation windows). Two criteria are investigated, namely adaptation to the local signal content in the image and adaptation to local flow conditions. The implementation of the adaptive criteria within a recursive interrogation method is described. The location and size of the interrogation windows are locally adapted to the image signal (i.e., seeding density). Also the local window spacing (commonly set by the overlap factor) is put in relation with the spatial variation of the velocity field. The viability of the method is illustrated over two experimental cases where the limitation of a uniform interrogation approach appears clearly: a shock-wave-boundary layer interaction and an aircraft vortex wake. The examples show that the spatial sampling rate can be adapted to the actual flow features and that the interrogation window size can be arranged so as to follow the spatial distribution of seeding particle images and flow velocity fluctuations. In comparison with the uniform interrogation technique, the spatial resolution is locally enhanced while in poorly seeded regions the level of robustness of the analysis (signal-to-noise ratio) is kept almost constant.

  2. Rheo: Japanese sound art interrogating digital mediality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandsø Anette

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article asks in what way the Japanese sound artist, Ryoichi Kurokawa’s audiovisual installation, Rheo: 5 Horisonz (2010, is “digital.” Using professor Lars Elleström’s concept of “mediality,” the main claim in this article is that Rheo not only uses digital technology but also interrogates digital mediality as such. This argument is pursued in an analysis of Rheo that draws in various descriptions of digital media by N. Catherine Hayles, Lev Manovic, Bolter, and Grusin among other. The article will show how the critical potential in Rheo is directed both towards digital media as a language (Meyrowitz (or a place for representation and towards the digital as a milieu (Meyrowitz or as our culture (Gere. The overall goal of the article is not just analyse this singular art work, but also to show how such a sound art work can contribute to our understanding of our own contemporary culture as a digital culture.

  3. Interrogative Utterances in Surah Al-Baqarah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Bayoumy AIi Oteify

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The Qur’an is singularly distinctive in its style compared to any human composition. Human eloquence, with its remarkable history in the composition of poetry, has failed to compose even a single verse like that of the Qur'an. The Qur'anic composition is a living challenge for human beings to imitate its miraculous style. This inimitable aspect of the Qur'an, among other things, proves that it was revealed by Allah (SWT to Prophet Muhammad (SAAS. In addition, the miracle of its linguistic composition was a means to declare the faith based on monotheism and the introduction of a new order and a theo-centric guidance that was meant to unite humanity. Adopting the monotheistic faith gave rise to a new community, the Muslim ummah that was able to bridge the differences between human beings in culture, race, colour and geographical boundaries. Consequently, the unique style of the Qur’an deserves a careful study. The present study investigates the use of interrogative utterances in surah al-Baqarah and their contribution to the Qur'an's rhetorical style. Hopefully, the results of this study will be useful in later investigations of other parts of the Qur' an...

  4. Design challenges of a tunable laser interrogator for geo-stationary communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; Honniball, Arthur; McCue, Raymond; Todd, Michael; O'Dowd, John A.; Sheils, David; Voudouris, Liberis; Farnan, Martin; Hurni, Andreas; Putzer, Philipp; Lemke, Norbert; Roner, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Recently optical sensing solutions based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology have been proposed for temperature monitoring in telecommunication satellite platforms with an operational life time beyond 15 years in geo-stationary orbit. Developing radiation hardened optical interrogators designed to be used with FBG sensors inscribed in radiation tolerant fibers offer the capabilities of multiplexing multiple sensors on the same fiber and reducing the overall weight by removing the copper wiring harnesses associated with electrical sensors. Here we propose the use of a tunable laser based optical interrogator that uses a semiconductor MG-Y type laser that has no moving parts and sweeps across the C-band wavelength range providing optical power to FBG sensors and optical wavelength references such as athermal Etalons and Gas Cells to guarantee stable operation of the interrogator over its targeted life time in radiation exposed environments. The MG-Y laser was calibrated so it remains in a stable operation mode which ensures that no mode hops occur due to aging of the laser, and/or thermal or radiation effects. The key optical components including tunable laser, references and FBGs were tested for radiation tolerances by emulating the conditions on a geo-stationary satellite including a Total Ionizing Dose (TID) radiation level of up to 100 krad for interrogator components and 25 Mrad for FBGs. Different tunable laser control, and signal processing algorithms have been designed and developed to fit within specific available radiation hardened FPGAs to guarantee operation of a single interrogator module providing at least 1 sample per second measurement capability across engineering model system developed in the frame of an ESA-ARTES program and is planned to be deployed as a flight demonstrator on-board the German Heinrich Hertz geo-stationary satellite.

  5. Design Concept for the Microwave Interrogation Structure in PARCS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dick, G. J; Klipstein, W. M; Heavner, T. P; Jefferts, S. R

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we will describe key aspects of the conceptual design of the microwave interrogation structure in the laser-cooled cesium frequency standard that is part of the Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) experiment...

  6. Lawfulness of Interrogation Techniques under the Geneva Conventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elsea, Jennifer K

    2004-01-01

    Allegations of abuse of Iraqi prisoners by U.S. soldiers at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq have raised questions about the applicability of the law of war to interrogations for military intelligence purposes...

  7. The role of abusive states of being in interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    Interrogation, the questioning of persons detained by police, military, or intelligence organizations, is designed to extract information that a subject may resist disclosing. Interrogation techniques are frequently predicated on inducing mental states of despair, dread, dependency, and debility that weaken an individual's resistance. Descriptions of techniques from 2 Central Intelligence Agency training manuals are illustrated by examples from interviews of and writings by Murat Kurnaz, who was held at Guantánamo Bay Detention Camp for 5 years. Interrogation techniques are designed to create a destabilizing sense of shock; undermine an individual's grasp on reality; and provoke internal psychological division, self-conflict, and confusion. The long-term effects of interrogation often include posttraumatic stress disorder as well as states of anxiety, depression, and depersonalization.

  8. Long period grating based refractometer with polarization-sensitive interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftimov, T; Bock, W; Mikulic, P; Nikolova, K

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new scheme for the interrogation of long-period fiber gratings (LPGs) which makes use of their polarization properties. Polarization-sensitive interrogation was applied to detect changes due to changes of the external refractive index by using three wavelengths on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) grid. We show that the new approach can allow for a greater sensitivity and can be used in combination with spectral multiplexing schemes

  9. Miniature and low cost fiber Bragg grating interrogator for structural monitoring in nano-satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, P. M.; Hagen, R. A. J.; Hakkesteegt, H. C.; Lugtenburg, J.; Maniscalco, M. P.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present a newly developed Fiber Optic measurement system, consisting of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and an FBG interrogator. The development of the measuring system is part of the PiezoElectric Assisted Smart Satellite Structure (PEASSS) project, which was initiated at the beginning of 2013 and is financed by the Seventh Framework Program (FP7) of the European Commission. Within the PEASSS project, a Nano-Satellite is being designed and manufactured to be equipped with new technology that will help keep Europe on the cutting edge of space research, potentially reducing the cost and development time for more accurate future sensor platforms including synthetic aperture optics, moving target detection and identification, and compact radars. After on ground testing the satellite is planned to be launched at the end of 2015. Within the satellite, different technologies will be demonstrated on orbit to show their capabilities for different in-space applications. For our application the FBG interrogator monitors the structural and thermal behaviour of a so called "smart panel". These panels will enable fine angle control and thermal and vibration compensation in order to improve all types of future Earth observations, such as environmental and planetary mapping, border and regional imaging. The Fiber Optic (FO) system in PEASSS includes four FBG strain sensors and two FBG temperature sensors. The 3 channel interrogator has to have a small footprint (110x50x40mm), is low cost, low in mass and has a low power consumption. In order to meet all these requirements, an interrogator has been designed based on a tunable Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) enabling a wavelength sweep of around 7 nm. To guarantee the absolute and relative performance, two reference methods are included internally in the interrogator. First, stabilized reference FBG sensors are used to obtain absolute wavelength calibrations. This method is used for the temperature

  10. Signal predictions for a proposed fast neutron interrogation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sale, K.E.

    1992-12-01

    We have applied the Monte Carlo radiation transport code COG) to assess the utility of a proposed explosives detection scheme based on neutron emission. In this scheme a pulsed neutron beam is generated by an approximately seven MeV deuteron beam incident on a thick Be target. A scintillation detector operating in the current mode measures the neutrons transmitted through the object as a function of time. The flight time of unscattered neutrons from the source to the detector is simply related to the neutron energy. This information along with neutron cross section excitation functions is used to infer the densities of H, C, N and O in the volume sampled. The code we have chosen to use enables us to create very detailed and realistic models of the geometrical configuration of the system, the neutron source and of the detector response. By calculating the signals that will be observed for several configurations and compositions of interrogated object we can investigate and begin to understand how a system that could actually be fielded will perform. Using this modeling capability many early on with substantial savings in time and cost and with improvements in performance. We will present our signal predictions for simple single element test cases and for explosive compositions. From these studies it is dear that the interpretation of the signals from such an explosives identification system will pose a substantial challenge

  11. 29 CFR 18.614 - Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge. 18.614... interrogation of witnesses by judge. (a) Calling by the judge. The judge may, on the judge's own motion or at... thus called. (b) Interrogation by the judge. The judge may interrogate witnesses, whether called by the...

  12. Design of a fiber-optic interrogator module for telecommunication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, Philipp; Koch, Alexander W.; Plattner, Markus; Hurni, Andreas; Manhart, Markus

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present the results of the radiation tests performed on the optical components of the fiber-optic interrogator module as a part of the Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) system. The HSB-system is developed in the frame of an ESAARTES program and will be verified as flight demonstrator onboard the German Heinrich Hertz satellite in 2016. The HSB system is based on a modular concept which includes sensor interrogation modules based on I2C electrical and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fiber-optical sensor elements. Onboard fiber-optic sensing allows the implementation of novel control and monitoring methods. For read-out of multiple FBG sensors, a design based on a tunable laser diode as well as a design based on a spectrometer is considered. The expected and tested total ionizing dose (TID) applicable to the HSB system is in the range between 100 krad and 300 krad inside the satellite in the geostationary orbit over a life time of 15 years. We present radiation test results carried out on critical optical components to be used in the fiber-optic interrogation module. These components are a modulated grating Y-branch (MGY) tunable laser diode acting as light source for the tuning laser approach, the line detector of a spectrometer, photodetectors and the FBG sensors acting as sensor elements. A detailed literature inquiry of radiation effects on optical fibers and FBG sensors, is also included in the paper. The fiber-optic interrogator module implemented in the HSB system is based on the most suitable technology, which sustains the harsh environment in the geostationary orbit.

  13. Demonstration of an ultrasensitive refractive-index plasmonic sensor by enabling its quadrupole resonance in phase interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Cheng; Li, Chung-Tien; Chen, How-Foo; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2015-11-15

    We present an ultrasensitive plasmonic sensing system by introducing a nanostructured X-shaped plasmonic sensor (XPS) and measuring its localized optical properties in phase interrogation. Our tailored XPS exhibits two major resonant modes of a low-order dipole and a high-order quadrupole, between which the quadrupole resonance allows an ultrahigh sensitivity, due to its higher quality factor. Furthermore, we design an in-house common-path phase-interrogation system, in contrast to conventional wavelength-interrogation methods, to achieve greater sensing capability. The experimental measurement shows that the sensing resolution of the XPS reaches 1.15×10(-6) RIU, not only two orders of magnitude greater than the result of the controlled extinction measurement (i.e., 9.90×10(-5) RIU), but also superior than current reported plasmonic sensors.

  14. Characterization of FBG sensor interrogation based on a FDML wavelength swept laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun Joo; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kim, Moon Ki; Jeon, Min Yong; Jung, Woonggyu; Chen, Zhongping

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we develop an ultra-fast fiber Bragg grating sensor system that is based on the Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) swept laser. A FDML wavelength swept laser has many advantages compared to the conventional wavelength swept laser source, such as high-speed interrogation, narrow spectral sensitivity, and high phase stability. The newly developed FDML wavelength swept laser shows a superior performance of a high scan rate of 31.3 kHz and a broad scan range of over 70 nm simultaneously. The performance of the grating sensor interrogating system using a FDML wavelength swept laser is characterized in both static and dynamic strain responses. PMID:18852764

  15. High spatial and temporal resolution interrogation of fully distributed chirped fiber Bragg grating sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Eamonn J.; Wang, Chao; Feng, Dejun; Yan, Zhijun; Zhang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    A novel interrogation technique for fully distributed linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating (LCFBG) strain sensors with simultaneous high temporal and spatial resolution based on optical time-stretch frequency-domain reflectometry (OTS-FDR) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. LCFBGs is a promising candidate for fully distributed sensors thanks to its longer grating length and broader reflection bandwidth compared to normal uniform FBGs. In the proposed system, two identical LCFBGs are...

  16. Isócrates y los orígenes de la educación cívica. Actualidad de un pensador clásico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernández-Santillán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Isócrates ha sido descuidado como una figura señera entre los grandes pensadores políticos de la Grecia antigua. El presente ensayo rescata el legado de este filósofo, particularmente su trabajo como educador cívico, hoy tan necesario para construir ciudadanía.El método que utilizó para promover la democracia fue la deliberación pública, no solamente a través de la discusión verbal sino también de la difusión de escritos. En consecuencia, Isócrates contribuyó a crear espacios de discusión muy semejantes a lo que ahora conocemos como “esfera pública”.Lo que ponemos de relieve es que Isócrates creyó en el papel de la palabra como eje transformador tanto de los hombres como del régimen político. El ideal de democracia que tuvo en mente fue el régimen instaurado por Solón y Clístenes. Siempre tuvo en cuenta ese modelo para restaurar la vida cívica en Atenas y en las ciudades Estado de la Grecia antigua.

  17. A transputer based intelligent CAMAC crate controller [Paper No.: L1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkar, S.P.; Arvindakshan, P.S.; Jethra, A.K.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    A transputer based CAMAC controller (TCC) which can attain the true CAMAC speed for data acquisition in the list processing mode is described . The overlap of writing next NAF command word reading previous data over CAMAC cycle execution (busy time of dataway) facilitates this achievement. The TCC uses the transputer IMST222, which controls overall operation of TCC and communicates which PC/AT on its serial link at 20 MBits/sec. It incorporates hardware to support single CAMAC transfer as well as block transfers. The transputer also helps in data preprocessing. The concurrent processing of acquiring data from modules and sending it for data logging and processing increases the system speed. The TCC is developed for nuclear data acquisition system. (author). 2 refs., 6 figs

  18. Wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors based on crossed optical Gaussian filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui; Xia, Li; Zhou, Jiaao; Liu, Deming

    2015-04-15

    Conventional intensity-modulated measurements require to be operated in linear range of filter or interferometric response to ensure a linear detection. Here, we present a wavelength interrogation system for fiber Bragg grating sensors where the linear transition is achieved with crossed Gaussian transmissions. This unique filtering characteristic makes the responses of the two branch detections follow Gaussian functions with the same parameters except for a delay. The substraction of these two delayed Gaussian responses (in dB) ultimately leads to a linear behavior, which is exploited for the sensor wavelength determination. Beside its flexibility and inherently power insensitivity, the proposal also shows a potential of a much wider operational range. Interrogation of a strain-tuned grating was accomplished, with a wide sensitivity tuning range from 2.56 to 8.7 dB/nm achieved.

  19. A REMUS based crate controller for the autonomous processing of multichannel data streams

    CERN Document Server

    Cittolin, S

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a device designed to perform the autonomous acquisition of considerable quantities of raw data, process them and present results in an easily digestible format for subsequent analysis. It has been primarily created for read-out of complex three dimensional drift chambers, but is of general interest. The unit is based on a dual processor system consisting of a Signetics 8X300 and a Motorola 68B00. The 8X300 section operates as a fast dedicated Data Processor and flow controller that reads the input modules, processes the data and constructs the output blocklets. The 68B00 supervises the activity of the 8X300 and is responsible for the holding and loading of appropriate routines. It also obtains samples of the final data for statistical purposes and executes periodic calibration and diagnostic functions.

  20. A REMUS based crate controller for the autonomous processing of multichannel data streams

    CERN Document Server

    Cittolin, Sergio

    1981-01-01

    Describes a device designed to perform the autonomous acquisition of considerable quantities of raw data, process them and present results in an easily digestible format for subsequent analysis. It has been primarily created for read-out of complex three dimensional drift chambers, but is of general interest. The unit is based on a dual processor system consisting of a Signetics 8X300 and a Motorola 68B00. The 8X300 section operates as a fast dedicated data processor and flow controller that reads the input modules processes the data and constructs the output blocklets. The 68B00 supervises the activity of the 8X300 and is responsible for the holding and loading of appropriate routines. It also obtains samples of the final data for statistical purposes and executes periodic calibration and diagnostic functions. (8 refs).

  1. A REMUS based crate controller for the autonomous processing of multichannel data streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cittolin, S.; Loefstedt, B.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a device designed to perform the autonomous acquisition of considerable quantities of raw data, process them and present results in an easily digestible format for subsequent analysis. It has been primarily created for read-out of complex three dimensional drift chambers, but is of general interest. The unit is based on a dual processor system consisting of a Signetics 8 x 300 and a Motorola 68 B 00. The 8 x 300 section operates as a fast dedicated Data Processor and flow controller that reads the input modules, processes the data and constructs the output blocklets. The 68 B 00 supervises the activity of the 8 x 300 and is responsible for the holding and loading of appropriate routines. It also obtains samples of the final data for statistical purposes and executes periodic calibration and diagnostic functions. (orig.)

  2. Multiplicity Analysis during Photon Interrogation of Fissionable Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.; Padovani, Enrico; Downar, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Simulation of multiplicity distributions with the Monte Carlo method is difficult because each history is treated individually. In order to accurately model the multiplicity distribution, the intensity and time width of the interrogation pulse must be incorporated into the calculation. This behavior dictates how many photons arrive at the target essentially simultaneously. In order to model the pulse width correctly, a Monte Carlo code system consisting of modified versions of the codes MCNPX and MCNP-PoliMi has been developed in conjunction with a post-processing algorithm to operate on the MCNP-PoliMi output file. The purpose of this subroutine is to assemble the interactions into groups corresponding to the number of interactions which would occur during a given pulse. The resulting multiplicity distributions appear more realistic and capture the higher-order multiplets which are a product of multiple reactions occurring during a single accelerator pulse. Plans are underway to gather relevant experimental data to verify and validate the methodology developed and presented here. This capability will enable the simulation of a large number of materials and detector geometries. Analysis of this information will determine the feasibility of using multiplicity distributions as an identification tool for special nuclear material.

  3. Fast Interrogation of Fiber Bragg Gratings with Electro-Optical Dual Optical Frequency Combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Roman, Julio E; Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Poiana, Dragos A; Acedo, Pablo

    2016-11-26

    Optical frequency combs (OFC) generated by electro-optic modulation of continuous-wave lasers provide broadband coherent sources with high power per line and independent control of line spacing and the number of lines. In addition to their application in spectroscopy, they offer flexible and optimized sources for the interrogation of other sensors based on wavelength change or wavelength filtering, such as fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. In this paper, a dual-OFC FBG interrogation system based on a single laser and two optical-phase modulators is presented. This architecture allows for the configuration of multimode optical source parameters such as the number of modes and their position within the reflected spectrum of the FBG. A direct read-out is obtained by mapping the optical spectrum onto the radio-frequency spectrum output of the dual-comb. This interrogation scheme is proposed for measuring fast phenomena such as vibrations and ultrasounds. Results are presented for dual-comb operation under optimized control. The optical modes are mapped onto detectable tones that are multiples of 0.5 MHz around a center radiofrequency tone (40 MHz). Measurements of ultrasounds (40 kHz and 120 kHz) are demonstrated with this sensing system. Ultrasounds induce dynamic strain onto the fiber, which generates changes in the reflected Bragg wavelength and, hence, modulates the amplitude of the OFC modes within the reflected spectrum. The amplitude modulation of two counterphase tones is detected to obtain a differential measurement proportional to the ultrasound signal.

  4. Technician-Supported Remote Interrogation of CIEDs: Initial Use in US Emergency Departments and Perioperative Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imdad; Patel, Amisha S; Balgaard, Timothy J; Rosenfeld, Lynda E

    2016-03-01

    Interrogation/interpretation of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is frequently required in the emergency department (ED) or perioperative areas (OR) where resources to do this are often not available. CareLink Express (CLE; Medtronic, plc, Mounds View, MN, USA) is a technician-supported real-time remote interrogation system for Medtronic CIEDs. Using data from 136 US locations, this retrospective study was designed to assess CLE efficiency compared to traditional device management, and examine its findings. All 7,044 US CLE transmissions from the ED and OR (January 2012-October 2014) were compared to 217 traditional requests where CIED interrogations/interpretations were performed by calling industry representatives to these sites. CLE reduced the time to device interrogation/interpretation by 78%: 100 ± 140-22 ± 14 minutes, P < 0.0001, improving response time and consistency; ED: 82 ± 103-23 ± 18 minutes, P, ≤ 0.01; OR: 127 ± 181-17 ± 10 minutes, P < 0.0001. Actionable events (AE) (arrhythmia, device/lead abnormalities) were infrequent: 9.1% overall (ED: 9.9%; OR: 4.1%). Only 6.5% of patients with syncope/presyncope and 13.6% with a perceived shock had AE. AEs were more common in those with suspected device problems (30.4%) or audible alerts (52.6%). They were more likely in patients not enrolled in long-term remote monitoring (23.9% vs 8.2%, P < 0.0001) and in those with older CIED systems (7.4% in year 1 vs 31.0% after 10 years). The many patients with CIEDs, and the ability to quickly identify the minority with high-risk AE from the no/low-risk majority, strongly support CLE use in the ED and OR, sites which are expensive and prioritize efficiency. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Toward multi-area distributed network of implanted neural interrogators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Marc P.; Hou, Xiaoxiao; Galligan, Craig; Ashe, Jeffrey; Borton, David A.

    2017-08-01

    As we aim to improve our understanding of the brain, it is critical that researchers have simultaneous multi-area, large-scale access to the brain. Information processing in the brain occurs through close and distant coupling of functional sub-domains, as opposed to within isolated single neurons. However, commercially available neural interfaces capable of sensing electrophysiology of single neurons, currently allow access to only a small, mm3 volume of cortical cells, are not scalable to recording from orders of magnitude more neurons, and leverage bulky, skull mounted hardware and cabling sensitive to relative movements of the skull and brain. In this work, we propose a system capable of recording from many individual distributed neural interrogator nodes, untethered from any external electronics. Using an array of epidural inductive coils to wirelessly power the implanted electronics, the system is intended to be agnostic to the surgical placement of any individual node. Here, we demonstrate the ability to transmit nearly 15mW of power with greater than 50% power transfer efficiency, benchtop testing of individual subcircuit system components showing successful digitization of neural signals, and wireless transmission currently supporting a data rate of 3.84Mbps. We leverage a software defined radio based RF receiver to demodulate the data which can be stored in memory for later retrieval. Finally, we introduce a packaging technology capable of isolating active electronics from the surrounding tissue while providing capability for electrical feed-through assemblies for external neural interfacing. We expect, based on the presented preliminary findings, that the system can be integrated into a platform technology for the study of the intricate interactions between cortical domains.

  6. X-ray and neutron interrogation of air cargo for mobile applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Liew, Seth

    2015-06-01

    A system for scanning break-bulk cargo for mobile applications is presented. This combines a 140 kV multi-view, multi-energy X-ray system with 2.5 MeV neutrons. The system uses dual energy X-ray radiography with neutron radiography. The X-ray and neutron systems were designed to be collocated in a mobile environment. Various materials were interrogated with the intent of distinguishing threat materials such as explosives from similar benign materials. In particular, the identification of threats and bengins with nearly identical effective atomic numbers has been demonstrated.

  7. X-ray and neutron interrogation of air cargo for mobile applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Liew, Seth

    2015-01-01

    A system for scanning break-bulk cargo for mobile applications is presented. This combines a 140 kV multi-view, multi-energy X-ray system with 2.5 MeV neutrons. The system uses dual energy X-ray radiography with neutron radiography. The X-ray and neutron systems were designed to be collocated in a mobile environment. Various materials were interrogated with the intent of distinguishing threat materials such as explosives from similar benign materials. In particular, the identification of threats and bengins with nearly identical effective atomic numbers has been demonstrated

  8. [Research on symmetrical optical waveguide based surface plasmon resonance sensing with spectral interrogation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-long; Liu, Le; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Peng-fei; Guo, Ji-hua; Ma, Hui; He, Yong-hong

    2015-02-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors with spectral interrogation can adopt fiber to transmit light signals, thus leaving the sensing part separated, which is very convenient for miniaturization, remote-sensing and on-site analysis. Symmetrical optical waveguide (SOW) SPR has the same refractive index of the-two buffer media layers adjacent to the metal film, resulting in longer propagation distance, deeper penetration depth and better performance compared to conventional SPR In the present paper, we developed a symmetrical optical, waveguide (SOW) SPR sensor with wavelength interrogation. In the system, MgF2-Au-MgF2 film was used as SOW module for glucose sensing, and a fiber based light source and detection was used in the spectral interrogation. In the experiment, a refractive index resolution of 2.8 x 10(-7) RIU in fluid protocol was acquired. This technique provides advantages of high resolution and could have potential use in compact design, on-site analysis and remote sensing.

  9. TDM interrogation of intensity-modulated USFBGs network based on multichannel lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohollahnejad, Jalal; Xia, Li; Cheng, Rui; Ran, Yanli; Rahubadde, Udaya; Zhou, Jiaao; Zhu, Lin

    2017-01-23

    We report a large-scale multi-channel fiber sensing network, where ultra-short FBGs (USFBGs) instead of conventional narrow-band ultra-weak FBGs are used as the sensors. In the time division multiplexing scheme of the network, each grating response is resolved as three adjacent discrete peaks. The central wavelengths of USFBGs are tracked with the differential detection, which is achieved by calculating the peak-to-peak ratio of two maximum peaks. Compared with previous large-scale hybrid multiplexing sensing networks (e.g., WDM/TDM) which typically have relatively low interrogation speed and very high complexity, the proposed system can achieve interrogation of all channel sensors through very fast and simple intensity measurements with a broad dynamic range. A proof-of-concept experiment with twenty USFBGs, at two wavelength channels, was performed and a fast static strain measurements were demonstrated, with a high average sensitivity of ~0.54dB/µƐ and wide dynamic range of over ~3000µƐ. The channel to channel switching time was 10ms and total network interrogation time was 50ms.

  10. High-fidelity MCNP modeling of a D-T neutron generator for active interrogation of special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katalenich, Jeff; Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A.; Hartman, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Fast and robust methods for interrogation of special nuclear material (SNM) are of interest to many agencies and institutions in the United States. It is well known that passive interrogation methods are typically sufficient for plutonium identification because of a relatively high neutron production rate from 240 Pu . On the other hand, identification of shielded uranium requires active methods using neutron or photon sources . Deuterium-deuterium (2.45 MeV) and deuterium-tritium (14.1 MeV) neutron-generator sources have been previously tested and proven to be relatively reliable instruments for active interrogation of nuclear materials . In addition, the newest generators of this type are small enough for applications requiring portable interrogation systems. Active interrogation techniques using high-energy neutrons are being investigated as a method to detect hidden SNM in shielded containers . Due to the thickness of some containers, penetrating radiation such as high-energy neutrons can provide a potential means of probing shielded SNM. In an effort to develop the capability to assess the signal seen from various forms of shielded nuclear materials, University of Michigan Neutron Science Laboratory's D-T neutron generator and its shielding were accurately modeled in MCNP. The generator, while operating at nominal power, produces approximately 1x10 10 neutrons/s, a source intensity which requires a large amount of shielding to minimize the dose rates around the generator. For this reason, the existing shielding completely encompasses the generator and does not include beam ports. Therefore, several MCNP simulations were performed to estimate the yield of uncollided 14.1-MeV neutrons from the generator for active interrogation experiments. Beam port diameters of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm were modeled to assess the resulting neutron fluxes. The neutron flux outside the beam ports was estimated to be approximately 2x10 4 n/cm 2 s.

  11. Subthreshold neutron interrogator for detection of radioactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael L.; Menlove, Howard O.; Baker, Michael P.

    1980-01-01

    A device for detecting fissionable material such as uranium in low concentrations by interrogating with photoneutrons at energy levels below 500 keV, and typically about 26 keV. Induced fast neutrons having energies above 500 keV by the interrogated fissionable material are detected by a liquid scintillator or recoil proportional counter which is sensitive to the induced fast neutrons. Since the induced fast neutrons are proportional to the concentration of fissionable material, detection of induced fast neutrons indicate concentration of the fissionable material.

  12. A review of conventional explosives detection using active neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetstone, Z.D.; Kearfott, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional explosives are relatively easy to obtain and may cause massive harm to people and property. There are several tools employed by law enforcement to detect explosives, but these can be subverted. Active neutron interrogation is a viable alternative to those techniques, and includes: fast neutron analysis, thermal neutron analysis, pulsed fast/thermal neutron analysis, neutron elastic scatter, and fast neutron radiography. These methods vary based on neutron energy and radiation detected. A thorough review of the principles behind, advantages, and disadvantages of the different types of active neutron interrogation is presented. (author)

  13. Breaking the Egg Crate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rud, Anthony G., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews "The Tact of Teaching," Max van Manen; "Practice Makes Practice," Deborah Britzman; "Teacher Education and the Social Conditions of Schooling," Daniel Liston and Kenneth Zeichner; "The Teacher: Theory and Practice in Teacher Education," Allen Pearson. The books focus on social influences and context, cultural pedagogy, educational theory…

  14. Interrogating resilience: toward a typology to improve its operationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L. Davidson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of accelerated global change, the concept of resilience, with its roots in ecological theory and complex adaptive systems, has emerged as the favored framework for understanding and responding to the dynamics of change. Its transfer from ecological to social contexts, however, has led to the concept being interpreted in multiple ways across numerous disciplines causing significant challenges for its practical application. The aim of this paper is to improve conceptual clarity within resilience thinking so that resilience can be interpreted and articulated in ways that enhance its utility and explanatory power, not only theoretically but also operationally. We argue that the current confusion and ambiguity within resilience thinking is problematic for operationalizing the concept within policy making. To achieve our aim, we interrogate resilience interpretations used within a number of academic and practice domains in the forefront of contending with the disruptive and sometimes catastrophic effects of global change (primarily due to climate change on ecological and human-nature systems. We demonstrate evolution and convergence among disciplines in the interpretations and theoretical underpinnings of resilience and in engagement with cross-scale considerations. From our analysis, we identify core conceptual elements to be considered in policy responses if resilience is to fulfill its potential in improving decision making for change. We offer an original classification of resilience definitions in current use and a typology of resilience interpretations. We conclude that resilience thinking must be open to alternative traditions and interpretations if it is to become a theoretically and operationally powerful paradigm.

  15. Interrogative suggestibility, confabulation, and acquiescence in people with mild learning disabilities (mental handicap): implications for reliability during police interrogations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, I C; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-09-01

    In order to assess a criminal suspect's ability to make a reliable statement, performance on three measures--interrogative suggestibility, confabulation and acquiescence--may be used. This paper presents preliminary data on these measures for people with mild learning disabilities (Full Scale IQ [FSIQ]: 57-75). It was found that they were more suggestible than their average ability counterparts (FSIQ: 83-111) because they were much more susceptible to 'leading questions'. They also confabulated more and were more acquiescent. Overall, the data emphasized their potential vulnerability to giving erroneous testimony during interrogations.

  16. Interrogating Your Wisdom of Practice to Improve Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a heuristic for language teachers to articulate and explore their fundamental theories of and philosophical stances towards language, language learning, and language teaching. It includes tools with which teachers can interrogate those theories, weighing them up against their actual classroom practices. Through presenting…

  17. Learning about Posterior Probability: Do Diagrams and Elaborative Interrogation Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Virginia; Alibali, Martha W.; Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    To learn from a text, students must make meaningful connections among related ideas in that text. This study examined the effectiveness of two methods of improving connections--elaborative interrogation and diagrams--in written lessons about posterior probability. Undergraduate students (N = 198) read a lesson in one of three questioning…

  18. Postmortem ICD interrogation in mode of death classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Theodora; Johnson, Miriam J; Ghosh, Justin M; Marincowitz, Carl; Shah, Saumil; Lammiman, Michael J; Schilling, Richard J; Clark, Andrew L

    2018-04-01

    The definition of sudden death due to arrhythmia relies on the time interval between onset of symptoms and death. However, not all sudden deaths are due to arrhythmia. In patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), postmortem device interrogation may help better distinguish the mode of death compared to a time-based definition alone. This study aims to assess the proportion of "sudden" cardiac deaths in patients with an ICD that have confirmed arrhythmia. We conducted a literature search for studies using postmortem ICD interrogation and a time-based classification of the mode of death. A modified QUADAS-2 checklist was used to assess risk of bias in individual studies. Outcome data were pooled where sufficient data were available. Our search identified 22 studies undertaken between 1982 and 2015 with 23,600 participants. The pooled results (excluding studies with high risk of bias) suggest that ventricular arrhythmias are present at the time of death in 76% of "sudden" deaths (95% confidence interval [CI] 67-85; range 42-88). Postmortem ICD interrogation identifies 24% of "sudden" deaths to be nonarrhythmic. Postmortem device interrogation should be considered in all cases of unexplained sudden cardiac death. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Abraham L; Halpern, John H; Doherty, Sean B

    2008-09-25

    After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very aggressive techniques determined to be torture by many nations and organizations throughout the world. This paper explains why psychiatrists and psychologists involved in coercive interrogations violate the Geneva Conventions and the laws of the United States. Whether done with ignorance of professional ethical obligations or not, these psychiatrists and psychologists have crossed an ethical barrier that may best be averted from re-occurring by teaching medical students and residents in all medical specialties about the ethics principles stemming from the 1946-1947 Nuremberg trials and the Geneva Conventions, together with the Ethics Codes of the World Medical Association and the American Medical Association; and, with regard to psychiatric residents and psychological trainees, by the teaching about The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, respectively. In this way, all physicians and psychologists will clearly understand that they have an absolute moral obligation to "First, do no harm" to the human beings they professionally encounter.

  20. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halpern John H

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very aggressive techniques determined to be torture by many nations and organizations throughout the world. This paper explains why psychiatrists and psychologists involved in coercive interrogations violate the Geneva Conventions and the laws of the United States. Whether done with ignorance of professional ethical obligations or not, these psychiatrists and psychologists have crossed an ethical barrier that may best be averted from re-occurring by teaching medical students and residents in all medical specialties about the ethics principles stemming from the 1946–1947 Nuremberg trials and the Geneva Conventions, together with the Ethics Codes of the World Medical Association and the American Medical Association; and, with regard to psychiatric residents and psychological trainees, by the teaching about The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, respectively. In this way, all physicians and psychologists will clearly understand that they have an absolute moral obligation to "First, do no harm" to the human beings they professionally encounter.

  1. On the aesthetics of mimicry and proliferation: interrogations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines innovative modes of interrogating spectacles of State power in postcolonial dictatorship novels. Authoritarian power in the postcolonial public sphere perpetuates itself through practices that reiterate the prerogatives of State reason, national progress, national unity and the indispensability of the ...

  2. Interrogating Infanticide/ Child Euthanasia in the Roman Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is an attempt to examine infanticide practices in the Roman Christian era and interrogate infanticide and child euthanasia in the same era. It also attempts to point out infanticide practices in Abuja and makes a distinction between infanticide and child euthanasia in Abuja. The study employed ...

  3. Interrogating Public Sphere and Popular Culture as Theoretical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of its theoretical roots in Western liberal thinking, scholars in African studies such as Comaroffs, Mamdani and Ekeh have vigorously debated the extent to which the concept of civil society is useful in explaining and interrogating developments in Africa. However, the concept of the public sphere has been subjected ...

  4. Interrogating the topological robustness of gene regulatory circuits by randomization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important roles of cells is performing their cellular tasks properly for survival. Cells usually achieve robust functionality, for example, cell-fate decision-making and signal transduction, through multiple layers of regulation involving many genes. Despite the combinatorial complexity of gene regulation, its quantitative behavior has been typically studied on the basis of experimentally verified core gene regulatory circuitry, composed of a small set of important elements. It is still unclear how such a core circuit operates in the presence of many other regulatory molecules and in a crowded and noisy cellular environment. Here we report a new computational method, named random circuit perturbation (RACIPE, for interrogating the robust dynamical behavior of a gene regulatory circuit even without accurate measurements of circuit kinetic parameters. RACIPE generates an ensemble of random kinetic models corresponding to a fixed circuit topology, and utilizes statistical tools to identify generic properties of the circuit. By applying RACIPE to simple toggle-switch-like motifs, we observed that the stable states of all models converge to experimentally observed gene state clusters even when the parameters are strongly perturbed. RACIPE was further applied to a proposed 22-gene network of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT, from which we identified four experimentally observed gene states, including the states that are associated with two different types of hybrid Epithelial/Mesenchymal phenotypes. Our results suggest that dynamics of a gene circuit is mainly determined by its topology, not by detailed circuit parameters. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for circuit-based systems biology modeling. We anticipate RACIPE to be a powerful tool to predict and decode circuit design principles in an unbiased manner, and to quantitatively evaluate the robustness and heterogeneity of gene expression.

  5. Intrathecal Pump Exposure to Electromagnetic Interference: A Report of Device Interrogation following Multiple ECT Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicket, Mark C; Hanna, George M

    2016-02-01

    Intrathecal drug delivery systems represent an increasingly common treatment modality for patients with a variety of conditions, including chronic pain and spasticity. Pumps rely on electronic programming to properly control and administer highly concentrated medications. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a known exposure that may cause a potential patient safety issue stemming from direct patient injury, pump damage, or changes to pump operation or flow rate. The objective of our case report was to describe an approach to evaluating a patient with a pump prior to and following exposure to EMI from electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), as well as to document findings from device interrogations associated with this event. Case report. Academic university-based pain management center. We present the case of a patient with an intrathecal pump who underwent multiple exposures to EMI in the form of 42 ECT sessions. Interrogation of the intrathecal drug delivery system revealed no safety issues following ECT sessions. At no time were error messages, unintentional changes in event logs, unintentional changes in pump settings, or evidence of pump stall or over-infusion noted. Communication with multiple entities (patient, family, consulting physicians, and device manufacturer) and maintaining vigilance through device interrogation both before and after EMI exposure are appropriate safeguards to mitigate the risk and detect potential adverse events of EMI with intrathecal drug delivery systems. Given the infrequent reports of device exposure to ECT, best practices may be derived from experience with EMI exposure from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although routine EMI exposure to intrathecal drug delivery systems should be avoided, we describe one patient with repeated exposure to ECT without apparent complication.

  6. 25 CFR 11.303 - Notification of rights prior to custodial interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of rights prior to custodial interrogation. 11.303 Section 11.303 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER... to custodial interrogation. Prior to custodial interrogation, the suspect shall be advised of the...

  7. 75 FR 67632 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...-AG88 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by... National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (Pub. L. 111-84) prohibits the interrogation of..., to add DFARS 237.173, Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by Contractor Personnel, adding a...

  8. 29 CFR 18.611 - Mode and order of interrogation and presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mode and order of interrogation and presentation. 18.611... of interrogation and presentation. (a) Control by judge. The judge shall exercise reasonable control... interrogation and presentation effective for the ascertainment of the truth, (2) Avoid needless consumption of...

  9. From third degree to third generation interrogation strategies: putting science into the art of criminal interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    tacitly suggest that a confession is the fastest and best way to end the interrogation .73 71 Ibid...Kelly, and Miller found approximately 45 percent of civilian interrogators use it as well.292 Because this percentage suggests the technique is...TO THIRD-GENERATION INTERROGATION STRATEGIES: PUTTING SCIENCE INTO THE ART OF CRIMINAL INTERVIEWING by Desmond S. O’Neill March 2017

  10. Improving Reasoning and Recall: The Differential Effects of Elaborative Interrogation and Mnemonic Elaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Thomas E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Fifty-three adolescents with learning disabilities or mild mental retardation were taught reasons for dinosaur extinction. Those taught in a mnemonic elaborative interrogation condition recalled more reasons than did students who received direct teaching. Students in elaborative interrogation and mnemonic elaborative interrogation groups recalled…

  11. A quasi-distributed temperature sensor interrogated by a wavelength-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crunelle, C; Wuilpart, M; Caucheteur, C; Mégret, P

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we present a quasi-distributed temperature monitoring system based on the concatenation of identical low-reflective fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and interrogated by means of an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR). An original wavelength-sensitive system placed before the OTDR detector is used to analyze the reflected signal. This system allows the height of the FBG reflection peaks in the OTDR trace to depend on their resonance wavelength, and therefore to the local temperature. In addition, a simple but original reference method is proposed. The configuration of the whole interrogating device is kept very basic, as a standard OTDR and some passive components are used. The cost of the overall system is therefore very limited. In this note, the wavelength-sensitive system is studied in details, as well as the reference method. Experimental results are reported. (technical design note)

  12. O cidadão Sócrates e o filosofar numa democracia Socrates as a citizen and the act of philosophizing in a democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Goto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Examinando o julgamento de Sócrates (470-399 a.C. por Atenas, no contexto da Guerra do Peloponeso (431-404 a.C., este texto busca as raízes, as razões e os significados de sua condenação nas críticas relações entre o filósofo e seus concidadãos. Neste caso - justamente no que podemos chamar de ''o caso Sócrates'' - o filósofo aparece (de conformidade com a Apologia escrita por Platão como um cidadão-filósofo que desafia o Estado ateniense e incomoda seus concidadãos na medida em que exerce a cidadania como uma forma de filosofar e pratica a filosofia como um direito e um dever de cidadania.This article examines the trial of Socrates (470-399 B.C. by Athens, in the context of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C., searching for the roots, reasons and meanings of his condemnation in the critical relations between the philosopher and his fellow citizens. In this case - exactly in what we can call ''the Socrates case'' - the philosopher appears (according to Plato's Apology as a citizen-philosopher who challenges the Athenian State and disturbs his fellow citizens while he exercises citizenship as a form of philosophizing and practices philosophy as a right and a duty of citizenship.

  13. Fissile interrogation using gamma rays from oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald; Micklich, Bradley J.; Fessler, Andreas

    2004-04-20

    The subject apparatus provides a means to identify the presence of fissionable material or other nuclear material contained within an item to be tested. The system employs a portable accelerator to accelerate and direct protons to a fluorine-compound target. The interaction of the protons with the fluorine-compound target produces gamma rays which are directed at the item to be tested. If the item to be tested contains either a fissionable material or other nuclear material the interaction of the gamma rays with the material contained within the test item with result in the production of neutrons. A system of neutron detectors is positioned to intercept any neutrons generated by the test item. The results from the neutron detectors are analyzed to determine the presence of a fissionable material or other nuclear material.

  14. Interrogation of duplicitous stars with an APT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Bernard W.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results from intensive spectroscopic and APT monitoring of two interacting binary systems are presented. Both V644 Mon (Be + K:) and HD 37453 (F5 II + B) show complex, composite, and variable spectral. APT observations extending over three years show both stars to vary by 0.1-0.2 mag in V. The photometric variability of V644 Mon appears to be irregular, though there is some evidence for periodic behavior in the 50-60 day range. HD 37453 has an orbital period of 66.75 days; the best-fit photometric period is not quite half this value, indicating the star is an ellipsoidal variable.

  15. Fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogators on chip: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Yisbel; Nannipieri, Tiziano; Oton, Claudio J.; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the current efforts towards integration of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor interrogators. Different photonic integration platforms will be discussed, including monolithic planar lightwave circuit technology, silicon on insulator (SOI), indium phosphide (InP) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) material platforms. Also various possible techniques for wavelength metering and methods for FBG multiplexing will be discussed and compared in terms of resolution, dynamic performance, multiplexing capabilities and reliability. The use of linear filters, array waveguide gratings (AWG) as multiple linear filters and AWG based centroid signal processing techniques will be addressed as well as interrogation techniques based on tunable micro-ring resonators and Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI) for phase sensitive detection. The paper will also discuss the challenges and perspectives of photonic integration to address the increasing requirements of several industrial applications.

  16. Fast Interrogation of Fiber Bragg Gratings with Electro-Optical Dual Optical Frequency Combs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E. Posada-Roman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical frequency combs (OFC generated by electro-optic modulation of continuous-wave lasers provide broadband coherent sources with high power per line and independent control of line spacing and the number of lines. In addition to their application in spectroscopy, they offer flexible and optimized sources for the interrogation of other sensors based on wavelength change or wavelength filtering, such as fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors. In this paper, a dual-OFC FBG interrogation system based on a single laser and two optical-phase modulators is presented. This architecture allows for the configuration of multimode optical source parameters such as the number of modes and their position within the reflected spectrum of the FBG. A direct read-out is obtained by mapping the optical spectrum onto the radio-frequency spectrum output of the dual-comb. This interrogation scheme is proposed for measuring fast phenomena such as vibrations and ultrasounds. Results are presented for dual-comb operation under optimized control. The optical modes are mapped onto detectable tones that are multiples of 0.5 MHz around a center radiofrequency tone (40 MHz. Measurements of ultrasounds (40 kHz and 120 kHz are demonstrated with this sensing system. Ultrasounds induce dynamic strain onto the fiber, which generates changes in the reflected Bragg wavelength and, hence, modulates the amplitude of the OFC modes within the reflected spectrum. The amplitude modulation of two counterphase tones is detected to obtain a differential measurement proportional to the ultrasound signal.

  17. Interrogation of Detainees: Requirements of the Detainee Treatment Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-26

    providing legal protections and assistance to U.S. personnel subjected to legal action on account of their involvement in the authorized interrogation of...types of actions prohibited by the U.S. Constitution. There is some legal dispute as to whether CAT Article 16, as read in light of U.S. reservations... unconstitutionally harsh than it would use to assess whether those same techniques were unconstitutional if employed against an enemy combatant in a war zone

  18. Educing Information - Interrogation: Science and Art, Foundations for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    imprisonment as an integral component of the inquisitor’s interrogation strategy…. [C]oupled if necessary, with hunger , shackles, and torture…[it...computer science with a concentration in machine intelligence and cognition, and minors in neuropsychology and developmental psychology, from The George...a solid theoretical base, then a signifi cant research investment into the underlying neuropsychological mechanisms of deception must be made before

  19. Rabbit System. Low cost, high reliability front end electronics featuring 16 bit dynamic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, G.; Droege, T.F.; Nelson, C.A. Jr.; Turner, K.J.; Ohska, T.K.

    1985-10-01

    A new crate-based front end system has been built which features low cost, compact packaging, command capability, 16 bit dynamic range digitization, and a high degree of redundancy. The crate can contain a variety of instrumentation modules, and is designed to be situated close to the detector. The system is suitable for readout of a large number of channels via parallel multiprocessor data acquisition

  20. Microwave Wire Interrogation Method Mapping Pressure under High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that wireless reading for in-situ mapping of pressure under high-temperature environments is the most feasible method, because it is not subject to frequent heterogeneous jointing failures and electrical conduction deteriorating, or even disappearing, under heat load. However, in this article, we successfully demonstrate an in-situ pressure sensor with wire interrogation for high-temperature applications. In this proof-of-concept study of the pressure sensor, we used a microwave resonator as a pressure-sensing component and a microwave transmission line as a pressure characteristic interrogation tunnel. In the sensor, the line and resonator are processed into a monolith, avoiding a heterogeneous jointing failure; further, microwave signal transmission does not depend on electrical conduction, and consequently, the sensor does not suffer from the heat load. We achieve pressure monitoring under 400 °C when employing the sensor simultaneously. Our sensor avoids restrictions that exist in wireless pressure interrogations, such as environmental noise and interference, signal leakage and security, low transfer efficiency, and so on.

  1. Fissile mass estimation by pulsed neutron source interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israelashvili, I., E-mail: israelashvili@gmail.com [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Dubi, C.; Ettedgui, H.; Ocherashvili, A. [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Pedersen, B. [Nuclear Security Unit, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, Via E. Fermi, 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Beck, A. [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Roesgen, E.; Crochmore, J.M. [Nuclear Security Unit, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, Via E. Fermi, 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Ridnik, T.; Yaar, I. [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel)

    2015-06-11

    Passive methods for detecting correlated neutrons from spontaneous fissions (e.g. multiplicity and SVM) are widely used for fissile mass estimations. These methods can be used for fissile materials that emit a significant amount of fission neutrons (like plutonium). Active interrogation, in which fissions are induced in the tested material by an external continuous source or by a pulsed neutron source, has the potential advantages of fast measurement, alongside independence of the spontaneous fissions of the tested fissile material, thus enabling uranium measurement. Until recently, using the multiplicity method, for uranium mass estimation, was possible only for active interrogation made with continues neutron source. Pulsed active neutron interrogation measurements were analyzed with techniques, e.g. differential die away analysis (DDA), which ignore or implicitly include the multiplicity effect (self-induced fission chains). Recently, both, the multiplicity and the SVM techniques, were theoretically extended for analyzing active fissile mass measurements, made by a pulsed neutron source. In this study the SVM technique for pulsed neutron source is experimentally examined, for the first time. The measurements were conducted at the PUNITA facility of the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy. First promising results, of mass estimation by the SVM technique using a pulsed neutron source, are presented.

  2. On Functional Potential of Interrogative Structures in Academic Linguistic Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Trofimovich Nefedov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the language of scientific communication in the field of linguistics, namely, with the functional potential of the interrogative structures in the form of direct and embedded questions. From a pragmatic perspective the interrogative structures does not seem to be compatible with the contexts of scientific interaction: scientists do not ask for information, but they offer their own solutions for the problem situations. This is reflected in the extremely low frequency of questions in academic research articles and monographs. Their text frequency works out a little over 2 % of the total number of the text predications and that of direct questions is about 1 %. Therefore, their place in verbalization of scientific knowledge in linguistics is metaphorically characterized in this article as «interrogative prohibition» by analogy with the «prohibitions» of Harald Weinrich who introduced several notions point to rarely used linguistic units: «prohibition of authorization» – das «Ich-Verbot», «narrative prohibition» – das «Erzähl-Verbot»; «prohibition of metaphors»– das «MetaphernVerbot». In its turn, low frequency makes the analyzed structures an effective tool to formulate the discussed problems, enables further argumentation, integrate the current text into overall linguistic discourse, control the development of the argumentation in scientific text and finally to draw the recipient's attention to a crucial or unexpected argument.

  3. Photonic Interrogation and Control of Nano Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassemnejad, Baha

    2003-01-01

    My research activities for the summer of 2003 consisted of two projects: One project was concerned with determining a method for predicting the static and dynamic assembly properties of nano-structures using laser tweezers. The other project was to investigate the generation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes using a spatial light modulator incorporated into an optical tweezers system. Concerning the first project, I initially pursued the approach suggested by my NASA colleague Dr. Art Decker. This approach involved mimicking the model of the structure of atomic nucleus for the assembly of 1 to 100 atoms using allowed quadruple transitions induced by orbital angular momentums of a Laguerre- Gaussian (Doughnut) laser mode. After realizing the inaptness of the nuclear model with the nanostructure model as far as the binding forces and transitions were concerned, I focused on using quantum dot modei. This model was not attuned also for the host lattice influences the electronic structure of the quantum dot. Thus one other option that I decided to pursue was the approach of molecular quantum mechanics. In this approach the nanostructure is treated as a large (10-100 nm) molecule constructed from single element or multi-elements. Subsequent to consultation with Dr. Fred Morales, a chemical engineer at NASA GRC, and Dr. David Ball, a computational chemist at Cleveland State University, I acquired a molecular-quantum computation software, Hyperchem 7.0. This software allows simulation of different molecular structures as far as their static and dynamic behaviors are concerned. The time that I spent on this project was about eight weeks. Once this suitable approach was identified, I realized the need to collaborate with a computational quantum chemist to pursue searching for stable nanostructures in the range of 10-100 nm that we can be assembled using laser tweezers. The second project was about generating laser tweezers that possess orbital angular momentum. As shown, we were

  4. Interrogations to Learn from the Fukushima Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisquet, E.; Jeffroy, F.

    2016-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake in eastern Japan caused the reactors in operation at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) to trip. The emergency generators started and then suddenly failed following the tsunami. The cooling water injection system no longer worked. Suddenly plunged into total darkness, the operators had to manage the accident. Starting from the official reports and testimonies on the Fukushima accident, IRSN has conducted a survey “Human and Organizational Factors Perspective on the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.” Four years after the accident, however, as more witness accounts become available, IRSN feels it useful to return to the human and organizational response to the accident inside the NPP itself. To what extent can the participants act and coordinate their actions when faced with such a dramatic situation? To what degree did their actions contribute to the disaster? Rather than looking at the causes of the accident, this study examines the unfolding of the crisis, particularly in the most urgent early stages, and draws lessons for safety culture from the decisions and actions of key actors. The main results would be presented in three key areas: 1. How to make sense of the situation? People had to make sense of what happened and create new indicators. Since instruments and controls, as well as many communication technologies, were knocked out by the tsunami, all the standard means of determining the status of the reactors were impossible. Although they were under normal circumstances almost completely dependent on these indicators, and although (or because) their lives were most directly at risk, the operators managed this uncertainty through various means that will be successively presented. 2. What are the challenges for the emergency structure? The Emergency Response Center (ERC) operations team was responsible for being in contact with the operators in the control rooms and providing them technical support as needed. The ERC

  5. A Kinematically Beamed, Low Energy Pulsed Neutron Source for Active Interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, D.; Hagmann, C.; Kerr, P.; Nakae, L.; Rowland, M.; Snyderman, N.; Stoeffl, W.; Hamm, R.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing a new active interrogation system based on a kinematically focused low energy neutron beam. The key idea is that one of the defining characteristics of SNM (Special Nuclear Materials) is the ability for low energy or thermal neutrons to induce fission. Thus by using low energy neutrons for the interrogation source we can accomplish three goals, (1) Energy discrimination allows us to measure the prompt fast fission neutrons produced while the interrogation beam is on; (2) Neutrons with an energy of approximately 60 to 100 keV do not fission 238U and Thorium, but penetrate bulk material nearly as far as high energy neutrons do and (3) below about 100keV neutrons lose their energy by kinematical collisions rather than via the nuclear (n,2n) or (n,n') processes thus further simplifying the prompt neutron induced background. 60 keV neutrons create a low radiation dose and readily thermal capture in normal materials, thus providing a clean spectroscopic signature of the intervening materials. The kinematically beamed source also eliminates the need for heavy backward and sideway neutron shielding. We have designed and built a very compact pulsed neutron source, based on an RFQ proton accelerator and a lithium target. We are developing fast neutron detectors that are nearly insensitive to the ever-present thermal neutron and neutron capture induced gamma ray background. The detection of only a few high energy fission neutrons in time correlation with the linac pulse will be a clear indication of the presence of SNM

  6. Evaluation of fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation using InGaAs linear detector arrays and Gaussian approximation on embedded hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurabh; Amrutur, Bharadwaj; Asokan, Sundarrajan

    2018-02-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have become popular for applications related to structural health monitoring, biomedical engineering, and robotics. However, for successful large scale adoption, FBG interrogation systems are as important as sensor characteristics. Apart from accuracy, the required number of FBG sensors per fiber and the distance between the device in which the sensors are used and the interrogation system also influence the selection of the interrogation technique. For several measurement devices developed for applications in biomedical engineering and robotics, only a few sensors per fiber are required and the device is close to the interrogation system. For these applications, interrogation systems based on InGaAs linear detector arrays provide a good choice. However, their resolution is dependent on the algorithms used for curve fitting. In this work, a detailed analysis of the choice of algorithm using the Gaussian approximation for the FBG spectrum and the number of pixels used for curve fitting on the errors is provided. The points where the maximum errors occur have been identified. All comparisons for wavelength shift detection have been made against another interrogation system based on the tunable swept laser. It has been shown that maximum errors occur when the wavelength shift is such that one new pixel is included for curve fitting. It has also been shown that an algorithm with lower computation cost compared to the more popular methods using iterative non-linear least squares estimation can be used without leading to the loss of accuracy. The algorithm has been implemented on embedded hardware, and a speed-up of approximately six times has been observed.

  7. Digitally controlled chirped pulse laser for sub-terahertz-range fiber structure interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Hefferman, Gerald; Wei, Tao

    2017-03-01

    This Letter reports a sweep velocity-locked laser pulse generator controlled using a digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) circuit. This design is used for the interrogation of sub-terahertz-range fiber structures for sensing applications that require real-time data collection with millimeter-level spatial resolution. A distributed feedback laser was employed to generate chirped laser pulses via injection current modulation. A DPLL circuit was developed to lock the optical frequency sweep velocity. A high-quality linearly chirped laser pulse with a frequency excursion of 117.69 GHz at an optical communication band was demonstrated. The system was further adopted to interrogate a continuously distributed sub-terahertz-range fiber structure (sub-THz-fs) for sensing applications. A strain test was conducted in which the sub-THz-fs showed a linear response to longitudinal strain change with predicted sensitivity. Additionally, temperature testing was conducted in which a heat source was used to generate a temperature distribution along the fiber structure to demonstrate its distributed sensing capability. A Gaussian temperature profile was measured using the described system and tracked in real time, as the heat source was moved.

  8. Amor celeste e amor terrestre: o encontro de Alcibíades e Sócrates em O banquete, de Platão

    OpenAIRE

    Gutman, Guilherme

    2009-01-01

    Neste texto realiza-se uma introdução à leitura de O banquete, de Platão, em especial de seu último trecho, ao qual corresponde o encontro de Alcibíades e Sócrates. Procurou-se ainda, indicar algumas discussões despertadas por esse diálogo platônico; principalmente aquelas que fazem referência às relações entre a filosofia, a literatura e a psicanálise. En este texto se realiza una introducción a la lectura de El Banquete, de Platón; especialmente del último trecho, que corresponde al encu...

  9. PRODUCE BUYING AND MARKETING BOARDS IN NIGERIA: INTERROGATING THE FISCAL ROLE OF WESTERN NIGERIA MARKETING BOARD 1942-1962

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyinka Theresa Ajayi; Ajibade Idowu Samuel; Oladiti Abiodun Akeem

    2017-01-01

    Marketing Board system was one of the mechanisms of British colonial policy in Nigeria. Primary products were channeled through the Boards to Europe at the expense of both the Nigerian state and the farmers, the producers of these commodities. This study examines produce buying via Marketing Boards in Nigeria and specifically interrogates the fiscal role of Western Nigeria Marketing Board. It argues that the Marketing Boards, in spite of their exploitative nature was beneficial to the regiona...

  10. New chemical approach to obtain dense layer phosphate-based ionic conductor coating on negative electrode material surface: Synthesis way, outgassing and improvement of C-rate capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleutot, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.fleutot@u-picardie.fr [Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, CNRS UMR 7314, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l’Energie (RS2E), CNRS FR3459 (France); Davoisne, Carine; Gachot, Grégory; Cavalaglio, Sébastien; Grugeon, Sylvie; Viallet, Virginie [Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, CNRS UMR 7314, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l’Energie (RS2E), CNRS FR3459 (France)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Dense layer coating of based-phosphate ionic conductor obtained by spray-drying. • Influence of dense ionic conductor at the negative surface material on performances. • Impact of dense ionic conductor coating on outgassing phenomena. - Abstract: Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} (LTO) based batteries have severe gassing behavior during charge/discharge and storage process, due to interfacial reactions between active material and electrolyte solution. In the same time, the electronic and ionic conductivity of pristine LTO is very poor and induces the use of nanoparticles which increase the outgassing phenomena. The coating of LTO particles could be a solution. For this the LTO spinel particles are modified with ionic conductor Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} coating using a spray-drying method. For the first time a homogeneous thin dense layer phosphate based conductor is obtained without nanoparticles, as a thin film material. It is so possible to study the influence of ionic conductor deposited on the negative electrode material on performances by the controlled layer thickness. This coating was characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS and TEM. The electrochemical performance of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} coated Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} is improved at high C-rate by the surface modification (improvement of 30 mAh g{sup −1} at 5 C-rate compared to pristine LTO for 5 nm of coating), inducing by a modification of surface energy. An optimum coating thickness was studied. This type of coating allows a significant decrease of outgassing phenomena due the conformal coating and opens the way to a great number of studies and new technologies.

  11. Effect of variability in lighting and temperature environments for mature gilts housed in gestation crates on measures of reproduction and animal well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaday, D C; Salak-Johnson, J L; Visconti, A M; Wang, X; Bhalerao, K; Knox, R V

    2013-03-01

    The effects of room temperature and light intensity before breeding and into early gestation were evaluated on the reproductive performance and well-being of gilts housed individually in crates. In eight replicates, estrus was synchronized in mature gilts (n = 198) and after last feeding of Matrix were randomly assigned to a room temperature of 15°C (COLD), 21°C (NEUTRAL), or 30°C (HOT) and a light intensity of 11 (DIM) or 433 (BRIGHT) lx. Estrous detection was performed daily and gilts inseminated twice. Blood samples were collected before and after breeding for determination of immune measures and cortisol concentrations. Gilt ADFI, BW, and body temperature were measured. On d 30 postbreeding, gilts were slaughtered to recover reproductive tracts to evaluate pregnancy and litter characteristics. There were no temperature × light intensity interactions for any response variable. Reproductive measures of follicle development, expression of estrus, ovulation rate, pregnancy rate (83.2%), litter size (14.3 ± 0.5), and fetal measures were not affected by temperature or lighting (P > 0.10). Gilts in COLD (37.6°C) had a lower (P postural changes (P 0.10) of light or interaction with temperature on other immune cells or measures. These results indicate that temperatures in the range of 15 to 30°C or light intensity at 11 to 433 lx do not impact reproduction during the follicular phase and into early gestation for mature gilts housed in gestation crates. However, room temperature does impact physiological, behavioral, and immune responses of mature gilts and should be considered as a potential factor that may influence gilt well-being during the first 30 d postbreeding.

  12. New chemical approach to obtain dense layer phosphate-based ionic conductor coating on negative electrode material surface: Synthesis way, outgassing and improvement of C-rate capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleutot, Benoit; Davoisne, Carine; Gachot, Grégory; Cavalaglio, Sébastien; Grugeon, Sylvie; Viallet, Virginie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Dense layer coating of based-phosphate ionic conductor obtained by spray-drying. • Influence of dense ionic conductor at the negative surface material on performances. • Impact of dense ionic conductor coating on outgassing phenomena. - Abstract: Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 (LTO) based batteries have severe gassing behavior during charge/discharge and storage process, due to interfacial reactions between active material and electrolyte solution. In the same time, the electronic and ionic conductivity of pristine LTO is very poor and induces the use of nanoparticles which increase the outgassing phenomena. The coating of LTO particles could be a solution. For this the LTO spinel particles are modified with ionic conductor Li_3PO_4 coating using a spray-drying method. For the first time a homogeneous thin dense layer phosphate based conductor is obtained without nanoparticles, as a thin film material. It is so possible to study the influence of ionic conductor deposited on the negative electrode material on performances by the controlled layer thickness. This coating was characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS and TEM. The electrochemical performance of Li_3PO_4 coated Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 is improved at high C-rate by the surface modification (improvement of 30 mAh g"−"1 at 5 C-rate compared to pristine LTO for 5 nm of coating), inducing by a modification of surface energy. An optimum coating thickness was studied. This type of coating allows a significant decrease of outgassing phenomena due the conformal coating and opens the way to a great number of studies and new technologies.

  13. CODA: A scalable, distributed data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.A. III; Chen, J.; Heyes, G.; Jastrzembski, E.; Quarrie, D.

    1994-01-01

    A new data acquisition system has been designed for physics experiments scheduled to run at CEBAF starting in the summer of 1994. This system runs on Unix workstations connected via ethernet, FDDI, or other network hardware to multiple intelligent front end crates -- VME, CAMAC or FASTBUS. CAMAC crates may either contain intelligent processors, or may be interfaced to VME. The system is modular and scalable, from a single front end crate and one workstation linked by ethernet, to as may as 32 clusters of front end crates ultimately connected via a high speed network to a set of analysis workstations. The system includes an extensible, device independent slow controls package with drivers for CAMAC, VME, and high voltage crates, as well as a link to CEBAF accelerator controls. All distributed processes are managed by standard remote procedure calls propagating change-of-state requests, or reading and writing program variables. Custom components may be easily integrated. The system is portable to any front end processor running the VxWorks real-time kernel, and to most workstations supplying a few standard facilities such as rsh and X-windows, and Motif and socket libraries. Sample implementations exist for 2 Unix workstation families connected via ethernet or FDDI to VME (with interfaces to FASTBUS or CAMAC), and via ethernet to FASTBUS or CAMAC

  14. Magnetic Nanotweezers for Interrogating Biological Processes in Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Wook; Jeong, Hee-Kyung; Southard, Kaden M; Jun, Young-Wook; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2018-04-17

    The ability to sense and manipulate the state of biological systems has been extensively advanced during the past decade with the help of recent developments in physical tools. Unlike standard genetic and pharmacological perturbation techniques-knockdown, overexpression, small molecule inhibition-that provide a basic on/off switching capability, these physical tools provide the capacity to control the spatial, temporal, and mechanical properties of the biological targets. Among the various physical cues, magnetism offers distinct advantages over light or electricity. Magnetic fields freely penetrate biological tissues and are already used for clinical applications. As one of the unique features, magnetic fields can be transformed into mechanical stimuli which can serve as a cue in regulating biological processes. However, their biological applications have been limited due to a lack of high-performance magnetism-to-mechanical force transducers with advanced spatiotemporal capabilities. In this Account, we present recent developments in magnetic nanotweezers (MNTs) as a useful tool for interrogating the spatiotemporal control of cells in living tissue. MNTs are composed of force-generating magnetic nanoparticles and field generators. Through proper design and the integration of individual components, MNTs deliver controlled mechanical stimulation to targeted biomolecules at any desired space and time. We first discuss about MNT configuration with different force-stimulation modes. By modulating geometry of the magnetic field generator, MNTs exert pulling, dipole-dipole attraction, and rotational forces to the target specifically and quantitatively. We discuss the key physical parameters determining force magnitude, which include magnetic field strength, magnetic field gradient, magnetic moment of the magnetic particle, as well as distance between the field generator and the particle. MNTs also can be used over a wide range of biological time scales. By simply

  15. Analytical protocol to study the food safety of (multiple-)recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP) crates: Influence of recycling on the migration and formation of degradation products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulier, L.; Orbons, H.G.M.; Rijk, R.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical protocol was set up and successfully applied to study the food safety of recycled HDPE and PP crates. A worst-case scenario was applied that focused not only on overall migration and specific migration of accepted starting materials but also on migratable degradation products of

  16. Metabolic interrogation as a tool to optimize chemotherapeutic regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandulache, Vlad C; Chen, Yunyun; Feng, Lei; William, William N; Skinner, Heath D; Myers, Jeffrey N; Meyn, Raymond E; Li, Jinzhong; Mijiti, Ainiwaer; Bankson, James A; Fuller, Clifton D; Konopleva, Marina Y; Lai, Stephen Y

    2017-03-14

    Platinum-based (Pt) chemotherapy is broadly utilized in the treatment of cancer. Development of more effective, personalized treatment strategies require identification of novel biomarkers of treatment response. Since Pt compounds are inactivated through cellular metabolic activity, we hypothesized that metabolic interrogation can predict the effectiveness of Pt chemotherapy in a pre-clinical model of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).We tested the effects of cisplatin (CDDP) and carboplatin (CBP) on DNA damage, activation of cellular death cascades and tumor cell metabolism, specifically lactate production. Pt compounds induced an acute dose-dependent, transient drop in lactate generation in vitro, which correlated with effects on DNA damage and cell death. Neutralization of free radical stress abrogated these effects. The magnitude of this effect on lactate production correlated with the differential sensitivity of HNSCC cells to Pt compounds (CDDP vs CBP) and p53-driven Pt chemotherapy resistance. Using dual flank xenograft tumors, we demonstrated that Pt-driven effects on lactate levels correlate with effects on tumor growth delay in a dose-dependent manner and that lactate levels can define the temporal profile of Pt chemotherapy-induced metabolic stress. Lactate interrogation also predicted doxorubicin effects on cell death in both solid tumor (HNSCC) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cell lines.Real-time metabolic interrogation of acute changes in cell and tumor lactate levels reflects chemotherapy effects on DNA damage, cell death and tumor growth delay. We have identified a real-time biomarker of chemotherapy effectiveness which can be used to develop adaptive, iterative and personalized treatment regimens against a variety of solid and hematopoietic malignancies.

  17. Fissile materials in solution concentration measured by active neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Passard, Ch.; Cloue, J.; Bignan, G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of the active neutron interrogation to measure the concentration of plutonium contained in flow solutions is particularly interesting for fuel reprocessing plants. Indeed, this method gives a signal which is in a direct relation with the fissile materials concentration. Moreover, it is less sensitive to the gamma dose rate than the other nondestructive methods. Two measure methods have been evolved in CEA. Their principles are given into details in this work. The first one consists to detect fission delayed neutrons induced by a 252 Cf source. In the second one fission prompt neutrons induced by a neutron generator of 14 MeV are detected. (O.M.)

  18. Lawfulness of Interrogation Techniques under the Geneva Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-08

    on Interrogation Process (June 22, 2004), available at [http://www.defenselink.mil/releases/2004/ nr20040622-0930.html]. 2 See A. J . BARKER, PRISONERS...U.S. ARMY JUDGE ADVOCATE SCHOOL, LAW OF WAR WORKSHOP DESKBOOK 83 (CDR Brian J . Bill, ed. 2000) [hereinafter “ L O W D E S K B O O K ” ] , a v a i l...or purpose behind the conduct is a prohibited purpose. See Prosecutor v. Kunarac, Kovac and Vukovic , Nos. IT-96-23 and IT-96-23/11, para. 486 (ITCY

  19. Dynamic Sensor Interrogation Using Wavelength-Swept Laser with a Polygon-Scanner-Based Wavelength Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Seok; Ko, Myeong Ock; Jung, Mi Sun; Park, Ik Gon; Kim, Namje; Han, Sang-Pil; Ryu, Han-Cheol; Park, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Min Yong

    2013-01-01

    We report a high-speed (∼2 kHz) dynamic multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation using a wavelength-swept laser (WSL) with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter. The scanning frequency of the WSL is 18 kHz, and the 10 dB scanning bandwidth is more than 90 nm around a center wavelength of 1,540 nm. The output from the WSL is coupled into the multiplexed FBG array, which consists of five FBGs. The reflected Bragg wavelengths of the FBGs are 1,532.02 nm, 1,537.84 nm, 1,543.48 nm, 1,547.98 nm, and 1,553.06 nm, respectively. A dynamic periodic strain ranging from 500 Hz to 2 kHz is applied to one of the multiplexed FBGs, which is fixed on the stage of the piezoelectric transducer stack. Good dynamic performance of the FBGs and recording of their fast Fourier transform spectra have been successfully achieved with a measuring speed of 18 kHz. The signal-to-noise ratio and the bandwidth over the whole frequency span are determined to be more than 30 dB and around 10 Hz, respectively. We successfully obtained a real-time measurement of the abrupt change of the periodic strain. The dynamic FBG sensor interrogation system can be read out with a WSL for high-speed and high-sensitivity real-time measurement. PMID:23899934

  20. Characterization of lipid films by an angle-interrogation surface plasmon resonance imaging device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linlin; Wang, Qiong; Yang, Zhong; Wang, Wangang; Hu, Ning; Luo, Hongyan; Liao, Yanjian; Zheng, Xiaolin; Yang, Jun

    2015-04-01

    Surface topographies of lipid films have an important significance in the analysis of the preparation of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). In order to achieve accurately high-throughput and rapidly analysis of surface topographies of lipid films, a homemade SPR imaging device is constructed based on the classical Kretschmann configuration and an angle interrogation manner. A mathematical model is developed to accurately describe the shift including the light path in different conditions and the change of the illumination point on the CCD camera, and thus a SPR curve for each sampling point can also be achieved, based on this calculation method. The experiment results show that the topographies of lipid films formed in distinct experimental conditions can be accurately characterized, and the measuring resolution of the thickness lipid film may reach 0.05 nm. Compared with existing SPRi devices, which realize detection by monitoring the change of the reflective-light intensity, this new SPRi system can achieve the change of the resonance angle on the entire sensing surface. Thus, it has higher detection accuracy as the traditional angle-interrogation SPR sensor, with much wider detectable range of refractive index. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interrogating scarcity: how to think about ‘resource-scarce settings’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Ted

    2013-01-01

    The idea of resource scarcity permeates health ethics and health policy analysis in various contexts. However, health ethics inquiry seldom asks—as it should—why some settings are ‘resource-scarce’ and others not. In this article I describe interrogating scarcity as a strategy for inquiry into questions of resource allocation within a single political jurisdiction and, in particular, as an approach to the issue of global health justice in an interconnected world. I demonstrate its relevance to the situation of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with brief descriptions of four elements of contemporary globalization: trade agreements; the worldwide financial marketplace and capital flight; structural adjustment; imperial geopolitics and foreign policy. This demonstration involves not only health care, but also social determinants of health. Finally, I argue that interrogating scarcity provides the basis for a new, critical approach to health policy at the interface of ethics and the social sciences, with specific reference to market fundamentalism as the value system underlying contemporary globalization. PMID:22899597

  2. Interferometric interrogation concepts for integrated electro-optical sensor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikkink, T.J.; Ikkink, Teunis Jan

    1998-01-01

    Integrated optical sensors have a high potential in the measurement of a large variety of measurands. Research on integrated optical sensors enjoys increasing interest. In order to reach accurate performance and to facilitate the use of integrated optical sensors, electronic functions for sensor

  3. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory [Adelphi Technology LLC, Purdue Technology Center, 5225 Exploration Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46241 (United States); Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J. [Rapiscan Laboratories, 520 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan [Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  4. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory; Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J.; Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  5. Assessment of damage in composite laminates through dynamic, full-spectral interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propst, A; Peters, K; Zikry, M A; Schultz, S; Kunzler, W; Zhu, Z; Wirthlin, M; Selfridge, R

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the full-spectral interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor at 535 Hz. The sensor is embedded in a woven, graphite fiber–epoxy composite laminate subjected to multiple low-velocity impacts. The measurement of unique, time dependent spectral features from the FBG sensor permits classification of the laminate lifetime into five regimes. These damage regimes compare well with previous analysis of the same material system using combined global and local FBG sensor information. Observed transient spectral features include peak splitting, wide spectral broadening and a strong single peak at the end of the impact event. Such features could not be measured through peak wavelength interrogation of the FBG sensor. Cross-correlation of the measured spectra with the original embedded FBG spectrum permitted rapid visualization of average strains and the presence of transverse compressive strain on the optical fiber, but smeared out the details of the spectral profile

  6. TFTR CAMAC instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Gatto, H.J.; Bradish, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The TFTR Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) system makes extensive use of CAMAC equipment. The system consists of eight CAMAC highways operating from eight Gould 75/32 computers. Links up to 3.5 miles in length with more than fifty CAMAC crates have been implemented and are currently in use. Data transfer along the highway is implemented in bit serial format. The link speed is run at 5MHz. The length and complexity of the link requires the reformatting of the NRZ input/output format of the L-2 crate controller. U-Port adapter modules are used to interface the modified serial highway to the L-2 controllers. The modified serial highway uses a transmission technique that requires the distribution of both Bi-Phase encoded data and a 5MHz clock. The Serial Driver interfaces to the GOULD computer through use of a High Speed Data (HSD) interface board which attaches to the computers internal bus. All transfers to and from the computer are accomplished by direct memory access (DMA). In addition to the standard CAMAC link the system also includes a Block Transfer (BT) system. This system provides an alternate path for transferring data between the computers and the CAMAC modules. The BT system is interfaced to the host computers through HSD boards and to the CAMAC crates through use of an auxiliary crate controllers

  7. Police interviewing and interrogation of juvenile suspects: a descriptive examination of actual cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Hayley M D

    2014-06-01

    Although empirical attention to police interrogation has gained traction in recent years, comparatively few studies have examined interrogation of juvenile suspects, and virtually none have examined actual interrogations. Despite a growing literature on youths' interrogation-related capacities, we still know very little about what actually transpires when police question youth. The present study examines electronically recorded police interviews with juveniles to describe the characteristics, processes, and outcomes that occur in actual juvenile interrogations, including interview duration, individuals present, and confessions. Fifty-seven electronic recordings from 17 police departments were analyzed using observational research software. The median juvenile interrogation lasted 46 min, though the range was extensive (6 min to nearly 5 hr). Youth frequently submitted to questioning without a parent or advocate present, and disruptions to the interview process were common. Interrogation outcomes varied and included full confessions, partially incriminating admissions, and denials of guilt. Results from this study provide context for interrogation research using other methods and suggest that youth may frequently consent to interrogation in the absence of important legal protections.

  8. Determination of Interrogating Frequencies to Maximize Electromagnetic Backscatter from Objects with Material Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banks, H. T; Ito, K; Toivanen, J

    2005-01-01

    .... Based on the radar cross section and a reflection coefficient, optimization problems are formulated for evaders and interrogators leading to optimal material parameters for the coating and optimal...

  9. Remotely Interrogated Passive Polarizing Dosimeter (RIPPeD).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Buller, Daniel L.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Boye, Robert R.; Samora, Sally; Washburn, Cody M.; Wheeler, David Roger

    2008-09-01

    Conductive polymers have become an extremely useful class of materials for many optical applications. We have developed an electrochemical growth method for depositing highly conductive ({approx}100 S/cm) polypyrrole. Additionally, we have adapted advanced fabrication methods for use with the polypyrrole resulting in gratings with submicron features. This conductive polymer micro-wire grid provides an optical polarizer with unique properties. When the polymer is exposed to ionizing radiation, its conductivity is affected and the polarization properties of the device, specifically the extinction ratio, change in a corresponding manner. This change in polarization properties can be determined by optically interrogating the device, possibly from a remote location. The result is a passive radiation-sensitive sensor with very low optical visibility. The ability to interrogate the device from a safe standoff distance provides a device useful in potentially dangerous environments. Also, the passive nature of the device make it applicable in applications where external power is not available. We will review the polymer deposition, fabrication methods and device design and modeling. The characterization of the polymer's sensitivity to ionizing radiation and optical testing of infrared polarizers before and after irradiation will also be presented. These experimental results will highlight the usefulness of the conductive infrared polarizer to many security and monitoring applications.

  10. Ion-induced gammas for photofission interrogation of HEU.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney Lee (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Antolak, Arlyn J.; Morse, Daniel H.; Provencio, Paula Polyak (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-03-01

    High-energy photons and neutrons can be used to actively interrogate for heavily shielded special nuclear material (SNM), such as HEU (highly enriched uranium), by detecting prompt and/or delayed induced fission signatures. In this work, we explore the underlying physics for a new type of photon source that generates high fluxes of mono-energetic gamma-rays from low-energy (<500 keV) proton-induced nuclear reactions. The characteristic energies (4- to 18-MeV) of the gamma-rays coincide with the peak of the photonuclear cross section. The source could be designed to produce gamma-rays of certain selected energies, thereby improving the probability of detecting shielded HEU or providing a capability to determine enrichment inside sealed containers. The fundamental physics of such an interrogation source were studied in this LDRD through scaled ion accelerator experiments and radiation transport modeling. The data were used to assess gamma and neutron yields, background, and photofission-induced signal levels from several (p,{gamma}) target materials under consideration.

  11. Remotely Interrogated Passive Polarizing Dosimeter (RIPPeD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Buller, Daniel L.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Boye, Robert R.; Samora, Sally; Washburn, Cody M.; Wheeler, David Roger

    2008-01-01

    Conductive polymers have become an extremely useful class of materials for many optical applications. We have developed an electrochemical growth method for depositing highly conductive (∼100 S/cm) polypyrrole. Additionally, we have adapted advanced fabrication methods for use with the polypyrrole resulting in gratings with submicron features. This conductive polymer micro-wire grid provides an optical polarizer with unique properties. When the polymer is exposed to ionizing radiation, its conductivity is affected and the polarization properties of the device, specifically the extinction ratio, change in a corresponding manner. This change in polarization properties can be determined by optically interrogating the device, possibly from a remote location. The result is a passive radiation-sensitive sensor with very low optical visibility. The ability to interrogate the device from a safe standoff distance provides a device useful in potentially dangerous environments. Also, the passive nature of the device make it applicable in applications where external power is not available. We will review the polymer deposition, fabrication methods and device design and modeling. The characterization of the polymer's sensitivity to ionizing radiation and optical testing of infrared polarizers before and after irradiation will also be presented. These experimental results will highlight the usefulness of the conductive infrared polarizer to many security and monitoring applications

  12. The captive brain: torture and the neuroscience of humane interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, S

    2018-02-01

    Despite it being abhorrent and illegal, torture is sometimes employed for information gathering. However, the extreme stressors employed during torture force the brain away from the relatively narrow, adaptive range of function it operates within. Torture degrades signal-to-noise ratios of information yield and increases false positive discovery rates. As a discovery methodology, torture fails basic tests of veridical, reliable and replicable information discovery. Torture fails during interrogation because it is an assault on our core integrated, social, psychological and neural functioning. There is a need for a profound cultural shift regarding torture, recognizing that torture impairs, rather than facilitates, investigations and truth-finding. Rising to this challenge will increase operational effectiveness, eliminate prisoner abuse and torment, and aid veridical and actionable information gathering. Policy regarding prisoner and detainee interrogation need to be refocused as a behavioural and brain sciences problem, and not simply treated as a legal, ethical or philosophical problem. Getting the science, ethics and practice in line is a challenge, but it can and should be done.

  13. Optical Stabilization of a Microwave Oscillator for Fountain Clock Interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipphardt, Burghard; Gerginov, Vladislav; Weyers, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    We describe an optical frequency stabilization scheme of a microwave oscillator that is used for the interrogation of primary cesium fountain clocks. Because of its superior phase noise properties, this scheme, which is based on an ultrastable laser and a femtosecond laser frequency comb, overcomes the frequency instability limitations of fountain clocks given by the previously utilized quartz-oscillator-based frequency synthesis. The presented scheme combines the transfer of the short-term frequency instability of an optical cavity and the long-term frequency instability of a hydrogen maser to the microwave oscillator and is designed to provide continuous long-term operation for extended measurement periods of several weeks. The utilization of the twofold stabilization scheme on the one hand ensures the referencing of the fountain frequency to the hydrogen maser frequency and on the other hand results in a phase noise level of the fountain interrogation signal, which enables fountain frequency instabilities at the 2.5 ×10 -14 (τ/s) -1/2 level that are quantum projection noise limited.

  14. Age and interviewer behavior as predictors of interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukala, Karolina; Polczyk, Romuald

    2014-05-01

    The main objective was to explore the influence of interviewer behavior-abrupt versus friendly-and the age of participants on interrogative suggestibility. The study involved 42 young adults and 50 elderly participants. The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale 2 was used. Data analysis involved a 2-factor between-subjects design (interviewer behavior × age) and mediation analysis. The scores of elderly participants were significantly lower than younger adults on memory indices and significantly higher on some suggestibility indexes. Some suggestibility indices in the abrupt experimental condition were higher than those in the friendly experimental condition. Elderly participants who were interviewed under the abrupt condition were more likely to change their answers after receiving negative feedback than younger adults. Memory quality was a mediator of the relationship between age and the tendency to yield to suggestive questions. Self-appraisal of memory was a mediator between both age and interviewer behavior and the tendency to change answers after negative feedback. Mechanisms of the relationship between age, interviewer behavior, and suggestibility are discussed on the basis of the mediational analyses. The findings suggest that a friendly manner should be adopted when interrogating witnesses.

  15. Active Interrogation using Photofission Technique for Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haori [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. In addition to thermal or high-energy neutrons, high-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) are widely used as the interrogating photon sources for inspection methods involving photofission technique. After photofission reactions, prompt signals are much stronger than the delayed signals, but it is difficult to quantify them in practical measurements. Delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the delayed signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. In this work, high-energy delayed γ-rays were demonstrated to be signatures for detection, identification, and quantification of special nuclear materials. Such γ-rays were measured in between linac pulses using independent data acquisition systems. A list-mode system was developed to measure low-energy delayed γ-rays after irradiation. Photofission product yields of 238U and 239Pu were determined based on the measured delayed γ-ray spectra. The differential yields of delayed γ-rays were also proven to be able to discriminate nuclear from non-nuclear materials. The measurement outcomes were compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. It was demonstrated that the current available codes have capabilities and limitations in the simulation of photofission process. A two

  16. Active Interrogation using Photofission Technique for Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Haori

    2016-01-01

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. In addition to thermal or high-energy neutrons, high-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) are widely used as the interrogating photon sources for inspection methods involving photofission technique. After photofission reactions, prompt signals are much stronger than the delayed signals, but it is difficult to quantify them in practical measurements. Delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the delayed signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. In this work, high-energy delayed γ-rays were demonstrated to be signatures for detection, identification, and quantification of special nuclear materials. Such γ-rays were measured in between linac pulses using independent data acquisition systems. A list-mode system was developed to measure low-energy delayed γ-rays after irradiation. Photofission product yields of 238 U and 239 Pu were determined based on the measured delayed γ-ray spectra. The differential yields of delayed γ-rays were also proven to be able to discriminate nuclear from non-nuclear materials. The measurement outcomes were compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. It was demonstrated that the current available codes have capabilities and limitations in the simulation of photofission process. A two-fold approach was

  17. Descriptive analysis of diarrhea in a cohort of calves in individual crates under paddock up to one hundred days of age, Municipality of Pirai, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Ferreira Fagundes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the diarrhea and parasites infection, evaluate the occurrence of failure of passive immunity transference and Escherichia coli EIEC/EPEC in heifer calves in calves from birth to one hundred days old, reared in individual crates under paddock. The feces collected weekly during the period September 2009 to June 2011 were examined by flotation in saturated sugar and centrifugal sedimentation in formalin-ether. The coagulation test by 10% glutaraldehyde was used to verify the transfer of passive immunity. The bacterial identification was performed from isolates in specific media. One hundred and eighteen heifers were followed, totaling 1457 fecal samples. The incidence rates of diarrhea and infection by Cryptosporidium, G. intestinalis, Eimeria and helminths were respectively 25.7, 13.2, 16.6, 26.9 and 16.7 new cases per 100 calves week. The average age of calves that had diarrhea was 54.2 ± 26.6, when they eliminated Cryptosporidium oocysts was 52.6 ± 26.1, cysts of G. intestinalis 40.1 ± 20 oocysts of Eimeria 49.5 ± 21.8 and Strongylida type eggs 64.9 ± 22.3 days. In none sample the intensity of infection by Cryptosporidium and Giardia was high. Samples of 62 calves were submited to bacteriological analysis and no sample was characterized as E. coli EPEC/EIEC. 69.6% of the calves, the amount of immunoglobulins was satisfactory. Despite the high incidence of diarrhea, mortality was low, due to low virulence of bioagents and low intensities of infection, as well as the system administration of colostrum and adopted creating the property. The similarity between the average age of calves with diarrhea and those eliminated Cryptosporidium spp. probably indicates that this bioagent, among those surveyed, is primarily responsible for diarrheal observed frames.

  18. CAMAC data acquisition system for the pelletron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Khare, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a CAMAC data acquisition system to meet the needs of a broad range of experiments at the pelletron. The system makes use of the DMA CAMAC crate controller CC3. The system is designed around two configurations. In the first, the crate controller is interfaced to an IBM PC/AT. The data are acquired on the PC Winchester disk. In the second configuration, the IBM PC is further linked to a HORIZON III mini-computer via ethernet. In this case list mode data can be taken directly on 1/2-inch reel tapes or 60MB cartridges. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

  19. Scoping studies - photon and low energy neutron interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G.; Harker, Y.; Jones, J. [LMITCo, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harmon, F. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    High energy photon interrogation of waste containers, with the aim of producing photo nuclear reactions, in specific materials, holds the potential of good penetration and rapid analysis. Compact high energy ({le} 10 MeV) photon sources in the form of electron linacs producing bremstrahlung radiation are readily available. Work with the Varitron variable energy accelerator at ISU will be described. Advantages and limitations of the technique will be discussed. Using positive ion induced neutron producing reactions, it is possible to generate neutrons in a specific energy range. By this means, variable penetration and specific reactions can be excited in the assayed material. Examples using the {sup 3}H(p,n) and {sup 7}Li(p,n) reactions as neutron sources will be discussed. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Psychologists abandon the Nuremberg ethic: concerns for detainee interrogations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kenneth S; Gutheil, Thomas G

    2009-01-01

    In the aftermath of 9-11, the American Psychological Association, one of the largest U.S. health professions, changed its ethics code so that it now runs counter to the Nuremberg Ethic. This historic post-9-11 change allows psychologists to set aside their ethical responsibilities whenever they are in irreconcilable conflict with military orders, governmental regulations, national and local laws, and other forms of governing legal authority. This article discusses the history, wording, rationale, and implications of the ethical standard that U.S. psychologists adopted 7 years ago, particularly in light of concerns over health care professionals' involvement in detainee interrogations and the controversy over psychologists' prominent involvement in settings like the Guantánamo Bay Detainment Camp and the Abu Ghraib prison. It discusses possible approaches to the complex dilemmas arising when ethical responsibilities conflict with laws, regulations, or other governing legal authority.

  1. Genome interrogation for novel salinity tolerant Arabidopsis mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Niels; Pinas, Johan; Schat, Henk; Hooykaas, Paul J J; van der Zaal, Bert J

    2016-12-01

    Soil salinity is becoming an increasingly large problem in agriculture. In this study, we have investigated whether a capacity to withstand salinity can be induced in the salinity sensitive plant species Arabidopsis thaliana, and whether it can be maintained in subsequent generations. To this end, we have used zinc finger artificial transcription factor (ZF-ATFs) mediated genome interrogation. Already within a relatively small collection Arabidopsis lines expressing ZF-ATFs, we found 41 lines that were tolerant to 100 mM NaCl. Furthermore, ZF-ATF encoding gene constructs rescued from the most strongly salinity tolerant lines were indeed found to act as dominant and heritable agents for salinity tolerance. Altogether, our data provide evidence that a silent capacity to withstand normally lethal levels of salinity exists in Arabidopsis and can be evoked relatively easily by in trans acting transcription factors like ZF-ATFs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Time-dependent delayed signatures from energetic photon interrogations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, Daren R.; Jones, James L.; Blackburn, Brandon W.; Haskell, Kevin J.; Johnson, James T.; Watson, Scott M.; Hunt, Alan W.; Spaulding, Randy; Harmon, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed photonuclear interrogation environments generated by 8-24 MeV electron linac are rich with time-dependent, material-specific, radiation signatures. Nitrogen-based explosives and nuclear materials can be detected by exploiting these signatures in different delayed-time regions. Numerical and experimental results presented in this paper show the unique time and energy dependence of these signatures. It is shown that appropriate delayed-time windows are essential to acquire material-specific signatures in pulsed photonuclear assessment environments. These developments demonstrate that pulsed, high-energy, photon-inspection environments can be exploited for time-dependent, material-specific signatures through the proper operation of specialized detectors and detection methods

  3. Queering marriage: an ideographic interrogation of heteronormative subjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindstaff, Davin

    2003-01-01

    Recent debates on same-sex marriage mark the institution, practice, and concept of marriage as a significant site of power and resistance within American culture. Adopting Michel Foucault's conception of "discipline," this essay examines how marriage discourse reinforces heteronormative power relations through its rhetorical constitution of gay male identity. Supplementing "ideographic" critique with Judith Butler's theory of performative speech acts enables us to better interrogate and resist these operations of power. This essay maps the contemporary scene of heteronormative power and resistance through two rhetorical performances of gay male identity. The marriage debates, in the first instance, demonstrate how a conventional desire for masculine agency influences the heteronormative production of gay male identity. In the second instance, gay male SM [sadomasochism] performs a concept of "relational agency," which potentially resists heteronormativity.

  4. Design and characterisation of a pulsed neutron interrogation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favalli, A.; Pedersen, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Research Centre recently obtained a license to operate a new experimental device intended for research in the field of nuclear safeguards. The research projects currently being planned for the new device includes mass determination of fissile materials in matrices and detection of contraband non-nuclear materials. The device incorporates a commercial pulsed neutron generator and a large graphite mantle surrounding the sample cavity. In this configuration, a relatively high thermal neutron flux with a long lifetime is achieved inside the sample cavity. By pulsing the neutron generator, a sample may be interrogated by a pure thermal neutron flux during repeated time periods. The paper reports on the design of the new device and the pulsed fast and thermal neutron source. The thermal neutron flux caused by the neutron generator and the graphite structure has been characterised by foil activation, fission chamber and 3 He proportional counter measurements. (authors)

  5. Active Interrogation of Sensitive Nuclear Material Using Laser Driven Neutron Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favalli, Andrea; Roth, Markus

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of the viability of a laser-driven neutron source for active interrogation is reported. The need is for a fast, movable, operationally safe neutron source which is energy tunable and has high-intensity, directional neutron production. Reasons for the choice of neutrons and lasers are set forth. Results from the interrogation of an enriched U sample are shown.

  6. Using Elaborative Interrogation Enhanced Worked Examples to Improve Chemistry Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Rebecca Simpson

    2012-01-01

    Elaborative interrogation, which prompts students to answer why-questions placed strategically within informational text, has been shown to increase learning comprehension through reading. In this study, elaborative interrogation why-questions requested readers to explain why paraphrased statements taken from a reading were "true."…

  7. Diagnostic yield of device interrogation in the evaluation of syncope in an elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Robert N; Pickett, Christopher C

    2017-06-01

    Device interrogation has become a standard part of the syncope evaluation for patients admitted with permanent pacemakers (PPM) or implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD), although few studies have shown interrogation yields clinically useful data. The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnostic yield of device interrogation as well as other commonly performed tests in the workup of unexplained syncope in patients with previously implanted PPMs or ICDs. We retrospectively reviewed records of 88 patients admitted to our medical center for syncope with previously implanted pacemakers between January 1, 2005 and January 1, 2015 using ICD-9 billing data. Pacemaker interrogation demonstrated an arrhythmia as the cause for syncope in 4 patients (4%) and evidence of device failure secondary to perforation in 1 patient (1%). The cause of syncope was unknown in 34 patients (39%). Orthostatic hypotension was the most commonly identified cause of syncope (26%), followed by vasovagal syncope (13%), autonomic dysfunction (5%), ventricular arrhythmia (3%), atrial arrhythmia (2%), congestive heart failure (2%), stroke (2%), and other less common causes (8%). History was the most important determinant of syncope (36%), followed by orthostatic vital signs (14%), device interrogations (4%), head CT (2%), and transthoracic echocardiogram (1%). Device interrogation is rarely useful for elucidating a cause of syncope without concerning physical exam, telemetry, or EKG findings. Interrogation may occasionally yield paroxysmal arrhythmias responsible for syncopal episode, but these rarely alter clinical outcomes. Interrogation appears to be more useful in patients with syncope after recent device placement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interrogating "Belonging" in Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors interrogate the use of "belonging" in "Belonging, Being and Becoming: the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" (EYLF), Australia's first national curriculum for early childhood education and care settings and, from the authors' interrogation, possibilities are offered for thinking about and…

  9. Interrogated with Intellectual Disabilities: The Risks of False Confession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Samson J

    2018-02-01

    False confessions happen. At least 245 people have been exonerated from convictions in cases featuring confessions that were simply not true. Confessions offer a narrative that allows law enforcement, and society in general, to neatly resolve cases with apparent clarity and closure. And yet the pressures officers place on suspects to provide that closure weigh disproportionately on the vulnerable, including individuals with intellectual disabilities. These individuals are disadvantaged at every step of the custodial interrogation, and they face heightened risks of falsely confessing. Moreover, the principal judicial safeguards against false confessions--assessing a suspect's Miranda waiver and determining whether a confession was voluntarily given within the bounds of the Fourteenth Amendment’s Due Process Clause--provide little protection for the innocent with intellectual disabilities. Few pieces of scholarship focus specifically on the heightened risks faced by individuals with intellectual disabilities throughout the process of police interrogation. This Note describes the various ways these individuals are disadvantaged. And it offers an additional data point illustrating the vulnerability of people with intellectual disabilities. This Note analyzes the 245 individuals (as of June 2, 2017) on the National Registry of Exonerations who have falsely confessed. Over one-quarter of them display indicia of intellectual disability. This percentage dwarfs the prevalence of people with intellectual disabilities in the general population and even exceeds most estimates of the proportion of the prison population suffering from intellectual disabilities. This Note concludes with several policy and doctrinal suggestions to better protect individuals with intellectual disabilities from the risks of false confession.

  10. Additively Manufactured IN718 Components with Wirelessly Powered and Interrogated Embedded Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attridge, Paul [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Bajekal, Sanjay [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Klecka, Michael [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Wu, Xin [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Savulak, Steve [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Viens, Dan [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Carey, Michael [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Miano, John [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Rioux, William [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Zacchio, Joseph [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Dunst, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Straub, Doug [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Mantese, Joseph [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2017-07-14

    A methodology is described for embedding commercial-off-the-shelf sensors together with wireless communication and power circuit elements using direct laser metal sintered additively manufactured components. Physics based models of the additive manufacturing processes and sensor/wireless level performance models guided the design and embedment processes. A combination of cold spray deposition and laser engineered net shaping was used to fashion the transmitter/receiving elements and embed the sensors, thereby providing environmental protection and component robustness/survivability for harsh conditions. By design, this complement of analog and digital sensors were wirelessly powered and interrogated using a health and utilization monitoring system; enabling real-time, in situ prognostics and diagnostics.

  11. Using cooperatives ontologies for the customization of hybrid mediator interrogation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherrat LOUBNA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The explosion of information sources accessible via the Web created the need for mediation tools between users and heterogeneous information sources on the Web. However, the interface design of these mediators, with taking into account the wide variety of skills and knowledge of users, and the need for them to share their preferences, requires systems able to guide the user through the interrogation process. In this paper, we try to raise this challenge  by proposing, on one hand, the use of a cooperative ontology’s models, which adapt with the evolution of user’s profiles and the dynamic change of integrated sources, and secondly ensure sharing the knowledge between users which will facilitate analysis of information and improve the data quality research process in space  and time.

  12. Computer controlled high voltage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunov, B; Georgiev, G; Dimitrov, L [and others

    1996-12-31

    A multichannel computer controlled high-voltage power supply system is developed. The basic technical parameters of the system are: output voltage -100-3000 V, output current - 0-3 mA, maximum number of channels in one crate - 78. 3 refs.

  13. Are the American Psychological Association's Detainee Interrogation Policies Ethical and Effective?: Key Claims, Documents, and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kenneth S

    2011-01-01

    After 9-11, the United States began interrogating detainees at settings such as Abu Ghraib, Bagram, and Guantanamo. The American Psychological Association (APA) supported psychologists' involvement in interrogations, adopted formal policies, and made an array of public assurances. This article's purpose is to highlight key APA decisions, policies, procedures, documents, and public statements in urgent need of rethinking and to suggest questions that may be useful in a serious assessment, such as, "However well intended, were APA's interrogation policies ethically sound?"; "Were they valid, realistic, and able to achieve their purpose?"; "Were other approaches available that would address interrogation issues more directly, comprehensively, and actively, that were more ethically and scientifically based, and that would have had a greater likelihood of success?"; and "Should APA continue to endorse its post-9-11 detainee interrogation policies?"

  14. Are the American Psychological Association’s Detainee Interrogation Policies Ethical and Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    After 9–11, the United States began interrogating detainees at settings such as Abu Ghraib, Bagram, and Guantanamo. The American Psychological Association (APA) supported psychologists’ involvement in interrogations, adopted formal policies, and made an array of public assurances. This article’s purpose is to highlight key APA decisions, policies, procedures, documents, and public statements in urgent need of rethinking and to suggest questions that may be useful in a serious assessment, such as, “However well intended, were APA’s interrogation policies ethically sound?”; “Were they valid, realistic, and able to achieve their purpose?”; “Were other approaches available that would address interrogation issues more directly, comprehensively, and actively, that were more ethically and scientifically based, and that would have had a greater likelihood of success?”; and “Should APA continue to endorse its post-9–11 detainee interrogation policies?” PMID:22096660

  15. Lies and coercion: why psychiatrists should not participate in police and intelligence interrogations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janofsky, Jeffrey S

    2006-01-01

    Police interrogators routinely use deceptive techniques to obtain confessions from criminal suspects. The United States Executive Branch has attempted to justify coercive interrogation techniques in which physical or mental pain and suffering may be used during intelligence interrogations of persons labeled unlawful combatants. It may be appropriate for law enforcement, military, or intelligence personnel who are not physicians to use such techniques. However, forensic psychiatry ethical practice requires honesty, striving for objectivity, and respect for persons. Deceptive and coercive interrogation techniques violate these moral values. When a psychiatrist directly uses, works with others who use, or trains others to use deceptive or coercive techniques to obtain information in police, military, or intelligence interrogations, the psychiatrist breaches basic principles of ethics.

  16. INL Neutron Interrogation R and D: FY2010 MPACT End of Year Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichester, D.L.; Seabury, E.H.; Wharton, J.; Watson, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to investigate the feasibility and utility of using neutron interrogation and small-scale, portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) instruments for assaying uranium for safeguards applications. Prior work has shown the potential of the PGNAA technique for assaying uranium using reactor-based neutron sources and high-yield electronic neutron generators (ENGs). In this project we adapted Idaho National Laboratory's portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy (PINS) PGNAA system for measuring natural-enrichment uranium yellowcake and metallic depleted uranium and highly enriched uranium. This work used 252Cf as well as deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) ENGs. For PGNAA measurements a limiting factor when assaying large objects is the detector dead time due to fast-neutron scattering off of the uranium; this limits the maximum useable neutron source strength to O(107) neutrons per second. Under these conditions the low PGNAA reaction cross sections for uranium prohibited the collection of useful uranium PGNAA signatures from either the yellowcake or metallic uranium samples. Measurement of the decay product activation in these materials following irradiation in the PGNAA geometry similarly did not produce useful uranium activation product - fission product signatures. A customized irradiation geometry tailored to optimally thermalize the interrogation neutron source, intended only for generating long-lived activation products - fission products and not intended for PGNAA measurements, might be possible using small scale ENGs but an application need and a modeling simulation exercise would be recommended before advancing to experiments. Neutron interrogation PGNAA using a DT-ENG was found to be a quick and useful qualitative method for detecting the presence of oxygen in natural-enrichment uranium yellowcake. With a low effort of development work it would be reasonable to expect this measurement could be

  17. Hidroquímica do carbonato e bicarbonato: efeito na qualidade de águas subterrâneas em Crateús, Ceará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ossian Gadelha de Lima

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O município de Crateús está localizado na região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil, onde as condições climáticas provocam escassez hídrica e baixa qualidade nas águas disponíveis. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar, durante um ano, o comportamento do pH e das concentrações dos íons carbonato (CO3 2- e bicarbonato (HCO3 - nas águas de oito poços utilizadas para irrigação de pequenas culturas e consumo doméstico. Os resultados mostraram que nenhuma das amostras apresentou valor de pH que comprometesse sua qualidade, tanto para uso na irrigação, quanto para consumo humano. No entanto, os íons bicarbonato e carbonato apresentaram grau de restrição que varia de leve a severo. Portanto, seu uso na agricultura demanda monitoramento e cuidados rigorosos para amenizar os efeitos negativos na produtividade e no solo.

  18. A pilot study of implantable cardiac device interrogation by emergency department personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, James F; Hiestand, Brian C; Peacock, W Frank; Billings, John M; Sondrup, Cole; Hummel, John D; Abraham, William T

    2014-03-01

    Implanted devices (eg, pacemakers and defibrillators) provide valuable information and may be interrogated to obtain diagnostic information and to direct management. During admission to an emergency department (ED), significant time and cost are spent waiting for device manufacturer representatives or cardiologists to access the data. If ED personnel could safely interrogate implanted devices, more rapid disposition could occur, thus leading to potentially better outcomes at a reduced cost. This was a pilot study examining the feasibility of ED device interrogation. This was a prospective convenience sample study of patients presenting to the ED with any chief complaint and who had an implantable device capable of being interrogated by a Medtronic reader. After obtaining informed consent, study patients underwent device interrogation by ED research personnel. After reviewing the device data, the physician documented their opinions of the value of data in aiding care. Patients were followed up at intervals ranging from 30 days out to 1 year to determine adverse events relating to interrogation. Forty-four patients underwent device interrogation. Their mean age was 56 ± 14.7 years (range, 28-83), 75% (33/44) were male and 75% (33/44) were hospitalized from the ED. The interrogations took less than 10 minutes 89% of the time. In 60% of the cases, ED physicians reported the data-assisted patient care. No adverse events were reported relating to the ED interrogations. In this pilot study, we found that ED personnel can safely and quickly interrogate implantable devices to obtain potentially useful clinical data.

  19. An introduction to the FASTBUS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmer, E.M.

    1980-11-01

    FASTBUS is a standard bus system being developed, primarily, for high-speed data acquisition and processing in the next generation of large-scale physics experiments. It is built up from backplane segments housed in crates, linked together by cable segments for inter-crate communication. Each segment supports multiprocessors, and independent segment operation permits a high degree of parallelism. Handshaked bus protocols, uniform system-wide, ensure reliability and both high- and low-speed devices can be accommodated. A synchronous mode provides for data block transfers at maximum speed. The fundamental structure of FASTBUS and details of its basic operations are presented. (author)

  20. A fast readout system for scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steijger, J.; Kok, E.; Kwakkel, E.; Visschers, J.L.; Zwart, A.N.M.

    1991-01-01

    A system of fast readout electronics for segmented scintillation detectors has been constructed and is now operational. Instead of delaying the analog signals in long coaxial cables, they are digitized immediately and stored in dual-port memories, while the trigger decision is being made. A VMEbus system collects the data from these memories on the data acquisition modules within one crate. Several VME crates are connected via a transputer network to transport the data to an event builder. A separate transputer network is used to perform the VME cycles, needed for the computer-controlled tuning of the experiment. (orig.)

  1. A low cost modular control and instrumentation system for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubaly, M.R.; Plato, J.G.; Davis, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    A modular control and instrumentation system, being developed for the RFQ1 accelerator and for ion beam test facilities, is based on an intelligent crate and interchangeable plug-in modules for specific applications. The 8085-based microcomputer used in the system can access up to 256 K of memory, has up to 64 levels of vectored interrupts and time of day, and supports terminals, printers, floppy discs and digital cassette drives. This computer is linked to a bus in the front of the crate which carries not only the usual address, data, and control signals, but also interrupt lines and interrupt chip control lines. This bus is designed for easy interfacing. Plug-in modules connect to the bus, and to monitored equipment via a separate connector leading to a terminal strip on the rear of the crate. These modules monitor absolute and differential temperature, flow-rate, voltages and currents and switch settings. A permanently installed module provides ac power switching, an RS232 serial link and full duplex fibre optic serial links for connection to a central computer. Software for the crate provides for task scheduling, data storage and limit tests, communication to higher levels of the control system and field configuration of the crate. (orig.)

  2. What do potential jurors know about police interrogation techniques and false confessions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Richard A; Liu, Brittany

    2009-01-01

    Psychological police interrogation methods in America inevitably involve some level of pressure and persuasion to achieve their goal of eliciting confessions of guilt from custodial suspects. In this article, we surveyed potential jurors about their perceptions of a range of psychological interrogation techniques, the likelihood that such techniques would elicit a true confession from guilty suspects, and the likelihood that such techniques could elicit a false confession from innocent suspects. Participants recognized that these interrogation techniques may be psychologically coercive and may elicit true confessions, but believed that psychologically coercive interrogation techniques are not likely to elicit false confessions. The findings from this survey study indicate that potential jurors believe that false confessions are both counter- intuitive and unlikely, even in response to psychologically coercive interrogation techniques that have been shown to lead to false confessions from the innocent. This study provides empirical support for the idea that expert witnesses may helpfully inform jurors about the social science research on psychologically coercive interrogation methods and how and why such interrogation techniques can lead to false confessions. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A Web Architecture to Geographically Interrogate CHIRPS Rainfall and eMODIS NDVI for Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Jason E.; Limaye, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring of rainfall and vegetation over the continent of Africa is important for assessing the status of crop health and agriculture, along with long-term changes in land use change. These issues can be addressed through examination of long-term precipitation (rainfall) data sets and remote sensing of land surface vegetation and land use types. Two products have been used previously to address these goals: the Climate Hazard Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) rainfall data, and multi-day composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the USGS eMODIS product. Combined, these are very large data sets that require unique tools and architecture to facilitate a variety of data analysis methods or data exploration by the end user community. To address these needs, a web-enabled system has been developed to allow end-users to interrogate CHIRPS rainfall and eMODIS NDVI data over the continent of Africa. The architecture allows end-users to use custom defined geometries, or the use of predefined political boundaries in their interrogation of the data. The massive amount of data interrogated by the system allows the end-users with only a web browser to extract vital information in order to investigate land use change and its causes. The system can be used to generate daily, monthly and yearly averages over a geographical area and range of dates of interest to the user. It also provides analysis of trends in precipitation or vegetation change for times of interest. The data provided back to the end-user is displayed in graphical form and can be exported for use in other, external tools. The development of this tool has significantly decreased the investment and requirements for end-users to use these two important datasets, while also allowing the flexibility to the end-user to limit the search to the area of interest.

  4. Z80 based voltage and temperature monitor for the Main Ring control crate: the CC48 card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, K.

    1982-06-01

    Several years ago, there seemed to be a need to monitor the power supply voltages and temperatures in the three bay racks of the Main Ring service buildings. A few years ago, another engineer seemed to have done a preliminary design using analog voltage comparators. In late 1979, it was proposed to use a microprocessor instead of analog voltage comparators. It was dramatic that all the people at a meeting were excited about the idea and unanimously approved the project. The author can remember some of the reasons why they were so enthusiastic about the idea at the time, i.e., (1) it was new to have microprocessor based cards on the Main Ring control system, (2) programmable alarm limits were preferred to resistor dividers or potentiometers with analog voltage comparators, (3) it was the first to try the communication between a host computer and distributed intelligent cards. The author started the design on the CC48 in January, 1980 and completed in April, 1980. We had the prototype card working in July, 1980 and tested the card on the system in September, 1980. Seven CC48s of the pilot production were installed in July, 1981. We mass-produced 35 more cards and finished installing them around the Main Ring in May, 1982. The author talks about the hardware, software and operation on the CC48 card, and he will make some remarks on his experience on the project

  5. Simulation of path delay multiplexing-based Fourier transform spectrometer for fiber Bragg grating interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelliah, Pandian; Sahoo, Trilochan; Singh, Sheela; Sujatha, Annie

    2015-10-20

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) used for interrogating a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) consists of a scanning-type interferometer. The FTS has a broad wavelength range of operation and good multiplexing capability. However, it has poor wavelength resolution and interrogation speed. We propose a modification to the FTS using path delay multiplexing to improve the same. Using this method, spatial resolution and interrogation time can be improved by n times by using n path delays. In this paper, simulation results for n=2, 5 are shown.

  6. Benchmark for Peak Detection Algorithms in Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation and a New Neural Network for its Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Lucas; Nied, Ademir; Kalinowski, Hypolito; Paterno, Aleksander

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a benchmark for peak detection algorithms employed in fiber Bragg grating spectrometric interrogation systems. The accuracy, precision, and computational performance of currently used algorithms and those of a new proposed artificial neural network algorithm are compared. Centroid and gaussian fitting algorithms are shown to have the highest precision but produce systematic errors that depend on the FBG refractive index modulation profile. The proposed neural network displays relatively good precision with reduced systematic errors and improved computational performance when compared to other networks. Additionally, suitable algorithms may be chosen with the general guidelines presented. PMID:22163806

  7. Combined steam-ultrasound treatment of 2 seconds achieves significant high aerobic count and Enterobacteriaceae reduction on naturally contaminated food boxes, crates, conveyor belts, and meat knives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Larsen, Annette Baltzer; Krebs, Niels

    2015-02-01

    Food contact surfaces require rigorous sanitation procedures for decontamination, although these methods very often fail to efficiently clean and disinfect surfaces that are visibly contaminated with food residues and possible biofilms. In this study, the results of a short treatment (1 to 2 s) of combined steam (95°C) and ultrasound (SonoSteam) of industrial fish and meat transportation boxes and live-chicken transportation crates naturally contaminated with food and fecal residues were investigated. Aerobic counts of 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/24 cm(2) and an Enterobacteriaceae spp. level of 2.0 CFU/24 cm(2) were found on the surfaces prior to the treatment. After 1 s of treatment, the aerobic counts were significantly (P conveyor belts with hinge pins and one type of flat flexible rubber belt, all visibly contaminated with food residues. The aerobic counts of 3.0 to 5.0 CFU/50 cm(2) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit. Industrial meat knives were contaminated with aerobic counts of 6.0 log CFU/5 cm(2) on the handle and 5.2 log CFU/14 cm(2) on the steel. The level of Enterobacteriaceae spp. contamination was approximately 2.5 log CFU on the handle and steel. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment reduced the aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae spp. to levels below the detection limit on both handle and steel. This study shows that the steam-ultrasound treatment may be an effective replacement for disinfection processes and that it can be used for continuous disinfection at fast process lines. However, the treatment may not be able to replace efficient cleaning processes used to remove high loads of debris.

  8. Inactive trials of transport systems: phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberlin, M.M.; Hardy, A.R.; Kennedy, S.T.

    1986-11-01

    Progress made during 1984-85 is reviewed in four sections: the design and installation of a stainless steel working floor in the mock-up of a crate handling and size reduction facility; the detailed evaluation of a single air pad of the type used on commercial air-transporter; an experimental programme designed to examine the problems associated with the operation of a commercial air-transporter; the design, manufacture and commissioning trials of two powered conveyor units which when combined complete a remotely operated transfer system for transporting crated waste into and within the mock-up facility. (author)

  9. Combined Photoneutron And X Ray Interrogation Of Containers For Nuclear Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Shaw, Timothy; King, Michael J.; Stevenson, John; Elsalim, Mashal; Brown, Craig; Condron, Cathie

    2011-06-01

    Effective cargo inspection systems for nuclear material detection require good penetration by the interrogating radiation, generation of a sufficient number of fissions, and strong and penetrating detection signatures. Inspection systems need also to be sensitive over a wide range of cargo types and densities encountered in daily commerce. Thus they need to be effective with highly hydrogenous cargo, where neutron attenuation is a major limitation, as well as with dense metallic cargo, where x-ray penetration is low. A system that interrogates cargo with both neutrons and x-rays can, in principle, achieve high performance over the widest range of cargos. Moreover, utilizing strong prompt-neutron (˜3 per fission) and delayed-gamma ray (˜7 per fission) signatures further strengthens the detection sensitivity across all cargo types. The complementary nature of x-rays and neutrons, used as both probing radiation and detection signatures, alleviates the need to employ exceedingly strong sources, which would otherwise be required to achieve adequate performance across all cargo types, if only one type of radiation probe were employed. A system based on the above principles, employing a commercially-available 9 MV linac was developed and designed. Neutrons are produced simultaneously with x-rays by the photonuclear interaction of the x-ray beam with a suitable converter. A total neutron yield on the order of 1011 n/s is achieved with an average electron beam current of 100 μA. If fissionable material is present, fissions are produced both by the high-energy x-ray beam and by the photoneutrons. Photofission and neutron fission dominate in hydrogenous and metallic cargos, respectively. Neutron-capture gamma rays provide information on the cargo composition. The prompt neutrons resulting from fission are detected by two independent detector systems: by very efficient Differential Die Away Analysis (DDAA) detectors, and by direct detection of neutrons with energies higher

  10. Multi-level RF identification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Kerry D.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2004-07-20

    A radio frequency identification system having a radio frequency transceiver for generating a continuous wave RF interrogation signal that impinges upon an RF identification tag. An oscillation circuit in the RF identification tag modulates the interrogation signal with a subcarrier of a predetermined frequency and modulates the frequency-modulated signal back to the transmitting interrogator. The interrogator recovers and analyzes the subcarrier signal and determines its frequency. The interrogator generates an output indicative of the frequency of the subcarrier frequency, thereby identifying the responding RFID tag as one of a "class" of RFID tags configured to respond with a subcarrier signal of a predetermined frequency.

  11. The new control system of the Saclay linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gournay, J.F.; Gourcy, G.; Garreau, F.; Giraud, A.; Rouault, J.

    1985-05-01

    A new control system for the Safety Linear Accelerator is now being designed. The computer control architecture is based on 3 dedicated VME crates with MC68000 micro-processors: one crate with a disk-based operating system will run the high level application programs and the data base management facilities, another one will manage the man-machine communications and the third one will interface the system to the linac equipments. Communications between the VME microcomputers will be done through 16 bit parallel links. The software is modular and organized in specific layers, the data base is fully distributed. About 90% of the code is written in Fortran

  12. The Chateau de Cristal data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, M.M.

    1987-05-01

    This data acquisition system is built on several dedicated data transfer busses: ADC data readout through the FERA bus, parallel data processing in two VME crates. High data rates and selectivities are performed via this acquisition structure and new developed processing units. The system modularity allows various experiments with additional detectors

  13. Microprocessor controlled dual parameter ADC system with a CAMAC interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, D G; Nickell, Jr, J D [Los Alamos Scientific Lab., NM (USA)

    1978-09-01

    Presented here is the design of a dual parameter ADC system which is controlled by a microprocessor and also interfaced to CAMAC. The system was designed to be mobile in that it may work wherever there is a CAMAC crate. In such cases where the CAMAC system is inoperative, the system may operate in a stand-alone mode.

  14. APSTNG: Neutron interrogation for detection of explosives and drugs and nuclear and CW materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, E.; Peters, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed-portal requirements for nondestructive detection, including monitoring of contraband explosives, drugs, and weapon materials, and treaty verification of sealed munitions. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutron generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in explosives, drugs, and chemical warfare agents, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from detection times of the gamma rays and alpha-particles yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs. The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Surveillance systems based on APSTNG technology can avoid the large physical size, high capital and operating expenses, and reliability problems associated with complex accelerators

  15. Promotion COPERNIC Energy and Society the interrogations on the world demand evolution; Promotion COPERNIC Energie et Societe les interrogations sur l'evolution de la demande mondiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    In the framework of a prospective reflexion emergence on the energy demand, this document presents an analysis of the prospective approach and of recent studies: challenges, interests, limits, validity of the models and hypothesis and results relevance. With this analysis, the authors aim to identify the main interrogations bond to the world energy demand evolution. They then analyse these interrogations in the framework of a sectoral approach (agriculture, industry, transports, residential) in order to detail the demand and to forecast the evolution. Facing the consumption attitudes, they also suggest some new action avenues to favor a sustainable growth. (A.L.B.)

  16. Promotion COPERNIC Energy and Society the interrogations on the world demand evolution; Promotion COPERNIC Energie et Societe les interrogations sur l'evolution de la demande mondiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    In the framework of a prospective reflexion emergence on the energy demand, this document presents an analysis of the prospective approach and of recent studies: challenges, interests, limits, validity of the models and hypothesis and results relevance. With this analysis, the authors aim to identify the main interrogations bond to the world energy demand evolution. They then analyse these interrogations in the framework of a sectoral approach (agriculture, industry, transports, residential) in order to detail the demand and to forecast the evolution. Facing the consumption attitudes, they also suggest some new action avenues to favor a sustainable growth. (A.L.B.)

  17. Ultraviolet Raman Spectral Signatures in Support of Lisa (Laser Interrogation of Surface Agents)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sedlacek, III, Arthur J; Finfrock, Charles C; Christesen, Steve; Chyba, Tom; Higdon, Scott

    2003-01-01

    ... (Laser Interrogation of Surface Agents). This engineering, testing and evaluation effort uses a novel mini-Raman lidar technique for on-the-move, short-range, non-contact detection and identification of chemical agents on the battlefield...

  18. Pulsed THZ Interrogation of Sofi With Knit Lines in 2D

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banks, H. T; Gibson, N. L; Winfree, W. P

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the scattering effect of knit lines and voids in SOFI through simulations of THz interrogation at normal and non-normal angles of incidence and using focused and non-focused single-cycle plane waves...

  19. The History of MIS-Y: U.S. Strategic Interrogation During World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kleinman, Steven M

    2002-01-01

    As World War II unfolded, the strategic interrogation programs established by the British, German, and American forces evolved into robust collection entities that proved to be a unique source of critical intelligence...

  20. Adaptive image interrogation for PIV : Application to compressible flows and interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, R.

    2010-01-01

    As an experimental tool, Particle Image Velocimetry has quickly superseded traditional point-wise measurements. The inherent image processing has become standardized though the performances are strongly dependent on user experience. Moreover, the arduously selected image interrogation parameters are

  1. Timing system for PLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.S.; Kim, M.S.; Won, S.C.; Choi, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The PLS timing system consists of a master oscillator, a repetition rate pulse generator, a storage ring rf synchronizing system, and a rf driver and kicker trigger system composed of a fixed delay module and variable delay modules. All the timing modules are installed in the VME crates and controlled by the 32 bit microprocessors, and communicating with the Host computer via Ethernet. This paper describes the architectural design of this system as well as the requirements of performance

  2. Mechanism of Genome Interrogation: How CRISPR RNA-Guided Cas9 Proteins Locate Specific Targets on DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvets, Alexey A; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2017-10-03

    The ability to precisely edit and modify a genome opens endless opportunities to investigate fundamental properties of living systems as well as to advance various medical techniques and bioengineering applications. This possibility is now close to reality due to a recent discovery of the adaptive bacterial immune system, which is based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated proteins (Cas) that utilize RNA to find and cut the double-stranded DNA molecules at specific locations. Here we develop a quantitative theoretical approach to analyze the mechanism of target search on DNA by CRISPR RNA-guided Cas9 proteins, which is followed by a selective cleavage of nucleic acids. It is based on a discrete-state stochastic model that takes into account the most relevant physical-chemical processes in the system. Using a method of first-passage processes, a full dynamic description of the target search is presented. It is found that the location of specific sites on DNA by CRISPR Cas9 proteins is governed by binding first to protospacer adjacent motif sequences on DNA, which is followed by reversible transitions into DNA interrogation states. In addition, the search dynamics is strongly influenced by the off-target cutting. Our theoretical calculations allow us to explain the experimental observations and to give experimentally testable predictions. Thus, the presented theoretical model clarifies some molecular aspects of the genome interrogation by CRISPR RNA-guided Cas9 proteins. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Epistemic interrogatives in events anchored in the temporal anteriority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Chergova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to analyse the epistemic modal functionality of temporal posteriority grammemes, referred to the “non-inactual plan”, i. e. the discourse plan measured directly from the moment of enunciation. In our opinion, the invariant category values of a verbal grameme predetermine the development of their complementary and contextual functions. Therefore, the analysis focuses also on the oppositional relations and neutralizations between the categories of verb tense, plan and perspective, on the temporal semantics and the aspectual values which maintain the oppositions between the nominal forms of the verb in accordance with the interpretation of verb categories proposed by Coseriu (1976. In this particular case, the complementary values which outline the scope of our interest fall into the parameters of the possibility and the probability (Veiga, 1991; Kitova-Vasileva, 2000, i.e. conjecture and conclusion in the field of epistemic semantics, yet with an orientation to the temporal anteriority epoch i.e. there is a conjecture regarding actions marked as prior to the moment of enunciation. The syntactic realisation of the epistemic values of conjecture is outlined in the sentence patterns of epistemic interrogatives of the type [Será que + V(P.P.S.] and [Ter(F.S. do Ind.+ V(Part.Pass.]. The study in this way goes beyond the semantic interpretation of the modal, temporal and aspectual values of the morphological instruments of conjecture, and follows the syntactic structure (the modus–dictum relations also in its discourse and pragmatic value.

  5. Massively Parallel Interrogation of Aptamer Sequence, Structure and Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N O; Tok, J B; Tarasow, T M

    2008-02-08

    Optimization of high affinity reagents is a significant bottleneck in medicine and the life sciences. The ability to synthetically create thousands of permutations of a lead high-affinity reagent and survey the properties of individual permutations in parallel could potentially relieve this bottleneck. Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides affinity reagents isolated by in vitro selection processes and as a class have been shown to bind a wide variety of target molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings. High density DNA microarray technology was used to synthesize, in situ, arrays of approximately 3,900 aptamer sequence permutations in triplicate. These sequences were interrogated on-chip for their ability to bind the fluorescently-labeled cognate target, immunoglobulin E, resulting in the parallel execution of thousands of experiments. Fluorescence intensity at each array feature was well resolved and shown to be a function of the sequence present. The data demonstrated high intra- and interchip correlation between the same features as well as among the sequence triplicates within a single array. Consistent with aptamer mediated IgE binding, fluorescence intensity correlated strongly with specific aptamer sequences and the concentration of IgE applied to the array. The massively parallel sequence-function analyses provided by this approach confirmed the importance of a consensus sequence found in all 21 of the original IgE aptamer sequences and support a common stem:loop structure as being the secondary structure underlying IgE binding. The microarray application, data and results presented illustrate an efficient, high information content approach to optimizing aptamer function. It also provides a foundation from which to better understand and manipulate this important class of high affinity biomolecules.

  6. The interrogative particle zar - from syntax and semantics to etymology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajić-Popović Jasna B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Serbian interrogative particle zar/zar/zar ‘num, forsan’, typically positioned at the beginning of a sentence (expressing surprise, wonder, disbelief, dissent, etc. or at its end, coupled with ne and separated by a comma (in guided questions, affirmative and negative alike: Ti ga (ne voliš, zar ne?, yet also broadly attested in obsolete use (in the 19-20th-century literature in modal function, where it is synonymous to valjda, možda ‘perhaps, maybe’. After a review of the ways zar is treated in modern Serbian grammars and descriptive dictionaries (including several dialectal dictionaries, and following research of Macedonian, Bulgarian and Turkish dictionaries, its etymology is discussed: Skok’s unconvincing idioglottal interpretation is refuted, and Rešetar’s idea is reintroduced (prevoiusly rejected by Skok, questioned by Elezović, accepted in the RJA that zar, along with its obliterated forms zaer, zajer, zaher, should be traced back to Turkish zahir adv. ‘apparently, clearly, evidently’, ‘seemingly, perhaps, maybe’. The semantic-syntactic evolution of the loanword within the Serbian language is illustrated, and hence the alloglottal etymology corroborated, by a selection of quotes from folklore and eminent 19-20th-century writers. And finally, as the most likely, the paper offers the interpretation of this particle as a hybrid formation resulting from contamination by the Turkisms of an idioglottal zar, which could be related to archaic Polish zaż < PSl. *za-že. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178007: Etimološka istraživanja srpskog jezika i izrada Etimološkog rečnika srpskog jezika

  7. Massively parallel interrogation of aptamer sequence, structure and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas O Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimization of high affinity reagents is a significant bottleneck in medicine and the life sciences. The ability to synthetically create thousands of permutations of a lead high-affinity reagent and survey the properties of individual permutations in parallel could potentially relieve this bottleneck. Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides affinity reagents isolated by in vitro selection processes and as a class have been shown to bind a wide variety of target molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High density DNA microarray technology was used to synthesize, in situ, arrays of approximately 3,900 aptamer sequence permutations in triplicate. These sequences were interrogated on-chip for their ability to bind the fluorescently-labeled cognate target, immunoglobulin E, resulting in the parallel execution of thousands of experiments. Fluorescence intensity at each array feature was well resolved and shown to be a function of the sequence present. The data demonstrated high intra- and inter-chip correlation between the same features as well as among the sequence triplicates within a single array. Consistent with aptamer mediated IgE binding, fluorescence intensity correlated strongly with specific aptamer sequences and the concentration of IgE applied to the array. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The massively parallel sequence-function analyses provided by this approach confirmed the importance of a consensus sequence found in all 21 of the original IgE aptamer sequences and support a common stem:loop structure as being the secondary structure underlying IgE binding. The microarray application, data and results presented illustrate an efficient, high information content approach to optimizing aptamer function. It also provides a foundation from which to better understand and manipulate this important class of high affinity biomolecules.

  8. APSTNG: Neutron interrogation for detection of nuclear and CW weapons, explosives, and drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; De Volpi, A.; Peters, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed- portal requirements for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions and detection of contraband explosives and drugs. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron inelastic scattering and fission reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in chemical warfare agents, explosives, and drugs, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system; a collimator is not required since scattered neutrons are removed by ''electronic collimation'' (detected neutrons not having the proper flight time to be uncollided are discarded). The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs

  9. A mobile console for local access to accelerator control systems.

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessors were installed as auxiliary crate controllers (ACCs) in the CAMAC interface of control systems for various accelerators. The same ACC was also at the hearth of a stand-alone system in the form of a mobile console. This was also used for local access to the control systems for tests and development work (Annual Report 1981, p. 80, Fig. 10).

  10. Computer control system of TARN-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.

    1989-01-01

    The CAMAC interface system is employed in order to regulate the power supply, beam diagnostic and so on. Five CAMAC stations are located in the TARN-2 area and are linked with a serial highway system. The CAMAC serial highway is driven by a serial highway driver, Kinetic 3992, which is housed in the CAMAC powered crate and regulated by two successive methods. One is regulated by the mini computer through the standard branch-highway crate controller, named Type-A2, and the other is regulated with the microcomputer through the auxiliary crate controller. The CAMAC serial highway comprises the two-way optical cables with a total length of 300 m. Each CAMAC station has the serial and auxiliary crate controllers so as to realize alternative control with the local computer system. Interpreter, INSBASIC, is used in the main control computer. There are many kinds of the 'device control function' of the INSBASIC. Because the 'device control function' implies physical operating procedure of such a device, only knowledge of the logical operating procedure is required. A touch panel system is employed to regulate the complicated control flow without any knowledge of the usage of the device. A rotary encoder system, which is analogous to the potentiometer operation, is also available for smooth adjustment of the setting parameter. (author)

  11. Viabilidade técnica e econômica da caixa Embrapa para comercialização de tomate para consumo in natura Technical and economic viability of the Embrapa crate for marketing of fresh tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirlene J. Vilela

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as vantagens econômicas da nova embalagem desenvolvida pela Embrapa Hortaliças para comercialização de tomate para consumo in natura. A caixa tipo "K", embalagem mais usada no Brasil, tem grande número de características indesejáveis. Considerando os problemas da caixa tipo "K" e o alto índice de perdas pós-colheita na cadeia produtiva de hortaliças, a Embrapa Hortaliças iniciou um programa de pesquisa para o desenvolvimento de uma nova embalagem para tomate. O trabalho culminou com a definição da nova embalagem de plástico nomeada caixa Embrapa. Além de outras vantagens técnicas a nova embalagem, comparada com a caixa tipo "K", apresentou redução de perdas pós colheita (17%, considerando a conservação e integridade dos frutos. Para um horizonte de 5 anos, os indicadores econômicos para ambas embalagens, mostraram viabilidade econômica superior para a caixa Embrapa, sendo o valor presente líquido de, aproximadamente, R$ 60,7 mil e R$ 90,0 mil para a caixa tipo "K" e Caixa Embrapa, respectivamente. A taxa de benefício/custo foi de 4,80 e 7,80 para a caixa tipo "K" e caixa Embrapa, respectivamente. Considerando preços correntes e custos totais, a caixa Embrapa apresentou-se técnica e economicamente viável.The economic advantages of a new crate developed for commercialization of fresh tomatoes was evaluated. The Box type "K", name of the package for fresh vegetables crops mostly employed in Brazil, has many undesirables features. Considering the problems of box type "K" and the high index of post harvest losses in the production chain of vegetables, Embrapa Hortaliças started a research program focusing on the development of a new container for fresh tomatoes. This work ended with the adaptation of a new crate model made of plastic. This Embrapa crate showed comparative physical advantages of approximately 17% reduction in postharvest losses when compared to the box type K, considering conservation and

  12. Optogenetic interrogation of neural circuits: technology for probing mammalian brain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Gradinaru, Viviana; Adamantidis, Antoine R; Durand, Remy; Airan, Raag D; de Lecea, Luis; Deisseroth, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of the neural substrates underlying complex animal behaviors depends on precise activity control tools, as well as compatible readout methods. Recent developments in optogenetics have addressed this need, opening up new possibilities for systems neuroscience. Interrogation of even deep neural circuits can be conducted by directly probing the necessity and sufficiency of defined circuit elements with millisecond-scale, cell type-specific optical perturbations, coupled with suitable readouts such as electrophysiology, optical circuit dynamics measures and freely moving behavior in mammals. Here we collect in detail our strategies for delivering microbial opsin genes to deep mammalian brain structures in vivo, along with protocols for integrating the resulting optical control with compatible readouts (electrophysiological, optical and behavioral). The procedures described here, from initial virus preparation to systems-level functional readout, can be completed within 4–5 weeks. Together, these methods may help in providing circuit-level insight into the dynamics underlying complex mammalian behaviors in health and disease. PMID:20203662

  13. Resealable, optically accessible, PDMS-free fluidic platform for ex vivo interrogation of pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenguito, Giovanni; Chaimov, Deborah; Weitz, Jonathan R; Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Rawal, Siddarth A K; Tamayo-Garcia, Alejandro; Caicedo, Alejandro; Stabler, Cherie L; Buchwald, Peter; Agarwal, Ashutosh

    2017-02-28

    We report the design and fabrication of a robust fluidic platform built out of inert plastic materials and micromachined features that promote optimized convective fluid transport. The platform is tested for perfusion interrogation of rodent and human pancreatic islets, dynamic secretion of hormones, concomitant live-cell imaging, and optogenetic stimulation of genetically engineered islets. A coupled quantitative fluid dynamics computational model of glucose stimulated insulin secretion and fluid dynamics was first utilized to design device geometries that are optimal for complete perfusion of three-dimensional islets, effective collection of secreted insulin, and minimization of system volumes and associated delays. Fluidic devices were then fabricated through rapid prototyping techniques, such as micromilling and laser engraving, as two interlocking parts from materials that are non-absorbent and inert. Finally, the assembly was tested for performance using both rodent and human islets with multiple assays conducted in parallel, such as dynamic perfusion, staining and optogenetics on standard microscopes, as well as for integration with commercial perfusion machines. The optimized design of convective fluid flows, use of bio-inert and non-absorbent materials, reversible assembly, manual access for loading and unloading of islets, and straightforward integration with commercial imaging and fluid handling systems proved to be critical for perfusion assay, and particularly suited for time-resolved optogenetics studies.

  14. Chemical mutagens, transposons, and transgenes to interrogate gene function in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venken, Koen J T; Bellen, Hugo J

    2014-06-15

    The study of genetics, genes, and chromosomal inheritance was initiated by Thomas Morgan in 1910, when the first visible mutations were identified in fruit flies. The field expanded upon the work initiated by Herman Muller in 1926 when he used X-rays to develop the first balancer chromosomes. Today, balancers are still invaluable to maintain mutations and transgenes but the arsenal of tools has expanded vastly and numerous new methods have been developed, many relying on the availability of the genome sequence and transposable elements. Forward genetic screens based on chemical mutagenesis or transposable elements have resulted in the unbiased identification of many novel players involved in processes probed by specific phenotypic assays. Reverse genetic approaches have relied on the availability of a carefully selected set of transposon insertions spread throughout the genome to allow the manipulation of the region in the vicinity of each insertion. Lastly, the ability to transform Drosophila with single copy transgenes using transposons or site-specific integration using the ΦC31 integrase has allowed numerous manipulations, including the ability to create and integrate genomic rescue constructs, generate duplications, RNAi knock-out technology, binary expression systems like the GAL4/UAS system as well as other methods. Here, we will discuss the most useful methodologies to interrogate the fruit fly genome in vivo focusing on chemical mutagenesis, transposons and transgenes. Genome engineering approaches based on nucleases and RNAi technology are discussed in following chapters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Methods for Characterization of Batteries Using Acoustic Interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Shoham

    Batteries are a ubiquitous form of electrochemical energy storage, but thus far the methods for measuring the mechanical properties of batteries and their component materials in operando have lagged far behind the methods for measuring the corresponding electrical properties. In this thesis, I demonstrate methods for determining the changes in materials properties of an electrochemical energy storage cell both ex situ and in operando.. I begin by establishing the impact of micro-scale morphology changes on the macro-scale dynamic mechanical response in commercial alkaline AA cells. Using a bounce test, the coefficient of restitution (COR) of the cell is shown to increase non-linearly as a function of state of charge (SOC). I show that the reason for the increase in the COR stems from the spatially-dependent oxidation of the Zn anode, with an initial increase corresponding to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO-clad Zn particles spanning the radius of the anode. The subsequent saturation of the COR is shown to result from the ultimate solidification and desiccation of the Zn anode. Building from this, I present a generalized in operando solution for materials characterization in batteries using ultrasonic interrogation. The materials properties of battery components change during charge and discharge, resulting in a change in the sound speed of the materials. By attaching transducers to a battery during cycling and sending ultrasonic pulses through each cell I observe the changes in the time of flight (ToF) of the pulses, both in reflection and transmission. I show that the changes in ToF correspond to both SOC and state of health (SOH) in a variety of battery chemistries and geometries, and detail a corresponding acoustic conservation law model framework. Finally, I perform these electrochemical acoustic time of flight (EAToF) experiments on commercial alkaline AA cells. By correlating the results with energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) data and

  16. FY09 Advanced Instrumentation and Active Interrogation Research for Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichester, D.L.; Pozzi, S.A.; Seabury, E.H.; Dolan, J.L.; Flaska, M.; Johnson, J.T.; Watson, S.M.; Wharton, J.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple small-scale projects have been undertaken to investigate advanced instrumentation solutions for safeguard measurement challenges associated with advanced fuel cycle facilities and next-generation fuel reprocessing installations. These activities are in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and its Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. (1) Work was performed in a collaboration with the University of Michigan (Prof. Sara Pozzi, co-PI) to investigate the use of liquid-scintillator radiation detectors for assaying mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, to characterize its composition and to develop advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms for performing time-correlation measurements in the MOX fuel environment. This work included both simulations and experiments and has shown that these techniques may provide a valuable approach for use within advanced safeguard measurement scenarios. (2) Work was conducted in a collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Dr. Paul Hausladen, co-PI) to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the fast-neutron coded-aperture imaging technique for locating and characterizing fissile material, and as a tool for performing hold-up measurements in fissile material handling facilities. This work involved experiments at Idaho National Laboratory, using MOX fuel and uranium metal, in both passive and active interrogation configurations. A complete analysis has not yet been completed but preliminary results suggest several potential uses for the fast neutron imaging technique. (3) Work was carried out to identify measurement approaches for determining nitric acid concentration in the range of 1-4 M and beyond. This work included laboratory measurements to investigate the suitability of prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis for this measurement and product reviews of other commercial solutions. Ultrasonic density analysis appears to be

  17. Detection of Special Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers Using Neutron Interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, D.; Accatino, M.; Bernstein, A.; Candy, J.; Dougan, A.; Hall, J.; Loshak, A.; Manatt, D.; Meyer, A.; Pohl, B.; Prussin, S.; Walling, R.; Weirup, D.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy (E γ = 3-7 MeV) fission product γ-ray emission. Fortunately, this high-energy γ-ray signature is robust in that it is very distinct compared to normal background radiation where there is no comparable high-energy γ-ray radiation. Equally important, it has a factor of 10 higher yield than delayed neutrons that are the basis of classical interrogation technique normally used on small unshielded specimens of SNM. And it readily penetrates two meters of low-Z and high-Z cargo at the expected density of ∼ 0.5 gm/cm 3 . Consequently, we expect that in most cases the signature flux at the container wall is at least 2-3 decades more intense than delayed neutron signals used historically and facilitates the detection of SNM even when shielded by thick cargo. Experiments have verified this signature and its predicted characteristics. However, they revealed an important interference due to the activation of 16 O by the 16 O(n,p) 16 N reaction that produces a 6 MeV γ-ray following a 7-sec β-decay of the 16 N. This interference is important when irradiating with 14 MeV neutrons but is eliminated when lower energy neutron sources are utilized since the reaction threshold for 16 O(n,p) 16 N is 10 MeV. The signature γ-ray fluxes exiting a thick cargo can be detected in large arrays of scintillation detectors to produce useful signal count rates of 2-4 x 10 4 cps. That is high enough to quickly identify SNM fission by its characteristic high energy

  18. A multi-channel waveform digitizer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieser, F.; Muller, W.F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report on the design and performance of a multichannel waveform digitizer system for use with the Multiple Sample Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) Detector at the Bevalac. 128 channels of 20 MHz Flash ADC plus 256 word deep memory are housed in a single crate. Digital thresholds and hit pattern logic facilitate zero suppression during readout which is performed over a standard VME bus

  19. Quench detection for high temperature superconductor magnets: a novel technique based on Rayleigh-backscattering interrogated optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scurti, F; Ishmael, S; Schwartz, J; Flanagan, G

    2016-01-01

    High temperature superconducting materials are the only option for the generation of magnetic fields exceeding 25 T and for magnets operating over a broad range of temperature and magnetic field for power applications. One remaining obstacle for the implementation of high temperature superconductors magnets into systems, however, is the inability to rapidly detect a quench. In this letter we present a novel quench detection technique that has been investigated experimentally. Optical fibers are co-wound into two small Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+x superconducting coils and interrogated by Rayleigh-backscattering. Two different configurations are used, one with the fiber atop the conductor and the other with the fiber located as turn-to-turn insulation. Each coil is also instrumented with voltage taps (VTs) and thermocouples for comparison during heater-induced quenches. The results show that Rayleigh-backscattering interrogated optical fibers (RIOF) have significant advantages over traditional techniques, including very high spatial resolution and the ability to detect a hot-spot well before the peak local temperature exceeds the current sharing temperature. Thus, RIOF quench detection is intrinsically faster than VTs, and this intrinsic advantage is greater as the coil size and/or current margin increases. (letter)

  20. Two-step interrogation then recognition of DNA binding site by Integration Host Factor: an architectural DNA-bending protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Vivas, Paula; Connolly, Mitchell; Kuznetsov, Serguei V; Rice, Phoebe A; Ansari, Anjum

    2018-02-28

    The dynamics and mechanism of how site-specific DNA-bending proteins initially interrogate potential binding sites prior to recognition have remained elusive for most systems. Here we present these dynamics for Integration Host factor (IHF), a nucleoid-associated architectural protein, using a μs-resolved T-jump approach. Our studies show two distinct DNA-bending steps during site recognition by IHF. While the faster (∼100 μs) step is unaffected by changes in DNA or protein sequence that alter affinity by >100-fold, the slower (1-10 ms) step is accelerated ∼5-fold when mismatches are introduced at DNA sites that are sharply kinked in the specific complex. The amplitudes of the fast phase increase when the specific complex is destabilized and decrease with increasing [salt], which increases specificity. Taken together, these results indicate that the fast phase is non-specific DNA bending while the slow phase, which responds only to changes in DNA flexibility at the kink sites, is specific DNA kinking during site recognition. Notably, the timescales for the fast phase overlap with one-dimensional diffusion times measured for several proteins on DNA, suggesting that these dynamics reflect partial DNA bending during interrogation of potential binding sites by IHF as it scans DNA.

  1. Phase space interrogation of the empirical response modes for seismically excited structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bibhas; George, Riya C.; Mishra, Sudib K.

    2017-07-01

    Conventional Phase Space Interrogation (PSI) for structural damage assessment relies on exciting the structure with low dimensional chaotic waveform, thereby, significantly limiting their applicability to large structures. The PSI technique is presently extended for structure subjected to seismic excitations. The high dimensionality of the phase space for seismic response(s) are overcome by the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), decomposing the responses to a number of intrinsic low dimensional oscillatory modes, referred as Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). Along with their low dimensionality, a few IMFs, retain sufficient information of the system dynamics to reflect the damage induced changes. The mutually conflicting nature of low-dimensionality and the sufficiency of dynamic information are taken care by the optimal choice of the IMF(s), which is shown to be the third/fourth IMFs. The optimal IMF(s) are employed for the reconstruction of the Phase space attractor following Taken's embedding theorem. The widely referred Changes in Phase Space Topology (CPST) feature is then employed on these Phase portrait(s) to derive the damage sensitive feature, referred as the CPST of the IMFs (CPST-IMF). The legitimacy of the CPST-IMF is established as a damage sensitive feature by assessing its variation with a number of damage scenarios benchmarked in the IASC-ASCE building. The damage localization capability, remarkable tolerance to noise contamination and the robustness under different seismic excitations of the feature are demonstrated.

  2. Assay of fissionable isotopes in aqueous solution by pulsed neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.; Gardy, E.M.; Boase, D.G.

    1978-04-01

    Non-destructive assay of uranium-235 and thorium-232 in aqueous nitric acid solutions has been accomplished by irradiation with pulses of neutrons from a 14-MeV Cockcroft-Walton neutron generator, and counting of the delayed neutrons emitted from the fissions induced. Design of the delayed neutron detector assemblies is described, together with the neutron pulse timing and counting systems. The effects of irradiation time, counting time, neutron moderation, detector design and sample geometry on the delayed neutron response from uranium-235 and 238 and thorium-232 are discussed. By using polyethylene to moderate the interrogating neutrons, solutions can be analyzed for both uranium-235 and thorium. Comparative analyses with chemical and γ-spectrometric methods show good agreement. The neutron method is rapid and is shown to be unaffected by the presence in solution of impurities such as iron, nickel, chromium, and aluminum. With the experimental equipment described, detection limits of 0.6 mg of 235 U and 9 mg of 232 Th in a sample volume of 25 mL have been achieved. Analyses of highly radioactive samples may be done easily since the measurements are not affected by the presence of large amounts of βγ radiation. Samples can be enclosed in small lead-shielded flasks during analysis to protect the analyst. The potential of the technique to on-line analysis applications is explored briefly. (author)

  3. Touching is believing: interrogating halide perovskite solar cells at the nanoscale via scanning probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangyu; Huang, Boyuan; Nasr Esfahani, Ehsan; Wei, Linlin; Yao, Jianjun; Zhao, Jinjin; Chen, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Halide perovskite solar cells based on CH3NH3PbI3 and related materials have emerged as the most exciting development in the next generation photovoltaic technologies, yet the microscopic phenomena involving photo-carriers, ionic defects, spontaneous polarization, and molecular vibration and rotation interacting with numerous grains, grain boundaries, and interfaces are still inadequately understood. In fact, there is still need for an effective method to interrogate the local photovoltaic properties of halide perovskite solar cells that can be directly traced to their microstructures on one hand and linked to their device performance on the other hand. In this perspective, we propose that scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques have great potential to realize such promises at the nanoscale, and highlight some of the recent progresses and challenges along this line of investigation toward local probing of photocurrent, work function, ionic activities, polarization switching, and chemical degradation. We also emphasize the importance of multi-modality imaging, in-operando scanning, big data analysis, and multidisciplinary collaboration for further studies toward fully understanding of these complex systems.

  4. Scalable interrogation: Eliciting human pheromone responses to deception in a security interview setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedmon, Alex W; Eachus, Peter; Baillie, Les; Tallis, Huw; Donkor, Richard; Edlin-White, Robert; Bracewell, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Individuals trying to conceal knowledge from interrogators are likely to experience raised levels of stress that can manifest itself across biological, physiological, psychological and behavioural factors, providing an opportunity for detection. Using established research paradigms an innovative scalable interrogation was designed in which participants were given a 'token' that represented information they had to conceal from interviewers. A control group did not receive a token and therefore did not have to deceive the investigators. The aim of this investigation was to examine differences between deceivers and truth-tellers across the four factors by collecting data for cortisol levels, sweat samples, heart-rate, respiration, skin temperature, subjective stress ratings and video and audio recordings. The results provided an integrated understanding of responses to interrogation by those actively concealing information and those acting innocently. Of particular importance, the results also suggest, for the first time in an interrogation setting, that stressed individuals may secrete a volatile steroid based marker that could be used for stand-off detection. The findings are discussed in relation to developing a scalable interrogation protocol for future research in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Narrowband interrogation of plasmonic optical fiber biosensors based on spectral combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vila, Álvaro; Kinet, Damien; Mégret, Patrice; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    Gold-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings can probe surface Plasmon polaritons with high resolution and sensitivity. In this work, we report two configurations to interrogate such plasmonic biosensors, with the aim of providing more efficient alternatives to the widespread spectrometer-based techniques. To this aim, the interrogation is based on measuring the optical power evolution of the cladding modes with respect to surrounding refractive index changes instead of computing their wavelength shift. Both setups are composed of a broadband source and a photodiode and enable a narrowband interrogation around the cladding mode that excites the surface Plasmon resonance. The first configuration makes use of a uniform fiber Bragg grating to filter the broadband response of the source in a way that the final interrogation is based on an intensity modulation measured in transmission. The second setup uses a uniform fiber grating too, but located beyond the sensor and acting as a selective optical mirror, so the interrogation is carried out in reflection. Both configurations are compared, showing interesting differential features. The first one exhibits a very high sensitivity while the second one has an almost temperature-insensitive behavior. Hence, the choice of the most appropriate method will be driven by the requirements of the target application.

  6. Interrogation in Teacher-Student Interaction in Bahasa Indonesia Learning at Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Hamsa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interrogation in Teacher-Student Interaction in Bahasa Indonesia Learning at Elementary School. This study aimed to describe the form, function, and questioning strategies teachers in teacher-student interrogation in Bahasa Indonesia learning in elementary school. Data sourced from four teacher of elementary school, SDN Tamangapa and SD Inpres Tamangapa. Data were obtained by (1 recording, (2 documentation, (3 field notes, (4 interview. The results showed that: (1 the form of questioning the teacher in the teacher-student interaction in Bahasa Indonesia learning in primary schools generally examined the low-level thinking skills, (2 functions of teacher questions are generally intended to check student understanding, and (3 teachers utilize a variety of strategies in addressing student answers correctly and the apparent hesitation. Some disadvantages are indicated teachers in providing interrogation.

  7. Prosodic differences between declaratives and interrogatives in infant-directed speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Susan; Mintz, Toben H

    2017-07-01

    In many languages, declaratives and interrogatives differ in word order properties, and in syntactic organization more broadly. Thus, in order to learn the distinct syntactic properties of the two sentence types, learners must first be able to distinguish them using non-syntactic information. Prosodic information is often assumed to be a useful basis for this type of discrimination, although no systematic studies of the prosodic cues available to infants have been reported. Analysis of maternal speech in three Standard American English-speaking mother-infant dyads found that polar interrogatives differed from declaratives on the patterning of pitch and duration on the final two syllables, but wh-questions did not. Thus, while prosody is unlikely to aid discrimination of declaratives from wh-questions, infant-directed speech provides prosodic information that infants could use to distinguish declaratives and polar interrogatives. We discuss how learners could leverage this information to identify all question forms, in the context of syntax acquisition.

  8. The interrogation decision-making model: A general theoretical framework for confessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yueran; Guyll, Max; Madon, Stephanie

    2017-02-01

    This article presents a new model of confessions referred to as the interrogation decision-making model . This model provides a theoretical umbrella with which to understand and analyze suspects' decisions to deny or confess guilt in the context of a custodial interrogation. The model draws upon expected utility theory to propose a mathematical account of the psychological mechanisms that not only underlie suspects' decisions to deny or confess guilt at any specific point during an interrogation, but also how confession decisions can change over time. Findings from the extant literature pertaining to confessions are considered to demonstrate how the model offers a comprehensive and integrative framework for organizing a range of effects within a limited set of model parameters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Neutron interrogation of actinides with a 17 MeV electron accelerator and first results from photon and neutron interrogation non-simultaneous measurements combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, A., E-mail: adrien.sari@cea.fr [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Carrel, F.; Lainé, F. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lyoussi, A. [CEA, DEN, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2013-10-01

    In this article, we demonstrate the feasibility of neutron interrogation using the conversion target of a 17 MeV linear electron accelerator as a neutron generator. Signals from prompt neutrons, delayed neutrons, and delayed gamma-rays, emitted by both uranium and plutonium samples were analyzed. First results from photon and neutron interrogation non-simultaneous measurements combination are also reported in this paper. Feasibility of this technique is shown in the frame of the measurement of uranium enrichment. The latter was carried out by combining detection of prompt neutrons from thermal fission and delayed neutrons from photofission, and by combining delayed gamma-rays from thermal fission and delayed gamma-rays from photofission.

  10. INL Active Interrogation Testing In Support of the GNEP Safeguards Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David L. Chichester

    2008-01-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. Work at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in the area of active interrogation, using neutron and photon sources, has been under way for many years to develop methods for detecting and quantifying nuclear material for national and homeland security research areas. This research knowledge base is now being extended to address nuclear safeguards and process monitoring issues related to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). As a first step in this area preliminary scoping studies have been performed to investigate the usefulness of using active neutron interrogation, with a low-power electronic neutron generator, to assay Department of Transportation 6M shipping drums containing uranium oxide fuel rodlets from INL's zero power physics reactor. Using the paired-counting technique during the die-away time period of interrogation, a lower detection limit of approximately 4.2 grams of enriched uranium (40% 235U) was calculated for a 40 minute measurement using a field portable 2.5 MeV neutron source and an array of 16 moderated helium-3 neutron tubes. Future work in this area, including the use of a more powerful neutron source and a better tailored detector array, would likely improve this limit to a much lower level. Further development work at INL will explore the applicability of active interrogation in association with the nuclear safeguards and process monitoring needs of the advanced GNEP facilities under consideration. This work, which will include both analyses and field demonstrations, will be performed in collaboration with colleagues at INL and elsewhere that have expertise in nuclear fuel reprocessing as well as active interrogation and its use for nuclear material analyses

  11. Stretchable Transparent Electrode Arrays for Simultaneous Electrical and Optical Interrogation of Neural Circuits in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Xiaojun; Xu, Wenjing; Luo, Wenhan; Li, Ming; Chu, Fangbing; Xu, Lu; Cao, Anyuan; Guan, Jisong; Tang, Shiming; Duan, Xiaojie

    2018-04-09

    Recent developments of transparent electrode arrays provide a unique capability for simultaneous optical and electrical interrogation of neural circuits in the brain. However, none of these electrode arrays possess the stretchability highly desired for interfacing with mechanically active neural systems, such as the brain under injury, the spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Here, we report a stretchable transparent electrode array from carbon nanotube (CNT) web-like thin films that retains excellent electrochemical performance and broad-band optical transparency under stretching and is highly durable under cyclic stretching deformation. We show that the CNT electrodes record well-defined neuronal response signals with negligible light-induced artifacts from cortical surfaces under optogenetic stimulation. Simultaneous two-photon calcium imaging through the transparent CNT electrodes from cortical surfaces of GCaMP-expressing mice with epilepsy shows individual activated neurons in brain regions from which the concurrent electrical recording is taken, thus providing complementary cellular information in addition to the high-temporal-resolution electrical recording. Notably, the studies on rats show that the CNT electrodes remain operational during and after brain contusion that involves the rapid deformation of both the electrode array and brain tissue. This enables real-time, continuous electrophysiological monitoring of cortical activity under traumatic brain injury. These results highlight the potential application of the stretchable transparent CNT electrode arrays in combining electrical and optical modalities to study neural circuits, especially under mechanically active conditions, which could potentially provide important new insights into the local circuit dynamics of the spinal cord and PNS as well as the mechanism underlying traumatic injuries of the nervous system.

  12. Klausimų forma ir funkcijos lietuvių ir rusų vaikiškojoje kalboje. Forms and functions of interrogatives in Lithuanian and Russian motherese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Balčiūnienė

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on adult interrogatives, which appear to be among the most frequent and typical ways of communicating with young children. The main objective of the investigation is to identify and compare the variety and distribution of interrogatives in Lithuanian and Russian motherese. The analysis is based on the data of a longitudinal observation of a Lithuanian girl Monika (2;0–2;8 and a Russian boy Vanja (2;0–2;8. The transcribed corpus of conversations between children and their parents was annotated for a multipurpose automatic linguistic analysis using tools of the program CHILDES (Child Language Data Exchange System, MacWhinney 1991. Despite several differences (the general number of questions, and the dominant forms of indirect correction, it can be stated that interrogatives in both Russian and Lithuanian motherese are generally used for the same conversational strategies; the communicative strategies in the two languages seem to be similar or even identical. Moreover, during the observation period, the conversational strategies in both Russian and Lithuanian motherese developed in a similar way. This calls for a general conclusion that a correlation between parental conversational strategy and the type of language can be identified.

  13. Promotion COPERNIC Energy and Society the interrogations on the world demand evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    In the framework of a prospective reflexion emergence on the energy demand, this document presents an analysis of the prospective approach and of recent studies: challenges, interests, limits, validity of the models and hypothesis and results relevance. With this analysis, the authors aim to identify the main interrogations bond to the world energy demand evolution. They then analyse these interrogations in the framework of a sectoral approach (agriculture, industry, transports, residential) in order to detail the demand and to forecast the evolution. Facing the consumption attitudes, they also suggest some new action avenues to favor a sustainable growth. (A.L.B.)

  14. Perioperative Interrogation of St. Jude Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices: A Guide for Anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Brett; Essandoh, Michael K

    2018-04-01

    Feelings of trepidation or uncertainty regarding cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) in the perioperative period can often be mitigated by a thorough knowledge of societal recommendations, recommended management options, and familiarity with CIEDs. Given that effective interpretation of an interrogation report is vital to determining perioperative management options and applying societal recommendations, the creation and interpretation of St. Jude CIED interrogation reports are discussed. In an effort to increase the familiarity with St. Jude transvenous CIEDs amongst anesthesiologists, basic programming of a St. Jude pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) also are described. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Accelerator requirements for fast-neutron interrogation of luggage and cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Yule, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Several different fast-neutron based techniques are being studied for the detection of contraband substances in luggage and cargo containers. The present work discusses the accelerator requirements for fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy (FNTS), pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA), and 14-MeV neutron interrogation. These requirements are based on the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of neutron or gamma detection rates. Accelerator requirements are driven by count-rate considerations, spatial resolution and acceptable uncertainties in elemental compositions. The authors have limited their analyses to luggage inspection with FNTS and to cargo inspection with PFNA or 14-MeV neutron interrogation

  16. Compact, low-cost, and high-resolution interrogation unit for optical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesel, Peter; Schmidt, Oliver; Mohta, Setu; Johnson, Noble; Malzer, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Compact wavelength detectors that resolve wavelength changes in the subpicometer range over a broad spectral range are presented. A photodiode array or position sensor device is coated with a linear variable filter that converts the wavelength of the incident light into a spatial intensity distribution. The centroid of the spatial distribution is determined by a differential readout of the two elements of the photodiode array or the position sensor device. The device can interrogate any optical sensor that produces a wavelength shift in response to a stimulus. The potential of this device was tested by interrogating fiber-Bragg-grating sensors

  17. Spectral Doppler interrogation of the patent foramen ovale-a window to left heart hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Bahaa M; Husain, Aysha; Bakarman, Hatem; Dahdouh, Ziad; Salvo, Giovanni Di; Mohty, Dania

    2015-02-01

    Spectral Doppler interrogation of flow across a patent foramen ovale (PFO) allows recording of the instantaneous pressure gradient between left and right atrium (RA). The assessment of RA pressure using the size and collapsibility of the inferior vena cava would thus allow estimation of left atrial (LA) pressure. In this article, we illustrate the value of spectral Doppler interrogation of flow across the PFO by transthoracic echocardiography as a novel and simple tool for the assessment of LA pressure and left cardiac hemodynamics in addition to the conventional noninvasive parameters. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. High-Efficiency Quantum Interrogation Measurements via the Quantum Zeno Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiat, P. G.; White, A. G.; Mitchell, J. R.; Nairz, O.; Weihs, G.; Weinfurter, H.; Zeilinger, A.

    1999-01-01

    The phenomenon of quantum interrogation allows one to optically detect the presence of an absorbing object, without the measuring light interacting with it. In an application of the quantum Zeno effect, the object inhibits the otherwise coherent evolution of the light, such that the probability that an interrogating photon is absorbed can in principle be arbitrarily small. We have implemented this technique, achieving efficiencies of up to 73% , and consequently exceeding the 50% theoretical maximum of the original ''interaction-free'' measurement proposal. We have also predicted and experimentally verified a previously unsuspected dependence on loss. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  19. The relationship between criminal conviction and interrogative suggestibility among delinquent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H; Singh, K K

    1984-03-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS), and number of previous convictions among 35 delinquent boys. The GSS measures two independent aspects of suggestibility. First, the extent to which subjects give in to suggestive questions. Second, the extent to which subjects give in to interpersonal pressure given in the form of critical feedback about test performance. The number of convictions were found to correlate negatively with the latter aspect of interrogative suggestibility, but not significantly with the former.

  20. On the actual bandwidth of some dynamic fiber optic strain/temperature interrogators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preizler, Rotem R.; Davidi, R.; Motil, Avi; Botsev, Yakov; Hahami, Meir; Tur, Moshe

    2017-04-01

    The measurement accuracy of dynamic fiber-optic sensing interrogators, which use frequency scanning to determine the value of the measured, err as either the event bandwidth approaches half the instrument sampling frequency or when the event dynamic range comes close to the instrument designed value. One main source of error is the common practice of assigning sampling at a non-uniform grid to a uniform one. Harmonics higher than -20 dB are observed for signal frequencies exceeding 25% of the sampling rate and/or for signal amplitudes higher than 15% of the instrument dynamic range. These findings have applications to fiber-Bragg-grating and Brillouin interrogators.

  1. An integrated computer control system for the ANU linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, P.M.; Foote, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    One facet of the installation of the superconducting linac at the ANU is the need for computer control of a variety of systems, such as beam transport, resonator RF, cryogenics and others. To accommodate this, a number of control interfaces (for example, analogue signals and RS232 serial lines) must be employed. Ideally, all of the systems should be able to be controlled from a central location, remote from the actual devices. To this end a system based around VAX computers and VME crates has been designed and is currently being developed and implemented. A VAXstation is used to issue control messages and perform high-level functions, while VME crates containing appropriate modules (primarily DACs, ADCs and digital I/O boards) control the devices. The controllers in the VME crates are AEON rtVAX modules running a real-time operating system. Communication with the VAXstation is via DECnet, on a private ethernet to allow communication rates unaffected by unrelated network activity and potentially increasing the security of the system by providing a possible network isolation point. Also on this ethernet are a number of terminal servers to control RS232 devices. A central database contains all device control and monitoring parameters. The main control process running on the VAXstation is responsible for maintaining the current values of the parameters in the database and for dispatching control messages to the appropriate VME crate or RS232 serial line

  2. Dynamic fiber Bragg grating strain sensor interrogation with real-time measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinwoo; Kwon, Yong Seok; Ko, Myeong Ock; Jeon, Min Yong

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate a 1550 nm band resonance Fourier-domain mode-locked (FDML) fiber laser with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array. Using the FDML fiber laser, we successfully demonstrate real-time monitoring of dynamic FBG strain sensor interrogation for structural health monitoring. The resonance FDML fiber laser consists of six multiplexed FBGs, which are arranged in series with delay fiber lengths. It is operated by driving the fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter (FFP-TF) with a sinusoidal waveform at a frequency corresponding to the round-trip time of the laser cavity. Each FBG forms a laser cavity independently in the FDML fiber laser because the light travels different length for each FBG. The very closely positioned two FBGs in a pair are operated simultaneously with a frequency in the FDML fiber laser. The spatial positions of the sensing pair can be distinguished from the variation of the applied frequency to the FFP-TF. One of the FBGs in the pair is used as a reference signal and the other one is fixed on the piezoelectric transducer stack to apply the dynamic strain. We successfully achieve real-time measurement of the abrupt change of the frequencies applied to the FBG without any signal processing delay. The real-time monitoring system is displayed simultaneously on the monitor for the variation of the two peaks, the modulation interval of the two peaks, and their fast Fourier transform spectrum. The frequency resolution of the dynamic variation could reach up to 0.5 Hz for 2 s integration time. It depends on the integration time to measure the dynamic variation. We believe that the real-time monitoring system will have a potential application for structural health monitoring.

  3. Can You Believe It? 12-Month-Olds Use Word Order to Distinguish between Declaratives and Polar Interrogatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Susan; Mintz, Toben H.

    2015-01-01

    Word order is a core mechanism for conveying syntactic structure, yet interrogatives usually disrupt canonical word orders. For example, in English, polar interrogatives typically invert the subject and auxiliary verb and insert an utterance-initial "do" if no auxiliary is present. These word order patterns result from differences in the…

  4. Analytical investigation of a novel interrogation approach of fiber Bragg grating sensors using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Kivilcim; Pala, Deniz

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a novel approach in interrogating Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) of cascaded identical FBGs using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR). The fundamentals of both polarisation properties of uniform FBGs and polarisation-sensitive OFDR are explained and the benefits of this novel approach in measuring transversal load are discussed. The numerical programs computing the spectral evolution of PDL of the FBGs in the array as a function of grating parameters (grating length and birefringence) are presented. Our simulation results show an excellent agreement with the previously reported simulation (and experimental) results in the literature obtained on a single FBG by using classical state-of-the-art measurement techniques. As an envisaged application, the proposed system shows the feasibility of measuring the residual stresses during manufacturing process of composite materials which is not straightforward by amplitude spectrum measurements and/or considering only the axial strains.

  5. Interferometric interrogation of π-phase shifted fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepa; Tiwari, Umesh; Das, Bhargab

    2018-03-01

    Interferometric interrogation technique realized for conventional fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is historically known to offer the highest sensitivity measurements, however, it has not been yet explored for π-phase-shifted FBG (πFBG) sensors. This, we believe, is due to the complex nature of the reflection/transmission spectrum of a πFBG, which cannot be directly used for interferometric interrogation purpose. Therefore, we propose here an innovative as well as simple concept towards this direction, wherein, the transmission spectrum of a πFBG sensor is optically filtered using a specially designed fiber grating. The resulting filtered spectrum retains the entire characteristics of a πFBG sensor and hence the filtered spectrum can be interrogated with interferometric principles. Furthermore, due to the extremely narrow transmission notch of a πFBG sensor, a fiber interferometer can be realized with significantly longer path difference. This leads to substantially enhanced detection limit as compared to sensors based on a regular FBG of similar length. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that high resolution weak dynamic strain measurement down to 4 pε /√{ Hz } is easily achievable. Preliminary experimental results are also presented as proof-of-concept of the proposed interrogation principle.

  6. Investigation of Active Interrogation Techniques to Detect Special Nuclear Material in Maritime Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W.

    2010-01-01

    The detection and interdiction of special nuclear material (SNM) is still a high-priority focus area for many organizations around the world. One method that is commonly considered a leading candidate in the detection of SNM is active interrogation (AI). AI is different from its close relative, passive interrogation, in that an active source is used to enhance or create a detectable signal (usually fission) from SNM, particularly in shielded scenarios or scenarios where the SNM has a low activity. The use of AI thus makes the detection of SNM easier or, in some scenarios, even enables previously impossible detection. In this work the signal from prompt neutrons and photons as well as delayed neutrons and photons will be combined, as is typically done in AI. In previous work AI has been evaluated experimentally and computationally. However, for the purposes of this work, past scenarios are considered lightly shielded and tightly coupled spatially. At most, the previous work interrogated the contents of one standard cargo container (2.44 x 2.60 x 6.10 m) and the source and detector were both within a few meters of the object being interrogated. A few examples of this type of previous work can be found in references 1 and 2. Obviously, more heavily shielded AI scenarios will require larger source intensities, larger detector surface areas (larger detectors or more detectors), greater detector efficiencies, longer count times, or some combination of these.

  7. A high-temperature fiber sensor using a low cost interrogation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, David; Sales, Salvador

    2013-09-04

    Regenerated Fibre Bragg Gratings have the potential for high-temperature monitoring. In this paper, the inscription of Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBGs) and the later regeneration process to obtain Regenerated Fiber Bragg Gratings (RFBGs) in high-birefringence optical fiber is reported. The obtained RFBGs show two Bragg resonances corresponding to the slow and fast axis that are characterized in temperature terms. As the temperature increases the separation between the two Bragg resonances is reduced, which can be used for low cost interrogation. The proposed interrogation setup is based in the use of optical filters in order to convert the wavelength shift of each of the Bragg resonances into optical power changes. The design of the optical filters is also studied in this article. In first place, the ideal filter is calculated using a recursive method and defining the boundary conditions. This ideal filter linearizes the output of the interrogation setup but is limited by the large wavelength shift of the RFBG with temperature and the maximum attenuation. The response of modal interferometers as optical filters is also analyzed. They can be easily tuned shifting the optical spectrum. The output of the proposed interrogation scheme is simulated in these conditions improving the sensitivity.

  8. Radio-frequency unbalanced M-Z interferometer for wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiaao; Xia, Li; Cheng, Rui; Wen, Yongqiang; Rohollahnejad, Jalal

    2016-01-15

    The optical unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer (UMZI) has attracted significant interests for interrogation of FBG sensors owing to its excellent advantages in sensitivity, resolution, and demodulation speed. But this method is still limited to dynamic measurements due to its poor stability and reliability when used for quasi-static detections. Here, we propose for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a radio-frequency unbalanced M-Z interferometer (RF-UMZI) for interrogation of FBG sensors, which, owing to its operation in an incoherent rather than a coherent regime, provides an ideal solution for the existing stability problem of the conventional UMZI, with remarkable features of adjustable resolution and potentially extremely high sensitivity. A dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) and single-mode fiber (SMF) with a small length difference are served as the two unbalanced arms of the RF interferometer. The induced differential chromatic dispersion transfers the wavelength shift of the FBG to the change of the RF phase difference between the two interferometric carriers, which ultimately leads to the variation of the RF signal intensity. An interrogation of a strain-turned FBG was accomplished and a maximum sensitivity of 0.00835  a.u./με was obtained, which can easily be further improved by more than two orders of magnitude through various fiber dispersion components. Finally, the stability of the interrogation was tested.

  9. Overcoming Innocents' Naiveté: Pre-interrogation Decision-making Among Innocent Suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Kyle C; Alberts, Kimberly M; Franks, Andrew S; Hawkins, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Suspects, especially innocent ones, are highly susceptible to waiving their interrogation rights. This research tested the ability of two strategies to overcome innocent suspects' willingness to waive their rights. One strategy was based on the social influence of scarcity (i.e., not constraining the pre-interrogation time limit). The other strategy focused on disrupting individuals' cognitive fluency during the decision-making process (i.e., violating their induced expectation of offering a waiver). Disrupting innocent individuals' cognitive fluency increased their willingness to invoke their rights and, notably, was not qualified by interactions with any other factors. However, scarcity did not influence individuals' pre-interrogation decision-making. Results also further established the association between innocent individuals' naïve mindset and their willingness to waive their rights - specifically, innocents' willingness to waive their rights increased with the strength of their just world beliefs. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed. The importance and benefit of reforming pre-interrogation protocols using fair and feasible strategies that would disrupt suspects' cognitive fluency are emphasized. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The Lawyer in the Dutch Interrogation Room: Influence on Police and Suspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W-J. Verhoeven (Willem-Jan); L. Stevens (Lonneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn many European countries, providing a suspect in custody with legal aid before the first police interrogation is a heavily debated issue. In this paper, we report on an exploratory study on the use of coercion by the police and the use of the right to silence by suspects in 70 Dutch

  11. Nanoscale Plasmonic V-Groove Waveguides for the Interrogation of Single Fluorescent Bacterial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotan, Oren; Bar-David, Jonathan; Smith, Cameron

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the interrogation of an individual Escherichia coli cell using a nanoscale plasmonic V-groove waveguide. Several different configurations were studied. The first involved the excitation of the cell in a liquid environment because it flows on top of the waveguide...

  12. Reading Resistance: The Record of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi's Interrogation by Wartime Japan's "Thought Police"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takao

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the record of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi's interrogation as a thought criminal following his arrest in July, 1943. By comparing and contrasting his responses and statements against the official government positions, I hope to clarify the nature of his critique of the wartime fascist regime. Makiguchi himself was an educator, and…

  13. The relationship of intelligence and memory to interrogative suggestibility: the importance of range effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1988-05-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between intelligence, memory and interrogative suggestibility, particularly with reference to range effects. The subjects were 60 normal subjects and 100 forensic patients who had completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Clear range effects of IQ and memory were evident in their relationship with suggestibility.

  14. Interrogative Suggestibility among Adolescent Boys and Its Relationship with Intelligence, Memory, and Cognitive Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Krishna K.; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.

    1992-01-01

    Investigated hypotheses generated by Gudjonsson and Clark model of interrogative suggestibility. Adolescent boys (n=40) completed Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale and measures of intellectual skills, memory, field-dependence, hostility, and attitudes toward persons in authority. Suggestibility correlated negatively with intelligence quotient and…

  15. The recognition of acted interpersonal stance in police interrogations and the influence of actor proficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Spitters, Sophie; Sanders, Merijn; Fu, Quihua

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on judgement studies regarding the perception of interpersonal stances taken by humans playing the role of a suspect in a police interrogation setting. Our project aims at building believable embodied conversational characters to play the role of suspects in a serious game for

  16. French Interrogative Structures: A New Pedagogical Norm for the 21st-Century Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antes, Theresa A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated interrogative structures most frequently used by native speakers of French, in an attempt to reconcile differences between language forms taught in the French as a foreign language classroom and those that are encountered in authentic input. Radio, television, and magazine interviews provided multiple examples of…

  17. Asking for Action or Information? Crosslinguistic Comparison of Interrogative Functions in Early Child Cantonese and Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wong, Eileen Chin Mei; Tse, Shek Kam; Leung, Shing On; Ye, Qianling

    2015-01-01

    Request for information (RfI) is believed to be the universally dominant function of young children's questioning, whereas request for action (RfA) has been reported to be the leading interrogative form used in early child Cantonese. The possibility of crosslinguistic variability prompts further research and comparison with additional languages.…

  18. Police training in interviewing and interrogation methods: A comparison of techniques used with adult and juvenile suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Hayley M D; Warner, Todd C

    2016-06-01

    Despite empirical progress in documenting and classifying various interrogation techniques, very little is known about how police are trained in interrogation methods, how frequently they use various techniques, and whether they employ techniques differentially with adult versus juvenile suspects. This study reports the nature and extent of formal (e.g., Reid Technique, PEACE, HUMINT) and informal interrogation training as well as self-reported technique usage in a diverse national sample (N = 340) of experienced American police officers. Officers were trained in a variety of different techniques ranging from comparatively benign pre-interrogation strategies (e.g., building rapport, observing body language or speech patterns) to more psychologically coercive techniques (e.g., blaming the victim, discouraging denials). Over half the sample reported being trained to use psychologically coercive techniques with both adults and juveniles. The majority (91%) receive informal, "on the job" interrogation training. Technique usage patterns indicate a spectrum of psychological intensity where information-gathering approaches were used most frequently and high-pressure tactics less frequently. Reid-trained officers (56%) were significantly more likely than officers without Reid training to use pre-interrogation and manipulation techniques. Across all analyses and techniques, usage patterns were identical for adult and juvenile suspects, suggesting that police interrogate youth in the same manner as adults. Overall, results suggest that training in specific interrogation methods is strongly associated with usage. Findings underscore the need for more law enforcement interrogation training in general, especially with juvenile suspects, and highlight the value of training as an avenue for reducing interrogation-induced miscarriages of justice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Dose profile modeling of Idaho National Laboratory's active neutron interrogation laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chichester, D.L. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)], E-mail: david.chichester@inl.gov; Seabury, E.H.; Zabriskie, J.M.; Wharton, J.; Caffrey, A.J. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    A new laboratory has been commissioned at Idaho National Laboratory for performing active neutron interrogation research and development. The facility is designed to provide radiation shielding for deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion (14.1 MeV) neutron generators (2x10{sup 8} n/s), deuterium-deuterium (DD) fusion (2.5 MeV) neutron generators (1x10{sup 7} n/s), and {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission neutron sources (6.96x10{sup 7} n/s, 30 {mu}g). Shielding at the laboratory is comprised of modular concrete shield blocks 0.76 m thick with tongue-in-groove features to prevent radiation streaming, arranged into one small and one large test vault. The larger vault is designed to allow operation of the DT generator and has walls 3.8 m tall, an entrance maze, and a fully integrated electrical interlock system; the smaller test vault is designed for {sup 252}Cf and DD neutron sources and has walls 1.9 m tall and a simple entrance maze. Both analytical calculations and numerical simulations were used in the design process for the building to assess the performance of the shielding walls and to ensure external dose rates are within required facility limits. Dose rate contour plots have been generated for the facility to visualize the effectiveness of the shield walls and entrance mazes and to illustrate the spatial profile of the radiation dose field above the facility and the effects of skyshine around the vaults.

  20. The data acquisition system for the Leeds Infirmary MWPC X-ray imaging detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinton, S.; Gibbings, D.; Jones, D.; Norton, H.

    1979-10-01

    An electronic system is described which is designed to acquire and process data from a MWPC X-ray imaging detector. Two dimensional information from the chamber is obtained by using cathode plane delay-line readout. A single crate CAMAC assembly is used as the chamber-computer interface. The use of control source units for the delay line scalers and TV display driver functions together with an intermediate memory in the crate allows input data rates up to 1MHz and TV display facilities without constant computer refreshing. (author)

  1. Police reports of mock suspect interrogations: A test of accuracy and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, Saul M; Kukucka, Jeff; Lawson, Victoria Z; DeCarlo, John

    2017-06-01

    A 2-phased experiment assessed the accuracy and completeness of police reports on mock interrogations and their effects on people's perceptions. In Phase 1, 16 experienced officers investigated a mock crime scene, interrogated 2 innocent suspects-1 described by the experimenter as more suspicious than the other-and filed an incident report. All 32 sessions were covertly recorded; the recordings were later used to assess the reports. In Phase 2, 96 lay participants were presented with a brief summary of the case and then either read 1 police report, read 1 verbatim interrogation transcript, or listened to an audiotape of a session. Results showed that (a) Police and suspects diverged in their perceptions of the interrogations; (b) Police committed frequent errors of omission in their reports, understating their use of confrontation, maximization, leniency, and false evidence; and (c) Phase 2 participants who read a police report, compared to those who read a verbatim transcript, perceived the process as less pressure-filled and were more likely to misjudge suspects as guilty. These findings are limited by the brevity and low-stakes nature of the task and by the fact that no significant effects were obtained for our suspicion manipulation, suggesting a need for more research. Limitations notwithstanding, this study adds to a growing empirical literature indicating the need for a requirement that all suspect interrogations be electronically recorded. To provide a more objective and accurate account of what transpired, this study also suggests the benefit of producing verbatim transcripts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Hombre y muerte en el Islam: o de cómo la muerte de Sócrates fue objeto de considerácion en la civilización árabe-musulmana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero, Rafael Ramón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A la muerte, que afecta a todo hombre, alude en numerosas ocasiones el Corán. Quizá por ello pronto se planteó en el mundo islámico la cuestión del suicidio y de la muerte voluntaria. Desde el siglo IX, este problema se convirtió en objeto de consideración, provocado por el impacto de la filosofía antigua: parece que la figura de Sócrates ejerció un cierto influjo a través de las versiones que de su muerte, aceptada voluntariamente, llegaron al mundo islámico y fue motivo de reflexión por parte de muchos pensadores

  3. Fissile materials in solution concentration measured by active neutron interrogation; Mesure de concentration en matiere fissile dans les liquides par interrogation neutronique active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Passard, Ch.; Cloue, J.; Bignan, G.

    1993-12-31

    The use of the active neutron interrogation to measure the concentration of plutonium contained in flow solutions is particularly interesting for fuel reprocessing plants. Indeed, this method gives a signal which is in a direct relation with the fissile materials concentration. Moreover, it is less sensitive to the gamma dose rate than the other nondestructive methods. Two measure methods have been evolved in CEA. Their principles are given into details in this work. The first one consists to detect fission delayed neutrons induced by a {sup 252} Cf source. In the second one fission prompt neutrons induced by a neutron generator of 14 MeV are detected. (O.M.). 6 refs.

  4. An 80 Mbytes/s data transfer and processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belusevic, R.; Nixon, G.; Shaw, D.

    1990-05-01

    We describe hardware and software aspects of a very fast and versatile, yet conceptually simple, data transfer and processing system for use with future accelerators. It consists of a transputer-based crate controller (CC), which includes an Intel i860 microcomputer, and of a set of readout cards (RC), each containing a digital signal processor (DSP) for fast data parametrisation and compaction. The reduced data is written into a dual port memory (DPM), where it can be accessed concurrently by the transputer and transferred to a common DPM on the CC card. A crateful of data thus assembled at one place can further be processed by the powerful i860 microcomputer. Address generators (simple binary counters) are included on the crate controller and each readout card to enable direct memory access (DMA) operations, resulting in a considerable increase in data transfer speed (maximum 80 Mbytes/s). The use of a transputer as the sole controller processor, in conjunction with DPMs, renders bus arbitration unnecessary leading to very simple interfacing logic and operating software. The four high speed serial links of the transputer greatly facilitate downloading of programs and intercrate communications. An Intel i960CA processor, situated on the CC card, is used for fast data transfer between crates by means of its 32-bit wide DMA channel. The operating software is written in the Occam language, which was specially developed for programming concurrent systems based on transputers. (author)

  5. An 80 Mbytes/s data transfer and processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belusevic, R.; Nixon, G.; Shaw, D.

    1990-01-01

    We describe hardware and software aspects of a very fast and versatile, yet conceptually simple, data transfer and processing system for use with future accelerators. It consists of a transputer-based crate controller (CC), which includes an Intel i860 microcomputer, and of a set of readout cards (RC), each containing a digital signal processor (DSP) for fast data parametrisation and compaction. The reduced data is written into a dual port memory (DPM), where it can be accessed concurrently by the transputer and transferred to a common DPM on the CC card. A crateful of data thus assembled at one place can further be processed by the powerful i860 microcomputer. Address generators (simple binary counters) are included on the crate controller and each readout card to enable direct memory access (DMA) operations, resulting in a considerable increase in data transfer speed (maximum 80 Mbytes/s). The use of a transputer as the sole controlling processor, in conjunction with DPMs, renders bus arbitration unnecessary, leading to very simple interfacing logic and operating software. The four high-speed serial links of the transputer greatly facilitate downloading of programs and intercrate communications. An Intel i960CA processor, situated on the CC card, is used for fast data transfer between crates by means of its 32-bit wide DMA channel. The operating software is written in the Occam language, which was specially developed for programming concurrent systems based on transputers. (orig.)

  6. A national epidemiological study investigating risk factors for police interrogation and false confession among juveniles and young persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; González, Rafael A; Young, Susan

    2016-03-01

    The principal aims of this study are to identify risk factors associated with police arrest and false confessions and to investigate whether the severity of the ADHD condition/symptoms increases the risk. 22,226 young persons in Iceland anonymously completed self-report questionnaires screening for conduct disorder and ADHD. In addition, they stated whether they had a diagnosis of ADHD and had received ADHD medication, and their history of offending, police interrogation and false confession. Participants were stratified into two age groups, 14-16 and 17-24 years. The older group was significantly more likely to have been interrogated by the police but the younger group were much more vulnerable to false confession during interrogation. Males were more likely to be at risk for both than females. The severity of the ADHD condition increased the risk of both interrogation and false confession. Negative binomial regressions showed that age, gender, conduct disorder, offending, and ADHD symptoms were all significant predictors of both interrogations and number of false confessions. Conduct disorder was the single best predictor of police interrogation, but the findings were more mixed regarding false confessions. Young people presenting with a combination of severe ADHD and comorbid conduct disorder had the worst outcome for both interrogation and false confessions. The findings endorse the need for support of persons with ADHD to be put in place to ensure fair due process and to prevent miscarriages of justice.

  7. Performance assessment of self-interrogation neutron resonance densitometry for spent nuclear fuel assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianwei, E-mail: huj1@ornl.gov [Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, PO Box 2008, MS-6172, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States); Tobin, Stephen J.; LaFleur, Adrienne M.; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)

    2013-11-21

    Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) is one of several nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques being integrated into systems to measure spent fuel as part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) Spent Fuel Project. The NGSI Spent Fuel Project is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration to measure plutonium in, and detect diversion of fuel pins from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies. SINRD shows promising capability in determining the {sup 239}Pu and {sup 235}U content in spent fuel. SINRD is a relatively low-cost and lightweight instrument, and it is easy to implement in the field. The technique makes use of the passive neutron source existing in a spent fuel assembly, and it uses ratios between the count rates collected in fission chambers that are covered with different absorbing materials. These ratios are correlated to key attributes of the spent fuel assembly, such as the total mass of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 235}U. Using count rate ratios instead of absolute count rates makes SINRD less vulnerable to systematic uncertainties. Building upon the previous research, this work focuses on the underlying physics of the SINRD technique: quantifying the individual impacts on the count rate ratios of a few important nuclides using the perturbation method; examining new correlations between count rate ratio and mass quantities based on the results of the perturbation study; quantifying the impacts on the energy windows of the filtering materials that cover the fission chambers by tallying the neutron spectra before and after the neutrons go through the filters; and identifying the most important nuclides that cause cooling-time variations in the count rate ratios. The results of these studies show that {sup 235}U content has a major impact on the SINRD signal in addition to the {sup 239}Pu content. Plutonium-241 and {sup 241}Am are the two main nuclides responsible for the variation in the count

  8. Investigations of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Standoff interrogation of small- and medium-sized cargo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.; Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Murphy, Brian D.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, several active interrogation (AI) sources are evaluated to determine their usefulness in detecting the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) in fishing trawlers, small cargo transport ships, and luxury yachts at large standoff distances from the AI source and detector. This evaluation is performed via computational analysis applying Monte Carlo methods with advanced variance reduction techniques. The goal is to determine the AI source strength required to detect the presence of SNM. The general conclusion of this study is that AI is not reliable when SNM is heavily shielded and not tightly coupled geometrically with the source and detector, to the point that AI should not be considered a via interrogation option in these scenarios. More specifically, when SNM is shielded by hydrogenous material large AI source strengths are required if detection is based on neutrons, which is not surprising. However, if the SNM is shielded by high-Z material the required AI source strengths are not significantly different if detection is based on neutrons or photons, which is somewhat surprising. Furthermore, some of the required AI source strengths that were calculated are very large. These results coupled with the realities of two ships moving independently at sea and other assumptions made during this analysis make the use of standoff AI in the maritime environment impractical

  9. Investigations of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Standoff interrogation of small- and medium-sized cargo ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Thomas M., E-mail: millertm@ornl.gov; Patton, Bruce W.; Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Murphy, Brian D.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, several active interrogation (AI) sources are evaluated to determine their usefulness in detecting the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) in fishing trawlers, small cargo transport ships, and luxury yachts at large standoff distances from the AI source and detector. This evaluation is performed via computational analysis applying Monte Carlo methods with advanced variance reduction techniques. The goal is to determine the AI source strength required to detect the presence of SNM. The general conclusion of this study is that AI is not reliable when SNM is heavily shielded and not tightly coupled geometrically with the source and detector, to the point that AI should not be considered a via interrogation option in these scenarios. More specifically, when SNM is shielded by hydrogenous material large AI source strengths are required if detection is based on neutrons, which is not surprising. However, if the SNM is shielded by high-Z material the required AI source strengths are not significantly different if detection is based on neutrons or photons, which is somewhat surprising. Furthermore, some of the required AI source strengths that were calculated are very large. These results coupled with the realities of two ships moving independently at sea and other assumptions made during this analysis make the use of standoff AI in the maritime environment impractical.

  10. Detection and identification of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, A.J.; Hartwell, J.K.; Krebs, K.M.; McLaughlin, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document reviews the principle of operation and unexploded ordnance (UXO) signatures of the PINS Chemical Assay System, a prompt-gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) for the identification of recovered UXO. Two related low cost methods for buried landmine detection are also suggested. Nuclear methods may compliment existing search techniques to improve the overall probability of detection and to reduce the false positive rate of other technologies. In addition, nuclear methods are a proven method for identification of UXO such as landmines

  11. Interrogation of fibre Bragg gratings through a fibre optic rotary joint on a geotechnical centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ricardo; James, Stephen W.; Marshall, Alec; Heron, Charles; Korposh, Sergiy

    2016-05-01

    The monitoring of an array of fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) strain sensors was performed through a single channel, single mode fibre optic rotary joint (FORJ) mounted on a geotechnical centrifuge. The array of three FBGs was attached to an aluminum plate that was anchored at the ends and placed on the model platform of the centrifuge. Acceleration forces of up to 50g were applied and the reflection signal of the monitored FBGs recorded dynamically using a 2.5kHz FBG interrogator placed outside the centrifuge. The use of a FORJ allowed the monitoring of the FBGs without submitting the FBG interrogator to the high g-forces experienced in the centrifuge.

  12. Psychologists and detainee interrogations: key decisions, opportunities lost, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kenneth S

    2011-01-01

    After the 9-11 terrorist attacks, U.S. psychologists faced hard choices about what roles, if any, were appropriate for psychologists in the detainee interrogations conducted in settings such as the Bagram Airbase, the Abu Ghraib Prison, and the Guantanamo Bay Detention Camps. The American Psychological Association (APA) sparked intense controversy with its policies and public statements. This article reviews APA decisions, documents, and public statements in this area, in the context of major criticisms and responses to those criticisms. The review focuses on key issues: how the APA created and reported policies in the areas of ethics and national security; transparency; psychologists' professional identities; psychologists' qualifications; ethical-legal conflicts; policies opposing torture; interpretations of avoiding harm; and effective interrogations. It suggests lessons learned, missed opportunities, and questions in need of a fresh approach. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved

  13. Enhanced-locality fiber-optic two-photon-fluorescence live-brain interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedotov, I. V.; Doronina-Amitonova, L. V. [International Laser Center, Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Russian Quantum Center, ul. Novaya 100, Skolkovo, Moscow Region 1430125 (Russian Federation); Kurchatov Institute National Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Fedotov, A. B. [International Laser Center, Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Russian Quantum Center, ul. Novaya 100, Skolkovo, Moscow Region 1430125 (Russian Federation); Anokhin, K. V. [Kurchatov Institute National Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); P.K. Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kilin, S. Ya. [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus); Sakoda, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Zheltikov, A. M. [International Laser Center, Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Russian Quantum Center, ul. Novaya 100, Skolkovo, Moscow Region 1430125 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Center of Photochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Novatorov 7a, Moscow 117421 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-24

    Two-photon excitation is shown to substantially enhance the locality of fiber-based optical interrogation of strongly scattering biotissues. In our experiments, a high-numerical-aperture, large-core-are fiber probe is used to deliver the 200-fs output of a 100-MHz mode-locked ytterbium fiber laser to samples of live mouse brain, induce two-photon fluorescence of nitrogen–vacancy centers in diamond markers in brain sample. Fiber probes with a high numerical aperture and a large core area are shown to enable locality enhancement in fiber-laser–fiber-probe two-photon brain excitation and interrogation without sacrificing the efficiency of fluorescence response collection.

  14. PRESTO-Tango as an open-source resource for interrogation of the druggable human GPCRome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeze, Wesley K; Sassano, Maria F; Huang, Xi-Ping; Lansu, Katherine; McCorvy, John D; Giguère, Patrick M; Sciaky, Noah; Roth, Bryan L

    2015-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential mediators of cellular signaling and are important targets of drug action. Of the approximately 350 nonolfactory human GPCRs, more than 100 are still considered to be 'orphans' because their endogenous ligands remain unknown. Here, we describe a unique open-source resource that allows interrogation of the druggable human GPCRome via a G protein-independent β-arrestin-recruitment assay. We validate this unique platform at more than 120 nonorphan human GPCR targets, demonstrate its utility for discovering new ligands for orphan human GPCRs and describe a method (parallel receptorome expression and screening via transcriptional output, with transcriptional activation following arrestin translocation (PRESTO-Tango)) for the simultaneous and parallel interrogation of the entire human nonolfactory GPCRome.

  15. Novel birefringence interrogation for Sagnac loop interferometer sensor with unlimited linear measurement range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haijun; Shao, Liyang; Qian, Heng; Zhang, Xinpu; Liang, Jiawei; Luo, Bin; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan

    2017-03-20

    A novel demodulation method for Sagnac loop interferometer based sensor has been proposed and demonstrated, by unwrapping the phase changes with birefringence interrogation. A temperature sensor based on Sagnac loop interferometer has been used to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. Several tests with 40 °C temperature range have been accomplished with a great linearity of 0.9996 in full range. The proposed scheme is universal for all Sagnac loop interferometer based sensors and it has unlimited linear measurable range which overwhelming the conventional demodulation method with peak/dip tracing. Furthermore, the influence of the wavelength sampling interval and wavelength span on the demodulation error has been discussed in this work. The proposed interrogation method has a great significance for Sagnac loop interferometer sensor and it might greatly enhance the availability of this type of sensors in practical application.

  16. Functional interrogation of non-coding DNA through CRISPR genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canver, Matthew C; Bauer, Daniel E; Orkin, Stuart H

    2017-05-15

    Methodologies to interrogate non-coding regions have lagged behind coding regions despite comprising the vast majority of the genome. However, the rapid evolution of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based genome editing has provided a multitude of novel techniques for laboratory investigation including significant contributions to the toolbox for studying non-coding DNA. CRISPR-mediated loss-of-function strategies rely on direct disruption of the underlying sequence or repression of transcription without modifying the targeted DNA sequence. CRISPR-mediated gain-of-function approaches similarly benefit from methods to alter the targeted sequence through integration of customized sequence into the genome as well as methods to activate transcription. Here we review CRISPR-based loss- and gain-of-function techniques for the interrogation of non-coding DNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Causal Interrogation of Neuronal Networks and Behavior through Virally Transduced Ivermectin Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenhaus, Horst A; Rozov, Andrei; Bertocchi, Ilaria; Tang, Wannan; Kirsch, Joachim; Betz, Heinrich; Sprengel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The causal interrogation of neuronal networks involved in specific behaviors requires the spatially and temporally controlled modulation of neuronal activity. For long-term manipulation of neuronal activity, chemogenetic tools provide a reasonable alternative to short-term optogenetic approaches. Here we show that virus mediated gene transfer of the ivermectin (IVM) activated glycine receptor mutant GlyRα1 (AG) can be used for the selective and reversible silencing of specific neuronal networks in mice. In the striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb, GlyRα1 (AG) promoted IVM dependent effects in representative behavioral assays. Moreover, GlyRα1 (AG) mediated silencing had a strong and reversible impact on neuronal ensemble activity and c-Fos activation in the olfactory bulb. Together our results demonstrate that long-term, reversible and re-inducible neuronal silencing via GlyRα1 (AG) is a promising tool for the interrogation of network mechanisms underlying the control of behavior and memory formation.

  18. Interrogation cradle and insertable containment fixture for detecting birefringent microcrystals in bile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Chris; Seger, Tino

    2003-09-30

    A transparent flow channel fluidly communicates a fluid source and a collection reservoir. An interrogating light beam passes through a first polarizer having a first plane of polarization. The flow channel is orthogonal to the light beam. The light beam passes through a fluid sample as it flows through the flow channel, and is then filtered through a second polarizer having a second plane of polarization rotated 90.degree. from the first plane of polarization. An electronic photo-detector is aligned with the light beam, and signals the presence of birefringent microcrystals in the fluid sample by generating voltage pulses. A disposable containment fixture includes the flow channel and the collection reservoir. The fixture is adapted for removable insertion into an interrogation cradle that includes optical and data processing components. The cradle rigidly positions the centerline of the flow channel orthogonal to the light beam.

  19. Interrogative pressure in simulated forensic interviews: the effects of negative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGroarty, Allan; Baxter, James S

    2007-08-01

    Much experimental research on interrogative pressure has concentrated on the effects of leading questions, and the role of feedback in influencing responses in the absence of leading questions has been neglected by comparison. This study assessed the effect of negative feedback and the presence of a second interviewer on interviewee responding in simulated forensic interviews. Participants viewed a videotape of a crime, answered questions about the clip and were requestioned after receiving feedback. Compared with neutral feedback, negative feedback resulted in more response changes, higher reported state anxiety and higher ratings of interview difficulty. These results are consistent with Gudjonsson and Clark's (1986) model of interrogative suggestibility. The presence and involvement of a second interviewer did not significantly affect interviewee responding, although trait anxiety scores were elevated when a second interviewer was present. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are considered.

  20. Examining the role of interrogative suggestibility in Miranda rights comprehension in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Roesch, Ronald; Douglas, Kevin S

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to further clarify the association between interrogative suggestibility and Miranda rights comprehension in adolescents; in particular, we examined whether intellectual ability (IQ) serves as a mediator of this relationship. Participants completed Grisso's Miranda Instruments, the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, and the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale. Many youth demonstrated poor comprehension of their rights, particularly younger and less intellectually capable adolescents. Both yield and shift components of interrogative suggestibility were inversely related to rights comprehension; however, IQ fully mediated these relationships. Neither demographic variables (gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status after controlling for IQ, and English as a second language (ESL) status) nor previous police experience were significantly associated with rights comprehension in the present sample. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Interrogative suggestibility: its relationship with assertiveness, social-evaluative anxiety, state anxiety and method of coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1988-05-01

    This paper attempts to investigate empirically in 30 subjects some of the theoretical components related to individual differences that are thought by Gudjonsson & Clark (1986) to mediate interrogative suggestibility as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS; Gudjonsson, 1984a). The variables studied were: assertiveness, social-evaluative anxiety, state anxiety and the coping methods subjects are able to generate and implement during interrogation. Low assertiveness and high evaluative anxiety were found to correlate moderately with suggestibility, but no significant correlations emerged for 'social avoidance and distress'. State anxiety correlated significantly with suggestibility, particularly after negative feedback had been administered. Coping methods (active-cognitive/behavioural vs. avoidance) significantly predicted suggestibility scores. The findings give strong support to the theoretical model of Gudjonsson & Clark.

  2. Syncope During Competitive Events: Interrogating Heart Rate Monitor Watches May Be Useful!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabouillot, Oscar; Bostanci, Kevin; Bouvier, Francois; Dumitrescu, Nicolae; Stéfuriac, Maria; Paule, Philippe; Roche, Nicolas-Charles

    2017-12-01

    This is a case report of a 45-year-old man who reported complete amnesia during the very first kilometer of a 10-km run. He was wearing a heart rate monitor (HRM). The interrogation of his HRM watch showed 200 bpm tachycardia beginning in the first kilometer and increasing up to 220 bpm during the last kilometer. The patient was asked to wear a Holter-monitor (Holter Research Laboratory; Helena, Montana USA) electrocardiogram (ECG) while practicing a training session. This examination allowed for the diagnosis of an adrenergic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) with an impressive auriculo-ventricular conduction over 260 bpm. This case highlights that non-medical devices, such as connected watches, can be helpful to diagnose arrhythmias. Thabouillot O , Bostanci K , Bouvier F , Dumitrescu N , Stéfuriac M , Paule P , Roche NC . Syncope during competitive events: interrogating heart rate monitor watches may be useful! Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):691-693.

  3. Ortho-Babinet polarization-interrogating filter: an interferometric approach to polarization measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Delden, Jay S

    2003-07-15

    A novel, interferometric, polarization-interrogating filter assembly and method for the simultaneous measurement of all four Stokes parameters across a partially polarized irradiance image in a no-moving-parts, instantaneous, highly sensitive manner is described. In the reported embodiment of the filter, two spatially varying linear retarders and a linear polarizer comprise an ortho-Babinet, polarization-interrogating (OBPI) filter. The OBPI filter uniquely encodes the incident ensemble of electromagnetic wave fronts comprising a partially polarized irradiance image in a controlled, deterministic, spatially varying manner to map the complete state of polarization across the image to local variations in a superposed interference pattern. Experimental interferograms are reported along with a numerical simulation of the method.

  4. Interfacing the septa movement (DC motors) equipment to the PS control system and the MIL1553 bus

    CERN Document Server

    Dehavay, Claude

    1995-01-01

    Continuing the rejuvenation of the PS Control system , this application replaces the Single Transceiver Hybrid used to interface the Septa Movement Fquipment by a G64 system connected to the VME crate via the MIL1553 bus. This note explains the G64 hardware interface and details the standard message as defined in the Control Protocole for Power Converter, RF and Stepping Motor equipment.

  5. Inactive trials of transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberlin, M.M.; Hardy, A.R.

    1985-06-01

    The design and manufacture of a mock-up of a crate handling and size reduction (CHSR) facility, an experimental programme on the evaluation of a commercial air-transporter, and the selection, manufacture and commissioning trials of an integrated conveyor system for transporting crated waste into and within the mock-up facility, are considered. The mock-up facility was used for the test programme on the air-transporter and conveyor system. The air-transporter was considered suitable for transporting waste on the metal floor in the main dismantling area of the CHSR facility because it can tolerate asymmetric loading, the exhaust air flow liberated from the air-pads is low and it has excellent manoeuvrability. Commissioning trials were carried out on a commercial conveyor system consisting of unpowered rollers in the reception area, a powered slatted conveyor in the air-lock and an unpowered roller table placed on the air-transporter in the working area. It was demonstrated that a large asymmetrically loaded wooden crate can be transported into and within the facility by this method. Further design and experimental work necessary before the system can be used for remote operation is discussed. (author)

  6. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: A critique of policy and process

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Brad; Soldz, Stephen; Davis, Martha

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA) to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number o...

  7. Knowingly but naively: The overpowering influence of innocence on interrogation rights decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Kyle C; Normile, Christopher J; Bierstetel, Sabrina J; Franks, Andrew S; Hawkins, Ian

    2018-02-01

    Most suspects waive the guaranteed protections that interrogation rights afford them against police intimidation. One factor thought to motivate suspects' inclination to waive their rights stems from the acquiescence bias whereby suspects mindlessly comply with interrogators' requests. However, research bearing on the phenomenology of innocence has demonstrated the power of innocents' mindset, which could motivate some innocent suspects to waive their rights knowingly (instead of mindlessly complying). To test these ideas, participants (N = 178) were (a) rightfully (guilty) or wrongfully (innocent) accused of wrongdoing during an experimental session, (b) administered 1 of 2 forms that by signing either waived or invoked their rights to a student advocate, and (c) given questions to assess their degree of knowing during the decision-making process (i.e., extent to which individuals were cognizant of their decisions). Results demonstrated that unknowing innocent and guilty individuals tended to passively comply, engaging in a pre-interrogation acquiescence bias by signing waive and invoke forms at similar rates. But, as participants became more cognizant of their decisions, they acquiesced at lower rates and their change from acquiescence differed depending on their status. As innocents became more cognizant, they signed the waiver form at higher rates than the invoke form, thereby demonstrating that innocence can motivate some suspects to knowingly forgo their rights. Conversely, as guilty individuals became more cognizant, they signed the invoke form at higher rates than the waiver form. These findings have implications for reforming pre-interrogation protocols, protecting suspects' civil liberties, and preventing innocents from offering false self-incriminating evidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Detection of actinides with an electron accelerator by active photoneutron interrogation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, A.; Carrel, F.; Gmar, M.; Laine, F.; Normand, S.; Lyoussi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The solution for management of a nuclear waste package is chosen according to its radiological characteristics. One of the most important of these features is the α-activity which is due to actinides ( 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, etc.) If non-destructive passive methods are not sufficient to quantify the latter, non-destructive active methods based on the fission process represent a solution of interest. First, these methods consist in irradiating a package in order to induce fission reactions on the actinides, and then, to detect the prompt and delayed particles which are emitted following these reactions. Our aim is to conduct neutron interrogation measurements on nuclear waste packages using an electron accelerator as a photoneutron generator. One of the main interests of this approach is that the intensity of the neutron flux can be one or two orders of magnitude higher than the one delivered by a deuterium-tritium generator. With the objective of improving nuclear waste characterization, the development of this method could enable the integration of three complementary techniques on a single measurement cell (active neutron interrogation, active photon interrogation, and high-energy imaging). In this paper, simulation and experimental results are presented. A simulation study using MCNPX has been conducted in order to determine the characteristics of the photoneutron flux emitted by the electron accelerator of the SAPHIR facility owned by CEA LIST. Energy spectra, angular distribution and intensity of the photoneutron flux have been obtained. A photoneutron interrogation measurement cell based on this accelerator has been built and assessed by carrying out measurements on uranium samples. Delayed gamma-ray spectra have been acquired and enabled to confirm the experimental feasibility of our method. (authors)

  9. Cellular Interrogation: Exploiting Cell-to-Cell Variability to Discriminate Regulatory Mechanisms in Oscillatory Signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Javier; Andrew, Natalie; Gibson, Daniel; Chang, Frederick; Gnad, Florian; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2016-07-01

    The molecular complexity within a cell may be seen as an evolutionary response to the external complexity of the cell's environment. This suggests that the external environment may be harnessed to interrogate the cell's internal molecular architecture. Cells, however, are not only nonlinear and non-stationary, but also exhibit heterogeneous responses within a clonal, isogenic population. In effect, each cell undertakes its own experiment. Here, we develop a method of cellular interrogation using programmable microfluidic devices which exploits the additional information present in cell-to-cell variation, without requiring model parameters to be fitted to data. We focussed on Ca2+ signalling in response to hormone stimulation, which exhibits oscillatory spiking in many cell types and chose eight models of Ca2+ signalling networks which exhibit similar behaviour in simulation. We developed a nonlinear frequency analysis for non-stationary responses, which could classify models into groups under parameter variation, but found that this question alone was unable to distinguish critical feedback loops. We further developed a nonlinear amplitude analysis and found that the combination of both questions ruled out six of the models as inconsistent with the experimentally-observed dynamics and heterogeneity. The two models that survived the double interrogation were mathematically different but schematically identical and yielded the same unexpected predictions that we confirmed experimentally. Further analysis showed that subtle mathematical details can markedly influence non-stationary responses under parameter variation, emphasising the difficulty of finding a "correct" model. By developing questions for the pathway being studied, and designing more versatile microfluidics, cellular interrogation holds promise as a systematic strategy that can complement direct intervention by genetics or pharmacology.

  10. Nanochannel Electroporation as a Platform for Living Cell Interrogation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi; Huang, Xiaomeng; Wang, Xinmei; Wu, Yun; Eisfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Schwind, Sebastian; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Boukany, Pouyan E; Marcucci, Guido I; Lee, Ly James

    2015-12-01

    A living cell interrogation platform based on nanochannel electroporation is demonstrated with analysis of RNAs in single cells. This minimally invasive process is based on individual cells and allows both multi-target analysis and stimulus-response analysis by sequential deliveries. The unique platform possesses a great potential to the comprehensive and lysis-free nucleic acid analysis on rare or hard-to-transfect cells.

  11. An improved ATAC-seq protocol reduces background and enables interrogation of frozen tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corces, M Ryan; Trevino, Alexandro E; Hamilton, Emily G; Greenside, Peyton G; Sinnott-Armstrong, Nicholas A; Vesuna, Sam; Satpathy, Ansuman T; Rubin, Adam J; Montine, Kathleen S; Wu, Beijing; Kathiria, Arwa; Cho, Seung Woo; Mumbach, Maxwell R; Carter, Ava C; Kasowski, Maya; Orloff, Lisa A; Risca, Viviana I; Kundaje, Anshul; Khavari, Paul A; Montine, Thomas J; Greenleaf, William J; Chang, Howard Y

    2017-10-01

    We present Omni-ATAC, an improved ATAC-seq protocol for chromatin accessibility profiling that works across multiple applications with substantial improvement of signal-to-background ratio and information content. The Omni-ATAC protocol generates chromatin accessibility profiles from archival frozen tissue samples and 50-μm sections, revealing the activities of disease-associated DNA elements in distinct human brain structures. The Omni-ATAC protocol enables the interrogation of personal regulomes in tissue context and translational studies.

  12. An Alternative Approach: Examining Arguments Against Coercive Interrogation Techniques from a Biblical-Ethics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Ethics of Torture. Jeffreys is Associate Professor of Humanistic Studies and Religion at the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay (Jeffreys 2009... existential struggle of those suffering from MI is a result of “perpetrating, failing to prevent, or bearing witness to acts that transgress deeply held... existential impact of CIT on the interrogator. While neither offers a complete and substantiated theory, their comments provide further argumentation that

  13. Dual Neutral Particle Beam Interrogation of Intermodal Shipping Containers for Special Nuclear Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Rodney Lyman

    Intermodal shipping containers entering the United States provide an avenue to smuggle unsecured or stolen special nuclear material (SNM). The only direct method fielded to indicate the presence of SNM is by passive photon/neutron radiation detection. Active interrogation using neutral particle beams to induce fission in SNM is a method under consideration. One by-product of fission is the creation of fragments that undergo radioactive decay over a time period on the order of tens of seconds after the initial event. The "delayed" gamma-rays emitted from these fragments over this period are considered a hallmark for the presence of SNM. A fundamental model is developed using homogenized cargos with a SNM target embedded at the center and computationally interrogated using simultaneous neutron and photon beams. Findings from analysis of the delayed gamma emissions from these experiments are intended to mitigate the effects of poor quality information about the composition and disposition of suspect cargo before examination in an active interrogation portal.

  14. Evaluation of the neutron self-interrogation approach for assay of plutonium in high materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    The pyrochemical scrap recovery processes, designed to extract impurities from plutonium metal and compounds, generate a variety of plutonium-laden residues consisting of high (α,n) matrices of varying chemical composition, and often containing grams to tens of grams of americium. For such materials, multiplication corrections based on real neutron coincidence count rate, R, and total neutron count rate, T, measurements cannot be applied because of the large, unknown, and variable (α,n) component in the total neutron emission rate. A study of the prototype self-interrogation assay method is in progress at the Los Alamos plutonium facility. In the self-interrogation approach, the assay signature R(IF)/T is a function of effective fissile plutonium content, where R(IF) is the induced fission component of the measured reals rate, and T is the measured, (α,n)-dominated totals rate. The present study includes a calibration effort using standards consisting of mixtures of PuO 2 and PuF 4 in a salt-strip matrix. The neutron measurements of the standards and the process materials have been performed at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The precision and accuracy of the self-interrogation method applied to pyrochemical residues is examined in this study

  15. Facilitating biomedical researchers' interrogation of electronic health record data: Ideas from outside of biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Gregory W; Matsoukas, Konstantina; Cimino, James J; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are a vital data resource for research uses, including cohort identification, phenotyping, pharmacovigilance, and public health surveillance. To realize the promise of EHR data for accelerating clinical research, it is imperative to enable efficient and autonomous EHR data interrogation by end users such as biomedical researchers. This paper surveys state-of-art approaches and key methodological considerations to this purpose. We adapted a previously published conceptual framework for interactive information retrieval, which defines three entities: user, channel, and source, by elaborating on channels for query formulation in the context of facilitating end users to interrogate EHR data. We show the current progress in biomedical informatics mainly lies in support for query execution and information modeling, primarily due to emphases on infrastructure development for data integration and data access via self-service query tools, but has neglected user support needed during iteratively query formulation processes, which can be costly and error-prone. In contrast, the information science literature has offered elaborate theories and methods for user modeling and query formulation support. The two bodies of literature are complementary, implying opportunities for cross-disciplinary idea exchange. On this basis, we outline the directions for future informatics research to improve our understanding of user needs and requirements for facilitating autonomous interrogation of EHR data by biomedical researchers. We suggest that cross-disciplinary translational research between biomedical informatics and information science can benefit our research in facilitating efficient data access in life sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The SVM Method for Fissile Mass Estimation through Passive Neutron Interrogation: Advances and Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubi, C.; Shvili, Israel I.

    2014-01-01

    Fissile mass estimation through passive neutron interrogation is now one of the main techniques for NDT of fissile mass estimation, due to the relative transparency of neutron radiation to structural materials- making it extremely effective in poorly characterized or dirty samples . Passive neutron interrogation relies on the fact that the number of neutrons emitted (per time unit) due to spontaneous fissions from the sample is proportional to the mass of the detected sample. However, since the measurement is effected by additional neutron sources- mainly (D±n) reactions and induced fission chain in the tested sample, a naive estimation, assuming a linear correspondence between the mass of the detected sample and the average number of detections, is bound to give an over estimation of the mass. Since most passive interrogation facilities are based on 3He detectors, the origin of the neutron cannot be determined by analyzing the energy spectrum (as all neutrons arrive at the detector in more or less the same energy), and a mathematical 'filter' is used to evaluate the noise to source ratio in the detection signal. The basic idea behind the mathematical filter is to utilize the fact that the different neutron sources have different statistical attributes- in particular, both the source event rate and the distribution of the number of neutrons released in each event differs between the different sources. There for, by studying the higher moments of the neutron population, new information about the source to noise ration may be obtained

  17. Calibration of Cherenkov detectors for monoenergetic photon imaging in active interrogation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, P.B., E-mail: prose6@gatech.edu; Erickson, A.S., E-mail: anna.erickson@me.gatech.edu

    2015-11-01

    Active interrogation of cargo containers using monoenergetic photons offers a rapid and low-dose approach to search for shielded special nuclear materials. Cherenkov detectors can be used for imaging of the cargo provided that gamma ray energies used in interrogation are well resolved, as the case in {sup 11}B(d,n-γ){sup 12}C reaction resulting in 4.4 MeV and 15.1 MeV photons. While an array of Cherenkov threshold detectors reduces low energy background from scatter while providing the ability of high contrast transmission imaging, thus confirming the presence of high-Z materials, these detectors require a special approach to energy calibration due to the lack of resolution. In this paper, we discuss the utility of Cherenkov detectors for active interrogation with monoenergetic photons as well as the results of computational and experimental studies of their energy calibration. The results of the studies with sources emitting monoenergetic photons as well as complex gamma ray spectrum sources, for example {sup 232}Th, show that calibration is possible as long as the energies of photons of interest are distinct.

  18. Optical power-based interrogation of plasmonic tilted fiber Bragg grating biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vila, Á.; Lopez-Aldaba, A.; Kinet, D.; Mégret, P.; Lopez-Amo, M.; Caucheteur, C.

    2017-04-01

    Two interrogation techniques for plasmonic tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors are reported and experimentally tested. Typical interrogation methods are usually based on tracking the wavelength shift of the most sensitive cladding mode, but for biosensing applications, spectrometer-based methods can be replaced by more efficient solutions. The proposed techniques thus rely on the measurement of the induced changes in optical power. The first one consists of a properly polarized tunable laser source set to emit at the wavelength of the sensor most sensitive mode and an optical power meter to measure the transmitted response. For the second method, a uniform fiber Bragg grating is photo-inscribed beyond the sensor in such a way that its central wavelength matches the sensor most sensitive mode, acting as an optical filter. Using a LED source, light reflected backwards by this grating is partially attenuated when passing through the sensor due to plasmon wave excitation and the power changes are quantified once again with an optical power meter. A performance analysis of the techniques is carried out and they both result competitive interrogation solutions. The work thus focuses on the development of cost-effective alternatives for monitoring this kind of biosensors in practical situations.

  19. An updated data acquisition and analysis system at RIBLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.Q.; Ye, Y.L.; Zhan, W.L.; Xiao, G.Q.; Guo, Z.Y.; Xu, H.S.; Wang, J.C.; Jiang, D.X.; Wang, Q.J.; Zheng, T.; Zhang, G.L.; Wu, C.E.; Li, Z.H.; Li, X.Q.; Hu, Q.Y.; Pang, D.Y.; Wang, J.

    2005-01-01

    An updated data acquisition and analysis system for beam tuning and nuclear physics experiments at RIBLL is presented. The system hardware is based on standard CAMAC bus with SCSI KSC3929-Z1B crate controller. The system software has a user-friendly GUI which is written in C/C++ language using Microsoft Visual C++ .Net 2003 with ROOT class library and runs under PC-based Windows 2000 operating system. The performance of the DAQ system is reliable and safe

  20. Nanoparticle–Film Plasmon Ruler Interrogated with Transmission Visible Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of plasmonic nanorulers (PNRs) in sensing platforms has been plagued by technical challenges associated with the development of methods to fabricate precisely controlled nanostructures with high yield and characterize them with high throughput. We have previously shown that creating PNRs in a nanoparticle–film (NP–film) format enables the fabrication of an extremely large population of uniform PNRs with 100% yield using a self-assembly approach, which facilitates high-throughput PNR characterization using ensemble spectroscopic measurements and eliminates the need for expensive microscopy systems required by many other PNR platforms. We expand upon this prior work herein, showing that the NP–film PNR can be made compatible with aqueous sensing studies by adapting it for use in a transmission localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy format, where the coupled NP–film resonance responsible for the PNR signal is directly probed using an extinction measurement from a standard spectrophotometer. We designed slide holders that fit inside standard spectrophotometer cuvettes and position NP–film samples so that the coupled NP–film resonance can be detected in a collinear optical configuration. Once the NP–film PNR samples are cuvette-compatible, it is straightforward to calibrate the PNR in aqueous solution and use it to characterize dynamic, angstrom-scale distance changes resulting from pH-induced swelling of polyelectrolyte (PE) spacer layers as thin as 1 PE layer and also of a self-assembled monolayer of an amine-terminated alkanethiol. This development is an important step toward making PNR sensors more user-friendly and encouraging their widespread use in various sensing schemes. PMID:25541618

  1. Monte carlo feasibility study of an active neutron assay technique for full-volume UF{sub 6} cylinder assay using a correlated interrogation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Karen A., E-mail: kamiller@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, P.O. Box 1663 MS E540, NM 87545 (United States); Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Marlow, Johnna B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, P.O. Box 1663 MS E540, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Uranium cylinder assay plays an important role in the nuclear material accounting at gas centrifuge enrichment plants. The Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) was designed to determine uranium mass and enrichment in 30B and 48Y cylinders using total neutron and coincidence counting in the passive mode. 30B and 48Y cylinders are used to hold bulk UF{sub 6} feed, product, and tails at enrichment plants. In this paper, we report the results of a Monte-Carlo-based feasibility study for an active uranium cylinder assay system based on the PNEM design. There are many advantages of the active technique such as a shortened count time and a more direct measure of {sup 235}U content. The active system is based on a modified PNEM design and uses a {sup 252}Cf source as the correlated, active interrogation source. We show through comparison with a random AmLi source of equal strength how the use of a correlated driver significantly boosts the active signal and reduces the statistical uncertainty. We also discuss ways in which an active uranium cylinder assay system can be optimized to minimize background from {sup 238}U fast-neutron induced fission and direct counts from the interrogation source.

  2. Processing Interrogative Sentence Mood at the Semantic-Syntactic Interface: An Electrophysiological Research in Chinese, German, and Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chung-Shan; Dietrich, Rainer; Sommer, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Background Languages differ in the marking of the sentence mood of a polar interrogative (yes/no question). For instance, the interrogative mood is marked at the beginning of the surface structure in Polish, whereas the marker appears at the end in Chinese. In order to generate the corresponding sentence frame, the syntactic specification of the interrogative mood is early in Polish and late in Chinese. In this respect, German belongs to an interesting intermediate class. The yes/no question is expressed by a shift of the finite verb from its final position in the underlying structure into the utterance initial position, a move affecting, hence, both the sentence's final and the sentence's initial constituents. The present study aimed to investigate whether during generation of the semantic structure of a polar interrogative, i.e., the processing preceding the grammatical formulation, the interrogative mood is encoded according to its position in the syntactic structure at distinctive time points in Chinese, German, and Polish. Methodology/Principal Findings In a two-choice go/nogo experimental design, native speakers of the three languages responded to pictures by pressing buttons and producing utterances in their native language while their brain potentials were recorded. The emergence and latency of lateralized readiness potentials (LRP) in nogo conditions, in which speakers asked a yes/no question, should indicate the time point of processing the interrogative mood. The results revealed that Chinese, German, and Polish native speakers did not differ from each other in the electrophysiological indicator. Conclusions/Significance The findings suggest that the semantic encoding of the interrogative mood is temporally consistent across languages despite its disparate syntactic specification. The consistent encoding may be ascribed to economic processing of interrogative moods at various sentential positions of the syntactic structures in languages or, more

  3. Radiation Tests on the Complete System of the Instrumentation of the LHC Cryogenics at the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Gousiou, E; Casas Cubillos, J; de la Gama Serrano, J

    2009-01-01

    There are more than 6000 electronic cards for the instrumentation of the LHC cryogenics, housed in crates and distributed around the 27 km tunnel. Cards and crates will be exposed to a complex radiation field during the 10 years of LHC operation. Rad-tol COTS and rad-hard ASIC have been selected and individually qualified during the design phase of the cards. The test setup and the acquired data presented in this paper target the qualitative assessment of the compliance with the LHC radiation environment of an assembled system. It is carried out at the CNGS test facility which provides exposure to LHC-like radiation field.

  4. FBG Interrogation Method with High Resolution and Response Speed Based on a Reflective-Matched FBG Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiwen; Hu, Yang; Feng, Kunpeng; Li, Junying; Tan, Jiubin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a high resolution and response speed interrogation method based on a reflective-matched Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) scheme is investigated in detail. The nonlinear problem of the reflective-matched FBG sensing interrogation scheme is solved by establishing and optimizing the mathematical model. A mechanical adjustment to optimize the interrogation method by tuning the central wavelength of the reference FBG to improve the stability and anti-temperature perturbation performance is investigated. To satisfy the measurement requirements of optical and electric signal processing, a well- designed acquisition circuit board is prepared, and experiments on the performance of the interrogation method are carried out. The experimental results indicate that the optical power resolution of the acquisition circuit border is better than 8 pW, and the stability of the interrogation method with the mechanical adjustment can reach 0.06%. Moreover, the nonlinearity of the interrogation method is 3.3% in the measurable range of 60 pm; the influence of temperature is significantly reduced to 9.5%; the wavelength resolution and response speed can achieve values of 0.3 pm and 500 kHz, respectively. PMID:26184195

  5. FBG Interrogation Method with High Resolution and Response Speed Based on a Reflective-Matched FBG Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiwen; Hu, Yang; Feng, Kunpeng; Li, Junying; Tan, Jiubin

    2015-07-08

    In this paper, a high resolution and response speed interrogation method based on a reflective-matched Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) scheme is investigated in detail. The nonlinear problem of the reflective-matched FBG sensing interrogation scheme is solved by establishing and optimizing the mathematical model. A mechanical adjustment to optimize the interrogation method by tuning the central wavelength of the reference FBG to improve the stability and anti-temperature perturbation performance is investigated. To satisfy the measurement requirements of optical and electric signal processing, a well- designed acquisition circuit board is prepared, and experiments on the performance of the interrogation method are carried out. The experimental results indicate that the optical power resolution of the acquisition circuit border is better than 8 pW, and the stability of the interrogation method with the mechanical adjustment can reach 0.06%. Moreover, the nonlinearity of the interrogation method is 3.3% in the measurable range of 60 pm; the influence of temperature is significantly reduced to 9.5%; the wavelength resolution and response speed can achieve values of 0.3 pm and 500 kHz, respectively.

  6. Interrogating Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pærregaard, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Kapitlet diskuterer generelt de analytiske muligheder og begrænsninger for brugen af diasporabegrebet og undersøger, hvordan det kan anvendes på et studie af peruansk migration med særlig henblik på migrationens politiske, solidariske og klassemæssige aspekter....

  7. System program for MICRO-CAMAC terminal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasajima, Yoji; Yamada, Takayuki; Yagi, Hideyuki; Ishiguro, Misako

    1979-08-01

    A JAERI on-line network system was developed and exists for on-line data processing of nuclear instrumentation. As terminal systems for the network system, the one with a Micro -8 micro-computer is used. By modifying the control program for Micro-8 terminal system, a system program has been developed for a MICRO-CAMAC terminal system, which is controlled by a micro-computer framed within the CAMAC Crate Controller. In this report are described software specifications of the MICRO -CAMAC terminal system and its operation method. (author)

  8. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive V that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries V and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. In general, RFID is a method of identifying items using radio waves to interrogate tags encoded with a unique identifier that are affixed to the items of interest. In the case of passive tags, only the interrogator, which transmits power to the tags in the form of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, requires access to a power supply. Passive RFID technologies are used today in many applications, including asset tracking and management, security and access control, and remote sensing. To date, most of the development and application in RFID technology has focused on either asset/inventory tracking and control or security and access control because these are the largest commercial application areas. Recently however, there has been growing interest in using passive RFID technology for remote sensing applications, and SAW devices are at the forefront of RFID sensing technology development. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of

  9. Mechanism of duplex DNA destabilization by RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease during target interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekler, Vladimir; Minakhin, Leonid; Severinov, Konstantin

    2017-05-23

    The prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated 9 (Cas9) endonuclease cleaves double-stranded DNA sequences specified by guide RNA molecules and flanked by a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and is widely used for genome editing in various organisms. The RNA-programmed Cas9 locates the target site by scanning genomic DNA. We sought to elucidate the mechanism of initial DNA interrogation steps that precede the pairing of target DNA with guide RNA. Using fluorometric and biochemical assays, we studied Cas9/guide RNA complexes with model DNA substrates that mimicked early intermediates on the pathway to the final Cas9/guide RNA-DNA complex. The results show that Cas9/guide RNA binding to PAM favors separation of a few PAM-proximal protospacer base pairs allowing initial target interrogation by guide RNA. The duplex destabilization is mediated, in part, by Cas9/guide RNA affinity for unpaired segments of nontarget strand DNA close to PAM. Furthermore, our data indicate that the entry of double-stranded DNA beyond a short threshold distance from PAM into the Cas9/single-guide RNA (sgRNA) interior is hindered. We suggest that the interactions unfavorable for duplex DNA binding promote DNA bending in the PAM-proximal region during early steps of Cas9/guide RNA-DNA complex formation, thus additionally destabilizing the protospacer duplex. The mechanism that emerges from our analysis explains how the Cas9/sgRNA complex is able to locate the correct target sequence efficiently while interrogating numerous nontarget sequences associated with correct PAMs.

  10. Acquisition system for the CLIC Module

    CERN Document Server

    Vilalte, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    The status of R&D activities for CLIC module acquisition are discussed [1]. LAPP is involved in the design of the local CLIC module acquisition crate, described in the document Study of the CLIC Module Front-End Acquisition and Evaluation Electronics [2]. This acquisition system is a project based on a local crate, assigned to the CLIC module, including several mother boards. These motherboards are foreseen to hold mezzanines dedicated to the different subsystems. This system has to work in radiation environment. LAPP is involved in the development of Drive Beam stripline position monitors read-out, described in the document Drive Beam Stripline BPM Electronics and Acquisition [3]. LAPP also develops a generic acquisition mezzanine that allows to perform all-around acquisition and components tests for drive beam stripline BPM read-out.

  11. Enhanced sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor by using oblique deposited silver nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chih-Chia; Wu, Pin Chieh; Tseng, Ming Lun; Lin, Wen-Chi; Chen, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor is demonstrated to be enhanced by oblique deposited silver nanorods. Silver nanorods are thermally deposited on silver nanothin film by oblique angle deposition (OAD). The length of the nanorods can be tuned by controlling the deposition parameters of thermal deposition. By measuring the phase difference between the p and s waves of surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometer with different wavelength of incident light, we have demonstrated that maximum sensitivity of glucose detection down to 7.1 × 10(-8) refractive index units could be achieved with optimal deposition parameters of silver nanorods.

  12. Systematic Functional Interrogation of Rare Cancer Variants Identifies Oncogenic Alleles | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer genome characterization efforts now provide an initial view of the somatic alterations in primary tumors. However, most point mutations occur at low frequency, and the function of these alleles remains undefined. We have developed a scalable systematic approach to interrogate the function of cancer-associated gene variants. We subjected 474 mutant alleles curated from 5,338 tumors to pooled in vivo tumor formation assays and gene expression profiling. We identified 12 transforming alleles, including two in genes (PIK3CB, POT1) that have not been shown to be tumorigenic.

  13. Unexploded Ordnance identification—A gamma-ray spectral analysis method for Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen signals following tagged neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, S.; Dioszegi, I.

    2012-01-01

    A novel gamma-ray spectral analysis method has been demonstrated to optimally extract the signals of the signature elements of explosives, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) from 57–155 mm projectiles following tagged neutron interrogation with 14 MeV neutrons. The method was implemented on Monte Carlo simulated, synthetic spectra of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) that contained high explosive fillers (Composition B, TNT or Explosive D) within steel casings of appropriate thicknesses. The analysis technique defined three broad regions-of-interest (ROI) between 4–7.5 MeV of a spectrum and from a system of three equations for the three unknowns namely C, N and O, the maximum counts from each of these elements were extracted. Unlike conventional spectral analysis techniques, the present method included the Compton continuum under a spectrum. For a neutron output of ∼2×10 7 ns −1 and using four 12.7 cm diameter×12.7 cm NaI(Tl) detectors, the C/N and C/O gamma-ray counts ratios of the explosive fillers were vastly different from that of an inert substance like sand. Conversion of the counts ratios to elemental ratios could further discriminate the different types of explosive fillers. The interrogation time was kept at ten minutes for each projectile.

  14. High-sensitive detection by direct interrogation of 14 MeV Acc neutrons, (1). Uranium-contained metal matrix in a waste dram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Mitsuo; Takase, Misao; Tobita, Hiroshi; Mori, Takamasa

    2004-01-01

    Previously, authors reported that the 14 MeV-neutron direct interrogation method has made possible measure for the discrimination of clearance levels of concrete solidification uranium waste. In this paper, applicability of the method to metal waste matrix is discussed based on the results of simulation experiments by the continuation energy Monte Carlo calculation code (MVP). The problem is that self-neutron moderation effect in a waste cannot be expected when a waste matrix is metal. To solve this, a moderator is adopted so as to surround a metal waste drum and to slow down suitably a 14 MeV neutrons. The simulation calculation showed that this effect is satisfactorily large. The detection limit of radioactivity concentration to 4.5% enriched uranium has been found to be 0.0973 Bq/g in the metal waste model of 215.59 kg gross weight, in which 61 pipes are stuffed into its drum. Moreover, the position-dependent sensitivity difference in a metal waste drum can be settled as small as to ±13.5%. In conclusion, it can be said that 14 MeV-neutron direct interrogation method can be applied to the waste of a metal system: the detection sensitivity is high enough and the position-dependent sensitivity difference is small admittedly. Hence the method can be applied also to discrimination measurement of the clearance level of metal uranium waste. (author)

  15. Control system for the Spanish Stellarator TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacios, L.; Blaumoser, M.; Pena, A. de la; Carrasco, R.; Labrador, I.; Lapayese, F.; Diaz, J.C.; Laso, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the distributed control and monitoring system for the Spanish Stellarator TJ-II, which is under construction at CIEMAT in Madrid. It consists of one central UNIX workstation and several autonomous subsystems based on VME crates with embedded processors under OS-9 real-time operating system and PLCs. The system integrates the machine and discharge control. An operator can perform the control and plasma discharge by means of a user-friendly graphic interface. (orig.)

  16. University of Washington Nuclear Physics Data Collection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, K.C.

    1981-01-01

    During the past several years, a new data collection system has been developed, replacing a previous system based on an SDS-930 computer. The system is constructed about a PDP 11/60 and an MBD-11 controlled CAMAC crate. The hardware configuration as well as a locally written singles data collection code will be described in some detail. Multiparameter data is taken with an enhanced version of Fermilab Multi. Current capabilities and future plans are discussed

  17. A camac data acquisition system based on PC-Linux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribas, R.V.

    2002-01-01

    A multi-parametric data acquisition system for Nuclear Physics experiments using camac instrumentation on a personal computer with the Linux operating system in described. The system is very reliable, inexpensive and is capable of handling event rates up to 4-6 k events/s. In the present version, the maximum number of parameters to be acquired is limited only by the number of camac modules that can be fitted in one camac crate

  18. The IBL Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Dopke, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Flick, T; Gabrielli, A; Kugel, A; Maettig, P; Morettini, P; Polini, A; Schroer, N

    2010-01-01

    The first upgrade for the ATLAS pixel detector will be an additional layer, which is called IBL (Insertable B-Layer). To readout this new layer having new electronics assembled an update of the readout electronics is necessary. The aim is to develop a system which is capable to read out at a higher bandwidth and also compatible with the existing system to be integrated into it. The talk will describe the necessary development to reach a new readout system, concentrating on the requirements of a newly designed Back of Crate card as the optical interface in the counting room.

  19. The IBL Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Dopke, J; Flick, T; Gabrielli, A; Kugel, A; Maettig, P; Morettini, P; Polini, A; Schroer, N

    2011-01-01

    The first upgrade for the ATLAS Pixel Detector will be an additional layer, which is called IBL (Insertable B-Layer). To readout this new layer, having new electronics, an update of the readout electronics is necessary. The aim is to develop a system which is capable to read out at a higher bandwidth, but also compatible with the existing system to be integrated into it. This paper will describe the necessary development to reach a new readout system, concentrating on the requirements of a newly designed Back of Crate card as the optical interface in the counting room.

  20. Grating-Coupled Surface Plasmon Resonance (GC-SPR) Optimization for Phase-Interrogation Biosensing in a Microfluidic Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Gazzola, Enrico; Capaldo, Pietro; Borile, Giulia; Romanato, Filippo

    2018-05-18

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)-based sensors have the advantage of being label-free, enzyme-free and real-time. However, their spreading in multidisciplinary research is still mostly limited to prism-coupled devices. Plasmonic gratings, combined with a simple and cost-effective instrumentation, have been poorly developed compared to prism-coupled system mainly due to their lower sensitivity. Here we describe the optimization and signal enhancement of a sensing platform based on phase-interrogation method, which entails the exploitation of a nanostructured sensor. This technique is particularly suitable for integration of the plasmonic sensor in a lab-on-a-chip platform and can be used in a microfluidic chamber to ease the sensing procedures and limit the injected volume. The careful optimization of most suitable experimental parameters by numerical simulations leads to a 30⁻50% enhancement of SPR response, opening new possibilities for applications in the biomedical research field while maintaining the ease and versatility of the configuration.

  1. The Fight for the High Ground: The U.S. Army and Interrogation during Operation Iraqi Freedom I, May 2003-April 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    Captain Wood has stated that she " plagiarized " the interrogation policy of TF 121 (according to news reporting, the name of this SMU task force at...the time of her plagiarization ) to create a draft interrogation policy for her own interrogators at Abu Ghraib. 85 She then submitted this draft...29 Ibid. 30 Lieutenant Colonel Dean Bland, The Abu Ghraib Scandal: Impact on the Army Profession and the Intelligence Process, Academic Research

  2. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: A critique of policy and process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Martha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs, as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights.

  3. Duplex Interrogation by a Direct DNA Repair Protein in Search of Base Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chengqi; Chen, Baoen; Qi, Bo; Zhang, Wen; Jia, Guifang; Zhang, Liang; Li, Charles J.; Dinner, Aaron R.; Yang, Cai-Guang; He, Chuan

    2012-01-01

    ALKBH2 is a direct DNA repair dioxygenase guarding mammalian genome against N1-methyladenine, N3-methylcytosine, and 1,N6-ethenoadenine damage. A prerequisite for repair is to identify these lesions in the genome. Here we present crystal structures of ALKBH2 bound to different duplex DNAs. Together with computational and biochemical analyses, our results suggest that DNA interrogation by ALKBH2 displays two novel features: i) ALKBH2 probes base-pair stability and detects base pairs with reduced stability; ii) ALKBH2 does not have nor need a “damage-checking site”, which is critical for preventing spurious base-cleavage for several glycosylases. The demethylation mechanism of ALKBH2 insures that only cognate lesions are oxidized and reversed to normal bases, and that a flipped, non-substrate base remains intact in the active site. Overall, the combination of duplex interrogation and oxidation chemistry allows ALKBH2 to detect and process diverse lesions efficiently and correctly. PMID:22659876

  4. Radioactive waste package assay facility. Volume 2. Investigation of active neutron and active gamma interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.; Bunce, L.J.; Findlay, D.J.S.; Jolly, J.E.; Parsons, T.V.; Sene, M.R.; Swinhoe, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    Volume 2 of this report describes the theoretical and experimental work carried out at Harwell on active neutron and active gamma interrogation of 500 litre cemented intermediate level waste drums. The design of a suitable neutron generating target in conjunction with a LINAC was established. Following theoretical predictions of likely neutron responses, an experimental assay assembly was built. Responses were measured for simulated drums of ILW, based on CAGR, Magnox and PCM wastes. Good correlations were established between quantities of 235 -U, nat -U and D 2 O contained in the drums, and the neutron signals. Expected sensitivities are -1g of fissile actinide and -100g of total actinide. A measure of spatial distribution is obtainable. The neutron time spectra obtained during neutron interrogation were more complex than expected, and more analysis is needed. Another area of discrepancy is the difference between predicted and measured thermal neutron flux in the drum. Clusters of small 3 He proportional counters were found to be much superior for fast neutron detection than larger diameter counters. It is necessary to ensure constancy of electron beam position relative to target(s) and drum, and prudent to measure the target neutron or gamma output as appropriate. 59 refs., 77 figs., 11 tabs

  5. [Performance of a standardized interrogation to improve the screening of Chlamydia trachomatis infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandcolin, S; de Hauteclocque, A; Lafoscade, A; Fritel, X

    2015-10-01

    To estimate the performance of a standardized interrogation tool facilitating the detection and screening of patients for the Chlamydia trachomatis infection, to estimate the prevalence of the infection in the family planning population studied. Prospective observational study, including the patients who had a consultation in the abortion center in the CHU of Poitiers. A sampling of the cervix was systematically carried out after the standardized interrogation in search of four clinical signs. The samples were analyzed by genetic amplification. Three hundred and eighty-six women were included and 56 (14.5 %) infections were identified. The medical history questionnaire was relatively effective for 2 or 3 clinical signs. The positive predictive value (PPV) was respectively 34.8 % and 53.8 % and was very relevant for 4 clinical signs with PPV at 83.3 % [CI 95 %: 74-93 %]. Among the infected women, 48.2 % had no clinical sign revealed by the medical history questionnaire. The presence of any clinical sign was strongly associated with the C. trachomatis infection (Pinterrogation are all significantly associated with the C. trachomatis infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Spectrum interrogation of fiber acoustic sensor based on self-fitting and differential method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xin; Lu, Ping; Ni, Wenjun; Liao, Hao; Wang, Shun; Liu, Deming; Zhang, Jiangshan

    2017-02-20

    In this article, we propose an interrogation method of fiber acoustic sensor to recover the time-domain signal from the sensor spectrum. The optical spectrum of the sensor will show a ripple waveform when responding to acoustic signal due to the scanning process in a certain wavelength range. The reason behind this phenomenon is the dynamic variation of the sensor spectrum while the intensity of different wavelength is acquired at different time in a scanning period. The frequency components can be extracted from the ripple spectrum assisted by the wavelength scanning speed. The signal is able to be recovered by differential between the ripple spectrum and its self-fitted curve. The differential process can eliminate the interference caused by environmental perturbations such as temperature or refractive index (RI), etc. The proposed method is appropriate for fiber acoustic sensors based on gratings or interferometers. A long period grating (LPG) is adopted as an acoustic sensor head to prove the feasibility of the interrogation method in experiment. The ability to compensate the environmental fluctuations is also demonstrated.

  7. An enhanced functional interrogation/manipulation of intracellular signaling pathways with the peptide 'stapling' technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Chen, D; Zheng, W

    2015-11-12

    Specific protein-protein interactions (PPIs) constitute a key underlying mechanism for the presence of a multitude of intracellular signaling pathways, which are essential for the survival of normal and cancer cells. Specific molecular blockers for a crucial PPI would therefore be invaluable tools for an enhanced functional interrogation of the signaling pathway harboring this particular PPI. On the other hand, if a particular PPI is essential for the survival of cancer cells but is absent in or dispensable for the survival of normal cells, its specific molecular blockers could potentially be developed into effective anticancer therapeutics. Due to the flat and extended PPI interface, it would be conceivably difficult for small molecules to achieve an effective blockade, a problem which could be potentially circumvented with peptides or proteins. However, the well-documented proteolytic instability and cellular impermeability of peptides and proteins in general would make their developing into effective intracellular PPI blockers quite a challenge. With the advent of the peptide 'stapling' technology which was demonstrated to be able to stabilize the α-helical conformation of a peptide via bridging two neighboring amino-acid side chains with a 'molecular staple', a linear parent peptide could be transformed into a stronger PPI blocker with enhanced proteolytic stability and cellular permeability. This review will furnish an account on the peptide 'stapling' technology and its exploitation in efforts to achieve an enhanced functional interrogation or manipulation of intracellular signaling pathways especially those that are cancer relevant.

  8. Switching Transient Generation in Surface Interrogation Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy and Time-of-Flight Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun S; Bard, Allen J

    2015-12-15

    In surface interrogation scanning electrochemical microscopy (SI-SECM), fine and accurate control of the delay time between substrate generation and tip interrogation (tdelay) is crucial because tdelay defines the decay time of the reactive intermediate. In previous applications of the SI-SECM, the resolution in the control of tdelay has been limited to several hundreds of milliseconds due to the slow switching of the bipotentiostat. In this work, we have improved the time resolution of tdelay control up to ca. 1 μs, enhancing the SI-SECM to be competitive in the time domain with the decay of many reactive intermediates. The rapid switching SI-SECM has been implemented in a substrate generation-tip collection time-of-flight (SG-TC TOF) experiment of a solution redox mediator, and the results obtained from the experiment exhibited good agreement with that obtained from digital simulation. The reaction rate constant of surface Co(IV) on oxygen-evolving catalyst film, which was inaccessible thus far due to the lack of tdelay control, has been measured by the rapid switching SI-SECM.

  9. Reduced representation approaches to interrogate genome diversity in large repetitive plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Cory D; Evans, Joseph; Buell, C Robin; Hirsch, Candice N

    2014-07-01

    Technology and software improvements in the last decade now provide methodologies to access the genome sequence of not only a single accession, but also multiple accessions of plant species. This provides a means to interrogate species diversity at the genome level. Ample diversity among accessions in a collection of species can be found, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions and deletions, copy number variation and presence/absence variation. For species with small, non-repetitive rich genomes, re-sequencing of query accessions is robust, highly informative, and economically feasible. However, for species with moderate to large sized repetitive-rich genomes, technical and economic barriers prevent en masse genome re-sequencing of accessions. Multiple approaches to access a focused subset of loci in species with larger genomes have been developed, including reduced representation sequencing, exome capture and transcriptome sequencing. Collectively, these approaches have enabled interrogation of diversity on a genome scale for large plant genomes, including crop species important to worldwide food security. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: a critique of policy and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Brad; Soldz, Stephen; Davis, Martha

    2008-01-29

    The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA) to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative) side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights.

  11. Peak wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors during impact events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chun; Peters, Kara; Zikry, Mohammed; Haber, Todd; Schultz, Stephen; Selfridge, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we embed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in graphite fiber–epoxy woven composite laminates to detect evolving damage modes. The peak wavelengths of the FBG sensors are interrogated at 625 and 295 kHz, while the laminates are subjected to 11.0 J low-velocity impact events. It is demonstrated that 295 kHz interrogation is sufficient for accurately collecting the dynamic response of the sensors. The FBG sensors embedded at the laminate midplanes successfully reconstructed the global laminate response to impact. The maximum and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) for the relative strain histories demonstrated the same trends as the maximum and FWHM of the contact force histories measured from the impactor. More noise was present in the strain histories obtained from the FBG sensors than the contact force histories, as the embedded FBGs were sensitive to local perturbations in the stress state. The FBG sensors embedded below the midplane of the laminate were closer to the damage regions and measured complex strain histories. In one case, this strain history revealed the presence of delamination

  12. "What Exactly Is a Black?": Interrogating the Reality of Race in Jean Genet's The Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debby Thompson

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available On the dedication page of The Blacks , Genet writes "One evening an actor asked me to write a play for an all-black cast. But what exactly is a black? First of all, what's his color?" Prefiguring major issues and paradoxes of African American cultural studies today, The Blacks insists on the very real ways in which the black/white racial binary, like the very concept of race itself, is lived and socially enforced, and at the same time argues that the binary is ultimately a fiction, made real through performative reification. Genet's "clown show," ambiguously reversing the blackface minstrelsy tradition, dramatizes how racial identity can become internalized and naturalized through cultural myths of interracial rape and colonialist narratives of a "heart of darkness," an imaginary site from which "black essence" arises. These racist performance traditions and narratives are so powerful and resilient that attempts to protest them become subtle and unwitting ways of re-creating them. The Blacks' parody of the minstrel tradition to interrogate all racial identity is so permanently suspended in a dialectic of both reinforcing the black/white binary and invalidating it, that the play's strategies present vital paradigms for the study of other and diverse interrogations of racial ontologies.

  13. Interrogation and mitigation of polarization effects for standard and birefringent FBGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; Van Roosbroeck, Jan; O'Dowd, John A.; Van Hoe, Bram; Lindner, Eric; Vlekken, Johan; Farnan, Martin; Karabacak, Devrez M.; Singer, Johannes M.

    2016-05-01

    Optical sensors based on Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) are used in several applications and industries. Several inscription techniques and type of fibers can be used. However, depending on the writing process, type of fiber used and the packaging of the sensor a Polarization Dependent Frequency Shift (PDFS) can often be observed with polarized tunable laser based optical interrogators. Here we study the PDFS of the FBG peak for the different FBG types. A PDFS of 20pm was observed across the FBGs. To mitigate and reduce this effect we propose a polarization mitigation technique which relies on a synchronous polarization switch to reduce the effect typically by a factor greater than 4. In other scenarios the sensor itself is designed to be birefringent (Bi-FBG) to allow pressure and/or simultaneous temperature and strain measurements. Using the same polarization switch we demonstrate how we can interrogate the Bi-FBGs with high accuracy to enable high performance of such sensors to be achievable.

  14. In-situ monitoring of undercoating corrosion damage by Direct Optical Interrogation (DOI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Garrity, Meng

    An approach referred to as "Direct Optical Interrogation" (DOI) has been developed as an extension of the thin film pitting approach developed and used by Frankel and others. Samples were prepared by depositing Al and Al-Cu alloy metallizations about 800 nm thick on glass substrates. These metallizations were then coated with various coatings and coating systems. Samples were introduced to aggressive environments and the progression of corrosion of the metallization under the coating was monitored in situ using low power videography. Because metallizations were thin, corrosion quickly penetrated through the metal layer to the glass substrate and then spread laterally. Measurement of the lateral spread of corrosion enabled non-electrochemical assessment of the corrosion kinetics. In Al-Cu thin films, both aged and as-deposited, corrosion sites are irregularly shaped because there is not enough cathodic current to propagate the entire corrosion site margin at equal rates. In a number of cases, corrosion propagates with a filamentary morphology resembling filiform corrosion. Cu played a strong role in determining under coating corrosion morphology and growth kinetics in experiments with Al-Cu thin films substrates. As-deposited Al-Cu metallizations were more corrosion resistant than aged metallization and both were more corrosion resistant than pure Al. Cu-rich dendrites were formed on the corrosion front. Corrosion rate (current density) was calculated using Faraday's law by collecting corrosion site perimeter and bottom area. Systematic exploration of the effects of a chromate and chromate-free conversion coatings, chromate and chromate-free primer coatings and the presence or absence of a polyurethane topcoat confirmed the extraordinary corrosion protection by chromates. A commercial praseodymium-pigmented primer coating was not particularly effective in retarding undercoating corrosion site growth unless paired with a chromate conversion coating. The presence of a

  15. The new control system of the Saclay linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gournay, J.F.

    1985-10-01

    A new control system for the Saclay Linear Accelerator designed during the two past years is now in operation. The computer control architecture is based on 3 dedicated VME crates: one crate with a disk-based operating system runs the high level application programs and the database management facilities, another one manages the man-machine communications and the third one interfaces the system to the linac equipments. At the present time, communications between the VME micro-computers are done through 16 bit parallel links. The software is modular and organized in specific layers, the database is fully distributed. About 90% of the code is written in Fortran. The present status of the system is discussed and the hardware and software developments are described

  16. Commissioning of the APS real-time orbit feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carwardine, J.; Decker, G.; Evans, K. Jr.; Hillman, A.; Lenkszus, F.; Merl, R.; Pietryla, A.

    1997-01-01

    A unified global and local closed-orbit feedback system has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source in order to stabilize both particle and photon beams. Beam stability requirements in the band up to 50 Hz are 17 microm in the horizontal plane and 4.4 microm vertically. Orbit feedback algorithms are implemented digitally using multiple digital signal processors, with computing power distributed in 20 VME crates around the storage ring. Each crate communicates with all others via a fast reflective memory network. The system has access to 320 rf beam position monitors together with x-ray beam position monitors in both insertion device and bending magnet beamlines. Up to 317 corrector magnets are available to the system. The global system reduces horizontal rms beam motion at the x-ray source points by more than a factor of two in the frequency band from 10 mHz to 50 Hz

  17. The simultaneous neutron and photon interrogation method for fissile and non-fissile element separation in radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jallu, F.; Lyoussi, A.; Passard, C.; Payan, E.; Recroix, H.; Nurdin, G.; Buisson, A.; Allano, J.

    2000-01-01

    Measuring α-emitters such as ( 234,235,236,238 U, 238,239,240,242,244 Pu, 237 Np, 241,243 Am, ...), in solid radioactive waste allows us to quantify the α-activity in a drum and then to classify it. The simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation experiment (SIMPHONIE) method dealt with in this paper, combines both active neutron interrogation and induced photofission interrogation techniques simultaneously. Its purpose is to quantify fissile ( 235 U, 239,241 Pu, ...) and non-fissile ( 236,238 U, 238,240 Pu, ...) elements separately in only one measurement. This paper presents the principle of the method, the experimental setup, and the first experimental results obtained using the DGA/ETCA Linac and MiniLinatron pulsed linear electron accelerators located at Arcueil, France. First studies were carried out with U and Pu bare samples

  18. Novel RF Interrogation of a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Using Bidirectional Modulation of a Mach-Zehnder Electro-Optical Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang-Jin; Mao, Wankai; Pan, Jae-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate the novel radio-frequency (RF) interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor using bidirectional modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (MZ-EOM). Based on the microwave photonic technique and active detection, the transfer function of the proposed system was obtained, and the time delay was calculated from the change in the free spectral range (FSR) at different wavelengths over the optimal measuring range. The results show that the time delay and the wavelength variation have a good linear relationship, with a gradient of 9.31 ps/nm. An actual measurement taken with a sensing FBG for temperature variation shows the relationship with a gradient of 0.93 ps/10 °C. The developed system could be used for FBG temperature or strain sensing and other multiplexed sensor applications. PMID:23820744

  19. VME system monitor board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Much of the machinery throughout the APS will be controlled by VME based computers. In order to increase the reliability of the system, it is necessary to be able to monitor the status of each VME crate. In order to do this, a VME System Monitor was created. In addition to being able to monitor and report the status (watchdog timer, temperature, CPU (Motorola MVME 167) state (status, run, fail), and the power supply), it includes provisions to remotely reset the CPU and VME crate, digital I/O, and parts of the transition module (serial port and ethernet connector) so that the Motorla MVME 712 is not needed. The standard VME interface was modified on the System Monitor so that in conjunction with the Motorola MVME 167 a message based VXI interrupt handler could is implemented. The System Monitor is a single VME card (6U). It utilizes both the front panel and the P2 connector for I/O. The front panel contains a temperature monitor, watchdog status LED, 4 general status LEDs, input for a TTL interrupt, 8 binary inputs (24 volt, 5 volt, and dry contact sense), 4 binary outputs (dry contact, TTL, and 100 mA), serial port (electrical RS-232 or fiber optic), ethernet transceiver (10 BASE-FO or AUI), and a status link to neighbor crates. The P2 connector is used to provide the serial port and ethernet to the processor. In order to abort and read the status of the CPU, a jumper cable must be connected between the CPU and the System Monitor.

  20. USE OF SMARTPHONE’S POSSIBILITIES IN CONSTRUCTION OF LOGISTICS SYSTEM OF VENDING MACHINES

    OpenAIRE

    STANIS£AW BRZEZIÑSKI; PIOTR STEFAÑCZYK

    2013-01-01

    Article presents a case study of logistics system implementation based on smartphone’s possibilities. Authors indicate new opportunities, those modern mobile technologies and equipment offer in construction of cheap and integrated logistics systems. Case study shows usage of a smartphone in the system of a vending enterprise’s logistics as an example of integrated and cheap logistics systems and settlements build on revolution of the mobile communication (which is crating by smartphones and t...