WorldWideScience

Sample records for crash related injury

  1. Systematic review of military motor vehicle crash-related injuries.

    Krahl, Pamela L; Jankosky, Christopher J; Thomas, Richard J; Hooper, Tomoko I

    2010-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for nearly one third of U.S. military fatalities annually. The objective of this review is to summarize the published evidence on injuries due specifically to military motor vehicle (MMV) crashes. A search of 18 electronic databases identified English language publications addressing MMV crash-related injuries between 1970 and 2006 that were available to the general public. Documents limited in distribution to military or government personnel were not evaluated. Relevant articles were categorized by study design. The search identified only 13 studies related specifically to MMV crashes. Most were case reports or case series (n=8); only one could be classified as an intervention study. Nine of the studies were based solely on data from service-specific military safety centers. Few studies exist on injuries resulting from crashes of military motor vehicles. Epidemiologic studies that assess injury rates, type, severity, and risk factors are needed, followed by studies to evaluate targeted interventions and prevention strategies. Interventions currently underway should be evaluated for effectiveness, and those proven effective in the civilian community, such as graduated driver licensing, should be considered for implementation and evaluation in military populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Motorcycle crash-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations for traumatic brain injury in North Carolina.

    Harmon, Katherine J; Marshall, Stephen W; Proescholdbell, Scott K; Naumann, Rebecca B; Waller, Anna E

    2015-01-01

    To examine statewide emergency department (ED) visit data for motorcycle crash morbidity and healthcare utilization due to traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and non-TBIs. North Carolina ED data (2010-2012) and hospital discharge data (2009-2011). Statewide ED visits and hospitalizations due to injuries from traffic-related motorcycle crashes stratified by TBI status. Descriptive study. Descriptive statistics include age, sex, mode of transport, disposition, expected source of payment, hospital length of stay, and hospital charges. Over the study period, there were 18 780 ED visits and 3737 hospitalizations due to motorcycle crashes. Twelve percent of ED visits for motorcycle crashes and 26% of hospitalizations for motorcycle crashes had a diagnosis of TBI. Motorcycle crash-related hospitalizations with a TBI diagnosis had median hospital charges that were nearly $9000 greater than hospitalizations without a TBI diagnosis. Emergency department visits and hospitalizations due to motorcycle crashes with a TBI diagnosis consumed more healthcare resources than motorcycle crash-related ED visits and hospitalizations without a TBI diagnosis. Increased awareness of motorcyclists by other road users and increased use of motorcycle helmets are 2 strategies to mitigate the incidence and severity of motorcycle crash injuries, including TBIs.

  3. The effects of age, gender, and crash types on drivers' injury-related health care costs.

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies that evaluate the effects of age, gender, and crash types on crash related injury severity. However, few studies investigate the effects of those crash factors on the crash related health care costs for drivers that are transported to hospital. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between drivers' age, gender, and the crash types, as well as other crash characteristics (e.g., not wearing a seatbelt, weather condition, and fatigued driving), on the crash related health care costs. The South Carolina Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (SC CODES) from 2005 to 2007 was used to construct six separate hierarchical linear regression models based on drivers' age and gender. The results suggest that older drivers have higher health care costs than younger drivers and male drivers tend to have higher health care costs than female drivers in the same age group. Overall, single vehicle crashes had the highest health care costs for all drivers. For males older than 64-years old sideswipe crashes are as costly as single vehicle crashes. In general, not wearing a seatbelt, airbag deployment, and speeding were found to be associated with higher health care costs. Distraction-related crashes are more likely to be associated with lower health care costs in most cases. Furthermore this study highlights the value of considering drivers in subgroups, as some factors have different effects on health care costs in different driver groups. Developing an understanding of longer term outcomes of crashes and their characteristics can lead to improvements in vehicle technology, educational materials, and interventions to reduce crash-related health care costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Crash Injury Risk Behavior in Adolescent Latino Males: The Power of Friends and Relational Connections

    Vaca, Federico E.; Anderson, Craig L.

    2011-01-01

    The adolescent Latino male mortality profile is an anomaly when compared to an otherwise more favorable overall U.S. Latino population mortality profile. Motor vehicle crash fatalities bear a considerable proportion of mortality burden in this vulnerable population. Friend influence and relational connection are two contextual domains that may mediate crash injury risk behavior in these adolescents. Our study goal was to assess the role of friend influence over time and relational connections...

  5. A joint econometric analysis of seat belt use and crash-related injury severity.

    Eluru, Naveen; Bhat, Chandra R

    2007-09-01

    This paper formulates a comprehensive econometric structure that recognizes two important issues in crash-related injury severity analysis. First, the impact of a factor on injury severity may be moderated by various observed and unobserved variables specific to an individual or to a crash. Second, seat belt use is likely to be endogenous to injury severity. That is, it is possible that intrinsically unsafe drivers do not wear seat belts and are the ones likely to be involved in high injury severity crashes because of their unsafe driving habits. The preceding issues are considered in the current research effort through the development of a comprehensive model of seat belt use and injury severity that takes the form of a joint correlated random coefficients binary-ordered response system. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of such a model formulation and application not only in the safety analysis literature, but in the econometrics literature in general. The empirical analysis is based on the 2003 General Estimates System (GES) data base. Several types of variables are considered to explain seat belt use and injury severity levels, including driver characteristics, vehicle characteristics, roadway design attributes, environmental factors, and crash characteristics. The results, in addition to confirming the effects of various explanatory variables, also highlight the importance of (a) considering the moderating effects of unobserved individual/crash-related factors on the determinants of injury severity and (b) seat belt use endogeneity. From a policy standpoint, the results suggest that seat belt non-users, when apprehended in the act, should perhaps be subjected to both a fine (to increase the chances that they wear seat belts) as well as mandatory enrollment in a defensive driving course (to attempt to change their aggressive driving behaviors).

  6. Crash injury risk behavior in adolescent latino males: the power of friends and relational connections.

    Vaca, Federico E; Anderson, Craig L

    2011-01-01

    The adolescent Latino male mortality profile is an anomaly when compared to an otherwise more favorable overall U.S. Latino population mortality profile. Motor vehicle crash fatalities bear a considerable proportion of mortality burden in this vulnerable population. Friend influence and relational connection are two contextual domains that may mediate crash injury risk behavior in these adolescents. Our study goal was to assess the role of friend influence over time and relational connections associated with crash injury risk behavior (CIRB) in adolescent Latino males. Waves I and II data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. Scale of CIRB, and three relational connections; school connectedness, parent connectedness, and expectation of academic success were developed and tested. Friend nomination data were available and the index student responses were linked to friend responses. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship of relational connections and friend CIRB on index student CIRB at wave I and II. Longitudinal analysis did not show significant evidence for friend influence among adolescent Latino males on CIRB. The best predictor of CIRB at wave II for adolescent Latino males was their CIRB at wave I. Relational connections were important yet exaggerated cross-sectionally but their effect was substantially attenuated longitudinally. The lack of friend influence on CIRB for adolescent Latino males may be specific to this demographic group or characteristic of the sample studied. Prevention strategies that focus on modulating friend influence in adolescent Latino males may not yield the desired prevention effects on CIRB.

  7. Exploratory multinomial logit model-based driver injury severity analyses for teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes.

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Guohui; Ci, Yusheng; Wu, Lina; Tarefder, Rafiqul A; Alcántara, Adélamar Dely

    2016-05-18

    Teenage drivers are more likely to be involved in severely incapacitating and fatal crashes compared to adult drivers. Moreover, because two thirds of urban vehicle miles traveled are on signal-controlled roadways, significant research efforts are needed to investigate intersection-related teenage driver injury severities and their contributing factors in terms of driver behavior, vehicle-infrastructure interactions, environmental characteristics, roadway geometric features, and traffic compositions. Therefore, this study aims to explore the characteristic differences between teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes, identify the significant contributing attributes, and analyze their impacts on driver injury severities. Using crash data collected in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011, 2 multinomial logit regression models were developed to analyze injury severities for teenage and adult drivers, respectively. Elasticity analyses and transferability tests were conducted to better understand the quantitative impacts of these factors and the teenage driver injury severity model's generality. The results showed that although many of the same contributing factors were found to be significant in the both teenage and adult driver models, certain different attributes must be distinguished to specifically develop effective safety solutions for the 2 driver groups. The research findings are helpful to better understand teenage crash uniqueness and develop cost-effective solutions to reduce intersection-related teenage injury severities and facilitate driver injury mitigation research.

  8. Factors related to serious injury in post-NCAP European cars involved in frontal crashes.

    Frampton, Richard; Williams, Owen; Thomas, Pete

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study examined the relationship between EuroNCAP ratings for body region protection and real world injury risk for 653 belted drivers in frontal crashes. It was also able to comment on further improvements in crash protection for post-EuroNCAP cars. Protection for the head and lower leg appeared good. In terms of life threatening injury, results showed a need to prioritise chest protection, whilst for impairment, protection for the upper leg and ankle/foot should be considered. The EuroNCAP body region scoring system reflects trends in real crash injury risks to all body regions, except for the chest, where there is no clear trend. More generally, further development in the testing regime could usefully concentrate on a restraint system test and the use of smaller dummies seated appropriately, rather than an increase of the test speed.

  9. Quantifying the role of risk-taking behaviour in causation of serious road crash-related injury.

    Turner, Cathy; McClure, Rod

    2004-05-01

    This study was designed to quantify the increased risk of road crash-related injury, which can be attributed to risk-taking behaviour. A case-control study was conducted to compare motor vehicle drivers (car and bike) who had been hospitalised for injuries following crashes with population-based controls. Cases were recruited prospectively over 12 months and controls were randomly selected from license holders (car and bike) living in the same geographical location as cases. A self-administered questionnaire was used to ascertain participants' driving behaviour, general risk-taking behaviour and selected demographic characteristics. After adjusting for demographic variables, number of years of driving and total distance driven per week, logistic regression analysis showed that a high risk acceptance was associated with an eight-fold increased risk of having a crash that resulted in serious injury (OR 7.8, 95% CI 4.2-15.8). The findings of this study support the suggestion that certain host factors increase the risk of crash-related serious injury. There would appear to be a reasonable argument for persisting with injury prevention programmes, which concentrate on host as well as environment risk factor reduction.

  10. Association between weight and risk of crash-related injuries for children in child restraints.

    Zonfrillo, Mark R; Elliott, Michael R; Flannagan, Carol A; Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-12-01

    To determine the association between weight and the risk of injury in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) for children 1 through 8 years of age who were using child restraints. This was a cross-sectional study of children 1 to 8 years of age in MVCs, in which cases from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System were used. Abbreviated Injury Scale scores of ≥2 indicated clinically significant injuries. The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System study sample included 650 children 1 to 5 years of age in forward-facing child restraints who weighed 20 to 65 lb and 344 children 3 to 8 years of age in belt-positioning booster seats who weighed 30 to 100 lb. With adjustment for seating position, type of vehicle, direction of impact, crash severity, and vehicle model year, there was no association between absolute weight and clinically significant injuries in either age group (odds ratio: 1.17 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.42] for children 1-5 years of age in forward-facing child restraints and 1.22 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.55] for children 3-8 years of age in belt-positioning booster seats). The risk of clinically significant injuries was not associated with weight across a broad weight range in this sample of children in MVCs who were using child restraint systems. Parents should continue to restrain their children according to current recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

  11. THE INJURY SEVERITY RATE DIFFERENCES IN PASSENGER CARS AND PICK UP TRUCKS RELATED TWO VEHICLE INVOLVED MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of large vehicle involvement on motor vehicle crash (MVC rates and severity has long been a concern in MVC analysis literature. Injuries in drivers and occupants are related to several key factors: the mass of the case vehicle and mass of its collision partner and speed of case vehicle and collision partner at the time of the crash. Objective: To evaluate the relative risk of injury occurrence in collisions between picks up trucks (PU and passenger sedan cars (PS. Methods: Data from the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC crash data base was used to determine MVC rates and injury occurrence. Descriptive characteristics of the injury location and injury type were analyzed comparing the Odds Ratios and chi-squares. Results: PS occupants received more injuries; Odds Ratio was 2.49 (95% confidence interval: 2.15–2.88. Conclusion: Occupants in PS which collide with PU were at twice the risk of injuries. Concussion, whiplash, lacerations and abrasion were more frequent in PS drivers and occupants than in PU drivers and occupants. Overall, PS drivers/occupants experienced greater injuries than PU drivers/occupants in PU-PS collisions. In this paper, results are shown as odds ratios comparing occupants injuries in PS (case group with occupant injuries in PU (control group.

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Costly but Preventable Language: English (US) ... and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in ...

  13. Evaluation of safety ratings of roads based on frontal crashes with known crash pulse and injury outcome.

    Stigson, H

    2009-06-01

    The objective in this study, using data from crashed cars fitted with on-board crash pulse recorders, was to present differences in average crash severity, distribution of crash severity, and injury outcomes, based on an independent safety rating of roads, also taking road type and speed limit into consideration. Furthermore, the objective was to evaluate differences in injury risk, based on the distribution of crash severity. The investigation included both frontal two-vehicle crashes and single-vehicle crashes with known injury outcome. In total, 209 real-world crashes involving cars fitted with crash pulse recorders were included. For all crashes, average mean acceleration and change of velocity of the vehicle acceleration pulse were measured and calculated. All crash spots were classified according to an independent road safety rating program (European Road Assessment Programme Road Protection Score), where the safety quality of roads is rated in relation to posted speed limits. The crash severity and injury outcome in crashes that occurred on roads with good safety ratings were compared with crashes on roads with poor safety ratings. The data were also divided into subcategories according to posted speed limit and road type, to evaluate whether there was a difference in crash severity and injury outcome within the categories. In total, crash severity was statistically significantly lower in crashes occurring on roads with good safety ratings than in crashes occurring on roads with poor safety ratings. It was found that crash severity and injury risk were lower on roads with good safety ratings with a speed limit of above 90 km/h compared with roads with poor safety ratings, irrespective of speed limit. On the other hand, crash severity was higher on roads with good safety ratings with speed limit of 70 km/h than on roads with poor safety ratings with the same speed limit. Though it was found that a higher speed limit resulted in higher crash severity on roads

  14. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.

  15. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    2014-10-07

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  16. Patterns of severe injury in pediatric car crash victims: Crash Injury Research Engineering Network database.

    Brown, J Kristine; Jing, Yuezhou; Wang, Stewart; Ehrlich, Peter F

    2006-02-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) account for 50% of pediatric trauma. Safety improvements are typically tested with child crash dummies using an in vitro model. The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) provides an in vivo validation process. Previous research suggest that children in lateral crashes or front-seat locations have higher Injury Severity Scale scores and lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores than those in frontal-impact crashes. However, specific injury patterns and crash characteristics have not been characterized. Data were collected from the CIREN multidisciplinary crash reconstruction network (10 pediatric trauma centers). Injuries were examined with regard to crash direction (frontal/lateral), restraint use, seat location, and change in velocity at impact (DeltaV). Injuries were limited to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores of 3 or higher and included head, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic, spine, and long bone (orthopedic) injuries. Standard age groupings (0-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-18 years) were used. Statistical analyses used Fisher's Exact test and multiple logistic regressions. Four hundred seventeen MVCs with 2500 injuries were analyzed (males = 219, females = 198). Controlling for DeltaV and age, children in lateral-impact crashes (n = 232) were significantly more likely to suffer severe injuries to the head and thorax as compared with children in frontal crashes (n = 185), who were more likely to suffer severe spine and orthopedic injuries. Children in a front-seat (n = 236) vs those in a back-seat (n = 169) position had more injuries to the thoracic (27% vs 17%), abdominal (21% vs 13%), pelvic (11% vs 1%), and orthopedic (28% vs 10%) regions (P < .05 for all). Seat belts were protective for pelvic (5% vs 12% unbelted) and orthopedic (15% vs 40%) injuries (odds ratio = 3, P < .01 for both). A reproducible pattern of injury is noted for children involved in lateral-impact crashes characterized by head and chest injuries. The Injury Severity

  17. Vital Signs-Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries

    2014-10-07

    This podcast is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  18. Pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter crash injuries.

    McBratney, Colleen M; Rush, Stephen; Kharod, Chetan U

    2014-01-01

    USAF Pararescuemen (PJs) respond to downed aircrew as a fundamental mission for personnel recovery (PR), one of the Air Force's core functions. In addition to responding to these in Military settings, the PJs from the 212 Rescue Squadron routinely respond to small plane crashes in remote regions of Alaska. While there is a paucity of information on the latter, there have been articles detailing injuries sustained from helicopter crashes and while ejecting or parachuting from fixed wing aircraft. The following represents a new chapter added to the Pararescue Medical Operations Handbook, Sixth Edition (2014, editors Matt Wolf, MD, and Stephen Rush, MD, in press). It was designed to be a quick reference for PJs and their Special Operations flight surgeons to help with understanding of mechanism of injury with regard to pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter accident injuries. It outlines the nature of the injuries sustained in such mishaps and provides an epidemiologic framework from which to approach the problem. 2014.

  19. Changes in the Severity and Injury Sources of Thoracic Aorta Injuries due to Vehicular Crashes.

    Ryb, Gabriel; Dischinger, Patricia; Kerns, Timothy; Burch, Cynthia; Rabin, Joseph; Ho, Shiu

    Research using the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) suggested a decreased adjusted risk of thoracic aorta injuries (TAI) for newer vehicles during near-side crashes and an increased adjusted TAI risk during frontal crashes. This study attempted to explore possible explanations of these findings. Adult front seat occupants in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database through June 2012 were studied. TAI cases were compared with remaining cases in relation to crash and vehicular characteristics. TAI cases of later crash year (CY) (2004-2012) were compared to those in earlier CY (1996-2003) in relation to TAI severity (minor, moderate, severe and non-survivable). TAI cases in newer model year (MY) vehicles (1999-2012) were compared to those in older vehicles (1988-98) in relation to injury source (steering wheel, front, left, seat belt, air bag and other or unknown). Analysis was stratified by direction of impact (frontal and near-side) and the use of restraints. The similar TAI severity of earlier and later CY among frontal crashes suggests that the observed changes in the adjusted odds of injury seen in NASS-CDS are not due to an increase in injury detection. The decrease in TAI severity among newer vehicles in near-side crashes of later CY is consistent with a beneficial effect of crashworthiness improvements for this crash configuration. A shift of injury source in frontal crashes from the steering wheel in older vehicles to "front of vehicle structures", "seat belts" and "unknown and other" in newer vehicles should suggest potential sites for crashworthiness improvements.

  20. Vehicular crash data used to rank intersections by injury crash frequency and severity

    Liu, Yi; Li, Zongzhi; Liu, Jingxian; Patel, Harshingar

    2016-01-01

    This article contains data on research conducted in “A double standard model for allocating limited emergency medical service vehicle resources ensuring service reliability” (Liu et al., 2016) [1]. The crash counts were sorted out from comprehensive crash records of over one thousand major signalized intersections in the city of Chicago from 2004 to 2010. For each intersection, vehicular crashes were counted by crash severity levels, including fatal, injury Types A, B, and C for major, modera...

  1. Work-related fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: Matching of 2010 data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System.

    Byler, Christen; Kesy, Laura; Richardson, Scott; Pratt, Stephanie G; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) remain the leading cause of work-related fatal injuries in the United States, with crashes on public roadways accounting for 25% of all work-related deaths in 2012. In the United States, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) provides accurate counts of fatal work injuries based on confirmation of work relationship from multiple sources, while the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) provides detailed data on fatal MVTCs based on police reports. Characterization of fatal work-related MVTCs is currently limited by data sources that lack either data on potential risk factors (CFOI) or work-relatedness confirmation and employment characteristics (FARS). BLS and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collaborated to analyze a merged data file created by BLS using CFOI and FARS data. A matching algorithm was created to link 2010 data from CFOI and FARS using date of incident and other case characteristics, allowing for flexibility in variables to address coding discrepancies. Using the matching algorithm, 953 of the 1044 CFOI "Highway" cases (91%) for 2010 were successfully linked to FARS. Further analysis revealed systematic differences between cases identified as work-related by both systems and by CFOI alone. Among cases identified as work-related by CFOI alone, the fatally-injured worker was considerably more likely to have been employed outside the transportation and warehousing industry or transportation-related occupations, and to have been the occupant of a vehicle other than a heavy truck. This study is the first step of a collaboration between BLS, NHTSA, and NIOSH to improve the completeness and quality of data on fatal work-related MVTCs. It has demonstrated the feasibility and value of matching data on fatal work-related traffic crashes from CFOI and FARS. The results will lead to

  2. Trends and projections of vehicle crash related fatalities and injuries in Northwest Gondar, Ethiopia: A time series analysis

    Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The numbers of lives lost and disabilities due to vehicle crashes indicated an upward trend in the last decade showing future burden in terms of societal and economic costs threatening the lives of many individuals. Surveillance systems that could enable to monitor patterns of vehicle crashes with preventive strategies must be established.

  3. Predicting motorcycle crash injury severity using weather data and alternative Bayesian multivariate crash frequency models.

    Cheng, Wen; Gill, Gurdiljot Singh; Sakrani, Taha; Dasu, Mohan; Zhou, Jiao

    2017-11-01

    Motorcycle crashes constitute a very high proportion of the overall motor vehicle fatalities in the United States, and many studies have examined the influential factors under various conditions. However, research on the impact of weather conditions on the motorcycle crash severity is not well documented. In this study, we examined the impact of weather conditions on motorcycle crash injuries at four different severity levels using San Francisco motorcycle crash injury data. Five models were developed using Full Bayesian formulation accounting for different correlations commonly seen in crash data and then compared for fitness and performance. Results indicate that the models with serial and severity variations of parameters had superior fit, and the capability of accurate crash prediction. The inferences from the parameter estimates from the five models were: an increase in the air temperature reduced the possibility of a fatal crash but had a reverse impact on crashes of other severity levels; humidity in air was not observed to have a predictable or strong impact on crashes; the occurrence of rainfall decreased the possibility of crashes for all severity levels. Transportation agencies might benefit from the research results to improve road safety by providing motorcyclists with information regarding the risk of certain crash severity levels for special weather conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vehicular crash data used to rank intersections by injury crash frequency and severity

    Yi Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data on research conducted in “A double standard model for allocating limited emergency medical service vehicle resources ensuring service reliability” (Liu et al., 2016 [1]. The crash counts were sorted out from comprehensive crash records of over one thousand major signalized intersections in the city of Chicago from 2004 to 2010. For each intersection, vehicular crashes were counted by crash severity levels, including fatal, injury Types A, B, and C for major, moderate, and minor injury levels, property damage only (PDO, and unknown. The crash data was further used to rank intersections by equivalent injury crash frequency. The top 200 intersections with the highest number of crash occurrences identified based on crash frequency- and severity-based scenarios are shared in this brief. The provided data would be a valuable source for research in urban traffic safety analysis and could also be utilized to examine the effectiveness of traffic safety improvement planning and programming, intersection design enhancement, incident and emergency management, and law enforcement strategies.

  5. Fatal Cervical Spine Injury Following a Bicycle Crash

    Uhrenholt Lars

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal injury following direct loading of the head and neck is a rare sequel of bicycle crashes. Fatal head injuries following bicycle crashes have been described in great detail and safety measures such as bicycle helmets have been developed accordingly. Less frequently, however, potentially severe cervical spine injuries have been described. We present the case of a middle-aged female who sustained an ultimately fatal cervical spine injury following a collision with a car whilst biking wearing a helmet. We discuss the literature regarding the protective effects of bicycle helmets, the relevance to cervical spine injury and legislation on mandatory use of helmets for injury prevention.

  6. An investigation of the speeding-related crash designation through crash narrative reviews sampled via logistic regression.

    Fitzpatrick, Cole D; Rakasi, Saritha; Knodler, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Speed is one of the most important factors in traffic safety as higher speeds are linked to increased crash risk and higher injury severities. Nearly a third of fatal crashes in the United States are designated as "speeding-related", which is defined as either "the driver behavior of exceeding the posted speed limit or driving too fast for conditions." While many studies have utilized the speeding-related designation in safety analyses, no studies have examined the underlying accuracy of this designation. Herein, we investigate the speeding-related crash designation through the development of a series of logistic regression models that were derived from the established speeding-related crash typologies and validated using a blind review, by multiple researchers, of 604 crash narratives. The developed logistic regression model accurately identified crashes which were not originally designated as speeding-related but had crash narratives that suggested speeding as a causative factor. Only 53.4% of crashes designated as speeding-related contained narratives which described speeding as a causative factor. Further investigation of these crashes revealed that the driver contributing code (DCC) of "driving too fast for conditions" was being used in three separate situations. Additionally, this DCC was also incorrectly used when "exceeding the posted speed limit" would likely have been a more appropriate designation. Finally, it was determined that the responding officer only utilized one DCC in 82% of crashes not designated as speeding-related but contained a narrative indicating speed as a contributing causal factor. The use of logistic regression models based upon speeding-related crash typologies offers a promising method by which all possible speeding-related crashes could be identified. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Finite Element Crash Simulations and Impact-Induced Injuries

    Jaroslav Mackerle

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography lists references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with finite element simulations of crashes, impact-induced injuries and their protection that were published in 1980–1998. 390 citations are listed.

  8. Patterns of Injuries After Road Traffic Crashes Involving Bodabodas

    2010-01-12

    Jan 12, 2010 ... Globally, trauma resulting from road traffic crashes is a major cause of death and disability with majority occur- ... Bodabodas are a major form of transport in the city of. Kampala and in other towns in East Africa. .... Injury Control Injury Surveillance Reports (2000 – 2003). Injury Control Centre, Kampala. 4.

  9. Crash test rating and likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury in motor vehicle crashes: the new car assessment program side-impact crash test, 1998-2010.

    Figler, Bradley D; Mack, Christopher D; Kaufman, Robert; Wessells, Hunter; Bulger, Eileen; Smith, Thomas G; Voelzke, Bryan

    2014-03-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) implemented side-impact crash testing on all new vehicles since 1998 to assess the likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injuries during a side-impact crash. Higher crash test rating is intended to indicate a safer car, but the real-world applicability of these ratings is unknown. Our objective was to determine the relationship between a vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating and the risk of major thoracoabdominal injury among the vehicle's occupants in real-world side-impact motor vehicle crashes. The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System contains detailed crash and injury data in a sample of major crashes in the United States. For model years 1998 to 2010 and crash years 1999 to 2010, 68,124 occupants were identified in the Crashworthiness Data System database. Because 47% of cases were missing crash severity (ΔV), multiple imputation was used to estimate the missing values. The primary predictor of interest was the occupant vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating, and the outcome of interest was the presence of major (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score ≥ 3) thoracoabdominal injury. In multivariate analysis, increasing NCAP crash test rating was associated with lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury at high (odds ratio [OR], 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-0.9; p NCAP side-impact crash test rating is associated with a lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal trauma. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  10. Commercial truck crash injury severity analysis using gradient boosting data mining model.

    Zheng, Zijian; Lu, Pan; Lantz, Brenda

    2018-06-01

    Truck crashes contribute to a large number of injuries and fatalities. This study seeks to identify the contributing factors affecting truck crash severity using 2010 to 2016 North Dakota and Colorado crash data provided by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. To fulfill a gap of previous studies, broad considerations of company and driver characteristics, such as company size and driver's license class, along with vehicle types and crash characteristics are researched. Gradient boosting, a data mining technique, is applied to comprehensively analyze the relationship between crash severities and a set of heterogeneous risk factors. Twenty five variables were tested and 22 of them are identified as significant variables contributing to injury severities, however, top 11 variables account for more than 80% of injury forecasting. The relative variable importance analysis is conducted and furthermore marginal effects of all contributing factors are also illustrated in this research. Several factors such as trucking company attributes (e.g., company size), safety inspection values, trucking company commerce status (e.g., interstate or intrastate), time of day, driver's age, first harmful events, and registration condition are found to be significantly associated with crash injury severity. Even though most of the identified contributing factors are significant for all four levels of crash severity, their relative importance and marginal effect are all different. For the first time, trucking company and driver characteristics are proved to have significant impact on truck crash injury severity. Some of the results in this study reinforce previous studies' conclusions. Findings in this study can be helpful for transportation agencies to reduce injury severity, and develop efficient strategies to improve safety. Copyright © 2018 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling crash injury severity by road feature to improve safety.

    Penmetsa, Praveena; Pulugurtha, Srinivas S

    2018-01-02

    The objective of this research is 2-fold: to (a) model and identify critical road features (or locations) based on crash injury severity and compare it with crash frequency and (b) model and identify drivers who are more likely to contribute to crashes by road feature. Crash data from 2011 to 2013 were obtained from the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) for the state of North Carolina. Twenty-three different road features were considered, analyzed, and compared with each other as well as no road feature. A multinomial logit (MNL) model was developed and odds ratios were estimated to investigate the effect of road features on crash injury severity. Among the many road features, underpass, end or beginning of a divided highway, and on-ramp terminal on crossroad are the top 3 critical road features. Intersection crashes are frequent but are not highly likely to result in severe injuries compared to critical road features. Roundabouts are least likely to result in both severe and moderate injuries. Female drivers are more likely to be involved in crashes at intersections (4-way and T) compared to male drivers. Adult drivers are more likely to be involved in crashes at underpasses. Older drivers are 1.6 times more likely to be involved in a crash at the end or beginning of a divided highway. The findings from this research help to identify critical road features that need to be given priority. As an example, additional advanced warning signs and providing enlarged or highly retroreflective signs that grab the attention of older drivers may help in making locations such as end or beginning of a divided highway much safer. Educating drivers about the necessary skill sets required at critical road features in addition to engineering solutions may further help them adopt safe driving behaviors on the road.

  12. Crash protectiveness to occupant injury and vehicle damage: An investigation on major car brands.

    Huang, Helai; Li, Chunyang; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate vehicles' crash protectiveness on occupant injury and vehicle damage, which can be deemed as an extension of the traditional crash worthiness. A Bayesian bivariate hierarchical ordered logistic (BVHOL) model is developed to estimate the occupant protectiveness (OP) and vehicle protectiveness (VP) of 23 major car brands in Florida, with considering vehicles' crash aggressivity and controlling external factors. The proposed model not only takes over the strength of the existing hierarchical ordered logistic (HOL) model, i.e. specifying the order characteristics of crash outcomes and cross-crash heterogeneities, but also accounts for the correlation between the two crash responses, driver injury and vehicle damage. A total of 7335 two-vehicle-crash records with 14,670 cars involved in Florida are used for the investigation. From the estimation results, it's found that most of the luxury cars such as Cadillac, Volvo and Lexus possess excellent OP and VP while some brands such as KIA and Saturn perform very badly in both aspects. The ranks of the estimated safety performance indices are even compared to the counterparts in Huang et al. study [Huang, H., Hu, S., Abdel-Aty, M., 2014. Indexing crash worthiness and crash aggressivity by major car brands. Safety Science 62, 339-347]. The results show that the rank of occupant protectiveness index (OPI) is relatively coherent with that of crash worthiness index, but the ranks of crash aggressivity index in both studies is more different from each other. Meanwhile, a great discrepancy between the OPI rank and that of vehicle protectiveness index is found. What's more, the results of control variables and hyper-parameters estimation as well as comparison to HOL models with separate or identical threshold errors, demonstrate the validity and advancement of the proposed model and the robustness of the estimated OP and VP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in the Severity and Injury Sources of Thoracic Aorta Injuries due to Vehicular Crashes

    Ryb, Gabriel; Dischinger, Patricia; Kerns, Timothy; Burch, Cynthia; Rabin, Joseph; Ho, Shiu

    2013-01-01

    Research using the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) suggested a decreased adjusted risk of thoracic aorta injuries (TAI) for newer vehicles during near-side crashes and an increased adjusted TAI risk during frontal crashes. This study attempted to explore possible explanations of these findings. Adult front seat occupants in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database through June 2012 were studied. TAI cases were compared with ...

  14. Correlation between crash avoidance maneuvers and injury severity sustained by motorcyclists in single-vehicle crashes.

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Linjun; Lu, Jian; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve motorcycle safety, this article examines the correlation between crash avoidance maneuvers and injury severity sustained by motorcyclists, under multiple precrash conditions. Ten-year crash data for single-vehicle motorcycle crashes from the General Estimates Systems (GES) were analyzed, using partial proportional odds models (i.e., generalized ordered logit models). The modeling results show that "braking (no lock-up)" is associated with a higher probability of increased severity, whereas "braking (lock-up)" is associated with a higher probability of decreased severity, under all precrash conditions. "Steering" is associated with a higher probability of reduced injury severity when other vehicles are encroaching, whereas it is correlated with high injury severity under other conditions. "Braking and steering" is significantly associated with a higher probability of low severity under "animal encounter and object presence," whereas it is surprisingly correlated with high injury severity when motorcycles are traveling off the edge of the road. The results also show that a large number of motorcyclists did not perform any crash avoidance maneuvers or conducted crash avoidance maneuvers that are significantly associated with high injury severity. In general, this study suggests that precrash maneuvers are an important factor associated with motorcyclists' injury severity. To improve motorcycle safety, training/educational programs should be considered to improve safety awareness and adjust driving habits of motorcyclists. Antilock brakes and such systems are also promising, because they could effectively prevent brake lock-up and assist motorcyclists in maneuvering during critical conditions. This study also provides valuable information for the design of motorcycle training curriculum.

  15. Aircraft crash survivability from viscous injury in vertical impacts

    Barth, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated viscous injury from vertical impact loading to determine if it is critical to survivability of aircraft accidents. A unique database was built from autopsy reports and accident investigations combining injury data with the vehicle impact data. Computer models were created and used to assess injury potential. Common design limits and actual crash data from full scale research experiments were used as inputs. The results were analyzed according to publi...

  16. Vehicle mass and injury risk in two-car crashes: A novel methodology.

    Tolouei, Reza; Maher, Mike; Titheridge, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel methodology based on disaggregate analysis of two-car crash data to estimate the partial effects of mass, through the velocity change, on absolute driver injury risk in each of the vehicles involved in the crash when absolute injury risk is defined as the probability of injury when the vehicle is involved in a two-car crash. The novel aspect of the introduced methodology is in providing a solution to the issue of lack of data on the speed of vehicles prior to the crash, which is required to calculate the velocity change, as well as a solution to the issue of lack of information on non-injury two-car crashes in national accident data. These issues have often led to focussing on relative measures of injury risk that are not independent of risk in the colliding cars. Furthermore, the introduced methodology is used to investigate whether there is any effect of vehicle size above and beyond that of mass ratio, and whether there are any effects associated with the gender and age of the drivers. The methodology was used to analyse two-car crashes to investigate the partial effects of vehicle mass and size on absolute driver injury risk. The results confirmed that in a two-car collision, vehicle mass has a protective effect on its own driver injury risk and an aggressive effect on the driver injury risk of the colliding vehicle. The results also confirmed that there is a protective effect of vehicle size above and beyond that of vehicle mass for frontal and front to side collisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Injury risks for on-road farm equipment and horse and buggy crashes in Pennsylvania: 2010-2013.

    Gorucu, Serap; Murphy, Dennis J; Kassab, Cathy

    2017-04-03

    The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics associated with farm equipment and horse and buggy roadway crashes in relation to person, incident, and injury characteristics to identify appropriate points for injury incident prevention. Information on crashes occurring on public roads during the years 2010-2013 was obtained from the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) and analyzed. There were 344 farm equipment and 246 horse and buggy crashes during the 4-year study period. These crashes involved 666 and 504 vehicles and 780 and 838 people, respectively. In incidents with farm equipment, the non-farm equipment drivers had an almost 2 times greater injury risk than farm equipment operators. Horse and buggy crashes were almost 3 times more injurious to the horse and buggy drivers than the drivers of the other vehicles. The average crash rate for farm equipment was 198.4 crashes per 100,000 farm population and for horse and buggy the crash rate was calculated as 89.4 crashes per 100,000 Amish population per year. This study suggests that road safety and public health programs should focus not only on farm equipment operators and horse and buggy drivers but on other motorists sharing the roadway with them.

  18. Driver Injury Risk Variability in Finite Element Reconstructions of Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) Frontal Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    Gaewsky, James P; Weaver, Ashley A; Koya, Bharath; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    A 3-phase real-world motor vehicle crash (MVC) reconstruction method was developed to analyze injury variability as a function of precrash occupant position for 2 full-frontal Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) cases. Phase I: A finite element (FE) simplified vehicle model (SVM) was developed and tuned to mimic the frontal crash characteristics of the CIREN case vehicle (Camry or Cobalt) using frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash test data. Phase II: The Toyota HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) v4.01 was positioned in 120 precrash configurations per case within the SVM. Five occupant positioning variables were varied using a Latin hypercube design of experiments: seat track position, seat back angle, D-ring height, steering column angle, and steering column telescoping position. An additional baseline simulation was performed that aimed to match the precrash occupant position documented in CIREN for each case. Phase III: FE simulations were then performed using kinematic boundary conditions from each vehicle's event data recorder (EDR). HIC15, combined thoracic index (CTI), femur forces, and strain-based injury metrics in the lung and lumbar vertebrae were evaluated to predict injury. Tuning the SVM to specific vehicle models resulted in close matches between simulated and test injury metric data, allowing the tuned SVM to be used in each case reconstruction with EDR-derived boundary conditions. Simulations with the most rearward seats and reclined seat backs had the greatest HIC15, head injury risk, CTI, and chest injury risk. Calculated injury risks for the head, chest, and femur closely correlated to the CIREN occupant injury patterns. CTI in the Camry case yielded a 54% probability of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ chest injury in the baseline case simulation and ranged from 34 to 88% (mean = 61%) risk in the least and most dangerous occupant positions. The greater than 50% probability was consistent with the case occupant's AIS 2

  19. Seat belt use to save face: impact on drivers' body region and nature of injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Seat belt use is the single most effective way to save lives and reduce injuries in motor vehicle crashes. However, some case reports described seat belt use as a double-edged sword because some injuries are related to seat belt use in motor vehicle crashes. To comprehensively understand the effects of seat belt use, we systemically investigated the association between seat belt use and injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes. The injury information was obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data and categorized by using the diagnosis codes based on the Barell injury diagnosis matrix. A total of 10,479 drivers (≥15 years) in passenger vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes from 2006 to 2011 were included in this study. Seat belt use significantly reduced the proportions of traumatic brain injury (10.4% non-seat belt; 4.1% seat belt) and other head, face, and neck injury (29.3% non-seat belt; 16.6% seat belt) but increased the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury (17.9% non-seat belt; 35.5% seat belt). Although the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury was increased in drivers with seat belt use, the severity of injury was decreased, such as fracture (4.2% with seat belt use; 22.0% without seat belt use). Furthermore, the total medical charges decreased due to the change of injury profiles in drivers with seat belt use from a higher percentage of fractures (average cost for per case $26,352) to a higher percentage of sprains and/or strains ($1,897) with spine: thoracic to coccyx injury. This study provide a comprehensive picture for understanding the protective effect of seat belt use on injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes.

  20. Spinal Injuries in an Airplane Crash : A Description of Incidence, Morphology, and Injury Mechanism

    Postma, I. L E; Oner, F. C.; Bijlsma, T. S.; Heetveld, M. J.; Goslings, J. C.; Bloemers, F. W.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. Retrospective cohort. Objective. Spinal injuries of the survivors of an airplane crash are described. On the basis of injury morphology and knowledge of the conditions of the accident, injury mechanisms are described and prevention measures are discussed. Summary of Background Data.

  1. Spinal injuries in an airplane crash: a description of incidence, morphology, and injury mechanism

    Postma, I. L. E.; Oner, F. C.; Bijlsma, T. S.; Heetveld, M. J.; Goslings, J. C.; Bloemers, F. W.

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective cohort. Spinal injuries of the survivors of an airplane crash are described. On the basis of injury morphology and knowledge of the conditions of the accident, injury mechanisms are described and prevention measures are discussed. The most common causes of spinal fractures are a high

  2. Spinal Injuries in an Airplane Crash A Description of Incidence, Morphology, and Injury Mechanism

    Postma, I.L.E.; Oner, F.C.; Bijlsma, T.S.; Heetveld, M.J.; Goslings, J.C.; Bloemers, F.W.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. Retrospective cohort. Objective. Spinal injuries of the survivors of an airplane crash are described. On the basis of injury morphology and knowledge of the conditions of the accident, injury mechanisms are described and prevention measures are discussed. Summary of Background Data.

  3. Side Impact Regulatory Trends, Crash Environment and Injury Risk in the USA.

    Prasad, Priya; Dalmotas, Dainius; Chouinard, Aline

    2015-11-01

    Light duty vehicles in the US are designed to meet and exceed regulatory standards, self-imposed industry agreements and safety rating tests conducted by NHTSA and IIHS. The evolution of side impact regulation in the US from 1973 to 2015 is discussed in the paper along with two key industry agreements in 2003 affecting design of restraint systems and structures for side impact protection. A combination of all the above influences shows that vehicles in the US are being designed to more demanding and comprehensive requirements than in any other region of the world. The crash environment in the US related to side impacts was defined based on data in the nationally representative crash database NASS. Crash environment factors, including the distribution of cars, light trucks and vans (LTV's), and medium-to-heavy vehicles (MHV's) in the fleet, and the frequency of their interactions with one another in side impacts, were considered. Other factors like, crash severity in terms of closing velocity between two vehicles involved in crash, gender and age of involved drivers in two-vehicle and single vehicle crashes, were also examined. Injury risks in side impacts to drivers and passengers were determined in various circumstances such as near-side, far-side, and single vehicle crashes as a function of crash severity, in terms of estimated closing speed or lateral delta-V. Also injury risks in different pairs of striking and struck cars and LTV's, were estimated. A logistic regression model for studying injury risks in two vehicle crashes was developed. The risk factors included in the model include case and striking vehicles, consisting of cars, SUV's, vans, and pickup trucks, delta-V, damage extent, occupant proximity to the impact side, age and gender of the occupant, and belt use. Results show that car occupants make up the vast majority of serious-to-fatally injured occupants. Injury rates of car occupants in two-vehicle collision are highest when the car is struck by a

  4. Factors influencing pediatric Injury Severity Score and Glasgow Coma Scale in pediatric automobile crashes: results from the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network.

    Ehrlich, Peter F; Brown, J Kristine; Sochor, Mark R; Wang, Stewart C; Eichelberger, Martin E

    2006-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for more than 50% of pediatric injuries. Triage of pediatric patients to appropriate centers can be based on the crash/injury characteristics. Pediatric motor vehicle crash/injury characteristics can be determined from an in vitro laboratory using child crash dummies. However, to date, no detailed data with respect to outcomes and crash mechanism have been presented with a pediatric in vivo model. The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network is comprised of 10 level 1 trauma centers. Crashes were examined with regard to age, crash severity (DeltaV), crash direction, restraint use, and airbag deployment. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as outcomes. Standard age groupings (0-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-18) were used. The database is biases toward a survivor population with few fatalities. Four hundred sixty-one motor vehicle crashes with 2500 injuries were analyzed (242 boys, 219 girls). Irrespective of age, DeltaV > 30 mph resulted in increased ISS and decreased GCS (eg, for 0-4 years, DeltaV 30: ISS = 19.5, GCS = 10.6; P 15) injuries than did backseat passengers (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-3.4). A trend was noted for children younger than 12 years sitting in the front seat to have increased ISS and decreased GCS with airbag deployment but was limited by case number. A reproducible pattern of increased ISS and lower GCS characterized by high severity, lateral crashes in children was noted. Further analysis of the specific injuries as a function and the crash characteristic can help guide management and prevention strategies.

  5. The effect of helmet use on injury severity and crash circumstances in skiers and snowboarders.

    Hagel, Brent; Pless, I Barry; Goulet, Claude; Platt, Robert; Robitaille, Yvonne

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of helmet use on non-head-neck injury severity and crash circumstances in skiers and snowboarders. We used a matched case-control study over the November 2001 to April 2002 winter season. 3295 of 4667 injured skiers and snowboarders reporting to the ski patrol at 19 areas in Quebec with non-head, non-neck injuries agreed to participate. Cases included those evacuated by ambulance, admitted to hospital, with restriction of normal daily activities (NDAs) >6 days, with non-helmet equipment damage, fast self-reported speed, participating on a more difficult run than usual, and jumping-related injury. Controls were injured participants without severe injuries or high-energy crash circumstances and were matched to cases on ski area, activity, day, age, and sex. Conditional logistic regression was used to relate each outcome to helmet use. There was no evidence that helmet use increased the risk of severe injury or high-energy crash circumstances. The results suggest that helmet use in skiing and snowboarding is not associated with riskier activities that lead to non-head-neck injuries.

  6. Mechanisms and factors involved in hip injuries during frontal crashes.

    Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Gennarelli, T A; Maltese, M R; Eppinger, R H

    2001-11-01

    This study was conducted to collect data and gain insights relative to the mechanisms and factors involved in hip injuries during frontal crashes and to study the tolerance of hip injuries from this type of loading. Unembalmed human cadavers were seated on a standard automotive seat (reinforced) and subjected to knee impact test to each lower extremity. Varying combinations of flexion and adduction/abduction were used for initial alignment conditions and pre-positioning. Accelerometers were fixed to the iliac wings and twelfth thoracic vertebral spinous process. A 23.4-kg padded pendulum impacted the knee at velocities ranging from 4.3 to 7.6 m/s. The impacting direction was along the anteroposterior axis, i.e., the global X-axis, in the body-fixed coordinate system. A load cell on the front of the pendulum recorded the impact force. Peak impact forces ranged from 2,450 to 10,950 N. The rate of loading ranged from 123 to 7,664 N/msec. The impulse values ranged from 12.4 to 31.9 Nsec. Injuries were not apparent in three tests. Eight tests resulted in trauma. Fractures involving the pelvis including the acetabulum and proximal femur occurred in five out of the eight tests, and distal femoral bone fracture occurred in one test. These results underscore the importance of leg pre-positioning and the orientation of the impacting axis to produce specific types of trauma to the pelvic region of the lower extremity.

  7. Differences in Factors Affecting Various Crash Types with High Numbers of Fatalities and Injuries in China

    Wang, Kai; He, Jie; Ding, Jianxun; Shi, Qin; Wang, Changjun; Li, Pingfan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Road traffic crashes that involve very high numbers of fatalities and injuries arouse public concern wherever they occur. In China, there are two categories of such crashes: a crash that results in 10–30 fatalities, 50–100 serious injuries or a total cost of 50–100 million RMB ($US8-16m) is a “serious road traffic crash” (SRTC), while a crash that is even more severe or costly is a “particularly serious road traffic crash” (PSRTC). The aim of this study is to identify the main factors affecting different types of these crashes (single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact) with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies. Methods Detailed descriptions of the SRTCs and PSRTCs that occurred from 2007 to 2014 were collected from the database “In-depth Investigation and Analysis System for Major Road Traffic Crashes” (IIASMRTC), which is maintained by the Traffic Management Research Institute of the Ministry of Public Security of China (TMRI). 18 main risk factors, which were categorized into four areas (participant, vehicle, road and environment-related) were chosen as potential independent variables for the multinomial logistic regression analysis. Comparisons were made among the single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact crashes in terms of factors affecting crash occurrence. Findings Five risk factors were significant for the six multinomial logistic regression models, which were location, vertical alignment, roadside safety rating, driver distraction and overloading of cargo. It was indicated that intersections were more likely to have side impact SRTCs and PSRTCs, especially with poor visibility at night. Overloaded freight vehicles were more likely to be involved in a rear-end crash than other freight vehicles. Driver distraction is an important risk factor for head-on crashes, while vertical alignment and roadside safety rating are positively associated with single-vehicle crashes. Conclusion Based

  8. Analysis of the injury severity of crashes by considering different lighting conditions on two-lane rural roads.

    Jafari Anarkooli, A; Hadji Hosseinlou, M

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have examined different factors contributing to the injury severity of crashes; however, relatively few studies have focused on the crashes by considering the specific effects of lighting conditions. This research investigates lighting condition differences in the injury severity of crashes using 3-year (2009-2011) crash data of two-lane rural roads of the state of Washington. Separate ordered-probit models were developed to predict the effects of a set of factors expected to influence injury severity in three lighting conditions; daylight, dark, and dark with street lights. A series of likelihood ratio tests were conducted to determine if these lighting condition models were justified. The modeling results suggest that injury severity in specific lighting conditions are associated with contributing factors in different ways, and that such differences cannot be uncovered by focusing merely on one aggregate model. Key differences include crash location, speed limit, shoulder width, driver action, and three collision types (head-on, rear-end, and right-side impact collisions). This paper highlights the importance of deploying street lights at and near intersections (or access points) on two-lane rural roads because injury severity highly increases when crashes occur at these points in dark conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  9. Head injuries (TBI) to adults and children in motor vehicle crashes.

    Viano, David C; Parenteau, Chantal S; Xu, Likang; Faul, Mark

    2017-08-18

    This is a descriptive study. It determined the annual, national incidence of head injuries (traumatic brain injury, TBI) to adults and children in motor vehicle crashes. It evaluated NASS-CDS for exposure and incidence of various head injuries in towaway crashes. It evaluated 3 health databases for emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths due to TBI in motor vehicle occupants. Four databases were evaluated using 1997-2010 data on adult (15+ years old) and child (0-14 years old) occupants in motor vehicle crashes: (1) NASS-CDS estimated the annual incidence of various head injuries and outcomes in towaway crashes, (2) National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS)-estimated ED visits for TBI, (3) National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) estimated hospitalizations for TBI, and (4) National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) estimated TBI deaths. The 4 databases provide annual national totals for TBI related injury and death in motor vehicle crashes based on differing definitions with TBI coded by the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) in NASS-CDS and by International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in the health data. Adults: NASS-CDS had 16,980 ± 2,411 (risk = 0.43 ± 0.06%) with severe head injury (AIS 4+) out of 3,930,543 exposed adults in towaway crashes annually. There were 49,881 ± 9,729 (risk = 1.27 ± 0.25%) hospitalized with AIS 2+ head injury, without death. There were 6,753 ± 882 (risk = 0.17 ± 0.02%) fatalities with a head injury cause. The public health data had 89,331 ± 6,870 ED visits, 33,598 ± 1,052 hospitalizations, and 6,682 ± 22 deaths with TBI. NASS-CDS estimated 48% more hospitalized with AIS 2+ head injury without death than NHDS occupants hospitalized with TBI. NASS-CDS estimated 29% more deaths with AIS 3+ head injury than NVSS occupant TBI deaths but only 1% more deaths with a head injury cause. Children: NASS-CDS had 1,453 ± 318 (risk = 0.32 ± 0.07%) with severe head injury (AIS 4+) out of 454,973 exposed

  10. Analysis of factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young New Zealand drivers

    Weiss, Harold B.; Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    measures within youth-oriented road safety programs. The current study estimates discrete choice models of injury severity of crashes involving young drivers conditional on these crashes having occurred. The analysis examined a comprehensive set of single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes involving at least...

  11. Identification of vehicle components associated with severe thoracic injury in motor vehicle crashes: a CIREN and NASS analysis.

    Nirula, R; Pintar, F A

    2008-01-01

    Thoracic trauma secondary to motor vehicle crashes (MVC) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Specific vehicle features may increase the risk of severe thoracic injury when striking the occupant. We sought to determine which vehicle contact points were associated with an increased risk of severe thoracic injury in MVC to focus subsequent design modifications necessary to reduce thoracic injury. The National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) databases from 1993 to 2001 and the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) databases from 1996 to 2004 were analyzed separately using univariate and multivariate logistic regression stratified by restraint use and crash direction. The risk of driver thoracic injury, defined as an abbreviated injury scale (AIS) of score > or =3, was determined as it related to specific points of contact between the vehicle and the driver. The incidence of severe chest injury in NASS and CIREN were 5.5% and 33%, respectively. The steering wheel, door panel, armrest, and seat were identified as contact points associated with an increased risk of severe chest injury. The door panel and arm rest were consistently a frequent cause of severe injury in both the NASS and CIREN data. Several vehicle contact points, including the steering wheel, door panel, armrest and seat are associated with an increased risk of severe thoracic injury when striking the occupant. These elements need to be further investigated to determine which characteristics need to be manipulated in order to reduce thoracic trauma during a crash.

  12. Sleep-related vehicle crashes on low speed roads.

    Filtness, A J; Armstrong, K A; Watson, A; Smith, S S

    2017-02-01

    Very little is known about the characteristics of sleep related (SR) crashes occurring on low speed roads compared with current understanding of the role of sleep in crashes occurring on high speed roads e.g. motorways. To address this gap, analyses were undertaken to identify the differences and similarities between (1) SR crashes occurring on roads with low (≤60km/h) and high (≥100km/h) speed limits, and (2) SR crashes and not-SR crashes occurring on roads with low speed limits. Police reports of all crashes occurring on low and high speed roads over a ten year period between 2000 and 2009 were examined for Queensland, Australia. Attending police officers identified all crash attributes, including 'fatigue/fell asleep', which indicates that the police believe the crash to have a causal factor relating to falling asleep, sleepiness due to sleep loss, time of day, or fatigue. Driver or rider involvement in crashes was classified as SR or not-SR. All crash-associated variables were compared using Chi-square tests (Cramer's V=effect size). A series of logistic regression was performed, with driver and crash characteristics as predictors of crash category. A conservative alpha level of 0.001 determined statistical significance. There were 440,855 drivers or riders involved in a crash during this time; 6923 (1.6%) were attributed as SR. SR crashes on low speed roads have similar characteristics to those on high speed roads with young (16-24y) males consistently over represented. SR crashes on low speed roads are noticeably different to not-SR crashes in the same speed zone in that male and young novice drivers are over represented and outcomes are more severe. Of all the SR crashes identified, 41% occurred on low speed roads. SR crashes are not confined to high speed roads. Low speed SR crashes warrant specific investigation because they occur in densely populated areas, exposing a greater number of people to risk and have more severe outcomes than not-SR crashes

  13. Obesity and non-fatal motor vehicle crash injuries: sex difference effects.

    Ma, X; Laud, P W; Pintar, F; Kim, J-E; Shih, A; Shen, W; Heymsfield, S B; Allison, D B; Zhu, S

    2011-09-01

    Obesity and motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries are two parallel epidemics in the United States. An important unanswered question is whether there are sex differences in the associations between the presence of obesity and non-fatal MVC injuries. To further understand the association between obesity and non-fatal MVC injuries, particularly the sex differences in these relations. We examined this question by analyzing data from the 2003 to 2007 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS CDS). A total of 10,962 drivers who were aged 18 years or older and who survived frontal collision crashes were eligible for the study. Male drivers experienced a lower rate of overall non-fatal MVC injuries than did female drivers (38.1 versus 52.2%), but experienced a higher rate of severe injuries (0.7 versus 0.2%). After adjusting for change in velocity (ΔV) during the crashes, obese male drivers showed a much higher risk (logistic coefficients of body mass index (BMI) for moderate, serious and severe injury are 0.0766, 0.1470 and 0.1792, respectively; all Pobese male drivers and these risks increased with injury severity. Non-fatal injury risks were not found to be increased in obese female drivers. The association between obesity and risk of non-fatal injury was much stronger for male drivers than for female drivers. The higher risk of non-fatal MVC injuries in obese male drivers might result from their different body shape and fat distribution compared with obese female drivers. Our findings should be considered for obesity reduction, traffic safety evaluation and vehicle design for obese male drivers and provide testable hypotheses for future studies.

  14. Identification and validation of a logistic regression model for predicting serious injuries associated with motor vehicle crashes.

    Kononen, Douglas W; Flannagan, Carol A C; Wang, Stewart C

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate logistic regression model, based upon National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data for calendar years 1999-2008, was developed to predict the probability that a crash-involved vehicle will contain one or more occupants with serious or incapacitating injuries. These vehicles were defined as containing at least one occupant coded with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of greater than or equal to 15, in planar, non-rollover crash events involving Model Year 2000 and newer cars, light trucks, and vans. The target injury outcome measure was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-led National Expert Panel on Field Triage in their recent revision of the Field Triage Decision Scheme (American College of Surgeons, 2006). The parameters to be used for crash injury prediction were subsequently specified by the National Expert Panel. Model input parameters included: crash direction (front, left, right, and rear), change in velocity (delta-V), multiple vs. single impacts, belt use, presence of at least one older occupant (≥ 55 years old), presence of at least one female in the vehicle, and vehicle type (car, pickup truck, van, and sport utility). The model was developed using predictor variables that may be readily available, post-crash, from OnStar-like telematics systems. Model sensitivity and specificity were 40% and 98%, respectively, using a probability cutpoint of 0.20. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for the final model was 0.84. Delta-V (mph), seat belt use and crash direction were the most important predictors of serious injury. Due to the complexity of factors associated with rollover-related injuries, a separate screening algorithm is needed to model injuries associated with this crash mode. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Toward an Effective Long-Term Strategy for Preventing Motor Vehicle Crashes and Injuries

    Anthony R. Mawson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Casualties due to motor vehicle crashes (MVCs include some 40,000 deaths each year in the United States and one million deaths worldwide. One strategy that has been recommended for improving automobile safety is to lower speed limits and enforce them with speed cameras. However, motor vehicles can be hazardous even at low speeds whereas properly protected human beings can survive high-speed crashes without injury. Emphasis on changing driver behavior as the focus for road safety improvements has been largely unsuccessful; moreover, drivers today are increasingly distracted by secondary tasks such as cell phone use and texting. Indeed, the true limiting factor in vehicular safety is the capacity of human beings to sense and process information and to make rapid decisions. Given that dramatic reductions in injuries and deaths from MVCs have occurred over the past century due to improvements in safety technology, despite increases in the number of vehicles on the road and miles driven per vehicle, we propose that an effective long-term strategy for reducing MVC-related injury would be continued technological innovation in vehicle design, aimed at progressively removing the driver from routine operational decision-making. Once this is achieved, high rates of speed could be achieved on open highways, with minimal risk of crashes and injury to occupants and pedestrians.

  16. Toward an effective long-term strategy for preventing motor vehicle crashes and injuries.

    Mawson, Anthony R; Walley, E Kenneth

    2014-08-11

    Casualties due to motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) include some 40,000 deaths each year in the United States and one million deaths worldwide. One strategy that has been recommended for improving automobile safety is to lower speed limits and enforce them with speed cameras. However, motor vehicles can be hazardous even at low speeds whereas properly protected human beings can survive high-speed crashes without injury. Emphasis on changing driver behavior as the focus for road safety improvements has been largely unsuccessful; moreover, drivers today are increasingly distracted by secondary tasks such as cell phone use and texting. Indeed, the true limiting factor in vehicular safety is the capacity of human beings to sense and process information and to make rapid decisions. Given that dramatic reductions in injuries and deaths from MVCs have occurred over the past century due to improvements in safety technology, despite increases in the number of vehicles on the road and miles driven per vehicle, we propose that an effective long-term strategy for reducing MVC-related injury would be continued technological innovation in vehicle design, aimed at progressively removing the driver from routine operational decision-making. Once this is achieved, high rates of speed could be achieved on open highways, with minimal risk of crashes and injury to occupants and pedestrians.

  17. Vulnerability of motorcycle riders and co-riders to injuries in multi-occupant crashes.

    Oluwadiya, Kehinde Sunday; Ojo, Owolabi Dele; Adegbehingbe, Olayinka Oladiran; Mock, Charles; Popoola, Ogunsuyi Sunday

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries, most motorcycles are ridden with more than one occupant. The objective of this study was to establish the relative vulnerability of riders and co-riders to injury and determine the injury risk factors in multi-occupant motorcycle crashes. Between January and December 2010, we collected crash and injury data from victims of multi-occupant motorcycle. It is a hospital-based study. The probability of sustaining injuries was similar for co-riders and riders, but co-riders were more likely to sustain severe injuries. Occupants of >2-occupant motorcycles were also more likely to be involved in risky behaviours like not wearing helmet and speeding than those on 2-occupant motorcycles. Occupants of motorcycles on which there were more than two occupants were at an increased risk of sustaining injuries compared with occupants of motorcycles with only two occupants (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.3). Motorcycle co-riders were more vulnerable to severe injuries than riders. The significance of the study finding to prevention was discussed.

  18. Pediatric craniomaxillofacial injuries after road traffic crashes: characteristics of injuries and protective equipment use.

    Yunus, Siti Salmiah Mohd; Ngeow, Wei Cheong; Ramli, Roszalina

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional study to determine the pattern of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) injuries among children involved in road traffic crashes was performed. The association of protective equipment use with the CMF injuries was evaluated. Retrospective records of children treated in the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, after road traffic crashes between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 were reviewed, and, after that, telephone interviews were made. Seventy-one children were included in this study. Fifty-two (73.6%) were involved in a motorcycle injury and 19 (23.4%) in a car crash. Their mean age was 6.02 years; SD, 3.46 (range between 0 to 13 years old). More male children were observed (52.1%) compared with females (47.9%). Thirty-nine point four percent of the children sustained CMF injuries, 33.8% body injuries, and 23.9% had both CMF and other body parts injuries. The highest injury severity score was 26, whereas the lowest was 0. Many children did not use protective equipment during traveling, 44.2% of children among motorcycle pillion riders, and 78.9% among car passengers. The association between helmet use and CMF injuries was shown to be statistically significant (P belt. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Incidence and severity of head and neck injuries in victims of road traffic crashes: In an economically developed country.

    Bener, Abdulbari; Rahman, Yassir S Abdul; Mitra, Biswadev

    2009-01-01

    Head and neck injuries following the road traffic crashes (RTCs) are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in most developed and developing countries and may also result in temporary or permanent disability. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence pattern of head and neck injuries, investigate its trend and identify the severity of injuries involved with road traffic crashes (RTCs) during the period 2001-2006. This is a retrospective descriptive hospital based study. The patients with head and neck injuries were seen and treated in the Accident and Emergency Department of the Hamad General Hospital and other Trauma Centers of the Hamad Medical Corporation following the road traffic crashes during the period 2001-2006. This study is a retrospective analysis of 6709 patients attended and treated at the Accident and Emergency and Trauma centers for head and neck injuries over a 6 year period. Head and neck injuries were determined according to the ICD 10 criteria. Of these, 3013 drivers, 2502 passengers, 704 pedestrians and 490 two wheel riders (motor bike and cyclists). Details of all the road traffic crash patients were compiled in the database of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and the data of patients with head and neck injuries were extracted from this database. A total of 6709 patients with head and neck injuries was reported during the study period. Majority of the victims were non-Qataris (68.7%), men (85.9%) and in the age group 20-44 years (68.5%). There were statistical significant differences in relation to age, nationality, gender, and accident during week ends for head and neck injuries (pQatar from road traffic crashes. The incidence of head and neck injuries is still very high in Qatar, but the severity of injury was mild in most of the victims. The findings of the study highlighted the need for taking urgent steps for safety of people especially drivers and passengers.

  20. Potential Occupant Injury Reduction in Pre-Crash System Equipped Vehicles in the Striking Vehicle of Rear-end Crashes.

    Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2010-01-01

    To mitigate the severity of rear-end and other collisions, Pre-Crash Systems (PCS) are being developed. These active safety systems utilize radar and/or video cameras to determine when a frontal crash, such as a front-to-back rear-end collisions, is imminent and can brake autonomously, even with no driver input. Of these PCS features, the effects of autonomous pre-crash braking are estimated. To estimate the maximum potential for injury reduction due to autonomous pre-crash braking in the striking vehicle of rear-end crashes, a methodology is presented for determining 1) the reduction in vehicle crash change in velocity (ΔV) due to PCS braking and 2) the number of injuries that could be prevented due to the reduction in collision severity. Injury reduction was only performed for belted drivers, as unbelted drivers have an unknown risk of being thrown out of position. The study was based on 1,406 rear-end striking vehicles from NASS / CDS years 1993 to 2008. PCS parameters were selected from realistic values and varied to examine the effect on system performance. PCS braking authority was varied from 0.5 G's to 0.8 G's while time to collision (TTC) was held at 0.45 seconds. TTC was then varied from 0.3 second to 0.6 seconds while braking authority was held constant at 0.6 G's. A constant braking pulse (step function) and ramp-up braking pulse were used. The study found that automated PCS braking could reduce the crash ΔV in rear-end striking vehicles by an average of 12% - 50% and avoid 0% - 14% of collisions, depending on PCS parameters. Autonomous PCS braking could potentially reduce the number of injured drivers who are belted by 19% to 57%.

  1. Thoracic aortic injury in motor vehicle crashes: the effect of impact direction, side of body struck, and seat belt use.

    Fitzharris, Michael; Franklyn, Melanie; Frampton, Richard; Yang, King; Morris, Andrew; Fildes, Brian

    2004-09-01

    Using in-depth, real-world motor vehicle crash data from the United States and the United Kingdom, we aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with thoracic aorta injuries. De-identified National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (U.S.) and Co-operative Crash Injury Study (U.K.) data formed the basis of this retrospective analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the level of risk of thoracic aorta injury associated with impact direction, seat belt use and, given the asymmetry of the thoracic cavity, whether being struck toward the left side of the body was associated with increased risk in side-impact crashes. A total of 13,436 U.S. and 3,756 U.K. drivers and front seat passengers were analyzed. The incidence of thoracic aorta injury in the U.S. and U.K. samples was 1.5% (n = 197) and 1.9% (n = 70), respectively. The risk was higher for occupants seated on the side closest to the impact than for occupants involved in frontal impact crashes. This was the case irrespective of whether the force was applied toward the left (belted: relative risk [RR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-7.1; p direction. Thoracic aorta injuries were found to be associated with high impact severity, and being struck by a sports utility vehicle relative to a passenger vehicle (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3; p = 0.001). Aortic injuries have been conventionally associated with frontal impacts. However, emergency clinicians should be aware that occupants of side-impact crashes are at greater risk, particularly if the occupant was unbelted and involved in a crash of high impact severity.

  2. Robust human body model injury prediction in simulated side impact crashes.

    Golman, Adam J; Danelson, Kerry A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a parametric methodology to robustly predict occupant injuries sustained in real-world crashes using a finite element (FE) human body model (HBM). One hundred and twenty near-side impact motor vehicle crashes were simulated over a range of parameters using a Toyota RAV4 (bullet vehicle), Ford Taurus (struck vehicle) FE models and a validated human body model (HBM) Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS). Three bullet vehicle crash parameters (speed, location and angle) and two occupant parameters (seat position and age) were varied using a Latin hypercube design of Experiments. Four injury metrics (head injury criterion, half deflection, thoracic trauma index and pelvic force) were used to calculate injury risk. Rib fracture prediction and lung strain metrics were also analysed. As hypothesized, bullet speed had the greatest effect on each injury measure. Injury risk was reduced when bullet location was further from the B-pillar or when the bullet angle was more oblique. Age had strong correlation to rib fractures frequency and lung strain severity. The injuries from a real-world crash were predicted using two different methods by (1) subsampling the injury predictors from the 12 best crush profile matching simulations and (2) using regression models. Both injury prediction methods successfully predicted the case occupant's low risk for pelvic injury, high risk for thoracic injury, rib fractures and high lung strains with tight confidence intervals. This parametric methodology was successfully used to explore crash parameter interactions and to robustly predict real-world injuries.

  3. Use of car crashes resulting in fatal and serious injuries to analyze a safe road transport system model and to identify system weaknesses.

    Stigson, Helena; Hill, Julian

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a model for a safe road transport system, based on some safety performance indicators regarding the road user, the vehicle, and the road, by using crashes with fatally and seriously injured car occupants. The study also aimed to evaluate whether the model could be used to identify system weaknesses and components (road user, vehicles, and road) where improvements would yield the highest potential for further reductions in serious injuries. Real-life car crashes with serious injury outcomes (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale 2+) were classified according to the vehicle's safety rating by Euro NCAP (European New Car Assessment Programme) and whether the vehicle was fitted with ESC (Electronic Stability Control). For each crash, the road was also classified according to EuroRAP (European Road Assessment Programme) criteria, and human behavior in terms of speeding, seat belt use, and driving under the influence of alcohol/drugs. Each crash was compared and classified according to the model criteria. Crashes where the safety criteria were not met in more than one of the 3 components were reclassified to identify whether all the components were correlated to the injury outcome. In-depth crash injury data collected by the UK On The Spot (OTS) accident investigation project was used in this study. All crashes in the OTS database occurring between 2000 and 2005 with a car occupant with injury rated MAIS2+ were included, for a total of 101 crashes with 120 occupants. It was possible to classify 90 percent of the crashes according to the model. Eighty-six percent of the occupants were injured when more than one of the 3 components were noncompliant with the safety criteria. These cases were reclassified to identify whether all of the components were correlated to the injury outcome. In 39 of the total 108 cases, at least two components were still seen to interact. The remaining cases were only related to one of the safety criteria

  4. Patterns of injury seen in road crash victims in a South African ...

    Patterns of injury seen in road crash victims in a South African trauma centre. F Parkinson, S Kent, C Aldous, G Oosthuizen, DL Clarke. Abstract. Background. Road traffic crashes (RTCs) account for a significant burden of disease in South Africa. This prospective study reviews basic demographic and outcome data of ...

  5. Road traffic crashes in South Africa: The burden of injury to a ...

    Road traffic crashes in South Africa: The burden of injury to a regional trauma centre. F Parkinson, S Kent, C Aldous, G Oosthuizen, D Clarke. Abstract. Background. Globally, 90% of road traffic crash (RTC) deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Objective. To document the mortality and morbidity associated with ...

  6. 78 FR 52605 - Announcing the Twenty First Public Meeting of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network...

    2013-08-23

    ... large numbers of people injured in motor vehicle crashes. These teams are led by trauma surgeons and... in Frontal Impacts; Rib Fractures in Older Occupants; Changes Over Time in Injury and Crash...

  7. Crash characteristics and injury patterns of restrained front seat occupants in far-side impacts.

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Halloway, Dale E; Pintar, Frank A; Maiman, Dennis J; Szabo, Aniko; Rudd, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the association between vehicle-, crash-, and demographic-related factors and injuries to front seat far-side occupants in modern environments. Field data were obtained from the NASS-CDS database for the years 2009-2012. Inclusion factors included the following: adult restrained front outboard-seated occupants, no ejection or rollovers, and vehicle model years less than 10 years old at the time of crash. Far-side crashes were determined by using collision deformation classification. Injuries were scored using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Injuries (MAIS 2+, MAIS 3+, M denotes maximum score) were examined based on demographics, change in velocity, vehicle type, direction of force, extent zone, collision partner, and presence of another occupant in the front seat. Only weighted data were used in the analysis. Injuries to the head and face, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and upper and lower extremity regions were studied. Odds ratios and upper and lower confidence intervals were estimated from multivariate analysis. Out of 519,195 far-side occupants, 17,715 were MAIS 2+ and 4,387 were MAIS 3+ level injured occupants. The mean age, stature, total body mass, and body mass index (BMI) were 40.7 years, 1.7 m, 77.2 kg, and 26.8 kg/m2, respectively. Of occupants with MAIS 2+ injuries, 51% had head and 19% had thorax injuries. Of occupants with MAIS 3+ injuries, 50% had head and 69% had thorax injuries. The cumulative distribution of changes in velocities at the 50th percentile for the struck vehicle for all occupants and occupants with MAIS 2+ and MAIS 3+ injuries were 19, 34, and 42 km/h, respectively. Furthermore, 73% of MAIS 2+ injuries and 86% of MAIS 3+ injuries occurred at a change in velocity of 24 km/h or greater. Odds of sustaining MAIS 2+ and MAIS 3+ injuries increased with each unit increase in change in velocity, stature, and age, with one exception. Odds of sustaining injuries were higher with the presence of an occupant in

  8. Estimating under-reporting of road crash injuries to police using multiple linked data collections.

    Watson, Angela; Watson, Barry; Vallmuur, Kirsten

    2015-10-01

    The reliance on police data for the counting of road crash injuries can be problematic, as it is well known that not all road crash injuries are reported to police which under-estimates the overall burden of road crash injuries. The aim of this study was to use multiple linked data sources to estimate the extent of under-reporting of road crash injuries to police in the Australian state of Queensland. Data from the Queensland Road Crash Database (QRCD), the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patients Data Collection (QHAPDC), Emergency Department Information System (EDIS), and the Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit (QISU) for the year 2009 were linked. The completeness of road crash cases reported to police was examined via discordance rates between the police data (QRCD) and the hospital data collections. In addition, the potential bias of this discordance (under-reporting) was assessed based on gender, age, road user group, and regional location. Results showed that the level of under-reporting varied depending on the data set with which the police data was compared. When all hospital data collections are examined together the estimated population of road crash injuries was approximately 28,000, with around two-thirds not linking to any record in the police data. The results also showed that the under-reporting was more likely for motorcyclists, cyclists, males, young people, and injuries occurring in Remote and Inner Regional areas. These results have important implications for road safety research and policy in terms of: prioritising funding and resources; targeting road safety interventions into areas of higher risk; and estimating the burden of road crash injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A comprehensive analysis of factors influencing the injury severity of large-truck crashes.

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; Srinivasan, Sivaramakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of trucking to the economic well being of a country and the safety concerns posed by the trucks, a study of large-truck crashes is critical. This paper contributes by undertaking an extensive analysis of the empirical factors affecting injury severity of large-truck crashes. Data from a recent, nationally representative sample of large-truck crashes are examined to determine the factors affecting the overall injury severity of these crashes. The explanatory factors include the characteristics of the crash, vehicle(s), and the driver(s). The injury severity was modeled using two measures. Several similarities and some differences were observed across the two models which underscore the need for improved accuracy in the assessment of injury severity of crashes. The estimated models capture the marginal effects of a variety of explanatory factors simultaneously. In particular, the models indicate the impacts of several driver behavior variables on the severity of the crashes, after controlling for a variety of other factors. For example, driver distraction (truck drivers), alcohol use (car drivers), and emotional factors (car drivers) are found to be associated with higher severity crashes. A further interesting finding is the strong statistical significance of several dummy variables that indicate missing data - these reflect how the nature of the crash itself could affect the completeness of the data. Future efforts should seek to collect such data more comprehensively so that the true effects of these aspects on the crash severity can be determined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A hybrid clustering and classification approach for predicting crash injury severity on rural roads.

    Hasheminejad, Seyed Hessam-Allah; Zahedi, Mohsen; Hasheminejad, Seyed Mohammad Hossein

    2018-03-01

    As a threat for transportation system, traffic crashes have a wide range of social consequences for governments. Traffic crashes are increasing in developing countries and Iran as a developing country is not immune from this risk. There are several researches in the literature to predict traffic crash severity based on artificial neural networks (ANNs), support vector machines and decision trees. This paper attempts to investigate the crash injury severity of rural roads by using a hybrid clustering and classification approach to compare the performance of classification algorithms before and after applying the clustering. In this paper, a novel rule-based genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed to predict crash injury severity, which is evaluated by performance criteria in comparison with classification algorithms like ANN. The results obtained from analysis of 13,673 crashes (5600 property damage, 778 fatal crashes, 4690 slight injuries and 2605 severe injuries) on rural roads in Tehran Province of Iran during 2011-2013 revealed that the proposed GA method outperforms other classification algorithms based on classification metrics like precision (86%), recall (88%) and accuracy (87%). Moreover, the proposed GA method has the highest level of interpretation, is easy to understand and provides feedback to analysts.

  11. A comparison of contributing factors between alcohol related single vehicle motorcycle and car crashes.

    Maistros, Alexander; Schneider, William H; Savolainen, Peter T

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol related crashes have accounted for approximately 35% of fatal crashes per year since 1994 nationwide, with approximately 30% involving impairment over the legal blood alcohol content limit of 0.08%. Educational campaigns and law enforcement efforts are two components of multi-faceted programs aimed toward reducing impaired driving. It is crucial that further research be conducted to guide the implementation of enforcement and educational programs. This research attempts to provide such guidance by examining differences in alcohol-involved crashes involving motorcycles and passenger cars. Prior safety research has shown that motorcyclists follow a significantly different culture than the average passenger car operator. These cultural differences may be reflected by differences in the contributing factors affecting crashes and the severity of the resulting injuries sustained by the driver or motorcyclist. This research is focused on single-vehicle crashes only, in order to isolate modal effects from the contribution of additional vehicles. The crash data provided for this study are from the Ohio Department of Public Safety from 2009 through 2012. The injury severity data are analysed through the development of two mixed logit models, one for motorcyclists and one for passenger car drivers. The models quantify the effects of various factors, including horizontal curves, speeds, seatbelt use, and helmet use, which indicate that the required motor skills and balance needed for proper motorcycle operation compounded with a lack of mechanical protection make motorcyclists more prone to severe injuries, particularly on curves and in collisions with roadside objects. The findings of this study have been incorporated into combined motorcycle and sober driving educational safety campaigns. The results have shown to be favorable in supporting national campaign messages with local justification and backing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A spatial generalized ordered response model to examine highway crash injury severity.

    Castro, Marisol; Paleti, Rajesh; Bhat, Chandra R

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a flexible econometric structure for injury severity analysis at the level of individual crashes that recognizes the ordinal nature of injury severity categories, allows unobserved heterogeneity in the effects of contributing factors, as well as accommodates spatial dependencies in the injury severity levels experienced in crashes that occur close to one another in space. The modeling framework is applied to analyze the injury severity sustained in crashes occurring on highway road segments in Austin, Texas. The sample is drawn from the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) crash incident files from 2009 and includes a variety of crash characteristics, highway design attributes, driver and vehicle characteristics, and environmental factors. The results from our analysis underscore the value of our proposed model for data fit purposes as well as to accurately estimate variable effects. The most important determinants of injury severity on highways, according to our results, are (1) whether any vehicle occupant is ejected, (2) whether collision type is head-on, (3) whether any vehicle involved in the crash overturned, (4) whether any vehicle occupant is unrestrained by a seat-belt, and (5) whether a commercial truck is involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Injury severity in delivery-motorcycle to vehicle crashes in the Seoul metropolitan area.

    Chung, Younshik; Song, Tai-Jin; Yoon, Byoung-Jo

    2014-01-01

    More than 56% of motorcycles in Korea are used for the purpose of delivering parcels and food. Since such delivery requires quick service, most motorcyclists commit traffic violations while delivering, such as crossing the centerline, speeding, running a red light, and driving in the opposite direction down one-way streets. In addition, the fatality rate for motorcycle crashes is about 12% of the fatality rate for road traffic crashes, which is considered to be high, although motorcycle crashes account for only 5% of road traffic crashes in South Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes that have occurred during delivery. To examine the risk of different injury levels sustained under all crash types of vehicle-to-motorcycle, this study applied an ordered probit model. Based on the results, this study proposes policy implications to reduce the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes during delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Injury and side impact air bag deployment in near and far sided motor vehicle crashes, United States, 2000-2005.

    Stadter, Greg; Grabowski, Jurek G; Burke, Christine; Aldaghlas, Tayseer A; Robinson, Linda; Fakhry, Samir M

    2008-12-01

    Side impact crashes, the most lethal type, account for 26% of all motor vehicle crashes in the United States. The purpose of this study is to delineate side impact airbag (SIAB) deployment rates, injury rates, and analyze crash factors associated with SIAB deployment and occupant injury. All passenger vehicles equipped with SIABs that were involved in a side impact crash were identified from the National Automotive Sampling System database. Crashes with multiple impacts, ejections, unbelted drivers or rollovers were excluded from the study. The outcome variables of interest were SIAB deployment and driver injury. SIAB deployment was compared in similar crashes to analyze the impact on driver's injury severity score. Other crash factors were also examined to analyze what role they play in SIAB deployment rates and injury rates, such as plane of contact, striking object and Delta-V. The data set for this study contained 247 drivers in near and far side crashes in vehicles with installed SIABs. Overall SIAB deployment was 43% in side impact crashes. A significant factor associated with both the SIAB deployment rate and the driver's injury rate was increased Delta-V. SIABs do not deploy consistently in crashes with a high Delta-V or with a lateral primary direction of force and a front plane of contact. In these two scenarios, further research is warranted on SIAB deployments. With SIAB deployment, it appears drivers are able to sustain a higher Delta-V impact without serious injury.

  15. Work-related nonfatal injuries in Alaska's aviation industry, 2000-2013.

    Case, Samantha L; Moller, Kyle M; Nix, Nancy A; Lucas, Devin L; Snyder, Elizabeth H; O'Connor, Mary B

    2018-04-01

    Aviation is a critical component of life in Alaska, connecting communities off the road system across the state. Crash-related fatalities in the state are well understood and many intervention efforts have been aimed at reducing aircraft crashes and resulting fatalities; however, nonfatal injuries among workers who perform aviation-related duties have not been studied in Alaska. This study aimed to characterize hospitalized nonfatal injuries among these workers using data from the Alaska Trauma Registry. During 2000-2013, 28 crash-related and 89 non-crash injuries were identified, spanning various occupational groups. Falls were a major cause of injuries, accounting for over half of non-crash injuries. Based on the study findings, aviation stakeholders should review existing policies and procedures regarding aircraft restraint systems, fall protection, and other injury prevention strategies. To supplement these findings, further study describing injuries that did not result in hospitalization is recommended.

  16. Work-related nonfatal injuries in Alaska’s aviation industry, 2000–2013

    Case, Samantha L.; Moller, Kyle M.; Nix, Nancy A.; Lucas, Devin L.; Snyder, Elizabeth H.; O’Connor, Mary B.

    2018-01-01

    Aviation is a critical component of life in Alaska, connecting communities off the road system across the state. Crash-related fatalities in the state are well understood and many intervention efforts have been aimed at reducing aircraft crashes and resulting fatalities; however, nonfatal injuries among workers who perform aviation-related duties have not been studied in Alaska. This study aimed to characterize hospitalized nonfatal injuries among these workers using data from the Alaska Trauma Registry. During 2000–2013, 28 crash-related and 89 non-crash injuries were identified, spanning various occupational groups. Falls were a major cause of injuries, accounting for over half of non-crash injuries. Based on the study findings, aviation stakeholders should review existing policies and procedures regarding aircraft restraint systems, fall protection, and other injury prevention strategies. To supplement these findings, further study describing injuries that did not result in hospitalization is recommended. PMID:29606800

  17. Prescription medicine use by pedestrians and the risk of injurious road traffic crashes: A case-crossover study.

    Mélanie Née

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While some medicinal drugs have been found to affect driving ability, no study has investigated whether a relationship exists between these medicines and crashes involving pedestrians. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the use of medicinal drugs and the risk of being involved in a road traffic crash as a pedestrian.Data from 3 French nationwide databases were matched. We used the case-crossover design to control for time-invariant factors by using each case as its own control. To perform multivariable analysis and limit false-positive results, we implemented a bootstrap version of Lasso. To avoid the effect of unmeasured time-varying factors, we varied the length of the washout period from 30 to 119 days before the crash. The matching procedure led to the inclusion of 16,458 pedestrians involved in an injurious road traffic crash from 1 July 2005 to 31 December 2011. We found 48 medicine classes with a positive association with the risk of crash, with median odds ratios ranging from 1.12 to 2.98. Among these, benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-related drugs, antihistamines, and anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic drugs were among the 10 medicines most consumed by the 16,458 pedestrians. Study limitations included slight overrepresentation of pedestrians injured in more severe crashes, lack of information about self-medication and the use of over-the-counter drugs, and lack of data on amount of walking.Therapeutic classes already identified as impacting the ability to drive, such as benzodiazepines and antihistamines, are also associated with an increased risk of pedestrians being involved in a road traffic crash. This study on pedestrians highlights the necessity of improving awareness of the effect of these medicines on this category of road user.

  18. Road traffic crashes in South Africa: the burden of injury to a regional trauma centre.

    Parkinson, F; Kent, S; Aldous, C; Oosthuizen, G; Clarke, D

    2013-09-30

    Globally, 90% of road traffic crash (RTC) deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. To document the mortality and morbidity associated with RTCs managed at a busy regional hospital in South Africa and investigate potentially preventable factors associated with RTCs. This was a prospective study of all patients presenting to Edendale Hospital following a RTC over a 10-week period from late 2011 to early 2012. All fatalities recorded at the police mortuary for the same period were included. Medical records were reviewed and all admitted patients were interviewed about the circumstances of the accident. We calculated an injury pyramid to compare our data with European data. A total of 305 patients were seen over the study period, 100 required admission and there were 45 deaths due to RTCs in the area. Of the patients admitted, 41 were pedestrians involved in pedestrian vehicle crashes (PVCs) and 59 motor vehicle occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). The majority (n=58) of crashes involved a private vehicle. Only 17% of MVC patients were wearing a seatbelt and 8 were allegedly under the influence of alcohol. On average, RTC patients spent 19 days in hospital and 62 patients required at least 1 operation. According to our injury pyramid, the number of severe and fatal injuries was higher than in Europe. Our results demonstrate a high incidence of RTCs associated with a high injury score and significant morbidity. Most crashes were associated with a number of high-risk behaviours.

  19. A 10-year incidence of acute whiplash injuries after road traffic crashes in a defined population in northern Sweden.

    Styrke, Johan; Stålnacke, Britt-Marie; Bylund, Per-Olof; Sojka, Peter; Björnstig, Ulf

    2012-10-01

    To examine the annual incidence of acute whiplash injuries after road traffic crashes in a geographic catchment area in Northern Sweden during the period 2000-2009. Descriptive epidemiology determined by prospectively collected data from a defined population. The study was conducted at a public hospital in Sweden. The population of the hospital's catchment area (136,600 inhabitants in 1999 and 144,500 in 2009). At the emergency department, all injured persons (approximately 11,000 per year) were asked to answer a questionnaire about the injury incident. Data from the medical records also were analyzed. From 2000-2009, 15,506 persons were injured in vehicle crashes. Persons who were subject to an acute neck injury within whiplash-associated disorder grades 1-3 were included. The overall and annual incidences were calculated as incidence. Age, gender, type of injury event, and direction of impact were described. The incidences were compared with national statistics on insurance claims from 2003, 2007, and 2008 to detect changes in the proportions of claims. The annual incidence of acute whiplash injuries. Secondary outcome measures were types of injury events, age and gender distribution, changes in the proportion of rear-end crashes during 2000-2009, and changes in the proportion of insurance claims during 2003-2008. During 2000-2009, 3297 cases of acute whiplash injury were encountered. The overall incidence was 235/100,000/year. The average yearly increase in incidence was 1.0%. Women comprised 51.9% and men 48.1% of the injured. Car occupants (86.4%) and bicycle riders (6.1%) were most frequently injured. The proportion of rear-end crashes decreased from 55% to 45% from 2000-2009. The proportion of insurance claims significantly decreased between 2003 and 2008 (P whiplash injuries after road traffic crashes have been relatively stable during the past decade in our area, except in 2007 and 2008, when a peak occurred. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical

  20. A different perspective on conspicuity related motorcycle crashes.

    de Craen, Saskia; Doumen, Michelle J A; van Norden, Yvette

    2014-02-01

    The most common type of conflict in which a motorcyclist is injured or killed is a collision between a motorcycle and a car, often in priority situations. Many studies on motorcycle safety focus on the question why car drivers fail to give priority and on the poor conspicuity of motorcycles. The concept of 'looked-but-failed-to-see' crashes is a recurring item. On the other hand, it is not entirely unexpected that motorcycles have many conflicts with cars; there simply are so many cars on the road. This paper tries to unravel whether - acknowledging the differences in exposure - car drivers indeed fail to yield for motorcycles more often than for other cars. For this purpose we compared the causes of crashes on intersections (e.g. failing to give priority, speeding, etc.) between different crash types (car-motorcycle or car-car). In addition, we compared the crash causes of dual drivers (i.e. car drivers who also have their motorcycle licence) with regular car drivers. Our crash analysis suggests that car drivers do not fail to give priority to motorcycles relatively more often than to another car when this car/motorcycle approaches from a perpendicular angle. There is only one priority situation where motorcycles seem to be at a disadvantage compared to cars. This is when a car makes a left turn, and fails to give priority to an oncoming motorcycle. This specific crash scenario occurs more often when the oncoming vehicle is a motorcycle than when it is a car. We did not find a significant difference between dual drivers and regular car drivers in how often they give priority to motorcycles compared to cars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The relation between working conditions, aberrant driving behaviour and crash propensity among taxi drivers in China.

    Wang, Yonggang; Li, Linchao; Prato, Carlo G

    2018-04-03

    Although the taxi industry is playing an important role in Chinese everyday life, little attention has been posed towards occupational health issues concerning the taxi drivers' working conditions, driving behaviour and road safety. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1021 taxi drivers from 21 companies in four Chinese cities and collected information about (i) sociodemographic characteristics, (ii) working conditions, (iii) frequency of daily aberrant driving behaviour, and (iv) involvement in property-damage-only (PDO) and personal injury (PI) crashes over the past two years. A hybrid bivariate model of crash involvement was specified: (i) the hybrid part concerned a latent variable model capturing unobserved traits of the taxi drivers; (ii) the bivariate part modelled jointly both types of crashes while capturing unobserved correlation between error terms. The survey answers paint a gloomy picture in terms of workload, as taxi drivers reported averages of 9.4 working hours per day and 6.7 working days per week that amount on average to about 63.0 working hours per week. Moreover, the estimates of the hybrid bivariate model reveal that increasing levels of fatigue, reckless behaviour and aggressive behaviour are positively related to a higher propensity of crash involvement. Lastly, the heavy workload is also positively correlated with the higher propensity of crashing, not only directly as a predictor of crash involvement, but also indirectly as a covariate of fatigue and aberrant driving behaviour. The findings from this study provide insights into potential strategies for preventive education and taxi industry management to improve the working conditions and hence reduce fatigue and road risk for the taxi drivers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of weight, height and BMI on injury outcome in side impact crashes without airbag deployment.

    Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age <60 years is also one of the constraints imposed on data selection to minimize the effect of bone strength on the occurrence of occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI group. It is found that BMI does not have much

  3. Burden of motorcycle-related injury in Malaysia

    Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin NA; Baharuddin, Kamarul A; Mohamad, Syarifah Mastura S

    2015-01-01

    Background Road traffic injury (RTI) contributes to major morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Most of the injuries are caused by road-related injuries that specifically relate to motorcycle crash. We attempted to conduct a short survey to determine the magnitude of burden related to motorcycle-related RTIs in Malaysia. We hypothesize that motorcycle-related RTI in Malaysia contributes significantly to the health burden in the country. Methods The cross-sectiona...

  4. Epidemiology of fatal and nonfatal injuries in the Avianca plane crash: Avianca Flight 052, January 25, 1990. Final report

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Kahn, C.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Greensher, J.; Schechter, S. [Nassau County Dept. of Health, Mineola, NY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    On January 25, 1990 Avianca Flight 052 crashed without a conflagration after running out of fuel; 73 persons died, 85 survived. Epidemiological, biostatistical, and related analytical methods were used for the analysis of decedent and survivor injury patterns and for the purpose of examining selected EMS and hospital issues-relative to disaster planning and incident management and response. Medical examiner and hospital records for all decedents and survivors were identified, abstracted, and coded using the International Classification of Diseases with Clinical Modifications, 9th Edition (ICD 9-CM) to determine the nature of injuries and comorbid conditions. Injury severity values were determined using the 1985 Abbreviated Injury Scale with Epidemiologic Modifications (AIS 85-EM).

  5. Investigation of an alleged mechanism of finger injury in an automobile crash.

    Stacey, Stephen; Kent, Richard

    2006-07-01

    This investigation centers on the case of an adult male whose finger was allegedly amputated by the steering wheel of his car during a crash. The subject claimed to have been driving with his left index finger inserted through a hole in the spoke of his steering wheel and was subsequently involved in an offset frontal collision with a tree. The finger was found to be cleanly severed at the mid-shaft of the proximal phalanx after the crash. This injury was alleged to have been caused by inertial loading from the rotation of the steering wheel during the crash. To determine whether this injury mechanism was plausible, three laboratory tests representing distinct loading scenarios were carried out with postmortem human surrogates loaded dynamically by the subject's steering wheel. It was found that the inertial loads generated in this loading scenario are insufficient to amputate the finger. Additionally, artificially constraining the finger to force an amputation to occur revealed that a separation at the proximal interphalangeal joint occurs rather than a bony fracture of the proximal phalanx. Based on these biomechanical tests, it can be concluded that the subject's injury did not occur during the automobile crash in question. Furthermore, it can be shown that the injury was self-inflicted to fraudulently claim on an insurance policy.

  6. The Effects of Curtain Airbag on Occupant Kinematics and Injury Index in Rollover Crash

    Hongyun Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupant injuries in rollover crashes are associated with vehicle structural performance, as well as the restraint system design. For a better understanding of the occupant kinematics and injury index in certain rollover crash, it is essential to carry out dynamic vehicle rollover simulation with dummy included. Objective. This study focused on effects of curtain airbag (CAB parameters on occupant kinematics and injury indexes in a rollover crash. Besides, optimized parameters of the CAB were proposed for the purpose of decreasing the occupant injuries in such rollover scenario. Method and Material. The vehicle motion from the physical test was introduced as the input for the numerical simulation, and the 50% Hybrid III dummy model from the MADYMO database was imported into a simulation model. The restraint system, including a validated CAB module, was introduced for occupant kinematics simulation and injury evaluation. TTF setting, maximum inflator pressure, and protection area of the CAB were analysed. Results. After introducing the curtain airbag, the maximum head acceleration was reduced from 91.60 g to 49.52 g, and the neck Mx and neck Fz were reduced significantly. Among these CAB parameters, the TTF setting had the largest effect on the head acceleration which could reduce 8.6 g furthermore after optimization. The neck Fz was decreased from 3766.48 N to 2571.77 N after optimization of CAB protection area. Conclusions. Avoiding hard contact is critical for the occupant protection in the rollover crashes. The simulation results indicated that occupant kinematics and certain injury indexes were improved with the help of CAB in such rollover scenario. Appropriate TTF setting and inflator selection could benefit occupant kinematics and injury indexes. Besides, it was advised to optimize the curtain airbag thickness around the head contact area to improve head and neck injury indexes.

  7. Crash sequence based risk matrix for motorcycle crashes.

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Sasidharan, Lekshmi; Thor, Craig P; Chen, Sheng-Yin

    2018-04-05

    Considerable research has been conducted related to motorcycle and other powered-two-wheeler (PTW) crashes; however, it always has been controversial among practitioners concerning with types of crashes should be first targeted and how to prioritize resources for the implementation of mitigating actions. Therefore, there is a need to identify types of motorcycle crashes that constitute the greatest safety risk to riders - most frequent and most severe crashes. This pilot study seeks exhibit the efficacy of a new approach for prioritizing PTW crash causation sequences as they relate to injury severity to better inform the application of mitigating countermeasures. To accomplish this, the present study constructed a crash sequence-based risk matrix to identify most frequent and most severe motorcycle crashes in an attempt to better connect causes and countermeasures of PTW crashes. Although the frequency of each crash sequence can be computed from crash data, a crash severity model is needed to compare the levels of crash severity among different crash sequences, while controlling for other factors that also have effects on crash severity such drivers' age, use of helmet, etc. The construction of risk matrix based on crash sequences involve two tasks: formulation of crash sequence and the estimation of a mixed-effects (ME) model to adjust the levels of severities for each crash sequence to account for other crash contributing factors that would have an effect on the maximum level of crash severity in a crash. Three data elements from the National Automotive Sampling System - General Estimating System (NASS-GES) data were utilized to form a crash sequence: critical event, crash types, and sequence of events. A mixed-effects model was constructed to model the severity levels for each crash sequence while accounting for the effects of those crash contributing factors on crash severity. A total of 8039 crashes involving 8208 motorcycles occurred during 2011 and 2013 were

  8. Roof strength and injury risk in rollover crashes of passenger cars.

    Brumbelow, Matthew L; Teoh, Eric R

    2009-12-01

    A 2009 study by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety found that midsize SUVs with stronger roofs, as measured in quasi-static tests, had lower risk of ejection and lower risk of injury for nonejected drivers. The objective of the present study was to determine whether a similar association exists for other vehicle groups. Twelve small passenger cars were evaluated according to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 216 test conditions. Crash databases in 14 states provided more than 20,000 single-vehicle rollover crashes involving these vehicles. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of roof strength on the rate of driver injury while assessing and controlling for the effects of driver age, vehicle stability, state, and other factors where necessary. Small cars with stronger roofs had lower overall rates of serious injury, lower rates of ejection, and lower rates of injury for nonejected drivers. Although the effect on ejection was somewhat smaller for cars than for SUVs, the overall pattern of injury results was consistent. For roof strength-to-weight ratio measured within 5 in. (SWR(5)), a one-unit increase (e.g., from 2.0 to 3.0) was associated with a 22 percent reduction in risk of incapacitating or fatal driver injury in single-vehicle rollovers. This compares with a 24 percent reduction estimated for a similar change in roof strength among midsize SUVs. The association between vehicle roof strength and occupant injury risk in rollover crashes appears robust across different vehicle groups and across roof SWR(5) values, varying from just more than 1.5 to just less than 4.0. If roofs were to increase in strength by one SWR(5), a 20-25 percent reduction in risk of serious injury in rollovers would be expected. Still, even if all vehicle roofs were as strong as the strongest roof measured, many rollover injuries still would occur, indicating the need for additional research and countermeasures.

  9. Correlation Between Euro NCAP Pedestrian Test Results and Injury Severity in Injury Crashes with Pedestrians and Bicyclists in Sweden.

    Strandroth, Johan; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Ohlin, Maria; Fredriksson, Rikard

    2014-11-01

    Pedestrians and bicyclists account for a significant share of deaths and serious injuries in the road transport system. The protection of pedestrians in car-to-pedestrian crashes has therefore been addressed by friendlier car fronts and since 1997, the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) has assessed the level of protection for most car models available in Europe. In the current study, Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with real-life injury outcomes in car-to-pedestrian and car-tobicyclist crashes occurring in Sweden. Approximately 1200 injured pedestrians and 2000 injured bicyclists were included in the study. Groups of cars with low, medium and high pedestrian scores were compared with respect to pedestrian injury severity on the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS)-level and risk of permanent medical impairment (RPMI). Significant injury reductions to both pedestrians and bicyclists were found between low and high performing cars. For pedestrians, the reduction of MAIS2+, MAIS3+, RPMI1+ and RPMI10+ ranged from 20-56% and was significant on all levels except for MAIS3+ injuries. Pedestrian head injuries had the highest reduction, 80-90% depending on level of medical impairment. For bicyclist, an injury reduction was only observed between medium and high performing cars. Significant injury reductions were found for all body regions. It was also found that cars fitted with autonomous emergency braking including pedestrian detection might have a 60-70% lower crash involvement than expected. Based on these results, it was recommended that pedestrian protection are implemented on a global scale to provide protection for vulnerable road users worldwide.

  10. Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) - CIREN data files

    Department of Transportation — The CIREN process combines prospective data collection with professional multidisciplinary analysis of medical and engineering evidence to determine injury causation...

  11. Driver sleepiness, fatigue, careless behavior and risk of motor vehicle crash and injury: Population based case and control study

    Abdulbari Bener

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The current study confirmed that drivers with chronic fatigue, acute sleepiness, and careless driver behavior may significantly increases the risk of road crash which can be lead to serious injury.

  12. The relationship between body weight and risk of death and serious injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Mock, Charles N; Grossman, David C; Kaufman, Robert P; Mack, Christopher D; Rivara, Frederick P

    2002-03-01

    We sought to investigate the effect of increased body weight on the risk of death and serious injury to occupants in motor vehicle crashes. We employed a retrospective cohort study design utilizing data from the National Automotive Sampling System, Crashworthiness Data System (CDS), 1993-1996. Subjects in the study included occupants involved in tow-away crashes of passenger cars, light trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles. Two outcomes were analyzed: death within 30 days of the crash and injury severity score (ISS). Two exposures were considered: occupant body weight and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Occupant weight was available on 27263 subjects (76%) in the CDS database. Mortality was 0.67%. Increased body weight was associated with increased risk of mortality and increased risk of severe injury. The odds ratio for death was 1.013 (95% CI: 1.007, 1.018) for each kilogram increase in body weight. The odds ratio for sustaining an injury with ISS > or = 9 was 1.008 (95% CI: 1.004, 1.011) for each kilogram increase in body weight. After adjustment for potentially confounding variables (age, gender, seatbelt use, seat position and vehicle curbweight), the significant relationship between occupant weight and mortality persisted. After adjustment, the relationship between occupant weight and ISS was present, although less marked. Similar trends were found when BMI was analyzed as the exposure. In conclusion, increased occupant body weight is associated with increased mortality in automobile crashes. This is probably due in part to increased co-morbid factors in the more overweight occupants. However, it is possibly also due to an increased severity of injury in these occupants. These findings may have implications for vehicle safety design, as well as for transport safety policy.

  13. Underutilization of occupant restraint systems in motor vehicle injury crashes: A quantitative analysis from Qatar.

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Consunji, Rafael; Asim, Mohammad; Abdelrahman, Husham; Zarour, Ahmad; Parchani, Ashok; Peralta, Ruben; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Restraint systems (seat belts and airbags) are important tools that improve vehicle occupant safety during motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). We aimed to identify the pattern and impact of the utilization of passenger restraint systems on the outcomes of MVC victims in Qatar. A retrospective study was conducted for all admitted patients who sustained MVC-related injuries between March 2011 and March 2014 inclusive. Out of 2,730 road traffic injury cases, 1,830 (67%) sustained MVC-related injuries, of whom 88% were young males, 70% were expatriates, and 53% were drivers. The use of seat belts and airbags was documented in 26 and 2.5% of cases, respectively. Unrestrained passengers had greater injury severity scores, longer hospital stays, and higher rates of pneumonia and mortality compared to restrained passengers (P = .001 for all). There were 311 (17%) ejected cases. Seat belt use was significantly lower and the mortality rate was 3-fold higher in the ejected group compared to the nonejected group (P = .001). The overall mortality was 8.3%. On multivariate regression analysis, predictors of not using a seat belt were being a front seat passenger, driver, or Qatari national and young age. Unrestrained males had a 3-fold increase in mortality in comparison to unrestrained females. The risk of severe injury (relative risk [RR] = 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-2.26, P = .001) and death (RR = 4.13, 95% CI, 2.31-7.38, P = .001) was significantly greater among unrestrained passengers. The nonuse of seat belts is associated with worse outcomes during MVCs in Qatar. Our study highlights the lower rate of seat belt compliance in young car occupants that results in more severe injuries, longer hospital stays, and higher mortality rates. Therefore, we recommend more effective seat belt awareness and education campaigns, the enforcement of current seat belt laws, their extension to all vehicle occupants, and the adoption of proven interventions that will assure sustained

  14. Evaluation of the extent and distribution of diffuse axonal injury from real world motor vehicle crashes - biomed 2013.

    Lillie, Elizabeth M; Urban, Jillian E; Lynch, Sarah K; Whitlow, Christopher T; Stitzel, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a common traumatic brain injury (TBI) often seen as a result of motor vehicle crashes (MVC). Twelve (12) cases of DAI were selected from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) to determine the extent and distribution of injury with respect to the head contact location. Head computed tomography (CT) scans were collected for each subject and segmented using semi-automated methods to establish the volumes of DAI. The impacted area on the subject's head was approximated from evidence of a soft tissue scalp contusion on the CT scan. This was used in conjunction with subject images and identified internal vehicle contact locations to ascertain a label map of the contact location. A point cloud was developed from the contact location label map and the centroid of the point cloud was calculated as the subject's head impact location. The injury and contact location were evaluated in spherical coordinates and grouped into 0.2 by 0.2 radial increments of azimuth and elevation. The radial increments containing DAI were projected onto a meshed sphere to evaluate the radial distance from the impact location to primary location of DAI and approximate anatomical location. Of the 170 injuries observed, 123 were identified in the frontal lobe and 36 in the parietal lobe. The distribution of the DAI in relation to the change in azimuth from the contact loca y correlated with contact to the head superficial to this lobe. Results from this study provide further insight into the biomechanics of traumatic brain injury and can be used in future work as an aid to validate finite element models of the head.

  15. 77 FR 46154 - Announcing the Twentieth Public Meeting of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN)

    2012-08-02

    ... understanding of crash injury mechanisms and the design of safer vehicles. The six centers will give... Automatic Collision Notification (AACN) Systems, lower extremity injury patterns sustained in frontal... injuries. The final agenda will be posted to the CIREN Web site that can be accessed by going to the NHTSA...

  16. Comparison of Expected Crash and Injury Reduction from Production Forward Collision and Lane Departure Warning Systems.

    Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) now tests for forward collision warning (FCW) and lane departure warning (LDW). The design of these warnings differs greatly between vehicles and can result in different real-world field performance in preventing or mitigating the effects of collisions. The objective of this study was to compare the expected number of crashes and injured drivers that could be prevented if all vehicles in the fleet were equipped with the FCW and LDW systems tested under the U.S. NCAP. To predict the potential crashes and serious injury that could be prevented, our approach was to computationally model the U.S. crash population. The models simulated all rear-end and single-vehicle road departure collisions that occurred in a nationally representative crash database (NASS-CDS). A sample of 478 single-vehicle crashes from NASS-CDS 2012 was the basis for 24,822 simulations for LDW. A sample of 1,042 rear-end collisions from NASS-CDS years 1997-2013 was the basis for 7,616 simulations for FCW. For each crash, 2 simulations were performed: (1) without the system present and (2) with the system present. Models of each production safety system were based on 54 model year 2010-2014 vehicles that were evaluated under the NCAP confirmation procedure for LDW and/or FCW. NCAP performed 40 LDW and 45 FCW tests of these vehicles. The design of the FCW systems had a dramatic impact on their potential to prevent crashes and injuries. Between 0 and 67% of crashes and 2 and 69% of moderately to fatally injured drivers in rear-end impacts could have been prevented if all vehicles were equipped with the FCW systems. Earlier warning times resulted in increased benefits. The largest effect on benefits, however, was the lower operating speed threshold of the systems. Systems that only operated at speeds above 20 mph were less than half as effective as those that operated above 5 mph with similar warning times. The production LDW systems could have prevented

  17. Age and pedestrian injury severity in motor-vehicle crashes: a heteroskedastic logit analysis.

    Kim, Joon-Ki; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F; Shankar, Venkataraman N; Kim, Sungyop

    2008-09-01

    This research explores the injury severity of pedestrians in motor-vehicle crashes. It is hypothesized that the variance of unobserved pedestrian characteristics increases with age. In response, a heteroskedastic generalized extreme value model is used. The analysis links explanatory factors with four injury outcomes: fatal, incapacitating, non-incapacitating, and possible or no injury. Police-reported crash data between 1997 and 2000 from North Carolina, USA, are used. The results show that pedestrian age induces heteroskedasticity which affects the probability of fatal injury. The effect grows more pronounced with increasing age past 65. The heteroskedastic model provides a better fit than the multinomial logit model. Notable factors increasing the probability of fatal pedestrian injury: increasing pedestrian age, male driver, intoxicated driver (2.7 times greater probability of fatality), traffic sign, commercial area, darkness with or without streetlights (2-4 times greater probability of fatality), sport-utility vehicle, truck, freeway, two-way divided roadway, speeding-involved, off roadway, motorist turning or backing, both driver and pedestrian at fault, and pedestrian only at fault. Conversely, the probability of a fatal injury decreased: with increasing driver age, during the PM traffic peak, with traffic signal control, in inclement weather, on a curved roadway, at a crosswalk, and when walking along roadway.

  18. The effectiveness of lane departure warning systems-A reduction in real-world passenger car injury crashes.

    Sternlund, Simon; Strandroth, Johan; Rizzi, Matteo; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2017-02-17

    The objective of this study was to estimate the safety benefits of in vehicle lane departure warning (LDW) and lane keeping aid (LKA) systems in reducing relevant real-world passenger car injury crashes. The study used an induced exposure method, where LDW/LKA-sensitive and nonsensitive crashes were compared for Volvo passenger cars equipped with and without LDW/LKA systems. These crashes were matched by car make, model, model year, and technical equipment; that is, low-speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) called City Safety (CS). The data were extracted from the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition database (STRADA) and consisted of 1,853 driver injury crashes that involved 146 LDW-equipped cars, 11 LKA-equipped cars, and 1,696 cars without LDW/LKA systems. The analysis showed a positive effect of the LDW/LKA systems in reducing lane departure crashes. The LDW/LKA systems were estimated to reduce head-on and single-vehicle injury crashes on Swedish roads with speed limits between 70 and 120 km/h and with dry or wet road surfaces (i.e., not covered by ice or snow) by 53% with a lower limit of 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]). This reduction corresponded to a reduction of 30% with a lower limit of 6% (95% CI) for all head-on and single-vehicle driver injury crashes (including all speed limits and all road surface conditions). LDW/LKA systems were estimated to lower the driver injury risk in crash types that the systems are designed to prevent; that is, head-on and single-vehicle crashes. Though these are important findings, they were based on a small data set. Therefore, further research is desirable to evaluate the effectiveness of LDW/LKA systems under real-world conditions and to differentiate the effectiveness between technical solutions (i.e., LDW and LKA) proposed by different manufacturers.

  19. Comparison of Injury Severity Between Moped and Motorcycle Crashes: A Finnish Two-Year Prospective Hospital-Based Study.

    Airaksinen, N; Nurmi-Lüthje, I; Lüthje, P

    2016-03-01

    The coverage of the official statistics is poor in motorcycle and moped accidents. The aim of this study was to analyze the severity of motorcycle and moped crashes, and to define the degree of under-reporting in official statistics. All first attendances due to an acute motorcyclist or moped driver injury registered in the emergency department between June 2004 and May 2006 were analyzed. The severity of the injuries was classified using the Abbreviated Injury Scale score and the New Injury Severity Score. The hospital injury data were compared to the traffic accident statistics reported by the police and compiled and maintained by Statistics Finland. A total of 49 motorcyclists and 61 moped drivers were involved in crashes, leading to a total of 94 and 109 injuries, respectively. There were slightly more vertebral and midfoot fractures among motorcyclists than among moped drivers (p = 0.038 and 0.016, respectively). No significant differences were found between the severity (maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale and median New Injury Severity Scores) of the motorcycle and moped crashes. There was no in-hospital mortality. The degree of agreement (overlap) between the hospital dataset and the official statistics was 32%. The rate of under-reporting was 68%. According to the maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale and New Injury Severity Scores, the injury severity was equal for motorcycle and moped crashes. The degree of agreement between the hospital dataset and the official statistics was 32%. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2015.

  20. BMI and risk of serious upper body injury following motor vehicle crashes: concordance of real-world and computer-simulated observations.

    Shankuan Zhu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Men tend to have more upper body mass and fat than women, a physical characteristic that may predispose them to severe motor vehicle crash (MVC injuries, particularly in certain body regions. This study examined MVC-related regional body injury and its association with the presence of driver obesity using both real-world data and computer crash simulation.Real-world data were from the 2001 to 2005 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. A total of 10,941 drivers who were aged 18 years or older involved in frontal collision crashes were eligible for the study. Sex-specific logistic regression models were developed to analyze the associations between MVC injury and the presence of driver obesity. In order to confirm the findings from real-world data, computer models of obese subjects were constructed and crash simulations were performed. According to real-world data, obese men had a substantially higher risk of injury, especially serious injury, to the upper body regions including head, face, thorax, and spine than normal weight men (all p<0.05. A U-shaped relation was found between body mass index (BMI and serious injury in the abdominal region for both men and women (p<0.05 for both BMI and BMI(2. In the high-BMI range, men were more likely to be seriously injured than were women for all body regions except the extremities and abdominal region (all p<0.05 for interaction between BMI and sex. The findings from the computer simulation were generally consistent with the real-world results in the present study.Obese men endured a much higher risk of injury to upper body regions during MVCs. This higher risk may be attributed to differences in body shape, fat distribution, and center of gravity between obese and normal-weight subjects, and between men and women. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  1. The association of weight percentile and motor vehicle crash injury among 3 to 8 year old children.

    Zonfrillo, Mark R; Nelson, Kyle A; Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The use of age-appropriate child restraint systems significantly reduces injury and death associated with motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). Pediatric obesity has become a global epidemic. Although recent evidence suggests a possible association between pediatric obesity and MVC-related injury, there are potential misclassifications of body mass index from under-estimated height in younger children. Given this limitation, age- and sex-specific weight percentiles can be used as a proxy of weight status. The specific aim of this study was to determine the association between weight percentile and the risk of significant injury for children 3-8 years in MVCs. This was a cross-sectional study of children aged 3-8 years in MVCs in 16 US states, with data collected via insurance claims records and a telephone survey from 12/1/98-11/30/07. Parent-reported injuries with an abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2+ indicated a clinically significant injury. Age- and sex-specific weight percentiles were calculated using pediatric norms. The study sample included 9,327 children aged 3-8 years (weighted to represent 157,878 children), of which 0.96% sustained clinically significant injuries. There was no association between weight percentiles and overall injury when adjusting for restraint type (p=0.71). However, increasing weight percentiles were associated with lower extremity injuries at a level that approached significance (p=0.053). Further research is necessary to describe mechanisms for weight-related differences in injury risk. Parents should continue to properly restrain their children in accordance with published guidelines.

  2. Lower Limb Injuries Arising From Motorcycle Crashes | Kortor ...

    Background: Motorcycle accidents are the second most common cause of road traffic accidents in both developing and developed countries. In this study we aim to look at the pattern and characteristics of lower limb injuries arising from motorcycle accidents and evaluate early outcome of treatment. Methods: All the patients ...

  3. Crash and Burn: Ocular Injuries due to Fireworks.

    Patel, Ravija; Mukherjee, Bipasha

    2016-01-01

    To identify the patterns of ocular injury and to determine ocular morbidity resulting from the use of firecrackers. A prospective observational study of all patients presenting with ocular trauma consequent to fireworks usage in a tertiary eye care center in South India over a one-month period around the autumn festival of Diwali. We also reviewed the published literature from around the world reporting ocular injuries due to firecrackers. 49 patients were included in the study, out of which the vast majority (40/81%) were males. The mean age was 17 years. Almost an equal number of bystanders (24/48.9%) was affected as compared to people handling the fireworks (25/51%). 13 (26.53%) patients had open-globe injury whereas 33 (67.34%) patients had closed-globe injury. Twenty-two (44.8%) patients underwent surgical intervention. Eighteen (36.7%) patients had final vision less then 20/40 (range = 20/50 to No Perception of Light) with eight patients having no perception of light in the affected eye. Unregulated use of firecrackers can lead to significant ocular morbidity, mainly involving children, young males, and even innocent bystanders. A combination of public awareness and appropriate legislative laws should be formulated regarding the use of fireworks to decrease the load of needless blindness on society.

  4. Does obesity increase the risk of injury or mortality in motor vehicle crashes? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Giulia, Scime; Subzwari, Sayed; Peiris, Dinithi C; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian; Sasges, Deborah; Hewapathirane, D Sesath

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this review was to assess the risk of obesity in injuries and fatalities resulting from motor vehicle crash (MVC), as compared with individuals with a normal-range body mass index. A systematic review of the literature was conducted yielding 824 potential studies. Nine of these studies met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses examining obesity as a risk factor for various injury types and risk of fatality were conducted using data from these studies. Obesity was associated with higher fatality risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51-2.37, P = .0001; pooled estimate from 6 studies), and increased risk of lower extremity fractures (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.18-1.65, P = .0001; pooled estimate from 2 studies). No significant differences were observed when considering abdominal injuries or pelvic fractures. Interestingly, for head injuries obesity was a protective factor (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.46-0.97, P = .0001; pooled data from 3 studies). Evidence strongly supports the association of obesity with higher fatality and fractures of the lower extremities in MVCs. Contrary to our hypothesis, 3 studies showed that obesity was a protective factor in reducing head injuries. Furthermore, the review shows that obesity was not a risk factor of MVC-related pelvic fractures and abdominal injuries. © 2011 APJPH.

  5. Overall impact of speed-related initiatives and factors on crash outcomes.

    D'Elia, A; Newstead, S; Cameron, M

    2007-01-01

    From December 2000 until July 2002 a package of speed-related initiatives and factors took place in Victoria, Australia. The broad aim of this study was to evaluate the overall impact of the package on crash outcomes. Monthly crash counts and injury severity proportions were assessed using Poisson and logistic regression models respectively. The model measured the overall effect of the package after adjusting as far as possible for non-speed road safety initiatives and socio-economic factors. The speed-related package was associated with statistically significant estimated reductions in casualty crashes and suggested reductions in injury severity with trends towards increased reductions over time. From December 2000 until July 2002, three new speed enforcement initiatives were implemented in Victoria, Australia. These initiatives were introduced in stages and involved the following key components: More covert operations of mobile speed cameras, including flash-less operations; 50% increase in speed camera operating hours; and lowering of cameras' speed detection threshold. In addition, during the period 2001 to 2002, the 50 km/h General Urban Speed Limit (GUSL) was introduced (January 2001), there was an increase in speed-related advertising including the "Wipe Off 5" campaign, media announcements were made related to the above enforcement initiatives and there was a speeding penalty restructure. The above elements combine to make up a package of speed-related initiatives and factors. The package represents a broad, long term program by Victorian government agencies to reduce speed based on three linked strategies: more intensive Police enforcement of speed limits to deter potential offenders, i.e. the three new speed enforcement initiatives just described - supported by higher penalties; a reduction in the speed limit on local streets throughout Victoria from 60 km/h to 50 km/h; and provision of information using the mass media (television, radio and billboard) to

  6. The CRASH trial protocol (Corticosteroid randomisation after significant head injury [ISRCTN74459797

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, millions of people are treated each year for significant head injury. A substantial proportion die, and many more are disabled. If short term corticosteroid infusion could be reliably shown to reduce these risks by just a few percent then this might affect the treatment of a few hundred thousand patients a year, protecting thousands from death or long term disability. Study design CRASH is a large simple, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of a 48-hour infusion of corticosteroids on death and on neurological disability, among adults with head injury and some impairment of consciousness. Head injured patients with impaired consciousness who are judged to be 16 years or older are eligible if the responsible doctor is, for any reason, substantially uncertain whether or not to use corticosteroids. Organisation The CRASH trial will determine reliably the effects on death and disability of a short corticosteroid infusion following significant head injury. To detect or refute improvements of only a few percent in outcome, many thousands of acute head injury patients must be randomised between control and steroid infusions. Such large numbers will be possible only if hundreds of doctors and nurses can collaborate in the participating emergency departments. Since they are busy, and working in emergency situations, the trial involves them in almost no extra work: no special investigations or changes to usual management are required, and data collection is absolutely minimal. The trial is on-going and new collaborators are welcome. Further information about the trial is available at http://www.crash.lshtm.ac.uk

  7. A nested mechanistic sub-study into the effect of tranexamic acid versus placebo on intracranial haemorrhage and cerebral ischaemia in isolated traumatic brain injury: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (CRASH-3 Trial Intracranial Bleeding Mechanistic Sub-Study [CRASH-3 IBMS]).

    Mahmood, Abda; Roberts, Ian; Shakur, Haleema

    2017-07-17

    volume. Bleeding volumes and new ischaemic lesions will be compared across treatment groups using relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. The CRASH-3 IBMS will provide an insight into the mechanism of action of tranexamic acid in traumatic brain injury, as well as information about the risks and benefits. Evidence from this trial could inform the management of patients with traumatic brain injury. The CRASH-3 trial was prospectively registered and the CRASH-3 IBMS is an addition to the original protocol registered at the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials registry ( ISRCTN15088122 ) 19 July 2011, and ClinicalTrials.gov on 25 July 2011 (NCT01402882).

  8. Child passenger injury risk in sibling versus non-sibling teen driver crashes: a US study.

    Senserrick, Teresa M; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K

    2007-06-01

    Several international jurisdictions allow family exemptions to graduated driver licensing passenger restrictions. The objective of this research was to examine differences in injury risk to US child passengers in crashes involving sibling versus non-sibling teen drivers, and to compare outcomes with crashes involving adult drivers. Insurance claim and telephone survey data were collected on 16 233 child passengers (representing 289 329 children) in 17 US jurisdictions. There was a trend toward higher restraint non-use by child passengers in the non-sibling group than in the sibling group (9.6% vs 4.7%; p = 0.08). Children in the sibling group had a 40% lower risk of injury than those in the non-sibling group (adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.90); however, injury risk was higher in the sibling group than in children traveling with adults (adjusted OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.26). Child passengers riding with sibling teen drivers may be safer than those riding with non-sibling teens, but not as safe as those riding with adult drivers.

  9. Driver sleepiness and risk of motor vehicle crash injuries: a population-based case control study in Fiji (TRIP 12).

    Herman, Josephine; Kafoa, Berlin; Wainiqolo, Iris; Robinson, Elizabeth; McCaig, Eddie; Connor, Jennie; Jackson, Rod; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2014-03-01

    Published studies investigating the role of driver sleepiness in road crashes in low and middle-income countries have largely focused on heavy vehicles. We investigated the contribution of driver sleepiness to four-wheel motor vehicle crashes in Fiji, a middle-income Pacific Island country. The population-based case control study included 131 motor vehicles involved in crashes where at least one person died or was hospitalised (cases) and 752 motor vehicles identified in roadside surveys (controls). An interviewer-administered questionnaire completed by drivers or proxies collected information on potential risks for crashes including sleepiness while driving, and factors that may influence the quantity or quality of sleep. Following adjustment for confounders, there was an almost six-fold increase in the odds of injury-involved crashes for vehicles driven by people who were not fully alert or sleepy (OR 5.7, 95%CI: 2.7, 12.3), or those who reported less than 6 h of sleep during the previous 24 h (OR 5.9, 95%CI: 1.7, 20.9). The population attributable risk for crashes associated with driving while not fully alert or sleepy was 34%, and driving after less than 6 h sleep in the previous 24 h was 9%. Driving by people reporting symptoms suggestive of obstructive sleep apnoea was not significantly associated with crash risk. Driver sleepiness is an important contributor to injury-involved four-wheel motor vehicle crashes in Fiji, highlighting the need for evidence-based strategies to address this poorly characterised risk factor for car crashes in less resourced settings. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The roles of motorcyclists and car drivers in conspicuity-related motorcycle crashes.

    Craen, S. de Doumen, M. Bos, N. & Norden, Y. van

    2012-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the available research on the different factors of influence on the perception of motorcycles. It also presents analyses of Dutch motorcycle crashes which provide a description of the relative occurrence of car-motorcycle crashes in the Netherlands. Finally, this

  11. Is Cannabis Use Related to Road Crashes? A Study of Long ...

    Factors associated with driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) and related road crashes among 422 commercial drivers were studied. A multivariate analysis was conducted to understand the associations between risk factors and DUIC and car crashes respectively. Young age, OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.9-7.6; cannabis ...

  12. Newspaper media reporting of motor vehicle crashes in Singapore: an opportunity lost for injury prevention education?

    Heng, Kenneth W J; Vasu, Alicia

    2010-06-01

    Newspaper media advocacy can help steer public attention away from motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries as a personal problem to that of a social and public health issue. If used properly, newspaper media is potentially a powerful mass educator on MVC prevention. However, there is often a conflict of interest in which newspapers, in an attempt to boost readership and revenue, may over-emphasize and sensationalize the human-interest aspect of an MVC story. The aim of this study is to examine newspaper articles of MVCs in Singapore to assess how our newspaper media coverage portray MVCs and identify factors that mitigate injury and educate the public on injury prevention measures. Details of the MVC were extracted from 12 months of newspaper coverage in Singapore. Two independent coders were used to establish inter-rater reliability. From 1 January to 31 December 2007, 201 articles about MVCs were published. About 74.1% of articles assigned blame to a particular road user, negligence on either road user was implied in 56.7% of articles, and road safety messages were mentioned in 8% of the articles. The mainstream communication tone used was positive for law enforcement (71.1%) and neutral towards injury prevention or road safety messages (89.1%). Newspaper media reporting of MVCs in Singapore generally does not include injury prevention messages or highlight injury-mitigating measures. This is a lost opportunity for public education. Collaboration between public health practitioners and newspaper media is required to address this issue.

  13. Airbag deployment-related eye injuries.

    Koisaari, Tapio; Leivo, Tiina; Sahraravand, Ahmad; Haavisto, Anna-Kaisa; Sulander, Pekka; Tervo, Timo M T

    2017-07-04

    We studied the correlation between airbag deployment and eye injuries using 2 different data sets. The registry of the Finnish Road Accident (FRA) Investigation Teams was analyzed to study severe head- and eyewear-related injuries. All fatal passenger car or van accidents that occurred during the years 2009-2012 (4 years) were included (n = 734). Cases in which the driver's front airbag was deployed were subjected to analysis (n = 409). To determine the proportion of minor, potentially airbag-related eye injuries, the results were compared to the data for all new eye injury patients (n = 1,151) recorded at the Emergency Clinic of the Helsinki University Eye Hospital (HUEH) during one year, from May 1, 2011, to April 30, 2012. In the FRA data set, the unbelted drivers showed a significantly higher risk of death (odds ratio [OR] = 5.89, 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.33-10.9, P = 2.6E-12) or of sustaining head injuries (OR = 2.50, 95% CI, 1.59-3.97, P = 3.8E-5). Only 4 of the 1,151 HUEH patients were involved in a passenger car accident. In one of the crashes, the airbag operated, and the belted driver received 2 sutured eye lid wounds and showed conjunctival sugillation. No permanent eye injuries were recorded during the follow-up. The calculated annual airbag-related eye injury incidence was less than 1/1,000,000 people, 4/100,000 accidents, and 4/10,000 injured occupants. Airbag-related eye injuries occurred very rarely in car accidents in cases where the occupant survived and the restraint system was appropriately used. Spectacle use did not appear to increase the risk of eye injury in restrained occupants.

  14. Area-wide traffic calming for preventing traffic related injuries.

    Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that by 2020 road traffic crashes will have moved from ninth to third in the world disease burden ranking, as measured in disability adjusted life years, and second in developing countries. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. Area-wide traffic calming schemes that discourage through traffic on residential roads is one such strategy. To evaluate the effectiveness of area-wide traffic calming in preventing traffic related crashes, injuries, and deaths. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and TRANSPORT (NTIS, TRIS, TRANSDOC). We searched the web sites of road safety organisations, handsearched conference proceedings, checked reference lists of relevant papers and contacted experts in the area. The search was not restricted by language or publication status. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before-after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes. Two reviewers independently extracted data on type of study, characteristics of intervention and control areas, and length of data collection periods. Before and after data were collected on the total number of road traffic crashes, all road user deaths and injuries, pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and road user deaths. The statistical package STATA was used to calculate rate ratios for each study, which were then pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. We found no randomised controlled trials, but 16 controlled before-after trials met our inclusion criteria. Seven studies were done in Germany, six in the UK, two in Australia and one in the Netherlands. There were no studies in low or middle income countries. Eight trials reported the number of road traffic crashes resulting in deaths. The pooled rate ratio was 0.63 (0.14, 2.59 95% CI). Sixteen studies reported the number

  15. Alcohol-related predictors of adolescent driving: gender differences in crashes and offenses.

    Shope, J T; Waller, P F; Lang, S W

    1996-11-01

    Demographic and alcohol-related data collected from eight-grade students (age 13 years) were used in logistic regression to predict subsequent first-year driving crashes and offenses (age 17 years). For young men's crashes and offenses, good-fitting models used living situation (both parents or not), parents' attitude about teen drinking (negative or neutral), and the interaction term. Young men who lived with both parents and reported negative parental attitudes regarding teen drinking were less likely to have crashes and offenses. For young women's crashes, a good-fitting model included friends' involvement with alcohol. Young women who reported that their friends were not involved with alcohol were least likely to have crashes. No model predicting young women's offenses emerged.

  16. An international review of the frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) and their relation to bicycle modal share

    Schepers, Paul; Agerholm, Niels; Amoros, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    of SBC casualties among the total number of road crash casualties increases proportionally less than the increase in bicycle modal share. Conclusions While most fatal injuries among cyclists are due to motor vehicle–bicycle crashes, most hospital admissions and emergency department attendances result...

  17. THE RISK OF INJURY AND VEHICLE DAMAGE SEVERITY IN VEHICLE MISMATCHED SIDE IMPACT CRASHES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    Ediriweera DESAPRIYA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As occupant protection offered by new passenger vehicles has improved, there has been growing concern about the harm that some vehicle designs may inflict on occupants of other vehicles with which they collide. Preceding analyses of crash statistics have clearly demonstrated the incompatibility between passenger sedan cars (PS and pick-up trucks (PU involved in side impact crashes in British Columbia. A comparison of light truck and passenger car crashes in previous literature reveals that light truck vehicles inflict greater harm than passenger cars for a number of reasons including their greater weight, stiffer structure, and higher ride height. These features place occupants of passenger cars at a disadvantage should they be involved in a collision with a light truck vehicle. The injury risk for passenger sedan car occupants is greater than the risk for pick-up truck occupants in two-vehicle crashes (Odds Ratio (OR 1.87; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.38-2.52. In addition, the risk of vehicle damage severity was increased for passenger cars compared with pick-up trucks (write off vehicle-OR 5.35; 95% CI 3.75-7.63, severely damaged vehicles-OR 5.87; 95% CI 4.79–7.19, moderately damaged vehicles-OR 2.86; 95% CI 2.44–3.36. There is strong justification for injury prevention experts and policy makers to step up motor vehicle crash injury prevention advocacy by implementing evidence-based policies to reduce rates of injury as a result of passenger sedan cars and pick-up trucks involved in side impact crashes in the province of British Columbia.

  18. Injury mitigation estimates for an intersection driver assistance system in straight crossing path crashes in the United States.

    Scanlon, John M; Sherony, Rini; Gabler, Hampton C

    2017-05-29

    Accounting for one fifth of all crashes and one sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States, intersection crashes are among the most frequent and fatal crash modes. Intersection advanced driver assistance systems (I-ADAS) are emerging vehicle-based active safety systems that aim to help drivers safely navigate intersections. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of crashes and number of vehicles with a seriously injured driver (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale [MAIS] 3+) that could be prevented or reduced if, for every straight crossing path (SCP) intersection crash, one of the vehicles had been equipped with an I-ADAS. This study retrospectively simulated 448 U.S. SCP crashes as if one of the vehicles had been equipped with I-ADAS. Crashes were reconstructed to determine the path and speeds traveled by the vehicles. Cases were then simulated with I-ADAS. A total of 30 variations of I-ADAS were considered in this study. These variations consisted of 5 separate activation timing thresholds, 3 separate computational latency times, and 2 different I-ADAS response modalities (i.e., a warning or autonomous braking). The likelihood of a serious driver injury was computed for every vehicle in every crash using impact delta-V. The results were then compiled across all crashes in order to estimate system effectiveness. The model predicted that an I-ADAS that delivers an alert to the driver has the potential to prevent 0-23% of SCP crashes and 0-25% of vehicles with a seriously injured driver. Conversely, an I-ADAS that autonomously brakes was found to have the potential to prevent 25-59% of crashes and 38-79% of vehicles with a seriously injured driver. I-ADAS effectiveness is a strong function of design. Increasing computational latency time from 0 to 0.5 s was found to reduce crash and injury prevention estimates by approximately one third. For an I-ADAS that delivers an alert, crash/injury prevention effectiveness was found to be very sensitive to

  19. Analysis of road traffic crash injuries - a technique producing large un-decalcified histological sections

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Gregersen, Markil Ebbe Gregers; Vesterby, Annie

    Introduction:The lower cervical spine facet joints are important structures in cases of chronic pain syndromes following road traffic crashes. Pathophysiological segmental kinematics may occur, particularly during rear-impact collisions, which may cause injury to these joints. Detailed anatomical...... that prepares large un-frozen un-decalcified cervical spine specimens for analysis. Materials and Methods:The cervical spine segments from C4 to C7 are removed en bloc during autopsy. The specimen is fixed throughout in 70% increasing to 99% ethanol and embedded un-decalcified in hardening methyl methacrylate......-duty microtome followed by relevant staining.Results:The described method produces fine detail histological sections that may visualise normal anatomical structures as well as discrete pathoanatomical lesions in the lower cervical spine facet joints.Discussion:The cervical spine facet joints can be analysed...

  20. Comparison of moped, scooter and motorcycle crash risk and crash severity.

    Blackman, Ross A; Haworth, Narelle L

    2013-08-01

    The increased popularity of mopeds and motor scooters in Australia and elsewhere in the last decade has contributed substantially to the greater use of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) as a whole. As the exposure of mopeds and scooters has increased, so too has the number of reported crashes involving those PTW types, but there is currently little research comparing the safety of mopeds and, particularly, larger scooters with motorcycles. This study compared the crash risk and crash severity of motorcycles, mopeds and larger scooters in Queensland, Australia. Comprehensive data cleansing was undertaken to separate motorcycles, mopeds and larger scooters in police-reported crash data covering the five years to 30 June 2008. The crash rates of motorcycles (including larger scooters) and mopeds in terms of registered vehicles were similar over this period, although the moped crash rate showed a stronger downward trend. However, the crash rates in terms of distance travelled were nearly four times higher for mopeds than for motorcycles (including larger scooters). More comprehensive distance travelled data is needed to confirm these findings. The overall severity of moped and scooter crashes was significantly lower than motorcycle crashes but an ordered probit regression model showed that crash severity outcomes related to differences in crash characteristics and circumstances, rather than differences between PTW types per se. Greater motorcycle crash severity was associated with higher (>80km/h) speed zones, horizontal curves, weekend, single vehicle and nighttime crashes. Moped crashes were more severe at night and in speed zones of 90km/h or more. Larger scooter crashes were more severe in 70km/h zones (than 60km/h zones) but not in higher speed zones, and less severe on weekends than on weekdays. The findings can be used to inform potential crash and injury countermeasures tailored to users of different PTW types. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Disability related to road traffic crashes among adults in Spain.

    Palmera-Suárez, Rocío; López-Cuadrado, Teresa; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Galán, Iñaki

    2015-09-01

    Road traffic accidents cause substantial morbidity and disease burden; few studies have examined their impact on disability. To estimate the magnitude and distribution of disability due to road traffic accidents according to socio-demographic variables, and its main socioeconomic and health determinants. A cross-sectional study was conducted in community-dwelling participants in the "2008 Spanish National Disability Survey", a representative sample of 91,846 households with 20,425 disabled persons older than 15 years; 443 had disability due to road traffic accidents. The prevalence was 2.1 per 1000 inhabitants (95% CI:1.8-2.3), with no differences by sex. Risk was highest among persons aged 31 to 64 years, and onset of disability showed a sharp inflection point at age 16 years in both sexes. Odds ratios (ORs) were higher (OR=1.3; 95% CI:1.1- 1.7) for participants with secondary education than for those with the lowest educational levels and were lower (OR: 0.5; 95% CI:0.3-0.8) for participants with the highest household income levels than for those with lowest. Only 24% of disabled participants were gainfully employed. As compared to other sources of disability, traffic crashes caused greater disability in terms of mobility (OR=3.1;p<0.001), a greater need for health/social services (OR=1.5;p=0.003), and more problems with private transportation (OR=1.6;p<0.001), moving around outside the home (OR=1.6;p<0.001) and changes in economic activity (OR=2.4;p<0.001). The prevalence of disability due to road traffic accidents in Spain is lower than in other developed countries, with middle-aged and socio-economically underprivileged persons being the most affected. Disability due to road traffic accidents is related to a greater demand for social/health care support, problems of accessibility/commuting, and major changes in economic activity. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Geriatric fall-related injuries.

    Conclusion: The majority of geriatric fall-related injuries were due to fall from the same level at home. Assessment of risk fac- tors for falls including home hazards is essential for prevention of geriatric fall-related injuries. Keywords: Accidental fall, geriatrics, injury, trauma registry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v16i2.24.

  3. A systematic review: effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes.

    Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Kobayashi, Miwako

    2015-09-04

    Mass media campaigns have long been used as a tool for promoting public health. In the past decade, the growth of social media has allowed more diverse options for mass media campaigns. This systematic review was conducted to assess newer evidence from quantitative studies on the effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving (AID) and alcohol-related crashes, particularly after the paper that Elder et al. published in 2004. This review focused on English language studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns for reducing AID and alcohol-related crashes, with or without enforcement efforts. A systematic search was conducted for studies published between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013. Studies from the review by Elder et al. were added as well. A total of 19 studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, including three studies from the review by Elder et al. Nine of them had concomitant enforcement measures and did not evaluate the impact of media campaigns independently. Studies that evaluated the impact of mass media independently showed reduction more consistently (median -15.1%, range -28.8 to 0%), whereas results of studies that had concomitant enforcement activities were more variable (median -8.6%, range -36.4 to +14.6%). Summary effects calculated from seven studies showed no evidence of media campaigns reducing the risk of alcohol-related injuries or fatalities (RR 1.00, 95% CI = 0.94 to 1.06). Despite additional decade of evidence, reviewed studies were heterogeneous in their approaches; therefore, we could not conclude that media campaigns reduced the risk of alcohol-related injuries or crashes. More studies are needed, including studies evaluating newly emerging media and cost-effectiveness of media campaigns.

  4. Relationship between pedestrian headform tests and injury and fatality rates in vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes in the United States.

    Mueller, Becky; Farmer, Charles; Jermakian, Jessica; Zuby, David

    2013-11-01

    Pedestrian protection evaluations have been developed to encourage vehicle front-end designs that mitigate the consequences of vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes. The European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) evaluates pedestrian head protection with impacts against vehicle hood, windshield, and A-pillars. The Global Technical Regulation No. 9 (GTR 9), being evaluated for U.S. regulation, limits head protection evaluations to impacts against vehicle hoods. The objective of this study was to compare results from pedestrian head impact testing to the real-world rates of fatal and incapacitating injuries in U.S. pedestrian crashes. Data from police reported pedestrian crashes in 14 states were used to calculate real-world fatal and in- capacitating injury rates for seven 2002-07 small cars. Rates were 2.17-4.04 per 100 pedestrians struck for fatal injuries and 10.45-15.35 for incapacitating injuries. Euro NCAP style pedestrian headform tests were conducted against windshield, A-pillar, and hoods of the study vehicles. When compared with pedestrian injury rates, the vehicles' Euro NCAP scores, ranging 5-10 points, showed strong negative correlations (-0.6) to injury rates, though none were statistically significant. Data from the headform impacts for each of the study vehicles were used to calculate that vehicle's predicted serious injury risk. The predicted risks from both the Euro NCAP and GTR 9 test zones showed high positive correlations with the pedestrian fatal and incapacitating injury rates, though few were statistically significant. Whether vehicle stiffness is evaluated on all components of vehicle front ends (Euro NCAP) or is limited to hoods (GTR 9), softer vehicle components correspond to a lower risk of fatality.

  5. Volvo drivers' experiences with advanced crash avoidance and related technologies.

    Eichelberger, Angela H; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-01-01

    Crash avoidance technologies can potentially prevent or mitigate many crashes, but their success depends in part on driver acceptance. Owners of 2010-2012 model Volvo vehicles with several technologies were interviewed about their experiences. Interviews were conducted in summer 2012 with 155 owners of vehicles with City Safety as a standard feature; 145 owners with an optional technology package that included adaptive cruise control, distance alert, collision warning with full auto brake (and pedestrian detection on certain models), driver alert control, and lane departure warning; and 172 owners with both City Safety and the technology package. The survey response rates were 21 percent for owners with City Safety, 30 percent for owners with the technology package, and 27 percent for owners with both. Ten percent of owners opted out before the telephone survey began, and 18 percent declined to participate when called. Despite some annoyance, most respondents always leave the systems on, although fewer do so for lane departure warning (59%). For each of the systems, at least 80 percent of respondents with the system would want it on their next vehicle. Many respondents reported safer driving habits with the systems (e.g., following less closely with adaptive cruise control, using turn signals more often with lane departure warning). Fewer respondents reported potentially unsafe behavior, such as allowing the vehicle to brake for them at least some of the time. About one third of respondents experienced autonomous braking when they believed they were at risk of crashing, and about one fifth of respondents thought it had prevented a crash. About one fifth of respondents with the technology package reported that they were confused or misunderstood which safety system had activated in their vehicle. Consistent with the results for early adopters in the previous survey of Volvo and Infiniti owners, the present survey found that driver acceptance of the technologies

  6. Fatal alcohol-related traffic crashes increase subsequent to changes to and from daylight savings time.

    Hicks, G J; Davis, J W; Hicks, R A

    1998-06-01

    On the hypothesis that sleepiness and alcohol interact to increase the risk of alcohol-related traffic fatalities, the percentages of alcohol-related fatal traffic crashes were assessed for the entire state of New Mexico for the years 1989-1992, for each of the seven days that preceded the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time and for each of the 14 days which followed the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time. Consistent with our hypothesis the percentage of alcohol-related fatal crashes increased significantly during the first seven days after these changes in Daylight Savings Time.

  7. The location of late night bars and alcohol-related crashes in Houston, Texas.

    Levine, Ned

    2017-10-01

    A study in the City of Houston, Texas, related the location of establishments primarily serving alcohol ("bars") after midnight to late night alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. There were three data sets for 2007-09: 1) 764bars that were open after midnight; 2) 1660 alcohol-related crashes that occurred within the City of Houston between midnight and 6 am; and 3) 4689 modeling network road segments to which bars and alcohol-related crashes were assigned. Forty-five percent of the late night alcohol-related crashes were within a quarter mile of a late night bar. The bars were highly concentrated in 17 small bar clusters. Using the modeling network, Poisson-Gamma-CAR and Poisson-Lognormal-CAR spatial regression models showed a positive exponential relationship between late night alcohol-related crashes and the number of late nights bars and bar clusters, and a negative exponential relationship to distance to the nearest late night bar controlling for the type of road segment (freeway, principal arterial, minor arterial). A more general model dropped the bar cluster variable. Further, the Poisson-Gamma-CAR model appeared to produce a better representation than the Poisson-Lognormal-CAR model though the errors were different. The general Poisson-Gamma-CAR model showed that each late night bar increased the frequency of alcohol-related crashes on a segment by approximately 190%. For each mile closer a segment was to a late night bar, the likelihood increased by 42%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The correlation between pedestrian injury severity in real-life crashes and Euro NCAP pedestrian test results.

    Strandroth, Johan; Rizzi, Matteo; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the correlation between Euro NCAP pedestrian rating scores and injury outcome in real-life car-to-pedestrian crashes, with special focus on long-term disability. Another aim was to determine whether brake assist (BA) systems affect the injury outcome in real-life car-to-pedestrian crashes and to estimate the combined effects in injury reduction of a high Euro NCAP ranking score and BA. In the current study, the Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with the real-life outcome in pedestrian crashes that occurred in Sweden during 2003 to 2010. The real-life crash data were obtained from the data acquisition system Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA), which combines police records and hospital admission data. The medical data consisted of International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnoses and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scoring. In all, approximately 500 pedestrians submitted to hospital were included in the study. Each car model was coded according to Euro NCAP pedestrian scores. In addition, the presence or absence of BA was coded for each car involved. Cars were grouped according to their scoring. Injury outcomes were analyzed with AIS and, at the victim level, with permanent medical impairment. This was done by translating the injury scores for each individual to the risk of serious consequences (RSC) at 1, 5, and 10 percent risk of disability level. This indicates the total risk of a medical disability for each victim, given the severity and location of injuries. The mean RSC (mRSC) was then calculated for each car group and t-tests were conducted to falsify the null hypothesis at p ≤ .05 that the mRSC within the groups was equal. The results showed a significant reduction of injury severity for cars with better pedestrian scoring, although cars with a high score could not be studied due to lack of cases. The reduction in RSC for medium-performing cars in comparison with low-performing cars

  9. Patterns in deer-related traffic injuries over a decade: the Mayo clinic experience

    Smoot Dustin L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our American College of Surgeons Level 1 Trauma Center serves a rural population. As a result, there is a unique set of accidents that are not present in an urban environment such as deer related motor vehicle crashes (dMVC. We characterized injury patterns between motorcycle/all-terrain vehicles (MCC and automobile (MVC crashes related to dMVC (deer motor vehicle crash with the hypotheses that MCC will present with higher Injury Severity Score (ISS and that it would be related to whether the driver struck the deer or swerved. Methods The records of 157 consecutive patients evaluated at our institution for injury related to dMVC from January 1st, 1997 to December 31st, 2006 were reviewed from our prospectively collected trauma database. Demographic, clinical, and crash specific parameters were abstracted. Injury severity was analyzed by the Abbreviated Injury Scale score for each body region as well as the overall Injury Severity Score (ISS. Results Motorcycle crashes presented with a higher median ISS than MVCs (14 vs 5, p Within the MVC group, there was no difference between swerving and hitting the deer in any AIS group. Forty-seven percent of drivers were not wearing seat belts which resulted in similar median ISS (6 vs 5 and AIS of all body regions. Conclusions Motorcycle operators suffered higher ISS. There were no significant differences in median ISS if a driver involved in a deer-related motor vehicle crash swerved rather than collided, was helmeted, or restrained.

  10. A comparative injury severity analysis of motorcycle at-fault crashes on rural and urban roadways in Alabama.

    Islam, Samantha; Brown, Joshua

    2017-11-01

    The research described in this paper explored the factors contributing to the injury severity resulting from the motorcycle at-fault accidents in rural and urban areas in Alabama. Given the occurrence of a motorcycle at-fault crash, random parameter logit models of injury severity (with possible outcomes of fatal, major, minor, and possible or no injury) were estimated. The estimated models identified a variety of statistically significant factors influencing the injury severities resulting from motorcycle at-fault crashes. According to these models, some variables were found to be significant only in one model (rural or urban) but not in the other one. For example, variables such as clear weather, young motorcyclists, and roadway without light were found significant only in the rural model. On the other hand, variables such as older female motorcyclists, horizontal curve and at intersection were found significant only in the urban model. In addition, some variables (such as, motorcyclists under influence of alcohol, non-usage of helmet, high speed roadways, etc.) were found significant in both models. Also, estimation findings showed that two parameters (clear weather and roadway without light) in the rural model and one parameter (on weekend) in the urban model could be modeled as random parameters indicating their varying influences on the injury severity due to unobserved effects. Based on the results obtained, this paper discusses the effects of different variables on injury severities resulting from rural and urban motorcycle at-fault crashes and their possible explanations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2010.

    2012-09-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2010. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  12. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2012.

    2014-06-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2012. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  13. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2013.

    2015-04-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2013. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  14. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2009.

    2011-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2009. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  15. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2011.

    2013-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2011. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  16. Trampoline related injuries in adults.

    Arora, Varun; Kimmel, Lara A; Yu, Kathy; Gabbe, Belinda J; Liew, Susan M; Kamali Moaveni, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    Trampoline-related injuries in adults are uncommon. Participation in trampolining is increasing following its admission as a sport in the Olympics and the opening of local recreational trampoline centres. The aim of this study was to assess the number and outcomes of adult trampoline-related orthopaedic injuries presenting to four trauma hospitals in Victoria. A cohort study was performed for the period 2007-2013. Adult patients registered by the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR) who had sustained a trampolining related injury were included in this study. Descriptive analyses were used to describe the patient population, the injuries sustained and their in-hospital and 6-month outcomes. There was an increase in trampolining injuries from 2007 (n=3) to 2012 (n=14) and 2013 (n=18). Overall, fifty patients with a median age of 25 (range 16-66) were identified. Thirty-five patients (70%) had lower limb injuries, 20 patients (40%) had spinal injuries and one patient had an upper limb injury. Thirty-nine patients (78%) required surgery. Fractures of the tibia (n=13), ankle fractures (n=12) and cervical spine injuries (n=7) were the most common injuries; all of which required surgery. Complications included death, spinal cord injuries, compartment syndrome and open fractures. At 6 months post injury, more than half (52%) of the patients had not achieved a good recovery, 32% had some form of persistent disability, 14% did not get back to work and overall physical health for the cohort was well below population norms for the SF-12. Adult trampoline-related injuries have increased in the last few years in this cohort identified through VOTOR. Lower limb and spinal injuries are most prevalent. Public awareness and education are important to reduce the risk for people participating in this activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Road crash injuries and fatalities in Isfahan, Iran from March 2006 to March 2009.

    Mohammadi, Ghorbanali

    2014-01-01

    With rapid development of social economies, road traffic accidents have continued to increase, and have become the primary public hazard to humans. The main goal of the present study was to investigate road traffic crash (RTC) fatalities and injuries in the city of Isfahan, Iran. A sample of 150,940 accident cases was considered from Isfahan Police Safety Driving Department, involving drivers and passengers of all ages, and covering a 3-year period. The record linkage identified 24,608 drivers and passengers injured or died as a result of RTC in the city of Isfahan over the 3-year period. The finding of this study shows that the highest rate of RTC fatality was 40% and 58%, which comprises the male drivers and female passengers within the age classes 25-34 and 35-44, respectively. On average, there were one death every 3 days and every hour, someone was injured and taken to an emergency department for RTCs in the city of Isfahan. The highest men to women death and injured ratios were 4:1 and 2:1, respectively. The use of seat belt devices in our population was worrisome. The article ends with a number of recommended measures for the improvement of road safety.

  18. A comparison of health outcomes in older versus younger adults following a road traffic crash injury: a cohort study.

    Bamini Gopinath

    Full Text Available Given the aging demographics of most developed countries, understanding the public health impact of mild/moderate road traffic crash injuries in older adults is important. We aimed to determine whether health outcomes (pain severity and quality of life measures over 24 months differ significantly between older (65+ and younger adults (18-64.Prospective cohort study of 364, 284 and 252 participants with mild/moderate injury following a vehicle collision at baseline, 12 and 24 months, respectively. A telephone-administered questionnaire obtained information on socio-economic, pre- and post-injury psychological and heath characteristics.At baseline, there were 55 (15.1% and 309 (84.9% participants aged ≥65 and 18-64 years, respectively. At 12- and 24-month follow-up, older compared to younger participants who had sustained a mild/moderate musculoskeletal injury had lower physical functioning (3.9-units lower Short Form-12 Physical Composite Score, multivariable-adjusted p = 0.03 at both examinations. After multivariable adjustment, older (n = 45 versus younger (n = 207 participants had lower self-perceived health status (8.1-units lower European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions Visual Acuity Scale scores at 24 months, p = 0.03, 24 months later.Older compared to younger participants who sustained a mild/moderate injury following a road-traffic crash demonstrated poorer physical functioning and general health at 24 months.

  19. Factors associated with pilot fatality in work-related aircraft crashes, Alaska, 1990-1999.

    Bensyl, D M; Moran, K; Conway, G A

    2001-12-01

    Work-related aircraft crashes are the leading cause of occupational fatality in Alaska, with civilian pilots having the highest fatality rate (410/100,000/year). To identify factors affecting survivability, the authors examined work-related aircraft crashes that occurred in Alaska in the 1990s (1990-1999), comparing crashes with pilot fatalities to crashes in which the pilot survived. Using data from National Transportation Safety Board reports, the authors carried out logistic regression analysis with the following variables: age, flight experience, use of a shoulder restraint, weather conditions (visual flight vs. instrument flight), light conditions (daylight vs. darkness), type of aircraft (airplane vs. helicopter), postcrash fire, crash location (airport vs. elsewhere), and state of residence. In the main-effects model, significant associations were found between fatality and postcrash fire (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 6.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.38, 17.37), poor weather (AOR = 4.11, 95% CI: 2.15, 7.87), and non-Alaska resident status (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 4.20). Protective effects were seen for shoulder restraint use (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.77) and daylight versus darkness (AOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.99). The finding that state of residence was associated with survivability offers new information on pilot survivability in work-related aircraft crashes in Alaska. These results may be useful in targeting safety interventions for pilots who fly occupationally in Alaska or in similar environments.

  20. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  1. Trampoline-related injuries.

    Larson, B J; Davis, J W

    1995-08-01

    Two hundred and seventeen patients who had sustained an injury during the recreational use of a trampoline were managed in the emergency room of Logan Regional Hospital in Logan, Utah, from January 1991 through December 1992. We retrospectively reviewed the charts and radiographs of these patients to categorize the injuries. Additional details regarding the injuries of seventy-two patients (33 per cent) were obtained by means of a telephone interview with use of a questionnaire. The injuries occurred from February through November, with the peak incidence in July. The patients were eighteen months to forty-five years old (average, ten years old); ninety-four patients (43 per cent) were five to nine years old. Eighty-four patients (39 per cent) sustained a fracture; fifty-four (25 per cent), a sprain or strain; forty-five (21 per cent), a laceration; and thirty-four (16 per cent), a contusion. Fifty-seven injuries (26 per cent) involved the elbow or forearm; forty-six (21 per cent), the head or neck; forty (18 per cent), the ankle or foot; thirty-three (15 per cent), the knee or leg; nineteen (9 per cent), the trunk or back; thirteen (6 per cent), the shoulder or arm; and nine (4 per cent), the wrist or hand. Thirteen patients (6 per cent) had a back injury, but none of them had a permanent neurological deficit. One patient who had an ocular injury was transferred to a tertiary care center. One hundred and fifty-six patients (72 per cent) were evaluated radiographically, fifteen (7 per cent) were admitted to the hospital, and thirteen (6 per cent) had an operation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Road Crashes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Empirical Findings ...

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    studies on road crashes forecasted road traffic fatalities to be the second ... Ethiopia's capital city – shares 60% out of the total number of vehicles in the ... network density and vehicle ownership, the country (Ethiopia) has been cited as ... crash related injury case confirmation. ..... to thank you in advance for your cooperation!

  3. Using naturalistic driving data to explore the association between traffic safety-related events and crash risk at driver level.

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Aguero-Valverde, Jonathan; Jovanis, Paul P

    2014-11-01

    There has been considerable research conducted over the last 40 years using traffic safety-related events to support road safety analyses. Dating back to traffic conflict studies from the 1960s these observational studies of driver behavior have been criticized due to: poor quality data; lack of available and useful exposure measures linked to the observations; the incomparability of self-reported safety-related events; and, the difficulty in assessing culpability for safety-related events. This study seeks to explore the relationships between driver characteristics and traffic safety-related events, and between traffic safety-related events and crash involvement while mitigating some of those limitations. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study dataset, in which the participants' vehicles were instrumented with various cameras and sensors during the study period, was used for this study. The study data set includes 90 drivers observed for 12-13 months driving. This study focuses on single vehicle run-off-road safety-related events only, including 14 crashes and 182 safety-related events (30 near crashes, and 152 crash-relevant incidents). Among the findings are: (1) drivers under age 25 are significantly more likely to be involved in safety-related events and crashes; and (2) significantly positive correlations exist between crashes, near crashes, and crash-relevant incidents. Although there is still much to learn about the factors affecting the positive correlation between safety-related events and crashes, a Bayesian multivariate Poisson log-normal model is shown to be useful to quantify the associations between safety-related events and crash risk while controlling for driver characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. How does Euro NCAP results correlate to real life injury risks - a paired comparison study of car-to-car crashes in Sweden

    Lie, A. [Swedish National Road Administration, Borlaenge (Sweden)]|[ Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Tingvall, C. [Monash University, Accident Research Centre (Australia)

    2001-07-01

    Euro NCAP is a resource for consumers regarding vehicle crash safety. The program also promotes safety developments, and credits car manufacturers focussing on safety. This study, based on real life car to car crashes, shows that the overall indication of the safety level, provided by the crash testing, is a valid prediction, at least when looking at the star rating and severe to fatal injuries. For minor injuries no significant injury risk differences are seen. The cars with three or four stars are approximately 30% safer, compared to two star cars or cars without an Euro NCAP score, in car to car collisions. The good general correlation between injury risk, and Euro NCAP scores is not necessarily similarly good for individual car models. Pedestrian safety and child occupant protection was not studied. (orig.)

  5. Preliminary plan for case-control crash risk study

    2002-01-31

    The goal of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is to reduce commercial vehicle-related fatalities and injuries. This is achieved through a thorough understanding of crash characteristics, precursors, and risk factors. This will h...

  6. Surfing-related ocular injuries.

    Kim, J W; McDonald, H R; Rubsamen, P E; Luttrull, J K; Drouilhet, J H; Frambach, D A; Boyer, D S; Lambrou, F H; Hendrick, A; Weiss, J N; Engstrom, R E; Ing, M

    1998-01-01

    This report evaluates the clinical characteristics of surfing-related ocular trauma to learn the nature of such injuries and propose possible preventive measures. The authors reviewed 11 cases of surfing-related eye injuries caused by direct trauma from the surfboard, studying their mechanism of injury, the associated ocular complications, and the anatomic and visual outcomes of surgical repair. Surfing-related ocular injuries occurred exclusively in young males (mean age, 24.8 years; range, 14-37 years). The mechanism of injury most frequently responsible was impact with the sharp nose of the surfboard following a fall. Serious posterior segment complications were observed in all 11 patients, with nine patients suffering ruptured globes. Despite immediate medical attention, five patients did not recover ambulatory levels of visual acuity (>5/200). Surfing-related ocular trauma presenting to the retinal specialist typically leaves the patient with a permanent visual disability. Important factors contributing to these high-velocity injuries include the sharply pointed nose of the surfboard and the leash keeping the surfer in close proximity to the board following a fall. A simple modification in surfboard design such as blunting the sharp nose of the surfboard, or appropriate protective guards fitted over the surfboard nose, should lessen the severity of such injuries.

  7. Risk Factors for Road Transport-Related Injury among Pedestrians in Rural Ghana: Implications for Road Safety Education

    Teye-Kwadjo, Enoch

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Injuries and mortality resulting from pedestrian road traffic crashes are a major public health problem in Ghana. This study investigated risk factors for road transport-related injury among pedestrians in rural Ghana. Design: Case study design using qualitative data. Method: In-depth interviews were conducted with pedestrians.…

  8. Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nagel, Lise Loft

    2012-01-01

    A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior...... to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation...... for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity...

  9. Characteristics of Single Vehicle Crashes with a Teen Driver in South Carolina, 2005-2008.

    Shults, Ruth A; Bergen, Gwen; Smith, Tracy J; Cook, Larry; Kindelberger, John; West, Bethany

    2017-09-22

    Teens' crash risk is highest in the first years of independent driving. Circumstances surrounding fatal crashes have been widely documented, but less is known about factors related to nonfatal teen driver crashes. This study describes single vehicle nonfatal crashes involving the youngest teen drivers (15-17 years), compares these crashes to single vehicle nonfatal crashes among adult drivers (35-44 years) and examines factors related to nonfatal injury producing crashes for teen drivers. Police crash data linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department data for 2005-2008 from the South Carolina Crash Outcomes Data Evaluation System (CODES) were analyzed. Nonfatal, single vehicle crashes involving passenger vehicles occurring on public roadways for teen (15-17 years) drivers were compared with those for adult (35-44 years) drivers on temporal patterns and crash risk factors per licensed driver and per vehicle miles traveled. Vehicle miles traveled by age group was estimated using data from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey. Multivariable log-linear regression analysis was conducted for teen driver crashes to determine which characteristics were related to crashes resulting in a minor/moderate injury or serious injury to at least one vehicle occupant. Compared with adult drivers, teen drivers in South Carolina had 2.5 times the single vehicle nonfatal crash rate per licensed driver and 11 times the rate per vehicle mile traveled. Teen drivers were nearly twice as likely to be speeding at the time of the crash compared with adult drivers. Teen driver crashes per licensed driver were highest during the afternoon hours of 3:00-5:59 pm and crashes per mile driven were highest during the nighttime hours of 9:00-11:59 pm. In 66% of the teen driver crashes, the driver was the only occupant. Crashes were twice as likely to result in serious injury when teen passengers were present than when the teen driver was alone. When teen drivers crashed while

  10. Construction and evaluation of thoracic injury risk curves for a finite element human body model in frontal car crashes.

    Mendoza-Vazquez, Manuel; Davidsson, Johan; Brolin, Karin

    2015-12-01

    There is a need to improve the protection to the thorax of occupants in frontal car crashes. Finite element human body models are a more detailed representation of humans than anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). On the other hand, there is no clear consensus on the injury criteria and the thresholds to use with finite element human body models to predict rib fractures. The objective of this study was to establish a set of injury risk curves to predict rib fractures using a modified Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS). Injury criteria at the global, structural and material levels were computed with a modified THUMS in matched Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHSs) tests. Finally, the quality of each injury risk curve was determined. For the included PMHS tests and the modified THUMS, DcTHOR and shear stress were the criteria at the global and material levels that reached an acceptable quality. The injury risk curves at the structural level did not reach an acceptable quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Drivers' perceived legitimacy of enforcement practices for sleep-related crashes: What are the associated factors?

    Watling, Christopher N

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of traffic law enforcement is to deter risky driving behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine the individual factors of demographic, personality constructs, and attitudes for their association with perceived legitimacy of traffic law enforcement of sleep-related crashes. In total, 293 drivers completed a survey that assessed perceived legitimacy of enforcement and attitudes towards sleepy driving, as well as individual factors of demographic, personality and risk taking factors. The results demonstrate that younger drivers, drivers with higher levels of extraversion, and those with tolerant attitudes towards sleepy driving were less likely to agree that it is legitimate to charge someone if they crash due to sleepiness. The attitudes towards sleepy driving variable had the largest association with perceived legitimacy. Thus, the factors associated with perceived legitimacy of traffic law enforcement of sleep-related crashes are multifaceted. Overall, the findings have relevance with attitudinal and behaviour change programs, particularly with younger drivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysing the Severity and Frequency of Traffic Crashes in Riyadh City Using Statistical Models

    Saleh Altwaijri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic crashes in Riyadh city cause losses in the form of deaths, injuries and property damages, in addition to the pain and social tragedy affecting families of the victims. In 2005, there were a total of 47,341 injury traffic crashes occurred in Riyadh city (19% of the total KSA crashes and 9% of those crashes were severe. Road safety in Riyadh city may have been adversely affected by: high car ownership, migration of people to Riyadh city, high daily trips reached about 6 million, high rate of income, low-cost of petrol, drivers from different nationalities, young drivers and tremendous growth in population which creates a high level of mobility and transport activities in the city. The primary objective of this paper is therefore to explore factors affecting the severity and frequency of road crashes in Riyadh city using appropriate statistical models aiming to establish effective safety policies ready to be implemented to reduce the severity and frequency of road crashes in Riyadh city. Crash data for Riyadh city were collected from the Higher Commission for the Development of Riyadh (HCDR for a period of five years from 1425H to 1429H (roughly corresponding to 2004-2008. Crash data were classified into three categories: fatal, serious-injury and slight-injury. Two nominal response models have been developed: a standard multinomial logit model (MNL and a mixed logit model to injury-related crash data. Due to a severe underreporting problem on the slight injury crashes binary and mixed binary logistic regression models were also estimated for two categories of severity: fatal and serious crashes. For frequency, two count models such as Negative Binomial (NB models were employed and the unit of analysis was 168 HAIs (wards in Riyadh city. Ward-level crash data are disaggregated by severity of the crash (such as fatal and serious injury crashes. The results from both multinomial and binary response models are found to be fairly consistent but

  13. Disability related to road traffic crashes among adults in Spain

    Rocío Palmera-Suárez

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of disability due to road traffic accidents in Spain is lower than in other developed countries, with middle-aged and socio-economically underprivileged persons being the most affected. Disability due to road traffic accidents is related to a greater demand for social/health care support, problems of accessibility/commuting, and major changes in economic activity.

  14. Allegheny County Crash Data

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Allegheny County from 2004 to 2016. Fields include injury severity,...

  15. Allegheny County Crash Data

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Allegheny County from 2004 to 2017. Fields include injury severity,...

  16. Acupuncture therapy related cardiac injury.

    Li, Xue-feng; Wang, Xian

    2013-12-01

    Cardiac injury is the most serious adverse event in acupuncture therapy. The causes include needling chest points near the heart, the cardiac enlargement and pericardial effusion that will enlarge the projected area on the body surface and make the proper depth of needling shorter, and the incorrect needling method of the points. Therefore, acupuncture practitioners must be familiar with the points of the heart projected area on the chest and the correct needling methods in order to reduce the risk of acupuncture therapy related cardiac injury.

  17. Geriatric fall-related injuries.

    Hefny, Ashraf F; Abbas, Alaa K; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2016-06-01

    Falls are the leading cause of geriatric injury. We aimed to study the anatomical distribution, severity, and outcome of geriatric fall-related injuries in order to give recommendations regarding their prevention. All injured patients with an age ≥ 60 years who were admitted to Al-Ain Hospital or died in the Emergency Department due to falls were prospectively studied over a four year period. We studied 92 patients. Fifty six of them (60.9%) were females. The mean (standard deviation) of age was 72.2 (9.6) years. Seventy three (89%) of all incidents occurred at home. Eighty three patients (90.2%) fell on the same level. The median (range) ISS was 4 (1-16) and the median GCS (range) was 15 (12-15). The lower limb was the most common injured body region (63%). There were no statistical significant differences between males and females regarding age, ISS, and hospital stay (p = 0.85, p = 0.57, and p = 0.35 respectively). The majority of geriatric fall-related injuries were due to fall from the same level at home. Assessment of risk factors for falls including home hazards is essential for prevention of geriatric fall-related injuries.

  18. Burden of motorcycle-related injury in Malaysia.

    Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin Na; Baharuddin, Kamarul A; Mohamad, Syarifah Mastura S

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injury (RTI) contributes to major morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Most of the injuries are caused by road-related injuries that specifically relate to motorcycle crash. We attempted to conduct a short survey to determine the magnitude of burden related to motorcycle-related RTIs in Malaysia. We hypothesize that motorcycle-related RTI in Malaysia contributes significantly to the health burden in the country. The cross-sectional survey involves data searching related to RTI in Malaysia from the relevant agencies such as the Ministry of Health Malaysia, Royal Police Force, and Malaysia Institute of Road Safety Research (MIROS) through their official websites and PubMed search. The three agencies are well established and recognized by the Malaysian government in dealing with data collection for the injury nationwide. The primary aim is to determine the prevalence of motorcycle-related RTI, and secondary outcomes are the overall mortality and the contributing factors. Of the cause of trauma, 80 % is due to RTI, and the most vulnerable road users such as pedestrians and motorcyclists are affected the most. Of all RTI, 70 % is contributed by the motorcycle crash, and there are a significant number of deaths for both rider and pillion rider of the motorcycle than for other types of vehicles. Human error is the main reason to be blamed, specifically the attitude of the riders on the road. Trauma is one of the common reasons for death and hospitalization in Malaysia. Motorcycle-related RTI in Malaysia contributes significantly to the health burden in Malaysia. The Malaysian government and non-government agencies have worked together seriously in implementing a preventive measure to reduce the incidence and aftermath of motorcycle-related RTI. However, data is still lacking, and every effort is made to increase the amount of research in the field. Strengths of the article are as follows:Latest alarming data on motorcycle-related

  19. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2008. 

    2010-03-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2008. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  20. The psychological impact of traffic injuries sustained in a road crash by bicyclists: A prospective study

    Craig, Ashley; Elbers, N.A.; Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Gopinath, Bamini; Kifley, Annette; Dinh, Michal; Pozzato, Ilaria; Ivers, Rebecca; Nicholas, Michael; Cameron, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the psychological impact of traffic injuries in bicyclists (cyclists) in comparison to car occupants who also sustained traffic injuries. Factors predictive of elevated psychological distress were also investigated. Methods: An inception

  1. Crash-related mortality and model year: are newer vehicles safer?

    Ryb, Gabriel E; Dischinger, Patricia C; McGwin, Gerald; Griffin, Russell L

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether occupants of newer vehicles experience a lower risk of crash-related mortality. The occurrence of death was studied in relation to vehicle model year (MY) among front seat vehicular occupants, age ≥ 16 captured in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) between 2000 and 2008. The associations between death and other occupant, vehicular and crash characteristics were also explored. Multiple logistic regression models for the prediction of death were built with model year as the independent variable and other characteristics linked to death as covariates. Imputation was used for missing data; weighted data was used. A total of 70,314 cases representing 30,514,372 weighted cases were available for analysis. Death occurred in 0.6% of the weighted population. Death was linked to age>60, male gender, higher BMI, near lateral direction of impact, high delta v, rollover, ejection and vehicle mismatch, and negatively associated with seatbelt use and rear and far lateral direction of impact. Mortality decreased with later model year groups (MY<94 0.78%, MY 94-97 0.53%, MY 98-04 0.51% and MY 05-08 0.38%, p=<0.0001). After adjustment for confounders, MY 94-97, MY 98-04 and MY 05-08 showed decreased odds of death [OR 0.80 (0.69-0.94), 0.82 (0.70-0.97), and 0.67 (0.47-0.96), respectively] when compared to MY <94. Newer vehicles are associated with lower crash-related mortality. Their introduction into the vehicle fleet may explain, at least in part, the decrease in mortality rates in the past two decades.

  2. Three Cases of Spine Fractures after an Airplane Crash.

    Lee, Han Joo; Moon, Bong Ju; Pennant, William A; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoon, Do Heum; Ha, Yoon

    2015-10-01

    While injuries to the spine after an airplane crash are not rare, most crashes result in fatal injuries. As such, few studies exist that reported on spine fractures sustained during airplane accidents. In this report, we demonstrate three cases of spine fractures due to crash landing of a commercial airplane. Three passengers perished from injuries after the crash landing, yet most of the passengers and crew on board survived, with injuries ranging from minor to severe. Through evaluating our three spine fracture patients, it was determined that compression fracture of the spine was the primary injury related to the airplane accident. The first patient was a 20-year-old female who sustained a T6-8 compression fracture without neurologic deterioration. The second patient was a 33-year-old female with an L2 compression fracture, and the last patient was a 49-year-old male patient with a T8 compression fracture. All three patients were managed conservatively and required spinal orthotics. During the crash, each of these patients were subjected to direct, downward high gravity z-axis (Gz) force, which gave rise to load on the spine vertically, thereby causing compression fracture. Therefore, new safety methods should be developed to prevent excessive Gz force during airplane crash landings.

  3. Three Cases of Spine Fractures after an Airplane Crash

    Lee, Han Joo; Moon, Bong Ju; Pennant, William A.; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoon, Do Heum

    2015-01-01

    While injuries to the spine after an airplane crash are not rare, most crashes result in fatal injuries. As such, few studies exist that reported on spine fractures sustained during airplane accidents. In this report, we demonstrate three cases of spine fractures due to crash landing of a commercial airplane. Three passengers perished from injuries after the crash landing, yet most of the passengers and crew on board survived, with injuries ranging from minor to severe. Through evaluating our three spine fracture patients, it was determined that compression fracture of the spine was the primary injury related to the airplane accident. The first patient was a 20-year-old female who sustained a T6-8 compression fracture without neurologic deterioration. The second patient was a 33-year-old female with an L2 compression fracture, and the last patient was a 49-year-old male patient with a T8 compression fracture. All three patients were managed conservatively and required spinal orthotics. During the crash, each of these patients were subjected to direct, downward high gravity z-axis (Gz) force, which gave rise to load on the spine vertically, thereby causing compression fracture. Therefore, new safety methods should be developed to prevent excessive Gz force during airplane crash landings. PMID:27169094

  4. Preventing Paraffin-Related Injury

    Dehran Swart

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world is the most commonly used fuel in ‎non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ‎offers many advantages – especially its comparatively low cost to produce – it poses two major risks of ‎injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ‎fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk through multiple causes. This commentary ‎discusses strategies to prevent paraffin-related injury. Prevention of paraffin-related injury must be through ‎multiple strategies, and should include policy-oriented change, changes to the safety of home environments, ‎and behavioral changes targeting how individuals store and use paraffin and paraffin appliances. We review ‎successful prevention strategies in each of these domains and discuss appropriate research and community ‎initiatives that should be implemented to improve paraffin safety among at-risk populations.‎

  5. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Parents / Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries What's in this article? ...

  6. Highway crash rates and age-related driver limitations: Literature review and evaluation of data bases

    Hu, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Young, J.R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Lu, An [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a larger proportion of older individuals in the population. Moreover, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort a decade ago. However, they continue to take shorter trips than younger drivers and they avoid driving during congested hours. This recent demographic transformation in our society, the graying of America, coupled with the increasing mobility of the older population impose a serious highway safety issue that cannot be overlooked. Some of the major concerns are the identification of ``high-risk`` older drivers and the establishment of licensing guidelines and procedures that are based on conclusive scientific evidence. Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) objectives in this project can be characterized by the following tasks: Review and evaluate the 1980 American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) licensing guidelines. Determine whether the license restriction recommended in the 1980 AAMVA and NHTSA guidelines was based on scientific evidence or on judgement of medical advisors. Identify in the scientific literature any medical conditions which are found to be highly associated with highway crashes, and which are not mentioned in the 1980 guidelines. Summarize States` current licensing practices for drivers with age-related physical and mental limitations. Identify potential data sources to establish conclusive evidence on age-related functional impairments and highway crashes.

  7. Relative household wealth and non-fatal road crashes: analysis of population-representative data of Kenyan adults.

    Kraemer, John D

    2018-05-18

    This study aims to examine potential road crash disparities across relative wealth and location of residence in Kenya by analyzing population-representative Demographic and Health Survey data. Relative wealth was measured by household assets, converted into an index by polychoric principal components analysis. Location and sex-stratified associations between wealth quantiles and crashes were flexibly estimated using fractional polynomial models. Structural equation models were fit to examine whether observed differences may operate through previously identified determinants. In rural areas, crashes were least common for both the poorest men (-5.2 percentage points, 95% CI: -7.3 to -3.2) and women (-1.6 percentage points, 95% CI: -2.9 to -0.4). In urban areas, male crashes were lowest (-3.0 percentage points, 95% CI: -5.2 to -0.8) among the wealthiest, while they peaked in the middle of the female wealth distribution (2.0 percentage points, 95% CI: 0.3-3.8). Male differences operate partially though occupational driving and vehicle ownership. Urban female differences operate partially through household vehicle ownership, but differences for rural women were not explained by modeled determinants. Relative wealth and road crash have opposite associations in rural and urban areas. Especially in rural areas, it is important to mitigate potential unintended effects of economic development.

  8. Understanding traffic crash under-reporting

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Kaplan, Sigal; Hels, Tove

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aligns to the body of research dedicated to estimating the underreporting of road crash injuries and adds the perspective of understanding individual and crash factors contributing to the decision to report a crash to the police, the hospital, or both. Method: This study foc...... policy measures aimed at increasing the reporting rate by targeting specific road user groups (e.g., males, young road users) or specific situational factors (e.g., slight injuries, arm injuries, leg injuries, weekend)....

  9. Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.

    West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

    2014-04-18

    A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the

  10. Comparison between Euro NCAP test results and real-world crash data.

    Kullgren, Anders; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was 2-fold: first, to compare Euro NCAP safety ratings of cars with those published by the Folksam real-world injury ratings; and second, to compare injury risk measures between Euro NCAP 2 and 5 Star cars with real-world injury and disability outcomes using police and insurance injury data. Car models were grouped according to the Euro NCAP star rating scores. Folksam risk of injury ratings come from statistical analysis of real-world crashes using police and insurance databases. The paired comparison method using 2-car crashes was used to control for crash speed and the mass differences between cars of different weights were normalized. For all comparisons, 5-star rated Euro NCAP cars were found to have a lower risk of injury compared to 2-star rated cars (5-star cars were 10% ± 2.5% lower risk than 2-star cars). For fatal and serious injuries, the difference was 23 ± 8 percent, and for fatal injuries alone the difference was 68 ± 32 percent. By comparison, the Folksam 5-star rated cars had a relative risk of 0.020 ± 0.0024, whereas 2-star rated car risk was 0.028 ± 0.0016, corresponding to a 27 percent difference in risk between 5- and 2-star cars. Good correlation was found between Euro NCAP test results and real-world injury outcomes. The largest difference in injury risk between 2- and 5-star rated cars in Euro NCAP was found for risk of fatality, confirming that car manufacturers have focused their safety performance on serious crash outcomes. In addition, Euro NCAP crash tests were shown to be highly correlated with serious crash performance, confirming their relevance for evaluating real-world crash performance. Good concordance was found between Euro NCAP and Folksam real-world crash and injury ratings.

  11. Cost of initial management of musculoskeletal injuries due to road traffic crashes: A register-based study from North-West India

    Bhanu Awasthi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a paucity of information on the actual costs incurred by the family as a result of musculoskeletal injuries due to road traffic crash from our part of India. This study was conducted with the objective to ascertain the costs of initial management of musculoskeletal injuries due to road traffic crashes. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted as a register-based descriptive study in a tertiary care teaching hospital in a rural area (with a predominantly mountainous terrain of North-West India. All patients with nonfatal musculoskeletal injuries due to road traffic crashes, presenting between 2014 and 2015 and agreeing to participate in the study were included in the study. Results: Of 313 cases, 116 were managed conservatively, whereas in 189 cases, operative intervention was required. In 8 cases, both the modalities of management were required. The average cost of management was Rs. 20,386 in operative group. The average cost in the conservative group was Rs. 3726. Average cost calculated for patients in whom both modality of treatment was required was Rs. 24,000. It was observed that the indirect cost of management was proportionately higher in conservative group. Conclusions: The initial cost of management for patients managed conservatively is less than those managed by operative intervention. Importantly, however, the indirect cost of management is a major contributor to the total cost of management.

  12. Advances in Crash Response

    2009-06-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of CDC's Division of Injury Response, provides an overview on the benefits of using an Advanced Automatic Collision Notification system, or AACN, to help with emergency triage of people injured in vehicle crashes.  Created: 6/29/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Division of Injury Response (DIR).   Date Released: 6/29/2009.

  13. Wrong-way driving crashes on French divided roads.

    Kemel, Emmanuel

    2015-02-01

    The objective of divided roads is to increase users' safety by posting unidirectional traffic flows. It happens however that drivers proceed in the wrong direction, endangering themselves as well as other users. The crashes caused by wrong-way drivers are generally spotlighted by the media and call for public intervention. This paper proposes a characterization of wrong-way driving crashes occurring on French divided road on the 2008-2012 period. The objective is to identify the factors that delineate between wrong-way driving crashes and other crashes. Building on the national injury road crash database, 266 crashes involving a wrong-way driver were identified. Their characteristics (related to timing, location, vehicle and driver) are compared to those of the 22,120 other crashes that occurred on the same roads over the same period. The comparison relies on descriptive statistics, completed by a logistic regression. Wrong-way driving crashes are rare but severe. They are more likely to occur during night hours and on non-freeway roads than other crashes. Wrong-way drivers are older, more likely to be intoxicated, to be locals, to drive older vehicles, mainly passenger cars without passengers, than other drivers. The differences observed across networks can help prioritizing public intervention. Most of the identified WW-driving factors deal with cognitive impairment. Therefore, the specific countermeasures such as alternative road signs should be designed for and tested on cognitively impaired drivers. Nevertheless, WW-driving factors are also risk factors for other types of crashes (e.g. elderly driving, drunk driving and age of the vehicle). This suggests that, instead of (or in addition to) developing WW-driving specific countermeasures, managing these risk factors would help reducing a larger number of crashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Las lesiones por choques automovilísticos (Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries)

    2014-10-07

    Este podcast se basa en el informe Signos Vitales de los CDC de octubre del 2014. Las lesiones por choques automovilísticos son costosas y prevenibles. Aprenda lo que puede hacer para ayudar a prevenirlas.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Cobtrol (NCIPC).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  15. Patterns of injury seen in road crash victims in a South African ...

    2013-11-04

    Nov 4, 2013 ... and the ground and so sustain injuries to their arms and legs. Occupants of ... mortality rate are a consequence of the triage effect of long delays in transfer. More severely ... GCS did not reach 15 during admission were not ...

  16. Going unlicensed : related behaviors and car crash experience among young drivers

    Hanna, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Globally road traffic injuries are a major cause of injury and mortality, not least among the young. Although unlicensed driving is prevalent in that age group, the phenomenon has not received much attention. Aims: This thesis attempts to increase knowledge about the scope of unlicensed driving in youth and its related individual and contextual attributes. Methods: The thesis encompasses four register-based studies, three based in the US and one in Sweden. Unlicensed drive...

  17. "Crashing the gates" - selection criteria for television news reporting of traffic crashes.

    De Ceunynck, Tim; De Smedt, Julie; Daniels, Stijn; Wouters, Ruud; Baets, Michèle

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates which crash characteristics influence the probability that the crash is reported in the television news. To this purpose, all news items from the period 2006-2012 about traffic crashes from the prime time news of two Belgian television channels are linked to the official injury crash database. Logistic regression models are built for the database of all injury crashes and for the subset of fatal crashes to identify crash characteristics that correlate with a lower or higher probability of being reported in the news. A number of significant biases in terms of crash severity, time, place, types of involved road users and victims' personal characteristics are found in the media reporting of crashes. More severe crashes are reported in the media more easily than less severe crashes. Significant fluctuations in media reporting probability through time are found in terms of the year and month in which the crash took place. Crashes during week days are generally less reported in the news. The geographical area (province) in which the crash takes place also has a significant impact on the probability of being reported in the news. Crashes on motorways are significantly more represented in the news. Regarding the age of the involved victims, a clear trend of higher media reporting rates of crashes involving young victims or young fatalities is observed. Crashes involving female fatalities are also more frequently reported in the news. Furthermore, crashes involving a bus have a significantly higher probability of being reported in the news, while crashes involving a motorcycle have a significantly lower probability. Some models also indicate a lower reporting rate of crashes involving a moped, and a higher reporting rate of crashes involving heavy goods vehicles. These biases in media reporting can create skewed perceptions in the general public about the prevalence of traffic crashes and eventually may influence people's behaviour. Copyright © 2015

  18. "Heely"-related injuries in children.

    Thing, J; Wade, D; Clark, H

    2008-09-01

    "Heelys", or shoes with an integral wheel embedded into the heel, are becoming increasingly popular among children in the UK. Despite the manufacturer's claims about their safety, increasing numbers of patients are attending the emergency department with "Heely"-related injuries. To assess the number and type of "Heely"-related injuries seen in the emergency department in a busy district general hospital and to assess the number of school days lost as a result of these injuries as a secondary measure of the impact on education and lifestyle. Medical staff working in the emergency department completed proformas for all children attending the department with "Heely"-related injuries between 26 December and 26 April 2007. Data collected included age, sex, mechanism of injury, diagnosis and number of days off school as a result of the injury. 35 patients with "Heely"-related injuries of mean age 9.6 years (range 6-15) were identified during the study period. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall onto an outstretched hand (20/35, 57%). Other mechanisms of injury identified were lateral upper limb injury (7/35), traumatic lower limb injury (2/35), rotational lower limb injury (2/35), head injury (2/35) and back injury (2/35). The most common diagnosis was fracture of the distal radius (10/35), two of which had an associated distal ulna fracture. Two tibial fractures and one nasal fracture were also seen. The average number of days off school was 4.5 days (range 0-20). None of the children included in this study were using safety equipment at the time of the injury. The number of "Heely"-related injuries seen in one department over a 4-month period suggests a much higher incidence of injuries than the 46/100,000 found by the manufacturers based on Consumer Product Safety Commission data in the USA. The discrepancy is almost certainly due to the reluctance of UK children to use safety equipment and to follow the manufacturer's safety advice. Larger scale studies

  19. The risk of PTSD and depression after an airplane crash and its potential association with physical injury: A longitudinal study

    Gouweloos, Juul; Postma, Ingri L. E.; Te Brake, Hans; Sijbrandij, Marit; Kleber, Rolf J.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, a commercial airplane crashed near Amsterdam. This longitudinal study aims to investigate (1) the proportion of survivors of the airplane crash showing a probable posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) or depressive disorder, and (2) whether symptoms of PTSD and depression were predicted by

  20. The risk of PTSD and depression after an airplane crash and its potential association with physical injury : A longitudinal study

    Gouweloos, J.; Postma, Ingri L.E.; Te Brake, Hans; Sijbrandij, E.M.; Kleber, R.J.; Goslings, J. Carel

    In 2009, a commercial airplane crashed near Amsterdam. This longitudinal study aims to investigate (1) the proportion of survivors of the airplane crash showing a probable posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) or depressive disorder, and (2) whether symptoms of PTSD and depression were predicted by

  1. The risk of PTSD and depression after an airplane crash and its potential association with physical injury: A longitudinal study.

    Gouweloos, J.; Postma, I.L.; te Brake, H.; Sijbrandij, M.; Kleber, R.; Goslings, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, a commercial airplane crashed near Amsterdam. This longitudinal study aims to investigate (1) the proportion of survivors of the airplane crash showing a probable posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) or depressive disorder, and (2) whether symptoms of PTSD and depression were predicted by

  2. Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers

    Mørland, Jørg; Steentoft, Anni; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find which drugs and drug combinations were most common in drivers who died, in particular, in single vehicle crashes where the responsibility for the crash would be referred to the driver killed. The study included all available blood samples from drivers, who died......% respectively of the drivers under 30 with drugs present). Similar findings were obtained for drivers 30–49 years of age (63% with alcohol and/or drugs). In drivers aged 50 years and above, killed in single vehicle crashes (48% with alcohol and/or drugs) illicit drugs were found in only one case...

  3. Diagnosis of climbing related overuse injuries

    Klauser, A.; Frauscher, F.; Helweg, G.; Nedden, D. zur; Hochholzer, T.; Kramer, J.

    2002-01-01

    Sport climbing shows an enormous increase in participation, evolving to more popularity, including even school sport activity on high standards. Therefore the number of climbing related injuries is increasing and becomes a more frequently encountered medical problem. Typical climbing associated injuries involve predominantly the upper limb. Overuse injuries are the most common climbing related injuries.The clinical examination is the first line investigation, which is often limited especially in the acute phase. However, an exact diagnosis is desireable for therapeutic management. Imaging modalities have shown to be capable for detection of climbing related injuries. An overview about the current use of x-ray, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in different climbing related overuse injuries is presented. (orig.) [de

  4. Trampoline-related injury in children.

    Shankar, Amitabh; Williams, Kim; Ryan, Mary

    2006-09-01

    To quantify and describe trampoline-related injuries in children attending an urban pediatric emergency department. Retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients attending a children's emergency department with trampoline-related injuries over a 3-month period (May-July 2005). One hundred and sixty-eight children were treated for trampoline-related injuries during the period reviewed. Sixty-three percent were girls. Their age ranged between 4 months and 16 years (mean, 10.4 years [SD, 3 years and 10 months]). Lower limb injuries (51%) were more common overall. The most common injuries were to the ankle (31%), followed by foot (9.2%), and neck (8.4%). Sprain or soft tissue injuries (68%) were the most common type of injury, followed by fracture (12.2%). The most common mechanism of injury was inversion of the ankle on a trampoline (18.4%). Trampoline-related injuries represented 2.5% of morbidity from accidental trauma in children presenting to emergency department in our study. The rate and severity of injury has become a significant public health concern. It appears that current preventative strategies are inadequate in making children's carers aware of the potential risks of trampoline use, particularly when used recreationally.

  5. Transfusion related acute lung injury

    Sharma Ratti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI is an uncommon but potentially fatal adverse reaction to transfusion of plasma containing blood components. We describe a case of 10-year-old male child with aplastic anemia, platelet count of 7800/΅l, B positive blood group who developed fever (39.2΀C, difficulty in breathing and cyanosis within 2 hrs after transfusion of a random platelet concentrate. Despite the best resuscitative efforts, the child died within next 24 hrs. The present case highlights the fact that TRALI should be kept as a differential diagnosis in all patients developing acute respiratory discomfort within 6 hrs of transfusion. Without a ′gold standard′ the diagnosis of TRALI relies on a high index of suspicion and on excluding other types of transfusion reactions. Notification to transfusion services is crucial to ensure that a proper investigation is carried out and at-risk donor and recipients can be identified, and risk reduction measures can be adopted.

  6. Work-related injuries: injury characteristics, survival, and age effect.

    Konstantinidis, Agathoklis; Talving, Peep; Kobayashi, Leslie; Barmparas, Galinos; Plurad, David; Lam, Lydia; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2011-06-01

    Work-related injuries impose a significant burden on society. The goal of this study was to delineate the epidemiology and the effect of age on type and mortality after occupational injuries. Patients 16 years of age or older sustaining work-related injuries were identified from the National Trauma Databank 12.0. The study population was stratified into four age groups: 16 to 35, 36 to 55, 56 to 65, and older than 65 years old. The demographic characteristics, type of injury, mechanism of injury, setting of injury, use of alcohol or other illicit drugs, and mortality were analyzed and related to age strata. Overall 67,658 patients were identified. There were 27,125 (40.1%) patients in the age group 16 to 35 years, 30,090 (44.5%) in the group 36 to 55 years, 6,618 (9.8%) in the group 56 to 65 years, and 3,825 (5.7%) older than 65 years. The injury severity increased significantly with age. Elderly patients were significantly more likely to sustain intracranial hemorrhages, spinal, and other skeletal injuries. The overall mortality was 2.9 per cent (1938) with the latter increasing significantly in a stepwise fashion with progressing age, becoming sixfold higher in patients older than 65 years (OR, 6.18; 95% CI, 4.78 to 7.80; P < 0.001). Our examination illustrates the associations between occupational injury and significant mortality that warrant intervention for mortality reduction. There is a stepwise-adjusted increase in mortality with progressing age.

  7. Training errors and running related injuries

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries.......The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries....

  8. Trampoline-related injuries in childhood.

    Eberl, Robert; Schalamon, Johannes; Singer, Georg; Huber, Sarah S; Spitzer, Peter; Höllwarth, Michael E

    2009-10-01

    Recommendations to prevent trampoline injuries were given since the 1970s. However, despite these educational efforts, safety recommendations seem to be ignored and the number of trampoline injuries is increasing. All children referred to our department for injuries related to trampolines over a period of 3 years were included. The patients' records were reviewed and a questionnaire was sent out in order to gain additional information. Injuries were classified as severe and mild. A total of 265 children (46% m, 54% f) with a median age of 8.2 years (range 1 to 14) were included. The injury rate was continuously growing from the year 2005 (10.6%) to 2007 (58.1%). Most of the injuries were recorded between April and September with a peak of injuries in August. Seventy-five percent of all accidents happened in the afternoon; 40% of the injuries were classified as severe, 60% as mild. Nets or equal security devices were used in 56.6%. Trampolining is associated with a significant risk for bodily harm at any age and results in severe injuries in 40% of cases. Though there may be still room for improvement in safety recommendations, all attempts over a period of more than 30 years to reduce the number of trampoline-related backyard injuries failed and the incidence is still increasing. At present, trampolines cannot be made safe for recreational activities and are of an unacceptable risk even under supervision.

  9. Sports Related Injuries: Incidence, Management and Prevention

    Stanger, Michael A.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of injury related to various sports is reviewed according to sport, area of injury, number of participants and hours per week spent at the sport. Organized sports accounted for fewer injuries than unsupervised recreational activities like tree climbing, skateboarding and running. The knee is the most commonly injured site. Sensitivity to patients' commitment to their sport is necessary: sometimes instead of rest, they can substitute a less hazardous form of exercise. Principles ...

  10. Advances in Crash Response

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of CDC's Division of Injury Response, provides an overview on the benefits of using an Advanced Automatic Collision Notification system, or AACN, to help with emergency triage of people injured in vehicle crashes.

  11. Outcomes of primary repair and primary anastomosis in war-related colon injuries.

    Vertrees, Amy; Wakefield, Matthew; Pickett, Chris; Greer, Lauren; Wilson, Abralena; Gillern, Sue; Nelson, Jeffery; Aydelotte, Jayson; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shriver, Craig

    2009-05-01

    The role of primary repair (PR) of modern day war-related colon injuries remains controversial. Retrospective review of medical records of combat-wounded soldiers with colon injuries sustained during March 2003 to August 2006 was conducted. Injuries were analyzed according to location: right (n = 30), transverse (n = 13), and left (n = 24) sided colon injuries. Two-tailed Fisher's Exact or chi tests were used for statistical analysis. Seventy-seven soldiers returned to Walter Reed Army Medical Center with colon injuries suffered during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Twelve patients with minor colon injuries were excluded. The remaining 65 patients (mean age, 28 +/- 7 years) sustained 67 colon injuries from secondary blast (n = 38); gunshot (n = 27); motor vehicle crash (n = 1) and crush injury (n = 1). Patients arrived at Walter Reed Army Medical Center 5 days (range, 2-16 days) after injury and damage control operations (n = 27, 42%), and were hospitalized for a median of 22 days (range, 1-306 days). Follow-up averaged 311 days (median, 198 days). PR was attempted in right (n = 18, 60%), transverse (n = 11, 85%), and left (n = 9, 38%) sided colon injuries. Delayed definitive treatment of colon injuries occurred in 42% of patients. Failure of repair occurred in 16% of patients and was more likely with concomitant pancreatic, stomach, splenic, diaphragm, and renal injuries. Overall morbidity for ostomy closure after primary ostomy formation was 30%, but increased to 75% for ostomy closure after primary anastomotic or repair failure. PR of war-related colon injuries can be performed safely in selected circumstances in the absence of concomitant organ injury. Delayed anastomosis can often be performed after damage control operations once the patient stabilizes. Ostomy closure complications are more likely after anastomotic failure.

  12. Fatal lawn mower related projectile injury.

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Lynnerup, Niels; Banner, Jytte

    2014-06-01

    Fatal lawn mower related injuries are a relatively rare occurrence. In a forensic setting, the primary aim is to reconstruct the injury mechanism and establish the cause of death. A relatively rare, but characteristic type of injury is a so-called projectile or missile injury. This occurs when the operator or a bystander is impacted by an object mobilized from the grass by the rotating mower blades. This type of injury often leaves only modest external trauma, which increases the risk of overlooking an entry wound. In this paper we present a case of a fatal lawn mower related projectile injury which was initially overlooked, later interpreted as a possible gunshot homicide, and finally identified as a lawn mower related projectile injury when autopsy revealed a piece of metal thread in the main bronchus to the right middle lobe, hemopericardium, and right-sided hemothorax. To our knowledge, this injury mechanism has not previously been reported as a cause of death. This case illustrates the importance of postmortem radiological imaging and interdisciplinary cooperation when establishing manner and cause of death in unusual cases.

  13. Analysis of personality traits as a risk factor in crash related trauma.

    Kumar, Vineet; Goyal, Rahul; Singh, Ajai; Sharma, Vineet; Srivastava, Rajeshwer Nath; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Ashish

    2016-09-01

    Due to increasing stress, individual personality traits are becoming a significant contributor to CRT (Crash Related Trauma). In the present study, we hypothesized that there will be no difference in personality characteristics of CRT patients and control subjects and there will be no association between trauma and personality characteristics of CRT patients. A total of 119 cases and 112 controls of age >18 years were selected as per criteria decided. After obtaining ethical clearance, patients presenting to the emergency orthopedic unit were included in the study. After primary management all enrolled subjects were assessed by ICD 10 module screening questionnaire and analyzed for nine personality traits, subject to written informed consent. Of all the cases enrolled 82.35% were males. Impulsive personality trait is found in 84.78% (39/46) cases. There were 46 motorcyclists out of 119 cases enrolled. Most of the personality traits showed a statistical significant association (p personality characteristics which accounted for 84.78% and 82.61% cases respectively. These traits showed a statistical significant association with CRT.

  14. Fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia: will the proposed policy of banning the early-hour operation reduce fatigue-related crashes and benefit overall road safety?

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd-Yusoff, Mohammad-Fadhli; Othman, Ilhamah; Zulkipli, Zarir-Hafiz; Osman, Mohd Rasid; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2012-03-01

    Fatigue-related crashes have long been the topic of discussion and study worldwide. The relationship between fatigue-related crashes and time of day is well documented. In Malaysia, the possibility of banning express buses from operating during the early-hours of the morning has emerged as an important consideration for passenger safety. This paper highlights the findings of an impact assessment study. The study was conducted to determine all possible impacts prior to the government making any decision on the proposed banning. This study is an example of a simple and inexpensive approach that may influence future policy-making process. The impact assessment comprised two major steps. The first step involved profiling existing operation scenarios, gathering information on crashes involving public express buses and stakeholders' views. The second step involved a qualitative impact assessment analysis using all information gathered during the profiling stage to describe the possible impacts. Based on the assessment, the move to ban early-hour operations could possibly result in further negative impacts on the overall road safety agenda. These negative impacts may occur if the fundamental issues, such as driving and working hours, and the need for rest and sleep facilities for drivers, are not addressed. In addition, a safer and more accessible public transportation system as an alternative for those who choose to travel at night would be required. The proposed banning of early-hour operations is also not a feasible solution for sustainability of express bus operations in Malaysia, especially for those operating long journeys. The paper concludes by highlighting the need to design a more holistic approach for preventing fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lawn mower-related projectile injury.

    McNamara, William F; Yamout, Sani Z; Escobar, Mauricio A; Glick, Philip L

    2009-07-01

    Lawn mower injuries are a potentially devastating, yet preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. The sequelae to these injuries can become even worse if the initial presentation goes unsuspected by medical staff, leading to a delay in treatment. The authors report the case of a lawn mower-related penetrating missile injury, where the extent of injury was not appreciated by the patient until signs and symptoms of a soft-tissue infection developed, prompting the patient to seek medical attention the next day.

  16. Impact of Helmet Use on Injury and Financial Burden of Motorcycle and Moped Crashes in Hawai‘i: Analysis of a Linked Statewide Database

    Castel, Nikki A; Wong, Linda L; Steinemann, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Helmet use reduces injury severity, disability, hospital length of stay, and hospital charges in motorcycle riders. The public absorbs billions of dollars annually in hospital charges for unhelmeted, uninsured motorcycle riders. We sought to quantify, on a statewide level, the healthcare burden of unhelmeted motorcycle and moped riders. We examined 1,965 emergency medical service (EMS) reports from motorcycle and moped crashes in Hawai‘i between 2007–2009. EMS records were linked to hospital medical records to assess associations between vehicle type, helmet use, medical charges, diagnoses, and final disposition. Unhelmeted riders of either type of vehicle suffered more head injuries, especially skull fractures (adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 4.48, P motorcycle and moped riders, with a significant (P = .006) difference between helmeted ($27,176) and unhelmeted ($40,217) motorcycle riders. Unhelmeted riders were twice as likely to self-pay (19.3%, versus 9.8% of helmeted riders), and more likely to have Medicaid or a similar income-qualifying insurance plan (13.5% versus 5.0%, respectively). Protective associations with helmet use are stronger among motorcyclists than moped riders, suggesting the protective effect is augmented in higher speed crashes. The public financial burden is higher from unhelmeted riders who sustain more severe injuries and are less likely to be insured. PMID:27980882

  17. Geriatric fall-related injuries.

    (57 injuries in 55 patients). Number. %. Male n = 20. Female n =35. P value. Hip fracture. 7. 12.7. 2. 5 .... Ministry of Health, Preventive Medicine Sector, Unit- ed Arab Emirates, Annual ... J Bone Miner Metab 2010;. 28:485-488 PubMed. doi: ...

  18. Fatal lawn mower related projectile injury

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Lynnerup, Niels; Banner, Jytte

    2014-01-01

    was initially overlooked, later interpreted as a possible gunshot homicide, and finally identified as a lawn mower related projectile injury when autopsy revealed a piece of metal thread in the main bronchus to the right middle lobe, hemopericardium, and right-sided hemothorax. To our knowledge, this injury...

  19. Trampoline-related injuries to children.

    Smith, G A; Shields, B J

    1998-07-01

    To describe the epidemiological features of trampoline-related injuries among children treated in an urban pediatric emergency department. A descriptive study of a consecutive series of patients. The emergency department of a large, urban, academic children's hospital. Children treated for trampoline-related injuries from May 1, 1995, through April 30, 1997. Two hundred fourteen children were treated for trampoline-related injuries during the study period, representing, on average, 1 child treated approximately every 3 days. Children ranged in age from 1 to 16 years (mean [SD], 9.4 [3.6] years). The area of the body most commonly injured was a lower extremity (36.0%), followed by an upper extremity (31.8%), the head (14.5%), the trunk (9.8%), and the neck (7.9%). The most common type of injury was a soft tissue injury (51.9%), followed by fracture (34.6%) and laceration (11.7%). Several patterns of trampoline-related injury were identified. Extremity fractures were more common in the upper extremities (P=.006; relative risk [RR]=1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-2.31); however, soft tissue injuries were more common in the lower extremities (P=.006; RR=1.66; 95% CI, 1.16-2.38). Lacerations were associated with injury to the head region (Ptrampoline was located in the backyard in 96% (119/124) of cases. Adult supervision was present at the time of injury for 55.6% (65/117) of children, including 73.3% (22/30) of children younger than 6 years. Parents reported that they had been aware of the potential dangers of trampolines before the injury event (73% [81/111]), that their child had previously attempted a flip on a trampoline (56.9% [66/116]), that this was not the child's first injury on a trampoline (10% [12/120]), and that their child continued to use a trampoline after the current injury event (54.8% [63/115]). Trampoline-related injuries to children treated in the emergency department are almost exclusively associated with the use of backyard trampolines

  20. Injury risk functions for frontal oblique collisions.

    Andricevic, Nino; Junge, Mirko; Krampe, Jonas

    2018-03-09

    The objective of this article was the construction of injury risk functions (IRFs) for front row occupants in oblique frontal crashes and a comparison to IRF of nonoblique frontal crashes from the same data set. Crashes of modern vehicles from GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study) were used as the basis for the construction of a logistic injury risk model. Static deformation, measured via displaced voxels on the postcrash vehicles, was used to calculate the energy dissipated in the crash. This measure of accident severity was termed objective equivalent speed (oEES) because it does not depend on the accident reconstruction and thus eliminates reconstruction biases like impact direction and vehicle model year. Imputation from property damage cases was used to describe underrepresented low-severity crashes-a known shortcoming of GIDAS. Binary logistic regression was used to relate the stimuli (oEES) to the binary outcome variable (injured or not injured). IRFs for the oblique frontal impact and nonoblique frontal impact were computed for the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) 2+ and 3+ levels for adults (18-64 years). For a given stimulus, the probability of injury for a belted driver was higher in oblique crashes than in nonoblique frontal crashes. For the 25% injury risk at MAIS 2+ level, the corresponding stimulus for oblique crashes was 40 km/h but it was 64 km/h for nonoblique frontal crashes. The risk of obtaining MAIS 2+ injuries is significantly higher in oblique crashes than in nonoblique crashes. In the real world, most MAIS 2+ injuries occur in an oEES range from 30 to 60 km/h.

  1. Firework related injury in New Zealand.

    Clarke, J A; Langley, J D

    1994-10-26

    In March 1992 a private members Bill was introduced into parliament which sought to place tighter restrictions on the sale of fireworks. The primary purpose of this research was to document the nature and extent of firework related injury in New Zealand for the purpose of preparing a submission on this Bill. Firework related injuries were examined in relation to the legislative history of fireworks control in New Zealand to ascertain if existing regulations had been effective in reducing firework injuries and whether there was justification for greater control. Between 1979 and 1992 (inclusive) 237 persons were admitted to hospital for treatment of injuries related to fireworks. The overall incidence rate for this period was 0.52 per 100,000 persons per year. Eighty five percent of all events involved males. Children (fireworks (as is proposed in the Bill). The current legislation could well be supported though, by extending the ban on the types of fireworks publicly available to include skyrockets.

  2. Holiday ornament-related injuries in children.

    Kimia, Amir; Lee, Lois; Shannon, Michael; Capraro, Andrew; Mays, Donald; Johnston, Patrick; Hummel, David; Shuman, Margot

    2009-12-01

    Holiday ornament injuries in children have not been well documented in the medical literature. Our aim was to investigate the patterns of injuries sustained from these ornaments as a first measure toward prevention. This was a retrospective cohort analysis of all patients examined in an urban pediatric emergency department over a 13-year period ending in March 2008 for holiday ornament-related injuries. Cases were identified using a computer-assisted text query followed by a manual chart review. Data collected from each chart included the child's age, sex, injury characteristics, physical examination findings, radiographic imaging, interventions, and disposition. To analyze injury rates over the years, we used a multiplicative Poisson model allowing varying exposures. Over the study period, we identified 76 eligible patients. The median age was 2 years (interquartile range, 1.17-3.3 years); 44.7% were female. Forty-three of the 76 cases (53.9%) involved ingestions: 35 were of holiday ornaments, and 8 were of light bulbs. All but one of these ornaments were made of glass. In 28%, there was an associated bleed either from the mouth or as a delayed gastrointestinal bleed. Other patients experienced lacerations (27.6%), eye injuries (5.1%), and minor electrocution injury (2.5%). Imaging was performed in 85%. A subspecialty consult was obtained in 23%, primarily addressing a foreign body ingestion or removal after skin exploration. The incidence rate has not changed over the years. Holiday ornament-related injuries primarily involve foreign body ingestions and glass-related injuries. Over half of the injuries involved small light bulbs and ornaments made of glass placed at the level a toddler can reach. Pediatricians are advised to discuss these points with families during holiday season.

  3. Preventing Paraffin-Related Injury

    C. Schwebel, David; Swart, Dehran

    2009-01-01

    Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world) is the most commonly used fuel in ‎non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ‎offers many advantages – especially its comparatively low cost to produce – it poses two major risks of ‎injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ‎fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk t...

  4. Prevalence of work-related injuries among workers of bottling ...

    Prevalence of work-related injuries among workers of bottling industries in Benin city, ... job descriptions and activities which constitute health hazards for the individual. ... with the major work-related injuries and illness being physical injuries.

  5. The work-related fatal injury study: numbers, rates and trends of work-related fatal injuries in New Zealand 1985-1994.

    Feyer, A M; Langley, J; Howard, M; Horsburgh, S; Wright, C; Alsop, J; Cryer, C

    2001-01-26

    To determine the number and rates of work-related fatal injuries by employment status, occupation, industry, age and gender in New Zealand 1985-1994. Potential cases of work-related injury deaths of persons aged 15-84 years were identified from the national electronic mortality data files. Main exclusions were deaths due to suicide and deaths due to motor vehicle crashes. The circumstances of the deaths of each fatal incident meeting inclusion criteria were then reviewed directly from coronial files to determine work-relatedness. The rate of work-related fatal injury in New Zealand was 5.03/100000 workers per year for the study period. There was a significant decline in crude rate over the study period. However, this was in substantial part accounted for by changes in occupation and industry mix. Older workers, male workers, self-employed workers, and particular occupational groups, all had substantially elevated rates. Agricultural and helicopter pilots, forestry workers and fishery workers had the highest rates. Farmers, forestry workers, and fishery workers also had high numbers of deaths, together accounting for nearly 40% of all deaths. This study has demonstrated that work-related fatal injury remains a pressing problem for New Zealand. Several areas in urgent need of prevention efforts were highlighted.

  6. Using linked data to evaluate collisions with fixed objects in Pennsylvania : Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) linked data demonstration project

    1998-10-01

    This report uses police-reported motor vehicle crash data linked to Emergency Medical Services data and hospital discharge data to evaluate the relative risk of injury posed by specific roadside objects in Pennsylvania. The report focuses primarily o...

  7. Relatives of patients with severe brain injury

    Norup, Anne; Petersen, Janne; Lykke Mortensen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate trajectories and predictors of trajectories of anxiety and depression in relatives of patients with a severe brain injury during the first year after injury. RESEARCH DESIGN: A prospective longitudinal study with four repeated measurements. SUBJECTS: Ninety...... relatives of patients with severe brain injury. METHODS: The relatives were assessed on the anxiety and depression scales from the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and latent variable growth curve models were used to model the trajectories. The effects of patient's age, patient's Glasgow Coma Score, level...... should focus not only on specific deficits in the patient, but also on how the emotional state and well-being of the relatives evolve, while trying to adjust and cope with a new life-situation....

  8. Nintendo related injuries and other problems: review.

    Jalink, Maarten B; Heineman, Erik; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; ten Cate Hoedemaker, Henk O

    2014-12-16

    To identify all reported cases of injury and other problems caused by using a Nintendo video gaming system. Review. Search of PubMed and Embase in June 2014 for reports on injuries and other problems caused by using a Nintendo gaming system. Most of the 38 articles identified were case reports or case series. Injuries and problems ranged from neurological and psychological to surgical. Traditional controllers with buttons were associated with tendinitis of the extensor of the thumb. The joystick on the Nintendo 64 controller was linked to palmar ulceration. The motion sensitive Wii remote was associated with musculoskeletal problems and various traumas. Most problems are mild and prevalence is low. The described injuries were related to the way the games are controlled, which varies according to the video game console. © Jalink et al 2014.

  9. Rupture of the aorta following road traffic accidents in the United Kingdom 1992-1999. The results of the co-operative crash injury study.

    Richens, D; Kotidis, K; Neale, M; Oakley, C; Fails, A

    2003-02-01

    The true incidence and survivability of blunt traumatic aortic rupture following road traffic accidents in the UK is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of blunt traumatic aortic rupture in the UK after road traffic accidents and the conditions under which it occurs. Data for the study was obtained from the Co-operative Crash Injury Study database. Road traffic accidents that happened between 1992 and 1999 and included in the Co-operative Crash Injury Study database were retrospectively investigated. A total of 8285 vehicles carrying 14,435 occupants were involved in 7067 accidents. There were 132 cases of blunt traumatic aortic rupture, of which the scene survival was 9% and the overall mortality was 98%. Twenty-one percent of all fatalities had blunt traumatic aortic rupture (130/613). Twenty-nine percent were due to frontal impacts and 44% were due to side impacts. Twelve percent of the blunt traumatic aortic rupture cases in frontal vehicle impacts were wearing seat belts and had airbag protection and 19% had no restraint mechanism. The Equivalent Test Speed of the accident vehicles, (where equivalent test speed provides an estimate of the vehicle impact severity and not an estimate of the vehicle speed at the time of the accident), ranged from 30 to 110 km/h in frontal impacts and from 15 to 82 km/h in side impacts. Blunt traumatic aortic rupture carries a high mortality and occurred in 21% of car occupant deaths in this sample of road traffic accidents. Impact scenarios varied but were most common from the side. The use of an airbag or seat belt does not eliminate risk. The injury can occur at low severity impacts particularly in side impact. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Lawn mower-related injuries to children.

    Vollman, David; Khosla, Kimberly; Shields, Brenda J; Beeghly, B Christine; Bonsu, Bema; Smith, Gary A

    2005-09-01

    Despite current prevention efforts, approximately 9,400 children younger than 18 years continue to receive emergency care for lawn mower-related injuries each year in the United States. In this study, we analyzed data from a consecutive series of children treated for lawn mower-related injuries during a 53-consecutive-month period in the emergency department of a large, academic children's hospital. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of lawn mower-related injuries to these children and to investigate the beliefs of parents regarding lawn mower use. There were 85 children treated for lawn mower-related injuries during the study period. The mean age was 7.6 years (SD, 4.3 years; median, 5 years), and 65% were boys. Thirty-four patients (40.0%) were admitted to the hospital, including 3 (3.5%) to the pediatric intensive care unit, and 30 (35.3%) required surgical intervention in the operating room. There were 25 children with lacerations (29.4%), 22 with fractures (25.9%), 18 with amputations (21.2%), and 10 with burns (11.8%). The most common body region injured was the lower extremity, accounting for 57.6% (49 of 85) of injuries, including 33 injuries (38.8%) to the foot/toe and 16 injuries (18.8%) to the leg. The hand/finger and head/neck regions each accounted for another 18.8% of injuries. The leading mechanism of injury was run-over/back-over (22.4%), followed by other blade contact (17.6%), thrown object (12.9%), burn (10.6%), and a fall off the mower (7.0%). Lacerations accounted for 68.8% (11 of 16) of injuries to the head/neck compared with 20.3% (14 of 69) to other body regions (p lawn mower safety standard American National Standards Institute/Outdoor Power Equipment Institute B71.1-2003 should be revised to include more rigorous performance provisions regarding prevention of penetration of feet and toes under the mower and into the path of the blades, shielding of hot mower parts from access by young children, and equipping all

  11. Pedestrian Crashes

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This data set maps the locations of crashes involving pedestrians in the Chapel Hill Region of North Carolina.The data comes from police-reported bicycle-motor...

  12. Bicycle Crashes

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This data set maps the locations of crashes involving bicyclists in the Chapel Hill Region of North Carolina.The data comes from police-reported bicycle-motor...

  13. Airplane crash

    Brunner, P.

    1975-01-01

    In May, 1974, a severe airplane crash occurred near Springfield, llinois; the crew of three and a courier were killed. The plane was carrying a large container of controlled water with a slight amount of 60 Co. A survey of the crash site by Air Force detectives and the radiological assistance team from Wright--Patterson Air Force Base indicated no radioactivity. Experiences of the incident were used to develop guidelines for future emergency preparedness

  14. [Epidemiology of work-related eye injuries].

    Zghal-Mokni, Imen; Nacef, Leila; Kaoueche, Mourad; Letaief, Imen; Bouguila, Hedi; Jeddi, Amel; Ayed, Saida

    2007-07-01

    Occupational injury represents 7,7 at 69,9% of the total ocular traumatisms. They can be a major source of visuel loss and blindness. The aim is to study the epidemiology of work-related ocular injuries: objects frequencies,works most exposed. We performed a prospective study that interest 78 patients having a work-related ocular traumatism during a 4 months period. They were admitted at ocular emergeney All patients underwent an ophtalmologic examination completed with orbital radiography and echography. A medical and/or chirurgical appropriate treatment was institued. Occupationnal injury frequency was 9% of the whole ocular traumatisms in the same period. The mean age was 31 years. 55% of cases were under 30 years. 91% were male. Most exposed works were industrial and mecanical sectors In 70,5% of cases work-related eye injuries were caused by projectile objects. Most common lesion was corneal superficial foreign body (58%). Open globe injury was noted in 8%. 95% of patients had no eye protection at the time of the accident. 13% were blind or unilateral partially sighted (according to the OMS classification). The authors discussed the importance and different prevention strategies to prevent the risk of blindness and socio-economical cost of occupationnal accidents. There is a need for systematic periodic sensibilization to reduce these accidents and blindness.

  15. Association between perception of fault for the crash and function, return to work and health status 1 year after road traffic injury: a registry-based cohort study.

    Gabbe, Belinda J; Simpson, Pamela M; Cameron, Peter A; Ekegren, Christina L; Edwards, Elton R; Page, Richard; Liew, Susan; Bucknill, Andrew; de Steiger, Richard

    2015-11-26

    To establish the association between the patient's perception of fault for the crash and 12-month outcomes after non-fatal road traffic injury. Two adult major trauma centres, one regional trauma centre and one metropolitan trauma centre in Victoria, Australia. 2605 adult, orthopaedic trauma patients covered by the state's no-fault third party insurer for road traffic injury, injured between September 2010 and February 2014. EQ-5D-3L, return to work and functional recovery (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended score of upper good recovery) at 12 months postinjury. After adjusting for key confounders, the adjusted relative risk (ARR) of a functional recovery (0.57, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.69) and return to work (0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99) were lower for the not at fault compared to the at fault group. The ARR of reporting problems on EQ-5D items was 1.20-1.35 times higher in the not at fault group. Patients who were not at fault, or denied being at fault despite a police report of fault, experienced poorer outcomes than the at fault group. Attributing fault to others was associated with poorer outcomes. Interventions to improve coping, or to resolve negative feelings from the crash, could facilitate better outcomes in the future. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Alcohol and drug involvement in motorcycle driver injuries in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Analysis of crash culpability and other associated factors.

    de Carvalho, Heraclito Barbosa; Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Bernini, Celso; Silva, Jorge Santos; Leyton, Vilma; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria

    2016-05-01

    Earlier studies have already identified that a greater proportion of injured drivers are under the effects of illicit drugs than alcohol in Brazil, but the crash risk attributable to each substance is still unknown. Injured motorcycle drivers who were involved in traffic accidents in the West Zone of the city of Sao Paulo were recruited for a cross-sectional study based on crash culpability analysis. Alcohol and drug positivity among drivers was evaluated according to their responsibility for the crash. Culpability ratios were generated based on the proportion of drivers who were deemed culpable in relation to those considered not culpable according to the use of drugs and alcohol. Of the 273 drivers recruited, 10.6% tested positive for alcohol. Among those who were also tested for drugs (n=232), 20.3% had consumed either alcohol and/or other drugs, 15.5% of whom were positive only for drugs other than alcohol, specifically cannabis and cocaine. Drivers who tested positive for alcohol were significantly less likely to possess a valid driver's license and to report driving professionally, whereas those who had consumed only drugs were more likely to drive professionally. The culpability ratio estimated for alcohol-positive drivers was three times higher than that for alcohol-free drivers, showing a superior ratio than drivers who had consumed only drugs other than alcohol, who presented a 1.7 times higher culpability ratio than drug-free drivers. Substance use was overrepresented among culpable motorcycle drivers, with alcohol showing a greater contribution to crash culpability than other drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2007

    2010-03-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  18. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2006

    2009-01-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  19. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2008

    2010-12-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  20. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  1. Analysis of crashes using FE vehicle models. Relations between vehicle types and crash characteristics; Yugen yoso model wo mochiita sharyo no shototsu kaiseki. Sharyo type to shototsu tokusei

    Takatori, O. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the crash characteristics of vehicles under the condition of real-world accidents. This paper pays attention to the differences in the crash characteristics of a vehicle colliding with a vehicle which is a different type. Vehicles on the market can be divided broadly into two vehicle structures, monocoque structure and frame structure. Monocoque structure is mainly used for passenger vehicles and frame structure is for recreational vehicles (RV). In recent years, RV has been a large seller on the market. So accidents between passenger vehicles and a RVs occur frequently. The analysis of experimental data and computer simulation, which is predicated on the experimental data, was carried out for this study. In the analysis of experimental data, barrier force data from the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) were analyzed. The FE passenger vehicle model which is based on systematic validation tests was used for the computer simulation of car-to-car collisions. (author)

  2. Creating pedestrian crash scenarios in a driving simulator environment.

    Chrysler, Susan T; Ahmad, Omar; Schwarz, Chris W

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 in the United States, pedestrian injuries accounted for 3.3% of all traffic injuries but, disproportionately, pedestrian fatalities accounted for roughly 14% of traffic-related deaths (NHTSA 2014 ). In many other countries, pedestrians make up more than 50% of those injured and killed in crashes. This research project examined driver response to crash-imminent situations involving pedestrians in a high-fidelity, full-motion driving simulator. This article presents a scenario development method and discusses experimental design and control issues in conducting pedestrian crash research in a simulation environment. Driving simulators offer a safe environment in which to test driver response and offer the advantage of having virtual pedestrian models that move realistically, unlike test track studies, which by nature must use pedestrian dummies on some moving track. An analysis of pedestrian crash trajectories, speeds, roadside features, and pedestrian behavior was used to create 18 unique crash scenarios representative of the most frequent and most costly crash types. For the study reported here, we only considered scenarios where the car is traveling straight because these represent the majority of fatalities. We manipulated driver expectation of a pedestrian both by presenting intersection and mid-block crossing as well as by using features in the scene to direct the driver's visual attention toward or away from the crossing pedestrian. Three visual environments for the scenarios were used to provide a variety of roadside environments and speed: a 20-30 mph residential area, a 55 mph rural undivided highway, and a 40 mph urban area. Many variables of crash situations were considered in selecting and developing the scenarios, including vehicle and pedestrian movements; roadway and roadside features; environmental conditions; and characteristics of the pedestrian, driver, and vehicle. The driving simulator scenarios were subjected to iterative testing to

  3. Examination and Treatment of Hamstring Related Injuries

    2012-01-01

    Context: There is a wide spectrum of hamstring-related injuries that can occur in the athlete. Accurate diagnosis is imperative to prevent delayed return to sport, injury recurrence, and accurate clinical decision making regarding the most efficacious treatment. Evidence Acquisition: This review highlights current evidence related to the diagnosis and treatment of hamstring-related injuries in athletes. Data sources were limited to peer-reviewed publications indexed in MEDLINE from 1988 through May 2011. Results: An accurate diagnostic process for athletes with posterior thigh–related complaints should include a detailed and discriminative history, followed by a thorough clinical examination. Diagnostic imaging should be utilized when considering hamstring avulsion or ischial apophyseal avulsion. Diagnostic imaging may also be needed to further define the cause of referred posterior thigh pain. Conclusions: Differentiating acute hamstring strains, hamstring tendon avulsions, ischial apophyseal avulsions, proximal hamstring tendinopathies, and referred posterior thigh pain is critical in determining the most appropriate treatment and expediting safe return to play. PMID:23016076

  4. Sports-related injuries of the spine

    Hochmuth, K.; Mack, M.G.; Vogl, T.J.; Kurth, A.A.; Zichner, L.

    2002-01-01

    Different sports show different patterns and frequencies of injuries, which are discussed in this paper. About 3% of all sports accidents relate to the spine. These injuries often have far-reaching consequences for the patients. A very early and extensive diagnosis of all changes is decisive for the start of an adequate therapy and thus for the prognosis of the injury. Radiological diagnosis is also of decisive importance for the documentation of late injuries and in the question of rehabilitation. Here special focus is put on MRT and CT diagnostics.A healthy spine of humans is normally able to resist all static and dynamic strains of the usual sports. However, anomalies and dysfunctions of the spine can reduce its capacity to resist strain. The recommendations of sporting activities are given according to the extent of deflection and the expected growth. The importance of radiology in primary diagnosis and in the follow-up due to typical changes like scoliosis, Morbus Scheuerman, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is discussed here as well. (orig.) [de

  5. Using linked data to evaluate severity and outcome of injury by type of object struck (first object struck only) for motor vehicle crashes in Connecticut : Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) linked data demonstration project

    1999-09-01

    A deterministic algorithm was developed which allowed data from Department of Transportation motor vehicle crash records, state mortality registry records, and hospital admission and emergency department records to be linked for analysis of the types...

  6. The burden of road traffic crashes, injuries and deaths in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Thompson, Jacqueline Y; Akanbi, Moses A; Azuh, Dominic; Samuel, Victoria; Omoregbe, Nicholas; Ayo, Charles K

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the burden of road traffic injuries and deaths for all road users and among different road user groups in Africa. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Google Scholar, websites of African road safety agencies and organizations for registry- and population-based studies and reports on road traffic injury and death estimates in Africa, published between 1980 and 2015. Available data for all road users and by road user group were extracted and analysed. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis and estimated pooled rates of road traffic injuries and deaths. Findings We identified 39 studies from 15 African countries. The estimated pooled rate for road traffic injury was 65.2 per 100 000 population (95% confidence interval, CI: 60.8–69.5) and the death rate was 16.6 per 100 000 population (95% CI: 15.2–18.0). Road traffic injury rates increased from 40.7 per 100 000 population in the 1990s to 92.9 per 100 000 population between 2010 and 2015, while death rates decreased from 19.9 per 100 000 population in the 1990s to 9.3 per 100 000 population between 2010 and 2015. The highest road traffic death rate was among motorized four-wheeler occupants at 5.9 per 100 000 population (95% CI: 4.4–7.4), closely followed by pedestrians at 3.4 per 100 000 population (95% CI: 2.5–4.2). Conclusion The burden of road traffic injury and death is high in Africa. Since registry-based reports underestimate the burden, a systematic collation of road traffic injury and death data is needed to determine the true burden. PMID:27429490

  7. Factors associated with crashes due to overcorrection or oversteering of vehicles

    Praveena Penmetsa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify factors associated with crashes due to overcorrection or oversteering of vehicles. Crash data was collected from 2011 to 2013 for the State of North Carolina in the United States. Logistic regression modeling was used to analyze crash data because of the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable (overcorrection or oversteering. The crash involvement due to overcorrection or oversteering of a vehicle decreased as the age of the driver increased. Drivers are 2.22 times more likely to overcorrect or oversteer when ill, 3.44 times more likely to overcorrect or oversteer when under fatigue, and 1.61 times more likely to overcorrect or oversteer when fallen asleep compared to normal physical conditions. Overall, driver characteristics and speed limit tend to play a major role in overcorrection or oversteering of vehicles. Programs to reduce impaired driving might help in the reduction of overcorrection or oversteering related crash fatalities or injuries. Additionally, training and driver education programs focusing on identified factors associated with crashes due to overcorrection or oversteering of vehicles will benefit drivers on how to respond during emergency or panic situations. Keywords: Overcorrection, Oversteering, Vehicle, Logistic regression, Crash

  8. Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.

    Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultrasound imaging of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries

    Craig, J.G.; Holsbeek, M.T. van; Gauthier, T.P.; Cook, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Sports-related injuries of the musculoskeletal system affect millions of individuals every year. Integrating high-frequency Tissue Harmonic Imaging ultrasound with MRI and CT gives the greatest opportunity for diagnosing specific injuries. (orig.)

  10. A comparison of freeway median crash frequency, severity, and barrier strike outcomes by median barrier type.

    Russo, Brendan J; Savolainen, Peter T

    2018-08-01

    Median-crossover crashes are among the most hazardous events that can occur on freeways, often resulting in severe or fatal injuries. The primary countermeasure to reduce the occurrence of such crashes is the installation of a median barrier. When installation of a median barrier is warranted, transportation agencies are faced with the decision among various alternatives including concrete barriers, beam guardrail, or high-tension cable barriers. Each barrier type differs in terms of its deflection characteristics upon impact, the required installation and maintenance costs, and the roadway characteristics (e.g., median width) where installation would be feasible. This study involved an investigation of barrier performance through an in-depth analysis of crash frequency and severity data from freeway segments where high-tension cable, thrie-beam, and concrete median barriers were installed. A comprehensive manual review of crash reports was conducted to identify crashes in which a vehicle left the roadway and encroached into the median. This review also involved an examination of crash outcomes when a barrier strike occurred, which included vehicle containment, penetration, or re-direction onto the travel lanes. The manual review of crash reports provided critical supplementary information through narratives and diagrams not normally available through standard fields on police crash report forms. Statistical models were estimated to identify factors that affect the frequency, severity, and outcomes of median-related crashes, with particular emphases on differences between segments with varying median barrier types. Several roadway-, traffic-, and environmental-related characteristics were found to affect these metrics, with results varying across the different barrier types. The results of this study provide transportation agencies with important guidance as to the in-service performance of various types of median barrier. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  11. Motorcycle Accident injuries seen at Kakamega Provincial Hospital ...

    Background: Injuries related to motorcycles contribute significantly to the number of road traffic injuries This study was aimed at determining the pattern of injuries caused by motorcycle crash among patients seen at Kakamega provincial hospital in Kenya... Methods: This was a cross sectional study which was conducted in ...

  12. Crash risk factors for interstate large trucks in North Carolina.

    Teoh, Eric R; Carter, Daniel L; Smith, Sarah; McCartt, Anne T

    2017-09-01

    Provide an updated examination of risk factors for large truck involvements in crashes resulting in injury or death. A matched case-control study was conducted in North Carolina of large trucks operated by interstate carriers. Cases were defined as trucks involved in crashes resulting in fatal or non-fatal injury, and one control truck was matched on the basis of location, weekday, time of day, and truck type. The matched-pair odds ratio provided an estimate of the effect of various driver, vehicle, or carrier factors. Out-of-service (OOS) brake violations tripled the risk of crashing; any OOS vehicle defect increased crash risk by 362%. Higher historical crash rates (fatal, injury, or all crashes) of the carrier were associated with increased risk of crashing. Operating on a short-haul exemption increased crash risk by 383%. Antilock braking systems reduced crash risk by 65%. All of these results were statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. Other safety technologies also showed estimated benefits, although not statistically significant. With the exception of the finding that short-haul exemption is associated with increased crash risk, results largely bolster what is currently known about large truck crash risk and reinforce current enforcement practices. Results also suggest vehicle safety technologies can be important in lowering crash risk. This means that as safety technology continues to penetrate the fleet, whether from voluntary usage or government mandates, reductions in large truck crashes may be achieved. Practical application: Results imply that increased enforcement and use of crash avoidance technologies can improve the large truck crash problem. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Firework-related childhood injuries in Greece: a national problem.

    Vassilia, Konte; Eleni, Petridou; Dimitrios, Trichopoulos

    2004-03-01

    During a 5-year period, out of 110066 children with injuries recorded in the Greek Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System (EDISS), 91 had firework-related injuries. Descriptive analyses and the Barrell matrix were used to determine risk factors and extrapolated national firework childhood injury figures were calculated. The estimated annual incidence of childhood firework injuries treated in the emergency departments of hospitals countrywide, was 7 per 100000 children years. Seventy percent of injuries concerned older children (10-14 years), mostly boys with self-inflicted injuries, whereas girls suffered injuries as bystanders. A sharp peak in spring was noted, when the Greek Orthodox Easter is celebrated. Illicitly sold fireworks caused most injuries, but in eight instances homemade firecrackers were responsible.

  14. Investigation on occupant injury severity in rear-end crashes involving trucks as the front vehicle in Beijing area, China

    Quan Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: All the abovementioned significant factors should be improved, such as the conditions of lighting and the layout of lanes on roads. Two of the most common driver factors are drivers' age and drivers' original residence. Young drivers and outsiders have a higher injury severity. Therefore it is imperative to enhance the safety education and management on the young drivers who steer heavy duty truck from other cities to Beijing on weekdays.

  15. Advances in crash dynamics for aircraft safety

    Guida, M.; Marulo, F.; Abrate, S.

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies the ability of the fuselage's lower lobe to absorb the energy during a crash landing, where the introduction of the composite materials can improve the crash survivability thanks to the crushing capability of structural parts to limit the effects of deceleration on the occupants. Providing a protective shell around the occupants and minimizing the risks of injuries during and immediately after the crash in the post-crash regime is a safety requirement. This study consists of: (1) numerical and experimental investigations on small components to verify design concepts using high performance composite materials; (2) analyses of full scale crashes of fuselage lower lobes. This paper outlines an approach for demonstrating the crashworthiness characteristics of the airframe performing a drop test at low velocity impact to validate a numerical model obtained by assembling structural components and materials' properties previously obtained by testing coupons and sub-elements.

  16. Sleep Duration and Injury-Related Risk Behaviors Among High School Students--United States, 2007-2013.

    Wheaton, Anne G; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; Miller, Gabrielle F; Croft, Janet B

    2016-04-08

    Insufficient sleep is common among high school students and has been associated with an increased risk for motor vehicle crashes (1), sports injuries (2), and occupational injuries (3). To evaluate the association between self-reported sleep duration on an average school night and several injury-related risk behaviors (infrequent bicycle helmet use, infrequent seatbelt use, riding with a driver who had been drinking, drinking and driving, and texting while driving) among U.S. high school students, CDC analyzed data from 50,370 high school students (grades 9-12) who participated in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBSs) in 2007, 2009, 2011, or 2013. The likelihood of each of the five risk behaviors was significantly higher for students who reported sleeping ≤7 hours on an average school night; infrequent seatbelt use, riding with a drinking driver, and drinking and driving were also more likely for students who reported sleeping ≥10 hours compared with 9 hours on an average school night. Although insufficient sleep directly contributes to injury risk, some of the increased risk associated with insufficient sleep might be caused by engaging in injury-related risk behaviors. Intervention efforts aimed at these behaviors might help reduce injuries resulting from sleepiness, as well as provide opportunities for increasing awareness of the importance of sleep.

  17. Effect of Accounting for Crash Severity on the Relationship between Mass Reduction and Crash Frequency and Risk per Crash

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Building Technology and Urban Systems Division. Energy Technologies Area

    2016-05-20

    Previous analyses have indicated that mass reduction is associated with an increase in crash frequency (crashes per VMT), but a decrease in fatality or casualty risk once a crash has occurred, across all types of light-duty vehicles. These results are counter-intuitive: one would expect that lighter, and perhaps smaller, vehicles have better handling and shorter braking distances, and thus should be able to avoid crashes that heavier vehicles cannot. And one would expect that heavier vehicles would have lower risk once a crash has occurred than lighter vehicles. However, these trends occur under several alternative regression model specifications. This report tests whether these results continue to hold after accounting for crash severity, by excluding crashes that result in relatively minor damage to the vehicle(s) involved in the crash. Excluding non-severe crashes from the initial LBNL Phase 2 and simultaneous two-stage regression models for the most part has little effect on the unexpected relationships observed in the baseline regression models. This finding suggests that other subtle differences in vehicles and/or their drivers, or perhaps biases in the data reported in state crash databases, are causing the unexpected results from the regression models.

  18. Changes in crash risk following re-timing of traffic signal change intervals.

    Retting, Richard A; Chapline, Janella F; Williams, Allan F

    2002-03-01

    More than I million motor vehicle crashes occur annually at signalized intersections in the USA. The principal method used to prevent crashes associated with routine changes in signal indications is employment of a traffic signal change interval--a brief yellow and all-red period that follows the green indication. No universal practice exists for selecting the duration of change intervals, and little is known about the influence of the duration of the change interval on crash risk. The purpose of this study was to estimate potential crash effects of modifying the duration of traffic signal change intervals to conform with values associated with a proposed recommended practice published by the Institute of Transportation Engineers. A sample of 122 intersections was identified and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Of 51 eligible experimental sites, 40 (78%) needed signal timing changes. For the 3-year period following implementation of signal timing changes, there was an 8% reduction in reportable crashes at experimental sites relative to those occurring at control sites (P = 0.08). For injury crashes, a 12% reduction at experimental sites relative to those occurring at control sites was found (P = 0.03). Pedestrian and bicycle crashes at experimental sites decreased 37% (P = 0.03) relative to controls. Given these results and the relatively low cost of re-timing traffic signals, modifying the duration of traffic signal change intervals to conform with values associated with the Institute of Transportation Engineers' proposed recommended practice should be strongly considered by transportation agencies to reduce the frequency of urban motor vehicle crashes.

  19. Heavy drinking and alcohol-related injuries in college students

    Lucía Moure-Rodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: We can conclude that heavy drinking leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries. This shows a new dimension on the consequences of this public concern already related with a variety of health and social problems. Furthermore, our results allow us to suggest that about half of alcohol-related injuries could be avoided by removing this consumption pattern.

  20. The combined benefits of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in preventing crashes and reducing crash severity.

    Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported the benefits of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing injury crashes, due to improved stability and braking performance. Both aspects may prevent crashes but may also reduce the crash severity when a collision occurs. However, it is still unknown to what extent the reductions in injury crashes with ABS may be due to a combination of these mechanisms. Swedish hospital and police reports (2003-2012) were used. The risk for permanent medical impairment (RPMI) was calculated, showing the risk of at least 1 or 10% permanent medical impairment. In total, 165 crashes involving ABS-equipped motorcycles were compared with 500 crashes with similar motorcycles without ABS. The analysis was performed in 3 steps. First, the reduction in emergency care visits with ABS was calculated using an induced exposure approach. Secondly, the injury mitigating effects of ABS were investigated. The mean RPMI 1+ and RPMI 10+ were analyzed for different crash types. The distributions of impairing injuries (PMI 1+) and severely impairing injuries (PMI 10+) were also analyzed. In the third step, the total reduction of PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ injured motorcyclists was calculated by combining the reductions found in the previous steps. An additional analysis of combined braking systems (CBS) together with ABS was also performed. The results showed that emergency care visits were reduced by 47% with ABS. In the second step, it was found that the mean RPMI 1+ and RPMI 10+ with ABS were 15 and 37% lower, respectively. Finally, the third step showed that the total reductions in terms of crash avoidance and mitigation of PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ injured motorcyclists with ABS were 67 and 55%, respectively. However, PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ leg injuries were not reduced by ABS to the same extent. Indications were found suggesting that the benefits of ABS together with CBS may be greater than ABS alone. This article indicated that motorcycle ABS reduced impairing injuries

  1. Proposal of a new preliminary scoring tool for early identification of significant blunt bowel and mesenteric injuries in patients at risk after road traffic crashes.

    Raharimanantsoa, Mahery; Zingg, Tobias; Thiery, Alicia; Brigand, Cécile; Delhorme, Jean-Baptiste; Romain, Benoît

    2017-12-14

    Blunt bowel and mesenteric injuries (BBMI) are regularly missed by abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans. The aim of this study was to develop a risk assessment tool for BBMI to help clinicians in decision-making for blunt trauma after road traffic crashes (RTCs). Single-center retrospective study of trauma patients from January 2010 to April 2015. All patients admitted to our hospital after blunt trauma following RTCs and CT scan at admission were assessed. Of the 394 patients included, 78 (19.8%) required surgical exploration and 34 (43.6%) of these had a significant BBMI. A univariate and multivariate analysis were performed comparing patients with BBMI (n = 34) and patients without BBMI (n = 360). A score with a range from 0 to 13 was created. Scores from 8 to 9 were associated with 5-25% BBMI risk. The power of this new score ≥ 8 to predict a surgically significant BBMI had a sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 86.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 48% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.4%. This score could be a valuable tool for the management of blunt trauma patients after RTA without a clear indication for laparotomy but at risk for BBMI. The outcome of this study suggests selective diagnostic laparoscopy for a score ≥ 8 in obtunded patients and ≥ 10 in all other. To assess the value and accuracy of this new score, a prospective validation of these retrospective findings is due.

  2. Sports related injuries in Scottish adolescents aged 11-15

    Williams, J. M.; Wright, P.; Currie, C. E.; Beattie, T. F.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To measure the age and sex distribution of self reported sports and leisure injuries in a 12 month retrospective recall period among a representative national sample of Scottish adolescents, and to examine the characteristics (gender, age, handedness, and level of sports participation) of sports related injuries in relation to injuries sustained during other activities. DESIGN/SETTING: Self completion questionnaire survey administered in schools during April- June 1994. SUBJ...

  3. Work-related injuries in minors.

    Schober, S E; Handke, J L; Halperin, W E; Moll, M B; Thun, M J

    1988-01-01

    Since 1938, federal child labor laws have restricted employment of persons under 18 years old, in part to protect them from hazardous occupations. Workers' compensation claims reported to the Supplementary Data System of the Bureau of Labor Statistics were examined to define the current status of occupational injuries among minors. Data tapes from 1980 to 1983 were searched to identify all current claims for injuries and illnesses occurring in 1980 in persons under age 18. Injury rates were calculated using information about employment in 1979 available from the 1980 census. In the 24 states included in this study, 23,823 claims were reported for persons less than 18 years old. Of these claims, approximately 10% were from persons under age 16. Rates of injuries in 16- and 17 year olds were 12.6 per 100 full-time male workers and 6.6 per 100 full-time female workers. Serious injuries included fractures, dislocations, and amputations, accounting for 5.8%, 0.7%, and 0.6% of cases, respectively. California, the only state that coded whether injuries resulted in fatalities, reported 12 deaths in this age group. Machines and vehicles, many of which are restricted under child labor laws, accounted for 8.3% and 5.8% of claims. These data suggest that persons under age 18 years are not adequately protected from occupational injury. Further attention and, possibly, new preventive strategies are needed.

  4. Seizure-related injuries in children and adolescents with epilepsy.

    Lagunju, IkeOluwa A; Oyinlade, Alexander O; Babatunde, Olubusayo D

    2016-01-01

    Children with epilepsy are reported to be at a greater risk of injuries compared with their peers who do not have epilepsy. We set out to determine the frequency and pattern of seizure-related injuries in children with epilepsy seen at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. Consecutive cases of epilepsy seen at the pediatric neurology clinic of the UCH, Ibadan over a period of 6months were evaluated for injuries in the preceding 12months using a structured questionnaire. These were compared with age- and sex-matched controls. A total of 125 children with epilepsy and 125 age- and sex-matched controls were studied. Injuries occurred more frequently in children with epilepsy than in their peers (p=0.01, OR 1.935, 95% CI 1.142-3.280). Epilepsy was generalized in 80 (64.0%), and localization-related in 45 (36.0%). Idiopathic epilepsy accounted for 74 (59.2%), and the remaining 51 (40.8%) had remote symptomatic epilepsy. Fifty-seven (45.6%) children had suffered seizure-related injuries with multiple injuries in 31 (24.8%). The most frequent were skin/soft tissue lacerations (26.4%), injuries to the tongue and soft tissues of the mouth (19.2%), minor head injuries (15.2%), and dental injuries with tooth loss (8.0%). There was a statistically significant association between seizure frequency and seizure-related injuries (p=0.002). Children on polytherapy had a significantly higher frequency of seizure-related injuries (pEpilepsy is a major risk factor for injuries in childhood. High seizure frequency increases the risk of multiple injuries in children with epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Seat belt-related injuries: A surgical perspective

    Tahir Masudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Legislation making seatbelt use mandatory is considered to have reduced fatal and serious injuries by 25%, with UK government estimates predicting more than 50,000 lives saved since its introduction. However, whilst the widespread use of seatbelts has reduced the incidence of major traumatic injury and death from road-traffic collisions (RTCs, their use has also heralded a range of different injuries. The first ever seatbelt related injury was described in 1956, and since then clear patterns of seatbelt-related injuries have been recognised. Methodology and Findings: This review of the published literature demonstrates that the combination of airbags and three-point seatbelts renders no part of the body free from injury. Serious injuries can, and do, occur even when passengers are properly restrained and attending clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for overt or covert intra-abdominal injuries when patients involved in RTCs attend the Emergency Department. Bruising to the trunk and abdomen in a seatbelt distribution is an obvious sign that suggests an increased risk of abdominal and thoracic injury, but bruising may not be apparent and its absence should not be falsely reassuring. A high index of suspicion should be retained for other subtler signs of injury. Children and pregnant women represent high-risk groups who are particularly vulnerable to injuries. Conclusion: In this review we highlight the common patterns of seatbelt-related injuries. A greater awareness of the type of injuries caused by seatbelt use will help clinicians to identify and treat overt and covert injuries earlier, and help reduce the rates of morbidity and mortality following RTCs.

  6. Bubbles, Post-Crash Dynamics, and the Housing Market

    Crocker H. Liu; Adam Nowak; Stuart Rosenthal

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents and explains previously unrecognized post-crash dynamics following the collapse of a housing bubble. A simple model predicts that speculative developers ensure stable pre-crash relative prices between small and large homes while their post-crash exit allows small-home relative values to fall. Evidence from Phoenix supports the model. Although home prices doubled 2004-2006, relative prices of small-to-large homes remained nearly constant but then plummeted post-crash. As s...

  7. Comparison of teen and adult driver crash scenarios in a nationally representative sample of serious crashes.

    McDonald, Catherine C; Curry, Allison E; Kandadai, Venk; Sommers, Marilyn S; Winston, Flaura K

    2014-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and acquired disability during the first four decades of life. While teen drivers have the highest crash risk, few studies examine the similarities and differences in teen and adult driver crashes. We aimed to: (1) identify and compare the most frequent crash scenarios-integrated information on a vehicle's movement prior to crash, immediate pre-crash event, and crash configuration-for teen and adult drivers involved in serious crashes, and (2) for the most frequent scenarios, explore whether the distribution of driver critical errors differed for teens and adult drivers. We analyzed data from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey, a nationally representative study of serious crashes conducted by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration from 2005 to 2007. Our sample included 642 16- to 19-year-old and 1167 35- to 54-year-old crash-involved drivers (weighted n=296,482 and 439,356, respectively) who made a critical error that led to their crash's critical pre-crash event (i.e., event that made the crash inevitable). We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare the relative frequency of crash scenarios and driver critical errors. The top five crash scenarios among teen drivers, accounting for 37.3% of their crashes, included: (1) going straight, other vehicle stopped, rear end; (2) stopped in traffic lane, turning left at intersection, turn into path of other vehicle; (3) negotiating curve, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; (4) going straight, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; and (5) stopped in lane, turning left at intersection, turn across path of other vehicle. The top five crash scenarios among adult drivers, accounting for 33.9% of their crashes, included the same scenarios as the teen drivers with the exception of scenario (3) and the addition of going straight, crossing over an intersection, and continuing on a

  8. Epidemiology of Muay Thai fight-related injuries.

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improving the health and safety of Muay Thai fighters engaged in competition. This study is based upon a survey of 195 Muay Thai fighters. Participants were asked to complete a retrospective web survey on fight-related injuries. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether injuries during sanctioned fights were related to factors such as fight experience, use of protective equipment, and injury history. Participants were aged 18 to 47 years old (median 26), predominantly male (85.9%), and white (72.3%). Respondents were professional (n = 96, 49.2%) and amateur (n = 99, 50.8%). Fighters reported a mean fight experience of 15.8 fights. Of the 195 respondents, 108 (55.4%) reported sustaining an injury during the most recent fight. The primary body region injured was the extremities (58%) versus the head, with a lower amount of self-reported concussions (5.4%). Nearly 2/3 (66.7%) of all injured fighters reported that the injury did not interfere with the bout outcome. Nearly 25% reported they missed no training time as a result of the injury. Injuries were related to professional fighter status (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.5), fight experience (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.5-4.9), weight class (OR = 0.923 heavy versus light, 95% CI = .86-.99), age (OR = 0.90 > 26 versus ≤26, 95% CI = .85-.95), use of protective equipment (OR = .46, 95% CI = .26-.82) and previous injury (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = .98-3.3). Lighter, younger, and more experienced

  9. Imaging of sports-related hip and groin injuries.

    Lischuk, Andrew W; Dorantes, Thomas M; Wong, William; Haims, Andrew H

    2010-05-01

    A normally functioning hip joint is imperative for athletes who use their lower extremities with running, jumping, or kicking activities. Sports-related injuries of the hip and groin are far less frequent than injuries to the more distal aspect of the extremity, accounting for less than 10% of lower extremity injuries. Despite the lower incidence, hip and groin injuries can lead to significant clinical and diagnostic challenges related to the complex anatomy and biomechanical considerations of this region. Loads up to 8 times normal body weight have been documented in the joint in common daily activities, such as jogging, with significantly greater force expected during competitive athletics. Additionally, treatment for hip and groin injuries can obviate the participation of medical and surgical specialties, with a multidisciplinary approach frequently required. Delay in diagnosis and triage of these injuries may cause loss of time from competition and, potentially, early onset of degenerative changes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hip has proven to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of sports-related hip and groin injuries in the setting of negative radiographs. With its exquisite soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capabilities, and lack of ionizing radiation, MRI is unmatched in the noninvasive diagnosis of intra-articular and extra-articular pathology, as well as intraosseous processes. This review focuses on MRI of common athletic injuries of the hip and groin, including acetabular labral tears, femoral acetabular impingement syndrome, muscle injuries around the hip and groin (including athletic pubalgia), and athletic osseous injuries.

  10. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    2015-07-14

    raised against β-APP (Cat # 51- 2700, Life Technologies , Grand Island, NY) and processed by routine avidin biotin peroxidase method. The presence of...pathology of traumatic axonal injury involves distinct injury processes, neurofilament compaction ( NFC ) and impaired axoplasmic transport (IAT)1. In rat...blunt trauma studies NFC was evidenced by immunoreactive axons that were thin, elongated and sometimes with vacuolations as revealed by RMO14

  11. Cross-country VFR crashes: pilot and contextual factors.

    O'Hare, David; Owen, Douglas

    2002-04-01

    General Aviation (GA) cross-country crashes, particularly those involving weather, continue to be a major source of fatalities, with a fatality rate more than four times greater than for GA crashes in general. There has been much speculation and little solid evidence on the causes of these crashes. We have designed a program of laboratory and database research into the causes of cross-country weather-related crashes including an analysis of air crashes in New Zealand between 1988 and 2000. There were 1308 reported occurrences in this period. We examined in detail 77 crashes where it could be determined that the aircraft was on a cross-country flight. In our first analysis we compared the characteristics of crashes that occurred in response to externally driven failures with crashes where the aircraft continued to be flown at the pilot's discretion up until the point of the crash. Clear differences were found for visibility, altitude, crash severity, and for several pilot characteristics. These differences are highly consistent with those found for previous research on pilot characteristics and crash involvement. In the second analysis we made comparisons between the weather-related and nonweather-related crashes in the discretionary control group and between subcategories of weather-related crashes. These data show that weather-related crashes occur further into the flight and closer to the planned destination than other kinds of cross-country crashes in GA. Pilots involved in these crashes are younger and have more recent flight time than pilots involved in other crashes. Their increased involvement cannot be explained simply by exposure (flight-time) but must be due to other factors.

  12. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

    Robertson, S

    2002-01-01

    ...), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S...

  13. Golf-related injuries treated in United States emergency departments.

    Walsh, Brittany A; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Friedenberg, Laura; Smith, Gary A

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates unintentional non-fatal golf-related injuries in the US using a nationally representative database. This study analyzed golf-related injuries treated in US hospital emergency departments from 1990 through 2011 using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Injury rates were calculated using golf participation data. During 1990 through 2011, an estimated 663,471 (95% CI: 496,370-830,573) individuals ≥7years old were treated in US emergency departments for golf-related injuries, averaging 30,158 annually or 12.3 individuals per 10,000 golf participants. Patients 18-54years old accounted for 42.2% of injuries, but injury rates per 10,000 golf participants were highest among individuals 7-17years old (22.1) and ≥55years old (21.8) compared with 18-54years old (7.6). Patients ≥55years old had a hospital admission rate that was 5.01 (95% CI: 4.12-6.09) times higher than that of younger patients. Injured by a golf club (23.4%) or struck by a golf ball (16.0%) were the most common specified mechanisms of injury. The head/neck was the most frequently injured body region (36.2%), and sprain/strain (30.6%) was the most common type of injury. Most patients were treated and released (93.7%) and 5.9% required hospitalization. Although golf is a source of injury among all age groups, the frequency and rate of injury were higher at the two ends of the age spectrum. Given the higher injury and hospital admission rates of patients ≥55years, this age group merits the special attention of additional research and injury prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Horse-related injuries in children - unmounted injuries are more severe: A retrospective review.

    Wolyncewicz, Grace E L; Palmer, Cameron S; Jowett, Helen E; Hutson, John M; King, Sebastian K; Teague, Warwick J

    2018-05-01

    Horse-related injuries account for one quarter of all paediatric sports fatalities. It is not known whether the pattern of injury spectrum and severity differ between children injured whilst mounted, compared with those injured unmounted around horses. We aimed to identify any distinctions between the demographic features, spectrum and severity of injuries for mounted versus unmounted patients. Trauma registry data were reviewed for 505 consecutive paediatric patients (agedinjuries over a 16-year period. Patients were classified into mounted and unmounted groups, and demographics, injury spectrum, injury severity, and helmet usage compared using odds ratios and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. More patients (56%) were injured in a private setting than in a sporting or supervised context (23%). Overall, head injuries were the most common horse-related injury. Mounted patients comprised 77% of the cohort. Mounted patients were more likely to sustain upper limb fractures or spinal injuries, and more likely to wear helmets. Unmounted were more likely to be younger males, and more likely to sustain facial or abdominal injuries. Strikingly, unmounted children had significantly more severe and critical Injury Severity Scores (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.5, 4.6) and longer hospital stay (2.0days vs 1.1days; pinjury. Horse-related injuries in children are serious. Unmounted patients are distinct from mounted patients in terms of gender, age, likelihood of personal protective equipment use, severity of injuries, and requirement for intensive or invasive care. This study highlights the importance of vigilance and other safety behaviours when unmounted and around horses, and proposes specific targets for future injury prevention campaigns, both in setting of organised and private equestrian activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of sports injuries related with shooting.

    Kabak, Banu; Karanfilci, Muharrem; Ersöz, Taner; Kabak, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    Athletes typically maintain rigorous training and work programs to be able to participate in competitions. An injury that occurs during the competition that causes withdrawal from the competition and a possible departure from sports, can render results athletes' and their support staff's efforts as meaningless. The early detection of injuries in the competition and developing preventive training programs can help ensure that participating in competitions and the associated preparatory efforts are not wasted. In this study, the sports injuries discussed occurred during training and competition events of the Turkish Shooting Sportive group. Body parts of injuries are determined and exercise programs focused on the affected body parts are developed. A total of 729 athletes (285 female, 444 male) who participated in Turkish Shooting Sports Championship during the 2010-2011 competition period participated in the study. Athletes were given a questionnaire that was developed prior to the event, and the questionnaire was filled in during interviews conducted one-on-one. Data was collected from the questionnaire and SPSS v.16.0 was used to analyze the results. The study was completed in six months. The results showed that the most of the injuries that occurred during training were strain and muscle tears whereas most of the injuries occurred during the actual competition were strain, muscle tears, tendinitis, and sprain. The results also indicated that during training, the most frequently-occurring injuries were in shoulder, calf-thigh, hand and wrist; whereas during the competition, it was manifested in the shoulder, foot and ankle. Muscle strengthening, stretching and proprioception exercises for these body parts should be included as part of the athletic training program.

  16. Traffic crash accidents in Tehran, Iran: Its relation with circadian rhythm of sleepiness.

    Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Yazdi, Zohreh; Moradinia, Mohsen; Aminian, Omid; Esmaili, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are one of main problems in Iran. Multiple factors cause traffic accidents and the most important one is sleepiness. This factor, however, is given less attention in our country. Road traffic accidents relevant to sleepiness are studied. In this cross-sectional study, all road traffic accidents relevant to sleepiness, which were reported by police, were studied in Tehran province in 2009. The risk of road traffic accidents due to sleepiness was increased by more than sevenfold (odds ratio = 7.33) in low alertness hours (0:00-6:00) compared to other time of day. The risk of road traffic accidents due to sleepiness was decreased by 0.15-fold (odds ratio = 0.15) in hours with maximum of alertness (18:00-22:00) of circadian rhythm compared to other time of day. The occurrence of road traffic accidents due to sleepiness has significant statistical relations with driving during lowest point of alertness of circadian rhythm.

  17. Weather warnings predict fall-related injuries among older adults.

    Mondor, Luke; Charland, Katia; Verma, Aman; Buckeridge, David L

    2015-05-01

    weather predictions are a useful tool for informing public health planning and prevention strategies for non-injury health outcomes, but the association between winter weather warnings and fall-related injuries has not been assessed previously. to examine the association between fall-related injuries among older adults and government-issued winter weather warnings. using a dynamic cohort of individuals ≥65 years of age who lived in Montreal between 1998 and 2006, we identified all fall-related injuries from administrative data using a validated set of diagnostic and procedure codes. We compared rates of injuries on days with freezing rain or snowstorm warnings to rates observed on days without warnings. We also compared the incidence of injuries on winter days to non-winter days. All analyses were performed overall and stratified by age and sex. freezing rain alerts were associated with an increase in fall-related injuries (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.32), particularly among males (IRR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.10-1.56), and lower rates of injuries were associated with snowstorm alerts (IRR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.80-0.99). The rate of fall-related injuries did not differ seasonally (IRR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.97-1.03). official weather warnings are predictive of increases in fall-related injuries among older adults. Public health agencies should consider using these warnings to trigger initiation of injury prevention strategies in advance of inclement weather. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Lateral automobile impacts and the risk of traumatic brain injury.

    Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Fisher, Susan Gross; Flesher, William; Lillis, Robert; Knox, Kerry L; Pearson, Thomas A

    2004-08-01

    We determine the relative risk and severity of traumatic brain injury among occupants of lateral impacts compared with occupants of nonlateral impacts. This was a secondary analysis of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's National Automotive Sampling System, Crashworthiness Data Systems for 2000. Analysis was restricted to occupants of vehicles in which at least 1 person experienced an injury with Abbreviated Injury Scale score greater than 2. Traumatic brain injury was defined as an injury to the head or skull with an Abbreviated Injury Scale score greater than 2. Outcomes were analyzed using the chi2 test and multivariate logistic regression, with adjustment of variance to account for weighted probability sampling. Of the 1,115 occupants available for analysis, impact direction was lateral for 230 (18.42%) occupants and nonlateral for 885 (81.58%) occupants. One hundred eighty-seven (16.07%) occupants experienced a traumatic brain injury, 14.63% after lateral and 16.39% after nonlateral impact. The unadjusted relative risk of traumatic brain injury after lateral impact was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51 to 1.56). After adjusting for several important crash-related variables, the relative risk of traumatic brain injury was 2.60 (95% CI 1.1 to 6.0). Traumatic brain injuries were more severe after lateral impact according to Abbreviated Injury Scale and Glasgow Coma Scale scores. The proportion of fatal or critical crash-related traumatic brain injuries attributable to lateral impact was 23.5%. Lateral impact is an important independent risk factor for the development of traumatic brain injury after a serious motor vehicle crash. Traumatic brain injuries incurred after lateral impact are more severe than those resulting from nonlateral impact. Vehicle modifications that increase head protection could reduce crash-related severe traumatic brain injuries by up to 61% and prevent up to 2,230 fatal or critical traumatic brain injuries each year

  19. Does an on-road motorcycle coaching program reduce crashes in novice riders? A randomised control trial.

    Ivers, Rebecca Q; Sakashita, Chika; Senserrick, Teresa; Elkington, Jane; Lo, Serigne; Boufous, Soufiane; de Rome, Liz

    2016-01-01

    Motorcycle riding is increasing globally and confers a high risk of crash-related injury and death. There is community demand for investment in rider training programs but no high-quality evidence about its effectiveness in preventing crashes. This randomised trial of an on-road rider coaching program aimed to determine its effectiveness in reducing crashes in novice motorcycle riders. Between May 2010 and October 2012, 2399 newly-licensed provisional riders were recruited in Victoria, Australia and completed a telephone interview before randomisation to intervention or control groups. Riders in the intervention group were offered an on-road motorcycle rider coaching program which involved pre-program activities, 4h riding and facilitated discussion in small groups with a riding coach. Outcome measures were collected for all participants via telephone interviews at 3 and 12 months after program delivery (or equivalent for controls), and via linkage to police-recorded crash and offence data. The primary outcome was a composite measure of police-recorded and self-reported crashes; secondary outcomes included traffic offences, near crashes, riding exposure, and riding behaviours and motivations. Follow-up was 89% at 3 months and 88% at 12 months; 60% of the intervention group completed the program. Intention-to-treat analyses conducted in 2014 indicated no effect on crash risk at 3 months (adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.65-1.27) or 12 months (adjusted OR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.78-1.29). Riders in the intervention group reported increased riding exposure, speeding behaviours and rider confidence. There was no evidence that this on-road motorcycle rider coaching program reduced the risk of crash, and we found an increase in crash-related risk factors. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Sports-related injuries in athletes with disabilities.

    Fagher, K; Lexell, J

    2014-10-01

    The number of athletes with disabilities participating in organized sports and the popularity of the Paralympic Games is steadily increasing around the world. Despite this growing interest and the fact that participation in sports places the athlete at risk for injury, there are few studies concerning injury patterns, risk factors, and prevention strategies of injuries in disabled athletes. In this systematic literature search and critical review, we summarize current knowledge of the epidemiology of sports-related injuries in disabled athletes and describe their characteristics, incidence, prevalence, and prevention strategies. The outcomes of interest were any injury, either an acute trauma or an overuse event. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were systematically searched and 25 of 605 identified studies met the inclusion criteria. Lower extremity injuries were more common in walking athletes, whereas upper extremity injuries were more prevalent in wheelchair athletes. The methodologies and populations varied widely between the studies. Few studies were sports or disability specific, which makes it difficult to determine specific risk factors, and few studies reported injury severity and prevention of injuries. Further longitudinal, systematic sports and disability specific studies are needed in order to identify and prevent injuries in athletes with disabilities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Boda-boda injuries a health problem and a burden of disease in ...

    Background: Injury and deaths due to road traffic crashes are a major public health problem in developing countries. Boda bodas (motorcycles) are a practical and a sought after economic activity in Uganda's capital and cities. The injuries related to boda bodas contribute significantly to the number road traffic injuries seen ...

  2. How similar are two-unit bicycle and motorcycle crashes?

    Haworth, Narelle; Debnath, Ashim Kumar

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores the similarities and differences between bicycle and motorcycle crashes with other motor vehicles. If similar treatments can be effective for both bicycle and motorcycle crashes, then greater benefits in terms of crash costs saved may be possible for the same investment in treatments. To reduce the biases associated with under-reporting of these crashes to police, property damage and minor injury crashes were excluded. The most common crash type for both bicycles (31.1%) and motorcycles (24.5%) was intersection from adjacent approaches. Drivers of other vehicles were coded most at fault in the majority of two-unit bicycle (57.0%) and motorcycle crashes (62.7%). The crash types, patterns of fault and factors affecting fault were generally similar for bicycle and motorcycle crashes. This confirms the need to combat the factors contributing to failure of other drivers to yield right of way to two-wheelers, and suggest that some of these actions should prove beneficial to the safety of both motorized and non-motorized two-wheelers. In contrast, child bicyclists were more often at fault, particularly in crashes involving a vehicle leaving the driveway or footpath. The greater reporting of violations by riders and drivers in motorcycle crashes also deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct medical costs of motorcycle crashes in Ontario.

    Pincus, Daniel; Wasserstein, David; Nathens, Avery B; Bai, Yu Qing; Redelmeier, Donald A; Wodchis, Walter P

    2017-11-20

    There is no reliable estimate of costs incurred by motorcycle crashes. Our objective was to calculate the direct costs of all publicly funded medical care provided to individuals after motorcycle crashes compared with automobile crashes. We conducted a population-based, matched cohort study of adults in Ontario who presented to hospital because of a motorcycle or automobile crash from 2007 through 2013. For each case, we identified 1 control absent a motor vehicle crash during the study period. Direct costs for each case and control were estimated in 2013 Canadian dollars from the payer perspective using methodology that links health care use to individuals over time. We calculated costs attributable to motorcycle and automobile crashes within 2 years using a difference-in-differences approach. We identified 26 831 patients injured in motorcycle crashes and 281 826 injured in automobile crashes. Mean costs attributable to motorcycle and automobile crashes were $5825 and $2995, respectively ( p motorcycle crashes compared with automobile crashes (2194 injured annually/100 000 registered motorcycles v. 718 injured annually/100 000 registered automobiles; incidence rate ratio [IRR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8 to 3.3, p motorcycles v. 12 severe injuries annually/100 000 registered automobiles; IRR 10.4, 95% CI 8.3 to 13.1, p motorcycle in Ontario costs the public health care system 6 times the amount of each registered automobile. Medical costs may provide an additional incentive to improve motorcycle safety. © 2017 Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  4. Under-reporting of road traffic crash data in Ghana.

    Salifu, Mohammed; Ackaah, Williams

    2012-01-01

    Having reliable estimates of the shortfalls in road traffic crash data is an important prerequisite for setting more realistic targets for crash/casualty reduction programmes and for a better appreciation of the socio-economic significance of road traffic crashes. This study was carried out to establish realistic estimates of the overall shortfall (under-reporting) in the official crash statistics in Ghana over an eight-year period (1997-2004). Surveys were conducted at hospitals and among drivers to generate relevant alternative data which were then matched against records in police crash data files and the official database. Overall shortfalls came from two sources, namely, 'non-reporting' and 'under-recording'. The results show that the level of non-reporting varied significantly with the severity of the crash from about 57% for property damage crashes through 8% for serious injury crashes to 0% for fatal crashes. Crashes involving cyclists and motorcyclists were also substantially non-reported. Under-recording on the other hand declined significantly over the period from an average of 37% in 1997-1998 to 27% in 2003-2004. Thus, the official statistics of road traffic crashes in Ghana are subject to significant shortfalls that need to be accounted for. Correction factors have therefore been suggested for adjusting the official data.

  5. The Pattern of Road Traffic Crashes in South East Iran.

    Rad, Mahdieh; Martiniuk, Alexandra Lc; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Rashedi, Fariborz; Ghasemi, Ardavan

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the epidemiologic aspects of road traffic crashes in South East of Iran are described. This cross-sectional study included the profile of 2398 motor vehicle crashes recorded in the police office in one Year in South East of Iran. Data collected included: demographics, the type of crash, type of involved vehicle, location of crash and factors contributing to the crash. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Collisions with other vehicles or objects contributed the highest proportion (62.4%) of motor vehicle crashes. Human factors including careless driving, violating traffic laws, speeding, and sleep deprivation/fatigue were the most important causal factors accounting for 90% of road crashes. Data shows that 41% of drivers were not using a seat belt at the time of crash. One- third of the crashes resulted in injury (25%) or death (5%). Reckless driving such as speeding and violation of traffic laws are major risk factors for crashes in the South East of Iran. This highlights the need for education along with traffic law enforcement to reduce motor vehicle crashes in future.

  6. Prevention, Evaluation, and Rehabilitation of Cycling-Related Injury.

    Kotler, Dana H; Babu, Ashwin N; Robidoux, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The unique quality of the bicycle is its ability to accommodate a wide variety of injuries and disabilities. Cycling for recreation, transportation, and competition is growing nationwide, and has proven health and societal benefits. The demands of each type of cycling dictate the necessary equipment, as well as potential for injury. Prevention of cycling-related injury in both the athlete and the recreational cyclist involves understanding the common mechanisms for both traumatic and overuse injury, and early correction of strength and flexibility imbalances, technique errors, and bicycle fit.

  7. Motor Carrier Crash Data -

    Department of Transportation — Contains data on large trucks and buses involved in Federally reportable crashes as per Title 49 U.S.C. Part 390.5 (crashes involving a commercial motor vehicle, and...

  8. Work-related ocular injuries in Johor Bahru, Malaysia

    Nyo Nyo Min

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To describe the epidemiology of work-related ocular injuries and its visual outcome in tertiary hospital in southern Malaysia. METHODS:Retrospective review of medical records of patients diagnosed as work-related ocular injuries who attended to the eye casualty of Hospital Sultan Ismail in Johor Bahru, Malaysia from Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2013. Data for clinical presentation, types of injuries, use of eye protective device(EPDand visual outcome were collected using a standardized proforma.RESULTS: A total of 935 ocular injuries attended to Hospital Sultan Ismail during 3y period. Among them 440 cases were work-related ocular injuries and included in the study. There was significant male preponderance(98.19%and commonest age group affected was 21 to 30y(45%. The most common type of injury was superficial injuries(70.91%, followed by chemical(11.13%, open globe(8.41%, closed globe(6.83%and thermal(2.72%. Although Malays are commonly involved in work-related ocular injury accounted for 78.47%, two-thirds of open globe injuries were seen in foreign workers. Only 59 patients(13.41%reported that they wore EPD at the time of incident. Generally, 89.86%(n=399had good vision, 5.45%(n=24had moderate vision and 3.86%(n=17poor vision. Visual outcome related to specific types of injuries showed that poor outcome was higher in open globe injuries groups compared with closed globe injuries \\〖odd ratio(OR=3.33, 95% confidence interval(CI=0.68 to 16.33\\〗. Overall hospital attendance rate of work-related ocular trauma ranged from 20.7 to 51.9 per 1000 new cases and decline of approximately 1.5% per year(PCONCLUSION: Work-related ocular trauma is important cause of ocular morbidity in working forces particularly young men. Malay males between 21 to 40y have higher risk. Majority of work-related ocular trauma seen in our hospital are generally of superficial injuries and potentially preventable. This study indicates they need to improve safety measures to

  9. Geriatric fall-related injuries | Hefny | African Health Sciences

    Background: Falls are the leading cause of geriatric injury. ... and outcome of geriatric fall-related injuries in order to give recommendations regarding their prevention. Methods: All injured patients with an age ≥ 60 years who were admitted to ...

  10. Work related spinal cord injury, Australia 1986–97

    O'Connor, P

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—Little has been published before on the epidemiology and prevention of work related spinal cord injury (SCI). This study is the first national population based epidemiological analysis of this type of injury. It presents that largest case series ever reported.

  11. Effects of automated speed enforcement in Montgomery County, Maryland, on vehicle speeds, public opinion, and crashes.

    Hu, Wen; McCartt, Anne T

    2016-09-01

    In May 2007, Montgomery County, Maryland, implemented an automated speed enforcement program, with cameras allowed on residential streets with speed limits of 35 mph or lower and in school zones. In 2009, the state speed camera law increased the enforcement threshold from 11 to 12 mph over the speed limit and restricted school zone enforcement hours. In 2012, the county began using a corridor approach, in which cameras were periodically moved along the length of a roadway segment. The long-term effects of the speed camera program on travel speeds, public attitudes, and crashes were evaluated. Changes in travel speeds at camera sites from 6 months before the program began to 7½ years after were compared with changes in speeds at control sites in the nearby Virginia counties of Fairfax and Arlington. A telephone survey of Montgomery County drivers was conducted in Fall 2014 to examine attitudes and experiences related to automated speed enforcement. Using data on crashes during 2004-2013, logistic regression models examined the program's effects on the likelihood that a crash involved an incapacitating or fatal injury on camera-eligible roads and on potential spillover roads in Montgomery County, using crashes in Fairfax County on similar roads as controls. About 7½ years after the program began, speed cameras were associated with a 10% reduction in mean speeds and a 62% reduction in the likelihood that a vehicle was traveling more than 10 mph above the speed limit at camera sites. When interviewed in Fall 2014, 95% of drivers were aware of the camera program, 62% favored it, and most had received a camera ticket or knew someone else who had. The overall effect of the camera program in its modified form, including both the law change and the corridor approach, was a 39% reduction in the likelihood that a crash resulted in an incapacitating or fatal injury. Speed cameras alone were associated with a 19% reduction in the likelihood that a crash resulted in an

  12. Impact of CrossFit-Related Spinal Injuries.

    Hopkins, Benjamin S; Cloney, Michael B; Kesavabhotla, Kartik; Yamaguchi, Jonathon; Smith, Zachary A; Koski, Tyler R; Hsu, Wellington K; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2017-11-16

    Exercise-related injuries (ERIs) are a common cause of nonfatal emergency department and hospital visits. CrossFit is a high-intensity workout regimen whose popularity has grown rapidly. However, ERIs due to CrossFit remained under investigated. All patients who presented to the main hospital at a major academic center complaining of an injury sustained performing CrossFit between June 2010 and June 2016 were identified. Injuries were classified by anatomical location (eg, knee, spine). For patients with spinal injuries, data were collected including age, sex, body mass index (BMI), CrossFit experience level, symptom duration, type of symptoms, type of clinic presentation, cause of injury, objective neurological examination findings, imaging type, number of clinic visits, and treatments prescribed. Four hundred ninety-eight patients with 523 CrossFit-related injuries were identified. Spine injuries were the most common injuries identified, accounting for 20.9%. Among spine injuries, the most common location of injury was the lumbar spine (83.1%). Average symptom duration was 6.4 months ± 15.1, and radicular complaints were the most common symptom (53%). A total of 30 (32%) patients had positive findings on neurologic examination. Six patients (6.7%) required surgical intervention for treatment after failing an average of 9.66 months of conservative treatment. There was no difference in age, sex, BMI, or duration of symptoms of patients requiring surgery with those who did not. CrossFit is a popular, high-intensity style workout with the potential to injure its participants. Spine injuries were the most common type of injury observed and frequently required surgical intervention.

  13. In pedestrian crashes, it's vehicle speed that matters the most

    2000-05-13

    A recently prepared report on pedestrian injuries provides these two main findings: 1) regardless of age, pedestrians involved in crashes are more likely to be killed as vehicle speeds increase; and 2) in crashes at any speed, older pedestrians are m...

  14. Exploring cycle crash characteristics in Malaysia

    Hamzah A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the cycle road crash trend, characteristics and injuries in Malaysia. It analyses the in-depth road crash investigation data collected by the Royal Malaysian Police which was made available to MIROS crash database. Fatality data was utilized due to its consistency. Cycle casualties reflected a continual downward pattern for year 2009 to 2014 in which the number of cycle crash involvement reduced by 49% and fatalities dropped by 42%. Among the prevalent factors of cycle fatalities are >60 age group, federal and state roads and straight road sections, rural and small towns, evening peak hours, and mainly involving cars and motorcycles. It is hoped that all these information would spark interests to improve cycle safety in Malaysia.

  15. Barrier-relevant crash modification factors and average costs of crashes on arterial roads in Indiana.

    Zou, Yaotian; Tarko, Andrew P

    2018-02-01

    among all the studied barriers due to the smaller increase in the crash frequency caused by these barriers and the less severe injury outcomes. More specifically, the occupants of vehicles colliding with near-side cable barriers tended to have less severe injuries than occupants of vehicles entering the median from median's farther side. The near-side cable barriers provided protection against rollover inside the median and against a potentially dangerous collision with or running over the median drain; therefore, the greatest safety benefit can be expected where cable barriers are installed at both edges of the median. The CMFs and unit crash costs for 48 road-barrier scenarios produced in this study are included in this paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased inequality in mortality from road crashes among Arabs and Jews in Israel.

    Magid, Avi; Leibovitch-Zur, Shalhevet; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in several countries have shown that the economically disadvantaged seem to have a greater risk of being involved in a car crash. The aim of the present study was to compare rates and trends in mortality and injury from road crashes by age among the Arab and Jewish populations in Israel. Data on road crashes with casualties (2003-2011) from the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics were analyzed. Age-adjusted road crash injury rates and mortality rates for 2003 to 2011 were calculated and time trends for each age group and population group are presented. Time trend significance was evaluated by linear regression models. Arabs in Israel are at increased risk of injury and mortality from road crashes compared to Jews. Road crash injury rates have significantly decreased in both populations over the last decade, although the rates have been persistently higher among Arabs. Road crash mortality rates have also decreased significantly in the Jewish population but not in the Arab population. This implies an increase in the disparity in mortality between Jews and Arabs. The most prominent differences in road crash injury and mortality rates between Arabs and Jews can be observed in young adults and young children. The reduction in road crashes in the last decade is a positive achievement. However, the reductions are not equal among Arabs and Jews in Israel. Therefore, an increase in the disparities in mortality from road crashes is apparent. Public health efforts need to focus specifically on decreasing road crashes in the Arab community.

  17. Diagnostic imaging of sport related musculoskeletal system injuries

    Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Schivartche, Vivian

    1998-01-01

    The authors review the literature about musculoskeletal injuries related to sports, emphasizing the main findings with different imaging methods. They also present the specific characteristics of each method. (author)

  18. Post-licence driver education for the prevention of road traffic crashes: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Ker, Katharine; Roberts, Ian; Collier, Timothy; Beyer, Fiona; Bunn, Frances; Frost, Chris

    2005-03-01

    The effectiveness of post-licence driver education for preventing road traffic crashes was quantified using a systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. Searches of appropriate electronic databases, the Internet and reference lists of relevant papers were conducted. The searches were not restricted by language or publication status. Data were pooled from 21 randomised controlled trials, including over 300,000 full licence-holding drivers of all ages. Nineteen trials reported subsequent traffic offences, with a pooled relative risk of 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.94, 0.98). Fifteen trials reported traffic crashes with a pooled relative risk of 0.98 (0.96, 1.01). Four trials reported injury crashes with a pooled relative risk of 1.12 (0.88, 1.41). The results provide no evidence that post-licence driver education is effective in preventing road injuries or crashes. Although the results are compatible with a small reduction in the occurrence of traffic crashes, this may be due to selection biases or bias in the included trials.

  19. Technical report: lawn mower-related injuries to children.

    Smith, G A

    2001-06-01

    In the United States, approximately 9400 children younger than 18 years receive emergency treatment annually for lawn mower-related injuries. More than 7% of these children require hospitalization, and power mowers cause a large proportion of the amputations during childhood. Prevention of lawn mower-related injuries can be achieved by design changes of lawn mowers, guidelines for mower operation, and education of parents, child caregivers, and children. Pediatricians have an important role as advocates and educators to promote the prevention of these injuries.

  20. Building concepts against airplane crash

    Henkel, F.O.; Woelfel, H.

    1984-01-01

    In Germany safety related buildings of nuclear facilities as well as their equipment are to be designed against airplane crash. While the safety of the structure itself can always be guaranteed by structural means, the induced vibrations may cause severe problems for the equipment. Considerable effort was expended in recent years to comprehend the load case airplane crash in a more exact manner and to evaluate reasonable floor response spectra. Besides this analytical effort, investigations are cited to minimize the induced vibrations by new structural concepts. The present paper gives a survey concerning the development of structural concepts, culminating in the double shell structures that are state of the art today. Then the idea of spring supports, as it is known for the aseismic foundation of buildings, is further developed to a new spring concept which reduces the induced vibrations in an optimum way in the load case airplane crash and which additionally isolates earthquake vibrations. (orig.)

  1. Elderly Taiwanese's Intrinsic Risk Factors for Fall-related Injuries

    In-Fun Li; Yvonne Hsiung; Hui-Fen Hsing; Mei-Yu Lee; Te-Hsin Chang; Ming-Yuan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Background: As a vital issue in geriatric research, risk factors for falls were concluded to be multifactorial, and prevention has been mostly aimed at decreasing situational and environmental risks that cause and aggravate fall-related injuries, particularly within the institutions. While knowledge is limited about older patients' intrinsic determinants, the purpose of this study was to explore elderly Taiwanese's intrinsic risk factors associated with severe fall-related injuries. Method...

  2. New, Occasional, and Frequent Use of Zolpidem or Zopiclone (Alone and in Combination) and the Risk of Injurious Road Traffic Crashes in Older Adult Drivers: A Population-Based Case-Control and Case-Crossover Study.

    Nevriana, Alicia; Möller, Jette; Laflamme, Lucie; Monárrez-Espino, Joel

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies on the effect of zolpidem or zopiclone use on the risk of road traffic crashes (RTCs) have shown mixed results. Our objective was to determine the association between zolpidem or zopiclone use (as separate drugs or combined) and the occurrence of injurious RTCs among older adult drivers. This was a population-based matched case-control and case-crossover study based on secondary data linked together from Swedish national registers. Cases were drivers aged 50-80 years involved in a vehicle crash resulting in injuries between January 2006 and December 2009 for the case-control study (n = 27,096) and from February 2006 to December 2009 for the case-crossover study (n = 26,586). For the first design, four controls were matched to each case by sex, age, and residential area, and exposure was categorized into new, occasional, and frequent use of zolpidem only, zopiclone only, and combined zolpidem and zopiclone. For the case-crossover study, newly dispensed zolpidem or zopiclone users were assessed during the 28 days prior to the crash and compared with an equally long control period using a 12-week washout period. Matched adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed using conditional logistic regression. Increased ORs for all users were observed. In the case-control study, the highest odds were seen among newly initiated zolpidem-only users involved in single-vehicle crashes (adjusted OR 2.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-4.24), followed by frequent combined zolpidem and zopiclone users [adjusted OR 2.20; CI 1.21-4.00]. In the case-crossover, newly initiated treatment with zolpidem or zopiclone showed an increased risk that was highest in the 2 weeks after the start of the treatment (OR 2.66; 95% CI 1.04-6.81). These results provide more compelling evidence for the role of zolpidem or zopiclone in the occurrence of RTCs among older adults, not only in frequent users, but also at the beginning of treatment.

  3. Common injuries related to weightlifting: MR imaging perspective.

    Yu, Joseph S; Habib, Paula A

    2005-12-01

    Weightlifting has evolved to become a ubiquitous form of exercise. Resistance training has been shown to have beneficial effects on both muscle and osseous maintenance and development. Competitive weightlifting sports continue to enjoy tremendous popularity, with participants striving to establish new standards in performance and more demanding personal goals. Thus, it is not surprising that we have also seen an increase in injuries related to weightlifting. Many of these injuries are radiographically occult and are best suited for evaluation by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging because many involve the soft tissues. In this article, we discuss some of the factors that contribute to these injuries and address the mechanisms of injury and the MR imaging manifestations of the more common injuries.

  4. Social costs of road crashes: An international analysis.

    Wijnen, Wim; Stipdonk, Henk

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides an international overview of the most recent estimates of the social costs of road crashes: total costs, value per casualty and breakdown in cost components. The analysis is based on publications about the national costs of road crashes of 17 countries, of which ten high income countries (HICs) and seven low and middle income countries (LMICs). Costs are expressed as a proportion of the gross domestic product (GDP). Differences between countries are described and explained. These are partly a consequence of differences in the road safety level, but there are also methodological explanations. Countries may or may not correct for underreporting of road crashes, they may or may not use the internationally recommended willingness to pay (WTP)-method for estimating human costs, and there are methodological differences regarding the calculation of some other cost components. The analysis shows that the social costs of road crashes in HICs range from 0.5% to 6.0% of the GDP with an average of 2.7%. Excluding countries that do not use a WTP- method for estimating human costs and countries that do not correct for underreporting, results in average costs of 3.3% of GDP. For LMICs that do correct for underreporting the share in GDP ranges from 1.1% to 2.9%. However, none of the LMICs included has performed a WTP study of the human costs. A major part of the costs is related to injuries: an average share of 50% for both HICs and LMICs. The average share of fatalities in the costs is 23% and 30% respectively. Prevention of injuries is thus important to bring down the socio-economic burden of road crashes. The paper shows that there are methodological differences between countries regarding cost components that are taken into account and regarding the methods used to estimate specific cost components. In order to be able to make sound comparisons of the costs of road crashes across countries, (further) harmonization of cost studies is recommended. This can be

  5. Angry thoughts in Spanish drivers and their relationship with crash-related events. The mediation effect of aggressive and risky driving.

    Herrero-Fernández, David; Fonseca-Baeza, Sara

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have related aggressive and risky driving behaviours to accidents. However, the cognitive processes associated with driving aggression have received very little attention in the scientific literature. With the aim of shedding light on this topic, the present research was carried out on a sample of 414 participants in order to validate the Driver's Angry Thoughts Questionnaire (DATQ) with a sample of Spanish drivers and to test the hypothesis of the mediation effect of aggressive and risky driving on the relationship between drivers' angry thoughts and crash-related events. The results showed a good fit with the five-factor model of the questionnaire (Judgmental and Disbelieving Thinking, Pejorative Labelling and Verbally Aggressive Thinking, Revenge and Retaliatory Thinking, Physically Aggressive Thinking, and Coping Self-Instruction). Moreover, slight gender differences were observed in drivers' angry thoughts, with women scoring higher than men (η 2 =0.03). However, younger drivers had higher scores than older drivers in general (η 2 =0.06). Finally, several mediation effects of aggressive driving and risky driving on the relationship between aggressive thinking and the crash-related events were found. Implications of the results for research in traffic psychology and clinical assessment of aggressive drivers as well as limitations of the study are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fall Risk Assessment Predicts Fall-Related Injury, Hip Fracture, and Head Injury in Older Adults.

    Nilsson, Martin; Eriksson, Joel; Larsson, Berit; Odén, Anders; Johansson, Helena; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the role of a fall risk assessment, using the Downton Fall Risk Index (DFRI), in predicting fall-related injury, fall-related head injury and hip fracture, and death, in a large cohort of older women and men residing in Sweden. Cross sectional observational study. Sweden. Older adults (mean age 82.4 ± 7.8) who had a fall risk assessment using the DFRI at baseline (N = 128,596). Information on all fall-related injuries, all fall-related head injuries and hip fractures, and all-cause mortality was collected from the Swedish Patient Register and Cause of Death Register. The predictive role of DFRI was calculated using Poisson regression models with age, sex, height, weight, and comorbidities as covariates, taking time to outcome or end of study into account. During a median follow-up of 253 days (interquartile range 90-402 days) (>80,000 patient-years), 15,299 participants had a fall-related injury, 2,864 a head injury, and 2,557 a hip fracture, and 23,307 died. High fall risk (DFRI ≥3) independently predicted fall-related injury (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.39-1.49), hip fracture (HR = 1.51, 95% CI =1.38-1.66), head injury (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03-1.22), and all-cause mortality (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.35-1.43). DFRI more strongly predicted head injury (HR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.21-1.36 vs HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.11) and hip fracture (HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.30-1.53 vs HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.05-1.11) in 70-year old men than in 90-year old women (P Fall risk assessment using DFRI independently predicts fall-related injury, fall-related head injury and hip fracture, and all-cause mortality in older men and women, indicating its clinical usefulness to identify individuals who would benefit from interventions. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Welding related occupational eye injuries: a narrative analysis.

    Lombardi, D A; Pannala, R; Sorock, G S; Wellman, H; Courtney, T K; Verma, S; Smith, G S

    2005-06-01

    To determine the activities and circumstances proximal to a welding related occupational eye injury, a hybrid narrative coding approach derived from two well developed classification systems was developed to categorize and describe the activity, initiating process, mechanism of injury, object and/or substance, and the use of protective eyewear from the narrative text data reported for each injury. Routinely collected workers' compensation claims over a one year period (2000) were analyzed from a large US insurance provider. An index term search algorithm of occupation, incident, and injury description fields identified 2209 potential welding related eye injury claims. After detailed review of these claims, 1353 welders and 822 non-welders were analyzed. During 2000, eye(s) as the primary injured body part accounted for 5% (n = 26 413) of all compensation claims. Eye injuries accounted for 25% of all claims for welders. Subjects were mainly male (97.1%) and from manufacturing (70.4%), service (11.8%), or construction (8.4%) related industries. Most injuries were foreign body (71.7%) or burn (22.2%) and 17.6% were bilateral. Common activities include welding (31.9%) and/or grinding (22.5%). Being struck by an airborne object occurred in 56.3% of cases. Non-welders showed similar patterns except that burns (43.8%) were more frequent and more often initiated by another worker (13.9%). Narrative injury text provides valuable data to supplement traditional epidemiologic analyses. Workers performing welding tasks or working nearby welders should be trained to recognize potential hazards and the effective use of proper safety equipment to prevent ocular injury.

  8. Gymnastic Formation-related Injury to Children in Physical Education.

    Araki, Takashi; Miyauchi, Masato; Suzaki, Makoto; Wakakuri, Taro; Kirinoki, Sonoko; Onodera, Naoko; Saigusa, Taro; Takana, Akihiro; Hyodo, Hideya; Ohara, Toshihiko; Kawai, Makoto; Yasutake, Masahiro; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Current data indicate that the rate of trauma in children during gymnastic formation is increasing, especially while creating a structure with a certain height, such as the human pyramid. The goal of the present study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of these injuries. In this single-institution review, all children treated for a gymnastic formation-related injury at Nippon Medical School Hospital from 2013 through 2015 were identified through the institution's registry. The injury mechanism was classified, and injury severity, interventions, and outcome were examined. Eight children were treated for a gymnastic formation-related injury. They were 7 boys and 1 girl aged 10 to 15 years (mean age, 13.1±1.8 years). Neurotrauma ranging from concussion to spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality occurred in 6 patients (75%). No intracranial hemorrhagic lesions were detected. The Glasgow Coma Scale score on arrival was 15 in all 8 patients, and neurological deficits were present in 1 patient. No patient required surgical intervention. All patients made a full recovery after discharge from the hospital. No patients died. The average follow-up period was 2.1±0.9 weeks. Neurotrauma is a frequent result of gymnastic formation accidents in children. Healthcare workers and teachers should recognize this type of injury, and public education that targets parents should be introduced.

  9. Analysis of powered two-wheeler crashes in Italy by classification trees and rules discovery.

    Montella, Alfonso; Aria, Massimo; D'Ambrosio, Antonio; Mauriello, Filomena

    2012-11-01

    Aim of the study was the analysis of powered two-wheeler (PTW) crashes in Italy in order to detect interdependence as well as dissimilarities among crash characteristics and provide insights for the development of safety improvement strategies focused on PTWs. At this aim, data mining techniques were used to analyze the data relative to the 254,575 crashes involving PTWs occurred in Italy in the period 2006-2008. Classification trees analysis and rules discovery were performed. Tree-based methods are non-linear and non-parametric data mining tools for supervised classification and regression problems. They do not require a priori probabilistic knowledge about the phenomena under studying and consider conditional interactions among input data. Rules discovery is the identification of sets of items (i.e., crash patterns) that occur together in a given event (i.e., a crash in our study) more often than they would if they were independent of each other. Thus, the method can detect interdependence among crash characteristics. Due to the large number of patterns considered, both methods suffer from an extreme risk of finding patterns that appear due to chance alone. To overcome this problem, in our study we randomly split the sample data in two data sets and used well-established statistical practices to evaluate the statistical significance of the results. Both the classification trees and the rules discovery were effective in providing meaningful insights about PTW crash characteristics and their interdependencies. Even though in several cases different crash characteristics were highlighted, the results of the two the analysis methods were never contradictory. Furthermore, most of the findings of this study were consistent with the results of previous studies which used different analytical techniques, such as probabilistic models of crash injury severity. Basing on the analysis results, engineering countermeasures and policy initiatives to reduce PTW injuries and

  10. A theoretical perspective on running-related injuries.

    Gallant, Jodi Lynn; Pierrynowski, Michael Raymond

    2014-03-01

    The etiology of running-related injuries remains unknown; however, an implicit theory underlies much of the conventional research and practice in the prevention of these injuries. This theory posits that the cause of running-related injuries lies in the high-impact forces experienced when the foot contacts the ground and the subsequent abnormal movement of the subtalar joint. The application of this theory is seen in the design of the modern running shoe, with cushioning, support, and motion control. However, a new theory is emerging that suggests that it is the use of these modern running shoes that has caused a maladaptive running style, which contributes to a high incidence of injury among runners. The suggested application of this theory is to cease use of the modern running shoe and transition to barefoot or minimalist running. This new running paradigm, which is at present inadequately defined, is proposed to avoid the adverse biomechanical effects of the modern running shoe. Future research should rigorously define and then test both theories regarding their ability to discover the etiology of running-related injury. Once discovered, the putative cause of running-related injury will then provide an evidence-based rationale for clinical prevention and treatment.

  11. A probabilistic quantitative risk assessment model for the long-term work zone crashes.

    Meng, Qiang; Weng, Jinxian; Qu, Xiaobo

    2010-11-01

    Work zones especially long-term work zones increase traffic conflicts and cause safety problems. Proper casualty risk assessment for a work zone is of importance for both traffic safety engineers and travelers. This paper develops a novel probabilistic quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model to evaluate the casualty risk combining frequency and consequence of all accident scenarios triggered by long-term work zone crashes. The casualty risk is measured by the individual risk and societal risk. The individual risk can be interpreted as the frequency of a driver/passenger being killed or injured, and the societal risk describes the relation between frequency and the number of casualties. The proposed probabilistic QRA model consists of the estimation of work zone crash frequency, an event tree and consequence estimation models. There are seven intermediate events--age (A), crash unit (CU), vehicle type (VT), alcohol (AL), light condition (LC), crash type (CT) and severity (S)--in the event tree. Since the estimated value of probability for some intermediate event may have large uncertainty, the uncertainty can thus be characterized by a random variable. The consequence estimation model takes into account the combination effects of speed and emergency medical service response time (ERT) on the consequence of work zone crash. Finally, a numerical example based on the Southeast Michigan work zone crash data is carried out. The numerical results show that there will be a 62% decrease of individual fatality risk and 44% reduction of individual injury risk if the mean travel speed is slowed down by 20%. In addition, there will be a 5% reduction of individual fatality risk and 0.05% reduction of individual injury risk if ERT is reduced by 20%. In other words, slowing down speed is more effective than reducing ERT in the casualty risk mitigation. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fishing gear-related injury in California marine wildlife.

    Dau, Brynie Kaplan; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Gulland, Frances M; Higgins, Ali; Holcomb, Jay B; Leger, Judy St; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2009-04-01

    We reviewed medical records from select wildlife rehabilitation facilities in California to determine the prevalence of injury in California Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), gulls (Larus spp.), and pinniped species (Zalophus californianus, Mirounga angustirostris, and Phoca vitulina) due to fishing gear entanglement and ingestion from 2001 to 2006. Of 9,668 Brown Pelican, gull, and pinniped cases described during the 6-yr study period (2001-06), 1,090 (11.3%) were fishing gear-related. Pelican injuries caused by fishing gear were most common in the Monterey Bay region, where 59.6% of the pelicans rescued in this area and admitted to a rehabilitation center were injured by fishing gear over the 6-yr period. The highest prevalence of fishing gear-related injury in gulls was documented in the Los Angeles/Orange County region (16.1%), whereas the highest prevalences in pinnipeds were seen in the San Diego region (3.7%). Despite these higher prevalences of gull and pinniped fishing gear-related injuries in these specific regions, there was no statistical significance in these trends. Juvenile gulls and pinnipeds were more commonly injured by fishing gear than adults (gulls: P = 0.03, odds ratio = 1.29; pinnipeds: P = 0.01, odds ratio = 2.07). Male pinnipeds were twice as likely to be injured by fishing gear as females (P gear-related injury cases that were successfully rehabilitated and released (percentage of cases successfully rehabilitated to the point of release out of the total number of fishing gear-related injury cases) was high in all three species groups (pelicans: 63%; gulls: 54%; pinnipeds: 70%). Fishing gear-related injuries in Brown Pelicans and gulls were highest in the fall, but there was only a significant difference between seasons for fishing gear-related injuries in pelicans. Fishing gear-related injuries in pinnipeds most commonly occurred in summer; however, a statistical difference was not detected between seasons for pinnipeds. Derelict

  13. Epidemiology of golf related musculo-skeletal injuries

    Dhillon Mandeep

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Golfing has become an increasingly popular sport enjoyed by both men and women. Although the game is not viewed as hazardous, golfers do sustain injuries connected with the game. However, golf injuries have received little attention in the literature and there is no study from Asia. Methods : A prospective study was undertaken to analyze the incidence, cause and type of injury among amateur golfers. Open ended questionnaires were sent to 1000 golfers; 240 responded (Av age 51 years, 200 males and 40 females. The respondents played an average of 2 rounds per week. Results : One hundered and ten (46% responders had sustained one or more orthopaedic injuries. Both among men and women, the lower back was the most common site of injury followed by shoulder and dorsal spine. There was a difference in the injury pattern in skilled and relatively unskilled players. Lack of warm up, excessive practice and improper swing mechanics were the most common causes. Conclusion : Golf injuries perhaps could be prevented or reduced by proper technique, controlled practice routines, physical conditioning and pre-play stretching exercises. The most important factor in this playing population seems to be prevention.

  14. Impact direction effect on serious-to-fatal injuries among drivers in near-side collisions according to impact location: focus on thoracic injuries.

    Lai, Xinghua; Ma, Chunsheng; Hu, Jingwen; Zhou, Qing

    2012-09-01

    Occupant injury in real world vehicle accidents can be significantly affected by a set of crash characteristics, of which impact direction and impact location (or damage location) in general scale interval (e.g., frontal impact is frequently defined as general damage to vehicle frontal end with impact angle range of 11-1 o'clock) have been identified to associate with injury outcome. The effects of crash configuration in more specific scale of interval on the injury characteristics have not been adequately investigated. This paper presents a statistical analysis to investigate the combined effects of specific impact directions and impact locations on the serious-to-fatal injuries of driver occupants involved in near-side collisions using crash data from National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the calendar years of 1995-2005. The screened injury dataset is categorized by three impact locations (side front, side center and side distributed) and two impact directions (oblique impact at 10 o'clock and pure lateral impact at 9 o'clock), resulting in six crash configurations in total. The weighted counts and the risks of different types of injuries in each subgroup are calculated, with which the relative risks along with 95% confidence intervals under oblique impacts versus lateral impacts in each impact location category are computed. Accordingly, the most frequent injury patterns, the risks and the coded-sources of serious thoracic injuries in different crash configurations are identified. The approach adopted in the present study provides new perspectives into occupant injury outcomes and associated mechanism. Results of the analyses reveal the importance of consideration of the crash configurations beyond the scope of existing side-impact regulatory tests and stress the necessity of vehicle crashworthiness and restraint system design in omni-direction to better protect occupants in real-world crash scenarios. Copyright © 2012

  15. Visitor injuries in Hawai'i.

    Ho, Hao Chih; Speck, Cora S R; Kumasaki, Jennifer

    2009-12-01

    Over seven million tourists visit the Hawaiian Islands each year. Popular visitor activities such as surfing, scuba diving, ocean kayaking, parasailing, bicycle tours and hiking each have risks of serious injury. This study reviews visitors' activities that led to serious injuries requiring treatment at the state's only trauma center while vacationing in Hawai'i. A retrospective electronic medical record review was conducted of all visitor and resident trauma patients admitted to The Queen's Medical Center (QMC) from January 2002-December 2006. Patient demographics, injury type and severity, mechanism of injury, and discharge status were collected and analyzed. A total of 8244 patients were admitted to QMC for major traumatic injuries over the five year study period. Of these, 466 (5.7%) were visitors. The most common mechanisms of visitor injuries were falls (23.6%), water-related injuries (22.8%), motor vehicle crashes (18.7%), motorcycle, moped, and recreational vehicle crashes (12.2%), assaults (7.3%), and bicycle crashes (4.0%). A disproportionate number of visitors sustained serious injuries while engaging in water-related activities: Visitors account for only 12.6% of the population on any given day, yet comprise 44.2% of the total admissions for Hawai'i's water-related injuries. Head and spine injuries make up over two-thirds (68.2%) of these water-related visitor injuries. As a general category, falls were responsible for the highest number of visitor trauma admissions. Of the recreational activities leading to high numbers of trauma admissions, water-related activities are the leading causes of serious injuries among visitors to Hawai'i. Water-related injury rates are significantly higher for Hawai'i's visitors than residents. Water safety education for visitors should be developed in multiple languages to educate and protect Hawai'i's visitors and visitor industry.

  16. Effect of built environment on tsunami related injuries

    SD Dharmarathne

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Built environment is a major determinant in injuries and deaths during natural disasters. Purpose of the present paper was to study the effect of built environment on tsunami injuries.Methods A retrospective residential cohort was constructed one month after the tsunami, based on the cross sectional household survey. Household structure was categorised as a binary variable based on the definition used department of census and statistics for the census.Results The constructed cohort consisted of 4178 individuals, 2143 (51.3% males and 2034 (48.7% females from 1047 households. Mean age of the study sample was 25 years with a standard deviation of 17 years. Out of the 4178 study units studied, 43 (1.1% died during the acute incidence and 19(0.5% died later due to complications. Twenty eight (0.7% people were reported missing at the time of data collection. Moderate to severe injuries were reported by 508 individuals (12.5%. To investigate the injury incidence all tsunami related deaths, missing personals and injuries were classified in to a single group as injuries. Reported number of injuries were 302 (14.4%, and 296 (14.9% among males and females respectively. In multivariate analysis, living in a temporary shelter (OR=0.259, 95% CI 0.351-0.797 shown a protective effect on injuries whereas, residing within the 100 meter boundary from sea (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.1-1.8 and destruction of house (OR 1.53 95% CI 1.14-2.07 were predictors of injuries.Conclusion Policies on building construction in coastal areas should be done considering these findings to mitigate the effect of future disasters.

  17. AP statistics crash course

    D'Alessio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    AP Statistics Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Statistics Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Statistics course description outline and actual Advanced Placement test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Our easy-to-read format covers: exploring da

  18. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  19. Civil engineering airman at increased risk for injuries and injury-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    Webb, Timothy S; Wells, Timothy S

    2011-03-01

    With the advent of electronic records, the opportunity to conduct research on workplace-related injuries and musculoskeletal disorders has increased dramatically. The purpose of this study was to examine the United States Air Force Civil Engineering career field to determine if they are negatively impacted by their work environment. Specifically, the objective of this study was to determine if enlisted Civil Engineering Airmen (n = 25,385) were at increased risk for injury or injury-related musculoskeletal disorders compared to enlisted Information Management/Communications Airmen (n = 28,947). Using an historical prospective design, electronic data were assembled and analyzed using Cox's proportional hazards modeling. Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for race/ethnicity, marital status, birth year, and deployment status. Male Civil Engineers were observed to be at greater risk for both inpatient injury-related musculoskeletal disorders (HR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.54-2.26) and injuries (HR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.48-2.11), while female Civil Engineers were more than double the risk for both inpatient injury-related musculoskeletal disorders (HR = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.28-3.73) and injuries (HR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.27-3.88) compared to Information Management/Communications Airmen. Although analyses do not allow exploration of specific causes, they highlight the utility of using electronic data to identify occupations for further evaluation. Based on these results, additional resources were allocated to survey Civil Engineers on their physical work demands and job requirements to identify key problem areas for further study and mitigation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Car crash fatalities associated with fire in Sweden.

    Viklund, Åsa; Björnstig, Johanna; Larsson, Magnus; Björnstig, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    To study the epidemiology and causes of death in fatal car crashes on Swedish roads in which the victim's vehicle caught fire. The data set is from the Swedish Transport Administrations in-depth studies of fatal crashes 1998-2008. Autopsies from all cases provided data on injuries, toxicological analyses, and cause of death. In total, 181 people died in 133 burning cars, accounting for 5 percent of all deaths in passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, vans, and minibuses during 1998 to 2008. The cause of death for a third of the victims was fire related, as burns and/or smoke inhalation injuries, with no fatal trauma injuries. Twenty-five of these 55 deaths were persons 19 years or younger and included 15 of 18 rear seat deaths. Over half of the 181 deaths were in vehicles that had collided with another vehicle and, of these cases, half were killed in collisions with heavy vehicles. The percentage of drivers with illegal blood alcohol concentrations (27%) and suicides (5.5%) were not higher than in other fatal crashes on Swedish roads. The ignition point of the fire was indicated in only half of the cases and, of those, half started in the engine compartment and one fourth started around the fuel tank or lines. Car fires are a deadly postcrash problem. Reducing this risk would be primarily a responsibility for the automotive industry. A multifactor approach could be considered as follows: risk-reducing design, insulation, reduced flammability in motor compartment fluids and plastics, and automatic fire extinguishing equipment. Inspiration could be found in how, for example, the auto racing and aviation industries handle this problem.

  1. Bicycling-related accidents and factors contributing to injury

    Gonzalez Perez, L.M.; Wideberg, J.; Gonzalez Perez-Somarriba, B.

    2016-07-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to find the epidemiological characteristics of bicycling-related maxillofacial fractures in a defined population, and identify factors contributing to injury. Methodology: A prospective study was carried out involving patients presenting with maxillofacial fractures sustained in bicycling-related accidents. Results: Between 908 of all cycling accidents attending for medical treatment, 122 patients (13% of all cycling accidents) were admitted with facial fractures between 2007 and 2014. Male and female ratio was 2.6:1, and the mean age was 29.4 years (standard deviation: 12.8, range: 12-79 years). Causes of injury included collisions (63%) and accidental falls (37%). The fracture patterns seen were mandibular (49%), zygomatic (32%), orbital (13%), nasal (7%), maxillary (2%), and frontal (2%). Condylar fractures were the most common of the mandibular fractures (63%). The most frequently observed concomitant lesions were orthopedic injuries. Conclusions: Bicycling-related maxillofacial injuries are common and therefore important to identify in order to design a sustainable transport system and for units that provide assistance to traffic accident victims. Missed diagnosis or delayed treatment can lead to facial deformities and functional problems. Wearing protective helmets and the improvement of the helmets design is one aspect that would be of interest for the prevention of injuries. Keywords: Cycling; bicycle-related trauma; maxillofacial fractures; risk factors; helmets. (Author)

  2. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: a change of perspective

    Vlaar, A. P.; Schultz, M. J.; Juffermans, N. P.

    2009-01-01

    Two decades ago, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) was considered a rare complication of transfusion medicine. Nowadays, TRALI has emerged as the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality, presumably as a consequence of reaching international agreement on defining TRALI with

  3. Morbidity associated with golf-related injuries among children: findings from a pediatric trauma center.

    Vitale, Melissa A; Mertz, Kristen J; Gaines, Barbara; Zuckerbraun, Noel S

    2011-01-01

    To describe injuries due to golf-related activities among pediatric patients requiring hospital admission. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all sports-related injuries from 2000 to 2006 using a level 1 trauma center database. Of 1005 children admitted with sports-related injuries, 60 (6%) had golf-related injuries. The mean injury severity score was significantly higher for golf-related injuries (11.0) than that for all other sports-related injuries (6.8). Most golf-related injuries occurred in children younger than 12 years (80%), at home (48%), and by a strike from a club (57%) and resulted in trauma to the head or neck (68%). Golf-related injuries, although an infrequent cause of sports-related injuries, have the potential to result in severe injuries, especially in younger children. Preventive efforts should target use of golf clubs by younger children in the home setting.

  4. A framework for the etiology of running-related injuries.

    Bertelsen, M L; Hulme, A; Petersen, J; Brund, R K; Sørensen, H; Finch, C F; Parner, E T; Nielsen, R O

    2017-11-01

    The etiology of running-related injury is important to consider as the effectiveness of a given running-related injury prevention intervention is dependent on whether etiologic factors are readily modifiable and consistent with a biologically plausible causal mechanism. Therefore, the purpose of the present article was to present an evidence-informed conceptual framework outlining the multifactorial nature of running-related injury etiology. In the framework, four mutually exclusive parts are presented: (a) Structure-specific capacity when entering a running session; (b) structure-specific cumulative load per running session; (c) reduction in the structure-specific capacity during a running session; and (d) exceeding the structure-specific capacity. The framework can then be used to inform the design of future running-related injury prevention studies, including the formation of research questions and hypotheses, as well as the monitoring of participation-related and non-participation-related exposures. In addition, future research applications should focus on addressing how changes in one or more exposures influence the risk of running-related injury. This necessitates the investigation of how different factors affect the structure-specific load and/or the load capacity, and the dose-response relationship between running participation and injury risk. Ultimately, this direction allows researchers to move beyond traditional risk factor identification to produce research findings that are not only reliably reported in terms of the observed cause-effect association, but also translatable in practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [Trampoline-related injuries in children: an increasing problem].

    Königshausen, M; Gothner, M; Kruppa, C; Dudda, M; Godry, H; Schildhauer, T A; Seybold, D

    2014-06-01

    The sales of recreational trampolines have increased during the past few years. Severe injuries are associated in part with trampoline sport in the domestic setting. Therefore, this study was conducted to confirm the hypothesis of an increase in trampoline-related injuries in conjunction with the increasing sales of recreational trampolines and to find out what kind of injuries are most frequent in this context. Between 01/1999 and 09/2013 all trampoline-related injuries of children (0-16 years of age) were assessed retrospectively. Only those cases were evaluated which described with certainty a trampoline-associated trauma. The fractures were considered separately and assigned to specific localisations. Additionally, accidents at home were differentiated from institutional accidents. Within the past 13 years and 9 months trampoline-related injuries were seen in 195 infants. Fractures were present in 83 cases (42 %). The average age was 10 ± 3.4 years (range: 2-16 years). Within first half of the observed time period (7½ years; 01/1999 to 06/2006) 73 cases were detected with a significantly increasing number of injuries up to 122 cases between 07/2006 and 09/2013 (7 years, 3 months), which corresponds to an increase of 67 % (p = 0,028). The vast majority of these injuries happened in the domestic setting (90 %, n = 175), whereas only 10 % (n = 20) of the traumas occurred in public institutions. In 102 children (52 %) the lower extremity was affected and in 51 patients (26 %) the upper extremity was involved (head/spine/pelvis: n = 42, 22 %). The upper extremity was primarily affected by fractures and dislocations (n = 38, 76 %). At the upper extremity there were more injuries requiring surgery in contrast to the lower extremity (n = 11) or cervical spine (n = 1). The underlying data show a significant increase of trampoline-related injuries within the past years. The upper extremity is the second most affected

  6. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  7. From “Crash!” to Crash: Adapting the Adaptation

    Ljubica Matek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on J.G. Ballard’s various adaptations of his own material related to the issue of the sexual and sensual nature of an automobile crash, and suggests that adaptation is one of the key methods in art and literature which can be used as a means of contemplating and developing various aesthetic and political ideas. Ballard’s short story “Crash!” was first published in the ICA’s (Institute of Contemporary Arts Eventsheet in February 1969, and later became a chapter of his experimental novel The Atrocity Exhibition (1970. At the same time, Ballard adapts the idea into the “Crashed Cars” exhibition (1970 in London. The short story was then adapted into a short film, Crash!, directed by Harley Cokeliss (1971 and starring Ballard himself, to be finally adapted into the novel Crash (1973. Ballard’s adaptation of his initial ideas across literary forms and media testifies to the importance of adaptation as a process and method of creating art. Thus, rather than suggesting that adaptations merely “breathe life” into the written word, the paper points to the conclusion that the form and content are mutually influential and that, in this case, the novel itself is an adaptation, rather than a hypotext (which it becomes in 1996 to David Cronenberg as he adapts it to film. The complexity of the relationship between the source text and its many adaptations has already contributed to the deconstruction, in Derrida’s terms, of the hierarchy (opposition between the original and the copy. Rather, Ballard’s crossmedial and transmedial adaptations of his own ideas show how, as Ray would suggest, an adaptation cites the source and grafts it into a new context, giving it a new function, both aesthetic and political.

  8. Relationship of Near-Crash/Crash Risk to Time Spent on a Cell Phone While Driving.

    Farmer, Charles M; Klauer, Sheila G; McClafferty, Julie A; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine in a naturalistic driving setting the dose-response relationship between cell phone usage while driving and risk of a crash or near crash. How is the increasing use of cell phones by drivers associated with overall near-crash/crash risk (i.e., during driving times both on and off the phone)? Day-to-day driving behavior of 105 volunteer subjects was monitored over a period of 1 year. A random sample was selected comprised of 4 trips from each month that each driver was in the study, and in-vehicle video was used to classify driver behavior. The proportion of driving time spent using a cell phone was estimated for each 3-month period and correlated with overall crash and near-crash rates for each period. Thus, it was possible to test whether changes in an individual driver's cell phone use over time were associated with changes in overall near-crash/crash risk. Drivers in the study spent 11.7% of their driving time interacting with a cell phone, primarily talking on the phone (6.5%) or simply holding the phone in their hand or lap (3.7%). The risk of a near-crash/crash event was approximately 17% higher when the driver was interacting with a cell phone, due primarily to actions of reaching for/answering/dialing, which nearly triples risk (relative risk = 2.84). However, the amount of driving time spent interacting with a cell phone did not affect a driver's overall near-crash/crash risk. Vehicle speeds within 6 s of the beginning of each call on average were 5-6 mph lower than speeds at other times. Results of this naturalistic driving study are consistent with the observation that increasing cell phone use in the general driving population has not led to increased crash rates. Although cell phone use can be distracting and crashes have occurred during this distraction, overall crash rates appear unaffected by changes in the rate of cell phone use, even for individual drivers. Drivers compensate somewhat for the distraction

  9. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    2016-07-01

    posterior of the head to the lambda . Its location is shown in Figure 2 which also shows the approximate locations of the six ICP transducers. The X-axis...cell bodies that may be related to impaired axoplasmic transport and its ultimate release into the surrounding extracellular matrix , which in turn

  10. Biomechanical aspects of sports-related head injuries.

    Park, Min S; Levy, Michael L

    2008-02-01

    With the increased conditioning, size, and speed of professional athletes and the increase in individuals engaging in sports and recreational activities, there is potential for rising numbers of traumatic brain injuries in sports. Fortunately, parallel strides in basic research technology and improvements in computer and video technology have created a new era of discovery in the study of the biomechanical aspects of sports-related head injuries. Although prevention will always be the most important factor in reducing the incidence of sports-related traumatic brain injuries, ongoing studies will lead to the development of newer protective equipment, improved recognition and management of concussions on the field of play, and modification of rules and guidelines to make these activities safer and more enjoyable.

  11. Road crash costs.

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or

  12. Swedish dairy farmers' perceptions of animal-related injuries.

    Lindahl, Cecilia; Lundqvist, Peter; Norberg, Annika Lindahl

    2012-01-01

    Animal-related injuries are among the most common occupational injuries in agriculture. Despite the large number of documented animal-related injuries in dairy farming, the issue has received relatively limited attention in the scientific literature. The farmers' own perspectives and views on risks and safety during livestock handling and what they think are effective ways of preventing injuries are valuable for the future design of effective interventions. This paper presents results from a qualitative study with the aim to investigate Swedish dairy farmers' own experience of animal-related occupational injuries, as well as their perceptions of and attitudes towards them, including risk and safety issues, and prevention measures. A total of 12 dairy farmers with loose housing systems participated in the study. Data collection was conducted by means of semistructured in-depth interviews. Three main themes with an impact on risks and safety when handling cattle were identified: the handler, the cattle, and the facilities. They all interact with each other, influencing the potential risks of any work task. Most of the farmers believed that a majority of the injuries can be prevented, but there are always some incidents that are impossible to foresee. In conclusion, this study indicates that Swedish dairy farmers are aware of the dangers from working with cattle. However, even though safety is acknowledged by the farmers as an important and relevant issue, in the end safety is often forgotten or not prioritized. One concern is that farmers are willing to take calculated risks to save money or time. In situations where they work alone with high stress levels and under economic distress, safety issues are easily given low priority.

  13. Work related injuries and associated factors among small scale ...

    Objective: This study aims to assess the magnitude of work related injury and associated factors among small scale industrial workers in Mizan-Aman town, Bench Maji Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study design was conducted from February to May, 2016. Data was collected using a structured face to ...

  14. Outcome of pregnancy related acute kidney injury requiring ...

    Background: Pregnancy related acute kidney injury (AKI) severe enough to require dialysis is now rare in developed countries but is still a significant cause of maternal mortality in many resource constrained countries. However, there is scanty information from many sub-Saharan countries about outcomes of patient who ...

  15. Factors affecting pelvic and thoracic forces in near-side impact crashes: a study of US-NCAP, NASS, and CIREN data.

    Tencer, Allan F; Kaufman, Robert; Mack, Christopher; Mock, Charles

    2005-03-01

    The goal of this study was to identify variables related to vehicle design which are associated with pelvic and thoracic accelerations as measured by the driver's (near side) crash dummy during new car assessment program (NCAP) testing of motor vehicles. Vehicle specific parameters were analyzed using NCAP side impact test results. Data from national automotive sampling system, crashworthiness data system (NASS-CDS) and crash injury research and engineering network (CIREN) (both National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) injury databases) were assessed to confirm NCAP test observations. In addition, door armrest stiffness measurements were performed using a mechanical tester on a sample of 40 vehicles. NCAP data showed that of 10 variables tested using multiple linear regression, vehicle weight and door crush correlated with pelvic acceleration of the driver's crash dummy (overall, r2=0.58, p=0.002, n=165). For thoracic trauma index (TTI) vehicle weight and peak door velocity correlated, significantly (overall, r2=0.41, p=0.03, n=165). Mean TTI was 63.7 g with no side airbag (n=108) and 55.6 g with a thoracic side airbag (n=54), p=0.01. The mean vehicle weight and door crush between airbag and no airbag groups were not significantly different. NASS-CDS data demonstrated a direct relationship between increased door crush and increased abbreviated injury score (AIS). CIREN data showed that occupants who sustained pelvic injuries had a median AIS of 3 with 24.9 cm of door crush, with abdominal injuries, a median AIS of 3 and 30 cm of crush, and with thoracic injuries, a median AIS of 4 and 34 cm of door crush. In addition, the frequency of bilateral pelvic injuries was significantly higher for subjects in CIREN crashes who were in a vehicle with a center console, but only if door intrusion was greater than 15 cm. This information may be useful in design of vehicles with greater protection in side impact crashes.

  16. [Boxing-related cranial injury in children: a case report].

    Timsit, S; Rougeau, T; Grevent, D; Chéron, G

    2012-11-01

    No pediatric recommendations exist in France on the exercise of boxing by children and adolescents despite the risk of traumatic injury, sometimes serious. We report the case of a 15-year-old boy who participated in amateur boxing and had a subdural hematoma. Brain injuries and concussions are frequent and multiple. Severity is not always correlated with the intensity of the blows. There are age-related features. Several international medical organizations oppose boxing for children and adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Postconcussion Symptoms in Patients with Injury-Related Chronic Pain

    Britt Marie Stålnacke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Postconcussion symptoms (PCSs—such as fatigue, headache, irritability, dizziness, and impaired memory—are commonly reported in patients who have mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBIs. Evaluation of PCS after MTBI is proposed to have a diagnostic value although it is unclear whether PCS are specific to MTBI. After whiplash injuries, patients most often complain of headaches and neck pain; the other PCS are not as closely evaluated. In patients with chronic pain because of other injuries, the presence of PCS is unclear. This study aimed to describe the frequency of PCS in patients with injury-related pain and to examine the relationships between PCS, pain, and psychological factors. Methods. This study collected data using questionnaires addressing PCS (Rivermead Postconcussion Questionnaire, RPQ, pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale, depression, anxiety (Hospital, Anxiety, and Depression Scale, and posttraumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale. Results. Fatigue (90.7%, sleep disturbance (84.9%, headache (73.5%, poor concentration (88.2%, and poor memory (67.1% were some of the most commonly reported PCS. Significant relationships were found between PCS and posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety. Conclusion. To optimize treatment, it is important to assess each patient’s PCS, the mechanism of injury, and factors such as posttraumatic stress and depression.

  18. The mechanobiology and mechanophysiology of military-related injuries

    Epstein, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a state-of-the-art update, as well as perspectives on future directions of research and clinical applications in the implementation of biomechanical and biophysical experimental, theoretical and computational models which are relevant to military medicine. Such experimental and modeling efforts are helpful, on the one hand, in understanding the aetiology, pathophysiology and dynamics of injury development and on the other hand in guiding the development of better equipment and protective gear or devices that should ultimately reduce the prevalence and incidence of injuries or lessen their hazardous effects. The book is useful for military-oriented biomedical engineers and medical physicists, as well as for military physiologists and other medical specialists who are interested in the science and technology implemented in modern investigations of military related injuries.

  19. Does knowledge of seat design and whiplash injury mechanisms translate to understanding outcomes?

    Ivancic, Paul C

    2011-12-01

    Review of whiplash injury mechanisms and effects of anti-whiplash systems including active head restraint (AHR) and Whiplash Protection System (WHIPS). This article provides an overview of previous biomechanical and epidemiological studies of AHR and WHIPS and investigates whether seat design and biomechanical knowledge of proposed whiplash injury mechanisms translates to understanding outcomes of rear crash occupants. In attempt to reduce whiplash injuries, some newer automobiles incorporate anti-whiplash systems such as AHR or WHIPS. During a rear crash, mechanically based systems activate by occupant momentum pressing into the seatback whereas electronically based systems activate using crash sensors and an electronic control unit linked to the head restraint. To investigate the effects of AHR and WHIPS on occupant responses including head and neck loads and motions, biomechanical studies of simulated rear crashes have been performed using human volunteers, mathematical models, crash dummies, whole cadavers, and hybrid cadaveric/surrogate models. Epidemiological studies have evaluated the effects of AHR and WHIPS on reducing whiplash injury claims and lessening subjective complaints of neck pain after rear crashes. RESULTS.: Biomechanical studies indicate that AHR and WHIPS reduced the potential for some whiplash injuries but did not completely eliminate the injury risk. Epidemiological outcomes indicate reduced whiplash injury claims or subjective complaints of crash-related neck pain between 43 and 75% due to AHR and between 21% and 49% due to WHIPS as compared to conventional seats and head restraints. Yielding energy-absorbing seats aim to reduce occupant loads and accelerations whereas AHRs aim to provide early head support to minimize head and neck motions. Continued objective biomechanical and epidemiological studies of anti-whiplash systems together with industry, governmental, and clinical initiatives will ultimately lead to reduced whiplash injuries

  20. Neighborhood Influences on Vehicle-Pedestrian Crash Severity.

    Toran Pour, Alireza; Moridpour, Sara; Tay, Richard; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2017-12-01

    Socioeconomic factors are known to be contributing factors for vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Although several studies have examined the socioeconomic factors related to the location of the crashes, limited studies have considered the socioeconomic factors of the neighborhood where the road users live in vehicle-pedestrian crash modelling. This research aims to identify the socioeconomic factors related to both the neighborhoods where the road users live and where crashes occur that have an influence on vehicle-pedestrian crash severity. Data on vehicle-pedestrian crashes that occurred at mid-blocks in Melbourne, Australia, was analyzed. Neighborhood factors associated with road users' residents and location of crash were investigated using boosted regression tree (BRT). Furthermore, partial dependence plots were applied to illustrate the interactions between these factors. We found that socioeconomic factors accounted for 60% of the 20 top contributing factors to vehicle-pedestrian crashes. This research reveals that socioeconomic factors of the neighborhoods where the road users live and where the crashes occur are important in determining the severity of the crashes, with the former having a greater influence. Hence, road safety countermeasures, especially those focussing on the road users, should be targeted at these high-risk neighborhoods.

  1. Trampoline related injuries in children: risk factors and radiographic findings.

    Klimek, Peter Michael; Juen, David; Stranzinger, Enno; Wolf, Rainer; Slongo, Theddy

    2013-05-01

    Backyard trampolines are immensely popular among children, but are associated with an increase of trampoline-related injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographs of children with trampoline related injuries and to determine the risk factors. Between 2003 and 2009, 286 children under the age of 16 with backyard trampoline injuries were included in the study. The number of injuries increased from 13 patients in 2003 to 86 in 2009. The median age of the 286 patients was 7 years (range: 1-15 years). Totally 140 (49%) patients were males, and 146 (51%) females. Medical records and all available diagnostic imaging were reviewed. A questionnaire was sent to the parents to evaluate the circumstances of each injury, the type of trampoline, the protection equipment and the experience of the children using the trampoline. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of the University Hospital of Bern. The questionnaires and radiographs of the 104 patients were available for evaluation. A fracture was sustained in 51 of the 104 patients. More than 75% of all patients sustaining injuries and in 90% of patients with fractures were jumping on the trampoline with other children at the time of the accident. The most common fractures were supracondylar humeral fractures (29%) and forearm fractures (25%). Fractures of the proximal tibia occurred especially in younger children between 2-5 years of age. Children younger than 5 years old are at risk for specific proximal tibia fractures ("Trampoline Fracture"). A child jumping simultaneously with other children has a higher risk of suffering from a fracture.

  2. Pedestrian-vehicle crashes and analytical techniques for stratified contingency tables.

    Al-Ghamdi, Ali S

    2002-03-01

    In 1999 there were 450 fatalities due to road crashes in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, of which 130 were pedestrians. Hence, every fourth person killed on the roads is a pedestrian. The aim of this study is to investigate pedestrian-vehicle crashes in this fast-growing city with two objectives in mind: to analyze pedestrian collisions with regard to their causes, characteristics, location of injury on the victim's body, and most common patterns and to determine the potential for use of the odds ratio technique in the analysis of stratified contingency tables. Data from 638 pedestrian-vehicle crashes reported by police, during the period 1997-1999, were used. A systematic sampling technique was followed in which every third record was used. The analysis showed that the pedestrian fatality rate per 10(5) population is 2.8. The rates were relatively high within the childhood (1-9 years) and young adult (10-19 years) groups, and the old-age groups (60 - > 80 years), which indicate that young as well as the elderly people in this city are more likely to be involved in fatal accidents of this type than are those in other age groups. The analysis revealed that 77.1% of pedestrians were probably struck while crossing a roadway either not in a crosswalk or where no crosswalk existed. In addition, the distribution of injuries on the victims' bodies was determined from hospital records. More than one-third of the fatal injuries were located on the head and chest. An attempt was made to conduct an association analysis between crash severity (i.e. injury or fatal) and some of the study variables using chi-square and odds ratio techniques. The categorical nature of the data helped in using these analytical techniques.

  3. Repeatability study of replicate crash tests: A signal analysis approach.

    Seppi, Jeremy; Toczyski, Jacek; Crandall, Jeff R; Kerrigan, Jason

    2017-10-03

    To provide an objective basis on which to evaluate the repeatability of vehicle crash test methods, a recently developed signal analysis method was used to evaluate correlation of sensor time history data between replicate vehicle crash tests. The goal of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of rollover crash tests performed with the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS) relative to other vehicle crash test methods. Test data from DRoTS tests, deceleration rollover sled (DRS) tests, frontal crash tests, frontal offset crash tests, small overlap crash tests, small overlap impact (SOI) crash tests, and oblique crash tests were obtained from the literature and publicly available databases (the NHTSA vehicle database and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety TechData) to examine crash test repeatability. Signal analysis of the DRoTS tests showed that force and deformation time histories had good to excellent repeatability, whereas vehicle kinematics showed only fair repeatability due to the vehicle mounting method for one pair of tests and slightly dissimilar mass properties (2.2%) in a second pair of tests. Relative to the DRS, the DRoTS tests showed very similar or higher levels of repeatability in nearly all vehicle kinematic data signals with the exception of global X' (road direction of travel) velocity and displacement due to the functionality of the DRoTS fixture. Based on the average overall scoring metric of the dominant acceleration, DRoTS was found to be as repeatable as all other crash tests analyzed. Vertical force measures showed good repeatability and were on par with frontal crash barrier forces. Dynamic deformation measures showed good to excellent repeatability as opposed to poor repeatability seen in SOI and oblique deformation measures. Using the signal analysis method as outlined in this article, the DRoTS was shown to have the same or better repeatability of crash test methods used in government regulatory and consumer evaluation test

  4. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    of the crash forces acting on a racing car. NASCAR (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) implemented crash recording in stock car racing in its three national series in 2002. Data from 2925 crashes from 2002 through the 2005 season are summarized in terms of crash severity, crash direction, injury outcome, and protective system performance.

  5. Risk Factors for Motorcycle-related Severe Injuries in a Medium-sized City in China

    Xiong, Lili; Zhu, Yao; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Background Motorcycle vehicles are frequent in China, especially in the small and medium sized cities. Road traffic collisions involving motorcycles often result in severe injuries. We aimed to identify risk factors for severe injuries in inpatients sustaining motorcycle collisions. Methods Patients with road traffic injuries involving motorcycles who presented to the neurosurgery and orthopedic departments of three major comprehensive hospitals in Shantou city were reviewed from October 2012 to June 2013. Data from 349 patients was investigated. Crash and injury characteristics were documented by interviewing patients, their family members, and their doctors. Binary logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for severe injuries. Results There were 253 males (72.49%) and 96 females (27.51%), with a male to female ratio of 2.64:1. The mean age was 38.21±17.32 years. One-hundred and fifty patients were in the severe injury group with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 15.34±9.13. The simple and multiple logistic model showed that males, lack of safeguards, morning and night hours, non-urban areas, collision of a motorcycle with a cycle, ambulance transportation to hospital, admission to a neurosurgery department, lack of traffic control, unobstructed traffic, and poor visibility were all the risk factors. Conclusions This research highlights some problems: less helmet wearing in motorcyclists and cyclists, rural injuries being more serious than urban ones, and head injuries being the main diagnosis in severe injuries. The result of this research is predictable. If the safety equipment is required to be used, such as helmets, and the traffic environment is improved, such as traffic flow, medical resources to injuries and deaths is seasonable, then traffic safety will be improved and accidents will be reduced. PMID:29546203

  6. Minor Crashes and ‘Whiplash’ in the United States

    Bartsch, Adam J.; Gilbertson, Lars G.; Prakash, Vikas; Morr, Douglas R.; Wiechel, John F.

    2008-01-01

    In the United States there is currently a paucity of available real world minor rear crash data with struck vehicle delta-V, or speed change, less than or equal to 15 kilometers per hour. These data are essential as researchers attempt to define ‘whiplash’ injury risk potential in these minor crashes. This study analyzed a new set of 105 U.S. minor rear aligned crashes between passenger vehicles. Mean struck vehicle delta-V and acceleration were 6.3 km/h (s.d. = 2.1 km/h) and 1.4g (s.d. = 0.5...

  7. Minor Crashes and ‘Whiplash’ in the United States

    Bartsch, Adam J.; Gilbertson, Lars G.; Prakash, Vikas; Morr, Douglas R.; Wiechel, John F.

    2008-01-01

    In the United States there is currently a paucity of available real world minor rear crash data with struck vehicle delta-V, or speed change, less than or equal to 15 kilometers per hour. These data are essential as researchers attempt to define ‘whiplash’ injury risk potential in these minor crashes. This study analyzed a new set of 105 U.S. minor rear aligned crashes between passenger vehicles. Mean struck vehicle delta-V and acceleration were 6.3 km/h (s.d. = 2.1 km/h) and 1.4g (s.d. = 0.5g), respectively. A total of 113 struck vehicle occupants were diagnosed within five weeks post-crash with 761 ICD-9-CM complaints and 427 AIS injuries (99.5% AIS1) attributed to the crashes. No striking vehicle occupants reported complaints. The main ICD-9-CM diagnoses were 40.6% cervical, 22.5% lumbar/sacral and 10.2% thoracic and the main AIS1 diagnoses were 29.7% cervical, 23.2% lumbar/sacral and 14.3% thoracic. The diagnosis disparity was mainly due to coding for pre-existing degenerative diagnosis in ICD-9-CM. Degenerative spine conditions were not significant for increased AIS1 injury risk. Surprisingly, many non-‘whiplash’ diagnoses were found. The AIS injury diagnosis distribution and frequency in these minor delta-V crashes did not correspond with previous minor rear crash studies. A prospectively collected and unbiased minor rear crash databank in the model of CIREN or NASS is highly desirable to verify or refute these results for the U.S. population since the current study cohort may have been influenced by litigation. PMID:19026229

  8. Minor crashes and 'whiplash' in the United States.

    Bartsch, Adam J; Gilbertson, Lars G; Prakash, Vikas; Morr, Douglas R; Wiechel, John F

    2008-10-01

    In the United States there is currently a paucity of available real world minor rear crash data with struck vehicle delta-V, or speed change, less than or equal to 15 kilometers per hour. These data are essential as researchers attempt to define 'whiplash' injury risk potential in these minor crashes. This study analyzed a new set of 105 U.S. minor rear aligned crashes between passenger vehicles. Mean struck vehicle delta-V and acceleration were 6.3 km/h (s.d. = 2.1 km/h) and 1.4 g (s.d. = 0.5 g), respectively. A total of 113 struck vehicle occupants were diagnosed within five weeks post-crash with 761 ICD-9-CM complaints and 427 AIS injuries (99.5% AIS1) attributed to the crashes. No striking vehicle occupants reported complaints. The main ICD-9-CM diagnoses were 40.6% cervical, 22.5% lumbar/sacral and 10.2% thoracic and the main AIS1 diagnoses were 29.7% cervical, 23.2% lumbar/sacral and 14.3% thoracic. The diagnosis disparity was mainly due to coding for pre-existing degenerative diagnosis in ICD-9-CM. Degenerative spine conditions were not significant for increased AIS1 injury risk. Surprisingly, many non-'whiplash' diagnoses were found. The AIS injury diagnosis distribution and frequency in these minor delta-V crashes did not correspond with previous minor rear crash studies. A prospectively collected and unbiased minor rear crash databank in the model of CIREN or NASS is highly desirable to verify or refute these results for the U.S. population since the current study cohort may have been influenced by litigation.

  9. Rear seat safety: Variation in protection by occupant, crash and vehicle characteristics.

    Durbin, Dennis R; Jermakian, Jessica S; Kallan, Michael J; McCartt, Anne T; Arbogast, Kristy B; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Myers, Rachel K

    2015-07-01

    Current information on the safety of rear row occupants of all ages is needed to inform further advances in rear seat restraint system design and testing. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics of occupants in the front and rear rows of model year 2000 and newer vehicles involved in crashes and determine the risk of serious injury for restrained crash-involved rear row occupants and the relative risk of fatal injury for restrained rear row vs. front passenger seat occupants by age group, impact direction, and vehicle model year. Data from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) and Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) were queried for all crashes during 2007-2012 involving model year 2000 and newer passenger vehicles. Data from NASS-CDS were used to describe characteristics of occupants in the front and rear rows and to determine the risk of serious injury (AIS 3+) for restrained rear row occupants by occupant age, vehicle model year, and impact direction. Using a combined data set containing data on fatalities from FARS and estimates of the total population of occupants in crashes from NASS-CDS, logistic regression modeling was used to compute the relative risk (RR) of death for restrained occupants in the rear vs. front passenger seat by occupant age, impact direction, and vehicle model year. Among all vehicle occupants in tow-away crashes during 2007-2012, 12.3% were in the rear row where the overall risk of serious injury was 1.3%. Among restrained rear row occupants, the risk of serious injury varied by occupant age, with older adults at the highest risk of serious injury (2.9%); by impact direction, with rollover crashes associated with the highest risk (1.5%); and by vehicle model year, with model year 2007 and newer vehicles having the lowest risk of serious injury (0.3%). Relative risk of death was lower for restrained children up to age 8 in the rear compared with passengers in the right

  10. Death and injury from motor vehicle crashes in Colombia Muertes y lesiones por accidentes de tráfico en Colombia

    Jaime Posada; Eli Ben-Michael; Alan Herman; Ernesto Kahan; Elihu Richter

    2000-01-01

    We report data on the distribution and determinants of road deaths and injuries for all victims in Colombia, with the aim of defining targets and priorities for highway death prevention in that country and other rapidly urbanizing nations. Using information from Colombia's Fund for the Prevention of Road Injury and the national death registry, we studied data on deaths and injuries from 1991 to 1995 for the nation as a whole and for the country's two largest cities, Santa Fe de Bogotá and Med...

  11. Life-threatening motor vehicle crashes in bright sunlight

    Redelmeier, Donald A.; Raza, Sheharyar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bright sunlight may create visual illusions that lead to driver error, including fallible distance judgment from aerial perspective. We tested whether the risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash was increased when driving in bright sunlight. This longitudinal, case-only, paired-comparison analysis evaluated patients hospitalized because of a motor vehicle crash between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. The relative risk of a crash associated with bright sunlight was estim...

  12. INVESTIGATION OF ROADWAY GEOMETRIC AND TRAFFIC FLOW FACTORS FOR VEHICLE CRASHES USING SPATIOTEMPORAL INTERACTION

    G. Gill

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic safety is a major concern in the transportation industry due to immense monetary and emotional burden caused by crashes of various severity levels, especially the injury and fatality ones. To reduce such crashes on all public roads, the safety management processes are commonly implemented which include network screening, problem diagnosis, countermeasure identification, and project prioritization. The selection of countermeasures for potential mitigation of crashes is governed by the influential factors which impact roadway crashes. Crash prediction model is the tool widely adopted by safety practitioners or researchers to link various influential factors to crash occurrences. Many different approaches have been used in the past studies to develop better fitting models which also exhibit prediction accuracy. In this study, a crash prediction model is developed to investigate the vehicular crashes occurring at roadway segments. The spatial and temporal nature of crash data is exploited to form a spatiotemporal model which accounts for the different types of heterogeneities among crash data and geometric or traffic flow variables. This study utilizes the Poisson lognormal model with random effects, which can accommodate the yearly variations in explanatory variables and the spatial correlations among segments. The dependency of different factors linked with roadway geometric, traffic flow, and road surface type on vehicular crashes occurring at segments was established as the width of lanes, posted speed limit, nature of pavement, and AADT were found to be correlated with vehicle crashes.

  13. Investigation of Roadway Geometric and Traffic Flow Factors for Vehicle Crashes Using Spatiotemporal Interaction

    Gill, G.; Sakrani, T.; Cheng, W.; Zhou, J.

    2017-09-01

    Traffic safety is a major concern in the transportation industry due to immense monetary and emotional burden caused by crashes of various severity levels, especially the injury and fatality ones. To reduce such crashes on all public roads, the safety management processes are commonly implemented which include network screening, problem diagnosis, countermeasure identification, and project prioritization. The selection of countermeasures for potential mitigation of crashes is governed by the influential factors which impact roadway crashes. Crash prediction model is the tool widely adopted by safety practitioners or researchers to link various influential factors to crash occurrences. Many different approaches have been used in the past studies to develop better fitting models which also exhibit prediction accuracy. In this study, a crash prediction model is developed to investigate the vehicular crashes occurring at roadway segments. The spatial and temporal nature of crash data is exploited to form a spatiotemporal model which accounts for the different types of heterogeneities among crash data and geometric or traffic flow variables. This study utilizes the Poisson lognormal model with random effects, which can accommodate the yearly variations in explanatory variables and the spatial correlations among segments. The dependency of different factors linked with roadway geometric, traffic flow, and road surface type on vehicular crashes occurring at segments was established as the width of lanes, posted speed limit, nature of pavement, and AADT were found to be correlated with vehicle crashes.

  14. ED utilization trends in sports-related traumatic brain injury.

    Hanson, Holly R; Pomerantz, Wendy J; Gittelman, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Emergency department (ED) visits for sports-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) have risen. This study evaluated how the number and severity of admissions have changed as ED visits for sports-related TBIs have increased. A retrospective study of children aged 0 to 19 years at a level 1 trauma center was performed. Patients from 2002 to 2011 with a primary or secondary diagnosis of TBI were identified from the hospital's inpatient and outpatient trauma registries. Frequencies were used to characterize the population, χ(2) analysis was performed to determine differences between groups, and regression analysis looked at relationship between year and injury severity score or length of stay. Sport was responsible for injury in 3878 (15.4%) cases during the study period; 3506 (90.4%) were discharged from the hospital, and 372 (9.6%) were admitted. Seventy-three percent were male patients and 78% Caucasian; mean age was 13 ± 3.5 years. ED visits for sports-related TBIs increased 92% over the study period, yet there was no significant change (χ(2) = 9.8, df = 9, P = .37) in the percentage of children admitted. Mean injury severity score for those admitted decreased from 7.8 to 4.8 (β = -0.46; P = .006); length of stay trended downward (β = -0.05; P = .05). The percentage of children being admitted from the ED with sports-related TBI has not changed over the past 10 years. The severity of admitted sports-related TBI is decreasing. Additional research is needed to correlate these trends with other TBI mechanisms.

  15. Multinational Corporations and Stock Price Crash Risk

    Anthony May

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A nascent literature in finance and accounting on tail risk in individual stock returns concludes that bad news hoarding by corporate managers engenders sudden, extreme crashes in a firm’s stock price when the bad news is eventually made public. This literature finds that firm-specific crash risk is higher among firms with more severe asymmetric information and agency problems. A hitherto disjointed literature spanning the fields of international business, finance, and accounting suggests that geographic dispersion in a firm’s operations, and especially dispersion across different countries, gives rise to organizational complexities and greater costs of monitoring that can exacerbate asymmetric information and agency problems. Motivated by the confluence of arguments and findings from these two strands of literature, this paper examines whether stock price crash risk is higher among multinational firms than domestic firms. Using a large sample of U.S. headquartered firms during 1987-2011, we find robust evidence that multinational firms are significantly more likely to crash than domestic firms. Moreover, we show that the difference in crash risk between multinational and domestic firms is most acute among firms with weaker corporate governance mechanisms, including weaker shareholder rights, less independent boards, and less stable institutional ownership. Our analysis indicates that stronger monitoring from each of these three governance mechanisms significantly attenuates the positive relation between crash risk and multinationality. Our findings are robust to the use of alternative measures of crash risk and to controlling for known determinants of crash risk identified in prior studies. Our study offers new insights that should hold value for scholars and market participants interested in understanding the implications of heighted agency problems that multinational firms are likely to encounter and scholars and market participants

  16. Epidemiology of terror-related versus non-terror-related traumatic injury in children.

    Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Waisman, Yehezkel; Dannon, Yehuda L; Peleg, Kobi

    2003-10-01

    In the past 2 years hundreds of children in Israel have been injured in terrorist attacks. There is a paucity of data on the epidemiology of terror-related trauma in the pediatric population and its effect on the health care system. The objective of this study was to review the accumulated Israeli experience with medical care to young victims of terrorism and to use the knowledge obtained to contribute to the preparedness of medical personnel for future events. Data on all patients who were younger than 18 years and were hospitalized from October 1, 2000, to December 31, 2001, for injuries sustained in a terrorist attack were obtained from the Israel National Trauma Registry. The parameters evaluated were patient age and sex, diagnosis, type, mechanism and severity of injury, interhospital transfer, stay in intensive care unit, duration of hospitalization, and need for rehabilitation. Findings were compared with the general pediatric population hospitalized for non-terror-related trauma within the same time period. During the study period, 138 children were hospitalized for a terror-related injury and 8363 for a non-terror-related injury. The study group was significantly older (mean age: 12.3 years [standard deviation: 5.1] v 6.9 years [standard deviation: 5.3]) and sustained proportionately more penetrating injuries (54% [n = 74] vs 9% [n = 725]). Differences were also noted in the proportion of internal injuries to the torso (11% in the patients with terror-related trauma vs 4% in those with non-terror-related injuries), open wounds to the head (13% vs 6%), and critical injuries (Injury Severity Score of 25+; 25% vs 3%). The study group showed greater use of intensive care unit facilities (33% vs 8% in the comparison group), longer median hospitalization time (5 days vs 2 days), and greater need for rehabilitative care (17% vs 1%). Terror-related injuries are more severe than non-terror-related injuries and increase the demand for acute care in children.

  17. Motorcycle protective clothing: protection from injury or just the weather?

    de Rome, Liz; Ivers, Rebecca; Fitzharris, Michael; Du, Wei; Haworth, Narelle; Heritier, Stephane; Richardson, Drew

    2011-11-01

    Apart from helmets, little is known about the effectiveness of motorcycle protective clothing in reducing injuries in crashes. The study aimed to quantify the association between usage of motorcycle clothing and injury in crashes. Cross-sectional analytic study. Crashed motorcyclists (n=212, 71% of identified eligible cases) were recruited through hospitals and motorcycle repair services. Data was obtained through structured face-to-face interviews. The main outcome was hospitalization and motorcycle crash-related injury. Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals for injury adjusting for potential confounders. Motorcyclists were significantly less likely to be admitted to hospital if they crashed wearing motorcycle jackets (RR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.91), pants (RR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.94), or gloves (RR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.26-0.66). When garments included fitted body armour there was a significantly reduced risk of injury to the upper body (RR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.66-0.89), hands and wrists (RR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.38-0.81), legs (RR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.90), feet and ankles (RR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). Non-motorcycle boots were also associated with a reduced risk of injury compared to shoes or joggers (RR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.28-0.75). No association between use of body armour and risk of fracture injuries was detected. A substantial proportion of motorcycle designed gloves (25.7%), jackets (29.7%) and pants (28.1%) were assessed to have failed due to material damage in the crash. Motorcycle protective clothing is associated with reduced risk and severity of crash related injury and hospitalization, particularly when fitted with body armour. The proportion of clothing items that failed under crash conditions indicates a need for improved quality control. While mandating usage of protective clothing is not recommended, consideration could be given to providing incentives for usage of protective clothing, such as tax exemptions for safety

  18. Circumstances of fatal lockout/tagout-related injuries in manufacturing.

    Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vernick, Jon S; Sorock, Gary S; Webster, Daniel W; Lees, Peter S J

    2008-10-01

    Over the past few decades, hundreds of manufacturing workers have suffered fatal injuries while performing maintenance and servicing on machinery and equipment. Using lockout/tagout procedures could have prevented many of these deaths. A narrative text analysis of OSHA accident investigation report summaries was conducted to describe the circumstances of lockout/tagout-related fatalities occurring in the US manufacturing industry from 1984 to 1997. The most common mechanisms of injury were being caught in or between parts of equipment, electrocution, and being struck by or against objects. Typical scenarios included cleaning a mixer or blender, cleaning a conveyor, and installing or disassembling electrical equipment. Lockout procedures were not even attempted in the majority (at least 58.8%) of fatal incidents reviewed. Lockout/tagout-related fatalities occur under a wide range of circumstances. Enhanced training and equipment designs that facilitate lockout and minimize worker contact with machine parts may prevent many lockout/tagout-related injuries. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths PSA (:60)

    2016-07-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.  Created: 7/6/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/6/2016.

  20. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers

    Subasish Das; Xiaoduan Sun; Fan Wang; Charles Leboeuf

    2015-01-01

    At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the a...

  1. Retrospective Analysis of Mosh-Pit-Related Injuries.

    Milsten, Andrew M; Tennyson, Joseph; Weisberg, Stacy

    2017-12-01

    . Milsten AM , Tennyson J , Weisberg S , Retrospective analysis of mosh-pit-related injuries. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):636-641.

  2. Critical market crashes

    Sornette, D.

    2003-04-01

    This review presents a general theory of financial crashes and of stock market instabilities that his co-workers and the author have developed over the past seven years. We start by discussing the limitation of standard analyses for characterizing how crashes are special. The study of the frequency distribution of drawdowns, or runs of successive losses shows that large financial crashes are “outliers”: they form a class of their own as can be seen from their statistical signatures. If large financial crashes are “outliers”, they are special and thus require a special explanation, a specific model, a theory of their own. In addition, their special properties may perhaps be used for their prediction. The main mechanisms leading to positive feedbacks, i.e., self-reinforcement, such as imitative behavior and herding between investors are reviewed with many references provided to the relevant literature outside the narrow confine of Physics. Positive feedbacks provide the fuel for the development of speculative bubbles, preparing the instability for a major crash. We demonstrate several detailed mathematical models of speculative bubbles and crashes. A first model posits that the crash hazard drives the market price. The crash hazard may sky-rocket at some times due to the collective behavior of “noise traders”, those who act on little information, even if they think they “know”. A second version inverses the logic and posits that prices drive the crash hazard. Prices may skyrocket at some times again due to the speculative or imitative behavior of investors. According the rational expectation model, this entails automatically a corresponding increase of the probability for a crash. We also review two other models including the competition between imitation and contrarian behavior and between value investors and technical analysts. The most important message is the discovery of robust and universal signatures of the approach to crashes. These precursory

  3. Childhood motorcycle-related injuries in a Nigerian city ...

    Motorcycle crashes account for a disproportionate share of the deaths and disabilities that result from road traffic accidents. We undertook ... death and disability among children aged 1 - 14 years.2 In developing countries motorcycle .... represent a global phenomenon, but poor countries bear the brunt of the ensuing higher ...

  4. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS) - NMVCCS XML Case Viewer

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  5. Correlation Analysis of Freeway Traffic Status and Crashes with Nevada Data.

    2017-11-11

    This project is to study the correlation between freeway traffic status and crash risks with the historical freeway ITS data and related crash data in Nevada. With the comprehensive review of previous research results, the Center for Advanced Transpo...

  6. Women and stroke patients are more at risk for fall- related injury among older persons

    Sulistyowati Tuminah Darjoko

    2016-05-01

    Women and stroke sufferers were at higher risk of fall-related injury among older persons. Prevention of fall-related injury should be done by older persons through periodic control of their health condition.

  7. Hotspots and causes of motor vehicle crashes in Baltimore, Maryland: A geospatial analysis of five years of police crash and census data.

    Dezman, Zachary; de Andrade, Luciano; Vissoci, Joao Ricardo; El-Gabri, Deena; Johnson, Abree; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Staton, Catherine A

    2016-11-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading killer of youth (aged 15-29) and are projected to be the 7th leading cause of death by 2030. To better understand road traffic crash locations and characteristics in the city of Baltimore, we used police and census data, to describe the epidemiology, hotspots, and modifiable risk factors involved to guide further interventions. Data on all crashes in Baltimore City from 2009 to 2013 were made available from the Maryland Automated Accident Reporting System. Socioeconomic data collected by the US CENSUS 2010 were obtained. A time series analysis was conducted using an ARIMA model. We analyzed the geographical distribution of traffic crashes and hotspots using exploratory spatial data analysis and spatial autocorrelation. Spatial regression was performed to evaluate the impact of socioeconomic indicators on hotspots. In Baltimore City, between 2009 and 2013, there were a total of 100,110 crashes reported, with 1% of crashes considered severe. Of all crashes, 7% involved vulnerable road users and 12% had elderly or youth involvement. Reasons for crashes included: distracted driving (31%), speeding (6%), and alcohol or drug use (5%). After 2010, we observed an increasing trend in all crashes especially from March to June. Distracted driving then youth and elderly drivers were consistently the highest risk factors over time. Multivariate spatial regression model including socioeconomic indicators and controlling for age, gender and population size did not show a distinct predictor of crashes explaining only 20% of the road crash variability, indicating crashes are not geographically explained by socioeconomic indicators alone. In Baltimore City, road traffic crashes occurred predominantly in the high density center of the city, involved distracted driving and extremes of age with an increase in crashes from March to June. There was no association between socioeconomic variables where crashes occurred and hotspots. In depth analysis of

  8. Work related injuries: estimating the incidence among illegally employed immigrants

    Fadda Emanuela

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistics on occupational accidents are based on data from registered employees. With the increasing number of immigrants employed illegally and/or without regular working visas in many developed countries, it is of interest to estimate the injury rate among such unregistered workers. Findings The current study was conducted in an area of North-Eastern Italy. The sources of information employed in the present study were the Accidents and Emergencies records of a hospital; the population data on foreign-born residents in the hospital catchment area (Health Care District 4, Primary Care Trust 20, Province of Verona, Veneto Region, North-Eastern Italy; and the estimated proportion of illegally employed workers in representative samples from the Province of Verona and the Veneto Region. Of the 419 A&E records collected between January and December 2004 among non European Union (non-EU immigrants, 146 aroused suspicion by reporting the home, rather than the workplace, as the site of the accident. These cases were the numerator of the rate. The number of illegally employed non-EU workers, denominator of the rate, was estimated according to different assumptions and ranged from between 537 to 1,338 individuals. The corresponding rates varied from 109.1 to 271.8 per 1,000 non-EU illegal employees, against 65 per 1,000 reported in Italy in 2004. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that there is an unrecorded burden of illegally employed immigrants suffering from work related injuries. Additional efforts for prevention of injuries in the workplace are required to decrease this number. It can be concluded that the Italian National Institute for the Insurance of Work Related Injuries (INAIL probably underestimates the incidence of these accidents in Italy.

  9. Work related injuries: estimating the incidence among illegally employed immigrants.

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Rylander, Ragnar; Buja, Alessandra; Marangi, Gianluca; Fadda, Emanuela; Fedeli, Ugo; Cegolon, Luca

    2010-12-08

    Statistics on occupational accidents are based on data from registered employees. With the increasing number of immigrants employed illegally and/or without regular working visas in many developed countries, it is of interest to estimate the injury rate among such unregistered workers. The current study was conducted in an area of North-Eastern Italy. The sources of information employed in the present study were the Accidents and Emergencies records of a hospital; the population data on foreign-born residents in the hospital catchment area (Health Care District 4, Primary Care Trust 20, Province of Verona, Veneto Region, North-Eastern Italy); and the estimated proportion of illegally employed workers in representative samples from the Province of Verona and the Veneto Region. Of the 419 A&E records collected between January and December 2004 among non European Union (non-EU) immigrants, 146 aroused suspicion by reporting the home, rather than the workplace, as the site of the accident. These cases were the numerator of the rate. The number of illegally employed non-EU workers, denominator of the rate, was estimated according to different assumptions and ranged from between 537 to 1,338 individuals. The corresponding rates varied from 109.1 to 271.8 per 1,000 non-EU illegal employees, against 65 per 1,000 reported in Italy in 2004. The results of this study suggest that there is an unrecorded burden of illegally employed immigrants suffering from work related injuries. Additional efforts for prevention of injuries in the workplace are required to decrease this number. It can be concluded that the Italian National Institute for the Insurance of Work Related Injuries (INAIL) probably underestimates the incidence of these accidents in Italy.

  10. Evaluation of Vehicle-Based Crash Severity Metrics.

    Tsoi, Ada H; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle change in velocity (delta-v) is a widely used crash severity metric used to estimate occupant injury risk. Despite its widespread use, delta-v has several limitations. Of most concern, delta-v is a vehicle-based metric which does not consider the crash pulse or the performance of occupant restraints, e.g. seatbelts and airbags. Such criticisms have prompted the search for alternative impact severity metrics based upon vehicle kinematics. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of the occupant impact velocity (OIV), acceleration severity index (ASI), vehicle pulse index (VPI), and maximum delta-v (delta-v) to predict serious injury in real world crashes. The study was based on the analysis of event data recorders (EDRs) downloaded from the National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) 2000-2013 cases. All vehicles in the sample were GM passenger cars and light trucks involved in a frontal collision. Rollover crashes were excluded. Vehicles were restricted to single-event crashes that caused an airbag deployment. All EDR data were checked for a successful, completed recording of the event and that the crash pulse was complete. The maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS) was used to describe occupant injury outcome. Drivers were categorized into either non-seriously injured group (MAIS2-) or seriously injured group (MAIS3+), based on the severity of any injuries to the thorax, abdomen, and spine. ASI and OIV were calculated according to the Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware. VPI was calculated according to ISO/TR 12353-3, with vehicle-specific parameters determined from U.S. New Car Assessment Program crash tests. Using binary logistic regression, the cumulative probability of injury risk was determined for each metric and assessed for statistical significance, goodness-of-fit, and prediction accuracy. The dataset included 102,744 vehicles. A Wald chi-square test showed each vehicle-based crash severity metric

  11. Twitter and traumatic brain injury: A content and sentiment analysis of tweets pertaining to sport-related brain injury.

    Workewych, Adriana M; Ciuffetelli Muzzi, Madeline; Jing, Rowan; Zhang, Stanley; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Cusimano, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Sport-related traumatic brain injuries are a significant public health burden, with hundreds of thousands sustained annually in North America. While sports offer numerous physical and social health benefits, traumatic brain injuries such as concussion can seriously impact a player's life, athletic career, and sport enjoyment. The culture in many sports encourages winning at all costs, placing athletes at risk for traumatic brain injuries. As social media has become a central part of everyday life, the content of users' messages often reflects the prevailing culture related to a particular event or health issue. We hypothesized that Twitter data might be useful for understanding public perceptions and misperceptions of sport-related traumatic brain injuries. We performed a content and sentiment analysis of 7483 Twitter ® tweets related to traumatic brain injuries in sports collected during June and July 2013. We identified five major themes. Users tweeted about personal traumatic brain injuries experiences, reported traumatic brain injuries in professional athletes, shared research about sport-related concussions, and discussed policy and safety in injury prevention, such as helmet use. We identified mixed perceptions of and sentiment toward traumatic brain injuries in sports: both an understanding that brain injuries are serious and disregard for activities that might reduce the public burden of traumatic brain injuries were prevalent in our Twitter analysis. While the scientific and medical community considers a concussion a form of traumatic brain injuries, our study demonstrates a misunderstanding of this fact among the public. In our current digital age, social media can provide useful insight into the culture around a health issue, facilitating implementation of prevention and treatment strategies.

  12. Pediatric volleyball-related injuries treated in US emergency departments, 1990-2009.

    Pollard, Katherine A; Shields, Brenda J; Smith, Gary A

    2011-09-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of pediatric volleyball-related injuries treated in US hospital emergency departments. Data for children younger than 18 years obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission from 1990 through 2009 were analyzed. An estimated 692 024 volleyball-related injuries to children younger than 18 years occurred during the study period. The annual number of injuries declined significantly by 23% during the study period; however, the annual injury rate remained unchanged, and the number of volleyball-related concussions/closed head injuries increased significantly. Upper (48%) and lower (39%) extremity injuries occurred most frequently, as did strains/sprains (54%). Contact with the net/pole was associated with concussions/closed head injury our findings indicate opportunities for making volleyball an even safer sport for children. Protective padding, complying with US volleyball standards, should cover all volleyball poles and protruding hardware to prevent impact-related injuries.

  13. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers

    Subasish Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the at-fault drivers. The logistic regression method is used by employing eight years' traffic crash data (2004–2011 in Louisiana. Crash predictors such as the driver's crash involvement, crash and road characteristics, human factors, collision type, and environmental factors are considered in the model. The at-fault and not-at-fault status of the crashes are used as the response variable. The developed model has identified a few important variables, and is used to correctly classify at-fault crashes up to 62.40% with a specificity of 77.25%. This model can identify as many as 62.40% of the crash incidence of at-fault drivers in the upcoming year. Traffic agencies can use the model for monitoring the performance of an at-fault crash-prone drivers and making roadway improvements meant to reduce crash proneness. From the findings, it is recommended that crash-prone drivers should be targeted for special safety programs regularly through education and regulations.

  14. Child passengers injured in motor vehicle crashes.

    Romano, Eduardo; Kelley-Baker, Tara

    2015-02-01

    During 2010, 171,000 children aged 0-14 were injured in motor vehicle crashes. Despite the severity of the problem, research has been limited, and most of what we know about these children emanates from fatal crash databases. Using information from the General Estimates System, this effort examines the occurrence of non-fatal crashes among children aged 0-14 over the last decade. We found that about 1% of the non-injured children in the file had been driven by a driver who was positive for alcohol. This percentage climbed to about 2% among children who had suffered injuries. Compared with the proportion of alcohol-positive drivers at the time of the crash, the proportion of drivers who sped or failed to obey a traffic signal was significantly higher. The finding that drinking and driving with children did not decrease over time questions the adequacy of the extant child endangerment laws. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using linked data to evaluate traumatic brain injuries in New Mexico : Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) linked data demonstration project

    1998-10-01

    The 1995 crude mortality rate of physician diagnosed traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the New Mexico is estimated to be 21 deaths per 100,000 population and the crude incidence of both hospitalized and fatal TBI is 110 cases per 100,000 population (1,...

  16. Development of a Comprehensive Blast-Related Auditory Injury Database (BRAID)

    2016-05-01

    servicemembers included in the Blast-Related Auditory Injury Database. * Training injuries, accidents, and other noncombat injuries. †3,452 injuries...medications, exposures to ototoxic chemicals, recreational noise exposure, and other forms of temporary and persistent threshold shift. Combat marines...AC, Vecchiotti M, Kujawa SG, Lee DJ, Quesnel AM. Otologic outcomes after blast injury: The Boston Marathon experience. Otol Neurotol. 2014; 35(10

  17. Neuroanatomic correlates of stroke-related myocardial injury.

    Ay, H; Koroshetz, W J; Benner, T; Vangel, M G; Melinosky, C; Arsava, E M; Ayata, C; Zhu, M; Schwamm, L H; Sorensen, A G

    2006-05-09

    Myocardial injury can occur after ischemic stroke in the absence of primary cardiac causes. The neuroanatomic basis of stroke-related myocardial injury is not well understood. To identify regions of brain infarction associated with myocardial injury using a method free of the bias of an a priori hypothesis as to any specific location. Of 738 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, the authors identified 50 patients in whom serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT) elevation occurred in the absence of any apparent cause within 3 days of symptom onset. Fifty randomly selected, age- and sex-matched patients with ischemic stroke without cTnT elevation served as controls. Diffusion-weighted images with outlines of infarction were co-registered to a template, averaged, and then subtracted to find voxels that differed between the two groups. Voxel-wise p values were determined using a nonparametric permutation test to identify specific regions of infarction that were associated with cTnT elevation. The study groups were well balanced with respect to stroke risk factors, history of coronary artery disease, infarction volume, and frequency of right and left middle cerebral artery territory involvement. Brain regions that were a priori associated with cTnT elevation included the right posterior, superior, and medial insula and the right inferior parietal lobule. Among patients with right middle cerebral artery infarction, the insular cluster was involved in 88% of patients with and 33% without cTnT elevation (odds ratio: 15.00; 95% CI: 2.65 to 84.79). Infarctions in specific brain regions including the right insula are associated with elevated serum cardiac troponin T level indicative of myocardial injury.

  18. High-grade renal injuries are often isolated in sports-related trauma.

    Patel, Darshan P; Redshaw, Jeffrey D; Breyer, Benjamin N; Smith, Thomas G; Erickson, Bradley A; Majercik, Sarah D; Gaither, Thomas W; Craig, James R; Gardner, Scott; Presson, Angela P; Zhang, Chong; Hotaling, James M; Brant, William O; Myers, Jeremy B

    2015-07-01

    Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. We identified patients with AAST grades III-V blunt renal injuries from four level 1 trauma centres across the United States between 1/2005 and 1/2014. Patients were divided into "Sport" or "Non-sport" related groups. Outcomes included rates of hypotension (systolic blood pressure 110bpm), concomitant abdominal injury, and procedural/surgical intervention between sports and non-sports related injury. 320 patients met study criteria. 18% (59) were sports-related injuries with the most common mechanisms being skiing, snowboarding and contact sports (25%, 25%, and 24%, respectively). Median age was 24 years for sports and 30 years for non-sports related renal injuries (p=0.049). Males were more commonly involved in sports related injuries (85% vs. 72%, p=0.011). Median injury severity score was lower for sports related injuries (10 vs. 27, pinjury scale scores. Sports related trauma was more likely to be isolated without other significant injury (69% vs. 39% (psports and non-sports renal injuries (p=0.30). Sports injuries had lower transfusion (7% vs. 47%, psports vs. 18% non-sports, p=0.95). High-grade sports-related blunt renal trauma is more likely to occur in isolation without other abdominal or thoracic injuries and clinicians must have a high suspicion of renal injury with significant blows to the flank during sports activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiology of Muay Thai fight-related injuries

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improvi...

  20. Disruption of caudate working memory activation in chronic blast-related traumatic brain injury

    Mary R. Newsome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI due to blast exposure is frequently diagnosed in veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, it is unclear whether neural damage resulting from blast TBI differs from that found in TBI due to blunt-force trauma (e.g., falls and motor vehicle crashes. Little is also known about the effects of blast TBI on neural networks, particularly over the long term. Because impairment in working memory has been linked to blunt-force TBI, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study sought to investigate whether brain activation in response to a working memory task would discriminate blunt-force from blast TBI. Twenty-five veterans (mean age = 29.8 years, standard deviation = 6.01 years, 1 female who incurred TBI due to blast an average of 4.2 years prior to enrollment and 25 civilians (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 6.68 years, 4 females with TBI due to blunt-force trauma performed the Sternberg Item Recognition Task while undergoing fMRI. The task involved encoding 1, 3, or 5 items in working memory. A group of 25 veterans (mean age = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 5.53 years, 0 females and a group of 25 civilians (mean age = 27.3 years, standard deviation = 5.81 years, 0 females without history of TBI underwent identical imaging procedures and served as controls. Results indicated that the civilian TBI group and both control groups demonstrated a monotonic relationship between working memory set size and activation in the right caudate during encoding, whereas the blast TBI group did not (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons using False Discovery Rate. Blast TBI was also associated with worse performance on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task relative to the other groups, although no other group differences were found on neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, inhibition, and general processing speed. These results

  1. Evaluation of kinematics and injuries to restrained occupants in far-side crashes using full-scale vehicle and human body models.

    Arun, Mike W J; Umale, Sagar; Humm, John R; Yoganandan, Narayan; Hadagali, Prasanaah; Pintar, Frank A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to perform a parametric study with different impact objects, impact locations, and impact speeds by analyzing occupant kinematics and injury estimations using a whole-vehicle and whole-body finite element-human body model (FE-HBM). To confirm the HBM responses, the biofidelity of the model was validated using data from postmortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests. The biofidelity of the model was validated using data from sled experiments and correlational analysis (CORA). Full-scale simulations were performed using a restrained Global Human Body Model Consortium (GHBMC) model seated on a 2001 Ford Taurus model using a far-side lateral impact condition. The driver seat was placed in the center position to represent a nominal initial impact condition. A 3-point seat belt with pretensioner and retractor was used to restrain the GHBMC model. A parametric study was performed using 12 simulations by varying impact locations, impacting object, and impact speed using the full-scale models. In all 12 simulations, the principal direction of force (PDOF) was selected as 90°. The impacting objects were a 10-in.-diameter rigid vertical pole and a movable deformable barrier. The impact location of the pole was at the C-pillar in the first case, at the B-pillar in the second case, and, finally, at the A-pillar in the third case. The vehicle and the GHBMC models were defined an initial velocity of 35 km/h (high speed) and 15 km/h (low speed). Excursion of the head center of gravity (CG), T6, and pelvis were measured from the simulations. In addition, injury risk estimations were performed on head, rib cage, lungs, kidneys, liver, spleen, and pelvis. The average CORA rating was 0.7. The shoulder belt slipped in B- and C-pillar impacts but somewhat engaged in the A-pillar case. In the B-pillar case, the head contacted the intruding struck-side structures, indicating higher risk of injury. Occupant kinematics depended on interaction with

  2. Water tubing-related injuries treated in US emergency departments, 1991-2009.

    Heinsimer, Kevin R; Nelson, Nicolas G; Roberts, Kristin J; McKenzie, Lara B

    2013-02-01

    The objective was to describe the patterns and mechanisms of water tubing-related injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was used to examine cases of water tubing-related injuries. Sample weights were used to calculate national estimates of water tubing-related injuries. Analyses were conducted in 2010. From 1991-2009 an estimated 69,471 injuries were treated in US emergency departments for water tubing-related injuries. The annual number of cases increased 250% over the 19-year study period (P tubing-related injuries differ for children and adults. Research is needed to determine how best to reduce these injuries.

  3. Injury-free running - a utopia? Risk factors of running-related injuries in men and women

    Worp, M.P. van der

    2016-01-01

    Running is a popular sport worldwide and has a positive effect on health and well-being. However, the rate of running-related injuries and the associated costs are high. Van der Worp performed a systematic review to examine which factors increase the risk of running injuries, and whether this is the

  4. Time-varying Crash Risk

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly on re...

  5. Psychologic stress related to injury and impact on sport performance.

    Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M

    2008-05-01

    Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.

  6. The epidemiology of sports-related injuries in older adults: a central European epidemiologic study.

    Kammerlander, Christian; Braito, Matthias; Kates, Stephen; Jeske, Christian; Roth, Tobias; Blauth, Michael; Dallapozza, Christian

    2012-10-01

    The population is rapidly aging and remaining more active over the age of 65. An increasing number of sports related injuries in individuals 65 and older are thus anticipated. The aim of this study is to analyze the epidemiology of sports injuries in the age group aged 65 and older. Data from the medical records of adults aged 65 years and older who were treated for sports-related injuries at a level one trauma center between December 1994 and February 2008 was collected and statistically analyzed. A total of 2635 patients met our inclusion criteria. There were 1647 men (62.5%) and 988 women (37.5%) with a mean age of 70.9 years. The yearly number of injuries doubled during the study period (1996-2007). The most common mechanism of injury was a simple fall from standing height (69%). Nearly 75% of all injuries occurred during alpine skiing, cycling or mountain climbing. The median Injury Severity Score was 4. Minor injuries and wounds (40%) were recorded most commonly followed by fractures (27%), sprains, ligament injuries (19%) and injuries of muscles and tendons (6%). The most frequent diagnoses were minor injuries to the head and ligament injuries around the knee joint. Injuries to the upper extremities occurred in 33.7%, injuries to the lower extremities in 29.4% and injuries to the head occurred in 20% of the patients. Women sustained substantially more fractures than men. Adults aged 65 and older are remaining active in sports, which results in higher numbers of sports related injuries in this age group. Identification of type, mechanism and distribution of the injuries can help with the recognition of risk factors for injury. This may enable us to develop appropriate preventative measures to reduce the incidence, and morbidity of such injuries.

  7. Analysis of Traffic Crashes Involving Pedestrians Using Big Data: Investigation of Contributing Factors and Identification of Hotspots.

    Xie, Kun; Ozbay, Kaan; Kurkcu, Abdullah; Yang, Hong

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to explore the potential of using big data in advancing the pedestrian risk analysis including the investigation of contributing factors and the hotspot identification. Massive amounts of data of Manhattan from a variety of sources were collected, integrated, and processed, including taxi trips, subway turnstile counts, traffic volumes, road network, land use, sociodemographic, and social media data. The whole study area was uniformly split into grid cells as the basic geographical units of analysis. The cell-structured framework makes it easy to incorporate rich and diversified data into risk analysis. The cost of each crash, weighted by injury severity, was assigned to the cells based on the relative distance to the crash site using a kernel density function. A tobit model was developed to relate grid-cell-specific contributing factors to crash costs that are left-censored at zero. The potential for safety improvement (PSI) that could be obtained by using the actual crash cost minus the cost of "similar" sites estimated by the tobit model was used as a measure to identify and rank pedestrian crash hotspots. The proposed hotspot identification method takes into account two important factors that are generally ignored, i.e., injury severity and effects of exposure indicators. Big data, on the one hand, enable more precise estimation of the effects of risk factors by providing richer data for modeling, and on the other hand, enable large-scale hotspot identification with higher resolution than conventional methods based on census tracts or traffic analysis zones. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. The NLstart2run study : Training-related factors associated with running-related injuries in novice runners

    Kluitenberg, Bas; van der Worp, Henk; Huisstede, Bionka M A; Hartgens, Fred; Diercks, Ron; Verhagen, Evert; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The incidence of running-related injuries is high. Some risk factors for injury were identified in novice runners, however, not much is known about the effect of training factors on injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the associations between training factors

  9. The NLstart2run study: Training-related factors associated with running-related injuries in novice runners

    Kluitenberg, Bas; van der Worp, Henk; Huisstede, Bionka M. A.; Hartgens, Fred; Diercks, Ronald; Verhagen, Evert; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    Objectives: The incidence of running-related injuries is high. Some risk factors for injury were identified in novice runners, however, not much is known about the effect of training factors on injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the associations between training factors

  10. Survivors’ experiences from a train crash

    Rebecca Forsberg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rarely described are people's lived experiences from severe injury events such as train crashes. The number of train crashes named disasters with ≥10 killed and/or ≥100 nonfatally injured grows globally and the trend shows that more people survive these disasters today than did so in the past. This results in an increased number of survivors needing care. The aim of the study was to explore survivors’ experiences from a train crash. Narrative interviews were performed with 14 passengers 4 years after a train crash event. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. Experiences were captured in three main themes: (1 Living in the mode of existential threat describes how the survivors first lost control, then were thrown into a state of unimaginable chaos as they faced death. (2 Dealing with the unthinkable described how survivors restored control, the central role of others, and the importance of reconstructing the event to move forward in their processing. (3 Having cheated death shows how some became shackled by their history, whereas others overcame the haunting of unforgettable memories. Furthermore, the result shows how all experienced a second chance in life. Experiencing a train crash meant that the passengers experienced severe vulnerability and a threat to life and interdependence turned out to play a crucial role. Focusing on helping other passengers on site was one way to regain the loss of control and kept the chaos at bay. Family, friends, and fellow passengers turned out to be extremely important during the recovery process why such closeness should be promoted and facilitated.

  11. High-grade renal injuries are often isolated in sports-related trauma

    Patel, Darshan P.; Redshaw, Jeffrey D.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, Thomas G.; Erickson, Bradley A.; Majercik, Sarah D.; Gaither, Thomas W.; Craig, James R.; Gardner, Scott; Presson, Angela P.; Zhang, Chong; Hotaling, James M.; Brant, William O.; Myers, Jeremy B.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction: Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. Material and methods: We identified patients with AAST grades III...

  12. A multivariate tobit analysis of highway accident-injury-severity rates.

    Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis Ch; Shankar, Venky N; Haddock, John E; Mannering, Fred L

    2012-03-01

    Relatively recent research has illustrated the potential that tobit regression has in studying factors that affect vehicle accident rates (accidents per distance traveled) on specific roadway segments. Tobit regression has been used because accident rates on specific roadway segments are continuous data that are left-censored at zero (they are censored because accidents may not be observed on all roadway segments during the period over which data are collected). This censoring may arise from a number of sources, one of which being the possibility that less severe crashes may be under-reported and thus may be less likely to appear in crash databases. Traditional tobit-regression analyses have dealt with the overall accident rate (all crashes regardless of injury severity), so the issue of censoring by the severity of crashes has not been addressed. However, a tobit-regression approach that considers accident rates by injury-severity level, such as the rate of no-injury, possible injury and injury accidents per distance traveled (as opposed to all accidents regardless of injury-severity), can potentially provide new insights, and address the possibility that censoring may vary by crash-injury severity. Using five-year data from highways in Washington State, this paper estimates a multivariate tobit model of accident-injury-severity rates that addresses the possibility of differential censoring across injury-severity levels, while also accounting for the possible contemporaneous error correlation resulting from commonly shared unobserved characteristics across roadway segments. The empirical results show that the multivariate tobit model outperforms its univariate counterpart, is practically equivalent to the multivariate negative binomial model, and has the potential to provide a fuller understanding of the factors determining accident-injury-severity rates on specific roadway segments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Airbag Related Ocular Injuries: A Short Case Series

    Department of Ophthalmology, Guinness Eye Centre, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba, PMB 12003, Lagos, Nigeria ... Type of injury was grouped as either open globe or .... An assessment of closed globe injury RE and severe.

  14. Personality predictors of injury-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Fauerbach, J A; Lawrence, J W; Schmidt, C W; Munster, A M; Costa, P T

    2000-08-01

    This longitudinal, cohort study examined the effect of personality traits on the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a recently traumatized, civilian, mixed-gender sample with significant injuries. Burn survivors (N = 70) were administered the NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R (SCID) at hospital discharge and readministered the SCID 4 and 12 months later. Overall, the sample of burn survivors scored significantly higher on neuroticism and extraversion and lower on openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness relative to a normative national sample. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance revealed that PTSD symptom severity groups (i.e., single symptom, multiple symptoms, subthreshold PTSD, PTSD) were differentially related to neuroticism and extraversion. Planned comparisons indicated that neuroticism was higher and extraversion was lower in those who developed PTSD compared with those who did not develop PTSD.

  15. Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modeling pedestrian injury severity.

    Prato, Carlo G; Kaplan, Sigal; Patrier, Alexandre; Rasmussen, Thomas K

    2018-01-02

    This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by focusing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation across crashes. Reports for 6,539 pedestrian crashes occurred in Denmark between 2006 and 2015 were merged with geographic information system resources containing detailed information about the built environment and exposure at the crash locations. A linearized spatial logit model estimated the probability of pedestrians sustaining a severe or fatal injury conditional on the occurrence of a crash with another road user. This study confirms previous findings about older pedestrians and intoxicated pedestrians being the most vulnerable road users and crashes with heavy vehicles and in roads with higher speed limits being related to the most severe outcomes. This study provides novel perspectives by showing positive spatial correlations of crashes with the same severity outcomes and emphasizing the role of the built environment in the proximity of the crash. This study emphasizes the need for thinking about traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs, and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasizes the role of the built environment, because shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity. Often, these areas have in common a larger pedestrian mass that is more likely to make other road users more aware and attentive, whereas the same does not seem to apply to areas with lower pedestrian density.

  16. Nonelite exercise-related injuries: participant reported frequency, management and perceptions of their consequences.

    Grice, A; Kingsbury, S R; Conaghan, P G

    2014-04-01

    This mixed methods study explored the frequency of sport/exercise-related injuries in nonelite sport, participant-reported management and perceptions of potential injury consequences. Focus group participants, who trained two to four times a week and had previously sustained musculoskeletal sports-related injuries, reported seeking medical advice secondary to advice from teammates or online research. General practitioners were viewed as gatekeepers to specialist secondary care and less able to effectively treat sport-related injuries. Participants displayed limited awareness of potential future implications of injury, and considered physical and psychological benefits of exercise more valuable than potential injury-associated risks. In the survey of physically active people, over half reported sustaining an exercise-related injury (562/1002, 56%). Previously injured respondents were less likely to consider consulting a health professional for injury-related advice than those with no injury history (45% vs 64%; P sports-related injuries and a lack of awareness about appropriate injury management and potential consequences of injury, particularly in the long-term. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Reducing the environmental impact of trials: a comparison of the carbon footprint of the CRASH-1 and CRASH-2 clinical trials

    2011-01-01

    Background All sectors of the economy, including the health research sector, must reduce their carbon emissions. The UK National Institute for Health Research has recently prepared guidelines on how to minimize the carbon footprint of research. We compare the carbon emissions from two international clinical trials in order to identify where emissions reductions can be made. Methods We conducted a carbon audit of two clinical trials (the CRASH-1 and CRASH-2 trials), quantifying the carbon dioxide emissions produced over a one-year audit period. Carbon emissions arising from the coordination centre, freight delivery, trial-related travel and commuting were calculated and compared. Results The total emissions in carbon dioxide equivalents during the one-year audit period were 181.3 tonnes for CRASH-1 and 108.2 tonnes for CRASH-2. In total, CRASH-1 emitted 924.6 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents compared with 508.5 tonnes for CRASH-2. The CRASH-1 trial recruited 10,008 patients over 5.1 years, corresponding to 92 kg of carbon dioxide per randomized patient. The CRASH-2 trial recruited 20,211 patients over 4.7 years, corresponding to 25 kg of carbon dioxide per randomized patient. The largest contributor to emissions in CRASH-1 was freight delivery of trial materials (86.0 tonnes, 48% of total emissions), whereas the largest contributor in CRASH-2 was energy use by the trial coordination centre (54.6 tonnes, 30% of total emissions). Conclusions Faster patient recruitment in the CRASH-2 trial largely accounted for its greatly increased carbon efficiency in terms of emissions per randomized patient. Lighter trial materials and web-based data entry also contributed to the overall lower carbon emissions in CRASH-2 as compared to CRASH-1. Trial Registration Numbers CRASH-1: ISRCTN74459797 CRASH-2: ISRCTN86750102 PMID:21291517

  18. Reducing the environmental impact of trials: a comparison of the carbon footprint of the CRASH-1 and CRASH-2 clinical trials

    Roberts Ian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All sectors of the economy, including the health research sector, must reduce their carbon emissions. The UK National Institute for Health Research has recently prepared guidelines on how to minimize the carbon footprint of research. We compare the carbon emissions from two international clinical trials in order to identify where emissions reductions can be made. Methods We conducted a carbon audit of two clinical trials (the CRASH-1 and CRASH-2 trials, quantifying the carbon dioxide emissions produced over a one-year audit period. Carbon emissions arising from the coordination centre, freight delivery, trial-related travel and commuting were calculated and compared. Results The total emissions in carbon dioxide equivalents during the one-year audit period were 181.3 tonnes for CRASH-1 and 108.2 tonnes for CRASH-2. In total, CRASH-1 emitted 924.6 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents compared with 508.5 tonnes for CRASH-2. The CRASH-1 trial recruited 10,008 patients over 5.1 years, corresponding to 92 kg of carbon dioxide per randomized patient. The CRASH-2 trial recruited 20,211 patients over 4.7 years, corresponding to 25 kg of carbon dioxide per randomized patient. The largest contributor to emissions in CRASH-1 was freight delivery of trial materials (86.0 tonnes, 48% of total emissions, whereas the largest contributor in CRASH-2 was energy use by the trial coordination centre (54.6 tonnes, 30% of total emissions. Conclusions Faster patient recruitment in the CRASH-2 trial largely accounted for its greatly increased carbon efficiency in terms of emissions per randomized patient. Lighter trial materials and web-based data entry also contributed to the overall lower carbon emissions in CRASH-2 as compared to CRASH-1. Trial Registration Numbers CRASH-1: ISRCTN74459797 CRASH-2: ISRCTN86750102

  19. Age-related patterns in work-related injury claims from older New Zealanders, 2009-2013: Implications of injury for an aging workforce.

    Lilley, Rebbecca; Jaye, Chrystal; Davie, Gabrielle; Keeling, Sally; Waters, Debra; Egan, Richard

    2018-01-01

    This study describes the incidence, nature and cause of work-related injuries in older New Zealand workers to understand the risks of work-related injury in this rapidly aging population. Data for the period 2009-2013 from 25,455 injured workers aged 55-79 years, extracted from national work-related injury entitlement claims, were stratified by age group and analysed by sex, industry, injury type and cause. Age-specific claims rates were calculated by year, sex and ethnicity. Patterns of injury differed by age: 70-79 year olds had the highest injury rates and proportion of claims due to falls (45%), for the self-employed (32%), for the agriculture sector (24%), and for fatal injuries (5%). The burden of work-related injuries in older workers, particularly in those aged over 70, will increase with their increasing participation in work. Workplace injury prevention strategies and interventions need to consider the specific characteristics and vulnerabilities of older workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Load event: Aircraft crash

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Phantom crash confirms models

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    To test computer models of how a nuclear reactor's containment building would fare if an airplane crashed into it, the Muto Institute in Tokyo sponsored a 3.2 million dollar project at Sandia National Laboratory to slam an F-4 Phantom jet into a 500 ton concrete wall. The results showed that the computer calculations were accurate

  2. Bicycle-Related Shoulder Injuries: Etiology and the Need for Protective Gear.

    Goldstein, Yariv; Dolkart, Oleg; Kaufman, Ehud; Amar, Eyal; Sharfman, Zachary T; Rath, Ehud; Mozes, Gavriel; Maman, Eran

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of bicycle riding for recreation, exercise and transportation has grown enormously in recent years, which has led to an increased incidence of bicycle-related injuries. While these injuries involve mainly the musculoskeletal system, data on shoulder-specific injuries incurred while bike riding are lacking. Classifying these shoulder injuries may provide insight and assistance in the creation and implementation of effective protective gear and measures. To investigate the types and mechanisms of shoulder injuries among cyclists. This study retrospectively examined all cyclists who incurred shoulder injuries while riding and were admitted to the emergency department and shoulder clinic between January 2008 and November 2013. The study included 157 subjects with various bicycle-related shoulder injuries treated with either conservative or surgical measures. Eighty-four percent of injuries were caused by a direct blow to the shoulder, 7% by falling on an outstretched hand, 6% were traction injuries, and 3% were due to hyperabduction. Nine different clinical types of injury were observed; the most common injuries were clavicle fractures (32%), followed by acromioclavicular joint dislocations (22%), rotator cuff tears (22%), and humeral fractures (8%). Fifty-one percent of subjects were managed with conservative care and the remaining patients required surgical interventions. Shoulder injuries incurred while riding a bicycle span the entire spectrum of shoulder injuries and often result in debilitating conditions. Although the use of helmets is increasing, there is currently no effective protective gear or measures to prevent riders from suffering shoulder injuries.

  3. Epidemiology of soccer-related injuries among male high school ...

    Soccer in Rwandan high schools can expose players to the risk of injury warranting prevention programmes. The aim of this study was to determine the type, causes, severity and management of injuries among high school soccer players in Rwanda, in order to obtain baseline data for injury prevention programmes.

  4. Comparison of Thoracic Injury Risk in Frontal Car Crashes for Occupant Restrained without Belt Load Limiters and Those Restrained with 6 kN and 4 kN Belt Load Limiters.

    Foret-Bruno, J Y; Trosseille, X; Page, Y; Huère, J F; Le Coz, J Y; Bendjellal, F; Diboine, A; Phalempin, T; Villeforceix, D; Baudrit, P; Guillemot, H; Coltat, J C

    2001-11-01

    In France, as in other countries, accident research studies show that a large proportion of restrained occupants who sustain severe or fatal injuries are involved in frontal impacts (65% and 50%, respectively). In severe frontal impacts with restrained occupants and where intrusion is not preponderant, the oldest occupants very often sustain severe thoracic injuries due to the conventional seat belt. As we have been observing over the last years, we will expect in the coming years developments which include more solidly-built cars, as offset crash test procedures are widely used to evaluate the passive safety of production vehicles. The reduction of intrusion for the most severe frontal impacts, through optimization of car deformation, usually translates into an increase in restraint forces and hence thoracic injury risk with a conventional retractor seat belt for a given impact severity. It is, therefore essential to limit the restraint forces exerted by the seat belt on the thorax in order to reduce the number of road casualties. In order to address thoracic injury risk in frontal impact, Renault cars have been equipped with the Programmed Restraint System (PRS) since 1995. The PRS is a restraint system that combines belt load limitation and pyrotechnic belt pretension. In an initial design of the Programmed Restraint System (PRS1), the belt load limiter was a steel component designed to shear at a given shoulder force, namely 6 kN. It was mounted between the retractor and the lower anchorage point of the belt. The design of the PRS was modified in 1998 (PRS2), but the principle of load limitation was maintained. The threshold was decreased to 4 kN and this lower belt belt-force limiter has been combined with a specially designed airbag. This paper reports on 347 real-world frontal accidents where the EES (Equivalent Energy Speed) ranged from 35 to 75 km/h. One hundred and ninety-eight (198) of these accidents involved cars equipped with the 6 kN load limiter

  5. Chronic issues related to traumatic brain injury : traumatic brain injury is not an incident

    Grauwmeijer, Erik; van der Naalt, Joukje; ribbers, gerard

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increased awareness of the long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury, health care professionals often consider traumatic brain injury as an incident. However, patients with traumatic brain injury may experience long-term neurological, cognitive and behavioural problems. Due to the

  6. Injury patterns and mortality rates of motorcycle-related head injuries ...

    Background: Motorcycles are an emerging means of public transportation in many developing countries and has a poor safety record when compared to other road users. Subsequently, motorcycle injuries have been on the rise and head injuries are the leading cause of death, severe injury and disability globally.

  7. Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modelling pedestrian injury severity

    Prato, Carlo G.; Kaplan, Sigal; Patrier, Alexandre

    traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasises the role of the built environment, as shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity......This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation...... of pedestrians to sustain a severe or fatal injury conditional on the occurrence of a crash with another road user. This study confirms previous findings about older pedestrians and intoxicated pedestrians being the most vulnerable road users, and crashes with heavy vehicles and in roads with higher speed limits...

  8. Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modelling pedestrian injury severity

    Prato, Carlo G.; Kaplan, Sigal; Patrier, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasises the role of the built environment, as shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity......This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation...... of pedestrians to sustain a severe or fatal injury conditional on the occurrence of a crash with another road user. This study confirms previous findings about older pedestrians and intoxicated pedestrians being the most vulnerable road users, and crashes with heavy vehicles and in roads with higher speed limits...

  9. Prevention of childhood injuries

    road traffic crashes, drowning, burns, poisoning or falls), has become a major ... hugely on childhood health in terms of disability and, depending on their cause ... SA, children continue to be threatened by injuries of various kinds, although this ...

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Injury due to road traffic crash is a major cause of ill health and premature deaths in developing countries. Taxis provide a main mode of public transport in Vietnam but there has been little research on the risk of crash for taxi drivers. This retrospective study collected information on taxi crashes for the period 2006-2009 by interviewing drivers from five taxi companies in Hanoi, Vietnam, using a structured questionnaire. Of the total 1214 participants recruited, 276 drivers reported at least one crash, giving an overall crash prevalence of 22.7%. Among the crashed group, 50 drivers (18.1%) were involved in two to four crashes. Logistic regression analysis further identified age of driver, type of driving licence, employment status, perceived sufficiency of income, seat-belt usage, and traffic infringement history to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are recommended to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of taxi drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent injury of these commercial drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. U08 : finite element analysis crash model of tractor-trailers (Phase B).

    2009-08-01

    Improved understanding of truck-infrastructure crashes will enable the highway community to improve barrier design, to further reduce : the likelihood of vehicle-infrastructure fatalities and injuries, and to reduce highway congestion resulting from ...

  12. Not just a rural occurrence: differences in agricultural equipment crash characteristics by rural-urban crash site and proximity to town.

    Harland, Karisa K; Greenan, Mitchell; Ramirez, Marizen

    2014-09-01

    Although approximately one-third of agricultural equipment-related crashes occur near town, these crashes are thought to be a rural problem. This analysis examines differences between agricultural equipment-related crashes by their urban-rural distribution and distance from a town. Agricultural equipment crashes were collected from nine Midwest Departments of Transportation (2005-2008). Crash zip code was assigned as urban or rural (large, small and isolated) using Rural-Urban Commuting Areas. Crash proximity to a town was estimated with ArcGIS. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of crashing in an urban versus rural zip codes and across rural gradients. ANOVA analysis estimated mean distance (miles) from a crash site to a town. Over four years, 4444 crashes involved agricultural equipment. About 30% of crashes occurred in urban zip codes. Urban crashes were more likely to be non-collisions (aOR=1.69[1.24-2.30]), involve ≥2 vehicles (2 vehicles: aOR=1.58[1.14-2.20], 3+ vehicles: aOR=1.68[0.98-2.88]), occur in a town (aOR=2.06[1.73-2.45]) and within one mile of a town (aOR=1.65[1.40-1.95]) than rural crashes. The proportion of crashes within a town differed significantly across rural gradients (Purban-rural distribution (Pagricultural equipment are unexpectedly common in urban areas and near towns and cities. Education among all roadway users, increased visibility of agricultural equipment and the development of complete rural roads are needed to increase road safety and prevent agricultural equipment-related crashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of managed care in work-related injuries.

    Shor, M J; Miller, J C

    1996-10-01

    Many opportunities exist today for orthopedic surgeons in the treatment and management of work-related injuries. Physicians wishing to enter or participate in this market must realize that the role of the physician in the treatment of the injured worker has expanded from one of being solely the care giver to being a patient manager, a problem solver, and a communicator. A number of years ago, many orthopedic surgeons missed out on managed care contracting for health maintenance organizations because they thought they could survive without it. They soon learned the challenges of sitting on the sidelines. Whether we like it or not, managed care for work-related injuries is here and its likelihood for going away is about zero. If your state has not yet adopted utilization management standards or managed care for workers' compensation-enabling legislation, when you wake up tomorrow they may have done so. Because of its relative embryonic development, there are exceptional opportunities for practitioners to take active roles in shaping the models that will serve employees and employers in the year 2000. Physicians who are interested in the treatment of injured workers have a unique opportunity right now to develop relationships in the managed workers' compensation arena. Payment and patient referrals for workers' compensation may turn out to be more attractive financially than many of the contracts currently in place with health maintenance organizations and other general health plans. Physicians willing to partner with employers and other players in the workers' compensation arena currently face some challenging, rewarding, and exciting opportunities. In the immortal words of Hippocrates, "Healing is a matter of time, but it is sometimes a matter of opportunity."3 It is unclear whether Hippocrates ever imagined our current level of science, practice, and organization, but it is clear the opportunities to be an active participant in the changes occurring in workers

  14. Overview of the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) Full Scale Crash Tests

    Annett, Martin; Littell, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) full-scale tests were performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility in 2013 and 2014. Two CH-46E airframes were impacted at 33-ft/s forward and 25-ft/s vertical combined velocities onto soft soil, which represents a severe, but potentially survivable impact scenario. TRACT 1 provided a baseline set of responses, while TRACT 2 included retrofits with composite subfloors and other crash system improvements based on TRACT 1. For TRACT 2, a total of 18 unique experiments were conducted to evaluate Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) responses, seat and restraint performance, cargo restraint effectiveness, patient litter behavior, and activation of emergency locator transmitters and crash sensors. Combinations of Hybrid II, Hybrid III, and ES-2 ATDs were placed in forward and side facing seats and occupant results were compared against injury criteria. The structural response of the airframe was assessed based on accelerometers located throughout the airframe and using three-dimensional photogrammetric techniques. Analysis of the photogrammetric data indicated regions of maximum deflection and permanent deformation. The response of TRACT 2 was noticeably different in the horizontal direction due to changes in the cabin configuration and soil surface, with higher acceleration and damage occurring in the cabin. Loads from ATDs in energy absorbing seats and restraints were within injury limits. Severe injury was likely for ATDs in forward facing passenger seats.

  15. Trends in teen driver licensure, driving patterns and crash involvement in the United States, 2006-2015.

    Shults, Ruth A; Williams, Allan F

    2017-09-01

    The Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey provides nationally-representative annual estimates of licensure and driving patterns among U.S. teens. A previous study using MTF data reported substantial declines in the proportion of high school seniors that were licensed to drive and increases in the proportion of nondrivers following the recent U.S. economic recession. To explore whether licensure and driving patterns among U.S. high school seniors have rebounded in the post-recession years, we analyzed MTF licensure and driving data for the decade of 2006-2015. We also examined trends in teen driver involvement in fatal and nonfatal injury crashes for that decade using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System, respectively. During 2006-2015, the proportion of high school seniors that reported having a driver's license declined by 9 percentage points (11%) from 81% to 72% and the proportion that did not drive during an average week increased by 8 percentage points (44%) from 18% to 26%. The annual proportion of black seniors that did not drive was consistently greater than twice the proportion of nondriving white seniors. Overall during the decade, 17- and 18-year-old drivers experienced large declines in fatal and nonfatal injury crashes, although crashes increased in both 2014 and 2015. The MTF data indicate that licensure and driving patterns among U.S. high school seniors have not rebounded since the economic recession. The recession had marked negative effects on teen employment opportunities, which likely influenced teen driving patterns. Possible explanations for the apparent discrepancies between the MTF data and the 2014 and 2015 increases in crashes are explored. MTF will continue to be an important resource for clarifying teen driving trends in relation to crash trends and informing strategies to improve teen driver safety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Management of Work–Related Injuries Leading to Amputation and Its Relation with Treatment Outcome

    Iravan Masoudi-Asl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal" mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0 mso-tstyle-colband-size:0 mso-style-noshow:yes mso-style-priority:99 mso-style-parent:"" mso-padding-alt:0mm 5.4pt 0mm 5.4pt mso-para-margin-top:0mm mso-para-margin-right:0mm mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt mso-para-margin-left:0mm line-height:115% mso-pagination:widow-orphan font-size:11.0pt font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif" mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin mso-bidi-font-family:Arial mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi}   Objective: Work related accidents are considered as a significant health problem of working population. The goal of this study was to determine relation of treatment management with treatment outcome of Work-Related injuries leading to amputation.   Materials & Methods: current study was based on correlation method which was evidence based and was based on actual data of medical records of occupational accidents leading to amputations. Study population included all injuries that suffered limb amputation due to work and were referred to Laleh hospital during 2005 to 2009 (N=135. The data were collected by check list and analyzed by descriptive and inferential Statistics.   Results: Taking care method had a considerable effect on success of replant operation of that limb (P<0.001 so that in 95.23% of injuries whom principles of primary care had been done for them during transportation of amputated limb to hospital, had a successful operation. Treatment results of injuries in large limbs have had a strong relation to interval of incident occurrence to start of operation (P=0.038 How to refer injuries to hospital has not had a meaningful impact on treatment outcome (P=0.469 although referring injuries from health centers of workplace directly to hospital had more successful result comparing to

  17. Mountain biking-related injuries treated in emergency departments in the United States, 1994-2007.

    Nelson, Nicolas G; McKenzie, Lara B

    2011-02-01

    Injury research on mountain biking has been mostly limited to examining professional riders and off-road biking. Mountain bikes represent the largest segment of bike sales in the United States. Recreational mountain bike use is popular and understudied. To describe the scope, distribution, and trends of mountain bike-related injuries treated in US emergency departments. Descriptive epidemiologic study. A retrospective analysis was conducted with data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for patients aged ≥ 8 years from 1994 through 2007. Sample weights provided by the system were used to calculate national estimates of mountain bike-related injuries based on 4624 cases. Bivariate comparisons between categorical variables were assessed with injury proportion ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Nationwide, an estimated 217 433 patients were treated for mountain bike-related injuries in US emergency departments from 1994 to 2007, an average of 15 531 injuries per year. The annual number of injuries decreased 56%, from a high of 23 177 in 1995 to 10 267 in 2007 (P bike-related injuries decreased from 1994 to 2007. Upper extremity fractures were the most common injury. Girls and women may be more likely than boys and men to sustain more severe injuries requiring hospitalization. Despite the decline over the past decade, more can be done to improve safety and reduce injuries in this popular recreational activity.

  18. Risk factors of military training-related injuries in recruits of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces.

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Pei-shan; Zhou, Wei

    2003-02-01

    To assess the incidence, types and risk factors of military training-related injuries in recruits of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces (CPAPF). A cohort study was made on the risk factors of injuries in 805 male recruits during the military training from December 25, 1999 to December 25, 2000. A total of 111 recruits (14%) experienced one or more injuries, and the cumulative incidence was 16.1 injuries per 100 soldiers in a year. And 77.7% of the injuries belonged to overuse injuries of the skeletal and muscular systems, the most common type of which was stress fractures. Most injuries occurred in the 3rd month of training. Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis of possible risk factors for overuse injuries were carried out, and a number of risk factors were identified: history of agricultural labor, history of lower limb injury, flatfoot and less running exercise before entry into the army. But a suitable body mass index (BMI) was a protective factor. Examination of age, body height, smoking, body flexibility and frequency of 2-mile running revealed no significant association with the injuries. History of agricultural labor, history of lower limb injury, flatfoot, less running exercise before entry into the army and lower BMI were risk factors of the overuse injuries. In order to decrease the incidence of overuse injuries, the young people with good physical ability and shapely body type should be selected during conscription. During the training, nutrition should be improved so as to decrease the incidence of injuries.

  19. Proposed revised nomenclature for transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    Toy, Pearl; Kleinman, Steven H; Looney, Mark R

    2017-03-01

    A decade ago, definitions of "transfusionߚrelated acute lung injury (TRALI)" and "possible TRALI" were standardized for research and clinical diagnosis. Since then, evidence has confirmed that TRALI is often due to transfusion of white blood cell antibodies to at-risk patients, and the term "TRALI, antibody mediated" is appropriate for such cases. Other TRALI cases are non-antibody mediated. Because specific, nonantibody transfusion factors have not yet been confirmed to cause TRALI in humans, the general term "TRALI, non-antibody mediated" is appropriate for such cases. In contrast, evidence is against possible TRALI being due to transfusion with the more likely cause of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) being the alternative ARDS risk factor present in these patients. We propose to drop the misleading term "possible TRALI" and to rename this category of cases as "transfused ARDS." These nomenclature updates will more accurately categorize ARDS cases that develop after transfusion. © 2016 AABB.

  20. Overuse of Diagnostic Imaging for Work-Related Injuries.

    Clendenin, Brianna Rebecca; Conlon, Helen Acree; Burns, Candace

    2017-02-01

    Overuse of health care in the United States is a growing concern. This article addresses the use of diagnostic imaging for work-related injuries. Diagnostic imaging drives substantial cost for increases in workers' compensation. Despite guidelines published by the American College of Radiology and the American College of Occupational Medicine and the Official Disability Guidelines, practitioners are prematurely ordering imaging sooner than recommended. Workers are exposed to unnecessary radiation and are incurring increasing costs without evidence of better outcomes. Practitioners caring for workers and submitting workers' compensation claims should adhere to official guidelines, using their professional judgment to consider financial impact and health outcomes of diagnostic imaging including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine imaging, radiography, and ultrasound.

  1. Does cervical kyphosis relate to symptoms following whiplash injury?

    Johansson, Mats Peter; Baann Liane, Martin Skogheim; Bendix, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms for developing long-lasting neck pain after whiplash injuries are still largely unrevealed. In the present study it was investigated whether a kyphotic deformity of the cervical spine, as opposed to a straight or a lordotic spine, was associated with the symptoms at baseline...... appearance of the cervical spine in supine MRI. In relation to symptoms it was seen that a kyphotic deformity was associated with reporting the highest intensities of headache at baseline, but not with an increased risk of long-lasting neck pain or headache. In conclusion, a kyphotic deformity...... is not significantly associated with chronic whiplash associated pain. Moreover, it is a clear clinical implication that pain should not be ascribed to a straight spine on MRI. We suggest that future trials on cervical posture focus upon the presence of kyphotic deformity rather than just on the absence of lordosis....

  2. Firework related injury and legislation: the epidemiology of firework injuries and the effect of legislation in Northern Ireland.

    Fogarty, B J; Gordon, D J

    1999-02-01

    The efficacy of legislation in reducing firework associated injuries is uncertain as is the nature of the problem within the United Kingdom (UK). In September 1996 the legislation governing firework sale in Northern Ireland was relaxed thus equalling that of the rest of the UK. For the 2 years following the change in legislation we prospectively assessed those patients who were admitted with a firework injury over the Halloween period. We then compared these results with retrospective data for the 3 years prior to the change in firework law. In the pre-legislation series the mean number of patients admitted annually was 0.38 per 100,000 while in the post-legislation series the mean was 0.43 per 100,000. Blast injury to the hand was the commonest injury accounting for 53% of cases in both series. Burn injuries were the second commonest form of injury comprising 30% of all admissions. Of those admitted with a hand injury 47% had at least one finger terminalised and nearly half of those patients admitted with burns (44%) required skin grafting. We conclude that early evidence suggests that liberalisation of the law on firework sale has not resulted in a significant increase in firework related injuries requiring hospital admission.

  3. Epidemiology of pediatric holiday-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments.

    D'Ippolito, Anthony; Collins, Christy L; Comstock, R Dawn

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate injury rates and describe the epidemiology of holiday-related injuries among children who were aged holiday-related injuries obtained from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were analyzed. From 1997 through 2006, an estimated 5,710,999 holiday-related injuries sustained by children who were aged holidays were classified as sports and recreation-related. In addition, home structure-related and home furnishing-related injuries were prevalent. Injuries that were associated with fireworks were more likely to occur on the Fourth of July than any other holiday, yet fireworks accounted for only a small proportion of Fourth of July injuries. Most injuries that were sustained on holidays and required ED treatment were not holiday-specific but were associated with more general activities. Parents should be aware that holidays present a risk not only for holiday-specific injuries but also for more general, "everyday" injuries.

  4. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries.

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc.), site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc.), dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion), causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and χ(2), ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%), aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years), had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma), dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion), and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%), 55 (45.1%), 53 (44.2%), and 8 (6.7%) cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7%) were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7%) was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%). Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather than amateur athletes. In this study

  5. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    Shirani Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc., site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc., dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion, causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and c2 , ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Results: Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%, aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years, had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma, dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion, and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%, 55 (45.1%, 53 (44.2%, and 8 (6.7% cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7% were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7% was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%. Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather

  6. How bicycle level of traffic stress correlate with reported cyclist accidents injury severities: A geospatial and mixed logit analysis.

    Chen, Chen; Anderson, Jason C; Wang, Haizhong; Wang, Yinhai; Vogt, Rachel; Hernandez, Salvador

    2017-11-01

    Transportation agencies need efficient methods to determine how to reduce bicycle accidents while promoting cycling activities and prioritizing safety improvement investments. Many studies have used standalone methods, such as level of traffic stress (LTS) and bicycle level of service (BLOS), to better understand bicycle mode share and network connectivity for a region. However, in most cases, other studies rely on crash severity models to explain what variables contribute to the severity of bicycle related crashes. This research uniquely correlates bicycle LTS with reported bicycle crash locations for four cities in New Hampshire through geospatial mapping. LTS measurements and crash locations are compared visually using a GIS framework. Next, a bicycle injury severity model, that incorporates LTS measurements, is created through a mixed logit modeling framework. Results of the visual analysis show some geospatial correlation between higher LTS roads and "Injury" type bicycle crashes. It was determined, statistically, that LTS has an effect on the severity level of bicycle crashes and high LTS can have varying effects on severity outcome. However, it is recommended that further analyses be conducted to better understand the statistical significance and effect of LTS on injury severity. As such, this research will validate the use of LTS as a proxy for safety risk regardless of the recorded bicycle crash history. This research will help identify the clustering patterns of bicycle crashes on high-risk corridors and, therefore, assist with bicycle route planning and policy making. This paper also suggests low-cost countermeasures or treatments that can be implemented to address high-risk areas. Specifically, with the goal of providing safer routes for cyclists, such countermeasures or treatments have the potential to substantially reduce the number of fatalities and severe injuries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Motorcycle crash causes and outcomes : pilot study.

    2010-06-01

    The number of motorcyclist crash-related fatalities has more than doubled during the past 10 years. In the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) P.L. 109-59, Congress directed the Secretary ...

  8. Mass casualty triage after an airplane crash near Amsterdam

    Postma, Ingri L. E.; Weel, Hanneke; Heetveld, Martin J.; van der Zande, Ineke; Bijlsma, Taco S.; Bloemers, Frank W.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2013-01-01

    Triage is an important aspect of the management of mass casualty incidents. This study describes the triage after the Turkish Airlines Crash near Amsterdam in 2009. The results of the triage and the injuries of P3 casualties were evaluated. In addition, the role of the trauma mechanism and its

  9. Feedback control of occupant motion during a crash

    Hesseling, R.J.; Steinbuch, M.; Veldpaus, F.E.; Klisch, T.

    2006-01-01

    Passive in-vehicle safety systems such as the air bag and the belt restrain the occupant during a crash. However, often their behavior is not optimal in terms of occupant injuries. This paper discusses an approach to design an ideal restraint system. The problem is formulated as a feedback tracking

  10. Playground slide-related injuries in preschool children: increased risk of lower extremity injuries when riding on laps.

    Jennissen, Charles A; Koos, Maggie; Denning, Gerene

    2018-04-10

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the factors associated with playground slide-related injuries in preschool children and to test the hypothesis that riding on laps increases the likelihood of lower extremity injuries. Playground slide-related injuries (product code 1242) in children ≤5 years of age treated in emergency departments from 2002 to 2015 were identified (N = 12,686) using the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Descriptive and comparative analyses, including chi-square testing and binary logistic regression, were performed. Based on NEISS stratified national sampling estimates, over 350,000 children ≤5 years of age were injured on slides from 2002 to 2015. Overall, 59% of the children were male, and 65% were white. Almost 60% of injuries occurred in parks or other public areas. The most frequent diagnosis was a fracture (36%); lacerations were 19% of the injuries. A higher proportion of musculoskeletal injuries were seen in toddlers < 3 years old as compared to those 3-5 years of age (p < 0.001). Injuries to the lower extremities increased in frequency as age decreased, whereas injuries to the upper extremities and head/neck/face were more common in older preschoolers. Children < 3 years of age were 12 times more likely to be identified from narratives as being on another person's lap at the time of injury. Children identified as being on a lap had an increased odds of injury to the lower extremity than to other body parts (OR 43.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 32.0-58.0), and of lower leg/ankle fracture than fractures elsewhere (OR 49.5, 95% CI 31.7-77.4). Decreasing age was associated with a higher likelihood of being identified as sliding down on another person's lap and a higher likelihood of lower extremity injuries. Healthcare providers should be mindful of the potential for these slide-related injuries as they can result in a toddler's fracture of

  11. Injuries to children in the United States related to trampolines, 1990-1995: a national epidemic.

    Smith, G A

    1998-03-01

    To describe the epidemiology of trampoline-related injuries among children in the United States. A retrospective analysis of data for children 18 years old and younger from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission for 1990 through 1995. There were an estimated 249 400 trampoline-related injuries [95% confidence interval (CI), 166 300-332 500] to children 18 years old and younger treated in hospital emergency departments in the United States during the 6-year study period. The number of injuries increased by 98% from 29 600 in 1990 to 58 400 in 1995, with an average of 41 600 (95% CI, 27 700-55 500) injuries per year, or 59.4 injuries per 100 000 United States children per year (95% CI, 39.6-79.3). The median age of injured children was 10 years, and 50% were males. Ninety-three percent of injuries occurred at home. Injuries to the extremities predominated among children of all ages and accounted for more than 70% of all injuries. This study identified several age-specific injury patterns. There was an inverse relationship between age versus the relative frequency of upper extremity injuries, and fractures and dislocations; and there was a direct relationship between age versus lower extremity injuries and soft tissue injury. There was also an inverse relationship between age versus facial injuries, head and neck injuries, and lacerations. Annually, an estimated 1400 children (95% CI, 800-2000), or 2.0 per 100 000 United States children (95% CI, 1. 1-2.9), required hospital admission or interhospital transfer because of a trampoline-related injury. This represented 3.3% of all children with a trampoline-associated injury. Fractures or dislocations accounted for 83% of injuries among admitted or transferred children, and children with a fracture or dislocation were more likely to be admitted or transferred to another hospital (8.4%) than children with other types of injury (relative risk, 10.80; 95% CI

  12. Aerosol container-related eye injuries in the United States: 1997-2009.

    Seidman, Carly J; Linakis, James G; Mello, Michael J; Greenberg, Paul B

    2011-06-01

    To quantify and characterize eye injuries related to aerosol container consumer products treated in United States hospital emergency departments (EDs) from 1997 through 2009. Retrospective study. Descriptive analysis of aerosol container-related eye injury data derived from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a stratified probability sample of hospital-affiliated United States EDs. Data collected included demographic variables (gender and age), locale, diagnoses, and hospital disposition associated with aerosol container-related eye injuries treated in United States EDs from 1997 through 2009. Products associated with injury and mechanisms of injury also were extracted and analyzed. There were an estimated 10 765 (95% confidence interval [CI], 9842 to 11 688) visits to United States EDs for aerosol container-related eye injuries during the study period; 6756 (95% CI, 5771 to 7742; 63%) patients were male; 5927 (95% CI, 4956 to 6897; 55%) injuries occurred in children (age container-related eye injuries in the United States occur in men and children and that self-inflicted spray to the eye is the most common mechanism of injury. Further research is needed to devise effective prevention strategies for these types of injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Woodworking injuries: a comparative study of work-related and hobby-related accidents.

    Loisel, F; Bonin, S; Jeunet, L; Pauchot, J; Tropet, Y; Obert, L

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to describe the injury characteristics and demographics of patients injured during woodworking activities, upon their arrival to the emergency department in a regional of France where this industry is prevalent. The secondary objective was to compare patient and injury characteristics for work-related and hobby-related accidents. A cohort of 87 patients who had suffered a woodworking accident over a two-year period was evaluated; 79 were available for follow-up. The context and circumstances of the accident, nature and location of the injuries and patient demographics were recorded. Hobby-related accidents accounted for two-thirds of the accidents (51/79). Most of the injured workers were either loggers (35%) or carpenters (46%). The hand was injured in 53 cases (67%). Work-related accidents resulted in significantly more serious consequences in terms of hospital stay, work stoppage, resumption of work or retraining than hobby-related accidents. For the workplace accidents, 86% occurred on new machines; more than 25% of the machines involved in accidents at home were over 15 years. Sixty-eight per cent of workers were wearing their safety gear, while only 31% of those injured during recreational woodworking wore the appropriate gear. Several elements of prevention should be improved: information about the need to maintain the equipment, protect the worker with suitable clothing, and learn which maneuvers are considered hazardous. Safety gear should be regularly inspected in the workplace. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  14. School start times and teenage driver motor vehicle crashes.

    Foss, Robert D; Smith, Richard L; O'Brien, Natalie P

    2018-04-26

    findings suggest that crashes and school start times are indeed related, with earlier start times equating to more crashes. Later high school start times (>8:30 am) appear to be associated with lower adolescent driver crash rates, but additional research is needed to confirm this and to identify the mechanism by which this occurs (reduced drowsiness or reduced exposure). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cow-related trauma: a 10-year review of injuries admitted to a single institution.

    Murphy, Colin G

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bovine-related injuries to farmers are common in rural communities. Many injuries are significant requiring hospital admission and surgery. We reviewed all cattle-related injuries admitted to a regional trauma centre over 10 years and detail the nature of the injuries. METHOD: A retrospective review was undertaken, using hospital inpatient coding system (HIPE) to identify patients admitted following cow-related trauma for the last 10 years. From retrieved charts mechanism of injury was identified, demographics recorded and Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) calculated based on the injuries sustained. RESULTS: 47 patients were identified, with a median age of 53 years. 4 injuries occurred in children, and 12 in patients over 65 years old. Three-quarters of those injured were male. Kicking was the most common mechanism of injury (n=21), but charge\\/head-butt injuries and trampling injuries were associated with more serious injury scores. 72% of patients were admitted under Orthopaedics as their primary care team, 25% under General Surgeons, with one patient admitted medically. Mean ISS score was 6.9 (range 1-50). 41 operative interventions were performed on 30 patients during their admission. 6.3% of patients required admission to Intensive Care with a mean length of stay of 12.3 days (range 2-21 days). There was no mortality. CONCLUSION: Cow-related trauma is a common among farming communities and is a potentially serious mechanism of injury that appears to be under-reported in a hospital context. Bovine-related head-butt and trampling injuries should be considered akin to high-velocity trauma.

  16. Equestrian sport-related injuries: a review of current literature.

    Havlik, Heather S

    2010-01-01

    Equestrian sports continue to grow in popularity in the Unites States and abroad, with an estimated 30 million people riding horses annually in the United States alone. Approximately one in five of these riders will suffer a serious injury during their riding career, requiring medical care and potentially hospitalization. Riding carries with it an implicit risk of injury associated with the unpredictability of the animals, the rider's head being positioned approximately 9 feet off the ground, and traveling unrestrained at speeds up to 40 mph. This article reviews common equestrian injuries, epidemiology, mechanism of injury, risk factors, and prevention strategies, with an emphasis on the more dangerous aspects of the sport.

  17. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle related

    Rahul G Sangani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rahul G Sangani, Andrew J GhioEnvironmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: The specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking are yet to be delineated. We propose that 1 injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure to and retention of particles produced during smoking and 2 the biological effects of particles associated with cigarette smoking share a single mechanism of injury with all particles. Smoking one cigarette exposes the human respiratory tract to between 15,000 and 40,000 µg particulate matter; this is a carbonaceous product of an incomplete combustion. There are numerous human exposures to other particles, and these vary widely in composition, absolute magnitude, and size of the particle. Individuals exposed to all these particles share a common clinical presentation with a loss of pulmonary function, increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness, pathologic changes of emphysema and fibrosis, and comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cancers. Mechanistically, all particle exposures produce an oxidative stress, which is associated with a series of reactions, including an activation of kinase cascades and transcription factors, release of inflammatory mediators, and apoptosis. If disease associated with cigarette smoking is recognized to be particle related, then certain aspects of the clinical presentation can be predicted; this would include worsening of pulmonary function and progression of pathological changes and comorbidity (eg, emphysema and carcinogenesis after smoking cessation since the particle is retained in the lung and the exposure continues.Keywords: particulate matter, smoking, oxidants, oxidative stress, air pollution

  18. Comparison of transportation related injury mechanisms and outcome of young road users and adult road users, a retrospective analysis on 24,373 patients derived from the TraumaRegister DGU®.

    Brockamp, Thomas; Schmucker, Uli; Lefering, Rolf; Mutschler, Manuel; Driessen, Arne; Probst, Christian; Bouillon, Bertil; Koenen, Paola

    2017-06-14

    Most young people killed in road crashes are known as vulnerable road users. A combination of physical and developmental immaturity as well as inexperience increases the risk of road traffic accidents with a high injury severity rate. Understanding injury mechanism and pattern in a group of young road users may reduce morbidity and mortality. This study analyzes injury patterns and outcomes of young road users compared to adult road users. The comparison takes into account different transportation related injury mechanisms. A retrospective analysis using data collected between 2002 and 2012 from the TraumaRegister DGU® was performed. Only patients with a transportation related injury mechanism (motor vehicle collision (MVC), motorbike, cyclist, and pedestrian) and an ISS ≥ 9 were included in our analysis. Four different groups of young road users were compared to adult trauma data depending on the transportation related injury mechanism. Twenty four thousand three hundred seventy three, datasets were retrieved to compare all subgroups. The mean ISS was 23.3 ± 13.1. The overall mortality rate was 8.61%. In the MVC, the motorbike and the cyclist group, we found young road users having more complex injury patterns with a higher AIS pelvis, AIS head, AIS abdomen and AIS of the extremities and also a lower GCS. Whereas in these three sub-groups the adult trauma group only had a higher AIS thorax. Only in the group of the adult pedestrians we found a higher AIS pelvis, AIS abdomen, AIS thorax, a higher AIS of the extremities and a lower GCS. This study reports on the most common injuries and injury patterns in young trauma patients in comparison to an adult trauma sample. Our analysis show that in contrast to more experienced road users our young collective refers to be a vulnerable trauma group with an increased risk of a high injury severity and high mortality rate. We indicate a striking difference in terms of the region of injury and the mechanism of

  19. Perbandingan Stock Market Crash 1987 : Dan Stock Market Crash 1997

    Indridewi Atmadjaja, Yovita Vivianty

    1999-01-01

    Stock market crash refers to the condition, which is marked with the large dropping of stock Market price index. Historically, stock market crash has happened three times, namely in 1929, 1987 and 1997. This paper will discuss the causes of 1987's and 1997's stock market Crash and the similarities and the differences between 1987's and 1997's stock market crash. The structure of the paper is as follows. The paper starts with the introduction. The second Section briefly explains the causes of ...

  20. Sports-related genitourinary injuries presenting to United States emergency departments.

    Bagga, Herman S; Fisher, Patrick B; Tasian, Gregory E; Blaschko, Sarah D; McCulloch, Charles E; McAninch, Jack W; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2015-01-01

    To describe epidemiologic features of sports-related genitourinary (GU) injuries and determine patient cohorts and particular sporting activities associated with increased GU injury risk. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a data set validated to provide a probability sample of injury-related US emergency department (ED) presentations, was analyzed to characterize GU injuries between 2002 and 2010. A total of 13,851 observations were analyzed to derive national estimates. Between 2002 and 2010, an estimated 137,525 individuals (95% confidence interval, 104,490-170,620) presented to US EDs with GU injuries sustained during sporting activities. Nearly three-quarters of injuries occurred in the pediatric population. The most common product involved was a bicycle, representing approximately one-third of injuries in both adult and pediatric populations. Injuries related to team sports such as football, baseball or softball, basketball, and soccer were also common, particularly among boys where they represented a combined third of all injuries. Eighty-nine percent of all patients were evaluated and treated in the ED without inpatient admission. The large majority of injuries involved the external genitalia (60%), and significant injuries of paired GU organs (kidneys and testicles) requiring inpatient admission were rare (8.5%). Sports-related GU injuries are most commonly sustained during the use of a bicycle. However, there are other associated activities with identifiable high-risk cohorts, products, and situations. Consumers, practitioners, and injury-prevention experts can use our epidemiologic data to prioritize and develop strategies aimed at the prevention and limitation of such injuries, particularly when counseling at-risk cohorts, such as those with solitary kidneys or testicles. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Random breath testing in Queensland and Western Australia: examination of how the random breath testing rate influences alcohol related traffic crash rates.

    Ferris, Jason; Mazerolle, Lorraine; King, Mark; Bates, Lyndel; Bennett, Sarah; Devaney, Madonna

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore the relationship between monthly random breath testing (RBT) rates (per 1000 licensed drivers) and alcohol-related traffic crash (ARTC) rates over time, across two Australian states: Queensland and Western Australia. We analyse the RBT, ARTC and licensed driver rates across 12 years; however, due to administrative restrictions, we model ARTC rates against RBT rates for the period July 2004 to June 2009. The Queensland data reveals that the monthly ARTC rate is almost flat over the five year period. Based on the results of the analysis, an average of 5.5 ARTCs per 100,000 licensed drivers are observed across the study period. For the same period, the monthly rate of RBTs per 1000 licensed drivers is observed to be decreasing across the study with the results of the analysis revealing no significant variations in the data. The comparison between Western Australia and Queensland shows that Queensland's ARTC monthly percent change (MPC) is 0.014 compared to the MPC of 0.47 for Western Australia. While Queensland maintains a relatively flat ARTC rate, the ARTC rate in Western Australia is increasing. Our analysis reveals an inverse relationship between ARTC RBT rates, that for every 10% increase in the percentage of RBTs to licensed driver there is a 0.15 decrease in the rate of ARTCs per 100,000 licenced drivers. Moreover, in Western Australia, if the 2011 ratio of 1:2 (RBTs to annual number of licensed drivers) were to double to a ratio of 1:1, we estimate the number of monthly ARTCs would reduce by approximately 15. Based on these findings we believe that as the number of RBTs conducted increases the number of drivers willing to risk being detected for drinking driving decreases, because the perceived risk of being detected is considered greater. This is turn results in the number of ARTCs diminishing. The results of this study provide an important evidence base for policy decisions for RBT operations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Elevator-related injuries to children in the United States, 1990 through 2004.

    O'Neil, Joseph; Steele, Gregory K; Huisingh, Carrie; Smith, Gary A

    2007-09-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of elevator-related injuries among children in the United States from 1990 to 2004. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Reported cases were used to project national estimates. An estimated 29 030 elevator-related injuries occurred among children in the United States during 1990 to 2004. The mean age was 8.1 years (SD, 6.1 years), with 53.3% of injuries among boys. The overall injury rate was 2.5 injuries per 100,000 population. The injury rate for children aged 0-4 years was 4.2 per 100,000 population, and for children aged 5-19 years the injury rate was 1.9 per 100,000 population. The most frequent cause of injury was the elevator door closing on a body part, the most frequently injured body region was the upper extremity, and soft-tissue injuries were the most frequent type of injury. Children should be closely supervised on or near elevators to reduce the risk of injury.

  3. Trends in fall-related injuries among older adults treated in emergency departments in the USA.

    Orces, Carlos H; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2014-12-01

    To examine national trends in fall-related injuries among older adults treated in emergency departments (ED) and project these injuries until the year 2030. The Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System was used to generate data on fall-related injuries treated in ED. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to examine the average annual change in injury rates over time. Fall-related injury and hospitalisation rates increased on average by 2% (95% CI 1.5% to 2.7%) and by 4% (95% CI 2.9% to 5.0%) per year, respectively. Assuming the increase in fall-related injury rates remains unchanged, the number of fall-related injuries may increase to 5.7 million by the year 2030. Fall-related injuries among older adults treated in ED increased in the USA during the study period. Moreover, a marked increase in the number of these injuries may occur over the next decades. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Work-related injury among direct care occupations in British Columbia, Canada.

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Cvitkovich, Yuri; Yu, Shicheng; Yassi, Annalee

    2007-11-01

    To examine how injury rates and injury types differ across direct care occupations in relation to the healthcare settings in British Columbia, Canada. Data were derived from a standardised operational database in three BC health regions. Injury rates were defined as the number of injuries per 100 full-time equivalent (FTE) positions. Poisson regression, with Generalised Estimating Equations, was used to determine injury risks associated with direct care occupations (registered nurses [RNs], licensed practical nurses [LPNs) and care aides [CAs]) by healthcare setting (acute care, nursing homes and community care). CAs had higher injury rates in every setting, with the highest rate in nursing homes (37.0 injuries per 100 FTE). LPNs had higher injury rates (30.0) within acute care than within nursing homes. Few LPNs worked in community care. For RNs, the highest injury rates (21.9) occurred in acute care, but their highest (13.0) musculoskeletal injury (MSI) rate occurred in nursing homes. MSIs comprised the largest proportion of total injuries in all occupations. In both acute care and nursing homes, CAs had twice the MSI risk of RNs. Across all settings, puncture injuries were more predominant for RNs (21.3% of their total injuries) compared with LPNs (14.4%) and CAs (3.7%). Skin, eye and respiratory irritation injuries comprised a larger proportion of total injuries for RNs (11.1%) than for LPNs (7.2%) and CAs (5.1%). Direct care occupations have different risks of occupational injuries based on the particular tasks and roles they fulfil within each healthcare setting. CAs are the most vulnerable for sustaining MSIs since their job mostly entails transferring and repositioning tasks during patient/resident/client care. Strategies should focus on prevention of MSIs for all occupations as well as target puncture and irritation injuries for RNs and LPNs.

  5. Examining the design and developmental factors associated with crashes involving pedestrians, cyclists, and motorists in urban environments.

    2012-05-01

    "Using a parcel-level database of crash incidence and urban form developed for the San Antonio-Bexar : County metropolitan region, this study examined how urban form-related variables affect the incidence of : crashes involving pedestrians, bicyclist...

  6. Risk of fall-related injury in people with lower limb amputations: A prospective cohort study.

    Wong, Christopher Kevin; Chihuri, Stanford T; Li, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    To assess fall-related injury risk and risk factors in people with lower limb amputation. Prospective longitudinal cohort with follow-up every 6 months for up to 41 months. Community-dwelling adults with lower limb amputations of any etiology and level recruited from support groups and prosthetic clinics. Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained by self-reported questionnaire and telephone or in-person follow-up. Fall-related injury incidence requiring medical care per person-month and adjusted hazard ratio of fall-related injury were calculated using multivariable proportional hazards regression modeling. A total of 41 subjects, with 782 follow-up person-months in total, had 11 fall-related injury incidents (14.1/1,000 person-months). During follow-up, 56.1% of subjects reported falling and 26.8% reported fall-related injury. Multivariable proportional hazard modeling showed that women were nearly 6 times more likely as men to experience fall-related injury and people of non-white race were 13 times more likely than people of white race to experience fall-related injury. The final predictive model also included vascular amputation and age. Risk of fall-related injury requiring medical care in people with lower limb amputation appears to be higher than in older adult inpatients. Intervention programs to prevent fall-related injury in people with lower limb amputation should target women and racial minorities.

  7. A step towards understanding the mechanisms of running-related injuries.

    Malisoux, Laurent; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Urhausen, Axel; Theisen, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the association between training-related characteristics and running-related injury using a new conceptual model for running-related injury generation, focusing on the synergy between training load and previous injuries, short-term running experience or body mass index (> or running training characteristics (weekly distance, frequency, speed), other sport participation and injuries on a dedicated internet platform. Weekly volume (dichotomized into running-related injury. Non-training-related characteristics were included in Cox regression analyses as effect-measure modifiers. Hazard ratio was the measure of association. The size of effect-measure modification was calculated as the relative excess risk due to interaction. One hundred sixty-seven runners reported a running-related injury. Crude analyses revealed that weekly volume running-related injury is influenced by body mass index and previous injury. These results show the importance to distinguish between confounding and effect-measure modification in running-related injury research. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Apophysomyces trapeziformis infection associated with a tornado-related injury.

    Weddle, Gina; Gandy, Kimberly; Bratcher, Denise; Pahud, Barbara; Jackson, Mary Anne

    2012-06-01

    This report defines the role of Apophysomyces as an aggressive fungal pathogen seen after a tornado injury. Clinical and laboratory manifestations of infections after environmentally contaminated wounds incurred during a tornado are outlined, emphasizing mechanism of injury, comorbidities, and diagnostic and treatment challenges. Therapy with systemic antifungal therapy and aggressive serial tissue debridement was successful in achieving cure.

  9. Injury-related South African mortality children, 1981 -1985

    1474. 6880. 427. % due to injury. 8,1. 49,5. 14,4. 26,7. Rank order of injury as cause of death. 5. 1. 3 .... Eleven per cent were 'accidental' and 9% were uicide. Discussion. Deaths are known to ..... SAS Institute Inc., 1985. 18. Waller AE, Baker ...

  10. Crashes and near-crashes on horizontal curves along rural two-lane highways: Analysis of naturalistic driving data.

    Wang, Bo; Hallmark, Shauna; Savolainen, Peter; Dong, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Prior research has shown the probability of a crash occurring on horizontal curves to be significantly higher than on similar tangent segments, and a disproportionally higher number of curve-related crashes occurred in rural areas. Challenges arise when analyzing the safety of horizontal curves due to imprecision in integrating information as to the temporal and spatial characteristics of each crash with specific curves. The second Strategic Highway Research Program(SHRP 2) conducted a large-scale naturalistic driving study (NDS),which provides a unique opportunity to better understand the contributing factors leading to crash or near-crash events. This study utilizes high-resolution behavioral data from the NDS to identify factors associated with 108 safety critical events (i.e., crashes or near-crashes) on rural two-lane curves. A case-control approach is utilized wherein these events are compared to 216 normal, baseline-driving events. The variables examined in this study include driver demographic characteristics, details of the traffic environment and roadway geometry, as well as driver behaviors such as in-vehicle distractions. Logistic regression models are estimated to discern those factors affecting the likelihood of a driver being crash-involved. These factors include high-risk behaviors, such as speeding and visual distractions, as well as curve design elements and other roadway characteristics such as pavement surface conditions. This paper successfully integrated driver behavior, vehicle characteristics, and roadway environments into the same model. Logistic regression model was found to be an effective way to investigate crash risks using naturalistic driving data. This paper revealed a number of contributing factors to crashes on rural two-lane curves, which has important implications in traffic safety policy and curve geometry design. This paper also discussed limitations and lessons learned from working with the SHRP 2 NDS data. It will benefit

  11. Prevalence and clinical features of sports-related lumbosacral stress injuries in the young.

    Kaneko, Hideto; Murakami, Mototsune; Nishizawa, Kazuya

    2017-05-01

    Stress injuries (stress fractures and stress reactions) of the lumbosacral region are one of the causes of sports-related lower back pain in young individuals. These injuries can be detected by bone marrow edema lesion on MRI. However, little is known about the prevalence and clinical features of early stage lumbosacral stress injuries. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of lumbosacral stress injuries. A total of 312 patients (under 18 years of age) who complained of sports-related lower back pain that had lasted for ≥7 days underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We reviewed patients' records retrospectively. MRI showed that 33.0% of the patients had lumbar stress injuries and 1.6% had sacral stress injuries. Lumbar stress injuries were more common in males than in females and were found in 30% of 13- to 18-year-old patients. About 50% of the patients that participated in soccer or track and field were diagnosed with lumbar stress injuries. No clinical patterns in the frequencies of sacral stress injuries were detected due to the low number of patients that suffered this type of injury. Plain radiography is rarely able to detect the early stage lesions associated with lumbosacral stress injuries, but such lesions can be detected in the caudal-ventral region of the pars interarticularis on sagittal computed tomography scans. Thirty-three percent of young patients that complained of sports-related lower back pain for ≥7 days had lumbar stress injuries, while 1.6% of them had sacral stress injuries. Clinicians should be aware of the existence of these injuries. MRI is useful for diagnosing lumbosacral stress injuries.

  12. Deaths from international terrorism compared with road crash deaths in OECD countries.

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G

    2005-12-01

    To estimate the relative number of deaths in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) from international terrorism and road crashes. Data on deaths from international terrorism (US State Department database) were collated (1994-2003) and compared to the road injury deaths (year 2000 and 2001 data) from the OECD International Road Transport Accident Database. In the 29 OECD countries for which comparable data were available, the annual average death rate from road injury was approximately 390 times that from international terrorism. The ratio of annual road to international terrorism deaths (averaged over 10 years) was lowest for the United States at 142 times. In 2001, road crash deaths in the US were equal to those from a September 11 attack every 26 days. There is a large difference in the magnitude of these two causes of deaths from injury. Policy makers need to be aware of this when allocating resources to preventing these two avoidable causes of mortality.

  13. Sports Injury-Related Fingers and Thumb Deformity Due to Tendon or Ligament Rupture

    Rong-Jie Bai

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Sports injury-related fingers and thumb deformity are relatively common. MRI is an accurate method for evaluation of the anatomy and pathologic conditions of the fingers and thumb. It is a useful tool for accurate diagnosis of the sports-related ligaments and tendons injuries in hand.

  14. Evaluation of burn injuries related to liquefied petroleum gas.

    Tarim, Mehmet Akin

    2014-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a fuel that is widely used for domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. LPG is also commonly used in restaurants, industries, and cars; however, the home continues to be the main site for accidents. In Turkey, the increased usage of LPG as a cooking or heating fuel has resulted in many burn injuries from LPG mishaps. Between January 2000 and June 2011, 56 LPG-burned patients were compared with 112 flame-burned patients. There were no significant differences with respect to the mean age, sex, hospitalization time, and mortality in both groups. In the LPG-caused burn cases, 41 burns (73.2%) occurred at home, seven (12.5) were work-related mishaps, and eight (14.3) were associated with car accidents. The majority of the LPG burns (82%, 46 patients) resulted from a gas leak, and 18% of them were related to the failure to close LPG tubes in the patients' kitchens (10 patients). Burns to the face and neck (82 vs 67%, P = .039) and upper (62 vs 23%, P = .000) and lower (70 vs 45%, P = .002) extremities were significantly higher in LPG-caused burn cases than flame-burned cases. General awareness regarding the risk of LPG and first aid for burns appears to be lacking. The LPG delivery system should be standardized throughout countries that widely use LPG.

  15. Sports-related brain injuries: connecting pathology to diagnosis.

    Pan, James; Connolly, Ian D; Dangelmajer, Sean; Kintzing, James; Ho, Allen L; Grant, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    Brain injuries are becoming increasingly common in athletes and represent an important diagnostic challenge. Early detection and management of brain injuries in sports are of utmost importance in preventing chronic neurological and psychiatric decline. These types of injuries incurred during sports are referred to as mild traumatic brain injuries, which represent a heterogeneous spectrum of disease. The most dramatic manifestation of chronic mild traumatic brain injuries is termed chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which is associated with profound neuropsychiatric deficits. Because chronic traumatic encephalopathy can only be diagnosed by postmortem examination, new diagnostic methodologies are needed for early detection and amelioration of disease burden. This review examines the pathology driving changes in athletes participating in high-impact sports and how this understanding can lead to innovations in neuroimaging and biomarker discovery.

  16. Risk of maltreatment-related injury: a cross-sectional study of children under five years old admitted to hospital with a head or neck injury or fracture.

    Joseph Jonathan Lee

    Full Text Available To determine the predictive value and sensitivity of demographic features and injuries (indicators for maltreatment-related codes in hospital discharge records of children admitted with a head or neck injury or fracture.Population-based, cross sectional study.NHS hospitals in England.Children under five years old admitted acutely to hospital with head or neck injury or fracture.Hospital Episodes Statistics, 1997 to 2009.Maltreatment-related injury admissions, defined by ICD10 codes, were used to calculate for each indicator (demographic feature and/or type of injury: i the predictive value (proportion of injury admissions that were maltreatment-related; ii sensitivity (proportion of all maltreatment-related injury admissions with the indicator.Of 260,294 childhood admissions for fracture or head or neck injury, 3.2% (8,337 were maltreatment-related. With increasing age of the child, the predictive value for maltreatment-related injury declined but sensitivity increased. Half of the maltreatment-related admissions occurred in children older than one year, and 63% occurred in children with head injuries without fractures or intracranial injury.Highly predictive injuries accounted for very few maltreatment-related admissions. Protocols that focus on high-risk injuries may miss the majority of maltreated children.

  17. Interventions to prevent softball related injuries: a review of the literature

    Pollack, K; Canham-Chervak, M; Gazal-Carvalho, C; Jones, B; Baker, S

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the published evidence on interventions to prevent softball related injuries among adults, and to encourage more epidemiologic research as a foundation for future softball injury prevention efforts. Methods: The authors reviewed literature identified from six electronic databases for studies on softball related injuries. The search was limited to studies written in the English language, published between 1970 and 2002, and involving adult populations. Research was excluded that evaluated baseball ("hard ball") related injuries or was aimed at injury treatment. Identified studies were categorized by study design. Intervention/prevention papers were evaluated further and described in detail. Results: The search strategy identified 39 studies specifically related to softball. Most studies were case reports/case series (n = 13) or descriptive studies (n = 11); only four were analytic or intervention/prevention studies. Studies collected data in a variety of ways, often without denominator data to permit calculation of injury rates. Studies also did not differentiate between slow or fast pitch softball activities and most did not mention the type of softball that was used. Conclusions: Surprisingly few studies exist on interventions to reduce injuries during softball, one of the most popular recreational sports in the US. Of the existing literature, much attention has been on sliding related injuries, which comprise only a segment of softball injuries. Basic epidemiologic studies describing the nature, severity, and risk factors for softball injuries in a variety of populations are needed, followed by additional intervention evaluation studies aimed at modifiable risk factors. PMID:16203835

  18. Risk factors for work-related injury among farm workers: a 1-year study.

    Molineri, A; Signorini, M L; Tarabla, H D

    2015-01-01

    A 1-year prospective study was carried out to look for risk factors of farm-related injuries in Egusquiza, Santa Fe (Argentina). Information on demographic characteristics and occupational accidents was collected on (N=110, n=78) farm workers by means of personal interviews using a structured questionnaire. Monthly telephone contact was then maintained with the workers for 1 year to document all farm-related injuries. Data analysis included incidence rate, χ2 and logistic regression. Sixty-nine farm-related injuries were reported during the study period, six injuries being the maximum number affecting one worker. A total of 46.3% of the workers suffered at least one injury during the year. The incidence rate was 7.5 injuries/100 individual-month at risk. Medical assistance was needed in 26.8% of the cases and 5.8% of the injuries caused at least 1 day off work. Hospitalization for at least 1 day was required for 2.9% of the injured workers. Previous work-related injury in the family (p=0.005) (odds ratio (OR)=4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.6-13.3) and worker's activity (p=0.021) (OR=3.7, 95%CI=1.2-11.6) were associated with the dependent variable work injury. Agricultural and livestock farming are of great importance for the national economy. Workers' training on farm safety may play a key role to prevent work-related injuries and diseases.

  19. Soccer-Related Injuries Treated in Emergency Departments: 1990-2014.

    Smith, Nicholas A; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of youth soccer-related injuries treated in emergency departments in the United States. A retrospective analysis was conducted of soccer-related injuries among children 7 through 17 years of age from 1990 through 2014 with data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Injury rates were calculated from soccer participation data. An estimated 2 995 765 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2 309 112-3 682 418) children 7 through 17 years old were treated in US emergency departments for soccer-related injuries during the 25-year study period, averaging 119 831 (95% CI, 92 364-147 297) annually. The annual injury rate per 10 000 soccer participants increased significantly, by 111.4%, from 1990 to 2014. Patients 12 to 17 years old accounted for 72.7% of injuries, 55.5% of patients were male, and most injuries occurred in a place of sport or recreation (68.5%) or school (25.7%). Struck by (38.5%) and fell (28.7%) were the leading mechanisms of injury. Injuries most commonly were diagnosed as sprain or strain (34.6%), fracture (23.2%), and soft tissue injury (21.9%), and occurred to the upper extremity (20.7%), ankle (17.8%), and head or neck (17.7%). Concussions or other closed head injuries accounted for 7.3% of the injuries, but the annual rate of concussions/closed head injuries per 10 000 participants increased significantly, by 1595.6%, from 1990 to 2014. This study is the first to comprehensively investigate soccer-related injuries and calculate injury rates based on soccer participation data among children at the national level. The increasing number and rate of pediatric soccer-related injuries, especially soccer-related concussions/closed head injuries, underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent these injuries. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Omitted variable bias in crash reduction factors.

    2015-09-01

    Transportation planners and traffic engineers are increasingly turning to crash reduction factors to evaluate changes in road : geometric and design features in order to reduce crashes. Crash reduction factors are typically estimated based on segment...

  1. The effects of roadway characteristics on farm equipment crashes: A GIS approach

    Greenan, Mitchell Joseph

    for every 5 foot increase in shoulder width, the odds of a crash decreased by 8 percent. (CI: 0.86-0.98). Although not statically significant, unpaved roads increased the odds of a crash by 17 percent. (CI: 0.91-1.50) Lastly, it was found that Farm to Market routes increased the odds of a crash by two fold compared to local roads (which make up roughly 67 percent of Iowa public roads). (CI: 1.72-2.43) When the same model was stratified by rurality (urban/rural), it was found that high traffic density leads to a higher risk of a crash in rural areas. Iowa routes and Farm to Market routes had a greater odds of a crash in urban than rural areas, and road and shoulder width were more protective in rural than urban areas. When only using roads with a crash involving an injury versus all other roads as the outcome, Iowa routes and roads with increased speed limits had higher odds for an injury-involved crash, while increased road width were more protective against crashes involving injuries. Findings from the study suggest that several roadway characteristics were associated with farm-equipment crashes. Through administrative and engineering controls, the six static explanatory variables used in this study may be modified to decrease the risk of a farm equipment crash. Speed limit can be modified through administrative controls while traffic density, road and shoulder width, road type, and surface type can be modified through engineering controls. Results from this study provide information that will aid policy-makers in developing safer roads for farm equipment.

  2. Motorcycle crash causes and outcomes: pilot study : traffic tech.

    2010-08-01

    The number of motorcyclist crash-related fatalities has more than doubled during the past 10 years. In the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU), Congress directed the Secretary of Transport...

  3. Epidemiology of work-related injuries among construction workers of ilam (Western iran) during 2006 - 2009.

    Moradinazar, Mehdi; Kurd, Nematullah; Farhadi, Rozita; Amee, Vahid; Najafi, Farid

    2013-10-01

    Work-related injuries are the most important cause of work absence, disability, retirement, mutilation, and even mortality. In Iran a great number of work-related injuries are occurred in construction industry. However, less than 12% of total workers are active in the construction sector. This study aimed to determine the incidence rate of work-related injuries, the type of injuries, and its other determinants among the construction workers of Ilam (Iran). The participants were the workers and staffs working in the construction activities of Ilam in Western Iran. All the recorded injuries and deaths related to the construction workers of Ilam from 2006-2009 were collected from the Bureau of Labor and Social Affairs and then analyzed by the statistical package of SPSS (version 19, for Windows). During 2006 - 2009 in Ilam, 387workers encountered the building accidents. Their mean age was 34.3 years (SD = 12.4). The average annual incidence of work-related injuries among the workers was 8.2 per 1000 workers. Fracture with 275 cases (71%) was the most common outcome of injuries, and slipping and falling with 77 cases (36%) were the most important events and exposures. The most important factor related to injuries was the lack of surveillance by employers which was also related with the severity of accident-induced injuries (P constructive workers.

  4. Four-wheeled walker related injuries in older adults in the Netherlands.

    van Riel, K M M; Hartholt, K A; Panneman, M J M; Patka, P; van Beeck, E F; van der Cammen, T J M

    2014-02-01

    With ageing populations worldwide, mobility devices are used more than ever. In the current literature there is no consensus whether the available mobility devices safely improve the mobility of their users. Also, evidence is lacking concerning the risks and types of injuries sustained while using a four-wheeled walker. To assess injury risks and injury patterns in older adults (≥65 years) who presented at Emergency Departments (ED) in the Netherlands with an injury due to using a four-wheeled walker. In this study, the Dutch Injury Surveillance System was used to obtain a national representative sample of annual ED visits in the Netherlands in the adult population (≥65 years) sustaining an injury while using a four-wheeled walker. The numbers of four-wheeled walker users in the Netherlands were obtained from the national insurance board. The numbers of ED visits were divided by the numbers of four-wheeled walker users to calculate age- and sex-specific injury risks. Annually 1869 older adults visited an ED after sustaining an injury while using a four-wheeled walker. Falls were the main cause of injury (96%). The injury risk was 3.1 per 100 users of four-wheeled walkers. Women (3.5 per 100 users) had a higher risk than men (2.0 per 100 users). Injury risk was the highest in women aged 85 years and older (6.2 per 100 users). The majority of injuries were fractures (60%) with hip fracture (25%) being the most common injury. Nearly half of all four-wheeled walker related injuries required hospitalisation, mostly due to hip fractures. Healthcare costs per injury were approximately €12 000. This study presents evidence that older adults experiencing a fall while using a four-wheeled walker are at high risk to suffer severe injuries.

  5. The "swing-ding": a golf-related head injury in children.

    Wang, Arthur; Cohen, Alan R; Robinson, Shenandoah

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased incidence of golf-associated head injuries in children and adolescents. At the authors' institution, they have identified a unique pattern of head injury associated with a swinging golf club. In this study, the authors highlight the mechanism of this injury and report their experience treating it. The authors reviewed the database of Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital Trauma Center and performed a retrospective analysis of golf injuries recorded over a 10-year period (January 2000-April 2010). They identified 13 children (9 boys and 4 girls) who sustained head injuries in golfing accidents. All patients were 10 years of age or younger. The medical charts were reviewed and follow-up interviews were conducted to better delineate the details of the injuries. Injuries included 13 depressed skull fractures, 7 epidural hematomas, and 1 cerebral contusion. All 13 patients sustained their injuries after being struck in the head by a golf club. Seven sustained injuries on the follow-through of the initial swing and 3 sustained injuries on the backswing. All but one patient required neurosurgical intervention. Five patients developed neurological sequelae. None of the children had prior experience with golf equipment. All but one injury occurred in the child's own backyard. There was no direct supervision by an adult in any of the cases. Golfing can lead to serious head injuries in children. The authors noticed a unique pattern of golf-related head injuries, previously not described, that they have termed the "swing-ding." This golf club-inflicted injury occurs when a child stands too close to a swinging golfer and is struck in the head, subsequently sustaining a comminuted depressed skull fracture in the frontal or temporal region, with or without further intracranial injury. The study suggests that a lack of adult supervision, minimal previous golf experience, and proximity of the child to the swinging golfer are all

  6. Biomechanical Response and Behavior of Users under Emergency Buffer Crash

    R. Miralbes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the biomechanical effects on elevator users and the injuries sustained should an elevator crash happen. The analysis will focus on buffer impact, signaling that the earlier mentioned buffer is usually located at the bottom of the pit. In order to carry out this analysis, a numerical technique based on finite element method will be used, while elevator users will be simulated by means of automotive dummies. Two crash factors will be studied, namely, location of dummy and fall velocity. The analysis criteria will be damages sustained by the dummy, based on biomechanical index such as HIC, CSI, forces, and accelerations.

  7. Cost of work-related injuries in insured workplaces in Lebanon.

    Fayad, Rim; Nuwayhid, Iman; Tamim, Hala; Kassak, Kassem; Khogali, Mustafa

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the medical and compensation costs of work-related injuries in insured workplaces in Lebanon and to examine cost distributions by worker and injury characteristics. METHODS: A total of 3748 claims for work injuries processed in 1998 by five major insurance companies in Lebanon were reviewed. Medical costs (related to emergency room fees, physician consultations, tests, and medications) and wage and indemnity compensation costs were identified from the claims. FINDINGS: ...

  8. Imaging the cervical spine following rugby related injury

    Beck, J.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Rugby Union and Rugby League are popular sports with high participation across the world. The high impact nature of the sport results in a high proportion of injuries. Rugby has an association with cervical spine injury which has potentially catastrophic consequences for the patient. Anecdotal evidence suggests that radiographers find it challenging to visualise the cervicothoracic junction on the lateral supine cervical spine projection in broad shouldered athletes. This paper intends to analyse the risk factors for cervical spine injuries in rugby and discuss the imaging strategy in respect to radiography and CT scanning in high risk patient groups such as rugby players who are suspected of suffering a cervical spine injury. - Highlights: • Rugby as a participation sport represents a risk of cervical spine injury. • Conventional radiography lacks sensitivity in identifying cervical spine injury. • The body habitus of rugby players makes the imaging of the cervicothoracic junction challenging. • CT scanning should replace radiography in the event of serious suspicion of cervical spine injury. • The notion of CT being a high dose modality should be questioned.

  9. Children treated for lawn mower-related injuries in US emergency departments, 1990-2014.

    Ren, Karen S; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Yang, Jingzhen; Friedenberg, Laura; Smith, Gary A

    2017-06-01

    Investigate the epidemiology of lawn mower-related injuries to children in the US. A retrospective analysis was conducted of children younger than 18years of age treated in US emergency departments for a lawn mower-related injury from 1990 through 2014 using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. An estimated 212,258 children lawn mower-related injuries from 1990 through 2014, equaling an average annual rate of 11.9 injuries per 100,000 US children. The annual injury rate decreased by 59.9% during the 25-year study period. The leading diagnosis was a laceration (38.5%) and the most common body region injured was the hand/finger (30.7%). Struck by (21.2%), cut by (19.9%), and contact with a hot surface (14.1%) were the leading mechanisms of injury. Patients Lawn mower-related injuries continue to be a cause of serious morbidity among children. Although the annual injury rate decreased significantly over the study period, the number of injuries is still substantial, indicating the need for additional prevention efforts. In addition to educational approaches, opportunities exist for improvements in mower design and lawn mower safety standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gasoline-related injuries and fatalities in the United States, 1995-2014.

    Drago, Dorothy A

    2018-02-12

    This descriptive study examines twenty years of gasoline-related fatalities and emergency department treated injuries in the United States, based on data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Thermal burns consistently accounted for the majority (56%) of gasoline-related injuries and for most (82%) gasoline-related deaths, and were commonly (57-71%) associated with the use of gasoline as an accelerant. Poisoning accounted for 13% of injuries and 17% of deaths. The primary poisoning injury pattern was ingestion; the primary fatality pattern was inhalation, with about half of those associated with deliberate abuse. The estimated number of ingestions decreased from 60 to 23% of poisoning-related injuries, while injuries associated with inhalation abuse increased from 6 to 23%. Chemical burns and dermatitis were less represented in the injury data and were primarily associated with gasoline spills or splashes. Gasoline cans reportedly ignited or exploded in about 5% of thermal burn injuries and fatalities. While mandatory requirements for child resistant closures on gasoline cans (a primary intervention) have potentially impacted poisonings, the use of flame mitigation devices to address thermal injuries, if successful, would be a secondary intervention, and could address only a small percentage (about 5%) of injuries and deaths.

  11. Towards a complex systems approach in sports injury research: simulating running-related injury development with agent-based modelling.

    Hulme, Adam; Thompson, Jason; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M

    2018-06-18

    There have been recent calls for the application of the complex systems approach in sports injury research. However, beyond theoretical description and static models of complexity, little progress has been made towards formalising this approach in way that is practical to sports injury scientists and clinicians. Therefore, our objective was to use a computational modelling method and develop a dynamic simulation in sports injury research. Agent-based modelling (ABM) was used to model the occurrence of sports injury in a synthetic athlete population. The ABM was developed based on sports injury causal frameworks and was applied in the context of distance running-related injury (RRI). Using the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR), we simulated the dynamic relationship between changes in weekly running distance and RRI through the manipulation of various 'athlete management tools'. The findings confirmed that building weekly running distances over time, even within the reported ACWR 'sweet spot', will eventually result in RRI as athletes reach and surpass their individual physical workload limits. Introducing training-related error into the simulation and the modelling of a 'hard ceiling' dynamic resulted in a higher RRI incidence proportion across the population at higher absolute workloads. The presented simulation offers a practical starting point to further apply more sophisticated computational models that can account for the complex nature of sports injury aetiology. Alongside traditional forms of scientific inquiry, the use of ABM and other simulation-based techniques could be considered as a complementary and alternative methodological approach in sports injury research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Admissions and costs to acute hospitals resulting from road traffic crashes, 2005-2009.

    Sheridan, A

    2012-03-01

    Road traffic crashes (RTCs) remain a leading cause of death and injury. The aim of this study was to explore the use of hospital data as a source of RTC-related injury data in Ireland, as current systems are believed to under-estimate the burden. Information on inpatient discharges for years 2005-2009, admitted with RTC-related injuries were extracted from HIPE. There were 14,861 discharges; 9,661 (65.0%) were male, with an average age of 33 years. The median length of stay was two days. The most common diagnosis was head injury (n = 4,644; 31.2%). The average inpatient hospital cost was Euro 6,395 per discharge. 1,498 (10.1%) were admitted to intensive care units. This study has identified 3.5 times more serious injuries (14,861) than identified in the Road Safety Authority (RSA) statistics (4,263) indicating that the extent of road injuries is greater than previously estimated. Hospital data could be used annually in conjunction with RSA and other data; ideally the data should be linked.

  13. Paediatric ride-on mower related injuries and plastic surgical management.

    Laing, T A

    2011-05-01

    Lawnmower related injuries cause significant morbidity in children and young teenagers. The \\'ride-on\\' mowers which are more powerful than the \\'walk behind\\' mowers are becoming increasingly popular. The incidence and severity of injuries from either type of lawnmower appears to be steadily rising as is the burden placed on local plastic surgical and emergency services in managing the care of these patients. The aims of the study were to demonstrate changing trends in lawnmower-related injuries to children presenting to a single unit over a ten-year period and to identify any association between injury severity and machine subtype (\\'ride-on\\' versus \\'walk-behind\\'). Hospital databases, theatre records and medical case notes were reviewed retrospectively of all patients under the age of 16 treated for lawnmower related injuries over a 10 year period from July 1998 to June 2008. Data gathered included patient demographics, injury site and severity, management (type and number of surgical procedures), length of hospital stay and outcome. Injury severity score was also calculated for each case. Controlling for estimated regional population changes, there was a significant increase in the number of ride-on mower related accidents in the time period 2003-2008, compared to the time period 1998-2003. Ride-on injuries had significantly higher injury severity scores, longer hospital stays and were more likely to involve amputations as compared with walk-behind injuries. Children can sustain significant injuries with unsafe lawnmower use. The current study demonstrates the increasing incidence of ride-on mower related injuries in children and identifies a greater morbidity associated with such injuries. Such presentations place intense demands on local plastic surgical services.

  14. How many work-related injuries requiring hospitalization in British Columbia are claimed for workers' compensation?

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Koehoorn, Mieke; Ostry, Aleck; Tompa, Emile; Demers, Paul A

    2006-06-01

    Workplace compensation claims datasets represent an important source of information on work-related injuries. This study investigated the concordance between hospital discharge records and workers' compensation records for work-related serious injuries among a cohort of sawmill workers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. It also examined the extent to which workers' compensation capturing patterns varied by cause, severity of injuries, and demographic characteristics of workers. Work-related injuries were identified in hospitalization records between April 1989 and December 1998, and were matched by dates and description of injury to compensation records. The agreement between the hospital records and compensation records was good (kappa = 0.84, P < 0.01). A lower claim reporting rate for work-related hospitalization was observed for older and non-white workers. More serious injuries defined by longer length of stay and emergency admissions were more likely to be reported. Falls, struck against, and overexertion injuries had lower reporting rates; whereas, machinery-related, cutting/piercing, and caught in/between injuries had higher reporting rates. When compared with hospital discharge records, the compensation agency underreported incidents of serious work-related injuries by 10-15% among the sawmill workers.

  15. Contributory factors to traffic crashes at signalized intersections in Hong Kong.

    Wong, S C; Sze, N N; Li, Y C

    2007-11-01

    Efficient geometric design and signal timing not only improve operational performance at signalized intersections by expanding capacity and reducing traffic delays, but also result in an appreciable reduction in traffic conflicts, and thus better road safety. Information on the incidence of crashes, traffic flow, geometric design, road environment, and traffic control at 262 signalized intersections in Hong Kong during 2002 and 2003 are incorporated into a crash prediction model. Poisson regression and negative binomial regression are used to quantify the influence of possible contributory factors on the incidence of killed and severe injury (KSI) crashes and slight injury crashes, respectively, while possible interventions by traffic flow are controlled. The results for the incidence of slight injury crashes reveal that the road environment, degree of curvature, and presence of tram stops are significant factors, and that traffic volume has a diminishing effect on the crash risk. The presence of tram stops, number of pedestrian streams, road environment, proportion of commercial vehicles, average lane width, and degree of curvature increase the risk of KSI crashes, but the effect of traffic volume is negligible.

  16. The role of eye protection in work-related eye injuries.

    Fong, L P; Taouk, Y

    1995-05-01

    A recent survey of general hospitals by the Victorian Injury Surveillance System found that ocular trauma represented 15% of work-related injuries. As circumstances surrounding occupational eye injuries have been poorly documented previously, their associations to occupation, industry and work-safety practices, including safety eyewear use, need to be identified to develop appropriate preventive strategies for high-risk groups. From a prospective cross-sectional survey of all eye injuries treated at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, work-related cases were analysed for demographic, occupational and safety eye-wear information. Hospital-based data were supplemented by information from WorkCover Authorities and Labour Force statistics to derive incidence and cost estimates. There were 9390 eye injuries during the 18-month survey period; 42% (n=3923) of total and 29% (n=52) of penetrating ocular injuries occurred at work. The most frequently injured were metal, automotive and building trades workers grinding and drilling (41% of outpatients) and hammering (53% of penetrating eye injuries). Automotive workers had the highest frequency for penetrating injuries, and most were exposed to hammering and were also the least likely to wear safety eye-wear. Eye injuries are frequent (10% of work-related injuries) and highly preventable by the correct use of safety eye-wear, a cost-effective intervention that may result in cost savings of $59 million for work-type activities in the occupational and domestic settings in Australia each year.

  17. Nursery Product-Related Injuries Treated in United States Emergency Departments.

    Gaw, Christopher E; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the epidemiology of injuries associated with nursery products among young children treated in US emergency departments. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were retrospectively analyzed for patients aged nursery product from 1991 through 2011. An estimated 1 391 844 (95% confidence interval, 1 169 489-1 614 199) nursery product-related injuries among children aged Nursery product-related injuries were most commonly associated with baby carriers (19.5%), cribs/mattresses (18.6%), strollers/carriages (16.5%), or baby walkers/jumpers/exercisers (16.2%). The most common mechanism of injury was a self-precipitated fall (80.0%), and the most frequently injured body region was the head or neck (47.1%). Although successful injury prevention efforts with baby walkers led to a decline in nursery product-related injuries from 1991 to 2003, the number and rate of these injuries have been increasing since 2003. Greater efforts are warranted to prevent injuries associated with other nursery products, especially baby carriers, cribs, and strollers. Prevention of falls and concussions/closed head injuries associated with nursery products also deserves special attention. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referre...

  19. Patterns of 'at-home' alcohol-related injury presentations to emergency departments.

    Bunker, Naomi; Woods, Cindy; Conway, Jane; Barker, Ruth; Usher, Kim

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the scale of alcohol-related injuries originating in the home. Despite recent media and public attention on alcohol-related injuries occurring at licensed venues, many occur in other locations including the home. A retrospective observational study. Emergency department surveillance data sourced from the Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit were interrogated for alcohol-related emergency department presentations from 2003-2012 (n = 12,296). Descriptive analysis was undertaken to assess alcohol involvement in injury, and analysis of variance was used to determine the differences among group means and their associated presentations. The relationship between demographic variables and injury location was assessed using p value of domestic violence by spouse or partner (n = 510), 59·5% occurred 'at home'. This is the first study to investigate alcohol-related injuries occurring at home. The home accounts for a greater proportion of injuries than the frequently assessed licensed premises location. Further research is required to validate these findings in a wider setting. A public health campaign is required to minimise harm associated with alcohol-related injuries in the home, and nurses are positioned to inform health policy makers around this issue. Furthermore, emergency department nurses are in a unique position to provide brief interventions around safe alcohol consumption and injury prevention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Scarf-related injuries at a major trauma center in northern India

    Pritish Singh

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Scarf-related injuries constitute a sizable proportion of trauma, with varying degrees of severity. Devastating consequences in significant proportion of cases dictate the call for a prevention plan comprising both educational and legislative measures. Urgent preventive measures targeting scarf-related injuries will help reduce mortality and morbidity.

  1. Classifying running-related injuries based upon etiology, with emphasis on volume and pace

    Nielsen, R.O.; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Rasmussen, Sten

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers acknowledge the importance of "training errors" as the main cause of running-related injuries. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to present a theoretical framework for the assumption that some running-related injuries among rear-foot strikers develop due to rapidly...... changing running volume, while others develop due to rapidly changing running pace....

  2. How important is resilience among family members supporting relatives with traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury?

    Simpson, Grahame; Jones, Kate

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between resilience and affective state, caregiver burden and caregiving strategies among family members of people with traumatic brain or spinal cord injury. An observational prospective cross-sectional study. Inpatient and community rehabilitation services. Convenience sample of 61 family respondents aged 18 years or older at the time of the study and supporting a relative with severe traumatic brain injury (n = 30) or spinal cord injury (n= 31). Resilience Scale, Positive And Negative Affect Schedule, Caregiver Burden Scale, Functional Independence Measure, Carer's Assessment of Managing Index. Correlational analyses found a significant positive association between family resilience scores and positive affect (r(s) = 0.67), and a significant negative association with negative affect (r(s) = -0.47) and caregiver burden scores (r(s) = -0.47). No association was found between family resilience scores and their relative's severity of functional impairment. Family members with high resilience scores rated four carer strategies as significantly more helpful than family members with low resilience scores. Between-groups analyses (families supporting relative with traumatic brain injury vs. spinal cord injury) found no significant differences in ratings of the perceived helpfulness of carer strategies once Bonferroni correction for multiple tests was applied. Self-rated resilience correlated positively with positive affect, and negatively with negative affect and caregiver burden. These results are consistent with resilience theories which propose that people with high resilience are more likely to display positive adaptation when faced by significant adversity.

  3. A comparison of wakeboard-, water skiing-, and tubing-related injuries in the United States, 2000-2007.

    Baker, John I; Griffin, Russell; Brauneis, Paul F; Rue, Loring W; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare tubing-related injuries to wakeboarding- and water skiing-related injuries. Data was collected from the 2000-2007 National Electronic Injury Surveillance Survey for 1,761 individuals seeking care at an emergency department due to a tubing-, wakeboarding, or water skiing-related injury. Data included patient age and sex, as well as injury characteristics including body region injured (i.e., head and neck, trunk, shoulder and upper extremity, and hip and lower extremity) and diagnosis of injury (e.g., contusion, laceration, or fracture). Case narratives were reviewed to ensure that a tubing-, wakeboarding-, or water skiing-related injury occurred while the individual was being towed behind a boat. Severe injury (defined as an injury resulting in the individual being hospitalized, transferred, held for observation) was compared among the groups using logistic regression. Wakeboard- and tubing-related injuries more commonly involved the head and neck, while water skiing- related injuries were likely to involve the hip and lower extremity. Tubing-related injuries, compared to water skiing-related injuries, were more likely to be severe (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.23-4. 33). Like wakeboarding and water skiing, tubing has inherent risks that must be understood by the participant. While tubing is generally considered a safer alternative to wakeboarding and water skiing, the results of the current study suggest otherwise. Both the number and severity of tubing- related injuries could be prevented through means such as advocating the use of protective wear such as helmets while riding a tube or having recommended safe towing speeds prominently placed on inner tubes. Key pointsIncrease annual injury rate trend in wakeboard injuries.Wakeboard- and tubing-related injuries more often to head and neck, waterskiing-related injuries more often to hip and lower extremity.Tubing-related injuries over 2-times as likely to be severe compared to

  4. Connected motorcycle crash warning interfaces.

    2016-01-15

    Crash warning systems have been deployed in the high-end vehicle market segment for some time and are trickling down to additional motor vehicle industry segments each year. The motorcycle segment, however, has no deployed crash warning system to dat...

  5. Resisting "Crash Diet" Staff Development

    Dana, Nancy Fichtman; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane

    2008-01-01

    People often respond to the pressure of attending a high school reunion or their child's wedding by going on a crash diet to get quick results. In response, friends may marvel about how good they look on the outside. But what folks don't acknowledge is that, in the name of getting results, crash dieters have done some very unhealthy things to…

  6. Mitigating Wind Induced Truck Crashes

    2009-12-25

    Dangerous weather and high wind in particular, is a common contributing factor in truck crashes. High wind speeds have been documented as a perennial cause of truck crashes in Kansas and other Great Plains states. The possibility of reducing such cra...

  7. Statistical modeling of total crash frequency at highway intersections

    Arash M. Roshandeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intersection-related crashes are associated with high proportion of accidents involving drivers, occupants, pedestrians, and cyclists. In general, the purpose of intersection safety analysis is to determine the impact of safety-related variables on pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles, so as to facilitate the design of effective and efficient countermeasure strategies to improve safety at intersections. This study investigates the effects of traffic, environmental, intersection geometric and pavement-related characteristics on total crash frequencies at intersections. A random-parameter Poisson model was used with crash data from 357 signalized intersections in Chicago from 2004 to 2010. The results indicate that out of the identified factors, evening peak period traffic volume, pavement condition, and unlighted intersections have the greatest effects on crash frequencies. Overall, the results seek to suggest that, in order to improve effective highway-related safety countermeasures at intersections, significant attention must be focused on ensuring that pavements are adequately maintained and intersections should be well lighted. It needs to be mentioned that, projects could be implemented at and around the study intersections during the study period (7 years, which could affect the crash frequency over the time. This is an important variable which could be a part of the future studies to investigate the impacts of safety-related works at intersections and their marginal effects on crash frequency at signalized intersections.

  8. Drug and Alcohol Involvement in Four Types of Fatal Crashes*

    Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of drunk and drugged driving to the occurrence of fatal crashes associated with speeding, failure to obey/yield, inattention, and seat belt nonuse. Method: We examined data for fatally injured drivers involved in single-vehicle crashes killed in states in which more than 79% of the drivers were tested for drugs other than alcohol and had a known result. Results: About 25% of the drivers tested positive for drugs, a figure almost double that estimated by the 2007 National Roadside Survey. Cannabinoids and stimulants each contributed to about 23% of the drug-positive results (6% among all fatally injured single-vehicle drivers). Stimulants more than cannabinoids were found to be associated with the four types of crashes under study. Some drugs showed a protective effect over the four crash types under study. Significant interactions between drugs and alcohol were observed. Stimulants contributed to the different types of fatal crashes irrespective of the levels of alcohol consumed by the drivers. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence of a link between drug consumption and fatal crashes. It also opens the door to some interesting and sometimes unexpected questions regarding the way drugs contribute to crashes, which we found varies depending on the type of crash considered, the class of drug, and the presence of alcohol. Research is also needed on drugs that could have a protective effect on the occurrence of fatal crashes. These findings could be highly relevant to the design of drug-related traffic laws and programs targeted at curbing drugged driving. PMID:21683038

  9. Determinants of occupational injury for US home health aides reporting one or more work-related injuries.

    Hamadi, Hanadi; Probst, Janice C; Khan, Mahmud M; Bellinger, Jessica; Porter, Candace

    2017-08-04

    Home health aides (HHAs) work in a high-risk industry and experience high rates of work-related injury that have been significantly associated with reduction in workers and organisational productivity, quality and performance. The main objective of the study was to examine how worker environment and ergonomic factors affect HHA risk for reporting occupational injuries. We used cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2007 National Home Health and Hospice Aide Survey (NHHAS). The study sample consisted of a nationally represented sample of home health aides (n=3.377) with a 76.6% response rate. We used two scales 1 : a Work Environment Scale and 2 an Ergonomic Scale. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to describe HHA work-related injury across individual, job and organisational factors. To measure scale reliability, Cronbach's alphas were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of reported occupational injury. In terms of Work Environment Scale, the injury risk was decreased in HHAs who did not consistently care for the same patients (OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.53 to 1.73). In terms of Ergonomic Scale, the injury risk was decreased only in HHAs who reported not needing any other devices for job safety (OR=0.30, 95% (CI): 0.15 to 0.61). No other Work Environment or Ergonomic Scale factors were associated with HHAs' risk of injury. This study has great implications on a subcategory of the workforce that has a limited amount of published work and studies, as of today, as well as an anticipated large demand for them. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Corporal punishment-related ocular injuries in Nigerian children

    Oluwakemi Adegbehingbe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the contribution of corporal punishment to ocular morbidity and visual impairment in Nigerian children. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted of all patients aged 0-15 years seen with ocular injuries over a four year period. Those who sustained ocular injuries during the administration of corporal punishment were further studied. Relevant information was documented using a semistructured questionnaire. Data was analyzed by simple descriptive statistics using SPSS statistical package version 10. Results: A total of 186 children were seen within the study period. Eighty-nine (47.8% had ocular injuries and 27 (30.3% had ocular injuries resulting from corporal punishment. Of the latter group, eighteen were males and nine were females. Their ages ranged from 3-15 years (mean = 8.5 ± 2.4 years. Corporal punishment-associated injuries occurred most commonly as seen in 17 (63% of our study population who were aged 7-12 years. These 27 cases of injuries were sustained in the schools: 13 (48.2%, homes: eight (29.6%, market place: three (11.1%, workshop: two (7.4% and worship houses: one (3.7%. A stick was the object mostly implicated in causing ocular injuries in 13 (48.2% followed by a belt in five (18.5% and a whip in four (14.8%. Severe visual impairment occurred in two (7.4% patients while blindness occurred in three (11.1% patients. Conclusion: Corporal punishment is a major cause of ocular morbidity and blindness in Nigerian children.

  11. Factors related to child maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries.

    Wibbenmeyer, Lucy; Liao, Junlin; Heard, Jason; Kealey, Lyn; Kealey, Gerald; Oral, Resmiye

    2014-01-01

    The underpinnings of maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries are necessary to discern as detection and prevention rest on a clear delineation of factors associated with maltreatment. Inaccurate identification of child victims can result in perpetuation of the maltreatment and its attendant neuropsychological sequela. The authors sought to determine factors associated with maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries, which would guide the burn team in assessing the likelihood of maltreatment. All consenting children admitted with burn injuries were surveyed regarding their injury mechanism and current sociodemographic status. Suspicious injuries were referred by the burn team to the multidisciplinary review team (MRT). The MRT reported injuries with signs of physical abuse, supervision neglect, neglect of other basic needs, or sexual abuse. These children constituted the cases in our study. Variables related to maltreatment were entered into stepwise logistic regression to identify independent predicting variables. Pmaltreatment. Risk factors related to suspicions of maltreatment included: young age, large burns, tap water injury, immersion lines, delay in care, absence of a two-parent family (unconventional family structure), young parents, inconsistent history, and injury pattern. In this single-center prospective study, the authors identified several factors that, when present in injuries with initial suspicion of maltreatment, should trigger a child maltreatment workup. Burn clinicians have an important role as advocates for children and their families. It is important to continue to further the knowledge of maltreatment detection and prevention among children presenting with burn injuries.

  12. Investigation of time and weather effects on crash types using full Bayesian multivariate Poisson lognormal models.

    El-Basyouny, Karim; Barua, Sudip; Islam, Md Tazul

    2014-12-01

    Previous research shows that various weather elements have significant effects on crash occurrence and risk; however, little is known about how these elements affect different crash types. Consequently, this study investigates the impact of weather elements and sudden extreme snow or rain weather changes on crash type. Multivariate models were used for seven crash types using five years of daily weather and crash data collected for the entire City of Edmonton. In addition, the yearly trend and random variation of parameters across the years were analyzed by using four different modeling formulations. The proposed models were estimated in a full Bayesian context via Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. The multivariate Poisson lognormal model with yearly varying coefficients provided the best fit for the data according to Deviance Information Criteria. Overall, results showed that temperature and snowfall were statistically significant with intuitive signs (crashes decrease with increasing temperature; crashes increase as snowfall intensity increases) for all crash types, while rainfall was mostly insignificant. Previous snow showed mixed results, being statistically significant and positively related to certain crash types, while negatively related or insignificant in other cases. Maximum wind gust speed was found mostly insignificant with a few exceptions that were positively related to crash type. Major snow or rain events following a dry weather condition were highly significant and positively related to three crash types: Follow-Too-Close, Stop-Sign-Violation, and Ran-Off-Road crashes. The day-of-the-week dummy variables were statistically significant, indicating a possible weekly variation in exposure. Transportation authorities might use the above results to improve road safety by providing drivers with information regarding the risk of certain crash types for a particular weather condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Retrospective study of work related traumatic hand injuries

    Tamara Pereira de Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The hand is an instrument extensively used in daily life activities- practical and professional; and it is, consequently, often injured, causing impact on productivity and on the country’s economy, also affecting the quality of life of individuals. When the lesion is work-related, it should be reported and referred by the service unit to Worker Health Reference Centre (CEREST. However, systems of records of occupational accidents are still little explored in Brazil. The aim of this work was to conduct a retrospective data survey on hand traumatic injuries of patients treated at CEREST in the municipality of Jundiaí, Sao Paulo state, in order to know the profile of these victims. Data were collected from the records of SINAN card - Severe Accident Research Sheet, in 2009. Of the 416 cases reported at SINAN, 45.2% were accidents involving the hand, which were reported mostly by private hospitals. 70.7% of the accidents reported occurred in the city (Jundiai and 88.3% of them took place within the premises of companies. Men aged between 19 and 39 years old were the most affected. Machine operators presented the highest accident incidence and fracture was the most frequent diagnosis. Temporary disability reached 80.3% of workers. 89.3% worked under formal contracts. Investment in record systems of labor accidents is essential because it would prevent underreporting and improve awareness of employees and public agencies regarding prevention and rehabilitation, thus avoiding inability of workers and damage to businesses and the government.

  14. The NLstart2run study: Training-related factors associated with running-related injuries in novice runners.

    Kluitenberg, Bas; van der Worp, Henk; Huisstede, Bionka M A; Hartgens, Fred; Diercks, Ron; Verhagen, Evert; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of running-related injuries is high. Some risk factors for injury were identified in novice runners, however, not much is known about the effect of training factors on injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the associations between training factors and running-related injuries in novice runners, taking the time varying nature of these training-related factors into account. Prospective cohort study. 1696 participants completed weekly diaries on running exposure and injuries during a 6-week running program for novice runners. Total running volume (min), frequency and mean intensity (Rate of Perceived Exertion) were calculated for the seven days prior to each training session. The association of these time-varying variables with injury was determined in an extended Cox regression analysis. The results of the multivariable analysis showed that running with a higher intensity in the previous week was associated with a higher injury risk. Running frequency was not significantly associated with injury, however a trend towards running three times per week being more hazardous than two times could be observed. Finally, lower running volume was associated with a higher risk of sustaining an injury. These results suggest that running more than 60min at a lower intensity is least injurious. This finding is contrary to our expectations and is presumably the result of other factors. Therefore, the findings should not be used plainly as a guideline for novices. More research is needed to establish the person-specific training patterns that are associated with injury. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ecologic factors relating to firearm injuries and gun violence in Chicago.

    Kieltyka, Jude; Kucybala, Karolina; Crandall, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Firearm violence is a major burden on Chicago with greater than 1500 gunshot injuries occurring annually. Identifying ecologic variables related to the incidence of firearm-related injuries and crime could prove useful for developing new strategies for reducing gun-related injuries. The Illinois Trauma Registry (ITSR) and the Chicago Police Department's CLEAR (Citizen Law Enforcement Analysis and Reporting) dataset were retrospectively analyzed to investigate group-level factors potentially related to the incidence of gun-related injuries and crime in Chicago from 1999 through 2012. Multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the effects of day of the week, daily maximum temperature, precipitation, and snow on the incidence of firearm-related injuries and crime. A total of 18,655 gunshot wounds occurred during the study period (ITSR, 1999-2009). There were 156,866 acts of gun violence identified in the CLEAR dataset (2002-2012). Day of the week, daily maximum temperature, and precipitation were associated with differential risks of gun injury and violence. Rain decreased firearm-related injuries by 9.80% [RR: 0.902, 95% CI: 0.854-0.950] and crime by 7.00% [RR: 0.930, 95% CI: 0.910-0.950]. Gunshot wounds were 33% [RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.29-1.37] more frequent on Fridays and Saturdays and gun crime was 18% [RR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.16-1.20] more common on these days. Snow was not associated with firearm-related injuries or crime. Day of the week, daily maximum temperature, and rain are associated with the incidence of firearm-related injuries and crime. Understanding the effects of these variables may allow for the development of predictive models and for risk-adjusting injury and crime data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Preventive Effects of Safety Helmets on Traumatic Brain Injury after Work-Related Falls

    Sang Chul Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. Methods: We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. Results: A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.42 (0.24–0.73, however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI: 0.83 (0.34–2.03. In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. Conclusions: A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.

  17. War-related penile injuries in Libya: Single-institution experience.

    Etabbal, Abdalla M; Hussain, Fathi F; Benkhadoura, Mohamed O; Banni, Abdalla M

    2018-06-01

    To report on our initial experience in the management of war-related penile injuries; proper diagnosis and immediate treatment of penile injuries is essential to gain satisfactory results. Besides treating primary wounds and restoring penile function, the cosmetic result is also an important issue for the surgeon. The study was conducted in the Department of Urology at Benghazi Medical Center and comprised all patients who presented with a shotgun, gunshot or explosive penile injury between February 2011 and August 2017. The patient's age, cause of injury, site and severity of injuries, management, postoperative complications, and hospital stay, were recorded. In all, 29 males with war-related penile injuries were enrolled in the study. The mean (SD) age of these patients was 31.3 (10.5) years. The glans, urethra, and corporal bodies were involved in four (13.7%), 10 (34.4%), and 20 (68.9%) of the patients, respectively. According to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Penis Injury Scale, Grade III penile injuries were the most common (11 patients, 37.9%). The most common post-intervention complications were urethral stricture with or without proximal urethrocutaneous fistula (eight patients, 27.5%), followed by permanent erectile dysfunction (five patients, 17.2%). In patients who sustain war-related penile injuries the surgeon's efforts should not only be directed to restoring normal voiding and erectile function but also on the cosmetic appearance of the penis.

  18. Urban sprawl as a risk factor in motor vehicle crashes

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Grace, James B.

    2016-01-01

    A decade ago, compactness/sprawl indices were developed for metropolitan areas and counties which have been widely used in health and other research. In this study, we first update the original county index to 2010, then develop a refined index that accounts for more relevant factors, and finally seek to test the relationship between sprawl and traffic crash rates using structural equation modelling. Controlling for covariates, we find that sprawl is associated with significantly higher direct and indirect effects on fatal crash rates. The direct effect is likely due to the higher traffic speeds in sprawling areas, and the indirect effect is due to greater vehicle miles driven in such areas. Conversely, sprawl has negative direct relationships with total crashes and non-fatal injury crashes, and these offset (and sometimes overwhelm) the positive indirect effects of sprawl on both types of crashes through the mediating effect of increased vehicle miles driven. The most likely explanation is the greater prevalence of fender benders and other minor accidents in the low speed, high conflict traffic environments of compact areas, negating the lower vehicle miles travelled per capita in such areas.

  19. College Sports-Related Injuries - United States, 2009-10 Through 2013-14 Academic Years.

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P; Corlette, Jill; Klossner, David A; Gilchrist, Julie

    2015-12-11

    Sports-related injuries can have a substantial impact on the long-term health of student-athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) monitors injuries among college student-athletes at member schools. In academic year 2013-14, a total of 1,113 member schools fielded 19,334 teams with 478,869 participating student-athletes in NCAA championship sports (i.e., sports with NCAA championship competition) (1). External researchers and CDC used information reported to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) by a sample of championship sports programs to summarize the estimated national cumulative and annual average numbers of injuries during the 5 academic years from 2009-10 through 2013-14. Analyses were restricted to injuries reported among student-athletes in 25 NCAA championship sports. During this period, 1,053,370 injuries were estimated to have occurred during an estimated 176.7 million athlete-exposures to potential injury (i.e., one athlete's participation in one competition or one practice). Injury incidence varied widely by sport. Among all sports, men's football accounted for the largest average annual estimated number of injuries (47,199) and the highest competition injury rate (39.9 per 1,000 athlete-exposures). Men's wrestling experienced the highest overall injury rate (13.1 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.2 per 1,000). Among women's sports, gymnastics had the highest overall injury rate (10.4 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.0 per 1,000), although soccer had the highest competition injury rate (17.2 per 1,000). More injuries were estimated to have occurred from practice than from competition for all sports, with the exception of men's ice hockey and baseball. However, injuries incurred during competition were somewhat more severe (e.g., requiring ≥7 days to return to full participation) than those acquired during practice. Multiple strategies are employed by NCAA and others to reduce the number of injuries in

  20. Sexual Healthcare for Wounded Warriors with Serious Combat-Related Injuries and Disabilities.

    Tepper, Mitchell S

    2014-04-01

    Short of the rich literature on sexuality in men following spinal cord injury, started largely by physicians and mental health professionals within the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) system following earlier wars, little attention has been paid to the sexual healthcare of wounded warriors with other serious combat-related injuries. The recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan-Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND)-resulted in physical injuries including traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), amputations, and serious burns. There are wounded warriors who are left blind or deaf, and a significant percent of OEF/OIF/OND warriors acquire other "invisible" injuries. While the signature injury of the war in Iraq is said to be TBI, there are a substantial number of service members surviving with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many with serious injury are struggling with co-occurring depression. Furthermore, many of our wounded warriors are surviving with polytrauma (multiple traumatic injuries, i.e., amputation plus burns). One specific constellation of injuries seen too frequently among our service members in Afghanistan is referred to as a Dismounted Complex Blast Injury (DCBI) sometimes resulting in orchiectomy and/or penile injury. As with other blast injuries, burns, shrapnel injuries, vision loss, hearing loss, TBI, and PTSD often accompany DCBIs. All of the above injuries have significant sexual, endocrine, psychological, and relationship issues that need to be addressed. This article presents an overview of the effects of serious, combat-related injuries on sexual health and provides medical and other health professionals a framework within which to address comprehensive sexual healthcare using a medical rehabilitation model. Sexual healthcare for persons with combat-related disabilities presents a complex array of biopsychosocial and relational issues that call for a coordinated

  1. Prognostic significance of specific injury patterns in casualties of traffic-related accidents.

    Calosevic, Srdjan; Lovric, Zvonimir

    2015-11-01

    Fatal triad and ipsilateral dyad are patterns of pedestrian injuries related to significant mortality in traffic-related accidents. The aim of this research was to investigate the correlation between specific injury patterns and fatal outcome in other participants of traffic-related accidents. This was a retrospective study of traffic-related accidents in the broader area of the city of Osijek in a five-year period from 1995 to 1999. Autopsy results from the Institute of Pathology and Forensic Medicine of the Clinical Hospital Centre Osijek were analysed of individuals who died after their accident. The total severity of injuries was measured using the ISS. Logistic regression analysis was used for assessing the correlation between specific injury patterns and an early outcome from the severe injury. There were 213 individuals included in the study: 72 pedestrians and 141 other participants (drivers, assistant drivers, passengers, cyclists and motorcyclists). A total of129 individuals died on the spot and 84 died in the hospital during the first 48h. Femoral and pelvic fracture, fatal triad and both variants of ipsilateral dyad were related to higher ISS values. Ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremities (ipsilateral dyad 1) was associated with a 4.59 times higher risk of an immediate fatal outcome in the total sample. In pedestrians, the risk was 5.99 higher, and in other participants, the risk was 4.11 times higher. Specific skeletal injuries and injury patterns are a significant indicator for total injury severity and related poor prognosis for all participants of traffic-related injuries, not only for pedestrians. In this study, the ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremity was related to the largest total severity of injuries and the poorest prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Emotional distress and quality of life in relatives of patients with severe brain injury: the first month after injury

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Lykke Mortensen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate emotional distress and quality of life in a sample of Danish relatives of patients with severe brain injury at admission to intensive rehabilitation in the sub-acute phase. RESEARCH DESIGN: Clinical convenience sample. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Participants included...

  3. Most common sports-related injuries in a pediatric emergency department.

    Monroe, Kathy W; Thrash, Chris; Sorrentino, Annalise; King, William D

    2011-01-01

    Participation in sports is a popular activity for children across the country. Prevention of sports-related injuries can be improved if details of injuries are documented and studied. A retrospective medical record review of injuries that occurred as a direct result of sports participation (both organized and non-organized play) from November 2006 to November 2007. Because the vast majority of injuries were a result of participation in football or basketball, these injuries were focused upon. The injuries specifically examined were closed head injury (CHI), lacerations and fractures. There were 350 football and 196 basketball injuries (total 546). Comparing injuries between the two groups fractures were found to be more prevalent in football compared to basketball (z = 2.14; p = 0.03; 95%CI (0.01, 0.16)). Lacerations were found to be less prevalent among helmeted patients than those without helmets. (z = 2.39; p = 0.02; 95%CI (-0.17,-0.03)). CHI was more prevalent among organized play compared to non-organized (z = 3.9; pfootball related visits, organized play had a higher prevalence of injury compared to non-organized play (z = 2.87; p = 0.004; 95%CI (0.04.0.21)). No differences in fracture or laceration prevalence were found between organized and non-organized play. Football and basketball related injuries are common complaints in a pediatric Emergency Department. Frequently seen injuries include CHI, fractures and lacerations. In our institution, fractures were more prevalent among football players and CHI was more prevalent among organized sports participants.

  4. Recent trends in television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years.

    Murray, K J; Griffin, R; Rue, L W; McGwin, G

    2009-08-01

    To describe recent trends in television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years, and to compare injury rates with sales of newer digital televisions. Digital television sales data were obtained from marketing data provided by the Television Bureau of Advertising. Data regarding television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years were obtained from the 1998-2007 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. A Wald chi(2) test, estimated from logistic analysis, was used to determine whether the distribution of injury types differed by age group. Pearson's correlation was used to estimate the association between digital television sales and television tip over-related injuries. An estimated 42 122 (95% CI 35 199 to 49 122) injuries from television tip-overs were treated in US emergency departments from 1998 to 2007. The injury rate was highest for children aged 1-4 years (18.6/100 000). A majority of injuries (63.9%) involved the head and neck for children under 1 year of age, while a higher proportion of injuries among children aged 1-4 involved the hip and lower extremity (42.9% and 31.0%, respectively), and shoulder and upper extremity (16.8%) for children aged 5-9. A strong, positive correlation was observed between television sales and annual injury rates (r = 0.89, pdigital television sales were strongly correlated with increased injury rates, the lack of information regarding the type of television involved prevents inference regarding causation.

  5. Braking news: link between crash severity and crash avoidance maneuvers

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    across severity levels were estimated to accommodate the ordered-response nature of severity. The sample used for estimation consisted of data for single-vehicle crashes extracted from the General Estimates System crash database for the period from 2005 to 2009. Results showed the correlation between...... of lower crash severity. These trends suggest that efforts to understand the mechanisms of reactions to different critical events should be made to improve in-vehicle warning systems, promote responsible driving behavior, and design forgiving infrastructures....

  6. Sports-related injuries among high school athletes--United States, 2005-06 school year.

    2006-09-29

    Participation in high school sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. High school sports participation has grown from an estimated 4 million participants during the 1971-72 school year to an estimated 7.2 million in 2005-06. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity (e.g., weight management, improved self-esteem, and increased strength, endurance, and flexibility), those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. High school athletes account for an estimated 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits, and 30,000 hospitalizations annually. To date, the study of these injuries has been limited by inabilities to calculate injury rates, compare results among groups, and generalize findings from small, nonrepresentative samples. During the 2005-06 school year, researchers at a children's hospital in Ohio used an Internet-based data-collection tool to pilot an injury surveillance system among athletes from a representative national sample of U.S. high schools. This report summarizes the findings of that study, which indicated that participation in high school sports resulted in an estimated 1.4 million injuries at a rate of 2.4 injuries per 1,000 athlete exposures (i.e., practices or competitions). Surveillance of exposure-based injury rates in a nationally representative sample of high school athletes and analysis of injury patterns can help guide activities aimed at reducing these injuries.

  7. Factors Influencing Running-Related Musculoskeletal Injury Risk Among U.S. Military Recruits.