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Sample records for craniofacial vertical bone

  1. Bone markers in craniofacial bone deformations and dysplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Seifert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of bony deformations and dysplasias are often present in the facial skeleton. Bone defects can be either localized or general. Quite often they are not only present in the skull but also can be found in other parts of the skeleton. In many cases the presence and levels of specific bone markers should be measured in order to fully describe their activity and presence in the skeleton. Fibrous dysplasia (FD is the most common one in the facial skeleton; however, other bone deformations regarding bone growth and activity can also be present. Every clinician should be aware of all common, rare and uncommon bony diseases and conditions such as cherubism, Paget’s disease, osteogenesis imperfecta and others related to genetic conditions. We present standard (calcium, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and specialized bone markers (pyridinium, deoxypyridinium, hydroxyproline, RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway, growth hormone, insulin-like growth hormone-1 that can be used to evaluate, measure or describe the processes occurring in craniofacial bones.

  2. Growth hormone therapy and craniofacial bones: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsas, G

    2013-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has significant effects on linear bone growth, bone mass and bone metabolism. The primary role of GH supplementation in children with GH deficiency, those born small for gestational age or with other types of disorders in somatic development is to increase linear growth. However, GH therapy seems to elicit varying responses in the craniofacial region. Whereas the effects of GH administration on somatic development are well documented, comparatively little is known of its effects on the craniofacial region. The purpose of this review was to search the literature and compile results from both animal and human studies related to the impact of GH on craniofacial growth. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Advances in imaging: impact on studying craniofacial bone structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S

    2003-01-01

    Methods for measuring the structure of craniofacial bones are discussed in this paper. In addition to the three-dimensional macro-structure of the craniofacial skeleton, there is considerable interest in imaging the bone at a microscopic resolution in order to depict the micro-architecture of the trabecular bone itself. In addition to the density of the bone, the microarchitecture reflects bone quality. An understanding of bone quality and density changes has implications for a number of craniofacial pathologies, as well as for implant design and understanding the biomechanical function and loading of the jaw. Trabecular bone micro-architecture has been recently imaged using imaging methods such as micro-computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and the images have been used in finite element models to assess bone mechanical properties. In this paper, some of the recent advances in micro-computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are reviewed, and their potential for imaging the trabecular bone in mandibular bones is presented. Examples of in vitro and in vivo images are presented.

  4. Craniofacial and temporal bone CT findings in cleidocranial dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Guido E.; Caruso, Paul A.; Curtin, Hugh D.; Small, Juan E.; Jyung, Robert W.; Troulis, Maria J.

    2008-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a multistructural polyostotic genetic disorder that results from mutation of the CBFA1 gene. Hearing loss is a frequent finding in CCD. We describe the CT craniofacial findings in CCD and provide a comprehensive discussion of the CT temporal bone findings in these patients. (orig.)

  5. The suture provides a niche for mesenchymal stem cells of craniofacial bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hu; Feng, Jifan; Ho, Thach-Vu; Grimes, Weston; Urata, Mark; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue undergoes constant turnover supported by stem cells. Recent studies showed that perivascular mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to the turnover of long bones. Craniofacial bones are flat bones derived from a different embryonic origin than the long bones. The identity and regulating niche for craniofacial bone MSCs remain unknown. Here, we identify Gli1+ cells within the suture mesenchyme as the major MSC population for craniofacial bones. They are not associated with vasculature, give rise to all craniofacial bones in the adult and are activated during injury repair. Gli1+ cells are typical MSCs in vitro. Ablation of Gli1+ cells leads to craniosynostosis and arrest of skull growth, indicating these cells are an indispensible stem cell population. Twist1+/− mice with craniosynostosis show reduced Gli1+ MSCs in sutures, suggesting that craniosynostosis may result from diminished suture stem cells. Our study indicates that craniofacial sutures provide a unique niche for MSCs for craniofacial bone homeostasis and repair. PMID:25799059

  6. Osterix-Cre transgene causes craniofacial bone development defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Mishina, Yuji; Liu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    The Cre/loxP system has been widely used to generate tissue-specific gene knockout mice. Inducible (Tet-off) Osx-GFP::Cre (Osx-Cre) mouse line that targets osteoblasts is widely used in the bone research field. In this study, we investigated the effect of Osx-Cre on craniofacial bone development. We found that newborn Osx-Cre mice showed severe hypomineralization in parietal, frontal, and nasal bones as well as the coronal sutural area when compared to control mice. As the mice matured the intramembranous bone hypomineralization phenotype became less severe. The major hypomineralization defect in parietal, frontal, and nasal bones had mostly disappeared by postnatal day 21, but the defect in sutural areas persisted. Importantly, Doxycycline treatment eliminated cranial bone defects at birth which indicates that Cre expression may be responsible for the phenotype. In addition, we showed that the primary calvarial osteoblasts isolated from neonatal Osx-Cre mice had comparable differentiation ability compared to their littermate controls. This study reinforces the idea that Cre positive litter mates are indispensable controls in studies using conditional gene deletion. PMID:25550101

  7. The imaging findings of metastatic neuroblastoma in the craniofacial bone in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Xin; Wang Zhenchang; Xian Junfang; Li Mei; Yan Fei; Chen Qinghua; Yang Bentao; Chang Qinglin; Tian Qichang; Liu Zhonglin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristic imaging findings of metastatic neuroblastoma in the craniofacial bone in children. Methods: Imaging findings in 12 patients with metastatic neuroblastoma in the craniofacial bone were analyzed retrospectively. Among them, 10 patients undenvent plain CT scan, 6 underwent MRI and 7 underwent whole body single-photon emission computed tomography bone scanning. Results: In the 10 patients with CT images, lytic bone destruction and soft tissue masses were found in 9 eases, in which periosteal reaction was observed in 8 patients with spiculated periosteal reaction in 3 patients. The remaining 1 patient didn't show any abnormalities on CT images but had abnormal findings in bone scanning. Six patients with MR images showed abnormal signal intensity in the bone marrow of the craniofacial bone and adjacent soft tissue masses. Postcontrast T 1 -weighted imaging in 5 patients demonstrated remarkable enhancement of the bone marrow and soft tissue masses. Bone scanning of 7 patients showed abnormal foci of increased radionuclide activity of the craniofacial bone in 7 patients and metastasis at other body parts in 6 patients. Conclusion: The metastatic neuroblastoma in the craniofacial bone has its characteristic imaging findings which are helpful for correct diagnosis. (authors)

  8. Edentulation alters material properties of cortical bone in the human craniofacial skeleton: functional implications for craniofacial structure in primate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, Paul C.; Wang, Qian; Peterson, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal adaptations to reduced function are an important source of skeletal variation and may be indicative of environmental pressures that lead to evolutionary changes. Humans serve as a model animal to investigate the effects of loss of craniofacial function through edentulation. In the human maxilla, it is known that edentulation leads to significant changes in skeletal structure such as residual ridge resorption and loss of cortical thickness. However, little is known about changes in bone tissue structure and material properties, which are also important for understanding skeletal mechanics but are often ignored. The aims of this study were to determine cortical material properties in edentulous crania and to evaluate differences with dentate crania and thus examine the effects of loss of function on craniofacial structure. Cortical bone samples from fifteen edentulous human skulls were measured for thickness and density. Elastic properties and directions of maximum stiffness were determined by using ultrasonic techniques. These data were compared to those from dentate crania reported in a previous investigation. Cortical bone from all regions of the facial skeleton of edentulous individuals is thinner than in dentate skulls. Elastic and shear moduli, and density are similar or greater in the zygoma and cranial vault of edentulous individuals, while these properties are less in the maxilla. Most cortical bone, especially in edentulous maxillae, has reduced directional orientation. The loss of significant occlusal loads following edentulation may contribute to the change in material properties and the loss of orientation over time during the normal process of bone remodeling. These results suggest that area-specific cortical microstructural changes accompany bone resorption following edentulation. They also suggest that functional forces are important for maintaining bone mass throughout the craniofacial skeleton, even in areas such as the browridges, which

  9. Current and emerging basic science concepts in bone biology: implications in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Adam J; Mesa, John; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing research in bone biology has brought cutting-edge technologies into everyday use in craniofacial surgery. Nonetheless, when osseous defects of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton are encountered, autogenous bone grafting remains the criterion standard for reconstruction. Accordingly, the core principles of bone graft physiology continue to be of paramount importance. Bone grafts, however, are not a panacea; donor site morbidity and operative risk are among the limitations of autologous bone graft harvest. Bone graft survival is impaired when irradiation, contamination, and impaired vascularity are encountered. Although the dura can induce calvarial ossification in children younger than 2 years, the repair of critical-size defects in the pediatric population may be hindered by inadequate bone graft donor volume. The novel and emerging field of bone tissue engineering holds great promise as a limitless source of autogenous bone. Three core constituents of bone tissue engineering have been established: scaffolds, signals, and cells. Blood supply is the sine qua non of these components, which are used both individually and concertedly in regenerative craniofacial surgery. The discerning craniofacial surgeon must determine the proper use for these bone graft alternatives, while understanding their concomitant risks. This article presents a review of contemporary and emerging concepts in bone biology and their implications in craniofacial surgery. Current practices, areas of controversy, and near-term future applications are emphasized.

  10. In vivo impact of Dlx3 conditional inactivation in Neural Crest-Derived Craniofacial Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, Olivier; Isaac, Juliane; Zah, Angela; Hwang, Joonsung; Berdal, Ariane; Lian, Jane B.; Morasso, Maria I.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in DLX3 in humans lead to defects in craniofacial and appendicular bones, yet the in vivo activity related to Dlx3 function during normal skeletal development have not been fully elucidated. Here we used a conditional knockout approach to analyze the effects of neural crest deletion of Dlx3 on craniofacial bones development. At birth, mutant mice exhibit a normal overall positioning of the skull bones, but a change in the shape of the calvaria was observed. Molecular analysis of the genes affected in the frontal bones and mandibles from these mice identified several bone markers known to affect bone development, with a strong prediction for increased bone formation and mineralization in vivo. Interestingly, while a subset of these genes were similarly affected in frontal bones and mandibles (Sost, Mepe, Bglap, Alp, Ibsp, Agt), several genes, including Lect1 and Calca, were specifically affected in frontal bones. Consistent with these molecular alterations, cells isolated from the frontal bone of mutant mice exhibited increased differentiation and mineralization capacities ex vivo, supporting cell autonomous defects in neural crest cells. However, adult mutant animals exhibited decreased bone mineral density in both mandibles and calvaria, as well as a significant increase in bone porosity. Together, these observations suggest that mature osteoblasts in the adult respond to signals that regulate adult bone mass and remodeling. This study provides new downstream targets for Dlx3 in craniofacial bone, and gives additional evidence of the complex regulation of bone formation and homeostasis in the adult skeleton. PMID:22886599

  11. Ellis van Creveld2 is required for postnatal craniofacial bone development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Mohammed K.; Zhang, Honghao; Ohyama, Yoshio; Venkitapathi, Sundharamani; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Takeda, Haruko; Ray, Manas; Scott, Greg; Tsuji, Takehito; Kunieda, Tetsuo; Mishina, Yuji; Mochida, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is a genetic disorder with mutations in either EVC or EVC2 gene. Previous case studies reported that EvC patients underwent orthodontic treatment, suggesting the presence of craniofacial bone phenotypes. To investigate whether a mutation in EVC2 gene causes a craniofacial bone phenotype, Evc2 knockout (KO) mice were generated and cephalometric analysis was performed. The heads of wild type (WT), heterozygous (Het) and homozygous Evc2 KO mice (1-, 3- and 6-week-old) were prepared and cephalometric analysis based on the selected reference points on lateral X-ray radiographs was performed. The linear and angular bone measurements were then calculated, compared between WT, Het and KO and statistically analyzed at each time point. Our data showed that length of craniofacial bones in KO was significantly lowered by ~20% to that of WT and Het, the growth of certain bones, including nasal bone, palatal length and premaxilla was more affected in KO, and the reduction in these bone length was more significantly enhanced at later postnatal time points (3 and 6 weeks) than early time point (1 week). Furthermore, bone-to-bone relationship to cranial base and cranial vault in KO was remarkably changed, i.e. cranial vault and nasal bone were depressed and premaxilla and mandible were developed in a more ventral direction. Our study was the first to show the cause-effect relationship between Evc2 deficiency and craniofacial defects in EvC syndrome, demonstrating that Evc2 is required for craniofacial bone development and its deficiency leads to specific facial bone growth defect. PMID:27090777

  12. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.)

  13. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-08-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.).

  14. BoneSource hydroxyapatite cement: a novel biomaterial for craniofacial skeletal tissue engineering and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, C D; Costantino, P D; Takagi, S; Chow, L C

    1998-01-01

    BoneSource-hydroxyapatite cement is a new self-setting calcium phosphate cement biomaterial. Its unique and innovative physical chemistry coupled with enhanced biocompatibility make it useful for craniofacial skeletal reconstruction. The general properties and clinical use guidelines are reviewed. The biomaterial and surgical applications offer insight into improved outcomes and potential new uses for hydroxyapatite cement systems.

  15. In vivo bone strain and finite-element modeling of the craniofacial haft in catarrhine primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Callum F; Berthaume, Michael A; Dechow, Paul C; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Porro, Laura B; Richmond, Brian G; Spencer, Mark; Strait, David

    2011-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding patterns of stress, strain and deformation in the craniofacial skeleton are central to adaptive explanations for the evolution of primate craniofacial form. The complexity of craniofacial skeletal morphology makes it difficult to evaluate these hypotheses with in vivo bone strain data. In this paper, new in vivo bone strain data from the intraorbital surfaces of the supraorbital torus, postorbital bar and postorbital septum, the anterior surface of the postorbital bar, and the anterior root of the zygoma are combined with published data from the supraorbital region and zygomatic arch to evaluate the validity of a finite-element model (FEM) of a macaque cranium during mastication. The behavior of this model is then used to test hypotheses regarding the overall deformation regime in the craniofacial haft of macaques. This FEM constitutes a hypothesis regarding deformation of the facial skeleton during mastication. A simplified verbal description of the deformation regime in the macaque FEM is as follows. Inferior bending and twisting of the zygomatic arches about a rostrocaudal axis exerts inferolaterally directed tensile forces on the lateral orbital wall, bending the wall and the supraorbital torus in frontal planes and bending and shearing the infraorbital region and anterior zygoma root in frontal planes. Similar deformation regimes also characterize the crania of Homo and Gorilla under in vitro loading conditions and may be shared among extant catarrhines. Relatively high strain magnitudes in the anterior root of the zygoma suggest that the morphology of this region may be important for resisting forces generated during feeding. PMID:21105871

  16. Sagittal and Vertical Craniofacial Growth Pattern and Timing of Circumpubertal Skeletal Maturation: A Multiple Regression Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Perinetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the associations between the timing of skeletal maturation and craniofacial growth is of primary importance when planning a functional treatment for most of the skeletal malocclusions. This cross-sectional study was thus aimed at evaluating whether sagittal and vertical craniofacial growth has an association with the timing of circumpubertal skeletal maturation. A total of 320 subjects (160 females and 160 males were included in the study (mean age, 12.3±1.7 years; range, 7.6–16.7 years. These subjects were equally distributed in the circumpubertal cervical vertebral maturation (CVM stages 2 to 5. Each CVM stage group also had equal number of females and males. Multiple regression models were run for each CVM stage group to assess the significance of the association of cephalometric parameters (ANB, SN/MP, and NSBa angles with age of attainment of the corresponding CVM stage (in months. Significant associations were seen only for stage 3, where the SN/MP angle was negatively associated with age (β coefficient, −0.7. These results show that hyperdivergent and hypodivergent subjects may have an anticipated and delayed attainment of the pubertal CVM stage 3, respectively. However, such association remains of little entity and it would become clinically relevant only in extreme cases.

  17. Sagittal and Vertical Craniofacial Growth Pattern and Timing of Circumpubertal Skeletal Maturation: A Multiple Regression Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Luigi; Riatti, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the associations between the timing of skeletal maturation and craniofacial growth is of primary importance when planning a functional treatment for most of the skeletal malocclusions. This cross-sectional study was thus aimed at evaluating whether sagittal and vertical craniofacial growth has an association with the timing of circumpubertal skeletal maturation. A total of 320 subjects (160 females and 160 males) were included in the study (mean age, 12.3 ± 1.7 years; range, 7.6–16.7 years). These subjects were equally distributed in the circumpubertal cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages 2 to 5. Each CVM stage group also had equal number of females and males. Multiple regression models were run for each CVM stage group to assess the significance of the association of cephalometric parameters (ANB, SN/MP, and NSBa angles) with age of attainment of the corresponding CVM stage (in months). Significant associations were seen only for stage 3, where the SN/MP angle was negatively associated with age (β coefficient, −0.7). These results show that hyperdivergent and hypodivergent subjects may have an anticipated and delayed attainment of the pubertal CVM stage 3, respectively. However, such association remains of little entity and it would become clinically relevant only in extreme cases. PMID:27995136

  18. Lyophilized Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF Promotes Craniofacial Bone Regeneration through Runx2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Freeze-drying is an effective means to control scaffold pore size and preserve its composition. The purpose of the present study was to determine the applicability of lyophilized Platelet-rich fibrin (LPRF as a scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration and to compare its biological effects with commonly used fresh Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF. LPRF caused a 4.8-fold ± 0.4-fold elevation in Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 expression in alveolar bone cells, compared to a 3.6-fold ± 0.2-fold increase when using fresh PRF, and a more than 10-fold rise of alkaline phosphatase levels and mineralization markers. LPRF-induced Runx2 expression only occurred in alveolar bone and not in periodontal or dental follicle cells. LPRF also caused a 1.6-fold increase in osteoblast proliferation (p < 0.001 when compared to fresh PRF. When applied in a rat craniofacial defect model for six weeks, LPRF resulted in 97% bony coverage of the defect, compared to 84% for fresh PRF, 64% for fibrin, and 16% without scaffold. Moreover, LPRF thickened the trabecular diameter by 25% when compared to fresh PRF and fibrin, and only LPRF and fresh PRF resulted in the formation of interconnected trabeculae across the defect. Together, these studies support the application of lyophilized PRF as a biomimetic scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration and mineralized tissue engineering.

  19. Utility of MDP bone SPECT in the detection of osseous invasion in craniofacial malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.; Haq, S.; Sohaib, M.; Khan, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The study was designed to observe the role of SPECT imaging for the detection of osseous invasion in craniofacial malignancies. Material and Methods: Radionuclide bone imaging with Tc-99m MDP was done on 20 patients with different craniofacial malignancies. The planar imaging comprised of anterior, lateral and oblique lateral views of the skull. SPECT imaging was done taking 64 views of the skull in a 360 deg. circular path, each of 40 seconds with 128x128 matrix. Visual interpretation of the scans was done and a score of 0, 1, or 2 allocated, representing a lesion as definitely absent, doubtful or definitely present, respectively. SPECT images were compared with planar scans. Results: SPECT was proven superior to planar imaging and radiographs in detection as well as efficient demonstration of the extent of osseous invasion of a craniofacial cancer. The sensitivity was 100% for SPECT, 83.3% for planar and 33.3% for radiographs. Conclusion: SPECT imaging of the skull can serve as an extremely useful complementary investigation in the patients with craniofacial malignancies to assess them for osseous invasion, particularly in tumors likely to invade the skull base

  20. Tissue engineered bone versus alloplastic commercial biomaterials in craniofacial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucaciu, Ondine; Băciuţ, Mihaela; Băciuţ, G; Câmpian, R; Soriţău, Olga; Bran, S; Crişan, B; Crişan, Liana

    2010-01-01

    This research was developed in order to demonstrate the tissue engineering method as an alternative to conventional methods for bone reconstruction, in order to overcome the frequent failures of alloplastic commercial biomaterials, allografts and autografts. Tissue engineering is an in vitro method used to obtain cell based osteoinductive bone grafts. This study evaluated the feasibility of creating tissue-engineered bone using mesenchymal cells seeded on a scaffold obtained from the deciduous red deer antler. We have chosen mesenchymal stem cells because they are easy to obtain, capable to differentiate into cells of mesenchymal origin (osteoblasts) and to produce tissue such as bone. As scaffold, we have chosen the red deer antler because it has a high level of porosity. We conducted a case control study, on three groups of mice type CD1--two study groups (n=20) and a control group (n=20). For the study groups, we obtained bone grafts through tissue engineering, using mesenchymal stem cells seeded on the scaffold made of deciduous red deer antler. Bone defects were surgically induced on the left parietal bone of all subjects. In the control group, we grafted the bone defects with commercial biomaterials (OsteoSet, Wright Medical Technology, Inc., Arlington, Federal USA). Subjects were sacrificed at two and four months, the healing process was morphologically and histologically evaluated using descriptive histology and the golden standard - histological scoring. The grafts obtained in vivo through tissue engineering using adult stem cell, seeded on the scaffold obtained from the red deer antler using osteogenic medium have proven their osteogenic properties.

  1. Synchrotron Phase Tomography: An Emerging Imaging Method for Microvessel Detection in Engineered Bone of Craniofacial Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Giuliani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The engineering of large 3D constructs, such as certain craniofacial bone districts, is nowadays a critical challenge. Indeed, the amount of oxygen needed for cell survival is able to reach a maximum diffusion distance of ~150–200 μm from the original vascularization vector, often hampering the long-term survival of the regenerated tissues. Thus, the rapid growth of new blood vessels, delivering oxygen and nutrients also to the inner cells of the bone grafts, is mandatory for their long-term function in clinical practice. Unfortunately, significant progress in this direction is currently hindered by a lack of methods with which to visualize these processes in 3D and reliably quantify them. In this regard, a challenging method for simultaneous 3D imaging and analysis of microvascularization and bone microstructure has emerged in recent years: it is based on the use of synchrotron phase tomography. This technique is able to simultaneously identify multiple tissue features in a craniofacial bone site (e.g., the microvascular and the calcified tissue structure. Moreover, it overcomes the intrinsic limitations of both histology, achieving only a 2D characterization, and conventional tomographic approaches, poorly resolving the vascularization net in the case of an incomplete filling of the newly formed microvessels by contrast agents. Indeed, phase tomography, being based on phase differences among the scattered X-ray waves, is capable of discriminating tissues with similar absorption coefficients (like vessels and woven bone in defined experimental conditions. The approach reviewed here is based on the most recent experiences applied to bone regeneration in the craniofacial region.

  2. Bioactive Nano-fibrous Scaffold for Vascularized Craniofacial Bone Regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabha, Rahul Damodaran; Kraft, David Christian Evar; Harkness, Linda

    2018-01-01

    the limitation of cell penetration of electrospun scaffolds and improve on its osteoconductive nature, in this study, we fabricated a novel electrospun composite scaffold of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) - poly (ε) caprolactone (PCL) - Bioceramic (HAB), namely, PVA-PCL-HAB. The scaffold prepared by dual...... electrospinning of PVA and PCL with HAB overcomes reduced cell attachment associated with hydrophobic poly (ε) caprolactone (PCL) by combination with a hydrophilic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and the bioceramic (HAB) can contribute to enhance osteo-conductivity. We characterized the physicochemical...... and biocompatibility properties of the new scaffold material. Our results indicate PVA-PCL-HAB scaffolds support attachment and growth of stromal stem cells; (human bone marrow skeletal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSC)). In addition, the scaffold supported in vitro osteogenic...

  3. Electrospun PVA-PCL-HAB scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabha, Rahul; Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte

    2015-01-01

    -caprolactone (PCL)- triphasic bioceramic(HAB) scaffold to biomimic native tissue and we tested its ability to support osteogenic differentiation of stromal stem cells ( MSC) and its suitability for regeneration of craniofa- cial defects. Physiochemical characterizations of the scaffold, including con- tact angle...... body fluid immersed scaffold samples. Culturing human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and human bone marrow derived MSC seeded on PVA-PCL-HAB scaffold showed enhanced cell proliferation and in vitro osteoblastic differentiation. Cell-containing scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in immune...... deficient mice. Histologic ex- amination of retrieved implant sections stained with H&E, Col- lagenType I and Human Vimentin antibody demonstrated that the cells survived in vivo in the implants for at least 8 weeks with evidence of osteoblastic differentiation and angiogenesis within the implants. Our...

  4. Lyophilized platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) promotes craniofacial bone regeneration through Runx2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Reed, David A; Min, Liu; Gopinathan, Gokul; Li, Steve; Dangaria, Smit J; Li, Leo; Geng, Yajun; Galang, Maria-Therese; Gajendrareddy, Praveen; Zhou, Yanmin; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G H

    2014-05-14

    Freeze-drying is an effective means to control scaffold pore size and preserve its composition. The purpose of the present study was to determine the applicability of lyophilized Platelet-rich fibrin (LPRF) as a scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration and to compare its biological effects with commonly used fresh Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). LPRF caused a 4.8-fold±0.4-fold elevation in Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) expression in alveolar bone cells, compared to a 3.6-fold±0.2-fold increase when using fresh PRF, and a more than 10-fold rise of alkaline phosphatase levels and mineralization markers. LPRF-induced Runx2 expression only occurred in alveolar bone and not in periodontal or dental follicle cells. LPRF also caused a 1.6-fold increase in osteoblast proliferation (pfibrin, and 16% without scaffold. Moreover, LPRF thickened the trabecular diameter by 25% when compared to fresh PRF and fibrin, and only LPRF and fresh PRF resulted in the formation of interconnected trabeculae across the defect. Together, these studies support the application of lyophilized PRF as a biomimetic scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration and mineralized tissue engineering.

  5. An Anthropometric Study of Cranio-Facial Measurements and Their Correlation with Vertical Dimension of Occlusion among Saudi Arabian Subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Muhammed Irfan; Haralur, Satheesh B; Khan, Muhammed Farhan; Al Ahmari, Maram Awdah; Al Shahrani, Nourah Falah; Shaik, Sharaz

    2018-04-15

    Determining and restoring physiological vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) is the critical step during complete mouth rehabilitation. The improper VDO compromises the aesthetics, phonetics and functional efficiency of the prosthesis. Various methods are suggested to determine the accurate VDO, including the facial measurements in the clinical situations with no pre-extraction records. The generalisation of correlation between the facial measurements to VDO is criticised due to gender dimorphism and racial differences. Hence, it is prudent to verify the hypothesis of facial proportion and correlation of lower third of the face to remaining craniofacial measurements in different ethnic groups. The objective of the study was to evaluate the correlation of craniofacial measurements and OVD in the Saudi-Arabian ethnic group. Total of 228 participants from Saudi-Arabian Ethnic group were randomly recruited in this cross-sectional study. Fifteen craniofacial measurements were recorded with modified digital Vernier callipers, and OVD was recorded at centric occlusion. The obtained data were analysed by using the Spearman's correlation and linear regression analysis. The Mean OVD in male participants was higher (69.25 ± 5.54) in comparison to female participants (57.41 ± 5.32). The craniofacial measurement of Exocanthion-right labial commissure and the Mesial wall of the right external auditory canal-orbitale lateral had a strong positive correlation with VDO. The strong correlation was recorded with a trichion-upper border of right eyebrow line and trichion-Nasion only in males. Meanwhile, the length of an auricle recorded the positive correlation in female participants. Being simple and non-invasive technique, craniofacial measurements and linear equations could be routinely utilised to determine VDO.

  6. Advances of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and dental tissue in craniofacial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maobin; Zhang, Hongming; Gangolli, Riddhi

    2014-05-01

    Bone and dental tissues in craniofacial region work as an important aesthetic and functional unit. Reconstruction of craniofacial tissue defects is highly expected to ensure patients to maintain good quality of life. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been developed in the last two decades, and been advanced with the stem cell technology. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells are one of the most extensively studied post-natal stem cell population, and are widely utilized in cell-based therapy. Dental tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells are a relatively new stem cell population that isolated from various dental tissues. These cells can undergo multilineage differentiation including osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation, thus provide an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering. In this review, we discuss the important issues in mesenchymal stem cell biology including the origin and functions of mesenchymal stem cells, compare the properties of these two types of mesenchymal cells, update recent basic research and clinic applications in this field, and address important future challenges.

  7. Examination of craniofacial bones associated with auricular anomaly using three-dimensional computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Iwao, Fumiya

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3D-CT) was performed in 60 patients with auricular anomaly to determine the site and severity of deformity in the hemifacial microsomia. Auricular anomaly, underdevelopment and malposition of the cranium, temporo-mandibular joint, zygoma, maxilla and mandible were observed in almost all of the patients; however, the severity of these malformations varied from patient to patient. Regarding severest deformity, there were positional differences among patients. According to impairment sites, hemifacial microsomia fell into the following five types: (1) cranium type, (2) maxillary alveolar process type, (3) localized mandibular ramus type, (4) overall mandibular type, and (5) complex type (combination of the aforementioned types). Facial asymmetry accompanied by auricular anomaly was associated with various pathologic conditions. The temporomandibular joint was often deviated towards the anteromedial side for localized mandibular ramus type and overall mandibular type. Posterial deviation was predominant for cranium type. In patients with hemifacial microsomia of the cranium type associated with protrusion mainly in the occipital region on the affected side, deformity was considered attributable to underdevelopment of the temporal bone and delay in closure of the temporo-occipital suture. The deformity for cranium type may be defined as the second branchial syndrome. In conclusion, hemifacial microsomia have various deformities and may fall into five categories. Craniofacial microsomia and hemi-auriculo-temporo-mandibular dysplastic syndrome give a more precise concept for auricular anomaly. (N.K.)

  8. Examination of craniofacial bones associated with auricular anomaly using three-dimensional computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Iwao, Fumiya (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-07-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3D-CT) was performed in 60 patients with auricular anomaly to determine the site and severity of deformity in the hemifacial microsomia. Auricular anomaly, underdevelopment and malposition of the cranium, temporo-mandibular joint, zygoma, maxilla and mandible were observed in almost all of the patients; however, the severity of these malformations varied from patient to patient. Regarding severest deformity, there were positional differences among patients. According to impairment sites, hemifacial microsomia fell into the following five types: (1) cranium type, (2) maxillary alveolar process type, (3) localized mandibular ramus type, (4) overall mandibular type, and (5) complex type (combination of the aforementioned types). Facial asymmetry accompanied by auricular anomaly was associated with various pathologic conditions. The temporomandibular joint was often deviated towards the anteromedial side for localized mandibular ramus type and overall mandibular type. Posterial deviation was predominant for cranium type. In patients with hemifacial microsomia of the cranium type associated with protrusion mainly in the occipital region on the affected side, deformity was considered attributable to underdevelopment of the temporal bone and delay in closure of the temporo-occipital suture. The deformity for cranium type may be defined as the second branchial syndrome. In conclusion, hemifacial microsomia have various deformities and may fall into five categories. Craniofacial microsomia and hemi-auriculo-temporo-mandibular dysplastic syndrome give a more precise concept for auricular anomaly. (N.K.).

  9. An optimized process flow for rapid segmentation of cortical bones of the craniofacial skeleton using the level-set method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedowski, T D; Fialkov, J; Pakdel, A; Whyne, C M

    2013-01-01

    Accurate representation of skeletal structures is essential for quantifying structural integrity, for developing accurate models, for improving patient-specific implant design and in image-guided surgery applications. The complex morphology of thin cortical structures of the craniofacial skeleton (CFS) represents a significant challenge with respect to accurate bony segmentation. This technical study presents optimized processing steps to segment the three-dimensional (3D) geometry of thin cortical bone structures from CT images. In this procedure, anoisotropic filtering and a connected components scheme were utilized to isolate and enhance the internal boundaries between craniofacial cortical and trabecular bone. Subsequently, the shell-like nature of cortical bone was exploited using boundary-tracking level-set methods with optimized parameters determined from large-scale sensitivity analysis. The process was applied to clinical CT images acquired from two cadaveric CFSs. The accuracy of the automated segmentations was determined based on their volumetric concurrencies with visually optimized manual segmentations, without statistical appraisal. The full CFSs demonstrated volumetric concurrencies of 0.904 and 0.719; accuracy increased to concurrencies of 0.936 and 0.846 when considering only the maxillary region. The highly automated approach presented here is able to segment the cortical shell and trabecular boundaries of the CFS in clinical CT images. The results indicate that initial scan resolution and cortical-trabecular bone contrast may impact performance. Future application of these steps to larger data sets will enable the determination of the method's sensitivity to differences in image quality and CFS morphology.

  10. Mineral trioxide aggregate upregulates odonto/osteogenic capacity of bone marrow stromal cells from craniofacial bones via JNK and ERK MAPK signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Li, J; Song, W; Yu, J

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on odonto/osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from craniofacial bones. Craniofacial BMSCs were isolated from rat mandible and effects of MTA on their proliferation, differentiation and MAPK pathway involvement were subsequently investigated, in vitro. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2,5-tetrazoliumbromide) assay was performed to evaluate proliferation of the MTA-treated cells. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays were used to assess differentiation capacity as well as MAPK pathway involvement. 0.02 mg/ml MTA-treated BMSCs had significantly higher ALP activity and formed more mineralized nodules than the untreated group. Odonto/osteoblastic marker genes/proteins (Alp, Runx2/RUNX2, Osx/OSX, Ocn/OCN and Dspp/DSP respectively) in MTA-treated cells were remarkably upregulated compared to untreated ones. Mechanistically, phosphorylated Jun N-terminal kinase (P-JNK) and phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinases (P-ERK) in MTA-treated BMSCs increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, while inhibition of JNK and ERK MAPK pathways dramatically blocked MTA-induced odonto/osteoblastic differentiation, as indicated by reduced ALP levels, weakened mineralization capacity and downregulated levels of odonto/osteoblastic marker genes (Alp, Runx2, Osx, Ocn and Dspp). Mineral trioxide aggregate promoted odonto/osteogenic capacity of craniofacial BMSCs via JNK and ERK MAPK signalling pathways. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparing phototoxicity during the development of a zebrafish craniofacial bone using confocal and light sheet fluorescence microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemielita, Matthew; Taormina, Michael J; Delaurier, April; Kimmel, Charles B; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2013-12-01

    The combination of genetically encoded fluorescent proteins and three-dimensional imaging enables cell-type-specific studies of embryogenesis. Light sheet microscopy, in which fluorescence excitation is provided by a plane of laser light, is an appealing approach to live imaging due to its high speed and efficient use of photons. While the advantages of rapid imaging are apparent from recent work, the importance of low light levels to studies of development is not well established. We examine the zebrafish opercle, a craniofacial bone that exhibits pronounced shape changes at early developmental stages, using both spinning disk confocal and light sheet microscopies of fluorescent osteoblast cells. We find normal and aberrant opercle morphologies for specimens imaged with short time intervals using light sheet and spinning disk confocal microscopies, respectively, under equivalent exposure conditions over developmentally-relevant time scales. Quantification of shapes reveals that the differently imaged specimens travel along distinct trajectories in morphological space. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Study on the treatment of cranio-facial bones fractures and defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Zili

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe treatment results of 19 patients suffering from frontal sinus, nasal bone and zygomatic complex fractures. Methods: The 3-D imaging technique was obligatory diagnostic tools pre-operatively. The bicoronal incision was used as the standard surgical approach for all cases. After neurosurgical interventions frontal sinus were obliterated by lyophilized cartilage chips. Anatomic restoration was carried out. Transplantation of lyophilized cartilage was used to reconstruct defects of bone. Results: There was good external contour in all cases after average 21 months postoperatively. X-rays revealed a regular structure of bone trabecular and progressive calcification within the cartilage material post-operatively. Conclusions: 3-D imaging technique, bicoronal incision and lyophilized cartilage implantation can offer three advantages: precise diagnosis, improvement of treatment quality and decrease of operative injury

  13. Accelerated craniofacial bone regeneration through dense collagen gel scaffolds seeded with dental pulp stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamieh, Frédéric; Collignon, Anne-Margaux; Coyac, Benjamin R.; Lesieur, Julie; Ribes, Sandy; Sadoine, Jérémy; Llorens, Annie; Nicoletti, Antonino; Letourneur, Didier; Colombier, Marie-Laure; Nazhat, Showan N.; Bouchard, Philippe; Chaussain, Catherine; Rochefort, Gael Y.

    2016-12-01

    Therapies using mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) seeded scaffolds may be applicable to various fields of regenerative medicine, including craniomaxillofacial surgery. Plastic compression of collagen scaffolds seeded with MSC has been shown to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of MSC as it increases the collagen fibrillary density. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the osteogenic effects of dense collagen gel scaffolds seeded with mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) on bone regeneration in a rat critical-size calvarial defect model. Two symmetrical full-thickness defects were created (5 mm diameter) and filled with either a rat DPSC-containing dense collagen gel scaffold (n = 15), or an acellular scaffold (n = 15). Animals were imaged in vivo by microcomputer tomography (Micro-CT) once a week during 5 weeks, whereas some animals were sacrificed each week for histology and histomorphometry analysis. Bone mineral density and bone micro-architectural parameters were significantly increased when DPSC-seeded scaffolds were used. Histological and histomorphometrical data also revealed significant increases in fibrous connective and mineralized tissue volume when DPSC-seeded scaffolds were used, associated with expression of type I collagen, osteoblast-associated alkaline phosphatase and osteoclastic-related tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Results demonstrate the potential of DPSC-loaded-dense collagen gel scaffolds to benefit of bone healing process.

  14. Bone autografting of the calvaria and craniofacial skeleton: historical background, surgical results in a series of 15 patients, and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; Ferrante, Luigi; Pastore, Francesco Saverio; Ramundo, Epimenio Orlando; Cantarelli, Davide; Scopelliti, Domenico; Iannetti, Giorgio

    2003-07-01

    Although the use of autologous bone for reconstruction of the cranial and facial skeleton underwent a partial reappraisal following the introduction of a vast range of alloplastic materials for this purpose, it has demonstrated definite advantages over the last century and, particularly, during the last decade. Fifteen patients underwent cranial and/or cranio-facial reconstruction using autologous bone grafting in the Department of Neurologic Sciences-Neurosurgery and the Division of Maxillo-Facial Surgery of the Rome "La Sapienza" University between 1987 and 1995. This group of patients consisted of 8 females and 7 males whose average age was 29.5 years (range 7.5 to 59 years, mean age 30). In all these patients cranioplasty and/or cranio-facial reconstruction had been performed to repair bone defects secondary to benign tumors or tumor-like lesions (12 cases), trauma (2 cases), or, in the remaining case, to wound infection after craniotomy for a neurosurgical operation. The results obtained in a series of 15 patients treated using this method are described with reference to the abundant data published on this topic. The mechanical, immunologic, and technical-grafting properties of autologous bone, together with its superior esthetic and psychological effects, probably make it the best material for cranioplasty.

  15. Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Tissues. An update

    OpenAIRE

    Litsas, George

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. In childhood, it determines the longitudinal bone growth, skeletal maturation, and acquisition of bone mass. In adulthood, it is necessary to maintain bone mass throughout life. Although an association between craniofacial and somatic development has been clearly established, craniofacial growth involves complex interactions of genes, hormones and environment. Moreover, as an anabolic hormone seems to have an important role in the ...

  16. Histomorhological and clinical evaluation of maxillary alveolar ridge reconstruction after craniofacial trauma by applying combination of allogeneic and autogenous bone graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Saverio De Ponte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A variety of techniques and materials for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of traumatized maxillary ridges prior to dental implants placement have been described in literature. Autogenous bone grafting is considered ideal by many researchers and it still remains the most predictable and documented method. The aim of this report is to underline the effectiveness of using allogeneic bone graft for managing maxillofacial trauma. A case of a 30-year-old male with severely atrophic maxillary ridge as a consequence of complex craniofacial injury is presented here. Augmentation procedure in two stages was performed using allogeneic and autogenous bone grafts in different areas of the osseous defect. Four months after grafting, during the implants placement surgery, samples of both sectors were withdrawn and submitted to histological evaluation. On the examination of the specimens, treated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, the morphology of integrated allogeneic bone grafts was revealed to be similar to the autologous bone. Our clinical experience shows how the allogeneic bone graft presented normal bone tissue architecture and is highly vascularized, and it can be used for reconstruction of severe trauma of the maxilla.

  17. Histomorhological and clinical evaluation of maxillary alveolar ridge reconstruction after craniofacial trauma by applying combination of allogeneic and autogenous bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ponte, Francesco Saverio; Falzea, Roberto; Runci, Michele; Siniscalchi, Enrico Nastro; Lauritano, Floriana; Bramanti, Ennio; Cervino, Gabriele; Cicciu, Marco

    2017-02-01

    A variety of techniques and materials for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of traumatized maxillary ridges prior to dental implants placement have been described in literature. Autogenous bone grafting is considered ideal by many researchers and it still remains the most predictable and documented method. The aim of this report is to underline the effectiveness of using allogeneic bone graft for managing maxillofacial trauma. A case of a 30-year-old male with severely atrophic maxillary ridge as a consequence of complex craniofacial injury is presented here. Augmentation procedure in two stages was performed using allogeneic and autogenous bone grafts in different areas of the osseous defect. Four months after grafting, during the implants placement surgery, samples of both sectors were withdrawn and submitted to histological evaluation. On the examination of the specimens, treated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, the morphology of integrated allogeneic bone grafts was revealed to be similar to the autologous bone. Our clinical experience shows how the allogeneic bone graft presented normal bone tissue architecture and is highly vascularized, and it can be used for reconstruction of severe trauma of the maxilla. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Early lens ablation causes dramatic long-term effects on the shape of bones in the craniofacial skeleton of Astyanax mexicanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Dufton

    Full Text Available The Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, exists as two morphs of a single species, a sighted surface morph and a blind cavefish. In addition to eye regression, cavefish have an increased number of taste buds, maxillary teeth and have an altered craniofacial skeleton compared to the sighted morph. We investigated the effect the lens has on the development of the surrounding skeleton, by ablating the lens at different time points during ontogeny. This unique long-term study sheds light on how early embryonic manipulations on the eye can affect the shape of the adult skull more than a year later, and the developmental window during which time these effects occur. The effects of lens ablation were analyzed by whole-mount bone staining, immunohistochemisty and landmark based morphometric analyzes. Our results indicate that lens ablation has the greatest impact on the skeleton when it is ablated at one day post fertilisation (dpf compared to at four dpf. Morphometric analyzes indicate that there is a statistically significant difference in the shape of the supraorbital bone and suborbital bones four through six. These bones expand into the eye orbit exhibiting plasticity in their shape. Interestingly, the number of caudal teeth on the lower jaw is also affected by lens ablation. In contrast, the shape of the calvariae, the length of the mandible, and the number of mandibular taste buds are unaltered by lens removal. We demonstrate the plasticity of some craniofacial elements and the stability of others in the skull. Furthermore, this study highlights interactions present between sensory systems during early development and sheds light on the cavefish phenotype.

  19. Effects of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Vertical Bone Augmentation in a Canine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Ting; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; O'Valle, Francisco; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2017-09-01

    Vertical bone augmentation (VBA) remains unpredictable and challenging for most clinicians. This study aims to compare hard tissue outcomes of VBA, with and without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2, under space-making titanium mesh in a canine model. Eleven male beagle dogs were used in the study. Experimental ridge defects were created to form atrophic ridges. VBA was performed via guided bone regeneration using titanium mesh and allografts. In experimental hemimandibles, rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponge was well mixed with allografts prior to procedures, whereas a control buffer was applied within controls. Dogs were euthanized after a 4-month healing period. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed to assess ridge dimensional changes. In addition, specimens were used for microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) assessment and histologic analysis. Membrane exposure was found on five of 11 (45.5%) rhBMP-2-treated sites, whereas it was found on nine of 11 (81.8%) non-rhBMP-2-treated sites. Within 4 months of healing, rhBMP-2-treated sites showed better radiographic bone density, greater defect fill, and significantly more bone gain in ridge height (P 0.05). Under light microscope, predominant lamellar patterns were found in the specimen obtained from rhBMP-2 sites. With inherent limitations of the canine model and the concern of such a demanding surgical technique, current findings suggest that the presence of rhBMP-2 in a composite graft allows an increase of vertical gain, with formation of ectopic bone over the titanium mesh in comparison with non-rhBMP-2 sites.

  20. Biomaterials and biologics in craniofacial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrand, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Complications related to surgery, including infection, wound dehiscence, and implant protrusion, are costly and may cause severe morbidity to patients. The choice of implants materials is critical for a successful outcome, particularly in craniofacial reconstructions. This review discusses the potential benefits and drawbacks of biologically active materials used for craniofacial bone repair as alternatives to inert implant prostheses.

  1. Craniofacial morphology in Muenke syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Mette Kirstine; Hermann, Nuno V; Darvann, Tron A

    2007-01-01

    corresponding to bone was created for each individual. The sutures were inspected for synostosis, and the degree of synostosis was assessed. Increased digital markings were recorded for both groups. Craniofacial morphology was assessed quantitatively using bony landmarks and recording of the midsagittal surface...

  2. Methods to Analyze Bone Regenerative Response to Different rhBMP-2 Doses in Rabbit Craniofacial Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Ruggiero, S., Fantasia, J., Burakoff, R., Moorji, S.M., Paric, E., et al. Sonic hedgehog gene enhanced tissue engineering for bone regeneration. Gene Ther...discectomy and fusion: a case study. Spine J 7, 235, 2007. 8. Zara, J.N., Siu, R.K., Zhang, X., Shen, J., Ngo, R., Lee, M., et al. High doses of bone

  3. Mandible vertical height correction using lingual bone-split pedicle onlay graft technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Pramono D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As edentulous mandible become atrophic, a denture bearing area will also be reduced. Difficulty in the removable prosthesis rehabilitation will be present as well. The purpose of this paper reports an innovative surgical technique to cope a problem of unstable complete lower denture due to bone atrophy and resulted of vertical height reduction of the anterior region of the mandible necessary for denture retention. Vertical advancement of the lower jaw using lingual bone split pedicle onlay graft technique in the anterior region of the mandible and followed by secondary epithelization vestibuloplasty in achieving the vertical height dimension. The surgery was achieved satisfactorily as the vertical dimension of the mandible anterior region had increased and the denture seated more stable comparing with the previous denture worn by the patient. It concluded that the surgery was achieved with a great result as the vertical height of the anterior region of the mandible had increased positively therefore lead the denture seated more stable.

  4. Would Be Prophylactic Administrations of Low Concentration of Alendronate an Alternative for Improving the Craniofacial Bone Repair? A Preliminary Study Focused in the Period of Cellular Differentiation and Tissue Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhringer, Isabella; Muller, Carmem L Storrer; Cunha, Emanuelle Juliana; Passoni, Giuliene Nunes De Souza; Vieira, Juliana Souza; Zielak, João Cesar; Scariot, Rafaela; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda; Giovanini, Allan Fernando

    2017-10-01

    Alendronate (ALN) is a nitrogen-bisphosphonate that may induce an anabolic effect on craniofacial bone repair when administrated in low doses. Based on this premise, this study analyzed the influence of prophylactic low doses of ALN on bone healing in defects created in rabbit mandible. A 5 × 2-mm diameter deep defect was created in the calvaria of 28 rabbits. Fourteen of these rabbits received previously 50 μg/kg of 1% sodium ALN for 4 weeks, while the other rabbits received only 0.9% physiological saline solution (control). Animals were euthanized at 15 and 60 days postsurgery (n = 7), and the data were analyzed using histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry using the anti-CD34, bone morphogenetic protein -2 (BMP-2), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 antibodies. On the 15th day postsurgery, the specimens that received previous treatment with ALN demonstrated large vascular lumen and intense positivity to CD34 either concentrated in endothelium or cells spread among the reparative tissue. These results coincided with intense positivity for BMP-2+ cells and TGF-β1 that was concentrated in both cells and perivascular area. In contrast, the control group revealed scarce cells that exhibited CD34, BMP-2+, and the TGF-β1 was restricted for perivascular area on well-formed granulation tissue. These patterns of immunohistochemical result, especially found on the 15th day of analysis, seem to be responsible for the development of larger quantities of bone matrix in the specimens that receive ALN on the 60th day postsurgery. These preliminary results showed that the prophylactic administration of low doses of ALN might be an alternative to craniofacial bone craniofacial bone repair because it increases the immunopositivity for TGF-β1 and consequently improves the CD34+ and BMP-2+ cells on reparative sites.

  5. Craniofacial morphology in patients with hypophosphatemic rickets: a cephalometric study focusing on differences between bone of cartilaginous and intramembranous origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Kjaer, Inger; Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) are diseases characterized by deficient mineralization of bone due to abnormal renal wasting of phosphate. Deformation of bony structures of cartilaginous origin has been described as a major characteristic in patients with HR, but little is known about the impact...

  6. Top five craniofacial techniques for training in plastic surgery residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kenneth; Kawamoto, Henry K; McCarthy, Joseph G; Bartlett, Scott P; Matthews, David C; Wolfe, S Anthony; Tanna, Neil; Vu, Minh-Thien; Bradley, James P

    2012-03-01

    Despite increasing specialization of craniofacial surgery, certain craniofacial techniques are widely applicable. The authors identified five such craniofacial techniques and queried American Society of Plastic Surgeons members and plastic surgery program directors regarding their comfort level with the procedures and their opinion on resident training for these selected procedures. First, a select group of senior craniofacial surgeons discussed and agreed on the top five procedures. Second, active American Society of Plastic Surgeons were surveyed regarding their opinion on training and their comfort level with each procedure. Third, plastic surgery residency program directors were studied to see which of the top five procedures are taught as part of the plastic surgery residency curriculum. The top five widely applicable craniofacial procedures are technically described and include the following: (1) cranial or iliac bone graft for nasal reconstruction, (2) perialar rim bone graft, (3) lateral canthopexy, (4) osseous genioplasty, and (5) bone graft harvest for orbital floor defects. For practicing plastic surgeons, comfort level in all procedures increased with advancing years in practice (except those with 75 percent), especially those with craniofacial fellowship training, felt competent in all procedures except osseous genioplasty (53 percent). Plastic surgery program directors agreed that all top five procedures should be mastered by graduation. Although program directors felt that all five selected craniofacial procedures should be taught and mastered during residency training, plastic surgeons without craniofacial fellowship training were less comfortable with the techniques. Residency training goals should include competence in core craniofacial techniques.

  7. Long-term effects of vertical bone augmentation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Anton Jochum Keestra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Extraction, periodontitis, or trauma can cause a reduction on the alveolar ridge. This could result in an insufficient alveolar bone width and height. Different techniques of vertical bone augmentation are described in literature. However, nowadays there is not enough evidence against lateral augmentation procedures to verify if these techniques are stable over a long period of time. Objective This review analyses the different techniques that are used to vertically augment the bone and evaluate if these techniques are stable over a long period of time. Material and Methods The MEDLINE-PubMed database was searched from its earliest records until December 22, 2014. The following search term was used: Alveolar Ridge augmentation [MESH]. Several journals were hand searched and some authors were contacted for additional information. The primary outcome measure that was analyzed was marginal bone level change around dental implants in the augmented sites, and the secondary outcomes were survival and success rates of dental implants placed in the augmented sites. Results The search yielded 203 abstracts. Ultimately, 90 articles were selected, describing 51 studies meeting the eligibility criteria. The marginal bone level change for the inlay technique and vertical guided bone regeneration are in agreement with the success criteria. Alveolar distraction showed more marginal bone level change after the first year of loading, and for the inlay technique very few studies were available. Conclusions Based on the available data in the current existing studies with a follow-up period of at least 4 to 5 years, one can summarize that there seems to be a trend that the onlay technique, alveolar distraction, and vertical guided bone regeneration are stable for at least 4 to 5 years.

  8. Vertical ridge augmentation using xenogenous bone blocks: a comparison between the flap and tunneling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Feng; Lee, Chun-Ui; Son, Jeong-Seog; Fang, Yiqin; Jeong, Seung-Mi; Choi, Byung-Ho

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that the subperiosteal tunneling procedure in vertical ridge augmentation accelerates healing after grafting and prevents graft exposure, with minor postoperative complications. It is conceivable that new bone formation would be greater with the tunneling procedure than with the flap procedure, because the former is minimally invasive. This hypothesis was tested in this study by comparing new bone formation between the flap and tunneling procedures after vertical ridge augmentation using xenogenous bone blocks in a canine mandible model. Two Bio-Oss blocks were placed on the edentulous ridge in each side of the mandibles of 6 mongrel dogs. The blocks in each side were randomly assigned to grafting with a flap procedure (flap group) or grafting with a tunneling procedure (tunneling group). The mean percentage of newly formed bone within the block was 15.3 ± 6.6% in the flap group and 46.6 ± 23.4% in the tunneling group. Based on data presented in this study, when a tunneling procedure is used to place xenogenous bone blocks for vertical ridge augmentation, bone formation in the graft sites is significantly greater than when a flap procedure is used. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Craniofacial Reconstruction Evaluation by Geodesic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial reconstruction is to estimate an individual’s face model from its skull. It has a widespread application in forensic medicine, archeology, medical cosmetic surgery, and so forth. However, little attention is paid to the evaluation of craniofacial reconstruction. This paper proposes an objective method to evaluate globally and locally the reconstructed craniofacial faces based on the geodesic network. Firstly, the geodesic networks of the reconstructed craniofacial face and the original face are built, respectively, by geodesics and isogeodesics, whose intersections are network vertices. Then, the absolute value of the correlation coefficient of the features of all corresponding geodesic network vertices between two models is taken as the holistic similarity, where the weighted average of the shape index values in a neighborhood is defined as the feature of each network vertex. Moreover, the geodesic network vertices of each model are divided into six subareas, that is, forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and chin, and the local similarity is measured for each subarea. Experiments using 100 pairs of reconstructed craniofacial faces and their corresponding original faces show that the evaluation by our method is roughly consistent with the subjective evaluation derived from thirty-five persons in five groups.

  10. Conditioned media from differentiating craniofacial bone marrow stromal cells influence mineralization and proliferation in periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhenyu; Feng, Yuan; Liu, Hongwei

    2016-10-01

    Previous reports have mainly focused on the behavioral responses of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) in interaction with tibia bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). However, there is little study on the biologic features of hPDLSCs under the induction of maxilla BMSCs (M-BMSCs) at different phases of osteogenic differentiation. We hypothesized that M-BMSCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation acted on the proliferation, differentiation, and bone-forming capacity of hPDLSCs. In this paper, primary hPDLSCs and human M-BMSCs (hM-BMSCs) were expanded in vitro. After screening of surface markers for characterization, hPDLSCs were cocultured with different phases of differentiating hM-BMSCs. Cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity were examined, and mineralization-associated markers such as osteocalcin and runt-related transcription factor 2 of hPDLSCs in coculture with uninduced/osteoinduced hM-BMSCs were evaluated. hPDLSCs in hM-BMSCs-conditioned medium (hM-BMSCs-CM) group showed a reduction in proliferation compared with untreated hPDLSCs, while osteoinduced hM-BMSCs for 10 day-conditioned medium (hM-BMSCs-CM-10ds) and osteoinduced hM-BMSCs for 15 day-conditioned medium (hM-BMSCs-CM-15ds) enhance the proliferation of hPDLSCs. hM-BMSCs of separate differentiation stages temporarily inhibited osteogenesis of hPDLSCs in the early days. Upon extending time periods, uninduced/osteoinduced hM-BMSCs markedly enhanced osteogenesis of hPDLSCs to different degrees. The transplantation results showed hM-BMSCs-CM-15ds treatment promoted tissue regeneration to generate cementum/periodontal ligament-like structure characterized by hard-tissue formation. This research supported the notion that hM-BMSCs triggered osteogenesis of hPDLSCs suggesting important implications for periodontal engineering.

  11. CT Imaging of Craniofacial Fibrous Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin Unal Erzurumlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous dysplasia is a benign fibroosseous bone dysplasia that can involve single (monostotic or multiple (polyostotic bones. Monostotic form is more frequent in the jaws. It is termed as craniofacial fibrous dysplasia, when it involves, though rarely, adjacent craniofacial bones. A 16-year-old girl consulted for a painless swelling in the right posterior mandible for two years. Panoramic radiography revealed ground-glass ill-defined lesions in the three different regions of the maxilla and mandible. Axial CT scan (bone window showed multiple lesions involving skull base and facial bones. Despite lesions in the skull base, the patient had no abnormal neurological findings. The lesion was diagnosed as fibrous dysplasia based on radiological and histopathological examination. In this paper, CT findings and differential diagnosis of CFD are discussed. CT is a useful imaging technique for CFD cases.

  12. Bone strength estimates relative to vertical ground reaction force discriminates women runners with stress fracture history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Kristin L; McDermott, William; Hughes, Julie M; Baxter, Stephanie A; Stovitz, Steven D; Petit, Moira A

    2017-01-01

    To determine differences in bone geometry, estimates of bone strength, muscle size and bone strength relative to load, in women runners with and without a history of stress fracture. We recruited 32 competitive distance runners aged 18-35, with (SFX, n=16) or without (NSFX, n=16) a history of stress fracture for this case-control study. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, mg/mm 3 ), total (ToA) and cortical (CtA) bone areas (mm 2 ), and estimated compressive bone strength (bone strength index; BSI, mg/mm 4 ) at the distal tibia. ToA, CtA, cortical vBMD, and estimated strength (section modulus; Zp, mm 3 and strength strain index; SSIp, mm 3 ) were measured at six cortical sites along the tibia. Mean active peak vertical (pkZ) ground reaction forces (GRFs), assessed from a fatigue run on an instrumented treadmill, were used in conjunction with pQCT measurements to estimate bone strength relative to load (mm 2 /N∗kg -1 ) at all cortical sites. SSIp and Zp were 9-11% lower in the SFX group at mid-shaft of the tibia, while ToA and vBMD did not differ between groups at any measurement site. The SFX group had 11-17% lower bone strength relative to mean pkZ GRFs (phistory of stress fracture. Bone strength relative to load is also lower in this same region suggesting that strength deficits in the middle 1/3 of the tibia and altered gait biomechanics may predispose an individual to stress fracture. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Toward characterization of craniofacial biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedowski, Tomasz D; Whyne, Cari M; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2010-01-01

    Surgical reconstruction of craniofacial deformities has advanced significantly in recent years. However, unlike orthopedic surgery of the appendicular skeleton, the biomechanical characterization of the human craniofacial skeleton (CFS) has yet to be elucidated. Attempts to simplify facial skeletal structure into straightforward mechanical device analogies have been insufficient in delineating craniofacial biomechanics. Advanced computational engineering analysis methods offer the potential to accurately and completely define the internal mechanical environment of the CFS. This study developed a finite element (FE) model in the I-deas 10 FEM software package of a preserved cadaveric human CFS and compared the predictions of this model against in vitro strain measurement of simulated occlusal loading forces from a single masseter muscle. The FE model applied shell element modeling to capture the behavior of the thin cortical bone that may play an important role in stabilizing the facial structures against functional loads. In vitro testing included strain measurements at 12 locations for a total of 16 independent channels with less than 150 N of tensile force applied through the masseter muscle into the zygomatic arch origin at 4 different orientations, with 3 trials of 500 recorded data points for each loading orientation. Linear regression analysis yielded a moderate prediction (r = 0.57) between the model and experimentally measured strains. Exclusion of strain comparisons in regions that required greater modeling assumptions greatly improved the correlation (r = 0.70). Future validation studies will benefit from improved placement of strain gauges as guided by FE model predicted strain patterns.

  14. Craniofacial orthodontics and postgraduate orthodontic training in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The least clinical experience was recorded in pre-bone graft orthodontics (7.4%) and orthodontic preparation for orthognathic surgery (5.5%). Some of the challenges highlighted by the residents were low patients turn out for orthodontic care and the absence of multidisciplinary treatment for craniofacial patients in their ...

  15. Craniofacial Surgery Fellowship Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Agarwal, Divyansh; Taylor, Jesse A

    2016-06-01

    Applicants for craniofacial surgery fellowships utilize Internet-based resources like the San Francisco (SF) Match to manage applications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accessibility and content of craniofacial surgery fellowship websites (CSFWs). A list of available craniofacial surgery fellowships was compiled from directories of the American Society of Craniofacial Surgery (ACSFS) and SF Match. Accessibility of CSFWs was assessed via links from these directories and a Google search. Craniofacial surgery fellowship websites were evaluated on education and recruitment content and compared via program characteristics. Twenty-four of the 28 US-based craniofacial surgery fellowship programs had a CSFW (86%). The ACSFS and SF Match databases had limited CSFW accessibility, but a Google search revealed most CSFWs had the top search result (76%). In total, CSFWs provided an average of 39% of education and recruitment variables. While most programs provided fellowship program descriptions (96%), application links (96%), and faculty listings (83%), relatively few provided rotation schedules (13%), fellow selection process information (13%), or interview dates (8%). CSFW content did not vary by program location, faculty size, accreditation status, or institutional affiliations (P > 0.05). Craniofacial surgery fellowships often lack readily accessible websites from national program lists and have limited information for interested applicants. The consistent lack of online information across programs suggests future opportunities exist to improve these educational resources.

  16. Three-dimensional cranio-facial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi Muccelli, R.; Stagul, F.; Pozzi Muccelli, F.; Zuiani, C.; Smathers, R.

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography allows today to reconstruct three-dimensional (eD) images fram axial scans. The authors report their experience in cranio-facial pathology achived in two Departments of Radiology (University of Trieste, Italy and University of Standford, California). 3D images have been realized using two different softwares, one of which allows to reconstruct both soft tissue and bone structures. The application in maxillo-facial traumas, cranio-facial malformations and head tumours are disscussed. 3D images turned out to be very useful for the optimal visualization and for the spatial demostration of the lesion and have potential applications in cranio-facial surgery and radiotherapy

  17. Three-dimensional cranio-facial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi Muccelli, R; Stagul, F; Pozzi Muccelli, F; Zuiani, C; Smathers, R

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography allows today to reconstruct three-dimensional (eD) images fram axial scans. The authors report their experience in cranio-facial pathology achived in two Departments of Radiology (University of Trieste, Italy and University of Standford, California). 3D images have been realized using two different softwares, one of which allows to reconstruct both soft tissue and bone structures. The application in maxillo-facial traumas, cranio-facial malformations and head tumours are disscussed. 3D images turned out to be very useful for the optimal visualization and for the spatial demostration of the lesion and have potential applications in cranio-facial surgery and radiotherapy.

  18. Craniofacial CT findings of Gorham-Stout disease and generalized lymphatic anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki; Matsuo, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Ozeki, Michio; Fukao, Toshiyuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Gifu (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    The present study aimed to assess the craniofacial CT imaging features for differentiating between Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) and generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA). Seven patients with GSD and four patients with GLA were included in this study. All patients underwent CT examinations that encompassed the craniofacial bones. The presence, distribution, and type of craniofacial osteolysis were assessed. The clinical symptoms that were associated with craniofacial osteolysis were also reviewed. Craniofacial osteolysis including cranial osteolysis was seen in four of seven (57 %) patients with GSD and in three of four (75 %) patients with GLA. Facial osteolysis was seen in two (29 %) patients with GSD, but this was not observed in patients with GLA. Among patients with craniofacial osteolysis, those with GSD showed diffuse involvement, whereas those with GLA showed multifocal involvement. The craniofacial osteolysis of GSD could be classified into three patterns: medullary involvement, thinning bone, and disappearing bone. The clinical symptoms of craniofacial osteolysis were observed in all patients with GSD but were not present in patients with GLA. Craniofacial involvement was observed in both groups. The craniofacial osteolysis of GSD showed diffuse involvement with clinical symptoms, whereas that of GLA showed multifocal involvement without clinical symptoms. (orig.)

  19. Large Bone Vertical Augmentation Using a Three-Dimensional Printed TCP/HA Bone Graft: A Pilot Study in Dog Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Jean-Pierre; Wiskott, Anselm; Scherrer, Susanne; Durual, Stéphane

    2016-12-01

    Osteoflux is a three-dimensional printed calcium phosphate porous structure for oral bone augmentation. It is a mechanically stable scaffold with a well-defined interconnectivity and can be readily shaped to conform to the bone bed's morphology. An animal experiment is reported whose aim was to assess the performance and safety of the scaffold in promoting vertical growth of cortical bone in the mandible. Four three-dimensional blocks (10 mm length, 5 mm width, 5 mm height) were affixed to edentulous segments of the dog's mandible and covered by a collagen membrane. During bone bed preparation, particular attention was paid not to create defects 0.5 mm or more so that the real potential of the three-dimensional block in driving vertical bone growth can be assessed. Histomorphometric analyses were performed after 8 weeks. At 8 weeks, the three-dimensional blocks led to substantial vertical bone growth up to 4.5 mm from the bone bed. Between 0 and 1 mm in height, 44% of the surface was filled with new bone, at 1 to 3 mm it was 20% to 35%, 18% at 3 to 4, and ca. 6% beyond 4 mm. New bone was evenly distributed along in mesio-distal direction and formed a new crest contour in harmony with the natural mandibular shape. After two months of healing, the three-dimensional printed blocks conducted new bone growth above its natural bed, up to 4.5 mm in a canine mandibular model. Furthermore, the new bone was evenly distributed in height and density along the block. These results are very promising and need to be further evaluated by a complete powerful study using the same model. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Analysis of Occlusal Vertical Dimension and Mandibular Basal Bone Height in a Nigerian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde O. Akinbami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The actual basal bone height of the reconstructed mandible is relevant to achieve normal occlusal vertical dimension for the prosthesis fabricated. The purpose of the study was to determine the mean and baseline values of the occlusal vertical dimension and height of the mandibular basal bone in a Nigerian population. Method. Each participant was asked to bring the upper and lower teeth into contact, while the distance between the nasal sill and dimple on the lower lip was measured (OVD. The skin at lower border of the mandible was marked and the distance between this point and the landmark on the lower lip was measured, MBH. Result. 200 subjects were evaluated. Age range was 16–30 years, mean ± (SD, 21.6 ± (3.1 years. Males had mean ± (SD of 42.10 ± (5.34 mm for OVD and females 39.72 ± (5.25 mm; acceptable baseline range of OVD for any population will be 34–48 mm (3.4–4.8 cm. All the males had a mean ± (SD, 30.54 ± (6.13 mm for MBH, and all the females 29.63 ± (5.23 mm. Acceptable baseline range of MBH for any population will be 24–37 mm (2.4–3.7 cm. Conclusion. To reconstruct the mandible and still maintain the OVD, heights of bone grafts must not be less than 2 cm or greater than 4 cm.

  1. Anteverted internal auditory canal as an inner ear anomaly in patients with craniofacial microsomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux-Lebeau, Bénédicte; Saliba, Issam

    2014-09-01

    Craniofacial microsomia involves structure of the first and second branchial arches. A wide range of ear anomalies, affecting external, middle and inner ear, has been described in association with this condition. We report three cases of anteverted internal auditory canal in patients presenting craniofacial microsomia. This unique internal auditory canal orientation was found on high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bones. This internal auditory canal anomaly is yet unreported in craniofacial anomalies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Circulatory CNP Rescues Craniofacial Hypoplasia in Achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, S; Nakao, Kazumasa; Koyama, N; Isobe, Y; Ueda, Y; Kanai, Y; Kondo, E; Fujii, T; Miura, M; Yasoda, A; Nakao, Kazuwa; Bessho, K

    2017-12-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common genetic form of human dwarfism, characterized by midfacial hypoplasia resulting in occlusal abnormality and foramen magnum stenosis, leading to serious neurologic complications and hydrocephalus. Currently, surgery is the only way to manage jaw deformity, neurologic complications, and hydrocephalus in patients with achondroplasia. We previously showed that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a potent stimulator of endochondral bone growth of long bones and vertebrae and is also a potent stimulator in the craniofacial region, which is crucial for midfacial skeletogenesis. In this study, we analyzed craniofacial morphology in a mouse model of achondroplasia, in which fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is specifically activated in cartilage ( Fgfr3 ach mice), and investigated the mechanisms of jaw deformities caused by this mutation. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of CNP on the maxillofacial area in these animals. Fgfr3 ach mice exhibited midfacial hypoplasia, especially in the sagittal direction, caused by impaired endochondral ossification in craniofacial cartilage and by premature closure of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis, an important growth center in craniomaxillofacial skeletogenesis. We crossed Fgfr3 ach mice with transgenic mice in which CNP is expressed in the liver under the control of the human serum amyloid-P component promoter, resulting in elevated levels of circulatory CNP ( Fgfr3 ach /SAP-Nppc-Tg mice). In the progeny, midfacial hypoplasia in the sagittal direction observed in Fgfr3 ach mice was improved significantly by restoring the thickness of synchondrosis and promoting proliferation of chondrocytes in the craniofacial cartilage. In addition, the foramen magnum stenosis observed in Fgfr3 ach mice was significantly ameliorated in Fgfr3 ach /SAP-Nppc-Tg mice due to enhanced endochondral bone growth of the anterior intraoccipital synchondrosis. These results clearly demonstrate the therapeutic

  3. Damping ratio analysis of tooth stability under various simulated degrees of vertical alveolar bone loss and different root types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kuo-Ning; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Huang, Haw-Ming

    2017-08-03

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using damping ratio (DR) analysis combined with resonance frequency (RF) and periotest (PTV) analyses to provide additional information about natural tooth stability under various simulated degrees of alveolar vertical bone loss and various root types. Three experimental tooth models, including upper central incisor, upper first premolar, and upper first molar were fabricated using Ti6Al4V alloy. In the tooth models, the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone were simulated using a soft lining material and gypsum, respectively. Various degrees of vertical bone loss were simulated by decreasing the surrounding bone level apically from the cementoenamel junction in 2-mm steps incrementally downward for 10 mm. A commercially available RF analyzer was used to measure the RF and DR of impulse-forced vibrations on the tooth models. The results showed that DRs increased as alveolar vertical bone height decreased and had high coefficients of determination in the linear regression analysis. The damping ratio of the central incisor model without a simulated periodontal ligament were 11.95 ± 1.92 and 27.50 ± 0.67% respectively when their bone levels were set at 2 and 10 mm apically from the cementoenamel junction. These values significantly changed to 28.85 ± 2.54% (p = 0.000) and 51.25 ± 4.78% (p = 0.003) when the tooth model was covered with simulated periodontal ligament. Moreover, teeth with different root types showed different DR and RF patterns. Teeth with multiple roots had lower DRs than teeth with single roots. Damping ratio analysis combined with PTV and RF analysis provides more useful information on the assessment of changes in vertical alveolar bone loss than PTV or RF analysis alone.

  4. Postoperative infections in craniofacial reconstructive procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; Holy, C; Forrest, C R; Phillips, J H; Antonyshyn, O M

    2001-07-01

    The rate of, and possible risk factors for, postoperative craniofacial infection is unclear. To investigate this problem, we reviewed 349 cases of craniofacial skeletal procedures performed from 1996 to 1999 at our institution. Infection rate was determined and correlated with the use of implants, operative site, and cause of deformity. The inclusion criteria consisted of all procedures requiring autologous or prosthetic implantation in craniofacial skeletal sites, as well as all procedures involving bone or cartilage resection, osteotomies, debridement, reduction and/or fixation. Procedures that did not involve bone or cartilage surgery were excluded. The criteria for diagnosis of infection included clinical confirmation and one or more of 1) intravenous or oral antibiotic treatment outside of the prophylactic surgical regimen; 2) surgical intervention for drainage, irrigation, and or debridement; and 3) microbiological confirmation. Among the 280 surgical cases that fit the inclusion criteria and had complete records, there were 23 cases of postoperative infection (8.2%). The most common site for postoperative infection was the mandible (infection rate = 16.7%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed gunshot wound to be the most significant predictor of postoperative infection. Additionally, porous polyethylene implantation through a transoral route was correlated with a significant risk of postoperative infection.

  5. Nanomaterials for Craniofacial and Dental Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Zhou, T; Lin, S; Shi, S; Lin, Y

    2017-07-01

    Tissue engineering shows great potential as a future treatment for the craniofacial and dental defects caused by trauma, tumor, and other diseases. Due to the biomimetic features and excellent physiochemical properties, nanomaterials are of vital importance in promoting cell growth and stimulating tissue regeneration in tissue engineering. For craniofacial and dental tissue engineering, the frequently used nanomaterials include nanoparticles, nanofibers, nanotubes, and nanosheets. Nanofibers are attractive for cell invasion and proliferation because of their resemblance to extracellular matrix and the presence of large pores, and they have been used as scaffolds in bone, cartilage, and tooth regeneration. Nanotubes and nanoparticles improve the mechanical and chemical properties of scaffold, increase cell attachment and migration, and facilitate tissue regeneration. In addition, nanofibers and nanoparticles are also used as a delivery system to carry the bioactive agent in bone and tooth regeneration, have better control of the release speed of agent upon degradation of the matrix, and promote tissue regeneration. Although applications of nanomaterials in tissue engineering remain in their infancy with numerous challenges to face, the current results indicate that nanomaterials have massive potential in craniofacial and dental tissue engineering.

  6. Human Studies of Vertical and Horizontal Alveolar Ridge Augmentation Comparing Different Types of Bone Graft Materials: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Suraj; Levin, Liran

    2018-02-01

    Alveolar ridge augmentation can be completed with various types of bone augmentation materials (autogenous, allograft, xenograft, and alloplast). Currently, autogenous bone is labeled as the "gold standard" because of faster healing times and integration between native and foreign bone. No systematic review has currently determined whether there is a difference in implant success between various bone augmentation materials. The purpose of this article was to systematically review comparative human studies of vertical and horizontal alveolar ridge augmentation comparing different types of bone graft materials (autogenous, allograft, xenograft, and alloplast). A MEDLINE search was conducted under the 3 search concepts of bone augmentation, dental implants, and alveolar ridge augmentation. Studies pertaining to socket grafts or sinus lifts were excluded. Case reports, small case series, and review papers were excluded. A bias assessment tool was applied to the final articles. Overall, 219 articles resulted from the initial search, and 9 articles were included for final analysis. There were no discernible differences in implant success between bone augmentation materials. Generally, patients preferred nonautogenous bone sources as there were fewer hospital days, less pain, and better recovery time. Two articles had industrial support; however, conclusions of whether that support influenced the outcomes could not be determined. Future comparative studies should compare nonautogenous bone sources and have longer follow-up times.

  7. Restoration of a vertical alveolar bone defect by orthodontic relocation of a mesially impacted mandibular first molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Jin-Wook; Choi, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Kee-Joon

    2015-04-01

    An impacted mandibular first molar tends to cause serious bone defects of the adjacent teeth. When choosing between the 2 typical treatment options-extraction or orthodontic relocation of the impacted tooth-the decision should be based on assessment of the prognosis. A 22-year-old man with severe mesioangulation and impaction of the mandibular first molar and a related vertical bone defect on the distal side of the second premolar was treated with extraction of the second molar and orthodontic relocation of the first molar with a retromolar miniscrew. Comprehensive orthodontic treatment involving premolar extraction was conducted. Strategic extraction of the molar and adequate orthodontic movement helped to restore the bone structure on the affected side. This case report suggests the effectiveness of restoration of bone defects by using viable periodontal tissues around the impacted tooth for the longevity of the periodontium. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Craniofacial orthodontics and postgraduate orthodontic training in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiekwe, G I; Oguchi, C O; daCosta, O O; Utomi, I L

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial orthodontics has been shown to be a critical component of the care of patients with craniofacial anomalies such as cleft lip and palate. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions and clinical experience in cleft and craniofacial care, of orthodontic residents in Nigeria. Questionnaires were sent out to orthodontic residents in the six Postgraduate Orthodontic Training Centers in the country at that time. The questionnaires were self-administered and covered areas in beliefs in cleft care and the clinical experience and challenges faced by the residents in the provision of craniofacial orthodontic care at their various institutions. Thirty-three respondents returned completed questionnaires, with a response rate of 97%. All the respondents believed that residents should be involved in cleft and craniofacial care. Postnatal counseling was the clinical procedure in which the residents reported the highest level of clinical experience (47.4%). The least clinical experience was recorded in pre-bone graft orthodontics (7.4%) and orthodontic preparation for orthognathic surgery (5.5%). Some of the challenges highlighted by the residents were low patients turn out for orthodontic care and the absence of multidisciplinary treatment for craniofacial patients in their centers. Orthodontic residents in Nigeria believe that they should be involved in the management of patients with craniofacial anomalies and cleft lip and palate. However, majority of the residents have limited clinical experience in the management of these patients. A lot more needs to be done, to expose orthodontic residents in training, to all aspects of the orthodontic and multidisciplinary team care required for the cleft/craniofacial patient.

  9. Three-dimensional spiral CT of craniofacial malformations in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binaghi, S.; Gudinchet, F.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To assess the value of three-dimensional CT (3D CT) in the diagnosis and management of suspected paediatric craniofacial malformations. Materials and methods. Twenty-eight children (12 girls, 16 boys) with a mean age of 4 years, suffering from craniofacial or cervical malformations, underwent craniofacial spiral CT. 3D reformatting was performed using an independent workstation. Results. 3D CT allowed the preoperative evaluation of 16 patients with craniosynostosis and the post-surgical management of 2 patients. 3D CT clearly depicted malformations of the skull base involving the petrous bone in seven patients (four cases of Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome, one case of Treacher-Collins syndrome and two cases of Crouzon's disease). Four patients with craniofacial clefts were also evaluated. Radiological findings were confirmed by the clinical and intraoperative findings in all patients that underwent surgical treatment. Movement artefacts and ''Lego effect'' related to abrupt change of cranial vault border were encountered and are discussed. Conclusions. 3D CT of the skull can safely and reliably identify paediatric craniofacial malformations involving bone, and it should be used as morphological mapping to help the surgeon in planning surgical treatment. (orig.)

  10. Etiology and treatment in craniofacial fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail D. L.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Facial trauma remains an important pathology in present days because of its effects. Facial deformities and functional alteration affect patient’s life quality and his society reinsertion. First evaluation has to be thorough to avoid any secondary complications .This type of pathology involves a pluridisciplinary approach: ENT, OMF, neurosurgeon,plastic surgeon,intensive care doctor. Healing implies complex biological process .A healed bone is capable to perform normal duties without titanium plates help. Osteosynthesis allows a faster and correct recovery. Doctors need to possess profound knowledge with regard to anatomy and physiology and to be acquainted with the reconstructive methods used in craniofacial surgery. Material and methods. This study evaluates craniofacial trauma patients who suffered different types of surgical interventions at the ENT Clinic and OMF Department of Constanta County Hospital since January the 1st 2013 until June the 1st 2017. Results. The group involves 133 cases, both genders and all ages. These 2 elements play an important role in this pathology because of the fact that the vast majority of patients are young active males. The sex ratio in the study is 7:1. In most of cases, craniofacial traumas appear after aggressions and car accidents. The nose and mandibular are fractured in a higher percentage in comparison to other parts of facial structures. Discussions. Important and sensitive structures located at this level increase the risk of possible important and definitive damages.

  11. CRANIOFACIAL MORPHOLOGY AND DENTAL OCCLUSION IN ADULTS WITH OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Harsløf, Torben

    AIMS: To compare craniofacial characteristics and variation in dental occlusion according to severity of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). OI is a rare inherited disease with fragility of bone and teeth because of abnormalities in the formation of collagen. METHODS: A total of 73 patients...

  12. Craniofacial Pain: Brainstem Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J Sessle

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent research advances in animals that have identified critical neural elements in the brainstem receiving and transmitting craniofacial nociceptive inputs, as well as some of the mechanisms involved in the modulation and plasticity of nociceptive transmission. Nociceptive neurones in the trigeminal (V brainstem sensory nuclear complex can be classified as nociceptive-specific (NS or wide dynamic range (WDR. Some of these neurones respond exclusively to sensory inputs evoked by stimulation of facial skin or oral mucosa and have features suggesting that they are critical neural elements involved in the ability to localize an acute superficial pain and sense its intensity and duration. Many of the V brainstem nociceptive neurones, however, receive convergent inputs from afferents supplying deep craniofacial tissues (eg, dural vessel, muscle and skin or mucosa. These neurones are likely involved in deep pain, including headache, because few nociceptive neurones receive inputs exclusively from afferents supplying these tissues. These extensive convergent input patterns also appear to be important factors in pain spread and referral, and in central mechanisms underlying neuroplastic changes in V neuronal properties that may occur with injury and inflammation. For example, application of the small fibre excitant and inflammatory irritant mustard oil into the temporomandibular joint, masseter or tongue musculature induces a prolonged but reversible enhancement of responses to cutaneous and deep afferent inputs of most WDR and NS neurones. These effects may be accompanied by increased electromyographic activity reflexly induced in the masticatory muscles by mustard oil, and involve endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate and opioid neurochemical mechanisms. Such peripherally induced modulation of brainstem nociceptive neuronal properties reflects the functional plasticity of the central V system, and may be involved in the development of

  13. Dental approach to craniofacial syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger

    2012-01-01

    is essential for insight into craniofacial syndromes. The dentition, thus, becomes central in diagnostics and evaluation of the pathogenesis. Developmental fields can explore and advance the concept of dental approaches to craniofacial syndromes. Discussion. As deviations in teeth persist and do not reorganize...

  14. Cranio-facial clefts in pre-hispanic America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius-Nunez, A L; Wasiak, D T

    2015-10-01

    Among the representations of congenital malformations in Moche ceramic art, cranio-facial clefts have been portrayed in pottery found in Moche burials. These pottery vessels were used as domestic items during lifetime and funerary offerings upon death. The aim of this study was to examine archeological evidence for representations of cranio-facial cleft malformations in Moche vessels. Pottery depicting malformations of the midface in Moche collections in Lima-Peru were studied. The malformations portrayed on pottery were analyzed using the Tessier classification. Photographs were authorized by the Larco Museo.Three vessels were observed to have median cranio-facial dysraphia in association with midline cleft of the lower lip with cleft of the mandible. ML001489 portrays a median cranio-facial dysraphia with an orbital cleft and a midline cleft of the lower lip extending to the mandible. ML001514 represents a median facial dysraphia in association with an orbital facial cleft and a vertical orbital dystopia. ML001491 illustrates a median facial cleft with a soft tissue cleft. Three cases of midline, orbital and lateral facial clefts have been portrayed in Moche full-figure portrait vessels. They represent the earliest registries of congenital cranio-facial malformations in ancient Peru. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia - A review of current management techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadavalli Guruprasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous dysplasia is a pathologic condition of bone of unknown etiology with no apparent familial, hereditary or congenital basis. Lichtenstein first coined the term in 1938 and in 1942 he and Jaffe separated it from other fibro-osseous lesions. It is a bone tumor that, although benign, has the potential to cause significant cosmetic and functional disturbance, particularly in the craniofacial skeleton. Its management poses significant challenges to the surgeon. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is 1 of 3 types of fibrous dysplasia that can affect the bones of the craniofacial complex, including the mandible and maxilla. Fibrous dysplasia is a skeletal developmental disorder of the bone-forming mesenchyme that manifests as a defect in osteoblastic differentiation and maturation. It is a lesion of unknown etiology, uncertain pathogenesis, and diverse histopathology. Fibrous dysplasia represents about 2, 5% of all bone tumors and over 7% of all benign tumours. Over the years, we have gained a better understanding of its etiology, clinical behavior, and both surgical and non-surgical treatments.

  16. Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, I M; Furnas, D W; Amlie, R N

    1981-02-01

    No congenital malformation in infants is more profound than anterior craniofacial duplication. The precise term for this rare anomaly is diprosopus, referring to a fetus with a single trunk, normal limbs, and varying degrees of facial duplication. A search of the world literature produced only 16 cases of diprosopus since 1864. Despite the rarity of this anomaly, three such infants were born in the Southern California area during the past year, making this the largest reported series to date. The three infants were born with two distinctly formed faces. Each had four separate eyes, two mouths, two noses, and two ears with a primitive ear or sinus tract at the plane of fusion. In addition, multiple congenital aberrations existed which involved a variety of internal organs. The pathogenesis of diprosopus is not well understood, but environmental stress early in embryologic development has been suggested as a possible factor. The apparent mechanism is a slowing of pregastrulation oxidation with resultant focal developmental arrests.

  17. Age-related changes of vertical and horizontal lumbar vertebral trabecular 3D bone microstructure is different in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Niklassen, Andreas Steenholt; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Brüel, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    The study presents a 3D method for subdividing a trabecular network into horizontal and vertical oriented bone. This method was used to investigate the age related changes of the bone volume fraction and thickness of horizontal and vertical trabeculae in human lumbar vertebral bone estimated with unbiased 3D methods in women and men over a large age-range. The study comprised second lumbar vertebral body bone samples from 40 women (aged 21.7-96.4years, median 56.6years) and 39 men (aged 22.6-94.6years, median 55.6years). The bone samples were μCT scanned and the 3D microstructure was quantified. A voxel based algorithm inspecting the local neighborhood is presented and used to segment the trabecular network into horizontal and vertical oriented bone. For both women and men BV/TV decreased significantly with age, Tb.Th* was independent of age, while SMI increased significantly with age. Vertical (BV.vert/TV) and horizontal (BV.horz/TV) bone volume fraction decreased significantly with age for both sexes. BV.vert/TV decreased significantly faster with age for women than for men. Vertical (Tb.Th*.vert) and horizontal (Tb.Th*.horz) trabecular thickness were independent of age, while Tb.Th*.horz/Tb.Th*.vert decreased significantly with age for both sexes. Additionally, the 95th percentile of the trabecular thickness distribution increased significantly with age for vertical trabeculae in women, whereas it was independent of age in men. In conclusion, we have shown that vertical and horizontal oriented bone density decreases with age in both women and men, and that vertical oriented bone is lost more quickly in women than in men. Furthermore, vertical and horizontal trabecular thickness were independent of age, whereas the horizontal to vertical trabecular thickness ratio decreased significantly with age indicating a relatively more pronounced thinning of horizontal trabeculae. Finally, the age-related loss of trabecular elements appeared to result in a compensatory

  18. Craniofacial ontogeny in Centrosaurus apertus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Frederickson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Centrosaurus apertus, a large bodied ceratopsid from the Late Cretaceous of North America, is one of the most common fossils recovered from the Belly River Group. This fossil record shows a wide diversity in morphology and size, with specimens ranging from putative juveniles to fully-grown individuals. The goal of this study was to reconstruct the ontogenetic changes that occur in the craniofacial skeleton of C. apertus through a quantitative cladistic analysis. Forty-seven cranial specimens were independently coded in separate data matrices for 80 hypothetical multistate growth characters and 130 hypothetical binary growth characters. Both analyses yielded the max-limit of 100,000 most parsimonious saved trees and the strict consensus collapsed into large polytomies. In order to reduce conflict resulting from missing data, fragmentary individuals were removed and the analyses were rerun. Among both the complete and the reduced data sets the multistate analyses recovered a shorter tree with a higher consistency index (CI than the additive binary data sets. The arrangement within the trees shows a progression of specimens with a recurved nasal horn in the least mature individuals, followed by specimens with straight nasal horns in relatively more mature individuals, and finally specimens with procurved nasal horns in the most mature individuals. The most mature individuals are further characterized by the reduction of the cranial horn ornamentations in late growth stages, a trait that similarly occurs in the growth of other dinosaurs. Bone textural changes were found to be sufficient proxies for relative maturity in individuals that have not reached adult size. Additionally, frill length is congruent with relative maturity status and makes an acceptable proxy for ontogenetic status, especially in smaller individuals. In adult-sized individuals, the fusion of the epiparietals and episquamosals and the orientation of the nasal horn are the best

  19. Ultralow-dose CT of the craniofacial bone for navigated surgery using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction: 2D and 3D image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Schullian, Peter; Gassner, Eva-Maria; Hoermann, Romed; Bale, Reto; Puelacher, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to evaluate 2D and 3D image quality of high-resolution ultralow-dose CT images of the craniofacial bone for navigated surgery using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in comparison with standard filtered backprojection (FBP). MATERIALS AND METHODS. A formalin-fixed human cadaver head was scanned using a clinical reference protocol at a CT dose index volume of 30.48 mGy and a series of five ultralow-dose protocols at 3.48, 2.19, 0.82, 0.44, and 0.22 mGy using FBP and ASIR at 50% (ASIR-50), ASIR at 100% (ASIR-100), and MBIR. Blinded 2D axial and 3D volume-rendered images were compared with each other by three readers using top-down scoring. Scores were analyzed per protocol or dose and reconstruction. All images were compared with the FBP reference at 30.48 mGy. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used. Statistical significance was set at p ASIR-100 at 3.48 mGy, ASIR-100 at 2.19 mGy, and MBIR at 0.82 mGy. MBIR at 2.19 and 3.48 mGy scored statistically significantly better than the FBP reference (p = 0.032 and 0.001, respectively). For 3D images, the FBP reference at 30.48 mGy did not statistically significantly differ from all reconstructions at 3.48 mGy; FBP and ASIR-100 at 2.19 mGy; FBP, ASIR-100, and MBIR at 0.82 mGy; MBIR at 0.44 mGy; and MBIR at 0.22 mGy. CONCLUSION. MBIR (2D and 3D) and ASIR-100 (2D) may significantly improve subjective image quality of ultralow-dose images and may allow more than 90% dose reductions.

  20. ADAM10 is essential for cranial neural crest-derived maxillofacial bone development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yu, E-mail: tanyu2048@163.com; Fu, Runqing, E-mail: furunqing@sjtu.edu.cn; Liu, Jiaqiang, E-mail: liujqmj@163.com; Wu, Yong, E-mail: wyonger@gmail.com; Wang, Bo, E-mail: wb228@126.com; Jiang, Ning, E-mail: 179639060@qq.com; Nie, Ping, E-mail: nieping1011@sina.com; Cao, Haifeng, E-mail: 0412chf@163.com; Yang, Zhi, E-mail: wcums1981@163.com; Fang, Bing, E-mail: fangbing@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-07-08

    Growth disorders of the craniofacial bones may lead to craniofacial deformities. The majority of maxillofacial bones are derived from cranial neural crest cells via intramembranous bone formation. Any interruption of the craniofacial skeleton development process might lead to craniofacial malformation. A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)10 plays an essential role in organ development and tissue integrity in different organs. However, little is known about its function in craniofacial bone formation. Therefore, we investigated the role of ADAM10 in the developing craniofacial skeleton, particularly during typical mandibular bone development. First, we showed that ADAM10 was expressed in a specific area of the craniofacial bone and that the expression pattern dynamically changed during normal mouse craniofacial development. Then, we crossed wnt1-cre transgenic mice with adam10-flox mice to generate ADAM10 conditional knockout mice. The stereomicroscopic, radiographic, and von Kossa staining results showed that conditional knockout of ADAM10 in cranial neural crest cells led to embryonic death, craniofacial dysmorphia and bone defects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that impaired mineralization could be triggered by decreased osteoblast differentiation, increased cell death. Overall, these findings show that ADAM10 plays an essential role in craniofacial bone development. -- Highlights: •We firstly reported that ADAM10 was essentially involved in maxillofacial bone development. •ADAM10 cKO mice present craniofacial dysmorphia and bone defects. •Impaired osteoblast differentiation,proliferation and apoptosis underlie the bone deformity.

  1. ADAM10 is essential for cranial neural crest-derived maxillofacial bone development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yu; Fu, Runqing; Liu, Jiaqiang; Wu, Yong; Wang, Bo; Jiang, Ning; Nie, Ping; Cao, Haifeng; Yang, Zhi; Fang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Growth disorders of the craniofacial bones may lead to craniofacial deformities. The majority of maxillofacial bones are derived from cranial neural crest cells via intramembranous bone formation. Any interruption of the craniofacial skeleton development process might lead to craniofacial malformation. A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)10 plays an essential role in organ development and tissue integrity in different organs. However, little is known about its function in craniofacial bone formation. Therefore, we investigated the role of ADAM10 in the developing craniofacial skeleton, particularly during typical mandibular bone development. First, we showed that ADAM10 was expressed in a specific area of the craniofacial bone and that the expression pattern dynamically changed during normal mouse craniofacial development. Then, we crossed wnt1-cre transgenic mice with adam10-flox mice to generate ADAM10 conditional knockout mice. The stereomicroscopic, radiographic, and von Kossa staining results showed that conditional knockout of ADAM10 in cranial neural crest cells led to embryonic death, craniofacial dysmorphia and bone defects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that impaired mineralization could be triggered by decreased osteoblast differentiation, increased cell death. Overall, these findings show that ADAM10 plays an essential role in craniofacial bone development. -- Highlights: •We firstly reported that ADAM10 was essentially involved in maxillofacial bone development. •ADAM10 cKO mice present craniofacial dysmorphia and bone defects. •Impaired osteoblast differentiation,proliferation and apoptosis underlie the bone deformity.

  2. Craniofacial Reconstruction Evaluation by Geodesic Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Junli; Liu, Cuiting; Wu, Zhongke; Duan, Fuqing; Wang, Kang; Jia, Taorui; Liu, Quansheng

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial reconstruction is to estimate an individual’s face model from its skull. It has a widespread application in forensic medicine, archeology, medical cosmetic surgery, and so forth. However, little attention is paid to the evaluation of craniofacial reconstruction. This paper proposes an objective method to evaluate globally and locally the reconstructed craniofacial faces based on the geodesic network. Firstly, the geodesic networks of the reconstructed craniofacial face and the or...

  3. Pediatric considerations in craniofacial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Bernadette L

    2014-08-01

    In many respects, craniofacial trauma in children is akin to that in adults. The appearance of fractures and associated injuries is frequently similar. However, the frequencies of different types of fractures and patterns of injury in younger children vary depending on the age of the child. In addition, there are unique aspects that must be considered when imaging the posttraumatic pediatric face. Some of these are based on normal growth and development of the skull base and craniofacial structures, and others on the varying etiologies and mechanisms of craniofacial injury in children, such as injuries related to toppled furniture, nonaccidental trauma, all-terrain vehicle accidents, and impalement injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Craniofacial duplication: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Pradeep; Deshpande, Mandar; Verma, Nitin; Mahendrakar, Vivek; Mahendrakar, Sandhya

    2013-09-01

    A craniofacial duplication or diprosopus is an unusual variant of conjoined twinning. The reported incidence is one in 180,000-15 million births and 35 cases have been reported till date. The phenotype is wide, with the partial duplication of a few facial structures to complete dicephalus. A complete duplication is associated with a high incidence of anomalies in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system and the respiratory system, whereas no major anomalies are found in the infants with a partial duplication. A term baby with the features of a craniofacial duplication has been described, with the proposed theories on embryogenesis and a brief review of the literature.

  5. Magnesium Alloys as a Biomaterial for Degradable Craniofacial Screws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sarah E.; Verdelis, Konstantinos; Maiti, Spandan; Pal, Siladitya; Chung, William L.; Chou, Da-Tren; Kumta, Prashant N.; Almarza, Alejandro J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, magnesium (Mg) alloys have received significant attention as a potential biomaterial for degradable implants, and this study was directed at evaluating the suitability of Mg for craniofacial bone screws. The objective was to implant screws fabricated from commercially available Mg-alloys (pure Mg and AZ31) in-vivo in a rabbit mandible. First, Mg-alloy screws were compared to stainless steel screws in an in-vitro pull-out test and determined to have a similar holding strength (~40N). A finite element model of the screw was created using the pull-out test data, and the model can be used for future Mg-alloy screw design. Then, Mg-alloy screws were implanted for 4, 8, and 12 weeks, with two controls of an osteotomy site (hole) with no implant and a stainless steel screw implanted for 12 weeks. MicroCT (computed tomography) was used to assess bone remodeling and Mg-alloy degradation, both visually and qualitatively through volume fraction measurements for all time points. Histologic analysis was also completed for the Mg-alloys at 12 weeks. The results showed that craniofacial bone remodeling occurred around both Mg-alloy screw types. Pure Mg had a different degradation profile than AZ31, however bone growth occurred around both screw types. The degradation rate of both Mg-alloy screw types in the bone marrow space and the muscle were faster than in the cortical bone space at 12 weeks. Furthermore, it was shown that by alloying Mg, the degradation profile could be changed. These results indicate the promise of using Mg-alloys for craniofacial applications. PMID:24384125

  6. Removal of symptomatic craniofacial titanium hardware following craniotomy: Case series and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri K. Palejwala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium craniofacial hardware has become commonplace for reconstruction and bone flap fixation following craniotomy. Complications of titanium hardware include palpability, visibility, infection, exposure, pain, and hardware malfunction, which can necessitate hardware removal. We describe three patients who underwent craniofacial reconstruction following craniotomies for trauma with post-operative courses complicated by medically intractable facial pain. All three patients subsequently underwent removal of the symptomatic craniofacial titanium hardware and experienced rapid resolution of their painful parasthesias. Symptomatic plates were found in the region of the frontozygomatic suture or MacCarty keyhole, or in close proximity with the supraorbital nerve. Titanium plates, though relatively safe and low profile, can cause local nerve irritation or neuropathy. Surgeons should be cognizant of the potential complications of titanium craniofacial hardware and locations that are at higher risk for becoming symptomatic necessitating a second surgery for removal.

  7. Vertical bone measurements from cone beam computed tomography images using different software packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Taruska Ventorini; Neves, Frederico Sampaio; Moraes, Livia Almeida Bueno; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz, E-mail: tataventorini@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia

    2015-03-01

    This article aimed at comparing the accuracy of linear measurement tools of different commercial software packages. Eight fully edentulous dry mandibles were selected for this study. Incisor, canine, premolar, first molar and second molar regions were selected. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained with i-CAT Next Generation. Linear bone measurements were performed by one observer on the cross-sectional images using three different software packages: XoranCat®, OnDemand3D® and KDIS3D®, all able to assess DICOM images. In addition, 25% of the sample was reevaluated for the purpose of reproducibility. The mandibles were sectioned to obtain the gold standard for each region. Intraclass coefficients (ICC) were calculated to examine the agreement between the two periods of evaluation; the one-way analysis of variance performed with the post-hoc Dunnett test was used to compare each of the software-derived measurements with the gold standard. The ICC values were excellent for all software packages. The least difference between the software-derived measurements and the gold standard was obtained with the OnDemand3D and KDIS3D (‑0.11 and ‑0.14 mm, respectively), and the greatest, with the XoranCAT (+0.25 mm). However, there was no statistical significant difference between the measurements obtained with the different software packages and the gold standard (p > 0.05). In conclusion, linear bone measurements were not influenced by the software package used to reconstruct the image from CBCT DICOM data. (author)

  8. Vertical bone measurements from cone beam computed tomography images using different software packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Taruska Ventorini; Neves, Frederico Sampaio; Moraes, Livia Almeida Bueno; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    This article aimed at comparing the accuracy of linear measurement tools of different commercial software packages. Eight fully edentulous dry mandibles were selected for this study. Incisor, canine, premolar, first molar and second molar regions were selected. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained with i-CAT Next Generation. Linear bone measurements were performed by one observer on the cross-sectional images using three different software packages: XoranCat®, OnDemand3D® and KDIS3D®, all able to assess DICOM images. In addition, 25% of the sample was reevaluated for the purpose of reproducibility. The mandibles were sectioned to obtain the gold standard for each region. Intraclass coefficients (ICC) were calculated to examine the agreement between the two periods of evaluation; the one-way analysis of variance performed with the post-hoc Dunnett test was used to compare each of the software-derived measurements with the gold standard. The ICC values were excellent for all software packages. The least difference between the software-derived measurements and the gold standard was obtained with the OnDemand3D and KDIS3D (‑0.11 and ‑0.14 mm, respectively), and the greatest, with the XoranCAT (+0.25 mm). However, there was no statistical significant difference between the measurements obtained with the different software packages and the gold standard (p > 0.05). In conclusion, linear bone measurements were not influenced by the software package used to reconstruct the image from CBCT DICOM data. (author)

  9. An unusual complication after craniofacial surgery for Apert syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay A Lune

    2014-01-01

    A case of Apert syndrome who had undergone craniofacial surgery elsewhere 4 years back presented to us with purulent discharge near the lateral orbital margin of right orbit, watering and redness of the right eye. He had telltale signs of this syndrome in the form of skull deformities such as brachycephaly, frontal bony prominence, mid-face hypoplasia, proptosis and syndactyly of both hands and feet. There was a surgical scar of previous craniofacial surgery over the bi-coronal region. He had a discharging granuloma over the lateral orbital margin and the adjacent lower eyelid had developed cicatricial ectropion. X-ray and computed tomography scan orbit confirmed the clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis of the underlying zygomatic bone at the site of miniplate and screw fixation of the earlier surgery. He was treated with excision of granuloma and extraction of loose screw and infected miniplate while ectropion was corrected by rotation advancement of temporal skin flap.

  10. Craniofacial and pharyngeal airway morphology in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balos Tuncer, Burcu; Canigur Bavbek, Nehir; Ozkan, Cigdem; Tuncer, Cumhur; Eroglu Altinova, Alev; Gungor, Kahraman; Akturk, Mujde; Balos Toruner, Fusun

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in craniofacial characteristics, upper spine and pharyngeal airway morphology in patients with acromegaly compared with healthy individuals. Twenty-one patients with acromegaly were compared with 22 controls by linear and angular measurements on cephalograms. The differences between the mean values of cephalometric parameters were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U-test. With respect to controls, anterior (pacromegaly. Craniofacial changes were predominantly found in the frontal bone (pacromegaly exhibited diminished dimensions at nasal (pacromegaly. Current results point to the importance of the reduced airway dimensions and that dentists and/or orthodontists should be aware of the cranial or dental abnormalities in patients with acromegaly.

  11. Customized Polymethyl Methacrylate Implants for the Reconstruction of Craniofacial Osseous Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Fernandes da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial defects represent alterations in the anatomy and morphology of the cranial vault and the facial bones that potentially affect an individual’s psychological and social well-being. Although a variety of techniques and restorative procedures have been described for the reconstruction of the affected area, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, a biocompatible and nondegradable acrylic resin-based implant, is the most widely used alloplastic material for such craniomaxillofacial reconstruction. The aim of this study was to describe a technique for aesthetic and functional preoperative customized reconstruction of craniofacial bone defects from a small series of patients offered by the Brazilian public health system. Three adult male patients attended consultation with chief complaints directly related to their individual craniofacial bone defects. With the aid of multislice computed tomography scans and subsequent fabrication of the three-dimensional craniofacial prototype, custom-made PMMA implants were fabricated preoperatively. Under general anesthesia, with access to the craniofacial defects with a coronal approach, the PMMA implants were adapted and fixated to the facial skeleton with titanium plates and screws. Postoperative evaluation demonstrated uneventful recovery and an excellent aesthetic result. Customized prefabricated PMMA implants manufactured over the rapid prototyping models proved to be effective and feasible.

  12. Medium-Term Function of a 3D Printed TCP/HA Structure as a New Osteoconductive Scaffold for Vertical Bone Augmentation: A Simulation by BMP-2 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Moussa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A 3D-printed construct made of orthogonally layered strands of tricalcium phosphate (TCP and hydroxyapatite has recently become available. The material provides excellent osteoconductivity. We simulated a medium-term experiment in a sheep calvarial model by priming the blocks with BMP-2. Vertical bone growth/maturation and material resorption were evaluated. Materials and methods: Titanium hemispherical caps were filled with either bare- or BMP-2 primed constructs and placed onto the calvaria of adult sheep (n = 8. Histomorphometry was performed after 8 and 16 weeks. Results: After 8 weeks, relative to bare constructs, BMP-2 stimulation led to a two-fold increase in bone volume (Bare: 22% ± 2.1%; BMP-2 primed: 50% ± 3% and a 3-fold decrease in substitute volume (Bare: 47% ± 5%; BMP-2 primed: 18% ± 2%. These rates were still observed at 16 weeks. The new bone grew and matured to a haversian-like structure while the substitute material resorbed via cell- and chemical-mediation. Conclusion: By priming the 3D construct with BMP-2, bone metabolism was physiologically accelerated, that is, enhancing vertical bone growth and maturation as well as material bioresorption. The scaffolding function of the block was maintained, leaving time for the bone to grow and mature to a haversian-like structure. In parallel, the material resorbed via cell-mediated and chemical processes. These promising results must be confirmed in clinical tests.

  13. Midline Craniofacial Masses in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wyhe, Renae D.; Chamata, Edward S.; Hollier, Larry H.

    2016-01-01

    Nasal dermoids, encephaloceles, and gliomas are rare congenital lesions that result from improper embryologic development. The differentiation between them and a firm understanding of their pathology is necessary to avoid unnecessary complications. In view of their potential intracranial connection, prompt diagnosis and treatment are paramount. The authors review the embryology, diagnoses, radiologic work-up, surgical management, and complications of these midline craniofacial masses in child...

  14. Role of disc area and trabecular bone density on lumbar spinal column fracture risk curves under vertical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Moore, Jason; Pintar, Frank A; Banerjee, Anjishnu; DeVogel, Nicholas; Zhang, JiangYue

    2018-04-27

    While studies have been conducted using human cadaver lumbar spines to understand injury biomechanics in terms of stability/energy to fracture, and physiological responses under pure-moment/follower loads, data are sparse for inferior-to-superior impacts. Injuries occur under this mode from underbody blasts. determine role of age, disc area, and trabecular bone density on tolerances/risk curves under vertical loading from a controlled group of specimens. T12-S1 columns were obtained, pretest X-rays and CTs taken, load cells attached to both ends, impacts applied at S1-end using custom vertical accelerator device, and posttest X-ray, CT, and dissections done. BMD of L2-L4 vertebrae were obtained from QCT. Survival analysis-based Human Injury Probability Curves (HIPCs) were derived using proximal and distal forces. Age, area, and BMD were covariates. Forces were considered uncensored, representing the load carrying capacity. The Akaike Information Criterion was used to determine optimal distributions. The mean forces, ±95% confidence intervals, and Normalized Confidence Interval Size (NCIS) were computed. The Lognormal distribution was the optimal function for both forces. Age, area, and BMD were not significant (p > 0.05) covariates for distal forces, while only BMD was significant for proximal forces. The NCIS was the lowest for force-BMD covariate HIPC. The HIPCs for both genders at 35 and 45 years were based on population BMDs. These HIPCs serve as human tolerance criteria for automotive, military, and other applications. In this controlled group of samples, BMD is a better predictor-covariate that characterizes lumbar column injury under inferior-to-superior impacts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Partial craniofacial duplication: a review of the literature and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Melinda A; Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Lara-Sanchez, Pedro A; Schweitzer, Daniela; Jacobson, Lia; Clarke, Noreen; Hammoudeh, Jeffery; Urata, Mark M; Magee, William P

    2014-06-01

    Diprosopus (Greek; di-, "two" + prosopon, "face"), or craniofacial duplication, is a rare craniofacial anomaly referring to the complete duplication of facial structures. Partial craniofacial duplication describes a broad spectrum of congenital anomalies, including duplications of the oral cavity. This paper describes a 15 month-old female with a duplicated oral cavity, mandible, and maxilla. A Tessier type 7 cleft, midline meningocele, and duplicated hypophysis were also present. The preoperative evaluation, surgical approach, postoperative results, and a review of the literature are presented. The surgical approach was designed to preserve facial nerve innervation to the reconstructed cheek and mouth. The duplicated mandible and maxilla were excised and the remaining left maxilla was bone grafted. Soft tissue repair included closure of the Tessier type VII cleft. Craniofacial duplication remains a rare entity that is more common in females. The pathophysiology remains incompletely characterized, but is postulated to be due to duplication of the notochord, as well as duplication of mandibular growth centres. While diprosopus is a severe deformity often associated with anencephaly, patients with partial duplication typically benefit from surgical treatment. Managing craniofacial duplication requires a detailed preoperative evaluation as well as a comprehensive, staged treatment plan. Long-term follow up is needed appropriately to address ongoing craniofacial deformity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Large Bone Vertical Augmentation Using a Three-Dimensional Printed TCP/HA Bone Graft: A Pilot Study in Dog Mandible

    OpenAIRE

    Carrel, Jean-Pierre; Wiskott, Anselm; Scherrer, Susanne; Durual, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Osteoflux is a three-dimensional printed calcium phosphate porous structure for oral bone augmentation. It is a mechanically stable scaffold with a well-defined interconnectivity and can be readily shaped to conform to the bone bed's morphology

  17. July/August 2009 25 Pattern of Bone Tumours Seen at Addis A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    cancer morbidity and mortality, especially among young people. To measure the strength .... bones of the limbs and spine, clavicle, cranio-facial bones, pelvic bones, ribs, scapula, spine, and sternum. .... 45. 24.39. 21.95. Pathological Fracture.

  18. Craniofacial imaging informatics and technology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, M W

    2003-01-01

    'Craniofacial imaging informatics' refers to image and related scientific data from the dentomaxillofacial complex, and application of 'informatics techniques' (derived from disciplines such as applied mathematics, computer science and statistics) to understand and organize the information associated with the data. Major trends in information technology determine the progress made in craniofacial imaging and informatics. These trends include industry consolidation, disruptive technologies, Moore's law, electronic atlases and on-line databases. Each of these trends is explained and documented, relative to their influence on craniofacial imaging. Craniofacial imaging is influenced by major trends that affect all medical imaging and related informatics applications. The introduction of cone beam craniofacial computed tomography scanners is an example of a disruptive technology entering the field. An important opportunity lies in the integration of biologic knowledge repositories with craniofacial images. The progress of craniofacial imaging will continue subject to limitations imposed by the underlying technologies, especially imaging informatics. Disruptive technologies will play a major role in the evolution of this field.

  19. Craniofacial morphology and sleep apnea in children with obstructed upper airways: differences between genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Renata; Monteiro, Roberta; Paulo, Maria Luiza de Melo; Buranello, Fernando; Imamura, Rui

    2012-06-01

    To correlate sleep apnea with craniofacial characteristics and facial patterns according to gender. In this prospective survey we studied 77 male and female children (3-12 years old) with an upper airway obstruction due to tonsil and adenoid enlargement. Children with lung problems, neurological disorders and syndromes, obstructive septal deviation, previous orthodontic treatment, orthodontic surgeries or oral surgeries, or obesity were excluded. Patients were subjected to physical examinations, nasal fiberoptic endoscopy, teleradiography for cephalometric analysis, and polysomnography. Cephalometric analysis included the following skeletal craniofacial measurements: facial axis (FA), facial depth (FD), mandibular plane angle (MP), lower facial height (LFH), mandibular arch (MA), and vertical growth coefficient (VERT) index. The prevalence of sleep apnea was 46.75% with no statistical difference between genders. Among children with obstructive sleep apnea (Apneia Hypopnea Index - AHI ≥ 1) boys had higher AHI values than girls. A predominance of the dolichofacial pattern (81.9%) was observed. The following skeletal craniofacial measurements correlated with AHI in boys: FD (r(s)=-0.336/p=0.020), MP (r(s)=0.486/p=0.00), and VERT index (r(s)=-0.337/p=0.019). No correlations between craniofacial measurements and AHI were identified in girls. Craniofacial morphology may influence the severity of sleep apnea in boys but not in girls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Msx homeobox gene family and craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alappat, Sylvia; Zhang, Zun Yi; Chen, Yi Ping

    2003-12-01

    Vertebrate Msx genes are unlinked, homeobox-containing genes that bear homology to the Drosophila muscle segment homeobox gene. These genes are expressed at multiple sites of tissue-tissue interactions during vertebrate embryonic development. Inductive interactions mediated by the Msx genes are essential for normal craniofacial, limb and ectodermal organ morphogenesis, and are also essential to survival in mice, as manifested by the phenotypic abnormalities shown in knockout mice and in humans. This review summarizes studies on the expression, regulation, and functional analysis of Msx genes that bear relevance to craniofacial development in humans and mice. Key words: Msx genes, craniofacial, tooth, cleft palate, suture, development, transcription factor, signaling molecule.

  1. More are awaiting for craniofacial intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xindong

    2006-01-01

    The scale of craniofacial intervention lies between the fields of neuro-intervention and peripheral interventional for the main purpose to investigate, diagnose and treat the disease entities originating from or supplied by the external carotid arterial system. Patients are usually refered to the oral and maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery and otolaryngeal surgery. Craniofacial intervention includes mainly the diagnosis and treatment with adjuvant embolization of high-flow vascular diseases, intra-arterial chemotherapy of malignant tumors, embolization of epistaxis, etc. At present, there is no consensus with regard to the diagnosis and treatment of some craniofacial diseases, therefore further investigation and discussion are needed. (authors)

  2. Core issues in craniofacial myogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Branchiomeric craniofacial muscles control feeding, breathing and facial expression. These muscles differ on multiple counts from all other skeletal muscles and originate in a progenitor cell population in pharyngeal mesoderm characterized by a common genetic program with an adjacent population of cardiac progenitor cells, the second heart field, that gives rise to much of the heart. The transcription factors and signaling molecules that trigger the myogenic program at sites of branchiomeric muscle formation are correspondingly distinct from those in somite-derived muscle progenitor cells. Here new insights into the regulatory hierarchies controlling branchiomeric myogenesis are discussed. Differences in embryological origin are reflected in the lineage, transcriptional program and proliferative and differentiation properties of branchiomeric muscle satellite cells. These recent findings have important implications for our understanding of the diverse myogenic strategies operative both in the embryo and adult and are of direct biomedical relevance to deciphering the mechanisms underlying the cause and progression of muscle restricted myopathies.

  3. Orthognathic Surgery in Craniofacial Microsomia: Treatment Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Salvador; Torrealba, Ramón; Nuñez, Marcelo; Uribe, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Craniofacial microsomia is a broad term that covers a variety of craniofacial malformation conditions that are caused by alterations in the derivatives of the first and second pharyngeal arches. In general terms, diverse therapeutic alternatives are proposed according to the growth stage and the severity of the alteration. When craniofacial growth has concluded, conventional orthognathic surgery (Le Fort I osteotomy, bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, and genioplasty) provides good alternatives for MI and MIIA type cases. Reconstruction of the mandibular ramus and temporomandibular joint before orthognathic surgery is the indicated treatment for cases MIIB and MIII. The goal of this article is to establish a surgical treatment algorithm for orthognathic surgery on patients with craniofacial microsomia, analyzing the points that allow the ideal treatment for each patient to be chosen. PMID:25674375

  4. Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Neural Crest Cells in Craniofacial Skeletal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Morikawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial skeletal tissues are composed of tooth and bone, together with nerves and blood vessels. This composite material is mainly derived from neural crest cells (NCCs. The neural crest is transient embryonic tissue present during neural tube formation whose cells have high potential for migration and differentiation. Thus, NCCs are promising candidates for craniofacial tissue regeneration; however, the clinical application of NCCs is hindered by their limited accessibility. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are easily accessible in adults, have similar potential for self-renewal, and can differentiate into skeletal tissues, including bones and cartilage. Therefore, MSCs may represent good sources of stem cells for clinical use. MSCs are classically identified under adherent culture conditions, leading to contamination with other cell lineages. Previous studies have identified mouse- and human-specific MSC subsets using cell surface markers. Additionally, some studies have shown that a subset of MSCs is closely related to neural crest derivatives and endothelial cells. These MSCs may be promising candidates for regeneration of craniofacial tissues from the perspective of developmental fate. Here, we review the fundamental biology of MSCs in craniofacial research.

  5. Relationships between craniofacial pain and bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, P; Jadidi, F; Arima, T; Baad-Hansen, L; Sessle, B J

    2008-07-01

    A still commonly held view in the literature and clinical practice is that bruxism causes pain because of overloading of the musculoskeletal tissue and craniofacial pain, on the other hand, triggers more bruxism. Furthermore, it is often believed that there is a dose-response gradient so that more bruxism (intensity, duration) leads to more overloading and pain. Provided the existence of efficient techniques to treat bruxism, it would be straightforward in such a simple system to target bruxism as the cause of pain and hence treat the pain. Of course, human biological systems are much more complex and therefore, it is no surprise that the relationship between bruxism and pain is far from being simple or even linear. Indeed, there are unexpected relationships, which complicate the establishment of adequate explanatory models. Part of the reason is the complexity of the bruxism in itself, which presents significant challenges related to operationalized criteria and diagnostic tools and underlying pathophysiology issues, which have been dealt with in other reviews in this issue. However, another important reason is the multifaceted nature of craniofacial pain. This review will address our current understanding of classification issues, epidemiology and neurobiological mechanisms of craniofacial pain. Experimental models of bruxism may help to further the understanding of the relationship between craniofacial pain and bruxism in addition to insights from intervention studies. The review will enable clinicians to understand the reasons why simple cause-effect relationships between bruxism and craniofacial pain are inadequate and the current implications for management of craniofacial pain.

  6. Craniofacial and dental development in Costello syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alice F; Oberoi, Snehlata; Landan, Maya; Charles, Cyril; Massie, Jessica C; Fairley, Cecilia; Rauen, Katherine A; Klein, Ophir D

    2014-06-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a RASopathy characterized by a wide range of cardiac, musculoskeletal, dermatological, and developmental abnormalities. The RASopathies are defined as a group of syndromes caused by activated Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Specifically, CS is caused by activating mutations in HRAS. Although receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, which is upstream of Ras/MAPK, is known to play a critical role in craniofacial and dental development, the craniofacial and dental features of CS have not been systematically defined in a large group of individuals. In order to address this gap in our understanding and fully characterize the CS phenotype, we evaluated the craniofacial and dental phenotype in a large cohort (n = 41) of CS individuals. We confirmed that the craniofacial features common in CS include macrocephaly, bitemporal narrowing, convex facial profile, full cheeks, and large mouth. Additionally, CS patients have a characteristic dental phenotype that includes malocclusion with anterior open bite and posterior crossbite, enamel hypo-mineralization, delayed tooth development and eruption, gingival hyperplasia, thickening of the alveolar ridge, and high palate. Comparison of the craniofacial and dental phenotype in CS with other RASopathies, such as cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), provides insight into the complexities of Ras/MAPK signaling in human craniofacial and dental development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Bone healing and bone substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Peter D; Hiltzik, David; Govindaraj, Satish; Moche, Jason

    2002-02-01

    With the advent of new biomaterials and surgical techniques, the reconstructive surgeon has a wider range of treatment modalities for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of craniofacial skeletal deformities than ever before. These innovative substances act as true bone graft substitutes, thereby allowing the surgeon to avoid the use of autogenous bone grafts and their associated donor site morbidity. Surgeons have long been interested in producing a composite graft that can heal faster by induction, incorporate with surrounding tissues, and be remodeled to resemble native bone. Currently, there are a host of bone graft substitutes available that vary in both their composition and properties. Craniomaxillofacial surgeons must therefore become comfortable with numerous biomaterials to best tailor the treatment for each patient individually. Ongoing investigations into the next phase of tissue engineering will continue to bring us closer to the ability to regenerate or replace bone.

  8. Characterization of the bending strength of craniofacial sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloul, Asmaa; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Whyne, Cari M

    2013-03-15

    The complex, thin and irregular bones of the human craniofacial skeleton (CFS) are connected together through bony articulations and connective tissues. These articulations are known as sutures and are commonly divided into two groups, facial and cranial sutures, based on their location in the CFS. CFS sutures can exhibit highly variable degrees of interdigitation and complexity and are believed to play a role in accommodating the mechanical demands of the skull. This study aimed to evaluate the mechanical behavior of CFS bone samples with and without sutures and to determine the effect of sutural interdigitations on mechanical strength. Sagittal, coronal, frontozygomatic and zygomaticotemporal sutures along with adjacent bone samples not containing sutures were excised from six fresh-frozen cadaveric heads. The interdigitation of the sutures was quantified through μCT based analysis. Three-point bending to failure was performed on a total of 29 samples. The bending strength of bone samples without sutures demonstrated a non-significant increase of 14% as compared to samples containing sutures (P=0.2). The bending strength of bones containing sutures was positively correlated to the sutural interdigitation index (R=0.701, P=0.002). The higher interdigitation indices found in human cranial vs. facial sutures may be present to resist bending loads as a functional requirement in protecting the brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of different methods of augmentation horizontally and vertically on the atrophy of the alveolar bone of the upper and alveolar part of the mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Георгиевич Гулюк

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The main problem, which is increasingly faced professionals in planning restoration of the integrity of the dentition with the help of dental implants is not enough bone in the area of the supposed implantation. Given the availability of a variety of techniques osteoplasty alveolar defects and a variety of osteoplastic materials, unambiguous solution to the problem does not exist. Planning method and the osteoplasty graft depends on the exact determination of the degree of bone atrophy, nature and extent of the defect.This article on clinical examples demonstrates methods of volume restoration bones of the upper and lower jaws using grafts of different origin.Materials and Methods. In our study we use bone block, taken from the chin of the mandible and the greater wing of the ilium. Also we use bone substitutes, the membranes, the clips (the cortical screw, powder Bio Oss®. For the isolation of the area augmentation applies collagen membrane Bio Gide® (Geistlich Pharma AG, Wolhusen, Switzerland. All surgeries were performed a standard set of surgical instruments and apparatus piezo surgery.Findings and discussion. Through the use of block the autogenous graft and auxiliary materials was successful augmentation of the alveolar bone of the upper and lower jaws with a strong vertical and horizontal atrophy. It was possible to achieve the goals set in the planning phase of treatment. The increase in the cost of therapy is justified for preserving intact adjacent teeth, optimal recovery of the dentition and high functionality and aesthetics prosthetic. It is achieved one of the main goals of dental rehabilitation - improving the quality of life of patients

  10. The 50 Most Cited Papers in Craniofacial Anomalies and Craniofacial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Nicola A; Joyce, Cormac W; Thomas, Sangeetha; Concannon, Elizabeth; Murray, Dylan

    2015-09-01

    Citation analysis is a recognized scientometric method of classifying cited articles according to the frequency of which they have been referenced. The total number of citations an article receives is considered to reflect it's significance among it's peers. Until now, a bibliometric analysis has never been performed in the specialty of craniofacial anomalies and craniofacial surgery. This citation analysis generates an extensive list of the 50 most influential papers in this developing field. Journals specializing in craniofacial surgery, maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery, neurosurgery, genetics and pediatrics were searched to demonstrate which articles have cultivated the specialty within the past 55 years. The results show an intriguing compilation of papers which outline the fundamental knowledge of craniofacial anomalies and the developments of surgical techniques to manage these patients. This citation analysis provides a summation of the current most popular trends in craniofacial literature. These esteemed papers aid to direct our decision making today within this specialty.

  11. Craniofacial resection in nasal cavity and paranasal sinus carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Garzon, Williams Rene; Cohn, Fabrizio; Toscano Mancheno, Roberto; Chonlong Saltos, Maria Jose

    2006-01-01

    The nasal cavity and paranasal sinus carcinoma include 1% of all malignant tumors and 3% in head and neck region. The majority of tumors of this region are squamous cell carcinomas, which rises in the maxillary sinus and generates symptoms when it reaches a great size. Treatment is very difficult. The Cat scan and magnetic resonance are helpful to evaluate the tumor extent, asses erode bone boundary and evaluate growth in soft tissues of intra skull like the dura overlying the frontal lobe and brain. The growth of the tumor in the anterior skull base is not a contraindication for surgical treatment. A combined intracranial facial approach to the paranasal sinuses carcinoma enables complete tumor resection and edges without neoplasm. The 5 year survival for patients who undergo anterior craniofacial resection is approximately 50 to 60%, and local tumor control is obtained in 65%. We present a patient with squamous carcinoma of superior maxillary antrum and skull base encroachment invasion resolved with craniofacial resection. (The author)

  12. Computed tomographic features of polyostotic craniofacial fibrous dysplasia with special emphasis on cyst-like osteolytic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kise, Yoshitaka; Ariji, Yoshiko; Gotoh, Masakazu; Izumi, Masahiro; Naitoh, Munetaka; Ariji, Eiichiro

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify CT image features of the craniofacial bones in patients with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (FD). Five patients in our hospital and 32 patients in 27 previously reported studies were selected for this study. CT image features were evaluated by 3 maxillofacial radiologists and classified into 3 patterns (sclerotic, mixed, and cyst-like lytic patterns). The bones affected by FD were the sphenoid bone, maxilla, zygoma, temporal bone, mandible, and so on. There was a significant difference in the distribution of CT image patterns by the type of bone (p=0.0012). A lytic pattern was frequently found in the mandible, sphenoid bone, frontal bone, and maxilla. The clinical data significantly affected by the distribution of CT image patterns were the periods of symptoms and the anamnesis about the previous operation: when the symptoms were persistent, the ratio of the lytic pattern was high. There was a significant difference in pattern distribution in the frontal bone and maxilla in the surgical anamnesis. No significant difference was seen by age and sex. The cyst-like lytic area was shown to be a mucocele or aneurysmal bone cyst in the frontal and sphenoid bones, whereas an inflammatory change in the jaw bones. There was a significant difference in the distribution of CT image patterns by the types of craniofacial bones affected by polyostotic FD. (author)

  13. Severe craniofacial sclerosis with multiple anomalies in a boy and his mother

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currarino, G; Friedman, J M

    1986-09-01

    A boy is described with severe hyperostosis of the cranium and facial bones, and many other abnormalities including macrocephaly, abnormal facies, cleft palate, conductive hearing loss, speech defect, dental and digital anomalies, delayed skeletal development, short fibulas, short stature of postnatal onset, cervical kyphosis, and progressive lumbar lordosis. His mother exhibited craniofacial sclerosis, similar dental defects, and mild osteopathia striata without other abnormalities. This family may represent a previously undescribed inherited syndrome with cranial sclerosis.

  14. Severe craniofacial sclerosis with multiple anomalies in a boy and his mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, G.; Friedman, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A boy is described with severe hyperostosis of the cranium and facial bones, and many other abnormalities including macrocephaly, abnormal facies, cleft palate, conductive hearing loss, speech defect, dental and digital anomalies, delayed skeletal development, short fibulas, short stature of postnatal onset, cervical kyphosis, and progressive lumbar lordosis. His mother exhibited craniofacial sclerosis, similar dental defects, and mild osteopathia striata without other abnormalities. This family may represent a previously undescribed inherited syndrome with cranial sclerosis. (orig.)

  15. Advances in Bioprinting Technologies for Craniofacial Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Dafydd O; Farré-Guasch, Elisabet; Helder, Marco N; Gibbs, Susan; Forouzanfar, Tymour; van Zuijlen, Paul P; Wolff, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Recent developments in craniofacial reconstruction have shown important advances in both the materials and methods used. While autogenous tissue is still considered to be the gold standard for these reconstructions, the harvesting procedure remains tedious and in many cases causes significant donor site morbidity. These limitations have subsequently led to the development of less invasive techniques such as 3D bioprinting that could offer possibilities to manufacture patient-tailored bioactive tissue constructs for craniofacial reconstruction. Here, we discuss the current technological and (pre)clinical advances of 3D bioprinting for use in craniofacial reconstruction and highlight the challenges that need to be addressed in the coming years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of vertical and side-alternating vibration training on fall risk factors and bone turnover in older people at risk of falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrie, Heather; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Mansfield, Neil J; Cowley, Alison; Morris, Robert; Masud, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    whole-body vibration training may improve neuromuscular function, falls risk and bone density, but previous studies have had conflicting findings. this study aimed to evaluate the influence of vertical vibration (VV) and side-alternating vibration (SV) on musculoskeletal health in older people at risk of falls. single-blind, randomised, controlled trial comparing vibration training to sham vibration (Sham) in addition to usual care. participants were 61 older people (37 women and 24 men), aged 80.2 + 6.5 years, referred to an outpatient falls prevention service. participants were randomly assigned to VV, SV or Sham in addition to the usual falls prevention programme. Participants were requested to attend three vibration sessions per week for 12 weeks, with sessions increasing to six, 1 min bouts of vibration. Falls risk factors and neuromuscular tests were assessed, and blood samples collected for determination of bone turnover, at baseline and following the intervention. chair stand time, timed-up-and-go time, fear of falling, NEADL index and postural sway with eyes open improved in the Sham group. There were significantly greater gains in leg power in the VV than in the Sham group and in bone formation in SV and VV compared with the Sham group. Conversely, body sway improved less in the VV than in the Sham group. Changes in falls risk factors did not differ between the groups. whole-body vibration increased leg power and bone formation, but it did not provide any additional benefits to balance or fall risk factors beyond a falls prevention programme in older people at risk of falls. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Characteristics of associated craniofacial trauma in patients with head injuries: An experience with 100 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial fractures and concomitant cranial injuries carry the significant potential for mortality and neurological morbidity mainly in young adults. Aims and Objectives: To analyze the characteristics of head injuries and associated facial injuries, the management options and outcome following cranio-facial trauma. Methods: This retrospective review was performed at Justice K. S. Hegde Charitable Hospital, and associated A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. Following Ethical Committee approval, hospital charts and radiographs of 100 consecutive patients of cranio-facial trauma managed at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Neurosurgery between January 2004 and December 2004 were reviewed. Results: Majority of the patients were in the 2nd to 4th decade (79% with a male to female ratio of -8.09:1. Road traffic accidents were the common cause of craniofacial trauma in present study (54% followed by fall from height (30%. Loss of consciousness was the most common clinical symptom (62% followed by headache (33%. Zygoma was the most commonly fractured facial bone 48.2% (alone 21.2%, in combination 27.2%. Majority of patients had mild head injury and managed conservatively in present series. Causes of surgical intervention for intracranial lesions were compound depressed fracture, contusion and intracranial hematoma. Operative indications for facial fractures were displaced facial bone fractures. Major causes of mortality were associated systemic injuries. Conclusion: Adult males are the most common victims in craniofacial trauma, and road traffic accidents were responsible for the majority. Most of the patients sustained mild head injuries and were managed conservatively. Open reduction and internal fixation with miniplates was used for displaced facial bone fractures.

  18. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 50th anniversary editorial board commentary: anatomy, basic sciences, and genetics--then and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Mark P; Cooper, Gregory M; Marazita, Mary L

    2014-05-01

    To celebrate the 50th year of the Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal we look back to where we started in 1964 and where we are now, and we speculate about directions for the future in a "Then and Now" editorial series. This editorial examines changing trends and perspectives in anatomical, basic science, and genetic studies published in this 50-year interval. In volume 1 there were 45 total papers, seven (16%) of which were peer-reviewed basic science and genetic articles published: four in anatomy, three in craniofacial biology, and none in genetics. In contrast, in volume 50, of 113 articles there were 47 (42%) peer-reviewed basic science and genetic articles published: 30 in anatomy, five in craniofacial biology, and 12 in genetics. Topical analysis of published manuscripts then and now reveal that similar topics in anatomy and craniofacial biology are still being researched today (e.g., phenotypic variability, optimal timing of surgery, presurgical orthopedics, bone grafting); whereas, most of the more recent papers use advanced technology to address old questions. In contrast, genetic publications have clearly increased in frequency during the last 50 years, which parallels advances in the field during this time. However, all of us have noticed that the more "cutting-edge" papers in these areas are not being submitted for publication to the journal, but instead to discipline-specific journals. Concerted efforts are therefore indicated to attract and publish these cutting-edge papers in order to keep the Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal in the forefront of orofacial cleft and craniofacial anomaly research and to provide a valuable service to American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association members.

  19. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: Report of a case using computed tomographic scan diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Diwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibro-osseous lesions are benign mesenchymal tumors in which mineralized tissue, blood vessels, and giant cells, in varying proportions, replace normal bone. Although this group of lesions includes reactive lesions, harmatomas, and neoplasms, they cannot be distinguished only on the basis of the histopathology which can only confirm their common fibro-osseous nature. Definitive diagnosis requires thorough radiological evaluation. Computed tomographic images of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia on bone windows may be helpful and allow precise pre-operative diagnosis and surgical planning.

  20. Discrimination among adults with craniofacial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to establish the level of perceived discrimination experienced by adults with congenital craniofacial conditions in Australia and to examine predictors of discrimination. Specifically, this study tested whether social support mediates the relationship between discrimination and health. Adults (n = 93) who had been treated at the Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide for congenital craniofacial conditions (not including cleft lip and/or palate) completed questionnaires examining satisfaction with life, quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem, satisfaction with social support, and satisfaction with appearance. A substantial minority of adults with congenital craniofacial conditions reported that they experience discrimination almost every day in a range of areas. Higher reports of discrimination were related to older age, being male, and less education. Other factors related to higher discrimination included lower levels of satisfaction with life, self-esteem, satisfaction with appearance and mental quality of life, as well as higher levels of anxiety and depression. Social support partially mediated the relationship between discrimination and mental health outcomes. The current study shows that discrimination experiences continue into adulthood confirming the importance of ensuring patients are well supported both by psychosocial services as well as within their own social support networks.

  1. Surgical treatment of craniofacial haemangioma in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: craniofacial area, haemangioma, surgical treatment ... Correspondence to Kamal Abdel-Elah Aly, Pediatric Surgery Unit, ..... Adverse effects of systemic glucocorticosteroid therapy in infants with hemangiomas. Arch Dermatol 2004; 140:963–969. 23 Siegfried EC, Keenan WJ, Al Jureidini S. More on propranolol ...

  2. Advances in bioprinting technologies for craniofacial reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, D.O.; Farré-Guasch, E.; Helder, M.N.; Gibbs, S.; Forouzanfar, T.; van Zuijlen, P.P.; Wolff, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in craniofacial reconstruction have shown important advances in both the materials and methods used. While autogenous tissue is still considered to be the gold standard for these reconstructions, the harvesting procedure remains tedious and in many cases causes significant donor

  3. Cranio-facial remodeling in domestic dogs is associated with changes in larynx position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotsky, Kyle; Rendall, Drew; Chase, Kevin; Riede, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    The hyo-laryngeal complex is a multi-segmented structure integrating the oral and pharyngeal cavities and thus a variety of critical functions related to airway control, feeding, and vocal communication. Currently, we lack a complete understanding of how the hyoid complex, and the functions it mediates, can also be affected by changes in surrounding cranio-facial dimensions. Here, we explore these relationships in a breed of domestic dog, the Portuguese Water Dog, which is characterized by strong cranio-facial variation. We used radiographic images of the upper body and head of 55 adult males and 51 adult females to obtain detailed measures of cranio-facial variation and hyoid anatomy. Principal components analysis revealed multiple orthogonal dimensions of cranio-facial variation, some of which were associated with significant differences in larynx position: the larynx occupied a more descended position in individuals with shorter, broader faces than in those with longer, narrower faces. We then tested the possibility that caudal displacement of the larynx in brachycephalic individuals might reflect a degree of tongue crowding resulting from facial shortening and reduction of oral and pharyngeal spaces. A cadaver sample was used to obtain detailed measurements of constituent bones of the hyoid skeleton and of the tongue body, and their relationships to cranio-facial size and shape and overall body size supported the tongue-crowding hypothesis. Considering the presence of descended larynges in numerous mammalian taxa, our findings establish an important precedent for the possibility that laryngeal descent can be initiated, and even sustained, in part in response to remodeling of the face and cranium for selective pressures unrelated to vocal production. These integrated changes could also have been involved in hominin evolution, where the different laryngeal positions in modern humans compared with nonhuman primates have been traditionally linked to the evolution

  4. Injertos óseos: Una alternativa efectiva y actual para la reconstrucción del complejo cráneo-facial BONE GRAFTS: AN EFFECTIVE AND CURRENT ALTERNATIVE FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE CRANIOFACIAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Soto Góngora

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de injertos óseos como alternativa de reconstrucción de defectos óseos, ya sean congénitos u ocasionados como traumatismos, secuelas oncológicas e infecciosas, tienen como finalidad restablecer la integridad anatómica y funcional de una estructura alterada. Durante décadas, los investigadores se han dado a la tarea de encontrar en los injertos ciertas características que respondan a cada una de las necesidades de reconstrucción; este hecho a llevado a estudiar y comparar los beneficios de algunas estructuras óseas potencialmente donadoras, que incrementen las probabilidades de éxito del tratamiento y disminuyan considerablemente los posibles riesgos y complicaciones durante la toma del injerto. De igual manera, se han estudiado diversos materiales implantológicos, sin embargo, estos no poseen la capacidad natural de inducir el proceso de regeneración ósea, haciendo de ellos materiales inertes biocompatibles de "relleno", que no sustituyen las características de los injertos, pero utilizados conjuntamente si así se requiere, pueden mejorar los resultados. El presente trabajo plantea la utilización de injertos óseos como una alternativa viable, efectiva y actual en materia de reconstrucción.The use of bone grafts as an alternative to reconstruct osteal congenital or caused defects, such as traumatisms, oncological and infectious sequelae, is aimed at restoring the anatomical and functional integrity of an altered structure. During decades, investigators have tried to find in grafts certain characteristics that response to each of the reconstruction needs. This fact has led to the study and comparison of the benefits of some osteal structures that are potential donors and may increase the chances of success and considerably reduce the possible risks and complications during the graft taking. Likewise, diverse implantation materials have been studied, but they do not have the natural capacity to induce the osteal

  5. Does a trochanteric lag screw improve fixation of vertically oriented femoral neck fractures? A biomechanical analysis in cadaveric bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Michael A; Kim, Hyunchul; Strauss, Joseph E; Oliphant, Bryant W; Golden, Robert D; Hsieh, Adam H; Nascone, Jason W; O'Toole, Robert V

    2013-10-01

    We assessed the biomechanical performances of a trochanteric lag screw construct and a traditional inverted triangle construct in the treatment of simulated Pauwels type 3 femoral neck fractures. An inverted triangle construct (three 7.3-mm cannulated screws placed in inverted triangle orientation) and a trochanteric lag screw construct (two 7.3-mm cannulated screws placed across the superior portion of the femoral neck and one 4.5-mm lag screw placed perpendicular to the fracture in superolateral to inferomedial orientation) were tested in nine matched pairs of non-osteoporotic human cadaveric femora. We used a previously described vertically oriented femoral neck fracture model and testing protocol that incrementally loaded the constructs along the mechanical axis of the femur to 1400 N. Specimens that survived incremental loading underwent cyclic loading. Apparent construct stiffness, force at 3mm of displacement, and survival of incremental loading were recorded. The trochanteric lag screw group had a 70% increase in stiffness (261 N/mm [29 standard deviation] versus 153 N/mm [16 standard deviation]; P=0.026) and a 43% increase in force required for displacement (620 N versus 435 N; P=0.018) compared with the inverted triangle group. One trochanteric lag screw and no inverted triangle specimen survived incremental loading. A trochanteric lag screw construct applied to vertically oriented femoral neck fractures provides marked improvement in mechanical performance compared with the inverted triangle construct. © 2013.

  6. Craniofacial growth in a whole rat head transplant: how does a non-functional head grow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Y; Hirabayashi, S; Harii, K

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate factors intrinsic to the regulation of craniofacial bone growth, we have developed a new experimental model in which the whole head of an infant rat is transplanted to the body of an isohistogenic rat by means of microvascular anastomosis. In our model, the transplanted head has neither scars nor any moving soft tissue that could modify growth around facial bones. Using this model, we evaluated the growth pattern of the craniofacial complex by means of serial roentgenographic cephalometrics. Ten transplantations were performed using 10-day-old rats as donors and 8-week-old rats as recipients. Cephalograms were taken from the lateral direction at 10, 20, 30, and 40 days after transplantation. Several reference points were selected to analyze the growth pattern. In the present study, we conclude that the size and form of the bony complex are mainly determined genetically. There is craniofacial skeletal growth in the absence of muscle function and brain growth. Further, both the nasal cartilage and the sutures appear to be autonomous growth centers having intrinsic growth potential. Genetic or epigenetic information plays an important role at the skeletal level, but it also affects the muscles through the medium of the muscular tonus responsible for posture and other related phenomena.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of a validated subject-specific finite element model of the human craniofacial skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedowski, T D; Fialkov, J; Whyne, C M

    2011-01-01

    Developing a more complete understanding of the mechanical response of the craniofacial skeleton (CFS) to physiological loads is fundamental to improving treatment for traumatic injuries, reconstruction due to neoplasia, and deformities. Characterization of the biomechanics of the CFS is challenging due to its highly complex structure and heterogeneity, motivating the utilization of experimentally validated computational models. As such, the objective of this study was to develop, experimentally validate, and parametrically analyse a patient-specific finite element (FE) model of the CFS to elucidate a better understanding of the factors that are of intrinsic importance to the skeletal structural behaviour of the human CFS. An FE model of a cadaveric craniofacial skeleton was created from subject-specific computed tomography data. The model was validated based on bone strain measurements taken under simulated physiological-like loading through the masseter and temporalis muscles (which are responsible for the majority of craniofacial physiologic loading due to mastication). The baseline subject-specific model using locally defined cortical bone thicknesses produced the strongest correlation to the experimental data (r2 = 0.73). Large effects on strain patterns arising from small parametric changes in cortical thickness suggest that the very thin bony structures present in the CFS are crucial to characterizing the local load distribution in the CFS accurately.

  8. Quantifying Normal Craniofacial Form and Baseline Craniofacial Asymmetry in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min-Jeong; Hallac, Rami R; Ramesh, Jananie; Seaward, James R; Hermann, Nuno V; Darvann, Tron A; Lipira, Angelo; Kane, Alex A

    2018-03-01

    Restoring craniofacial symmetry is an important objective in the treatment of many craniofacial conditions. Normal form has been measured using anthropometry, cephalometry, and photography, yet all of these modalities have drawbacks. In this study, the authors define normal pediatric craniofacial form and craniofacial asymmetry using stereophotogrammetric images, which capture a densely sampled set of points on the form. After institutional review board approval, normal, healthy children (n = 533) with no known craniofacial abnormalities were recruited at well-child visits to undergo full head stereophotogrammetric imaging. The children's ages ranged from 0 to 18 years. A symmetric three-dimensional template was registered and scaled to each individual scan using 25 manually placed landmarks. The template was deformed to each subject's three-dimensional scan using a thin-plate spline algorithm and closest point matching. Age-based normal facial models were derived. Mean facial asymmetry and statistical characteristics of the population were calculated. The mean head asymmetry across all pediatric subjects was 1.5 ± 0.5 mm (range, 0.46 to 4.78 mm), and the mean facial asymmetry was 1.2 ± 0.6 mm (range, 0.4 to 5.4 mm). There were no significant differences in the mean head or facial asymmetry with age, sex, or race. Understanding the "normal" form and baseline distribution of asymmetry is an important anthropomorphic foundation. The authors present a method to quantify normal craniofacial form and baseline asymmetry in a large pediatric sample. The authors found that the normal pediatric craniofacial form is asymmetric, and does not change in magnitude with age, sex, or race.

  9. Sella turcica-Its importance in orthodontics and craniofacial morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritha Pottipalli Sathyanarayana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sella turcica is a structure which can be readily seen on lateral cephalometric radiographs and sella point is routinely traced for various cephalometric analyses. The search was carried out using the following key words (sella turcica, bridging of sella, size, shape of sella turcica and with the following search engine (Pubmed, Cochrane, Google scholar. The morphology is very important for the cephalometric position of the reference point sella, not only for evaluating craniofacial morphology, but also when growth changes and orthodontic treatment results are to be evaluated. This makes it a good source of additional diagnostic information related to pathology of the pituitary gland, or to various syndromes that affect the craniofacial region. Clinicians should be familiar with the normal radiographic anatomy and morphologic variability of this area, in order to recognize and investigate deviations that may reflect pathological situations, even before these become clinically apparent. During embryological development, the sella turcica area is the key point for the migration of the neural crest cells to the frontonasal and maxillary developmental fields. The neural crest cells are involved in the formation and development of sella turcica and teeth. The size of sella turcica ranges from 4 to 12 mm for the vertical and 5 to 16 mm for the anteroposterior dimension. There are many classification systems regarding the shape of sella turcica. Majority of the studies show that about 67% of the subjects had normal appearance and about 33% showed variations. The prevalence of sella turcica bridging is high in class III malocclusions and dental anomalies.

  10. Craniofacial features of cleidocranial dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yun Pan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD is an autosomal-dominant malformation syndrome affecting bones and teeth. The most common skeletal and dental abnormalities in affected individuals are hypoplastic/aplastic clavicles, open fontanelles, short stature, retention of primary teeth, delayed eruption of permanent teeth, supernumerary teeth, and multiple impacted teeth. Treatment of CCD requires a multidisciplinary approach that may include dental corrections, orthognathic surgery and cranioplasty along with management of any complications of CCD. Early diagnosis of this condition enables application of the treatment strategy that provides the best quality of life to such patients. Notably, Runx2 gene mutations have been identified in CCD patients. Therefore, further elucidation of the molecular mechanism of supernumerary teeth formation related to Runx2 mutations may improve understanding of dental development in CCD. The insights into CCD pathogenesis may assist in the development of new treatments for CCD. Keywords: cleidocranial dysplasia, mutation, Runx2, supernumerary teeth

  11. [Diagnosis of facial and craniofacial asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, E; Marchac, D; Renier, D

    2001-10-01

    Craniofacial asymmetry is caused by various aetiologies but clinical examination remains the most important criteria since minor asymmetry is always present. The diagnosis can be confirmed by anthropometric measurements and radiological examinations but only severe asymmetries or asymmetries with an associated functional impairment should be treated. The treatment depends on the cause, and on the time of appearance. Congenital asymmetries might be treated early, during the first year of life if a craniosynostosis is present. Hemifacial microsomia are treated later if there is no breathing impairment. Since the pediatricians have recommended the dorsal position for infant sleeping, an increasing number of posterior flattening of the skull has been appearing, and could be prevented by adequate nursing. Other causes of craniofacial asymmetries are rare and should be adapted to the cause (tumors, atrophies, neurological paralysis, hypertrophies) by a specialized multidisciplinar team.

  12. Modeling of Craniofacial Anatomy, Variation, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Signe Strann

    The topic of this thesis is automatic analysis of craniofacial images with respect to changes due to growth and surgery, inter-subject variation and intracranial volume estimation. The methods proposed contribute to the knowledge about specific craniofacial anomalies, as well as provide a tool...... for detailed analyses for clinical and research purposes. Most of the applications in this thesis rely on non-rigid image registration by the means of warping one image into the coordinate system of another image. This warping results in a deformation field that describes the anatomical correspondence between......, thus creating a personalized atlas. The knowledge built into the atlas is e.g. location of anatomical regions and landmarks of importance to surgery planning and evaluation or population studies. With these correspondences, various analyses could be carried out e.g. quantification of growth, inter...

  13. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

    OpenAIRE

    Ewings, Ember L.; Carstens, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affec...

  14. Imaging findings in craniofacial childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freling, Nicole J.M.; Rijn, Rick R. van; Merks, Johannes H.M.; Saeed, Peerooz; Balm, Alfons J.M.; Bras, Johannes; Pieters, Bradley R.; Adam, Judit A.

    2010-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the commonest paediatric soft-tissue sarcoma constituting 3-5% of all malignancies in childhood. RMS has a predilection for the head and neck area and tumours in this location account for 40% of all childhood RMS cases. In this review we address the clinical and imaging presentations of craniofacial RMS, discuss the most appropriate imaging techniques, present characteristic imaging features and offer an overview of differential diagnostic considerations. Post-treatment changes will be briefly addressed. (orig.)

  15. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewings Ember

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affect the shape and position of developing adjacent fields. Craniofacial clefts represent states of excess or deficiency within and between specific developmental fields. The neuromeric organization of the embryo is the common denominator for understanding normal anatomy and pathology of the head and neck. Tessier′s observational cleft classification system can be redefined using neuroanatomic embryology. Reassessment of Tessier′s empiric observations demonstrates a more rational rearrangement of cleft zones, particularly near the midline. Neuromeric theory is also a means to understand and define other common craniofacial problems. Cleft palate, encephaloceles, craniosynostosis and cranial base defects may be analyzed in the same way.

  16. Susuks (charm needles) in the craniofacial region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, P.; Ibrahim, N.; Tandjung, Y.R.M.; Shanmuhasuntharam, P.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a study to determine the numbers of susuks (charm needles) and their distribution in the craniofacial region of susuk wearers, and the sex, racial affiliation, and age of the wearers. In addition, we sought to determine whether the presence of susuks posed any potential hazard to patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We studied various radiographs of 33 susuk wearers (age range, 33-69 years) and investigated the most common sites of insertion in the craniofacial region. A susuk was also suspended inside a 1.5-T MRI machine to determined whether it was attracted by the machine's magnet. The largest number of susuks that we observed in the craniofacial region was 39 pins, and susuks were particularly numerous in Malay Muslim women. Other sites with susuks were the maxillofacial region (except the temporomandibular region) and the forehead. The susuks showed no ferromagnetic characteristics. As susuks are made from gold, they are generally biocompatible with human tissue and do not cause problems to their wearers. Gold and the other minor metal constituents found in susuks have no ferromagnetic characteristics and therefore pose no hazard to patients undergoing MRI. (author)

  17. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano M. Rosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES. METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%. Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%, abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%, prominent occiput (52%, posteriorly rotated (46% and low set ears (44%, and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%. Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%, orofacial clefts (12%, preauricular tags (10%, facial palsy (4%, encephalocele (4%, absence of external auditory canal (2% and asymmetric face (2%. One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature.

  18. Expression of Dlx-5 and Msx-1 in Craniofacial Skeletons and Ilia of Rats Treated With Zoledronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Bin; Yang, Pan; Wu, Shichao; Li, Lin; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Wenyi

    2017-05-01

    Because of the different embryologic origins of the craniofacial skeleton and ilium, differences in gene expression patterns have been observed between the jaw bones and ilium. Distal-less homeobox (Dlx) genes and Msh homeobox genes, particularly Dlx-5 and Msx-1, play major roles in cell differentiation and osteogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of zoledronate (ZOL) on the craniofacial skeleton and ilium by detecting changes in Dlx-5 and Msx-1 expression at both the protein and messenger RNA levels. A total of 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: ZOL group (n = 12), in which the rats were injected intraperitoneally with zoledronic acid for 12 weeks, and control group (n = 12), in which the rats were injected with saline solution for 12 weeks. By use of immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the expression levels of Dlx-5 and Msx-1 in the craniofacial skeleton (including the maxilla, mandible, and parietal bone) and ilium were examined. Dlx-5 expression in the maxilla and mandible was increased at the protein and messenger RNA levels in the ZOL group compared with the control group (P Msx-1 expression in the maxilla and mandible was decreased in the ZOL group (P Msx-1 expression in the ilium was decreased in the ZOL group (P Msx-1 expression in the parietal bone was observed between the 2 groups (P > .05). Site-specific differences in the effects of ZOL on the craniofacial skeleton and ilium could be explained by differently altered tendencies in Dlx-5 and Msx-1 expression. The jaw bones were more susceptible to the effects of ZOL than the parietal bone and ilium. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioactive Sr(II/Chitosan/Poly(ε-caprolactone Scaffolds for Craniofacial Tissue Regeneration. In Vitro and In Vivo Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzia Rodríguez-Méndez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In craniofacial tissue regeneration, the current gold standard treatment is autologous bone grafting, however, it presents some disadvantages. Although new alternatives have emerged there is still an urgent demand of biodegradable scaffolds to act as extracellular matrix in the regeneration process. A potentially useful element in bone regeneration is strontium. It is known to promote stimulation of osteoblasts while inhibiting osteoclasts resorption, leading to neoformed bone. The present paper reports the preparation and characterization of strontium (Sr containing hybrid scaffolds formed by a matrix of ionically cross-linked chitosan and microparticles of poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL. These scaffolds of relatively facile fabrication were seeded with osteoblast-like cells (MG-63 and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs for application in craniofacial tissue regeneration. Membrane scaffolds were prepared using chitosan:PCL ratios of 1:2 and 1:1 and 5 wt % Sr salts. Characterization was performed addressing physico-chemical properties, swelling behavior, in vitro biological performance and in vivo biocompatibility. Overall, the composition, microstructure and swelling degree (≈245% of scaffolds combine with the adequate dimensional stability, lack of toxicity, osteogenic activity in MG-63 cells and hBMSCs, along with the in vivo biocompatibility in rats allow considering this system as a promising biomaterial for the treatment of craniofacial tissue regeneration.

  20. Predictors of mental health in adults with congenital craniofacial conditions attending the Australian craniofacial unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R M; Mathias, J L

    2013-07-01

    Objective : Adults with craniofacial conditions experience more psychosocial problems than adults in the general population, but little is known about the factors that render a person more or less susceptible to these problems. Guided by research on adults with other conditions that affect appearance, this study examined predictors of psychosocial outcome in adults with craniofacial conditions. Design : Single-sample cross-sectional design. Setting : The Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, one of the main craniofacial treatment centers in Australia. Participants : Adults (N  =  93; 36.9% of the potential sample) with congenital craniofacial conditions (excluding cleft lip and/or cleft palate) who were treated in the Australian Craniofacial Unit. Main Outcome Measures : All participants completed measures assessing anxiety, depression, and quality of life (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Short-Form Health Survey) and variables predicted to affect these outcomes (SF-36 Health Survey - Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Cleft Satisfaction Profile, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Derriford Appearance Scale). Results : Multiple regression analyses revealed that anxiety was predicted by social support, self-esteem, and fear of negative evaluation, while depression was predicted by self-esteem and social support. Physical quality of life was not predicted by any of the measures. Satisfaction with appearance, gender, age, and education were not related to outcome. Conclusions : Interventions designed to increase perceived social support and self-esteem and reduce fear of negative evaluation appear to be indicated and may assist in establishing a causal relationship between these variables.

  1. Characterization of craniofacial sutures using the finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloul, Asmaa; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Wagner, Diane; Whyne, Cari M

    2014-01-03

    Characterizing the biomechanical behavior of sutures in the human craniofacial skeleton (CFS) is essential to understand the global impact of these articulations on load transmission, but is challenging due to the complexity of their interdigitated morphology, the multidirectional loading they are exposed to and the lack of well-defined suture material properties. This study aimed to quantify the impact of morphological features, direction of loading and suture material properties on the mechanical behavior of sutures and surrounding bone in the CFS. Thirty-six idealized finite element (FE) models were developed. One additional specimen-specific FE model was developed based on the morphology obtained from a µCT scan to represent the morphological complexity inherent in CFS sutures. Outcome variables of strain energy (SE) and von Mises stress (σvm) were evaluated to characterize the sutures' biomechanical behavior. Loading direction was found to impact the relationship between SE and interdigitation index and yielded varied patterns of σvm in both the suture and surrounding bone. Adding bone connectivity reduced suture strain energy and altered the σvm distribution. Incorporating transversely isotropic material properties was found to reduce SE, but had little impact on stress patterns. High-resolution µCT scanning of the suture revealed a complex morphology with areas of high and low interdigitations. The specimen specific suture model results were reflective of SE absorption and σvm distribution patterns consistent with the simplified FE results. Suture mechanical behavior is impacted by morphologic factors (interdigitation and connectivity), which may be optimized for regional loading within the CFS. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Decreasing the effective radiation dose in pediatric craniofacial CT by changing head position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, Ryne A.; Kuang, Anna A.; Schwartz, Daniel L.; Selden, Nathan R.; Stevens, Donna M.; Bardo, Dianna M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Children are exposed to ionizing radiation during pre- and post-operative evaluation for craniofacial surgery. The primary purpose of the study was to decrease effective radiation dose while preserving the diagnostic quality of the study. In this prospective study 49 children were positioned during craniofacial CT (CFCT) imaging with their neck fully extended into an exaggerated sniff position, parallel to the CT gantry, to eliminate the majority of the cervical spine and the thyroid gland from radiation exposure. Image-quality and effective radiation dose comparisons were made retrospectively in age-matched controls (n = 49). When compared to CT scans reviewed retrospectively, the prospective examinations showed a statistically significant decrease in z-axis length by 16% (P < 0.0001) and delivered a reduced effective radiation dose by 18% (P < 0.0001). The subjective diagnostic quality of the exams performed in the prospective arm was maintained despite a slight decrease in the quality of the brain windows. There was statistically significant improvement in the quality of the bone windows and three-dimensional reconstructed images. Altering the position of the head by extending the neck during pediatric craniofacial CT imaging statistically reduces the effective radiation dose while maintaining the diagnostic quality of the images. (orig.)

  3. Original Solution for Middle Ear Implant and Anesthetic/Surgical Management in a Child with Severe Craniofacial Dysmorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bianchin; Lorenzo Tribi; Aronne Reverzani; Patrizia Formigoni; Valeria Polizzi

    2015-01-01

    We describe the novel solution adopted in positioning middle ear implant in a child with bilateral congenital aural atresia and craniofacial dysmorphism that have posed a significant challenge for the safe and correct management of deafness. A five-year-old child, affected by a rare congenital disease (Van Maldergem Syndrome), suffered from conductive hearing loss. Conventional skin-drive bone-conduction device, attached with a steel spring headband, has been applied but auditory restoration ...

  4. Prevention of Cutaneous Tissue Contracture During Removal of Craniofacial Implant Superstructures for CT and MRI Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Sullivan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Head and neck cancer patients who have lost facial parts following surgical intervention frequently require craniofacial implant retained facial prostheses for restoration. Many craniofacial implant patients require computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans as part of their long-term follow-up care. Consequently removal of implant superstructures and peri-abutment tissue management is required for those studies. The purpose of the present paper was to describe a method for eliminating cranial imaging artifacts in patients with craniofacial implants.Material and Methods: Three patients wearing extraoral implant retained facial prostheses needing either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies were discussed. Peri-implant soft tissues contracture after removal of percutaneous craniofacial implant abutments during computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies was prevented using a method proposed by authors. The procedure involves temporary removal of the supra-implant components prior to imaging and filling of the tissue openings with polyvinyl siloxane dental impression material.Results: Immediately after filling of the tissue openings with polyvinyl siloxane dental impression material patients were sent for the imaging studies, and were asked to return for removal of the silicone plugs and reconnection of all superstructure hardware after imaging procedures were complete. The silicone plugs were easily removed with a dental explorer. The percutaneous abutments were immediately replaced and screwed into the implants which were at the bone level.Conclusions: Presented herein method eliminates the source of artifacts and prevents contracture of percutaneous tissues upon removal of the implant abutments during imaging.

  5. Rare craniofacial clefts in Ibadan | Iyun | Nigerian Journal of Plastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Congenital craniofacial clefts are anatomical distortions of the face and cranium with deficiencies of excess of tissue in a linear pattern. The exact incidence of craniofacial clefts is unknown because cases are rare and series tend to be small. The aim of this study is to document our experience with congenital ...

  6. Craniofacial dysmorphology: Studies in honor of Samuel Pruzansky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.M.; Rollnick, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 31 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Regional Specification of Cell-Specific Gene Expression During Craniofacial Development; Timing Cleft Palate Closure - Age Should Not Be the Sole Determinant; Excess of Parental Non-Righthandedness in Children with Right-Sided Cleft Lip: A Preliminary Report; and The Application of Roentgencephalometry to the Study of Craniofacial Anomalies

  7. Achondroplasia: Craniofacial manifestations and considerations in dental management

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Saleem, Afnan; Al-Jobair, Asma

    2010-01-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia dwarfism that manifests with stunted stature and disproportionate limb shortening. Achondroplasia is of dental interest because of its characteristic craniofacial features which include relative macrocephaly, depressed nasal bridge and maxillary hypoplasia. Presence of large head, implanted shunt, airway obstruction and difficulty in head control require special precautions during dental management. Craniofacial manifestations and c...

  8. Orthodontics and foetal pathology: a personal view on craniofacial patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the essentials of studies on the craniofacial skeleton performed over 17 years. It presents data from research into foetal pathology resulting in new views on craniofacial patterning and/or fields for further discussion. The fields described cover all areas seen on profile...

  9. OCT imaging of craniofacial anatomy in xenopus embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Engin; Jonas, Stephan M.; Griffin, John; Hooper, Michael C.; Choma, Michael A.; Khokha, Mustafa K.

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of craniofacial defects is incompletely understood. The ability to obtain large amounts of gene sequence data from families affected by craniofacial defects is opening up new ways to understand molecular genetic etiological factors. One important link between gene sequence data and clinical relevance is biological research into candidate genes and molecular pathways. We present our recent research using OCT as a nondestructive phenotyping modality of craniofacial morphology in Xenopus embryos, an important animal model for biological research in gene and pathway discovery. We define 2D and 3D scanning protocols for a standardized approach to craniofacial imaging in Xenopus embryos. We define standard views and planar reconstructions for visualizing normal anatomy and landmarks. We compare these views and reconstructions to traditional histopathology using alcian blue staining. In addition to being 3D, nondestructive, and having much faster throughout, OCT can identify craniofacial features that are lost during traditional histopathological preparation. We also identify quantitative morphometric parameters to define normative craniofacial anatomy. We also note that craniofacial and cardiac defects are not infrequently present in the same patient (e.g velocardiofacial syndrome). Given that OCT excels at certain aspects of cardiac imaging in Xenopus embryos, our work highlights the potential of using OCT and Xenopus to study molecular genetic factors that impact both cardiac and craniofacial development.

  10. Age-related differences between thinning of horizontal and vertical trabeculae in human lumbar bone as assessed by a new computerized method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J.S.; Ebbesen, E.N.; Mosekilde, Li.

    2002-01-01

    To investigate whether vertical trabeculae undergo compensatory thickening with age in the human vertebral body, a new computerized method was developed that is able to distinguish between horizontal and vertical trabeculae on normal histological sections. Study subjects included 48 individuals (...

  11. Craniofacial anthropometry in newborns of Sikkimese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, P; Tamang, B K; Chakraborty, S

    2014-06-01

    Head and face dimensions vary according to race and geographical zone. Hereditary factors also greatly affect the size and shape of the head. There are important medical applications of craniofacial data specific to different racial and ethnic groups. Various cranial and facial anthropometric parameters were assessed in singleton, healthy, full-term newborns of Sikkimese origin in a tertiary care hospital in Sikkim, India. The data were then analysed to determine statistically significant differences between sexes. Forty-five newborns were included in the study. Both male and female newborns were observed to be hyperbrachycephalic and hyperleptoprosopic. The only significant difference between the sexes was in commissural length, which was observed to be greater in male newborns. Craniofacial parameters in Sikkimese newborns vary in comparison with those of other newborns from around the world. Larger studies are needed in order to reveal sex-related variations. Similar studies on various racial groups in North-East India are needed to establish standards for populations with East Asian features.

  12. Disturbances in dental development and craniofacial growth in children treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterbacka, M; Ringdén, O; Remberger, M; Huggare, J; Dahllöf, G

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the correlation between age, degree of disturbances in dental development, and vertical growth of the face in children treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). 39 long-term survivors of HSCT performed in childhood and transplanted before the age of 12, at a mean age of 6.8±3.3 years. Panoramic and cephalometric radiographs were taken at a mean age of 16.2 years. For each patient two age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. The area of three mandibular teeth was measured and a cephalometric analysis was performed. The mean area of the mandibular central incisor, first and second molar was significantly smaller in the HSCT group, and the vertical growth of the face was significantly reduced, especially in the lower third, compared to healthy controls. A statistically significant correlation between age at HSCT, degree of disturbances in dental development, and vertical growth of the face was found. Children subjected to pre-HSCT chemotherapy protocols had significantly more growth reduction in vertical craniofacial variables compared to children without pre-HSCT chemotherapy. Conditioning regimens including busulfan or total body irradiation had similar deleterious effects on tooth area reduction and craniofacial parameters. The younger the child is at HSCT, the greater the impairment in dental and vertical facial development. This supports the suggestion that the reduction in lower facial height found in SCT children mainly is a result of impaired dental development and that young age is a risk factor for more severe disturbances. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Craniofacial morphology in unoperated infants with isolated cleft palate. A cephalometric analysis in three projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N.V.; Kreiborg, S.; Jensen, B.L.

    58th Annual Meeting of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association, Minneapolis, Craniofacial morphology, unoperated infants, isolated cleft palate, cephalometric analysis, three projections......58th Annual Meeting of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association, Minneapolis, Craniofacial morphology, unoperated infants, isolated cleft palate, cephalometric analysis, three projections...

  14. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF UPPER AND MIDDLE FACIAL ZONE TRAUMAS IN PROGRESS OF CONCOMITANT TRAUMATIC CRANIOFACIAL INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagvilava, G; Gvenetadze, Z; Toradze, G; Devidze, I; Gvenetadze, G

    2015-09-01

    In 2012-2015, 207 patients with concomitant craniofacial injuries, who underwent surgical treatment, were observed; among them 176 were men and 31- women. Age of the patients ranged from 16 to 60 years. According to localization and severity of trauma and a priority of surgical intervention, the patients conventionally were divided into 3 groups by the authors: I group (65 patients) - craniofacial injuries; the skull as well as upper and middle areas of face (subcranial and frontobasal fractures) were affected (fractured). II group (80 patients) - severe traumatic injuries of upper and especially middle zones of the face, accompanied with closed craniocerebral trauma, no need in neurosurgery. III group (62 patients) -on the background of serious head traumas, the injuries of face bones were less severe (injury of one or two anatomic areas with displacement of fractured fragments but without bone tissue defects) According to the obtained results a priority was always given to the neurosurgery (vital testimony).The reconstructive surgeries on face skeleton was conducted in combination involving neurosurgeons (I group patients). Reconstructive surgeries of facial bones were conducted in the patients of II group, immediately or at primary deferred period of time but in the patients of III group the surgical procedures for removal of early secondary or traumatic residual fractures have been performed. Reposition of the fractured facial bone fragments was performed in an open way and fixation was carried out by titanium plates and mesh cage (at bone tissue defect). For prevention and elimination of post-traumatic inflammatory processes, the final stage of surgical intervention was: sanation of nasal accessory sinuses and catheterization (5-7 days) of external carotid arteries for administration of antibiotics and other medical preparations. Early and differentiated approach to face injuries, worsening in the course of craniocephalic trauma was not revealed in any patient

  15. Single-staged vs. two-staged implant placement using bone ring technique in vertically deficient alveolar ridges - Part 1: histomorphometric and micro-CT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Ken; Haga-Tsujimura, Maiko; Sawada, Kosaku; Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Mottini, Matthias; Schaller, Benoit; Saulacic, Nikola

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous implant placement with bone grafting shortens the overall treatment period, but might lead to the peri-implant bone loss or even implant failure. The aim of this study was to compare the single-staged to two-staged implant placement using the bone ring technique. Four standardized alveolar bone defects were made in the mandibles of nine dogs. Dental implants (Straumann BL ® , Basel, Switzerland) were inserted simultaneously with bone ring technique in test group and after 6 months of healing period in control group. Animals of both groups were euthanized at 3 and 6 months of osseointegration period. The harvested samples were analyzed by means of histology and micro-CT. The amount of residual bone decreased while the amount of new bone increased up to 9 months of healing period. All morphometric parameters remained stable between 3 and 6 months of osseointegration period within groups. Per a given time point, median area of residual bone graft was higher in test group and area of new bone in control group. The volume of bone ring was greater in test than in control group, reaching the significance at 6 months of osseointegration period (P = 0.002). In the present type of bone defect, single-staged implant placement may be potentially useful to shorten an overall treatment period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Biomaterials in bone repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puska, Mervi; Aho, Allan J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2013-01-01

    In orthopedics, traumatology, and craniofacial surgery, biomaterials should meet the clinical demands of bone that include shape, size and anatomical location of the defect, as well as the physiological load-bearing stresses. Biomaterials are metals, ceramics, plastics or materials of biological origin. In the treatment of large defects, metallic endoprostheses or bone grafts are employed, whereas ceramics in the case of small defects. Plastics are employed on the artificial joint surfaces, in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures, and as biodegradable screws and plates. Porosity, bioactivity, and identical biomechanics to bone are fundamental for achieving a durable, well-bonded, interface between biomaterial and bone. In the case of severe bone treatments, biomaterials should also imply an option to add biologically active substances.

  17. Unusual facies, arthrogryposis, advanced skeletal maturation and unique bone changes. A new congenital malformation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jequier, S.; Kozlowski, K.

    1987-07-01

    Two strikingly similar infant siblings showed the following pattern of anomalies: unusual cranio-facial appearance, arthrogryposis, advanced bone age of the hips and unique skeletal X-ray abnormalities. They represent a previously unrecognised, fatal malformation syndrome.

  18. Cervical column morphology and craniofacial profiles in monozygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Pallisgaard, Carsten; Kjaer, Inger

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies have described the relationships between cervical column morphology and craniofacial morphology. The aims of the present study were to describe cervical column morphology in 38 pairs of adult monozygotic (MZ) twins, and compare craniofacial morphology in twins with fusions with craniofacial morphology in twins without fusion. Visual assessment of cervical column morphology and cephalometric measurements of craniofacial morphology were performed on profile radiographs. In the cervical column, fusion between corpora of the second and third vertebrae was registered as fusion. In the twin group, 8 twin pairs had fusion of the cervical column in both individuals within the pair (sub-group A), 25 pairs had no fusions (subgroup B), and in 5 pairs, cervical column morphology was different within the pair (subgroup C), as one twin had fusion and the other did not. Comparison of craniofacial profiles showed a tendency to increased jaw retrognathia, larger cranial base angle, and larger mandibular inclination in subgroup A than in subgroup B. The same tendency was observed within subgroup C between the individual twins with fusion compared with those without fusion. These results confirm that cervical fusions and craniofacial morphology may be interrelated in twins when analysed on profile radiographs. The study also documents that differences in cervical column morphology can occur in individuals within a pair of MZ twins. It illustrates that differences in craniofacial morphology between individuals within a pair of MZ twins can be associated with cervical fusion.

  19. Psychosocial functioning in adults with congenital craniofacial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R M; Mathias, J L

    2012-05-01

    To examine the psychosocial functioning of adults with congenital craniofacial conditions relative to normative data. Single sample cross-sectional design. The Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, which is one of the main craniofacial treatment centers in Australia. Adults (N  =  93) with congenital craniofacial conditions (excluding cleft lip/palate) who were treated in the Australian Craniofacial Unit. All participants completed self-report scales assessing health-related quality of life (SF-36); life satisfaction, anxiety, and depression (HADS); self-esteem (Rosenberg); appearance-related concerns; perceived social support; and social anxiety. Overall, participants were very similar in psychosocial function to the general population. However, adults with craniofacial conditions were less likely to be married and have children (females), were more likely to be receiving a disability pension, and reported more appearance-related concerns and less social support from friends. They also reported more limitations in both their social activities, due to physical or emotional problems, and usual role activities, because of emotional problems, as well as poorer mental health. These results give cause to be very positive about the long-term outcomes of children who are undergoing treatment for craniofacial conditions, while also identifying specific areas that interventions could target.

  20. Craniofacial Secular Change in Recent Mexican Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, Katherine; Stull, Kyra E; Hefner, Joseph T

    2016-01-01

    Research by economists suggests that recent Mexican migrants are better educated and have higher socioeconomic status (SES) than previous migrants. Because factors associated with higher SES and improved education can lead to positive secular changes in overall body form, secular changes in the craniofacial complex were analyzed within a recent migrant group from Mexico. The Mexican group represents individuals in the act of migration, not yet influenced by the American environment, and thus can serve as a starting point for future studies of secular change in this population group. The excavation of a historic Hispanic cemetery in Tucson, Arizona, also allows for a comparison between historic Hispanics and recent migrants to explore craniofacial trends over a broad time period, as both groups originate from Mexico. The present research addresses two main questions: (1) Are cranial secular changes evident in recent Mexican migrants? (2) Are historic Hispanics and recent Mexican migrants similar? By studying secular changes within a migrant population group, secular trends may be detected, which will be important for understanding the biological variation of the migrants themselves and will serve as a preliminary investigation of secular change within Mexican migrants. The comparison of a sample of recent Mexican migrants with a historic Hispanic sample, predominantly of Mexican origin, allows us to explore morphological similarities and differences between early and recent Mexicans within the United States. Vault and face size and a total of 82 craniofacial interlandmark distances were used to explore secular changes within the recent Mexican migrants (females, n = 38; males, n = 178) and to explore the morphological similarities between historic Hispanics (females, n = 54; males, n = 58) and recent migrants. Sexes were separated, and multivariate adaptive regression splines and basis splines (quadratic with one knot) were used to assess the direction and magnitude

  1. Original Solution for Middle Ear Implant and Anesthetic/Surgical Management in a Child with Severe Craniofacial Dysmorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bianchin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the novel solution adopted in positioning middle ear implant in a child with bilateral congenital aural atresia and craniofacial dysmorphism that have posed a significant challenge for the safe and correct management of deafness. A five-year-old child, affected by a rare congenital disease (Van Maldergem Syndrome, suffered from conductive hearing loss. Conventional skin-drive bone-conduction device, attached with a steel spring headband, has been applied but auditory restoration was not optimal. The decision made was to position Vibrant Soundbridge, a middle ear implant, with an original surgical application due to hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity. Intubation procedure was complicated due to child craniofacial deformities. Postoperative hearing rehabilitation involved a multidisciplinary team, showing improved social skills and language development.

  2. Vertical ridge augmentation using an equine bone and collagen block infused with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB: a randomized single-masked histologic study in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Myron; Al Hezaimi, Khalid; Schupbach, Peter; Karimbux, Nadeem; Kim, David M

    2012-07-01

    This study tests the effectiveness of hydroxyapatite and collagen bone blocks of equine origin (eHAC), infused with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB), to augment localized posterior mandibular defects in non-human primates (Papio hamadryas). Bilateral critical-sized defects simulating severe atrophy were created at the time of the posterior teeth extraction. Test and control blocks (without growth factor) were randomly grafted into the respective sites in each non-human primate. All sites exhibited vertical ridge augmentation, with physiologic hard- and soft-tissue integration of the blocks when clinical and histologic examinations were done at 4 months after the vertical ridge augmentation procedure. There was a clear, although non-significant, tendency to increased regeneration in the test sites. As in the first two preclinical studies in this series using canines, experimental eHAC blocks infused with rhPDGF-BB proved to be a predictable and technically viable method to predictably regenerate bone and soft tissue in critical-sized defects. This investigation supplies additional evidence that eHAC blocks infused with rhPDGF-BB growth factor is a predictable and technically feasible option for vertical augmentation of severely resorbed ridges.

  3. Skeletal dysplasia with craniofacial deformity and disproportionate dwarfism in hair sheep of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, F P M; Medeiros, G X; Figueiredo, A P M; Thompson, K; Riet-Correa, F

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a newly described form of skeletal dysplasia affecting Brazilian hair sheep of the Cabugi breed. This breed is characterized by having a short head and in some cases the animals are smaller and more compact than sheep of similar breeds. Lambs born with craniofacial abnormalities and dwarfism that die at 2-6 months of age are frequent in this breed. In a flock of 68 ewes and three rams of the Cabugi breed, 134 lambs were born over a 4-year period. Of these, 14 (10.4%) had marked cranial abnormalities and dwarfism and died or were humanely destroyed, 43 (32%) had a normal face and 77 (57.5%) had the short face characteristic of the breed. Dwarf lambs were much smaller than normal, with short legs, a domed head with retruded muzzle and protruded mandible, sternal deformities and exophthalmic eyes situated more laterally in the face than normal. Microscopical examination of long bones of the limbs, bones of the base of the skull and vertebrae showed no lesions. Bones from four affected lambs and one control lamb were macerated for morphometric examination. Although the length of the spinal cord was similar, there was disproportionate shortening of the appendicular bones, particularly the distal segments. Thus the disease was defined as a skeletal dysplasia characterized by craniofacial deformity and disproportionate dwarfism. It is suggested that the disease is inherited as an incomplete dominant trait. The shortened face, which is a feature of the Cabugi breed, may represent the heterozygous state and the more severe, often lethal, dwarfism may occur in homozygotes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Obstetric significance of fetal craniofacial duplication. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, F A; Pinto, M M; Heller, C I; Norooz, H

    1985-01-01

    Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is a rare form of conjoined twins. Whenever fetal hydrocephalus is diagnosed, a careful search for other anomalies, such as diprosopus, is mandatory. The obstetric management depends upon the time of the diagnosis.

  5. Associations between the Cervical Vertebral Column and Craniofacial Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To summarize recent studies on morphological deviations of the cervical vertebral column and associations with craniofacial morphology and head posture in nonsyndromic patients and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Design. In these recent studies, visual assessment of the cerv......Aim. To summarize recent studies on morphological deviations of the cervical vertebral column and associations with craniofacial morphology and head posture in nonsyndromic patients and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Design. In these recent studies, visual assessment...... of the cervical vertebral column and cephalometric analysis of the craniofacial skeleton were performed on profile radiographs of subjects with neutral occlusion, patients with severe skeletal malocclusions and patients with OSA. Material from human triploid foetuses and mouse embryos was analysed histologically....... Results. Recent studies have documented associations between fusion of the cervical vertebral column and craniofacial morphology, including head posture in patients with severe skeletal malocclusions. Histological studies on prenatal material supported these findings. Conclusion. It is suggested...

  6. Involuntary craniofacial lingual movements in intensive care-acquired quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena, A M; Jog, M; Young, G B

    2012-02-01

    The syndrome of involuntary craniofacial lingual movements in the setting of acute intensive care-acquired quadriplegia (critical illness neuromyopathy) following sepsis-associated encephalopathy has not been previously described. We suggest a localization and treatment for this disabling condition. Three patients (2 female) from our center were quadriplegic from critical illness neuromyopathy when they developed involuntary craniofacial lingual movements following sepsis-associated encephalopathy. Extensive investigations failed to identify an etiology for the abnormal movements. Movements were of large amplitude, of moderate speed, and semi-rhythmic in the jaw, tongue, and palate, persistent and extremely bothersome to all patients. Injection with Botulinum toxin type A was very beneficial. Involuntary craniofacial lingual movements in the setting of flaccid quadriplegia following sepsis-associated encephalopathy are consistent with focal craniofacial brainstem myoclonus and constitutes a new syndrome. Botulinum toxin type A treatment maybe helpful in treatment.

  7. Applications of Computer Technology in Complex Craniofacial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher M. Day, MD

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion:. Modern 3D technology allows the surgeon to better analyze complex craniofacial deformities, precisely plan surgical correction with computer simulation of results, customize osteotomies, plan distractions, and print 3DPCI, as needed. The use of advanced 3D computer technology can be applied safely and potentially improve aesthetic and functional outcomes after complex craniofacial reconstruction. These techniques warrant further study and may be reproducible in various centers of care.

  8. Stem cells: Update and impact on craniofacial surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, Benjamin; Glotzbach, Jason; Wong, Victor; Nelson, Emily; Hyun, Jeong; Wan, Derrick C.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Longaker, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding field of tissue engineering, surgeons have been eager to apply these principles to craniofacial surgery. Tissue engineering strategies combine the use of a cell type placed on a scaffold and subsequently implanted in vivo to address a tissue defect or tissue dysfunction. In this review we will discuss the current clinical need for skeletal and soft tissue engineering faced by craniofacial surgeons and subsequently we will explore cell types and scaffold designs bein...

  9. Vertical Ridge Augmentation of the Atrophic Posterior Mandible with Sandwich Technique: Bone Block from the Chin Area versus Corticocancellous Bone Block Allograft—Clinical and Histological Prospective Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Laino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to compare the histological aspects of bone formation in atrophic posterior mandibles augmented by autologous bone block from chin area with corticocancellous bone block allograft used as inlays with the sandwich technique. Materials and Methods. Sixteen patients with bilateral partial edentulism in the posterior mandible were selected. The residual bone height, preliminarily measured by computed tomography scans, ranged between 5 and 7 mm from the inferior alveolar nerve. All patients required regeneration procedure with autologous bone block from chin area (control group versus bone block allograft Puros (Zimmer Dental, 1900 Aston Avenue, Carlsbad, CA, USA (test group. Histological and histomorphometric samples were collected at the time of implant positioning in order to analyze the percentage of newly formed bone, the residual graft material, and marrow spaces/soft tissue. Results. No statistically significant differences between the two groups were found regarding the percentage of newly formed bone. The percentage of residual grafted material was significantly higher in the test group, whilst the percentage of marrow spaces was higher in control group. Conclusions. In conclusion, both procedures supported good results, although the use of bone blocks allograft was less invasive and preferable than harvesting bone from the mental symphysis.

  10. Adult psychological functioning of individuals born with craniofacial anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, D B; Bartlett, S P; Whitaker, L A; Paige, K T; Pertschuk, M J; Wadden, T A

    1999-02-01

    This study represents an initial investigation into the adult psychological functioning of individuals born with craniofacial disfigurement. A total of 24 men and women born with a craniofacial anomaly completed paper and pencil measures of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, and experiences of discrimination. An age- and gender-matched control group of 24 non-facially disfigured adults also completed the measures. As expected, craniofacially disfigured adults reported greater dissatisfaction with their facial appearance than did the control group. Craniofacially disfigured adults also reported significantly lower levels of self-esteem and quality of life. Dissatisfaction with facial appearance, self-esteem, and quality of life were related to self-ratings of physical attractiveness. More than one-third of craniofacially disfigured adults (38 percent) reported experiences of discrimination in employment or social settings. Among disfigured adults, psychological functioning was not related to number of surgeries, although the degree of residual facial deformity was related to increased dissatisfaction with facial appearance and greater experiences of discrimination. Results suggest that adults who were born with craniofacial disfigurement, as compared with non-facially disfigured adults, experience greater dissatisfaction with facial appearance and lower self-esteem and quality of life; however, these experiences do not seem to be universal.

  11. A new lethal sclerosing bone dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, H.M.; Freeman, J.S.; Hall, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    A neonate is described with a lethal sclerosing bone dysplasia associated with prenatal fractures and craniofacial abnormalities including microcephaly, exophthalmos, hypoplastic nose and mid-face, small jaw and nodular hyperplasia of the gums. Parental consanguinity suggests that an autosomal recessive mutation is the likely aetiology. (orig.)

  12. Giant cell reparative granuloma of the occipital bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Briz, A.; Ricoy, J.R.; Martinez-Tello, F.J.; Lobato, R.D.; Ramos, A.; Millan, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) is a non-neoplastic fibrous lesion with unevenly distributed multinucleated giant cells, areas of osseous metaplasia and hemorrhage. The small bones of the hands and feet are the most common sites, followed by the vertebral bodies and craniofacial bones. In the craniofacial bones GCRG has been reported in the temporal bone, in the frontal bone and paranasal sinus. However, to the best of our knowledge no case has been reported in the occipital bone. We report on the imaging findings and pathological features of a GCRG of the occipital bone and discuss the differential diagnosis of this entity in this particular location, especially with giant cell tumor because of the therapeutic and prognostic implications. (orig.)

  13. Current state of craniofacial prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Nina; Visser, Anita; van Oort, Robert P; Kusdhany, Lindawati; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W; Krom, Bastiaan P; van der Mei, Henry C; Vissink, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to review the current state of the techniques and materials used to rehabilitate maxillofacial defects. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles pertinent to maxillofacial prostheses published from January 1990 to July 2011. The main clinical stages were the subject of analysis. A multidisciplinary approach is preferred when rehabilitating maxillofacial defects. Surgical reconstruction can be used for smaller defects, but larger defects require a prosthesis to achieve an esthetic rehabilitation. Implant retained prostheses are preferred over adhesive prostheses. Silicone elastomer is currently the best material available for maxillofacial prostheses; however, longevity and discoloration, which are greatly influenced by ultraviolet radiation, microorganisms, and environmental factors, remain significant problems. In the near future, the widespread availability and cost effectiveness of digital systems may improve the workflow and outcomes of facial prostheses. Patients report high satisfaction with their prostheses despite some areas that still need improvement. Maxillofacial prostheses are a reliable treatment option to restore maxillofacial defects and improve quality of life. Significant progress has been made in the application of implants for retention and digital technology for designing surgical guides, suprastructures, and craniofacial prostheses. Further improvements are necessary to enhance longevity of prostheses.

  14. Craniofacial morphology in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Julsoki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: In addition to well-established physical characteristics, Turner syndrome patients have distinct craniofacial morphology. Since short stature is the most typical characteristic, Turner syndrome patients are commonly treated with growth hormone in order to increase final height. At the same time, growth hormone treatment was found to influence craniofacial growth and morphology in various groups of treated patients. Whereas craniofacial characteristics of Turner syndrome patients are well documented, comparatively little is known of craniofacial morphology of those who are treated with growth hormone. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate craniofacial morphology in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone in comparison to healthy females. Materials and methods: The cephalometric evaluation was conducted on twenty lateral cephalograms of Turner syndrome patients (13.53 ± 4.04 years treated with growth hormone for at least one year (4.94 ± 1.92 years in average. As a control group, forty lateral cephalograms of healthy female controls, who matched Turner syndrome patients by chronological (11.80 ± 2.37 years and skeletal age, were used. Eleven angular, seven linear measurements and six dimensional ratios were measured to describe craniofacial morphology. Results: The results obtained for angular measurements, in cephalometric analyses for Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone, revealed bimaxillary retrognathism. The linear measurements indicated longer mandibular ramus, anterior cranial base and both anterior and posterior facial heights. However, posterior cranial base and maxilla were in proportion to the anterior cranial base, when comparing dimensional ratios. Anterior cranial base, maxilla and mandibular ramus were larger in proportion to mandibular body; as well as posterior facial height was when compared to anterior facial height. Turner syndrome patients treated with growth

  15. Stress and displacement patterns in the craniofacial skeleton with rapid maxillary expansion—a finite element method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Priyadarshini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid maxillary expansion (RME, indicated in the treatment of maxillary deficiency directs high forces to maxillary basal bone and to other adjacent skeletal bones. The aim of this study is to (i evaluate stress distribution along craniofacial sutures and (ii study the displacement of various craniofacial structures with rapid maxillary expansion therapy by using a Finite Element model. Methods An analytical model was developed from a dried human skull of a 12 year old male. CT scan images of the skull were taken in axial direction parallel to the F-H plane at 1 mm interval, processed using Mimics software, required portion of the skull was exported into stereo-lithography model. ANSYS software was used to solve the mathematical equation. Contour plots of the displacement and stresses were obtained from the results of the analysis performed. Results At Node 47005, maximum X-displacement was 5.073 mm corresponding to the incisal edge of the upper central incisor. At Node 3971, maximum negative Y-displacement was -0.86 mm which corresponds to the anterior zygomatic arch, indicating posterior movement of craniofacial complex. At Node 32324, maximum negative Z-displacement was -0.92 mm representing the anterior and deepest convex portion of the nasal septum; indicating downward displacement of structures medial to the area of force application. Conclusions Pyramidal displacement of maxilla was evident. Apex of pyramid faced the nasal bone and base was located on the oral side. Posterosuperior part of nasal cavity moved minimally in lateral direction and width of nasal cavity at the floor of the nose increased, there was downward and forward movement of maxilla with a tendency toward posterior rotation. Maximum von Mises stresses were found along midpalatal, pterygomaxillary, nasomaxillary and frontomaxillary sutures.

  16. 75 FR 62553 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel, Secondary Data Analysis R03s: Special Emphasis Panel. Date... Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel, Special Emphasis Panel: Secondary Data Analysis R03s. Date...

  17. Analysis of Practice Settings for Craniofacial Surgery Fellowship Graduates in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Runyan, Christopher; Taylor, Jesse A

    In North America, the number of craniofacial surgery fellowship graduates is increasing, yet an analysis of practice settings upon graduation is lacking. We characterize the practice types of recent graduates of craniofacial fellowship programs in the United States and Canada. A 6-year cohort of craniofacial fellows in the United States and Canada (2010-2016) were obtained from craniofacial programs recognized by the American Society of Craniofacial Surgery. Practice setting was determined at 1 and 3 years of postgraduation, and predictors of practice setting were determined. A total of 175 craniofacial surgeons were trained at 35 fellowship programs. At 1 year of postgraduation, 33.6% had an academic craniofacial position and 27.1% were in private practice (p = 0.361). A minority of graduates pursued additional fellowships (16.4%), nonacademic craniofacial positions (10.0%), academic noncraniofacial positions (5.7%), and international practices (7.1%). At 3 years of postgraduation, the percentage of graduates in academic craniofacial positions was unchanged (34.5% vs 33.6%, p = 0.790). The strongest predictors of future academic craniofacial practice were completing plastic surgery residency at a program with a craniofacial fellowship program (odds ratio = 6.78, p < 0.001) and completing an academic craniofacial fellowship program (odds ratio = 4.48, p = 0.020). A minority of craniofacial fellowship graduates practice academic craniofacial surgery. A strong academic craniofacial surgery background during residency and fellowship is associated with a future career in academic craniofacial surgery. These data may assist trainees choose training programs that align with career goals and educators select future academic surgeons. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Improving PEEK bioactivity for craniofacial reconstruction using a 3D printed scaffold embedded with mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskies, Michael; Jordan, Jack O; Fang, Dongdong; Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Hier, Michael P; Mlynarek, Alex; Tamimi, Faleh; Tran, Simon D

    2016-07-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a bioinert thermoplastic that has been investigated for its potential use in craniofacial reconstruction; however, its use in clinical practice is limited by a poor integration with adjacent bone upon implantation. To improve the bone-implant interface, two strategies have been employed: to modify its surface or to impregnate PEEK with bioactive materials. This study attempts to combine and improve upon the two approaches by modifying the internal structure into a trabecular network and to impregnate PEEK with mesenchymal stem cells. Furthermore, we compare the newly designed PEEK scaffolds' interactions with both bone-derived (BMSC) and adipose (ADSC) stem cells. Customized PEEK scaffolds were designed to incorporate a trabecular microstructure using a computer-aided design program and then printed via selective laser sintering (SLS), a 3D-printing process with exceptional accuracy. The scaffold structure was evaluated using microCT. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate scaffold morphology with and without mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Adipose and bone marrow mesenchymal cells were isolated from rats and cultured on scaffolds. Cell proliferation and differentiation were assessed using alamarBlue and alkaline phosphatase assays, respectively. Cell morphology after one week of co-culturing cells with PEEK scaffolds was evaluated using SEM. SLS 3D printing fabricated scaffolds with a porosity of 36.38% ± 6.66 and density of 1.309 g/cm(2). Cell morphology resembled viable fibroblasts attaching to the surface and micropores of the scaffold. PEEK scaffolds maintained the viability of both ADSCs and BMSCs; however, ADSCs demonstrated higher osteodifferentiation than BMSCs (p PEEK scaffolds that maintain the viability of adipose and bone marrow-derived MSCs and induce the osteodifferentiation of the adipose-derived MSCs. The combination of 3D printed PEEK scaffolds with MSCs could overcome some of the limitations

  19. Computed tomography assessment of peripubertal craniofacial morphology in a sheep model of binge alcohol drinking in the first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Sharla M; Lenox, Mark W; Kornegay, Joe N; Shen, Li; Ai, Huisi; Ren, Xiaowei; Goodlett, Charles R; Cudd, Tim A; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-11-01

    Identification of facial dysmorphology is essential for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); however, most children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) do not meet the dysmorphology criterion. Additional objective indicators are needed to help identify the broader spectrum of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure. Computed tomography (CT) was used in a sheep model of prenatal binge alcohol exposure to test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of craniofacial bone volumes and linear distances could identify alcohol-exposed lambs. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups: heavy binge alcohol, 2.5 g/kg/day (HBA); binge alcohol, 1.75 g/kg/day (BA); saline control (SC); and normal control (NC). Intravenous alcohol (BA; HBA) or saline (SC) infusions were given three consecutive days per week from gestation day 4-41, and a CT scan was performed on postnatal day 182. The volumes of eight skull bones, cranial circumference, and 19 linear measures of the face and skull were compared among treatment groups. Lambs from both alcohol groups showed significant reduction in seven of the eight skull bones and total skull bone volume, as well as cranial circumference. Alcohol exposure also decreased four of the 19 craniofacial measures. Discriminant analysis showed that alcohol-exposed and control lambs could be classified with high accuracy based on total skull bone volume, frontal, parietal, or mandibular bone volumes, cranial circumference, or interorbital distance. Total skull volume was significantly more sensitive than cranial circumference in identifying the alcohol-exposed lambs when alcohol-exposed lambs were classified using the typical FAS diagnostic cutoff of ≤10th percentile. This first demonstration of the usefulness of CT-derived craniofacial measures in a sheep model of FASD following binge-like alcohol exposure during the first trimester suggests that volumetric measurement of cranial bones may be a novel biomarker

  20. [Observational study of craniofacial growth and development in Mexican children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijikami, T K; Cedeño Pacheco, E

    1991-01-01

    The election of a investigation about craniofacial growing and development in Mexican children, was done due to a lack of national information in this rubric and as a fundamental part of the "growing and development in the scholastic" module of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, which work hypothesis was that "craniofacial growing and development in Mexican, 6 to 12 children in Xochimilco area are due to nutritional deficiency, second dentition eruption delay and dental maloclution "which was totality confirmed in a 100 Mexican facial characteristic children field work study, with cephalometric studies which permit to determine the craniofacial growing standard. This study was corroborated with a 40 children, 4 years later follow up.

  1. Analysis of Craniofacial Images using Computational Atlases and Deformation Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur

    2008-01-01

    purposes. The basis for most of the applications is non-rigid image registration. This approach brings one image into the coordinate system of another resulting in a deformation field describing the anatomical correspondence between the two images. A computational atlas representing the average anatomy...... of asymmetry. The analyses are applied to the study of three different craniofacial anomalies. The craniofacial applications include studies of Crouzon syndrome (in mice), unicoronal synostosis plagiocephaly and deformational plagiocephaly. Using the proposed methods, the thesis reveals novel findings about...... the craniofacial morphology and asymmetry of Crouzon mice. Moreover, a method to plan and evaluate treatment of children with deformational plagiocephaly, based on asymmetry assessment, is established. Finally, asymmetry in children with unicoronal synostosis is automatically assessed, confirming previous results...

  2. An animal model to study toxicity of central nervous system therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Effects on growth and craniofacial proportion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunior, A.; Zengel, A.E.; Mullenix, P.J.; Tarbell, N.J.; Howes, A.; Tassinari, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Many long term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia have short stature, as well as craniofacial and dental abnormalities, as side effects of central nervous system prophylactic therapy. An animal model is presented to assess these adverse effects on growth. Cranial irradiation (1000 cGy) with and without prednisolone (18 mg/kg i.p.) and methotrexate (2 mg/kg i.p.) was administered to 17- and 18-day-old Sprague-Dawley male and female rats. Animals were weighed 3 times/week. Final body weight and body length were measured at 150 days of age. Femur length and craniofacial dimensions were measured directly from the bones, using calipers. For all exposed groups there was a permanent suppression of weight gain with no catch-up growth or normal adolescent growth spurt. Body length was reduced for all treated groups, as were the ratios of body weight to body length and cranial length to body length. Animals subjected to cranial irradiation exhibited microcephaly, whereas those who received a combination of radiation and chemotherapy demonstrated altered craniofacial proportions in addition to microcephaly. Changes in growth patterns and skeletal proportions exhibited sexually dimorphic characteristics. The results indicate that cranial irradiation is a major factor in the growth failure in exposed rats, but chemotherapeutic agents contribute significantly to the outcome of growth and craniofacial dimensions

  3. Automated analysis of craniofacial morphology using magnetic resonance images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mallar Chakravarty

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of craniofacial morphology is of interest to scholars working in a wide variety of disciplines, such as anthropology, developmental biology, and medicine. T1-weighted (anatomical magnetic resonance images (MRI provide excellent contrast between soft tissues. Given its three-dimensional nature, MRI represents an ideal imaging modality for the analysis of craniofacial structure in living individuals. Here we describe how T1-weighted MR images, acquired to examine brain anatomy, can also be used to analyze facial features. Using a sample of typically developing adolescents from the Saguenay Youth Study (N = 597; 292 male, 305 female, ages: 12 to 18 years, we quantified inter-individual variations in craniofacial structure in two ways. First, we adapted existing nonlinear registration-based morphological techniques to generate iteratively a group-wise population average of craniofacial features. The nonlinear transformations were used to map the craniofacial structure of each individual to the population average. Using voxel-wise measures of expansion and contraction, we then examined the effects of sex and age on inter-individual variations in facial features. Second, we employed a landmark-based approach to quantify variations in face surfaces. This approach involves: (a placing 56 landmarks (forehead, nose, lips, jaw-line, cheekbones, and eyes on a surface representation of the MRI-based group average; (b warping the landmarks to the individual faces using the inverse nonlinear transformation estimated for each person; and (3 using a principal components analysis (PCA of the warped landmarks to identify facial features (i.e. clusters of landmarks that vary in our sample in a correlated fashion. As with the voxel-wise analysis of the deformation fields, we examined the effects of sex and age on the PCA-derived spatial relationships between facial features. Both methods demonstrated significant sexual dimorphism in

  4. The fourth dimension in simulation surgery for craniofacial surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, T

    2001-03-01

    The intracranial volume was measured in all 18 cases of craniosynostosis and craniofacial synostosis with 3DCT using a modification of Miyake's formula, with a 6 years' follow-up. 1: There were no cases where the intracranial volume was less than the modified Miyake's formula. 2: Total cranial reshaping, compared to the local forehead advancement, was effective in increasing the intracranial cavity and growth postoperatively. 3: In cases of craniofacial synostosis, there is a possibility that mental retardation will develop if the intracranial volume tends to increase rapidly and more than expected.

  5. Complications in paediatric craniofacial surgery: an initial four year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B M; Jani, P; Bingham, R M; Mackersie, A M; Hayward, R

    1992-04-01

    107 children undergoing transcranial craniofacial surgery in a paediatric hospital have been reviewed to assess the incidence and type of complications which arose. This represents the first 4 years' experience of the craniofacial team. There were no deaths or permanent adverse sequelae of surgery. A total of 53 complications were seen in 42 patients. In 9.3% of patients they were potentially life-threatening, serious in 12.1% and of a minor nature in 28%. The more serious complications were related either to haemorrhage and/or vasovagal shock at operation or to infection post-operatively. Infants undergoing monoblock frontofacial advancements and those with tracheostomies were at particular risk.

  6. Heat adaptation of bioabsorbable craniofacial plates: a critical review of science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, William S

    2009-11-01

    Bioabsorbable fixation plates often require adaptation to the bone. This is typically accomplished by heating the plates to above the glass transition temperature and placing the softened plates against the bone or a prebent template until cool. Upon cooling, the plates regain stiffness and can be attached to bone to obtain anatomic fixation. This procedure is both efficient and effective and has been used throughout the craniofacial skeleton. There are many types of equipment available to heat the plates, each with advantages and disadvantages. Although a conceptually simple process, there are several nuances that have been reported in the literature, including transient effects on plate mechanical properties, memory effects, differences between wet and dry heating, and others. Upon the backdrop of the overwhelming clinical success of heat adaptation, this review critically evaluates the method and provides a comprehensive examination and explanation of the basic science and technology involved. This should help give surgeons a better understanding of the process that can help improve their use and further advance the technology.

  7. Changes in craniofacial development due to modifications of the treatment of unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smahel, Z; Müllerova, Z; Nejedly, A; Horak, I

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the craniofacial morphology of children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) resulting from differing management protocols practiced in Prague from 1945 to 1976. The craniofacial morphologies of four groups of patients were compared. Two groups were assessed retrospectively (individuals born from 1945 to 1963), and two groups were followed on a longitudinal basis (individuals born from 1966 to 1976). The study was conducted at the Cleft Lip and Palate Center at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Prague, which has a catchment area population of 6 million. The subjects were a consecutive series of adult males (n = 84) who had complete UCLP without associated malformations. Patients born from 1945 to 1955 did not receive centralized orthodontic therapy. From 1945 to 1965, the alveolar process in the area of the cleft was not surgically repaired. Primary bone grafting was used for the group born from 1965 to 1972, and primary periosteoplasty was used in the subsequent period. Throughout the period covered by the study, the palate was operated on by pushback and pharyngeal flap surgery. From 1945 to 1965, the lip was repaired initially according to Veau, and later according to Tennison and Randall, and during this time, fixed appliances were used for orthodontic treatment. The results for the period from 1945 to 1955 are characterized by mandibular overclosure with anterior crossbite. Centralized orthodontic treatment in the later period improved sagittal jaw relations due to the posterior displacement of the mandible and an edge-to-edge bite was attained, but maxillary retrusion was unchanged. Primary bone grafting increased retrusion of the maxilla, which was compensated by further posterior displacement of the mandible. An edge-to-edge bite was also obtained. Primary periosteoplasty reduced maxillary retrusion, and the marked proclination of the upper dentoalveolar component with fixed appliances resulted in a

  8. Etiologies of pediatric craniofacial injuries: a comparison of injuries involving all-terrain vehicles and golf carts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lauren C; McKinnon, Brian J; Hughes, C Anthony

    2013-03-01

    To determine incidence and etiologies of craniofacial injuries in the pediatric population through comparison of injuries caused by all-terrain vehicles and golf cart trauma. Case series with chart review. Level 1 trauma center. Retrospective review of pediatric traumas at a tertiary academic medical center from 2003 to 2012 identified 196 patients whose injuries resulted from accidents involving either all-terrain vehicles or golf carts. Data was collected and variables such as age, gender, driver vs. passenger, location of accident, Glasgow coma scale, Injury severity scale, Abbreviated injury scale, and presence or absence of helmet use were examined. 196 pediatric patients were identified: 68 patients had injuries resulting from golf cart accidents, and 128 patients from ATV accidents. 66.4% of ATV-related traumas were male, compared to 52.9% of golf cart-related traumas. Ages of injured patients were similar between the two modalities with average age of ATV traumas 10.8 (±4.0) years and golf cart traumas 10.0 (±4.6) years. Caucasians were most commonly involved in both ATV (79.7%) and golf cart traumas (85.3%). 58.6% of all ATV related trauma and 69.1% of all golf cart trauma resulted in craniofacial injuries. The most common craniofacial injury was a closed head injury with brief loss of consciousness, occurring in 46.1% of the ATV traumas and 54.4% of the golf cart traumas. Temporal bone fractures were the second most common type of craniofacial injury, occurring in 5.5% of ATV accidents and 7.4% of the golf cart traumas. Length of hospital stay and, cases requiring surgery and severity scores were similar between both populations. Intensive care admissions and injury severity scores approached but not reach statistical significance (0.096 and 0.083, respectively). The only statistically significant differences between the two modalities were helmet use (P=0.00018%) and days requiring ventilator assistance (P=0.025). ATVs and golf carts are often exempt

  9. Growth hormone positive effects on craniofacial complex in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juloski, Jovana; Dumančić, Jelena; Šćepan, Ivana; Lauc, Tomislav; Milašin, Jelena; Kaić, Zvonimir; Dumić, Miroslav; Babić, Marko

    2016-11-01

    Turner syndrome occurs in phenotypic females with complete or partial absence of X chromosome. The leading symptom is short stature, while numerous but mild stigmata manifest in the craniofacial region. These patients are commonly treated with growth hormone to improve their final height. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of long-term growth hormone therapy on craniofacial morphology in Turner syndrome patients. In this cross-sectional study cephalometric analysis was performed on 13 lateral cephalograms of patients with 45,X karyotype and the average age of 17.3 years, who have received growth hormone for at least two years. The control group consisted of 13 Turner syndrome patients naive to growth hormone treatment, matched to study group by age and karyotype. Sixteen linear and angular measurements were obtained from standard lateral cephalograms. Standard deviation scores were calculated in order to evaluate influence of growth hormone therapy on craniofacial components. In Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone most of linear measurements were significantly larger compared to untreated patients. Growth hormone therapy mainly influenced posterior face height, mandibular ramus height, total mandibular length, anterior face height and maxillary length. While the increase in linear measurements was evident, angular measurements and facial height ratio did not show statistically significant difference. Acromegalic features were not found. Long-term growth hormone therapy has positive influence on craniofacial development in Turner syndrome patients, with the greatest impact on posterior facial height and mandibular ramus. However, it could not compensate X chromosome deficiency and normalize craniofacial features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Academic Productivity of Faculty Associated With Craniofacial Surgery Fellowship Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qing Zhao; Ricci, Joseph A; Silvestre, Jason; Ho, Olivia A; Ganor, Oren; Lee, Bernard T

    2017-11-01

    The H-index is increasingly being used as a measure of academic productivity and has been applied to various surgical disciplines. Here the authors calculate the H-index of craniofacial surgery fellowship faculty in North America in order to determine its utility for academic productivity among craniofacial surgeons. A list of fellowship programs was obtained from the website of the American Society of Craniofacial Surgery. Faculty demographics and institution characteristics were obtained from official program websites and the H-index was calculated using Scopus (Elsevier, USA). Data were assessed using bivariate analysis tools (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests) to determine the relationship between independent variables and career publications, H-index and 5-year H-index (H5-index) of faculty. Dunn test for multiple comparisons was also calculated. A total of 102 faculty members from 29 craniofacial surgery fellowship programs were identified and included. Faculty demographics reflected a median age of 48 (interquartile range [IQR] 13), a predominantly male sample (88/102, 89.7%), and the rank of assistant professor being the most common among faculty members (41/102, 40.2%). Median of career publications per faculty was 37 (IQR 52.5) and medians of H-index and H5-index were 10.0 (IQR 13.75) and 3.5 (IQR 3.25), respectively. Greater age, male gender, Fellow of the American College of Surgeons membership, higher academic rank, and program affiliation with ranked research medical schools were significantly associated with higher H-indices. Variables associated with seniority were positively associated with the H-index. These results suggest that the H-index may be used as an adjunct in determining academic productivity for promotions among craniofacial surgeons.

  11. Vertical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antill, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the trend in international energy companies towards vertical integration in the gas chain from wellhead to power generation, horizontal integration in refining and marketing businesses, and the search for larger projects with lower upstream costs. The shape of the petroleum industry in the next millennium, the creation of super-major oil companies, and the relationship between size and risk are discussed. The dynamics of vertical integration, present events and future developments are considered. (UK)

  12. Ordinary Cannulated Compression Screws or Headless Cannulated Compression Screws? A Synthetic Bone Biomechanical Research in the Internal Fixation of Vertical Femoral Neck Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baokun Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to verify whether the headless cannulated compression screw (HCCS has higher biomechanical stability than the ordinary cannulated compression screw (OCCS in the treatment of vertical femoral neck fractures. Materials and Methods. 30 synthetic femur models were equally divided into 2 groups, with 50°, 60°, and 70° Pauwels angle of femoral neck fracture, under 3D printed guiding plates and C-arm fluoroscopic guidance. The femur molds were fixed with three parallel OCCSs as OCCS group and three parallel HCCSs as HCCS group. All specimens were tested for compressive strength and maximum load to failure with a loading rate of 2 mm/min. Results. The result showed that there was no significant difference with the compressive strength in the Pauwels angle of 50° and 60°. However, we observed that the maximum load to failure with the Pauwels angle of 50°, 60°, and 70° and the compressive strength with 70° of HCCS group showed better performance than the OCCS group. Conclusion. HCCS performs with better biomechanical stability than OCCS in the treatment of vertical femoral neck fracture, especially with the Pauwels angle of 70°.

  13. Thin-plate spline analysis of allometry and sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Antonio; Bastir, Markus

    2002-03-01

    The relationship between allometry and sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial complex was analyzed using geometric morphometric methods. Thin-plate splines (TPS) analysis has been applied to investigate the lateral profile of complete adult skulls of known sex. Twenty-nine three-dimensional (3D) craniofacial and mandibular landmark coordinates were recorded from a sample of 52 adult females and 52 adult males of known age and sex. No difference in the influence of size on shape was detected between sexes. Both size and sex had significant influences on shape. As expected, the influence of centroid size on shape (allometry) revealed a shift in the proportions of the neurocranium and the viscerocranium, with a marked allometric variation of the lower face. Adjusted for centroid size, males presented a relatively larger size of the nasopharyngeal space than females. A mean-male TPS transformation revealed a larger piriform aperture, achieved by an increase of the angulation of the nasal bones and a downward rotation of the anterior nasal floor. Male pharynx expansion was also reflected by larger choanae and a more posteriorly inclined basilar part of the occipital clivus. Male muscle attachment sites appeared more pronounced. In contrast, the mean-female TPS transformation was characterized by a relatively small nasal aperture. The occipital clivus inclined anteriorly, and muscle insertion areas became smoothed. Besides these variations, both maxillary and mandibular alveolar regions became prognathic. The sex-specific TPS deformation patterns are hypothesized to be associated with sexual differences in body composition and energetic requirements. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. In vitro quantification of strain patterns in the craniofacial skeleton due to masseter and temporalis activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloul, Asmaa; Regev, Eran; Whyne, Cari M; Beek, Marteen; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2012-09-01

    Many complications in craniofacial surgery can be attributed to a lack of characterization of facial skeletal strain patterns. This study aimed to delineate human midfacial strain patterns under uniform muscle loading. The left sides of 5 fresh-frozen human cadaveric heads were dissected of all soft tissues except the temporalis and masseter muscles. Tensile forces were applied to the free mandibular ends of the muscles. Maxillary alveolar arches were used to restrain the skulls. Eight strain gauges were bonded to the surface of the midface to measure the strain under single muscle loading conditions (100 N). Maxillary strain gauges revealed a biaxial load state for both muscles. Thin antral bone experienced high maximum principal tensile strains (maximum of 685.5 με) and high minimum principal compressive strains (maximum of -722.44 με). Similar biaxial patterns of lower magnitude were measured on the zygoma (maximum of 208.59 με for maximum principal strains and -78.11 με for minimum principal strains). Results, consistent for all specimens and counter to previously accepted concepts of biomechanical behavior of the midface under masticatory muscle loading, included high strain in the thin maxillary antral wall, rotational bending through the maxilla and zygoma, and a previously underestimated contribution of the temporalis muscle. This experimental model produced repeatable strain patterns quantifying the mechanics of the facial skeleton. These new counterintuitive findings underscore the need for accurate characterization of craniofacial strain patterns to address problems in the current treatment methods and develop robust design criteria.

  15. Coordinate Systems Integration for Craniofacial Database from Multimodal Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Suwardhi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a data registration method for craniofacial spatial data of different modalities. The data consists of three dimensional (3D vector and raster data models. The data is stored in object relational database. The data capture devices are Laser scanner, CT (Computed Tomography scan and CR (Close Range Photogrammetry. The objective of the registration is to transform the data from various coordinate systems into a single 3-D Cartesian coordinate system. The standard error of the registration obtained from multimodal imaging devices using 3D affine transformation is in the ranged of 1-2 mm. This study is a step forward for storing the craniofacial spatial data in one reference system in database.

  16. RSK2 is a modulator of craniofacial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Laugel-Haushalter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The RSK2 gene is responsible for Coffin-Lowry syndrome, an X-linked dominant genetic disorder causing mental retardation, skeletal growth delays, with craniofacial and digital abnormalities typically associated with this syndrome. Craniofacial and dental anomalies encountered in this rare disease have been poorly characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined, using X-Ray microtomographic analysis, the variable craniofacial dysmorphism and dental anomalies present in Rsk2 knockout mice, a model of Coffin-Lowry syndrome, as well as in triple Rsk1,2,3 knockout mutants. We report Rsk mutation produces surpernumerary teeth midline/mesial to the first molar. This highly penetrant phenotype recapitulates more ancestral tooth structures lost with evolution. Most likely this leads to a reduction of the maxillary diastema. Abnormalities of molar shape were generally restricted to the mesial part of both upper and lower first molars (M1. Expression analysis of the four Rsk genes (Rsk1, 2, 3 and 4 was performed at various stages of odontogenesis in wild-type (WT mice. Rsk2 is expressed in the mesenchymal, neural crest-derived compartment, correlating with proliferative areas of the developing teeth. This is consistent with RSK2 functioning in cell cycle control and growth regulation, functions potentially responsible for severe dental phenotypes. To uncover molecular pathways involved in the etiology of these defects, we performed a comparative transcriptomic (DNA microarray analysis of mandibular wild-type versus Rsk2-/Y molars. We further demonstrated a misregulation of several critical genes, using a Rsk2 shRNA knock-down strategy in molar tooth germs cultured in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals RSK2 regulates craniofacial development including tooth development and patterning via novel transcriptional targets.

  17. Ciliopathy Protein Tmem107 Plays Multiple Roles in Craniofacial Development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Celá, Petra; Hampl, Marek; Shylo, N.; Christopher, K. J.; Kavková, M.; Landová, Marie; Zikmund, T.; Weatherbee, S. D.; Kaiser, J.; Buchtová, Marcela

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2018), s. 108-117 ISSN 0022-0345 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GB14-37368G; GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : craniofacial anomalies * growth/development * mineralized tissue/development * orofacial clefts * cell signaling Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 4.755, year: 2016

  18. Redundant roles of PRDM family members in zebrafish craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hai-Lei; Clouthier, David E; Artinger, Kristin B

    2013-01-01

    PRDM proteins are evolutionary conserved Zn-Finger transcription factors that share a characteristic protein domain organization. Previous studies have shown that prdm1a is required for the specification and differentiation of neural crest cells in the zebrafish. Here we examine other members of this family, specifically prdm3, 5, and 16, in the differentiation of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton. prdm3 and prdm16 are strongly expressed in the pharyngeal arches, while prdm5 is expressed specifically in the area of the forming neurocranium. Knockdown of prdm3 and prdm16 results in a reduction in the neural crest markers dlx2a and barx1 and defects in both the viscerocranium and the neurocranium. The knockdown of prdm3 and prdm16 in combination is additive in the neurocranium, but not in the viscerocranium. Injection of sub-optimal doses of prdm1a with prdm3 or prdm16 Morpholinos together leads to more severe phenotypes in the viscerocranium and neurocranium. prdm5 mutants have defects in the neurocranium and prdm1a and prdm5 double mutants also show more severe phenotypes. Overall, our data reveal that prdm3, 5, and 16 are involved in the zebrafish craniofacial development and that prdm1a may interact with prdm3, 5, and 16 in the formation of the craniofacial skeleton in zebrafish. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  20. 3D craniofacial registration using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yucong; Zhao, Junli; Deng, Qingqiong; Duan, Fuqing

    2017-01-01

    Craniofacial registration is used to establish the point-to-point correspondence in a unified coordinate system among human craniofacial models. It is the foundation of craniofacial reconstruction and other craniofacial statistical analysis research. In this paper, a non-rigid 3D craniofacial registration method using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection is proposed. First, the gradient descent optimization is utilized to improve a cylindrical surface fitting (CSF) for the reference craniofacial model. Second, the thin-plate spline transform (TPST) is applied to deform a target craniofacial model to the reference model. Finally, the cylindrical surface projection (CSP) is used to derive the point correspondence between the reference and deformed target models. To accelerate the procedure, the iterative closest point ICP algorithm is used to obtain a rough correspondence, which can provide a possible intersection area of the CSP. Finally, the inverse TPST is used to map the obtained corresponding points from the deformed target craniofacial model to the original model, and it can be realized directly by the correspondence between the original target model and the deformed target model. Three types of registration, namely, reflexive, involutive and transitive registration, are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed craniofacial registration algorithm. Comparison with the methods in the literature shows that the proposed method is more accurate.

  1. 3D craniofacial registration using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucong Chen

    Full Text Available Craniofacial registration is used to establish the point-to-point correspondence in a unified coordinate system among human craniofacial models. It is the foundation of craniofacial reconstruction and other craniofacial statistical analysis research. In this paper, a non-rigid 3D craniofacial registration method using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection is proposed. First, the gradient descent optimization is utilized to improve a cylindrical surface fitting (CSF for the reference craniofacial model. Second, the thin-plate spline transform (TPST is applied to deform a target craniofacial model to the reference model. Finally, the cylindrical surface projection (CSP is used to derive the point correspondence between the reference and deformed target models. To accelerate the procedure, the iterative closest point ICP algorithm is used to obtain a rough correspondence, which can provide a possible intersection area of the CSP. Finally, the inverse TPST is used to map the obtained corresponding points from the deformed target craniofacial model to the original model, and it can be realized directly by the correspondence between the original target model and the deformed target model. Three types of registration, namely, reflexive, involutive and transitive registration, are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed craniofacial registration algorithm. Comparison with the methods in the literature shows that the proposed method is more accurate.

  2. Craniofacial features of children with spinal deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Végh András

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this epidemiological study is to map the dentofacial anomalies that can be correlated to the two most frequent spinal diseases responsible for postural abnormalities and that can be clinically identified by the orthodontic examination. Methods Twenty-three children with Scheuermann's disease participated in the study (mean age: 14Y8M; SD: 1Y8M, 28 with Scoliosis (mean age: 14Y7M; SD: 2Y3M and a control group of 68 orthopedically healthy children (mean age: 14Y8M; SD: 0Y11M. Standardized orthodontic screening protocols were used to map the occlusal relations in the sagittal, vertical, and transversal dimensions, space relations of the maxillary and mandibular frontal segment, and the TMJ status and function. The examinations for the children with orthopedic disorders were supplemented by the evaluation of routine orthodontic radiograms – lateral cephalograms and panoramic X-rays. Results The majority of the dentofacial features examined revealed more and greater abnormalities among patients in the Scheuermann's disease group than in the scoliosis group. In the latter group the proportion of the TMJ symptoms and the consecutive functional deviations were greater. When comparing the values of the two spinal-disorder groups and the control group, statistically significant differences (p p Conclusion The more extended treatment of the malocclusions closely correlated to postural disorders draws attention to the indicators of a higher frequency and severity occurring in the case of the dentofacial deviations in the patients of the MSCH group who had previously been less examined.

  3. Maternal environment and craniofacial growth: geometric morphometric analysis of mandibular shape changes with in utero thyroxine overexposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterke, Matthew J; Judd, Margaret A; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Howie, R Nicole; Weinberg, Seth M; Cray, James J

    2018-07-01

    An estimated 3% of US pregnancies are affected by maternal thyroid dysfunction, with between one and three of every 1000 pregnancies being complicated by overactive maternal thyroid levels. Excess thyroid hormones are linked to neurological impairment and excessive craniofacial variation, affecting both endochondral and intramembranous bone. Using a geometric morphometric approach, this study evaluates the role of in utero thyroxine overexposure on the growth of offspring mandibles in a sample of 241 mice. Canonical variate analysis utilized 16 unilateral mandibular landmarks obtained from 3D micro-computed tomography to assess shape changes between unexposed controls (n = 63) and exposed mice (n = 178). By evaluating shape changes in the mandible among three age groups (15, 20 and 25 days postnatal) and different dosage levels (low, medium and high), this study found that excess maternal thyroxine alters offspring mandibular shape in both age- and dosage-dependent manners. Group differences in overall shape were significant (P < 0.001), and showed major changes in regions of the mandible associated with muscle attachment (coronoid process, gonial angle) and regions of growth largely governed by articulation with the cranial base (condyle) and occlusion (alveolus). These results compliment recent studies demonstrating that maternal thyroxine levels can alter the cranial base and cranial vault of offspring, contributing to a better understanding of both normal and abnormal mandibular development, as well as the medical implications of craniofacial growth and development. © 2018 Anatomical Society.

  4. A novel approach for craniofacial symmetry evaluation: Using the midsagittal Reference line drawn from “Crista Gali” with NHP technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ordobazari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Ordobazari M, Naqavi Al-Hosseini AA, Zafarmand H. A novel approach for craniofacial symmetry evaluation: Using the midsagittal Reference line drawn from “Crista Gali” with NHP technique. Novel Biomed 2013;1(2:48-53.Background and objective: The purpose of this study was the determination of midsagittal reference line (MSL for craniofacial asymmetry assessment by drawing a line from Crista gali parallel to the true vertical line in PA cephalometry, using Natural Head Position (NHP technique.Method and Materials: 60 Iranian subjects within the age range of 9-13 years old were selected for this prospective study. Patients referred for orthodontic treatment and ghad no supernumerary or missing teeth, no skeletal anomaly, or any history of orthodontic and jaw surgery with normal occlusion. Posteroanterior cephalometric radiographs (PA Ceph were taken of all subjects with NHP technique. The midsagittal line was also traced parallel to the hanging chain from Crista gali. True horizontal line (THL and true vertical line (TVL were also traced from Crista gali (Cg. Using Cartesian system based upon Cg point (0~0, the craniofacial symmetry was assessed with linear, angular and proportional measurements in PA cephalogam, related to TVL and THL lines, for 10 bilateral (R&L anatomical landmarks. The mean differences of the above measurements in left and right sides were analyzed by T- test.Results: The proportional ratios for all left and right measurements were not statistically significant. This was true for both vertical and horizontal distances. The significant level for MSL drawn from Cg as referred to ANS (0±0.255 and Me points (0.007±0.527 was 0.002 and 0.004, respectively.Conclusion: In posteroanterior cephalometry radiographs taken with NHP method, the MSL drawn from Crista gali is reproducible and reliable up to 96% of the times for facial symmetry diagnosis.

  5. Classification of bone scintigrams in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kazunari; Miyamae, Tatsuya

    1985-01-01

    Bone scintigrams from a total of 75 hemodialysis patients using sup(99m)Tc-methylene-diphosphonate (MDP) were classified into two groups; Group I (56 patients) in which the uptake of the radioactivity appeared to be relatively high in the soft tissue and low in the bone, and Group II (19 patients) in which high uptake in the bone and low uptake in the soft tissue were observed. Patients in Group I were further classified into two subgroups; Group I sub(A) (articular type, 21 patients) which was characterized by relatively high uptake into the joint, and Group I sub(B) (reduction type, 35 patients) where uptake was faint in the whole region of the bone. The classification of patients in Group II was also performed; Group II sub(A) (spinal type, 14 patients) where high spinal uptake was observed, and Group II sub(B) (cranio-facial type, 5 patients) where high uptake into the cranio-facial region was observed. The results were compared with 146 subjects with normal bone scintigram in terms of the ratio of bone to soft tissue uptake (B/S ratio) for the cranial bone, jaw bone, lumbar vertebra and femoral bone, and the ratio of epiphysis to diaphysis uptake (E/D ratio) for the femoral bone. The B/S ratio was low in Group I and high in Group II for the bone studied, and the E/D ratio was markedly high in Group I sub(A). Histobiochemical examination indicated that patients in Group I sub(A) and Group II may have osteomalacia and secondary hyperparathyroidism, respectively. It was considered that the visual classification and semiquantitative study as described here were useful for evaluating the pathological condition of renal osteodystrophy. (author)

  6. Classification of bone scintigrams in hemodialysis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Kazunari; Miyamae, Tatsuya

    1985-03-01

    Bone scintigrams from a total of 75 hemodialysis patients using /sup 99m/Tc-methylene-diphosphonate (MDP) were classified into two groups; Group I (56 patients) in which the uptake of the radioactivity appeared to be relatively high in the soft tissue and low in the bone, and Group II (19 patients) in which high uptake in the bone and low uptake in the soft tissue were observed. Patients in Group I were further classified into two subgroups; Group I sub(A) (articular type, 21 patients) which was characterized by relatively high uptake into the joint, and Group I sub(B) (reduction type, 35 patients) where uptake was faint in the whole region of the bone. The classification of patients in Group II was also performed; Group II sub(A) (spinal type, 14 patients) where high spinal uptake was observed, and Group II sub(B) (cranio-facial type, 5 patients) where high uptake into the cranio-facial region was observed. The results were compared with 146 subjects with normal bone scintigram in terms of the ratio of bone to soft tissue uptake (B/S ratio) for the cranial bone, jaw bone, lumbar vertebra and femoral bone, and the ratio of epiphysis to diaphysis uptake (E/D ratio) for the femoral bone. The B/S ratio was low in Group I and high in Group II for the bone studied, and the E/D ratio was markedly high in Group I sub(A). Histobiochemical examination indicated that patients in Group I sub(A) and Group II may have osteomalacia and secondary hyperparathyroidism, respectively. It was considered that the visual classification and semiquantitative study as described here were useful for evaluating the pathological condition of renal osteodystrophy.

  7. 75 FR 82033 - National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... and Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... 31C, 31 Center Drive, 6th Floor, Conference Room 10, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, PhD, Director, Division of Extramural Activities, Natl. Inst. of Dental and Craniofacial Research...

  8. 76 FR 51995 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... 31 C, 31 Center Drive, 6th Floor, Conference Room 10, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, PhD, Director, Division of Extramural Activities, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial...

  9. A stereotactic system for guiding complex craniofacial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; Phillips, J H; Gruss, J S; Kassel, E E; Zuker, R M

    1992-02-01

    A stereotactic system has been designed to address the problem of achieving symmetry in complex and extensive craniofacial defects. Preliminary testing suggests that such a system, which allows for the intraoperative application of preoperative CT planning, will be useful in guiding the reconstruction of congenital or acquired bony time, is being used to investigate the correlation of intraoperative globe position following enophthalmos correction with long-term outcome, particularly as it relates to the size and location of the orbital defect, and the timing of the procedure.

  10. Craniofacial morphology in Chinese female twins: a semi-longitudinal cephalometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jing; Deng, Hui; Cao, CaiFang; Ishikawa, Masaaki

    2005-12-01

    It would be of benefit to have a better understanding of the relative effects of genetics and environmental factors on craniofacial parameters when undertaking orthodontic therapy and treatment planning. However, there is a lack of such information in pre-adolescents. The aim of this study was to verify the degree of genetic and environmental contribution to the growth of the facial skeleton in twins aged 6 to 12 years. The material comprised the lateral cephalograms of 89 pairs of female twins in Beijing, China, of whom 61 pairs were diagnosed by DNA analysis as monozygotic (MZ) and 28 pairs as dizygotic (DZ). Four main groups (with a starting age of 6, 7, 9 and 11 years) were studied in a semi-longitudinal manner, with a sub-group further investigated for 2-4 consecutive years. The total sample therefore consisted of 183 pairs (MZ 110, DZ 73) aged from 6 to 12 years. The depths of the cranial base, mid and lower face were measured, as well as anterior and posterior face height. A two-tailed t-test showed significant environmental effects on lower face depth (P < 0.01), whilst genetic effects on face height were also significant (P < 0.01). The results suggest that early orthodontic intervention would have a greater influence on the antero-posterior rather than on the vertical plane of growth.

  11. Craniofacial and brain abnormalities in Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, L; Horev, G; Schwarz, M; Karmazyn, B; Laron, Z

    2002-04-01

    To investigate abnormalities in the craniofacial structures and in the brain in patients with Laron syndrome. Eleven patients with classical Laron syndrome, nine untreated adults aged 36-68 years and two children aged 4 and 9 years (the latter treated by IGF-I), were studied. Magnetic resonance images of the brain were obtained in all the patients. One patient also underwent computed tomography. The maximal diameter of the maxillary and frontal sinuses was measured and compared with reference values, the size of the sphenoid sinus was evaluated in relation to the sella, and the mastoids were evaluated qualitatively (small or normal). The brain was evaluated for congenital anomalies and parenchymal lesions. In the adult untreated patients, the paranasal sinuses and mastoids were small; in six patients, the bone marrow in the base of the skull was not mature. The diploe of the calvaria was thin. On computed tomography in one adult patient, the sutures were still open. A minimal or mild degree of diffuse brain parenchymal loss was seen in ten patients. One patient demonstrated a lacunar infarct and another periventricular high signals on T2-weighted images. Two patients had cerebellar atrophy. The present study has demonstrated the important role IGF-I plays in the development of the brain and bony structures of the cranium.

  12. Deletion of Menin in craniofacial osteogenic cells in mice elicits development of mandibular ossifying fibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Liu, P; Teinturier, R; Jakob, J; Tschaffon, M; Tasdogan, A; Wittig, R; Hoeller, S; Baumhoer, D; Frappart, L; Vettorazzi, S; Bertolino, P; Zhang, C; Tuckermann, J

    2018-02-01

    Ossifying fibroma (OF) is a rare benign tumor of the craniofacial bones that can reach considerable and disfiguring dimensions if left untreated. Although the clinicopathological characteristics of OF are well established, the underlying etiology has remained largely unknown. Our work indicates that Men1-a tumor suppressor gene responsible of Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-is critical for OF formation and shows that mice with targeted disruption of Men1 in osteoblasts (Men1 Runx2Cre ) develop multifocal OF in the mandible with a 100% penetrance. Using lineage-tracing analysis, we demonstrate that loss of Men1 arrests stromal osteoprogenitors in OF at the osterix-positive pre-osteoblastic differentiation stage. Analysis of Men1-lacking stromal spindle cells isolated from OF (OF-derived MSCs (OFMSCs)) revealed a downregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor Cdkn1a, consistent with an increased proliferation rate. Intriguingly, the re-expression of Men1 in Men1-deficient OFMSCs restored Cdkn1a expression and abrogated cellular proliferation supporting the tumor-suppressive role of Men1 in OF. Although our work presents the first evidence of Men1 in OF development, it further provides the first genetic mouse model of OF that can be used to better understand the molecular pathogenesis of these benign tumors and to potentially develop novel treatment strategies.

  13. Craniofacial Trauma in Pediatric Patients Following Winnowing Blade Injury-review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huliyappa, Harsha; Ojha, Balakrishna; Chandra, Anil; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Srivastava, Chhitij

    2018-01-01

    In developing countries, during the harvest season, winnower blade injuries occur very frequently in children and results in lifelong disability. Nine children were managed during 1 month, all resulting due to winnower blade induced craniofacial trauma. PubMed search for "fan blade injury" showed two case series and three case reports. In our study, 88% had compound depressed fracture; brain matter leak in 56%, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak alone in 22%. 66.7% had injury involving the frontal bone. Two patients had eye injury with visual loss. Seven underwent debridement craniectomy, five augmentation duroplasty and three contusectomy. All had vegetable material, sand particles. Complications in 66.6% with two cases of CSF leak settled with lumbar drain, one case of CSF otorrohea, 22.2% of wound infection, 44.4% wound dehiscence requiring redebridement and suturing in five patients. Two patients had postoperative seizures, two patients had hemiparesis both improved. Two low Glasgow Coma Scale remained so on postoperative period. One case of subdural empyema needed debridement and duroplasty with glue. No mortality noted. These findings were consistent with previous reports. Follow-up at 1.5 months showed good functional recovery. Early surgery debridement, steps to minimize postoperative infections, identifying putative risk factors early in the management are the principles of a successful treatment regimen.

  14. Operative correction and follow-up of craniofacial duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrikova, Bibiana; Hassfeld, Stefan; Steiner, Hans H; Hähnel, Stefan; Krempien, Robert; Mühling, Joachim

    2007-03-01

    Anterior craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is an extremely rare form of conjoined twins. The children share a single trunk with normal extremities and varying degrees of facial malformation. Duplication of specific structures, such as the nose (diprosopus dirrhinus), eyes (diprosopus tetraophthalmus), and ears, is possible. The authors present a case of partial facial duplication (diprosopus dirrhinus) in a male infant. The clinical and radiographic findings and the surgical correction and follow-up are described. In a single surgical session, the authors were able to achieve not only a functionally but also an aesthetically acceptable result. In the postoperative course, the child showed nearly normal growth and satisfactory psychosocial and motor development. However, 40 months postoperatively, we noticed a tendency of the orbitae to diverge (i.e., toward hypertelorism). The surgical management of complex craniofacial malformations such as diprosopus needs a precise morphologic analysis of the patient's deformity followed by a clear treatment plan. A staged reconstructive approach is carried out to coincide with facial growth patterns and brain and eye function. If the interorbital distance in our patient increases progressively, a second operation for reduction of the interorbital distance may be necessary.

  15. Craniofacial Surgery and Adverse Outcomes: An Inquiry Into Medical Negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svider, Peter F; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Folbe, Adam J; Carron, Michael A; Zuliani, Giancarlo F; Shkoukani, Mahdi A

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate factors contributing to medical negligence relevant to craniofacial surgery. Retrospective analysis of verdict and settlement reports on the Westlaw legal database for outcome, awards, physician defendants, and other specific factors raised in malpractice litigation. Of 42 verdicts and settlement reports included, 52.4% were resolved with either an out-of-court settlement or plaintiff verdict, with aggregate payments totaling $50.1M (in 2013 dollars). Median settlements and jury-awarded damages were $988,000 and $555,000, respectively. Payments in pediatric cases ($1.2M) were significantly higher. Plastic surgeons, oral surgeons, and otolaryngologists were the most commonly named defendants. The most common alleged factors included intraoperative negligence (69.0%), permanent deficits (54.8%), requiring additional surgery (52.4%), missed/delayed diagnosis of a complication (42.9%), disfigurement/scarring (28.6%), postoperative negligence (28.6%), and inadequate informed consent (20.6% of surgical cases). Failure to diagnose a fracture (19.0%) and cleft-reparative procedures (14.3%) were the most frequently litigated entities. Medical negligence related to craniofacial surgery involves plaintiffs in a wide age range as well as physician defendants in numerous specialties, and proceedings resolved with settlement and plaintiff verdict involve substantial payments. Cases with death, allegedly permanent injuries, and pediatric plaintiffs had significantly higher payments. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Creation of three-dimensional craniofacial standards from CBCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyan, Krishna; Palomo, Martin; Hans, Mark

    2006-03-01

    Low-dose three-dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is becoming increasingly popular in the clinical practice of dental medicine. Two-dimensional Bolton Standards of dentofacial development are routinely used to identify deviations from normal craniofacial anatomy. With the advent of CBCT three dimensional imaging, we propose a set of methods to extend these 2D Bolton Standards to anatomically correct surface based 3D standards to allow analysis of morphometric changes seen in craniofacial complex. To create 3D surface standards, we have implemented series of steps. 1) Converting bi-plane 2D tracings into set of splines 2) Converting the 2D splines curves from bi-plane projection into 3D space curves 3) Creating labeled template of facial and skeletal shapes and 4) Creating 3D average surface Bolton standards. We have used datasets from patients scanned with Hitachi MercuRay CBCT scanner providing high resolution and isotropic CT volume images, digitized Bolton Standards from age 3 to 18 years of lateral and frontal male, female and average tracings and converted them into facial and skeletal 3D space curves. This new 3D standard will help in assessing shape variations due to aging in young population and provide reference to correct facial anomalies in dental medicine.

  17. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unni, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  18. Fibulin-5 deficiency causes developmental defect of premaxillary bone in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Kazuo; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Komatsu, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Craniofacial sutures govern the shape of the craniofacial skeleton during postnatal development. The differentiation of suture mesenchymal cells to osteoblasts is precisely regulated in part by signaling through cell surface receptors that interact with extracellular proteins. Here we report that fibulin-5, a key extracellular matrix protein, is important for craniofacial skeletal development in mice. Fibulin-5 is deposited as a fibrous matrix in cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal tissues, including craniofacial sutures. Fibulin-5-null mice show decreased premaxillary bone outgrowth during postnatal stages. While premaxillo-maxillary suture mesenchymal cells in fibulin-5-null mice were capable of differentiating into osteoblasts, suture cells in mutant mice were less proliferative. Our study provides the first evidence that fibulin-5 is indispensable for the regulation of facial suture mesenchymal cell proliferation required for craniofacial skeletal morphogenesis. - Highlights: • Fibulin-5 is deposited in cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal tissues. • Fibulin-5-null mice show decreased premaxillary bone growth during postnatal stage. • Fibulin-5 is indispensable for facial suture mesenchymal cell proliferation.

  19. Fibulin-5 deficiency causes developmental defect of premaxillary bone in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kazuo, E-mail: knoda@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Pediatrics, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Nakamura, Tomoyuki [Department of Pharmacology, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Komatsu, Yoshihiro [Department of Pediatrics, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Graduate Program in Genes and Development, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2015-10-23

    Craniofacial sutures govern the shape of the craniofacial skeleton during postnatal development. The differentiation of suture mesenchymal cells to osteoblasts is precisely regulated in part by signaling through cell surface receptors that interact with extracellular proteins. Here we report that fibulin-5, a key extracellular matrix protein, is important for craniofacial skeletal development in mice. Fibulin-5 is deposited as a fibrous matrix in cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal tissues, including craniofacial sutures. Fibulin-5-null mice show decreased premaxillary bone outgrowth during postnatal stages. While premaxillo-maxillary suture mesenchymal cells in fibulin-5-null mice were capable of differentiating into osteoblasts, suture cells in mutant mice were less proliferative. Our study provides the first evidence that fibulin-5 is indispensable for the regulation of facial suture mesenchymal cell proliferation required for craniofacial skeletal morphogenesis. - Highlights: • Fibulin-5 is deposited in cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal tissues. • Fibulin-5-null mice show decreased premaxillary bone growth during postnatal stage. • Fibulin-5 is indispensable for facial suture mesenchymal cell proliferation.

  20. Diagnostic imaging of craniofacial trauma and fractures and their sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago-Tellez, C.H.; Kunz, C.

    2001-01-01

    The value and applications of the CT modalities are on the rise, particularly since the availability of spiral CT techniques, while conventional native diagnostics is increasingly used for special imaging purposes. Multiplanar spiral CT enables high-quality coronary 2D reconstructions which, in the acute phase, make redundant primary coronary imaging modalities. Exact knowledge of typical fracture patterns facilitates the analysis of images of the relevant facial areas. 3D reconstructions are indispensable in pin-pointed surgery planning, generation of stereolithographic models, and image-guided interventions for examination of post-traumatic deformities. Since a secondary correction only very rarely leads to restitutio ad integrum, it is necessary to detect the therapy-relevant injuries very early, during acute diagnostic imaging, in order to lay the basis for subsequent therapy and restoration of the craniofacial structures and functions. (orig./CB) [de

  1. The effects of tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene therapy on craniosynostosis and craniofacial morphology in the FGFR2C342Y/+ mouse model of Crouzon craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, E; Nam, H K; Liu, J; Hatch, N E

    2015-04-01

    Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of cranial bones, has traditionally been described as a disease of increased bone mineralization. However, multiple mouse models of craniosynostosis display craniosynostosis simultaneously with diminished cranial bone volume and/or density. We propose an alternative hypothesis that craniosynostosis results from abnormal tissue mineralization through the downregulation of tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) enzyme downstream of activating mutations in FGFRs. Neonatal Crouzon (FGFRC342Y/+) and wild-type (FGFR+/+) mice were injected with lentivirus to deliver a recombinant form of TNAP. Mice were sacrificed at 4 weeks postnatal. Serum was collected to test for alkaline phosphatase (AP), phosphorus, and calcium levels. Craniofacial bone fusion and morphology were assessed by micro-computed tomography. Injection with the TNAP lentivirus significantly increased serum AP levels (increased serum AP levels are indicative of efficient transduction and production of the recombinant protein), but results were variable and dependent upon viral lot and the litter of mice injected. Morphological analysis revealed craniofacial form differences for inferior surface (p=0.023) and cranial height (p=0.014) regions between TNAP lentivirus-injected and vehicle-injected Crouzon mice. With each unit increase in AP level, the odds of lambdoid suture fusion decreased by 84.2% and these results came close to statistical significance (p=0.068). These results suggest that TNAP deficiency may mediate FGFR2-associated craniosynostosis. Future studies should incorporate injection of recombinant TNAP protein, to avoid potential side effects and variable efficacy of lentiviral gene delivery. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus): report of a case with a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, S S; Hammouri, M F

    1995-01-01

    A case of craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is presented. Details on this rare form of conjoined twins are described, and the proposed theories of its embryogenesis are discussed with brief review of the pertinent literature.

  3. 77 FR 35990 - National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel; Molecular Characterization of Salivary Tumors RFA: R01 and R21...: Jayalakshmi Raman, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Institute of Dental...

  4. Extensive expression of craniofacial related homeobox genes in canine mammary sarcomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensman, H.; Goransson, H.; Leuchowius, K.J.; Stromberg, S.; Ponten, F.; Isaksson, A.; Rutteman, G.R.; Heldin, N.; Pejler, G.; Hellmen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Extensive expression of craniofacial related homeobox genes in canine mammary sarcomas Journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment Publisher Springer Netherlands ISSN 0167-6806 (Print) 1573-7217 (Online) Issue Volume 118, Number 2 / November, 2009 Category Preclinical Study DOI

  5. The Role of Sonic Hedgehog in Craniofacial Patterning, Morphogenesis and Cranial Neural Crest Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Sebastian; Boglev, Yeliz; Owens, Harley; Goldie, Stephen J

    2016-08-03

    Craniofacial defects (CFD) are a significant healthcare problem worldwide. Understanding both the morphogenetic movements which underpin normal facial development, as well as the molecular factors which regulate these processes, forms the cornerstone of future diagnostic, and ultimately, preventative therapies. The soluble morphogen Sonic hedgehog ( Shh ), a vertebrate orthologue of Drosophila hedgehog , is a key signalling factor in the regulation of craniofacial skeleton development in vertebrates, operating within numerous tissue types in the craniofacial primordia to spatiotemporally regulate the formation of the face and jaws. This review will provide an overview of normal craniofacial skeleton development, and focus specifically on the known roles of Shh in regulating the development and progression of the first pharyngeal arch, which in turn gives rise to both the upper jaw (maxilla) and lower jaw (mandible).

  6. The Role of Sonic Hedgehog in Craniofacial Patterning, Morphogenesis and Cranial Neural Crest Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Dworkin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial defects (CFD are a significant healthcare problem worldwide. Understanding both the morphogenetic movements which underpin normal facial development, as well as the molecular factors which regulate these processes, forms the cornerstone of future diagnostic, and ultimately, preventative therapies. The soluble morphogen Sonic hedgehog (Shh, a vertebrate orthologue of Drosophila hedgehog, is a key signalling factor in the regulation of craniofacial skeleton development in vertebrates, operating within numerous tissue types in the craniofacial primordia to spatiotemporally regulate the formation of the face and jaws. This review will provide an overview of normal craniofacial skeleton development, and focus specifically on the known roles of Shh in regulating the development and progression of the first pharyngeal arch, which in turn gives rise to both the upper jaw (maxilla and lower jaw (mandible.

  7. 78 FR 45934 - The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Strategic Plan Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... diseases and disorders, has a distinguished record of supporting research to advance the oral health of the... revolutionizing how we understand, prevent, diagnose and manage dental, oral, and craniofacial diseases and...

  8. The future of research in craniofacial biology and what this will mean for oral health professional education and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, H C

    2014-06-01

    Today, and looking to the future, scientific discoveries from cellular, developmental and molecular biology inform our understanding of cell, tissue and organ morphogenesis as exemplified in skin, bone, cartilage, dentine, enamel, muscle, nerve and many organs such as salivary glands and teeth. Present day biomedical science yields principles for the biomimetic design and fabrication of cells, tissues and organs. Bioengineering has become a strategy that can 'mimic' biological processes, and inform clinical procedures for tissue and organ replacements. The future of regenerative craniofacial biology holds enormous promise for the diagnosis and treatment of congenital birth defects, traumatic injuries, degenerative chronic diseases as well as for Mendelian single gene and complex multigene diseases and disorders. The past 50 years have heralded the completion of the human genome and the introduction of 'personalized medicine and dentistry', the utilization of stem cell therapy for an array of diseases and disorders, the 'proof of principle' to reverse select inherited diseases such as anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (ED), and the fruits from interdisciplinary research drawn from the diverse biomedical sciences. Looking to the future, we can readily anticipate as major goals to emphasize the clinician's role in identifying clinical phenotypes that can lead to differential diagnosis, and rejuvenate missing or damaged tissues by establishing processes for the utilization of gene, cell and/or protein therapies. The future is replete with remarkable opportunities to enhance clinical outcomes for congenital as well as acquired craniofacial malformations. Clinicians play a pivotal role because critical thinking and sound clinical acumen substantially improve diagnostic precision and thereby clinical health outcomes. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  9. The fusion of craniofacial reconstruction and microsurgery: a functional and aesthetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, Justin M; Abt, Nicholas B; Shridharani, Sachin M; Bojovic, Branko; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Dorafshar, Amir H

    2014-10-01

    Reconstruction of large, composite defects in the craniofacial region has evolved significantly over the past half century. During this time, there have been significant advances in craniofacial and microsurgical surgery. These contributions have often been in parallel; however, over the past 10 years, these two disciplines have begun to overlap more frequently, and the techniques of one have been used to advance the other. In the current review, the authors aim to describe the available options for free tissue reconstruction in craniofacial surgery. A review of microsurgical reconstructive options of aesthetic units within the craniofacial region was undertaken with attention directed toward surgeon flap preference. Anatomical areas analyzed included scalp, calvaria, forehead, frontal sinus, nose, maxilla and midface, periorbita, mandible, lip, and tongue. Although certain flaps such as the ulnar forearm flap and lateral circumflex femoral artery-based flaps were used in multiple reconstructive sites, each anatomical location possesses a unique array of flaps to maximize outcomes. Craniofacial surgery, like plastic surgery, has made tremendous advancements in the past 40 years. With innovations in technology, flap design, and training, microsurgery has become safer, faster, and more commonplace than at any time in history. Reconstructive microsurgery allows the surgeon to be creative in this approach, and free tissue transfer has become a mainstay of modern craniofacial reconstruction.

  10. Image fusion in craniofacial virtual reality modeling based on CT and 3dMD photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Pengfei; Yu, Hongbo; Cheng, Huanchong; Shen, Shunyao; Shen, Steve G F

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of building a craniofacial virtual reality model by image fusion of 3-dimensional (3D) CT models and 3 dMD stereophotogrammetric facial surface. A CT scan and stereophotography were performed. The 3D CT models were reconstructed by Materialise Mimics software, and the stereophotogrammetric facial surface was reconstructed by 3 dMD patient software. All 3D CT models were exported as Stereo Lithography file format, and the 3 dMD model was exported as Virtual Reality Modeling Language file format. Image registration and fusion were performed in Mimics software. Genetic algorithm was used for precise image fusion alignment with minimum error. The 3D CT models and the 3 dMD stereophotogrammetric facial surface were finally merged into a single file and displayed using Deep Exploration software. Errors between the CT soft tissue model and 3 dMD facial surface were also analyzed. Virtual model based on CT-3 dMD image fusion clearly showed the photorealistic face and bone structures. Image registration errors in virtual face are mainly located in bilateral cheeks and eyeballs, and the errors are more than 1.5 mm. However, the image fusion of whole point cloud sets of CT and 3 dMD is acceptable with a minimum error that is less than 1 mm. The ease of use and high reliability of CT-3 dMD image fusion allows the 3D virtual head to be an accurate, realistic, and widespread tool, and has a great benefit to virtual face model.

  11. Mandibular transformations in prepubertal patients following treatment for craniofacial microsomia: thin-plate spline analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, A D; Singh, G D

    2000-01-01

    To analyze correction of mandibular deformity using an inverted L osteotomy and autogenous bone graft in patients exhibiting unilateral craniofacial microsomia (CFM), thin-plate spline analysis was undertaken. Preoperative, early postoperative, and approximately 3.5-year postoperative posteroanterior cephalographs of 15 children (age 10+/-3 years) with CFM were scanned, and eight homologous mandibular landmarks digitized. Average mandibular geometries, scaled to an equivalent size, were generated using Procrustes superimposition. Results indicated that the mean pre- and postoperative mandibular configurations differed statistically (PThin-plate spline analysis indicated that the total spline (Cartesian transformation grid) of the pre- to early postoperative configuration showed mandibular body elongation on the treated side and inferior symphyseal displacement. The affine component of the total spline revealed a clockwise rotation of the preoperative configuration, whereas the nonaffine component was responsible for ramus, body, and symphyseal displacements. The transformation grid for the early and late postoperative comparison showed bilateral ramus elongation. A superior symphyseal displacement contrasted with its earlier inferior displacement, the affine component had translocated the symphyseal landmarks towards the midline. The nonaffine component demonstrated bilateral ramus lengthening, and partial warps suggested that these elongations were slightly greater on the nontreated side. The affine component of the pre- and late postoperative comparison also demonstrated a clockwise rotation. The nonaffine component produced the bilateral ramus elongations-the nontreated side ramus lengthening slightly more than the treated side. It is concluded that an inverted L osteotomy improves mandibular morphology significantly in CFM patients and permits continued bilateral ramus growth. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Influence of prenatal EGCG treatment and Dyrk1a dosage reduction on craniofacial features associated with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElyea, Samantha D; Starbuck, John M; Tumbleson-Brink, Danika M; Harrington, Emily; Blazek, Joshua D; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Kula, Katherine; Roper, Randall J

    2016-11-15

    Trisomy 21 (Ts21) affects craniofacial precursors in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The resultant craniofacial features in all individuals with Ts21 may significantly affect breathing, eating and speaking. Using mouse models of DS, we have traced the origin of DS-associated craniofacial abnormalities to deficiencies in neural crest cell (NCC) craniofacial precursors early in development. Hypothetically, three copies of Dyrk1a (dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), a trisomic gene found in most humans with DS and mouse models of DS, may significantly affect craniofacial structure. We hypothesized that we could improve DS-related craniofacial abnormalities in mouse models using a Dyrk1a inhibitor or by normalizing Dyrk1a gene dosage. In vitro and in vivo treatment with Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a Dyrk1a inhibitor, modulated trisomic NCC deficiencies at embryonic time points. Furthermore, prenatal EGCG treatment normalized some craniofacial phenotypes, including cranial vault in adult Ts65Dn mice. Normalization of Dyrk1a copy number in an otherwise trisomic Ts65Dn mice normalized many dimensions of the cranial vault, but did not correct all craniofacial anatomy. These data underscore the complexity of the gene–phenotype relationship in trisomy and suggest that changes in Dyrk1a expression play an important role in morphogenesis and growth of the cranial vault. These results suggest that a temporally specific prenatal therapy may be an effective way to ameliorate some craniofacial anatomical changes associated with DS.

  13. Restoration of a Critical Mandibular Bone Defect Using Human Alveolar Bone-Derived Stem Cells and Porous Nano-HA/Collagen/PLA Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal bone defects occur in a wide variety of clinical situations. Adult stem cell- and biomaterial-based bone tissue regeneration are a promising alternative to natural bone grafts. Recent evidence has demonstrated that two populations of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs can be distinguished based on their embryonic origins. These BMSCs are not interchangeable, as bones preferentially heal using cells that share the same embryonic origin. However, the feasibility of tissue engineering using human craniofacial BMSCs was unclear. The goal of this study was to explore human craniofacial BMSC-based therapy for the treatment of localized mandibular defects using a standardized, minimally invasive procedure. The BMSCs’ identity was confirmed. Scanning electron microscopy, a cell proliferation assay, and supernatant detection indicated that the nHAC/PLA provided a suitable environment for aBMSCs. Real-time PCR and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays demonstrated that osteogenic markers were upregulated by osteogenic preinduction. Moreover, in a rabbit critical-size mandibular bone defect model, total bone formation in the nHAC/PLA + aBMSCs group was significantly higher than in the nHAC/PLA group but significantly lower than in the nHAC/PLA + preinduced aBMSCs. These findings demonstrate that this engineered bone is a valid alternative for the correction of mandibular bone defects.

  14. Restoration of a Critical Mandibular Bone Defect Using Human Alveolar Bone-Derived Stem Cells and Porous Nano-HA/Collagen/PLA Scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Xing, Helin; Zhang, Guilan; Wu, Xia; Zou, Xuan; Feng, Lin; Wang, Dongsheng; Li, Meng; Zhao, Jing; Du, Jianwei; Lv, Yan; E, Lingling; Liu, Hongchen

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal bone defects occur in a wide variety of clinical situations. Adult stem cell- and biomaterial-based bone tissue regeneration are a promising alternative to natural bone grafts. Recent evidence has demonstrated that two populations of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) can be distinguished based on their embryonic origins. These BMSCs are not interchangeable, as bones preferentially heal using cells that share the same embryonic origin. However, the feasibility of tissue engineering using human craniofacial BMSCs was unclear. The goal of this study was to explore human craniofacial BMSC-based therapy for the treatment of localized mandibular defects using a standardized, minimally invasive procedure. The BMSCs' identity was confirmed. Scanning electron microscopy, a cell proliferation assay, and supernatant detection indicated that the nHAC/PLA provided a suitable environment for aBMSCs. Real-time PCR and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays demonstrated that osteogenic markers were upregulated by osteogenic preinduction. Moreover, in a rabbit critical-size mandibular bone defect model, total bone formation in the nHAC/PLA + aBMSCs group was significantly higher than in the nHAC/PLA group but significantly lower than in the nHAC/PLA + preinduced aBMSCs. These findings demonstrate that this engineered bone is a valid alternative for the correction of mandibular bone defects. PMID:27118977

  15. Craniofacial and maxillary anomalies: Anesthetic implications and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in the craniofacial surgery has imposed challenges on the attending anesthesiologist for the successful conduct reconstructive surgery. The anesthesiologist remains a key person in the multidisciplinary tasks involved in such surgery. Most of these patients belong to smaller age group and have difficult airway due to various syndromes associated with it. The other major problems faced by the anesthesiologist in such surgery are intra-operative hypothermia due to prolonged surgery and significant blood loss as well as fluid shifts associated with it. A well-equipped intensive care unit is a must for the post-operative care of such patients. Even the adult patients coming for maxillofacial trauma surgery require careful vigilance both intra-operatively as well as post-operatively due to frequent difficult airway associated with it. A careful pre-operative evaluation and discussion with the surgeons, proper planning for airway management, intra-operative care and post-operative intensive care backup is required for the successful outcome in these surgeries. The current review is an attempt to describe in short the important anesthesia aspects and challenges related to various cranio-maxillary lesions.

  16. Opitz C syndrome: Trigonocephaly, mental retardation and craniofacial dysmorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Avina Fierro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 4-year-old female child with a dysmorphic and neurological syndrome of trigonocephaly, mental and psychomotor retardation and dysmorphic facial features. The anomalies of the face were the following: slight upward palpebral fissures, ocular hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge, hypoplastic nasal root, short nose with anteverted nares; small low set ears, smooth broad philtrum and thin upper lip. The patient had important cerebral anomalies with diffuse alterations in white matter that caused developmental delay with verbal and nonverbal disabilities and severe learning difficulties. This clinical presentation is compatible with the diagnosis of the Opitz C syndrome, a heterogeneous disease of multiple neurological and craniofacial abnormalities. The physical sign more detectable and notorious is the trigonocephaly that is manifested by a prominent metopic suture, but also can be distinguished the other minor facial anomalies that are found in the eyes, nose, mouth and ears that constitute the phenotype of the disorder. The neurological development was altered by the compression of the cerebral frontal lobes with narrowing of this cerebral area, producing hypotonia with muscle weakness, epileptic episodes manifested by seizures, and neurobehavioral and neurocognitive disorders. This syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance trait; our patient had no chromosomal abnormality in the usual karyotype but the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique showed a balanced translocation between the chromosomes two and eleven: t(2:11 (q32.2/q24.

  17. Analysis of an In-Service Examination for Core Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Chang, Benjamin; Taylor, Jesse A

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about designing an effective residency curriculum for pediatric craniofacial surgery. This study elucidates the pediatric craniofacial curriculum of the Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Examination (PSITE) to facilitate knowledge acquisition during residency. Approximately, 6 consecutive PSITEs were reviewed for pediatric craniofacial questions (2010-2015). Subjects were categorized according to topics on the American Board of Plastic Surgery written board examination. Questions were categorized using an educational taxonomy model. Answer references were categorized by source and publication lag. Of 1174 PSITE questions, 147 tested pediatric craniofacial topics (12.5%). Questions appeared predominately in the Craniomaxillofacial section (83.0%, p < 0.001). The annual representation was stable more than 6 years (range: 10.2%-14.4%, p = 0.842). Question taxonomy favored interpretation (45.6%) and decision-making (40.8%) over recall (13.6%, p < 0.001) skills, and 41 questions had an associated image (27.9%) and most were photographic (76.7%, p < 0.001). The most frequently tested categories on the American Board of Plastic Surgery written examination content outline were craniofacial anomalies (23.5%), benign and malignant tumors (17.6%), and cleft lip and palate (12.5%). Overall, 80 unique journals were cited 304 times with a mean publication lag of 9.4 ± 10.9 years. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (34.5%) was the most cited journal (p < 0.001). These data may assist in designating core knowledge competency in pediatric craniofacial surgery for plastic surgery residents. A further understanding of PSITE utility for core knowledge competency in pediatric craniofacial surgery would be the focus of future work. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rehabilitative treatment of cleft lip and palate: experience of the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies - USP (HRAC-USP) - Part 2: Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    FREITAS, José Alberto de Souza; GARIB, Daniela Gamba; OLIVEIRA, Thais Marchini; LAURIS, Rita de Cássia Moura Carvalho; de ALMEIDA, Ana Lúcia Pompéia Fraga; NEVES, Lucimara Teixeira; TRINDADE-SUEDAM, Ivy Kiemle; YAEDÚ, Renato Yassutaka Faria; SOARES, Simone; PINTO, João Henrique Nogueira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the pediatric dentistry and orthodontic treatment protocol of rehabilitation of cleft lip and palate patients performed at the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies - University of São Paulo (HRAC-USP). Pediatric dentistry provides oral health information and should be able to follow the child with cleft lip and palate since the first months of life until establishment of the mixed dentition, craniofacial growth and dentition development. Orthodontic intervention starts in the mixed dentition, at 8-9 years of age, for preparing the maxillary arch for secondary bone graft procedure (SBGP). At this stage, rapid maxillary expansion is performed and a fixed palatal retainer is delivered before SBGP. When the permanent dentition is completed, comprehensive orthodontic treatment is initiated aiming tooth alignment and space closure. Maxillary permanent canines are commonly moved mesially in order to substitute absent maxillary lateral incisors. Patients with complete cleft lip and palate and poor midface growth will require orthognatic surgery for reaching adequate anteroposterior interarch relationship and good facial esthetics. PMID:22666849

  19. Rehabilitative treatment of cleft lip and palate: experience of the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies - USP (HRAC-USP - Part 2: Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto de Souza Freitas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the pediatric dentistry and orthodontic treatment protocol of rehabilitation of cleft lip and palate patients performed at the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies - University of São Paulo (HRAC-USP. Pediatric dentistry provides oral health information and should be able to follow the child with cleft lip and palate since the first months of life until establishment of the mixed dentition, craniofacial growth and dentition development. Orthodontic intervention starts in the mixed dentition, at 8-9 years of age, for preparing the maxillary arch for secondary bone graft procedure (SBGP. At this stage, rapid maxillary expansion is performed and a fixed palatal retainer is delivered before SBGP. When the permanent dentition is completed, comprehensive orthodontic treatment is initiated aiming tooth alignment and space closure. Maxillary permanent canines are commonly moved mesially in order to substitute absent maxillary lateral incisors. Patients with complete cleft lip and palate and poor midface growth will require orthognatic surgery for reaching adequate anteroposterior interarch relationship and good facial esthetics.

  20. Rehabilitative treatment of cleft lip and palate: experience of the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies-USP (HRAC-USP)--part 2: pediatric dentistry and orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, José Alberto de Souza; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Oliveira, Marchini; Lauris, Rita de Cássia Moura Carvalho; Almeida, Ana Lúcia Pompéia Fraga de; Neves, Lucimara Teixeira; Trindade-Suedam, Ivy Kiemle; Yaedú, Renato Yassutaka Faria; Soares, Simone; Pinto, João Henrique Nogueira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the pediatric dentistry and orthodontic treatment protocol of rehabilitation of cleft lip and palate patients performed at the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies-University of São Paulo (HRAC-USP). Pediatric dentistry provides oral health information and should be able to follow the child with cleft lip and palate since the first months of life until establishment of the mixed dentition, craniofacial growth and dentition development. Orthodontic intervention starts in the mixed dentition, at 8-9 years of age, for preparing the maxillary arch for secondary bone graft procedure (SBGP). At this stage, rapid maxillary expansion is performed and a fixed palatal retainer is delivered before SBGP. When the permanent dentition is completed, comprehensive orthodontic treatment is initiated aiming tooth alignment and space closure. Maxillary permanent canines are commonly moved mesially in order to substitute absent maxillary lateral incisors. Patients with complete cleft lip and palate and poor midface growth will require orthognatic surgery for reaching adequate anteroposterior interarch relationship and good facial esthetics.

  1. Autologously generated tissue-engineered bone flaps for reconstruction of large mandibular defects in an ovine model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatara, A.M.; Kretlow, J.D.; Spicer, P.P.; Lu, S.; Lam, J.; Liu, W.; Cao, Y.; Liu, G.; Jackson, J.D.; Yoo, J.J.; Atala, A.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Jansen, J.A.; Kasper, F.K.; Ho, T.; Demian, N.; Miller, M.J.; Wong, M.E.; Mikos, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of large craniofacial defects remains a significant clinical challenge. The complex geometry of facial bone and the lack of suitable donor tissue often hinders successful repair. One strategy to address both of these difficulties is the development of an in vivo bioreactor, where

  2. Post-traumatic cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea associated with craniofacial fibrous dysplasia:Case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Li; Qiangyi Zhou; Zhijun Yang; Zhenmin Wang; Shiwei Li; Xingchao Wang; Bo Wang; Fu Zhao; Pinan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Fibrous dysplasia(FD) is an unusual developmental abnormality of the skeleton. When facial and cranial bones are involved in FD, it is termed craniofacial fibrous dysplasia(CFD). Although several reports have reported that CFD has a tendency for spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) leakage, there have been no related English-language case reports. We present the first case of post-traumatic CSF rhinorrhea associated with CFD. Methods: A 30-year-old man presented with CSF rhinorrhea after a mild head trauma. Computed tomography cisternogram located a defect in the posterior wall of the right frontal sinus. Imaging examination also showed the evident expansion of multiple skull bones, spinal scoliosis, and multiple local enlargements of ribs.Without café-au-lait cutaneous spots and endocrine abnormalities, polyostotic FD was diagnosed instead of Mc Cune-Albright syndrome(MAS). The patient underwent craniotomy fistula repair surgery. The excised bone was contoured to be thinner to increase the cranial cavity. The patient recovered well and CSF leakage did not recur.But during a nineteen-month follow up, sight in the patient’s left eye was decreased.MAS was suspected. Unfortunately the patient refused to take the proposed decompression surgery and laboratory tests of serum hormones. Conclusions: CFD, if the wall of the paranasal sinus is involved and the cranial cavity is decreased, may increase the risk of CSF rhinorrhea after head trauma.Expectant management is recommended in asymptomatic CFD patients even in the presence of optic nerve compression. As MAS may cause more problems, it should be precluded before polyostotic FD is diagnosed.

  3. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate, compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7 defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5 defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5 defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5 defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6 defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2–5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01 and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06 of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30 and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88 of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone.

  4. Craniofacial morphometric analysis of individuals with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alice F; Larson, Jacinda R; Jones, Kyle B; Liberton, Denise K; Landan, Maya; Wang, Zhifeng; Boekelheide, Anne; Langham, Margaret; Mushegyan, Vagan; Oberoi, Snehlata; Brao, Rosalie; Wen, Timothy; Johnson, Ramsey; Huttner, Kenneth; Grange, Dorothy K; Spritz, Richard A; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Jheon, Andrew H; Klein, Ophir D

    2014-09-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most prevalent type of ectodermal dysplasia (ED). ED is an umbrella term for a group of syndromes characterized by missing or malformed ectodermal structures, including skin, hair, sweat glands, and teeth. The X-linked recessive (XL), autosomal recessive (AR), and autosomal dominant (AD) types of HED are caused by mutations in the genes encoding ectodysplasin (EDA1), EDA receptor (EDAR), or EDAR-associated death domain (EDARADD). Patients with HED have a distinctive facial appearance, yet a quantitative analysis of the HED craniofacial phenotype using advanced three-dimensional (3D) technologies has not been reported. In this study, we characterized craniofacial morphology in subjects with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) by use of 3D imaging and geometric morphometrics (GM), a technique that uses defined landmarks to quantify size and shape in complex craniofacial morphologies. We found that the XLHED craniofacial phenotype differed significantly from controls. Patients had a smaller and shorter face with a proportionally longer chin and midface, prominent midfacial hypoplasia, a more protrusive chin and mandible, a narrower and more pointed nose, shorter philtrum, a narrower mouth, and a fuller and more rounded lower lip. Our findings refine the phenotype of XLHED and may be useful both for clinical diagnosis of XLHED and to extend understanding of the role of EDA in craniofacial development.

  5. Three-Dimensional Bioprinting for Regenerative Dentistry and Craniofacial Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregon, F; Vaquette, C; Ivanovski, S; Hutmacher, D W; Bertassoni, L E

    2015-09-01

    Craniofacial tissues are organized with complex 3-dimensional (3D) architectures. Mimicking such 3D complexity and the multicellular interactions naturally occurring in craniofacial structures represents one of the greatest challenges in regenerative dentistry. Three-dimensional bioprinting of tissues and biological structures has been proposed as a promising alternative to address some of these key challenges. It enables precise manufacture of various biomaterials with complex 3D architectures, while being compatible with multiple cell sources and being customizable to patient-specific needs. This review describes different 3D bioprinting methods and summarizes how different classes of biomaterials (polymer hydrogels, ceramics, composites, and cell aggregates) may be used for 3D biomanufacturing of scaffolds, as well as craniofacial tissue analogs. While the fabrication of scaffolds upon which cells attach, migrate, and proliferate is already in use, printing of all the components that form a tissue (living cells and matrix materials together) to produce tissue constructs is still in its early stages. In summary, this review seeks to highlight some of the key advantages of 3D bioprinting technology for the regeneration of craniofacial structures. Additionally, it stimulates progress on the development of strategies that will promote the translation of craniofacial tissue engineering from the laboratory bench to the chair side. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  6. Forecasting craniofacial growth in individuals with class III malocclusion by computational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auconi, Pietro; Scazzocchio, Marco; Defraia, Efisio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2014-04-01

    To develop a mathematical model that adequately represented the pattern of craniofacial growth in class III subject consistently, with the goal of using this information to make growth predictions that could be amenable to longitudinal verification and clinical use. A combination of computational techniques (i.e. Fuzzy clustering and Network analysis) was applied to cephalometric data derived from 429 untreated growing female patients with class III malocclusion to visualize craniofacial growth dynamics and correlations. Four age groups of subjects were examined individually: from 7 to 9 years of age, from 10 to 12 years, from 13 to 14 years, and from 15 to 17 years. The connections between pathway components of class III craniofacial growth can be visualized from Network profiles. Fuzzy clustering analysis was able to define further growth patterns and coherences of the traditionally reported dentoskeletal characteristics of this structural imbalance. Craniofacial growth can be visualized as a biological, space-constraint-based optimization process; the prediction of individual growth trajectories depends on the rate of membership to a specific 'winner' cluster, i.e. on a specific individual growth strategy. The reliability of the information thus gained was tested to forecast craniofacial growth of 28 untreated female class III subjects followed longitudinally. The combination of Fuzzy clustering and Network algorithms allowed the development of principles for combining multiple auxological cephalometric features into a joint global model and to predict the individual risk of the facial pattern imbalance during growth.

  7. Application of three-dimensional computed tomography in craniofacial clinical practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P J; Yong, R; Surman, T L; Rajion, Z A; Ranjitkar, S

    2014-06-01

    Following the invention of the first computed tomography (CT) scanner in the early 1970s, many innovations in three-dimensional (3D) diagnostic imaging technology have occurred, leading to a wide range of applications in craniofacial clinical practice and research. Three-dimensional image analysis provides superior and more detailed information compared with conventional plain two-dimensional (2D) radiography, with the added benefit of 3D printing for preoperative treatment planning and regenerative therapy. Current state-of-the-art multidetector CT (MDCT), also known as medical CT, has an important role in the diagnosis and management of craniofacial injuries and pathology. Three-dimensional cone beam CT (CBCT), pioneered in the 1990s, is gaining increasing popularity in dental and craniofacial clinical practice because of its faster image acquisition at a lower radiation dose, but sound guidelines are needed to ensure its optimal clinical use. Recent innovations in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) have revolutionized craniofacial biology research by enabling higher resolution scanning of teeth beyond the capabilities of MDCT and CBCT, presenting new prospects for translational clinical research. Even after four decades of refinement, CT technology continues to advance and broaden the horizons of craniofacial clinical practice and phenomics research. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  8. Clinical Applications of S53P4 Bioactive Glass in Bone Healing and Osteomyelitic Treatment: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. P. van Gestel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, S53P4 bioactive glass is indicated as a bone graft substitute in various clinical applications. This review provides an overview of the current published clinical results on indications such as craniofacial procedures, grafting of benign bone tumour defects, instrumental spondylodesis, and the treatment of osteomyelitis. Given the reported results that are based on examinations, such as clinical examinations by the surgeons, radiographs, CT, and MRI images, S53P4 bioactive glass may be beneficial in the various reported applications. Especially in craniofacial reconstructions like mastoid obliteration and orbital floor reconstructions, in grafting bone tumour defects, and in the treatment of osteomyelitis very promising results are obtained. Randomized clinical trials need to be performed in order to determine whether bioactive glass would be able to replace the current golden standard of autologous bone usage or with the use of antibiotic containing PMMA beads (in the case of osteomyelitis.

  9. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, A.; Rohini, S.; Naveen, A.; Haritha, A.; Reddy, Krishnanjeneya

    2010-01-01

    Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician’s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs) (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care), which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm) or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36%) OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2%) teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8%) of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001). Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3%) have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7%) have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment modalities for

  10. The heterogeneity of craniofacial morphology in Prader-Willi patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belengeanu, D; Bratu, Cristina; Stoian, Monica; Motoc, A; Ormerod, Eli; Podariu, Angela Codruţa; Farcaş, Simona; Andreescu, Nicoleta

    2012-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome is a complex genetic disorder with narrow spectrum of facial phenotypic signs, which make the clinical diagnosis difficult in some cases. There are several reports describing the craniofacial appearance of Prader-Willi patients, but there are only a few cephalometric studies for these patients. In this study were included 18 patients with Prader-Willi syndrome and a control group of 18 subjects of both sexes selected based on specific criteria. The cephalometric radiographs of the patients were taken using the standardized technique with centric teeth in occlusion and lips in relaxed position. Angular, horizontal and linear measurements were analyzed for the study group and for the control group. We established that in Prader-Willi patients, there is a decrease of the majority of parameters but the degree of this reduction varies widely between patients and clinically typical facies not always have smaller measurements which can be found in an unusual facies. Facial dysmorphism in Prader-Willi patients varies a group ranging from miss proportions that do not alter the facial architecture as regard of facial typology, skeletal class and pattern of development to a severe disturbance of those. There is a degree of clinical heterogeneity between subjects with Prader-Willi syndrome on clinical evaluation and cephalometric study confirms the heterogeneity for this patients. Because the identification of smaller dimensions for majority of parameters in children and adults, the possibility of developmental delay or growth retardation delay can be excluded. These findings are important for the orthodontist for optimum timing of orthodontic management of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome.

  11. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2004), s. 404-407 ISSN 1436-3445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotential WO * vertical systems * global vertical frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  12. Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technology in Craniofacial Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Woo Choi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to medicine via computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing. To investigate the current status of 3D printing technology and its clinical application, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. In addition, the benefits and possibilities of the clinical application of 3D printing in craniofacial surgery are reviewed, based on personal experiences with more than 500 craniofacial cases conducted using 3D printing tactile prototype models.

  13. Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technology in Craniofacial Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namkug

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to medicine via computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing. To investigate the current status of 3D printing technology and its clinical application, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. In addition, the benefits and possibilities of the clinical application of 3D printing in craniofacial surgery are reviewed, based on personal experiences with more than 500 craniofacial cases conducted using 3D printing tactile prototype models. PMID:26015880

  14. Relationships between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability in patients with cervico-craniofacial pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Beltran-Alacreu, Hector; Paris-Alemany, Alba; Angulo-Díaz-Parreño, Santiago; La Touche, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This cross-sectional correlation study explored the relationships between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability in patients with chronic cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP). Moreover, we investigated the test–retest intrarater reliability of two craniocervical posture measurements: head posture (HP) and the sternomental distance (SMD). Methods Fifty-three asymptomatic subjects and 60 CCFP patients were recruited. One rater measured HP and the SMD using a cervical range of motion device and a digital caliper, respectively. The Spanish versions of the neck disability index and the craniofacial pain and disability inventory were used to assess pain-related disability (neck disability and craniofacial disability, respectively). Results We found no statistically significant correlations between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability variables (HP and neck disability [r=0.105; P>0.05]; HP and craniofacial disability [r=0.132; P>0.05]; SMD and neck disability [r=0.126; P>0.05]; SMD and craniofacial disability [r=0.195; P>0.05]). A moderate positive correlation was observed between HP and SMD for both groups (asymptomatic subjects, r=0.447; CCFP patients, r=0.52). Neck disability was strongly positively correlated with craniofacial disability (r=0.79; Pposture, but these differences were very small (mean difference =1.44 cm for HP; 6.24 mm for SMD). The effect sizes reached by these values were estimated to be small for SMD (d=0.38) and medium for HP (d=0.76). Conclusion The results showed no statistically significant correlations between craniocervical posture and variables of pain-related disability, but a strong correlation between the two variables of disability was found. Our findings suggest that small differences between CCFP patients and asymptomatic subjects exist with respect to the two measurements used to assess craniocervical posture (HP and SMD), and these measures demonstrated high test–retest intrarater reliability for

  15. Flood, disaster, and turmoil: social issues in cleft and craniofacial care and crisis relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Ronald P; van Aalst, John A; Fox, Lynn; Stein, Margot; Moses, Michael; Cassell, Cynthia H

    2011-11-01

    To examine social issues in the conduct of cleft and craniofacial care through relief programs in disrupted crisis contexts. Social, health policy, and ethical analyses. At best, craniofacial team care is multidisciplinary, coordinated, and sustained, requiring a long-term relationship between team members, patients, and families. Disasters and societal turmoil interrupt such relationships, causing craniofacial care to become a secondary concern. Providing craniofacial team care in a crisis setting requires rebuilding disrupted coordination and communication. Crisis relief care involves a complex set of expectations and responsibilities and raises issues such as (1) quality assurance, infection control, appropriate standards of care, and follow-up care/continuity; (2) equity of access to services and clinical ethics in the context of war and/or deprivation; (3) training of visitors in the local nation or site; (4) disciplinary composition of teams, interprofessional communication/rivalry, and credentials of clinicians; (5) ownership of the site and local visitor relations; (6) fundraising and marketing strategies; and (7) ethical issues in the doctor-patient relationship. Specific ethical standards for international cleft and craniofacial care delivery also apply to domestic and global crisis relief contexts. Guidance on issues related to professional experience, informed consent, and continuity of care will help care providers address social and ethical issues raised in crisis relief programs. This paper proposes that the Position Paper of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association (ACPA) on International Treatment Programs should be used as a template to develop and disseminate a set of standards that apply to crisis relief.

  16. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  17. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  18. Craniofacial norms in white adult males. Final report 1 Oct 80-30 Sep 83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, K.K.; Lestrel, P.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish clinical 'norms' of craniofacial skeletal orientation and the associated soft tissue facial profile for adult white males. Lateral and frontal cephalometric radiographs and study casts taken on 305 white males, with 28 or more teeth and 25-75 years of age, were used to develop these craniofacial standards. The goal of the research program has been to develop a computerized approach based upon dentofacial templates for the fabrication of complete dentures and to define clinical standards that can be applied in assessing the prosthodontic and orthodontic treatment needs of adult patients

  19. Self-reinforced bioresorbable polymer P (L/DL LA 70:30 for the manufacture of craniofacial implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steferson L. Stares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of self-reinforced bioabsorbable polymers has been growing due to their use in orthopedic and dental implants. Bioabsorbable polymeric implants manufactured only by the processes of injection or extrusion without the post processing of self-reinforcing leave a great deal on presenting an appealing alternative in terms of the mechanical strength suitable for use in the fixation of bone fractures. One of the most promising ways to promote the increase of mechanical properties of bioresorbable polymers is through the self-reinforcing technique. Self-reinforcing occurs when the internal structure of the polymer is strongly oriented in the direction of the deformation. Knowing the levels of mechanical strength obtained is essential to determine the sites of application of the component. The objective of this work was to study the method and the influence of self-reinforcing conditions, such as reduction ratio, temperature and deformation speed, on the quality and mechanical properties of small cylindrical bars obtained from the bioresorbable polymer P (L/DL LA 70:30. The different processing conditions led to distinct levels of mechanical strength. Resistance values obtained in this work are the highest ever recorded for this material. It is important to stress that the values of mechanical strength achieved are within the limits accepted as safe for utilization in the fixation of craniofacial fractures, a fact that significantly enhances the prospects in this area.

  20. The usefulness of CT and MR imaging in the preoperative evaluation of neoplasms of the craniofacial region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzesiakowska, U.; Tacikowska, M.; Krajewski, R.; Starosciak, S.; Smorczewska, M.; Wiszniewska-Rawlik, D.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of CT and MR imaging in the preoperative evaluation of neoplasms of the craniofacial region. All the patients were treated surgically. CT and/or MR imaging was done in every patient for preoperative evaluation of soft tissue infiltration, destruction of bone structures, and metastasis of lymph nodes of the head and neck. The results of these imagings were compared with surgical evaluations and microscopic examination of postoperative specimens. Both CT and MR imaging have high accuracy in evaluating soft tissue infiltration. CT imaging is much better than MR in evaluating bony destruction. MR imaging is better in evaluating recurrent tumors, in which CT has very low specificity. MR imaging is the only method for evaluating infiltration of the central nervous system.The authors propose the following diagnostic algorithm: CT imaging for initial evaluation before treatment, MR imaging in suspected cases of infiltration of the central nervous system, and MR imaging in recurrent tumors after surgical and radiation treatment. (author)

  1. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  2. Stem cell property of postmigratory cranial neural crest cells and their utility in alveolar bone regeneration and tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Il-Hyuk; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Zhao, Hu; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Shi, Songtao; Chai, Yang

    2009-04-01

    The vertebrate neural crest is a multipotent cell population that gives rise to a variety of different cell types. We have discovered that postmigratory cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) maintain mesenchymal stem cell characteristics and show potential utility for the regeneration of craniofacial structures. We are able to induce the osteogenic differentiation of postmigratory CNCCs, and this differentiation is regulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathways. After transplantation into a host animal, postmigratory CNCCs form bone matrix. CNCC-formed bones are distinct from bones regenerated by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, CNCCs support tooth germ survival via BMP signaling in our CNCC-tooth germ cotransplantation system. Thus, we conclude that postmigratory CNCCs preserve stem cell features, contribute to craniofacial bone formation, and play a fundamental role in supporting tooth organ development. These findings reveal a novel function for postmigratory CNCCs in organ development, and demonstrate the utility of these CNCCs in regenerating craniofacial structures.

  3. Relationship between the curve of Spee and craniofacial variables: A regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, Abdelali; Benyahia, Hicham; Azeroual, Mohamed-Faouzi; Bahije, Loubna; Zaoui, Fatima

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this regression analysis was to identify the determining factors, which impact the curve of Spee during its genesis, its therapeutic reconstruction, and its stability, within a continuously evolving craniofacial morphology throughout life. We selected a total of 107 patients, according to the inclusion criteria. A morphological and functional clinical examination was performed for each patient: plaster models, tracing of the curve of Spee, crowding, Angle's classification, overjet and overbite were thus recorded. Then, we made a cephalometric analysis based on the standardized lateral cephalograms. In the sagittal dimension, we measured the values of angles ANB, SNA, SNB, SND, I/i; and the following distances: AoBo, I/NA, i/NB, SE and SL. In the vertical dimension, we measured the values of angles FMA, GoGn/SN, the occlusal plane, and the following distances: SAr, ArD, Ar/Con, Con/Gn, GoPo, HFP, HFA and IF. The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software with a significance level of 0.05. Our sample including 107 subjects was composed of 77 female patients (71.3%) and 30 male patients (27.8%) 7 hypodivergent patients (6.5%), 56 hyperdivergent patients (52.3%) and 44 normodivergent patients (41.1%). Patients' mean age was 19.35±5.95 years. The hypodivergent patients presented more pronounced curves of Spee compared to the normodivergent and the hyperdivergent populations; patients in skeletal Class I presented less pronounced curves of Spee compared to patients in skeletal Class II and Class III. These differences were non significant (P>0.05). The curve of Spee was positively and moderately correlated with Angle's classification, overjet, overbite, sellion-articulare distance, and breathing type (P0.05). Seventy five percent (75%) of the hyperdivergent patients with an oral breathing presented an overbite of 3mm, which is quite excessive given the characteristics often admitted for this typology; this parameter could explain the overbite

  4. Late effects of radiation on mature and growing bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramuz, O.; Mornex, F.; Bourhis, J.

    1997-01-01

    The physiopathology of radiation-induced bone damage is no completely elucidated. Ionizing radiation may induce an inhibition or an impairment of growing bone. This fact is of particular importance in children, and represents one of the most important dose-limiting factors in the radiotherapeutic management of children with malignant diseases. Scoliosis, epiphyseal slippage, avascular necrosis, abnormalities of craniofacial growth may be observed after radiation. Child's age at the time of treatment, location of irradiated bone and irradiation characteristics may influence the radiation related observed effects. In adults, pathological analysis of mature bone after ionizing radiation exposure are rare, suggesting that it is difficult to draw a clear feature of the action of radiation on the bone. Osteoporosis, medullary fibrosis and cytotoxicity on bone cells lead to fracture or necrosis. Various factors can influence bone tolerance to radiation such as bone involvement by tumor cells or infection, which is frequent is mandibulary osteoradionecrosis. Technical improvements in radiation techniques have also decreased radio-induced bone complications : the volume, fractionation and total dose are essential to consider. The absence of a consistent radiation-induced late effects evaluation scale has hampered efforts to analyze the influence of various therapeutic maneuvers and the comparison of results from different reported series. The currently proposed evaluation scale may help harmonizing the classification of radiation-induced bone late effects. (author)

  5. Substantial dose reduction in modern multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT)-guided craniofacial and skull base surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmann, G.; Fasser, M.; Jaschke, W.; Bale, R.; Schullian, P.; Zangerl, A.; Puelacher, W.; Kral, F.; Riechelmann, H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Reduction of the radiation exposure involved in image-guided craniofacial and skull base surgery is an important goal. The purpose was to evaluate the influence of low-dose protocols in modern multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) on target registration errors (TREs). Materials and Methods: An anthropomorphic skull phantom with target markers at the craniofacial bone and the anterior skull base was scanned in Sensation Open (40-slice), LightSpeed VCT (64-slice) and Definition Flash (128-slice). Identical baseline protocols (BP) at 120 kV/100 mAs were compared to the following low-dose protocols (LD) in care dose/dose modulation: (LD-I) 100 kV/35ref. mAs, (LD-II) 80 kV/40 - 41ref. mAs, and (LD-III) 80 kV/15 - 17ref. mAs. CTDIvol and DLP were obtained. TREs using an optical navigation system were calculated for all scanners and protocols. Results were statistically analyzed in SPSS and compared for significant differences (p ≤ 0.05). Results: CTDIvol for the Sensation Open/LightSpeed VCT/Definition Flash showed: (BP) 22.24 /32.48 /14.32 mGy; (LD-I) 4.61 /3.52 /1,62 mGy; (LD-II) 3.15 /2.01 /0.87 mGy; and (LD-III) na/0.76 /0.76 mGy. Differences between the BfS (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz) reference CTDIvol of 9 mGy and the lowest CTDIvol were approximately 3-fold for Sensation Open, and 12-fold for the LightSpeed VCT and Definition Flash. A total of 33 registrations and 297 TRE measurements were performed. In all MSCT scanners, the TREs did not significantly differ between the low-dose and the baseline protocols. Conclusion: Low-dose protocols in modern MSCT provided substantial dose reductions without significant influence on TRE and should be strongly considered in image-guided surgery. (orig.)

  6. Tissue reaction and material characteristics of four bone substitutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S S; Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M

    1996-01-01

    and Interpore 500 HA/CC) were implanted into 5-mm bur holes in rabbit tibiae. There was no difference in the amount of newly formed bone around the four biomaterials. Interpore 500 HA/CC resorbed completely, whereas the other three biomaterials did not undergo any detectable biodegradation. Bio......The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the tissue reactions around four different bone substitutes used in orthopedic and craniofacial surgery. Cylinders of two bovine bone substitutes (Endobon and Bio-Oss) and two coral-derived bone substitutes (Pro Osteon 500......-Oss was osseointegrated to a higher degree than the other biomaterials. Material characteristics obtained by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry analysis and energy-dispersive spectrometry did not explain the differences in biologic behavior....

  7. Unilateral cleft lip and palate : treatment outcome and long-term craniofacial growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollet, Petrus Josephus Paulinus Maria

    2006-01-01

    Treatment results of children with a complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate (UCLP) from the Cleft Palate Craniofacial Unit of the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre were evaluated and compared with prominent European cleft centers. Treatment outcome of the Nijmegen patients with UCLP and

  8. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel; Review of NIDCR Institutional Career Development Award K12... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, One Democracy Plaza, 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Victor Henriquez, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer...

  9. G-Protein α-Subunit Gsα Is Required for Craniofacial Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run Lei

    Full Text Available The heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gsα couples receptors to activate adenylyl cyclase and is required for the intracellular cAMP response and protein kinase A (PKA activation. Gsα is ubiquitously expressed in many cell types; however, the role of Gsα in neural crest cells (NCCs remains unclear. Here we report that NCCs-specific Gsα knockout mice die within hours after birth and exhibit dramatic craniofacial malformations, including hypoplastic maxilla and mandible, cleft palate and craniofacial skeleton defects. Histological and anatomical analysis reveal that the cleft palate in Gsα knockout mice is a secondary defect resulting from craniofacial skeleton deficiencies. In Gsα knockout mice, the morphologies of NCCs-derived cranial nerves are normal, but the development of dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia are impaired. Furthermore, loss of Gsα in NCCs does not affect cranial NCCs migration or cell proliferation, but significantly accelerate osteochondrogenic differentiation. Taken together, our study suggests that Gsα is required for neural crest cells-derived craniofacial development.

  10. Increased levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds underlie the craniofacial disorder, Treacher Collins syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-01-01

    mice die perinatally as a result of severe craniofacial anomalies that include agenesis of the nasal passages, abnormal development of the maxilla, exencephaly and anophthalmia. These defects arise due to a massive increase in the levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds, which are the site...

  11. Effectiveness of the cervical vertebral maturation method to predict postpeak circumpubertal growth of craniofacial structures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fudalej, P.S.; Bollen, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to assess effectiveness of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method to predict circumpubertal craniofacial growth in the postpeak period. METHODS: The CVM stage was determined in 176 subjects (51 adolescent boys and 125 adolescent girls) on cephalograms taken at the

  12. Murine craniofacial development requires Hdac3-mediated repression of Msx gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikhil; Gupta, Mudit; Trivedi, Chinmay M; Singh, Manvendra K; Li, Li; Epstein, Jonathan A

    2013-05-15

    Craniofacial development is characterized by reciprocal interactions between neural crest cells and neighboring cell populations of ectodermal, endodermal and mesodermal origin. Various genetic pathways play critical roles in coordinating the development of cranial structures by modulating the growth, survival and differentiation of neural crest cells. However, the regulation of these pathways, particularly at the epigenomic level, remains poorly understood. Using murine genetics, we show that neural crest cells exhibit a requirement for the class I histone deacetylase Hdac3 during craniofacial development. Mice in which Hdac3 has been conditionally deleted in neural crest demonstrate fully penetrant craniofacial abnormalities, including microcephaly, cleft secondary palate and dental hypoplasia. Consistent with these abnormalities, we observe dysregulation of cell cycle genes and increased apoptosis in neural crest structures in mutant embryos. Known regulators of cell cycle progression and apoptosis in neural crest, including Msx1, Msx2 and Bmp4, are upregulated in Hdac3-deficient cranial mesenchyme. These results suggest that Hdac3 serves as a critical regulator of craniofacial morphogenesis, in part by repressing core apoptotic pathways in cranial neural crest cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The FaceBase Consortium: a comprehensive resource for craniofacial researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, James F.; Fisher, Shannon; Harris, Matthew P.; Holmes, Greg; Hooper, Joan E.; Wang Jabs, Ethylin; Jones, Kenneth L.; Kesselman, Carl; Klein, Ophir D.; Maas, Richard L.; Marazita, Mary L.; Selleri, Licia; Spritz, Richard A.; van Bakel, Harm; Visel, Axel; Williams, Trevor J.; Wysocka, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The FaceBase Consortium, funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, is designed to accelerate understanding of craniofacial developmental biology by generating comprehensive data resources to empower the research community, exploring high-throughput technology, fostering new scientific collaborations among researchers and human/computer interactions, facilitating hypothesis-driven research and translating science into improved health care to benefit patients. The resources generated by the FaceBase projects include a number of dynamic imaging modalities, genome-wide association studies, software tools for analyzing human facial abnormalities, detailed phenotyping, anatomical and molecular atlases, global and specific gene expression patterns, and transcriptional profiling over the course of embryonic and postnatal development in animal models and humans. The integrated data visualization tools, faceted search infrastructure, and curation provided by the FaceBase Hub offer flexible and intuitive ways to interact with these multidisciplinary data. In parallel, the datasets also offer unique opportunities for new collaborations and training for researchers coming into the field of craniofacial studies. Here, we highlight the focus of each spoke project and the integration of datasets contributed by the spokes to facilitate craniofacial research. PMID:27287806

  14. 75 FR 28031 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel; Teleconference Review of R03 Applications for Mechanisms, Models... Research Special Emphasis Panel; Teleconference Review of Small Research Grants for Data Analysis and....121, Oral Diseases and Disorders Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated: May 13, 2010...

  15. Inheritance of craniofacial features in Colombian families with class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Otero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available L Otero, L Quintero, D Champsaur, E SimancaPontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, ColombiaIntroduction: The inheritance of class III malocclusion has been well documented, but the inheritance of craniofacial structures in Colombian families with this malocclusion has been not yet reported.Patients and methods: The study sample of 25 families comprised 186 untreated orthodontic individuals from 8 to 60 years old. Pedigrees were drawn using Cyrillic software. Complete family histories for each proband were ascertained and the affection status of relatives was confirmed by lateral cephalograms and facial and dental photographs. Analysis of variance and odds ratio test for each parameter was performed to estimate inheritance from parents to offspring and to determine similar phenotypic features in relatives.Results: The analysis of the pedigrees suggests autosomal dominant inheritance. The craniofacial characteristics that showed more resemblance between parents and offspring were middle facial height, shorter anterior cranial base and mandibular prognathism. In contrast the protrusion of upper lip and maxillary retrusion were the phenotypic features that contributed to class III in the majority of families.Conclusion: Knowledge of the inheritance of craniofacial phenotypes in class III malocclusion will enable the design of new therapies to treat this malocclusion.Keywords: inheritance, craniofacial, phenotype, class III malocclusion

  16. The FaceBase Consortium: A comprehensive program to facilitate craniofacial research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochheiser, Harry; Aronow, Bruce J.; Artinger, Kristin; Beaty, Terri H.; Brinkley, James F.; Chai, Yang; Clouthier, David; Cunningham, Michael L.; Dixon, Michael; Donahue, Leah Rae; Fraser, Scott E.; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Iwata, Junichi; Klein, Ophir; Marazita, Mary L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Murray, Stephen; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Postlethwait, John; Potter, Steven; Shapiro, Linda; Spritz, Richard; Visel, Axel; Weinberg, Seth M.; Trainor, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The FaceBase Consortium consists of ten interlinked research and technology projects whose goal is to generate craniofacial research data and technology for use by the research community through a central data management and integrated bioinformatics hub. Funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) and currently focused on studying the development of the middle region of the face, the Consortium will produce comprehensive datasets of global gene expression patterns, regulatory elements and sequencing; will generate anatomical and molecular atlases; will provide human normative facial data and other phenotypes; conduct follow up studies of a completed genome-wide association study; generate independent data on the genetics of craniofacial development, build repositories of animal models and of human samples and data for community access and analysis; and will develop software tools and animal models for analyzing and functionally testing and integrating these data. The FaceBase website (http://www.facebase.org) will serve as a web home for these efforts, providing interactive tools for exploring these datasets, together with discussion forums and other services to support and foster collaboration within the craniofacial research community. PMID:21458441

  17. Thin-plate spline analysis of craniofacial growth in Class I and Class II subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano; Stahl, Franka; McNamara, James A

    2007-07-01

    To compare the craniofacial growth characteristics of untreated subjects with Class II division 1 malocclusion with those of subjects with normal (Class I) occlusion from the prepubertal through the postpubertal stages of development. The Class II division 1 sample consisted of 17 subjects (11 boys and six girls). The Class I sample also consisted of 17 subjects (13 boys and four girls). Three craniofacial regions (cranial base, maxilla, and mandible) were analyzed on the lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups by means of thin-plate spline analysis at T1 (prepubertal) and T2 (postpubertal). Both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons were performed on both size and shape differences between the two groups. The results showed an increased cranial base angulation as a morphological feature of Class II malocclusion at the prepubertal developmental phase. Maxillary changes in either shape or size were not significant. Subjects with Class II malocclusion exhibited a significant deficiency in the size of the mandible at the completion of active craniofacial growth as compared with Class I subjects. A significant deficiency in the size of the mandible became apparent in Class II subjects during the circumpubertal period and it was still present at the completion of active craniofacial growth.

  18. Recurrent meningitis and frontal encephalocele as delayed complications of craniofacial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumussoy, Murat; Ugur, Omer; Cukurova, Ibrahim; Uluyol, Sinan

    2014-03-01

    Frontal sinus back table fractures are seen rarely; also, typical presentation of frontal sinus encephalocele as a delayed complication of frontal sinus fracture is seen more rarely. We present a case of frontal encephalocele and recurrent meningitis as delayed complications of craniofacial trauma. Diagnosis, management, and treatment approaches of these complications are discussed.

  19. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous propacetamol vs rectal paracetamol in children after major craniofacial surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Sandra A.; van Dijk, Monique; van Leeuwen, Pim; Searle, Susan; Anderson, Brian J.; Tibboel, Dick; Mathot, Ron A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous and rectal paracetamol were compared in nonventilated infants after craniofacial surgery in a double-blind placebo controlled study. During surgery all infants (6 months-2 years) received a rectal loading dose of 40 mg.kg(-1) paracetamol 2 h

  20. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous propacetamol vs rectal paracetamol in children after major craniofacial surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Sandra A.; Van Dijk, Monique; Van Leeuwen, Pim; Searle, Susan; Anderson, Brian J.; Tibboel, Dick; Mathot, Ron A. A.

    Background: The pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous and rectal paracetamol were compared in nonventilated infants after craniofacial surgery in a double-blind placebo controlled study. Methods: During surgery all infants (6 months-2 years) received a rectal loading dose of 40

  1. The influence of craniofacial to standing height proportion on perceived attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naini, F B; Cobourne, M T; McDonald, F; Donaldson, A N A

    2008-10-01

    An idealised male image, based on Vitruvian Man, was created. The craniofacial height was altered from a proportion of 1/6 to 1/10 of standing height, creating 10 images shown in random order to 89 observers (74 lay people; 15 clinicians), who ranked the images from the most to the least attractive. The main outcome was the preference ranks of image attractiveness given by the observers. Linear regressions were used to assess what influences the choice for the most and the least attractive images, followed by a multivariate rank ordinal logistic regression to test the influence of age, gender, ethnicity and professional status of the observer. A craniofacial height to standing height proportion of 1/7.5 was perceived as the most attractive (36%), followed by a proportion of 1/8 (26%). The images chosen as most attractive by more than 10% of observers had a mean proportion of 1/7.8(min=1/7; max=1/8.5). The images perceived as most unattractive had a proportion of 1/6 and 1/10. The choice of images was not influenced by the age, gender, ethnicity or professional status of the observers. The ideal craniofacial height to standing height proportion is in the range 1/7 to 1/8.5. This finding should be considered when planning treatment to alter craniofacial or facial height.

  2. Psychological impact of visible differences in patients with congenital craniofacial anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varun Pratap; Moss, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    Patients with craniofacial anomalies often have appearance concerns and related social anxiety which can affect their quality of life. This study assessed the psychological impact of facial and dental appearance in patients with craniofacial anomalies in comparison to a general population control group. The study involved 102 adult patients (51% male) with congenital craniofacial anomalies and 102 controls (49% male). Both groups completed the Nepali version of Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS) and the Psychological Impact of Dental Aesthetic Questionnaire (PIDAQ) in a clinical setting to assess appearance-related distress, avoidance, and anxiety. There was a significant difference between patients and controls on both PIDAQ (mean score for patients 33.25 ± 9.45 while for controls 27.52 ± 5.67, p experienced greater negative psychological impact of living with their appearance (PIDAQ) and more appearance-related distress (DAS) than controls. DAS scores were not associated with gender. There was no association of the place of residence (rural vs. urban) with PIDAQ or DAS59 scores. There is a significant psychological impact of altered facial and dental appearance in patients with craniofacial anomalies compared to controls. There was no effect of locality (rural/urban) on the psychological impact of facial and dental appearance in patients.

  3. Mild traumatic brain injury diagnosis frequently remains unrecorded in subjects with craniofacial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljula, Jussi; Cygnel, Hanna; Mäkinen, Elina; Tuomivaara, Veli; Karttunen, Vesa; Karttunen, Ari; Hillbom, Matti

    2012-12-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in subjects with craniofacial fractures are usually diagnosed by emergency room physicians. We investigated how often TBI remains unrecorded in these subjects, and whether diagnostic accuracy has improved after the implementation of new TBI guidelines. All subjects with craniofacial fractures admitted to Oulu University Hospital in 1999 and in 2007 were retrospectively identified. New guidelines for improving the diagnostic accuracy of TBI were implemented between 2000 and 2006. Clinical symptoms of TBI were gathered from notes on hospital charts and compared to the recorded diagnoses at discharge. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors for TBI to remain unrecorded. Of 194 subjects with craniofacial fracture, 111(57%) had TBI, 40 in 1999 and 71 in 2007. Fifty-one TBIs (46%) remained unrecorded at discharge, 48 being mild and 3 moderate-to-severe. Subjects with unrecorded TBI were significantly less frequently referred to follow-up visits. Failures to record the TBI diagnosis were less frequent (29/71, 41%) in 2007 than in 1999 (22/40, 55%), but the difference was not statistically significant. The most significant independent predictor for this failure was the clinical specialty (other than neurology/neurosurgery) of the examining physician (palcohol intoxication did not hamper the diagnosis of TBI. TBIs remain frequently unrecorded in subjects with craniofacial fractures. Recording of mild TBI slightly but insignificantly improved after the implementation of new guidelines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiography, Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Craniofacial Structures in Pig

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyllar, M.; Štembírek, Jan; Putnová, I.; Stehlík, L.; Odehnalová, S.; Buchtová, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 6 (2014), s. 435-452 ISSN 0340-2096 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP304/08/P289 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : craniofacial structures in pig Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.672, year: 2014

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea prevents the expected difference in craniofacial growth of boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ligia Juliano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It was to compare cephalometric measures of mouth-breather boys and girls and with the cephalometric pattern observed in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS patients. METHODS: Craniofacial measurements of lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained from 144 children aged 7-14 years were compared between boys and girls, and both were compared to cephalometric pattern of OSAS patients. RESULTS: Mouth-breather boys and girls had no gender differences regarding to craniofacial morphology while nose-breather boys and girls showed those expected differences. Nose-breather boys presented a more retruded mandible and proinclined upper incisor when compared to nose-breather girls, but mouth-breather boys and girls had no differences. The measure NS.GoGn was the only variable with an interaction with gender and breathing. CONCLUSIONS: There were no cephalometric difference in mouth breather-boys and girls related to normal growth, suggesting that oral breathing make the same craniofacial morphology and both have craniofacial morphology close to that of OSAS patients.

  6. 3-D analysis of tooth formation and eruption in patients with craniofacial anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiborg, Sven; Larsen, Per; Bro-Nielsen, Morten

    1996-01-01

    A number of craniofacial anomalies or syndromes involve severe disturbances of tooth formation and eruption (e.g. Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, tricho-dento-osseous syndrome, cleidocranial dysplasia, and cleft lip and palate). So far, studies of these dental problems have been limited to two...

  7. Effect of chemotherapy on survival of craniofacial osteosarcoma: a systematic review of 201 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeele, L. E.; Kostense, P. J.; van der Waal, I.; Snow, G. B.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible value of chemotherapy in the treatment of craniofacial osteosarcoma (CFOS). In a systematic review, data of 201 patients (age, 36.6 +/- 19.0 years [mean +/- SD]) from 20 uncontrolled series on CFOS indexed in Medline and Excerpta Medica between 1974 and 1994 were pooled; 180

  8. 78 FR 24762 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ..., Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, Ph.D., Director, Division of Extramural Activities... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  9. 75 FR 13561 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Floor, 31 Center Drive, Conference Room 10, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, PhD... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as...

  10. 75 FR 13562 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ..., Room 117, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, PhD, Director, Division of... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  11. 77 FR 68136 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    .... Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, Ph.D., Director, Division of Extramural Activities, National... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  12. 76 FR 22111 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ..., MD 20892. Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, PhD, Director, Division of Extramural Activities, Natl... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  13. 77 FR 14816 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: National Institutes of Health, Building 30, 30 Center Drive, 117, Bethesda, MD 20892 Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, Ph.D., Director, Division of Extramural Activities, Natl Inst of Dental and...

  14. 75 FR 69451 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, PhD, Director, Division of Extramural Activities, Natl Inst of Dental and... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  15. 76 FR 66077 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Center Drive, 117, Bethesda, MD 20892 Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, PhD, Director, Division of... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  16. 77 FR 49820 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Center Drive, 6th Floor, 10, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, Ph.D., Director... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as...

  17. Craniofacial and Dental Aspects of Crouzon and Apert Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Reitsma, Jacobus Harmen

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The cranium of an infant or young child consists of different bony plates intersected by sutures. A calvarial suture is a type of fibrous joint in the cranium. The growth of the cranium is effectuated mainly in the sutures. Two important functions of the calvarial sutures are to secure flexibility of the cranium during passage of a baby through the birth canal, and to facilitate growth and separation of the calvarial bones during intrauterine and perinatal life (P...

  18. Fuz regulates craniofacial development through tissue specific responses to signaling factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zichao Zhang

    Full Text Available The planar cell polarity effector gene Fuz regulates ciliogenesis and Fuz loss of function studies reveal an array of embryonic phenotypes. However, cilia defects can affect many signaling pathways and, in humans, cilia defects underlie several craniofacial anomalies. To address this, we analyzed the craniofacial phenotype and signaling responses of the Fuz(-/- mice. We demonstrate a unique role for Fuz in regulating both Hedgehog (Hh and Wnt/β-catenin signaling during craniofacial development. Fuz expression first appears in the dorsal tissues and later in ventral tissues and craniofacial regions during embryonic development coincident with cilia development. The Fuz(-/- mice exhibit severe craniofacial deformities including anophthalmia, agenesis of the tongue and incisors, a hypoplastic mandible, cleft palate, ossification/skeletal defects and hyperplastic malformed Meckel's cartilage. Hh signaling is down-regulated in the Fuz null mice, while canonical Wnt signaling is up-regulated revealing the antagonistic relationship of these two pathways. Meckel's cartilage is expanded in the Fuz(-/- mice due to increased cell proliferation associated with the up-regulation of Wnt canonical target genes and decreased non-canonical pathway genes. Interestingly, cilia development was decreased in the mandible mesenchyme of Fuz null mice, suggesting that cilia may antagonize Wnt signaling in this tissue. Furthermore, expression of Fuz decreased expression of Wnt pathway genes as well as a Wnt-dependent reporter. Finally, chromatin IP experiments demonstrate that β-catenin/TCF-binding directly regulates Fuz expression. These data demonstrate a new model for coordination of Hh and Wnt signaling and reveal a Fuz-dependent negative feedback loop controlling Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  19. Computer vision and soft computing for automatic skull-face overlay in craniofacial superimposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campomanes-Álvarez, B Rosario; Ibáñez, O; Navarro, F; Alemán, I; Botella, M; Damas, S; Cordón, O

    2014-12-01

    Craniofacial superimposition can provide evidence to support that some human skeletal remains belong or not to a missing person. It involves the process of overlaying a skull with a number of ante mortem images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence. Within the craniofacial superimposition process, the skull-face overlay stage just focuses on achieving the best possible overlay of the skull and a single ante mortem image of the suspect. Although craniofacial superimposition has been in use for over a century, skull-face overlay is still applied by means of a trial-and-error approach without an automatic method. Practitioners finish the process once they consider that a good enough overlay has been attained. Hence, skull-face overlay is a very challenging, subjective, error prone, and time consuming part of the whole process. Though the numerical assessment of the method quality has not been achieved yet, computer vision and soft computing arise as powerful tools to automate it, dramatically reducing the time taken by the expert and obtaining an unbiased overlay result. In this manuscript, we justify and analyze the use of these techniques to properly model the skull-face overlay problem. We also present the automatic technical procedure we have developed using these computational methods and show the four overlays obtained in two craniofacial superimposition cases. This automatic procedure can be thus considered as a tool to aid forensic anthropologists to develop the skull-face overlay, automating and avoiding subjectivity of the most tedious task within craniofacial superimposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Craniofacial analysis of the Tweed Foundation in Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion Análise craniofacial da Fundação Tweed na maloclusão Classe II, divisão 1 de Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Tukasan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study has defined the cephalometric values of the Craniofacial Analysis of the Tweed Foundation for a sample of Brazilian subjects. The sample consisted of 211 cephalometric radiographs from subjects aged 12-15, which were divided into two groups: Class II group, with 168 lateral teleradiographs (cephalograms of white Brazilian subjects, with Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion, of both genders (82 males and 86 females; and the Control Group, with 43 lateral teleradiographs (cephalograms of subjects whose occlusion was clinically excellent, and also of both genders (21 males and 22 females. The teleradiographs were selected from the files of the Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry of Piracicaba, State University of Campinas, previously to the orthodontic treatment. The results demonstrated no sexual dimorphism for each group, as attested by the Student's t-test. The exploratory analysis (± 0.5 standard deviation enabled the tolerance limits to be determined and a Craniofacial Analysis Table to be constructed using the respective cephalometric intervals. In addition, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant according to the maxilla position. The maxilla was in a good position in relation to the cranial base. On the other hand, the mandible was retruded in relation to the cranial base in the Class II cases. The skeletal pattern was not defined because only the Facial Height Index (FHI showed a vertical pattern in Class II subjects, while the Y Axis, SN.PlO, SN.GoMe and FMA values did not show any statistically significant difference between the groups. The Class II division 1 subjects showed lower incisors more labially tipped and a convex facial profile.A pesquisa definiu os valores cefalométricos da Análise Craniofacial da Fundação Tweed em amostra de brasileiros. O estudo constava de 211 telerradiografias tomadas previamente ao tratamento ortodôntico de indivíduos na faixa etária de 12

  1. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  2. "Black Bone" MRI: a novel imaging technique for 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Karen A; Watt-Smith, Stephen R; Golding, Stephen J

    2017-03-01

    Three-dimensionally printed anatomical models are rapidly becoming an integral part of pre-operative planning of complex surgical cases. We have previously reported the "Black Bone" MRI technique as a non-ionizing alternative to CT. Segmentation of bone becomes possible by minimizing soft tissue contrast to enhance the bone-soft tissue boundary. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the potential of utilizing this technique to produce three-dimensional (3D) printed models. "Black Bone" MRI acquired from adult volunteers and infants with craniosynostosis were 3D rendered and 3D printed. A custom phantom provided a surrogate marker of accuracy permitting comparison between direct measurements and 3D printed models created by segmenting both CT and "Black Bone" MRI data sets using two different software packages. "Black Bone" MRI was successfully utilized to produce 3D models of the craniofacial skeleton in both adults and an infant. Measurements of the cube phantom and 3D printed models demonstrated submillimetre discrepancy. In this novel preliminary study exploring the potential of 3D printing from "Black Bone" MRI data, the feasibility of producing anatomical 3D models has been demonstrated, thus offering a potential non-ionizing alterative to CT for the craniofacial skeleton.

  3. The healing of fractured bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G E [Central Electricity Generating Board, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A method utilising neutron beams of width 1 mm, used on D1B (2.4 A) and D20 (1.3 A) to study the healing of fractured bones is presented. It is found that the callus bone uniting the fractured tibia of a sheep, whose healing had been encouraged by daily mechanical vibration over a period of three months, showed no trace of the large preferential vertical orientation of the apatite crystals which is characteristic of the normal bone. Nevertheless the bone had regained about 60% of its mechanical strength and the callus bone, although not oriented, was well crystallized. It is considered that the new monochromator for D20, expected to give increased intensity at 2.5 A, will be of considerable advantage. (author). 2 refs.

  4. Vertical pump assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohnal, M.; Rosel, J.; Skarka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mounting is described of the drive assembly of a vertical pump for nuclear power plants in areas with seismic risk. The assembly is attached to the building floor using flexible and damping elements. The design allows producing seismically resistant pumps without major design changes in the existing types of vertical pumps. (E.S.). 1 fig

  5. Biocompatibility and Chemical Reaction Kinetics of Injectable, Settable Polyurethane/Allograft Bone Biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-05

    relevant dynamic loads [7,8]. Hydroxyapatite (HA) cements have been combined with hydrogels (e.g. dextran [9] or sodium hyaluronate [10]) to form...2):144–53. [5] Friedman CD et al. BoneSource (TM) hydroxyapatite cement: a novel biomaterial for craniofacial skeletal tissue engineering and...Biomaterials 2004;25(1):85–96. [28] Parnell S, Min K, Cakmak M. Kinetic studies of polyurethane polymerization with Raman spectroscopy. Polymer

  6. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  7. Tooth agenesis and craniofacial morphology in pre-orthodontic children with and without morphological deviations in the upper cervical spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasemi, Ashkan; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze differences in prevalence and pattern of tooth agenesis and craniofacial morphology between non syndromic children with tooth agenesis with and without upper cervical spine morphological deviations and to analyze associations between craniofacial morphology and tooth agenesis...... in the two groups together. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-six pre-orthodontic children with tooth agenesis were divided into two groups with (19 children, mean age 11.9) and without (107 children, mean age 11.4) upper spine morphological deviations. Visual assessment of upper spine morphology...... and measurements of craniofacial morphology were performed on lateral cephalograms. Tooth agenesis was evaluated from orthopantomograms. RESULTS: No significant differences in tooth agenesis and craniofacial morphology were found between children with and without upper spine morphological deviations (2.2 ± 1.6 vs...

  8. Three-dimensional image display by CT data processing and clinical applications in orthopaedics and craniofacial surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonneveld, F.W.; Akkerveeken, P.F. van; Koornneef, L.

    1988-01-01

    The methods of generating three-dimensional images from two-dimensional CT data are described. Four cases are reported explaining its use in the planning of orthopaedic and craniofacial surgery. (orig.) [de

  9. Asymmetric Facial Bone Fragmentation Mirrors Asymmetric Distribution of Cranial Neuromasts in Blind Mexican Cavefish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Gross

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial asymmetry is a convergent trait widely distributed across animals that colonize the extreme cave environment. Although craniofacial asymmetry can be discerned easily, other complex phenotypes (such as sensory organ position and numerical variation are challenging to score and compare. Certain bones of the craniofacial complex demonstrate substantial asymmetry, and co-localize to regions harboring dramatically expanded numbers of mechanosensory neuromasts. To determine if a relationship exists between this expansion and bone fragmentation in cavefish, we developed a quantitative measure of positional symmetry across the left-right axis. We found that three different cave-dwelling populations were significantly more asymmetric compared to surface-dwelling fish. Moreover, cave populations did not differ in the degree of neuromast asymmetry. This work establishes a method for quantifying symmetry of a complex phenotype, and demonstrates that facial bone fragmentation mirrors the asymmetric distribution of neuromasts in different cavefish populations. Further developmental studies will provide a clearer picture of the developmental and cellular changes that accompany this extreme phenotype, and help illuminate the genetic basis for facial asymmetry in vertebrates.

  10. Orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusion with rapid maxillary expansion combined with a face mask: a cephalometric assessment of craniofacial growth patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Torres Tagawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to assess potential changes in the cephalometric craniofacial growth pattern of 17 children presenting Angle Class III malocclusion treated with a Haas-type expander combined with a face mask. METHODS: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at beginning (T1 and immediately after removal of the appliances (T2, average of 11 months of treatment. Linear and angular measurements were used to evaluate the cranial base, dentoskeletal changes and facial growth pattern. RESULTS: The length of the anterior cranial base experienced a reduction while the posterior cranial base assumed a more vertical position at T1. Some maxillary movement occurred, there was no rotation of the palatal plane, there was a slight clockwise rotation of the mandible, although not significant. The ANB angle increased, thereby improving the relationship between the jaws; dentoalveolar compensation was more evident in the lower incisors. Five out of 12 cases (29.41% showed the following changes: In one case the pattern became more horizontal and in four cases more vertical. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded after a short-term assessment that treatment with rapid maxillary expansion (RME associated with a face mask was effective in the correction of Class III malocclusion despite the changes in facial growth pattern observed in a few cases.

  11. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.; Yelovich, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Primary bone malignancies are relatively rare with less than 4,000 new cases per year. Multiple myeloma (more correctly a hematologic malignancy) accounts for 40%; osteosarcomas, 28%; chondrosarcomas, 13%; fibrosarcomas arising in bone, 4%; and Ewing's sarcoma, 7%. The authors discuss various treatments for bone tumors, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery

  12. Exploring the Medical and Psychosocial Concerns of Adolescents and Young Adults With Craniofacial Microsomia: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kayla V; Ormond, Kelly E; Moscarello, Tia; Bruce, Janine S; Bereknyei Merrell, Sylvia; Chang, Kay W; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of adolescents and young adults with craniofacial microsomia, including the impact of growing up with this craniofacial condition on daily life and sense of self. The results may guide future research on optimally supporting individuals with craniofacial microsomia during this critical life phase. Participants were recruited through a craniofacial center, online patient support groups, and social media sites. Eleven individual semistructured interviews with participants between 12 and 22 years old were conducted by a single interviewer, transcribed, iteratively coded, and thematically analyzed. Five themes were evident in the data: (1) impact on personal growth and character development, (2) negative psychosocial impact, (3) deciding to hide or reveal the condition, (4) desire to make personal surgical decisions, and (5) struggles with hearing loss. We identified both medical and psychosocial concerns prevalent among adolescents with craniofacial microsomia. Although adolescents with craniofacial microsomia exhibit considerable resilience, the challenges they face impact their sense of self and should be addressed through psychosocial support and counseling. Further research should investigate the potential benefit of the wider use of hearing aids, as well as the involvement of patients in decision-making about reconstructive ear surgery.

  13. The ribosome biogenesis factor Nol11 is required for optimal rDNA transcription and craniofacial development in Xenopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N Griffin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of ribosomes is ubiquitous and fundamental to life. As such, it is surprising that defects in ribosome biogenesis underlie a growing number of symptomatically distinct inherited disorders, collectively called ribosomopathies. We previously determined that the nucleolar protein, NOL11, is essential for optimal pre-rRNA transcription and processing in human tissue culture cells. However, the role of NOL11 in the development of a multicellular organism remains unknown. Here, we reveal a critical function for NOL11 in vertebrate ribosome biogenesis and craniofacial development. Nol11 is strongly expressed in the developing cranial neural crest (CNC of both amphibians and mammals, and knockdown of Xenopus nol11 results in impaired pre-rRNA transcription and processing, increased apoptosis, and abnormal development of the craniofacial cartilages. Inhibition of p53 rescues this skeletal phenotype, but not the underlying ribosome biogenesis defect, demonstrating an evolutionarily conserved control mechanism through which ribosome-impaired craniofacial cells are removed. Excessive activation of this mechanism impairs craniofacial development. Together, our findings reveal a novel requirement for Nol11 in craniofacial development, present the first frog model of a ribosomopathy, and provide further insight into the clinically important relationship between specific ribosome biogenesis proteins and craniofacial cell survival.

  14. Postoperative assessment of surgical results using three dimensional surface reconstruction CT (3D-CT) in a craniofacial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Jiro; Sato, Kaoru; Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Takashi; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa; Akagawa, Tetsuya.

    1988-01-01

    In 1983, Michael W. Vannier and Jeffrey L. Marsh developed a computer method that reconstructs three dimensional (3D) born and soft tissue surfaces, given a high resolution CT scan-series of the facial skeleton. This method has been applied to craniofacial anomalies, basal encephaloceles, and musculoskeletal anomalies. In this study, a postoperative assessment of the craniofacial surgical results has been accomplished using this 3D-CT in 2 children with craniofacial dysmorphism. The authors discuss the advantages of this 3D-CT imaging method in the postoperative assessments of craniofacial anomalies. Results are detailed in the following listing : 1) a postoperative 3D-CT reveals the anatomical details corrected by the craniofacial surgery more precisely and stereographically than conventional radiological methods ; 2) secondary changes of the cranium after the surgery, such as bony formation in the area of the osteotomy and postoperative asymmetric deformities, are detected early by the 3D-CT imaging technique, and, 3) 3D-CT mid-sagittal and top axial views of the intracranial skull base are most useful in postoperative assessments of the surgical results. Basesd on our experience, we expect that three dimensional surface reconstructions from CT scans will become to be used widely in the postoperative assessments of the surgical results of craniofacial anomalies. (author)

  15. Coordination in vertical jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Ingen Schenau, Gerrit Jan

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate for vertical jumping the relationships between muscle actions, movement pattern and jumping achievement. Ten skilled jumpers performed jumps with preparatory countermovement. Ground reaction forces and cinematographic data were recorded. In addition,

  16. A review of hedgehog signaling in cranial bone development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel ePan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available During craniofacial development, the Hedgehog (HH signaling pathway is essential for mesodermal tissue patterning and differentiation. The Hedgehog family consists of three protein ligands: Sonic Hedgehog (SHH, Indian Hedgehog (IHH, and Desert Hedgehog (DHH, of which two are expressed in the craniofacial complex (IHH and SHH. Dysregulations in HH signaling are well documented to result in a wide range of craniofacial abnormalities, including holoprosencephaly, hypotelorism, and cleft lip/palate. Furthermore, mutations in HH effectors, co-receptors, and ciliary proteins result in skeletal and craniofacial deformities. Cranial suture morphogenesis is a delicate developmental process that requires control of cell commitment, proliferation and differentiation. This review focuses on both what is known and what remains unknown regarding HH signaling in cranial suture morphogenesis and intramembranous ossification. As demonstrated from murine studies, expression of both SHH and IHH is critical to the formation and fusion of the cranial sutures and calvarial ossification. SHH expression has been observed in the cranial suture mesenchyme and its precise function is not fully defined, although some postulate SHH to delay cranial suture fusion. IHH expression is mainly found on the osteogenic fronts of the calvarial bones, and functions to induce cell proliferation and differentiation. Unfortunately, neonatal lethality of deficient mice precludes a detailed examination of their postnatal calvarial phenotype. In summary, a number of basic questions are yet to be answered regarding domains of expression, developmental role, and functional overlap of HH morphogens in the calvaria. Nevertheless, SHH and IHH ligands are integral to cranial suture development and regulation of calvarial ossification. When HH signaling goes awry, the resultant suite of morphologic abnormalities highlights the important roles of HH signaling in cranial development.

  17. Dicer activity in neural crest cells is essential for craniofacial organogenesis and pharyngeal arch artery morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xuguang; Wang, Qin; Jiao, Kai

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating gene expression during numerous biological/pathological processes. Dicer encodes an RNase III endonuclease that is essential for generating most, if not all, functional miRNAs. In this work, we applied a conditional gene inactivation approach to examine the function of Dicer during neural crest cell (NCC) development. Mice with NCC-specific inactivation of Dicer died perinatally. Cranial and cardiac NCC migration into target tissues was not affected by Dicer disruption, but their subsequent development was disturbed. NCC derivatives and their associated mesoderm-derived cells displayed massive apoptosis, leading to severe abnormalities during craniofacial morphogenesis and organogenesis. In addition, the 4th pharyngeal arch artery (PAA) remodeling was affected, resulting in interrupted aortic arch artery type B (IAA-B) in mutant animals. Taken together, our results show that Dicer activity in NCCs is essential for craniofacial development and pharyngeal arch artery morphogenesis. PMID:21256960

  18. Associations between craniofacial morphology, head posture, and cervical vertebral body fusions in men with sleep apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanholt, Palle; Petri, Niels; Wildschiødtz, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    . The patients were divided into 4 groups according to fusion in the cervical vertebrae: group I, no fusions (42 subjects); group II, fusion of cervical vertebrae 2 and 3 (15 subjects); group III, occipitalization (10 subjects); and group IV, block fusion (11 subjects). Mean differences of craniofacial...... dimensions between the groups were assessed by unpaired t tests. RESULTS: No significant differences were seen between groups I and III. Between groups I and II, significant differences were seen in jaw relationship (P face height and mandibular length deviated...... significantly. No significant differences were seen in head posture. CONCLUSIONS: OSA patients with block fusions in the cervical vertebrae and fusion of 2 vertebrae differed significantly in craniofacial profile from other OSA patients....

  19. The slant of the forehead as a craniofacial feature of impulsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Guerrero-Apolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Impulsiveness has been the subject of much research, but little is known about the possible relationship between craniofacial anatomy and impulsiveness. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between one aspect of craniofacial structure (the angle of inclination of the forehead and impulsiveness. Method: Photographs in profile were obtained from 131 volunteers who had been fined for driving at high speed and were undergoing a court-mandated driving license point-recovery course. They completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11, the Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P, and Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale (V. The angle of the slant of the forehead was measured with a photographic support and a protractor. Results: High positive concordance was found between forehead inclination and 14 out of the 15 impulsiveness factors studied. Conclusions: The angle of inclination of the forehead was significantly associated with self-reported impulsiveness in this sample of traffic violators.

  20. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  1. Acute and chronic craniofacial pain: brainstem mechanisms of nociceptive transmission and neuroplasticity, and their clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessle, B J

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent advances in knowledge of brainstem mechanisms related to craniofacial pain. It also draws attention to their clinical implications, and concludes with a brief overview and suggestions for future research directions. It first describes the general organizational features of the trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex (VBSNC), including its input and output properties and intrinsic characteristics that are commensurate with its strategic role as the major brainstem relay of many types of somatosensory information derived from the face and mouth. The VBSNC plays a crucial role in craniofacial nociceptive transmission, as evidenced by clinical, behavioral, morphological, and electrophysiological data that have been especially derived from studies of the relay of cutaneous nociceptive afferent inputs through the subnucleus caudalis of the VBSNC. The recent literature, however, indicates that some fundamental differences exist in the processing of cutaneous vs. other craniofacial nociceptive inputs to the VBSNC, and that rostral components of the VBSNC may also play important roles in some of these processes. Modulatory mechanisms are also highlighted, including the neurochemical substrate by which nociceptive transmission in the VBSNC can be modulated. In addition, the long-term consequences of peripheral injury and inflammation and, in particular, the neuroplastic changes that can be induced in the VBSNC are emphasized in view of the likely role that central sensitization, as well as peripheral sensitization, can play in acute and chronic pain. The recent findings also provide new insights into craniofacial pain behavior and are particularly relevant to many approaches currently in use for the management of pain and to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures aimed at manipulating peripheral inputs and central processes underlying nociceptive transmission and its control within the VBSNC.

  2. Reliable classification of facial phenotypic variation in craniofacial microsomia: a comparison of physical exam and photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgfeld, Craig B; Heike, Carrie L; Saltzman, Babette S; Leroux, Brian G; Evans, Kelly N; Luquetti, Daniela V

    2016-03-31

    Craniofacial microsomia is a common congenital condition for which children receive longitudinal, multidisciplinary team care. However, little is known about the etiology of craniofacial microsomia and few outcome studies have been published. In order to facilitate large, multicenter studies in craniofacial microsomia, we assessed the reliability of phenotypic classification based on photographs by comparison with direct physical examination. Thirty-nine children with craniofacial microsomia underwent a physical examination and photographs according to a standardized protocol. Three clinicians completed ratings during the physical examination and, at least a month later, using respective photographs for each participant. We used descriptive statistics for participant characteristics and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to assess reliability. The agreement between ratings on photographs and physical exam was greater than 80 % for all 15 categories included in the analysis. The ICC estimates were higher than 0.6 for most features. Features with the highest ICC included: presence of epibulbar dermoids, ear abnormalities, and colobomas (ICC 0.85, 0.81, and 0.80, respectively). Orbital size, presence of pits, tongue abnormalities, and strabismus had the lowest ICC, values (0.17 or less). There was not a strong tendency for either type of rating, physical exam or photograph, to be more likely to designate a feature as abnormal. The agreement between photographs and physical exam regarding the presence of a prior surgery was greater than 90 % for most features. Our results suggest that categorization of facial phenotype in children with CFM based on photographs is reliable relative to physical examination for most facial features.

  3. Developing business opportunities from concept to end point for craniofacial surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Spencer A

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial surgeons repair a wide variety of soft and hard tissues that produce the clinical expertise to recognize the need for an improved device or novel regenerative stem cell or use of molecules that may dramatically change the way clinical care for improved patient outcomes. The business pathway to bring a concept to clinical care requires knowledge, mentoring, and a team of experts in business and patent law.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA and craniofacial covariability of Chad Basin females indicate past population events

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Martin; Černý, Viktor; Brůžek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2008), s. 465-474 ISSN 1042-0533 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1587 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : craniofacial morphology * mitochondrial DNA * sub - Saharan Africa * population history Sub ject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.976, year: 2008 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118903453/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0

  5. Beyond the functional matrix hypothesis: a network null model of human skull growth for the formation of bone articulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2014-09-01

    Craniofacial sutures and synchondroses form the boundaries among bones in the human skull, providing functional, developmental and evolutionary information. Bone articulations in the skull arise due to interactions between genetic regulatory mechanisms and epigenetic factors such as functional matrices (soft tissues and cranial cavities), which mediate bone growth. These matrices are largely acknowledged for their influence on shaping the bones of the skull; however, it is not fully understood to what extent functional matrices mediate the formation of bone articulations. Aiming to identify whether or not functional matrices are key developmental factors guiding the formation of bone articulations, we have built a network null model of the skull that simulates unconstrained bone growth. This null model predicts bone articulations that arise due to a process of bone growth that is uniform in rate, direction and timing. By comparing predicted articulations with the actual bone articulations of the human skull, we have identified which boundaries specifically need the presence of functional matrices for their formation. We show that functional matrices are necessary to connect facial bones, whereas an unconstrained bone growth is sufficient to connect non-facial bones. This finding challenges the role of the brain in the formation of boundaries between bones in the braincase without neglecting its effect on skull shape. Ultimately, our null model suggests where to look for modified developmental mechanisms promoting changes in bone growth patterns that could affect the development and evolution of the head skeleton. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  6. Ethnical evaluation of Bangladeshi young adults in terms of morphometrically-analyzed craniofacial skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Md. Rizvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric study for the craniofacial relations and variations in humans have long been used to differentiate various racial groups in physical anthropology. The objective of this study was to describe the morphological features of craniofacial skeleton in Bangladeshi young adults and to compare it with already reported standards for the Caucasian population as well as cephalometric values of other Indian races using Steiner′s reference norms. The study was conducted for 52 Bangladeshi young adults (27 male and 25 females, aged 21-27 years, having balanced and harmonious facial profiles, clinically acceptable occlusion with permanent dentition and no history of orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalograms taken of these subjects were used for a series of morphometric analyses. Bangladeshi subjects were more protrusive skeletally and dentally than Caucasians. Furthermore, the mandibular plane angle was smaller in Bangladeshi subjects than in the Caucasians. Present results also suggest that the Astrics, Dravidians, and Armenoid who penetrated into Bengal in the early ages may have contributed substantially to the morphogenesis of craniofacial skeleton in the present Bengalis. The results of this study support the idea that a single standard of facial esthetics should not be applied to all racial and ethnic groups.

  7. A Morpholino-based screen to identify novel genes involved in craniofacial morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Vida Senkus; Feng, Weiguo; Hernandez-Lagunas, Laura; Artinger, Kristin Bruk; Williams, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The regulatory mechanisms underpinning facial development are conserved between diverse species. Therefore, results from model systems provide insight into the genetic causes of human craniofacial defects. Previously, we generated a comprehensive dataset examining gene expression during development and fusion of the mouse facial prominences. Here, we used this resource to identify genes that have dynamic expression patterns in the facial prominences, but for which only limited information exists concerning developmental function. RESULTS This set of ~80 genes was used for a high throughput functional analysis in the zebrafish system using Morpholino gene knockdown technology. This screen revealed three classes of cranial cartilage phenotypes depending upon whether knockdown of the gene affected the neurocranium, viscerocranium, or both. The targeted genes that produced consistent phenotypes encoded proteins linked to transcription (meis1, meis2a, tshz2, vgll4l), signaling (pkdcc, vlk, macc1, wu:fb16h09), and extracellular matrix function (smoc2). The majority of these phenotypes were not altered by reduction of p53 levels, demonstrating that both p53 dependent and independent mechanisms were involved in the craniofacial abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS This Morpholino-based screen highlights new genes involved in development of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton with wider relevance to formation of the face in other species, particularly mouse and human. PMID:23559552

  8. A role for chemokine signaling in neural crest cell migration and craniofacial development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Eugenia C. Olesnicky; Birkholz, Denise A.; Artinger, Kristin Bruk

    2009-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a unique population of multipotent cells that migrate along defined pathways throughout the embryo and give rise to many diverse cell types including pigment cells, craniofacial cartilage and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Aberrant migration of NCCs results in a wide variety of congenital birth defects including craniofacial abnormalities. The chemokine Sdf1 and its receptors, Cxcr4 and Cxcr7, have been identified as key components in the regulation of cell migration in a variety of tissues. Here we describe a novel role for the zebrafish chemokine receptor Cxcr4a in the development and migration of cranial NCCs (CNCCs). We find that loss of Cxcr4a, but not Cxcr7b results in aberrant CNCC migration, defects in the neurocranium, as well as cranial ganglia dismorphogenesis. Moreover, overexpression of either Sdf1b or Cxcr4a causes aberrant CNCC migration and results in ectopic craniofacial cartilages. We propose a model in which Sdf1b signaling from the pharyngeal arch endoderm and optic stalk to Cxcr4a expressing CNCCs is important for both the proper condensation of the CNCCs into pharyngeal arches and the subsequent patterning and morphogenesis of the neural crest derived tissues. PMID:19576198

  9. 3D-Printing Technologies for Craniofacial Rehabilitation, Reconstruction, and Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Ethan L; Farris, Ashley L; Hung, Ben P; Dias, Miguel; Garcia, Juan R; Dorafshar, Amir H; Grayson, Warren L

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of craniofacial defects can present many challenges due to the variety of tissue-specific requirements and the complexity of anatomical structures in that region. 3D-printing technologies provide clinicians, engineers and scientists with the ability to create patient-specific solutions for craniofacial defects. Currently, there are three key strategies that utilize these technologies to restore both appearance and function to patients: rehabilitation, reconstruction and regeneration. In rehabilitation, 3D-printing can be used to create prostheses to replace or cover damaged tissues. Reconstruction, through plastic surgery, can also leverage 3D-printing technologies to create custom cutting guides, fixation devices, practice models and implanted medical devices to improve patient outcomes. Regeneration of tissue attempts to replace defects with biological materials. 3D-printing can be used to create either scaffolds or living, cellular constructs to signal tissue-forming cells to regenerate defect regions. By integrating these three approaches, 3D-printing technologies afford the opportunity to develop personalized treatment plans and design-driven manufacturing solutions to improve aesthetic and functional outcomes for patients with craniofacial defects.

  10. Influences of palatoplasty by the push-back procedure on craniofacial morphology and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Kudo, Motonori; Yamamoto, Yuko

    2012-12-01

    For patients with a cleft palate, the push-back procedure which accompanies posterior shifting of palatal flap is thought to be most effective way of. achieving adequate velopharyngeal function. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influences of the push-back procedure on the craniofacial morphology and its growth. Using cephalometry we compared the craniofacial morphology and growth of three groups of Japanese children, living in the same region (Hokkaido, Japan). 1) 28 children (13 girls and 15 boys) with operated submucous cleft palates at the ages of 9 and 14 respectively. 2) 12 age-matched children (7 girls and 5 boys) with unoperated submucous cleft palates. 3) 60 age-matched non-cleft children (30 girls and 30 boys) with normal occlusion. None of them received dentofacial orthopaedic treatment. While the patients who had been operated on had significant differences in posterior upper facial height and inclination of the palatal plane when compared with non-cleft children or unoperated cleft children, they showed no statistically significant difference in anteroposterior positioning of anterior part of the maxilla, compared with the unoperated. The influences of palatoplasty by the push-back procedure with posterior positioning of the palatal flaps on craniofacial morphology are additional to the cleft palate, and of minor concern. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Craniofacial Reconstruction by a Cost-Efficient Template-Based Process Using 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Msallem, MD, DMD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Craniofacial defects often result in aesthetic and functional deficits, which affect the patient’s psyche and wellbeing. Patient-specific implants remain the optimal solution, but their use is limited or impractical due to their high costs. This article describes a fast and cost-efficient workflow of in-house manufactured patient-specific implants for craniofacial reconstruction and cranioplasty. As a proof of concept, we present a case of reconstruction of a craniofacial defect with involvement of the supraorbital rim. The following hybrid manufacturing process combines additive manufacturing with silicone molding and an intraoperative, manual fabrication process. A computer-aided design template is 3D printed from thermoplastics by a fused deposition modeling 3D printer and then silicone molded manually. After sterilization of the patient-specific mold, it is used intraoperatively to produce an implant from polymethylmethacrylate. Due to the combination of these 2 straightforward processes, the procedure can be kept very simple, and no advanced equipment is needed, resulting in minimal financial expenses. The whole fabrication of the mold is performed within approximately 2 hours depending on the template’s size and volume. This reliable technique is easy to adopt and suitable for every health facility, especially those with limited financial resources in less privileged countries, enabling many more patients to profit from patient-specific treatment.

  12. Availability of cosmetic treatment using novel cosmetics-based material on patients with craniofacial concavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shigeto; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Sagehashi, Yoshinori; Sasaki, Keiichi; Sato, Naoko

    2018-03-08

    Patients treated with maxillofacial prosthetics often experience emotional problems because of the remaining facial skin concavity such as a surgical scar. In such cases, cosmetic treatment can potentially correct their skin tone imperfections and deformities. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical availability of novel cosmetics-based material for craniofacial small concavity by initiating a cosmetic treatment in a preliminary case. Eighteen patients with aesthetic problems such as craniofacial deformities, small defects, and concavities on their faces underwent cosmetic treatment that was performed by makeup practitioners. Data were collected from the patient's charts and a survey questionnaire. A visual analog scale was used to conduct a survey regarding the satisfaction levels of the patients following cosmetic treatment with a novel cosmetics-based material. The cosmetic treatment was performed for a concavity on the left midface of a 67-year-old woman with partial maxillectomy. The novel cosmetics-based material was manufactured from a semi-translucent oil base. The satisfaction level of the patient increased after undergoing the cosmetic treatment. Regarding clinical applications, the novel cosmetics-based material can help reduce their cosmetic disturbance and restore the small deformity. These results suggest that the cosmetic treatment with the novel cosmetics-based material can be used as a subsidiary method for facial prostheses or an independent new method for correcting patients' small craniofacial concavity and for reducing visible deformity. Copyright © 2018 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bone banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, W

    1999-04-01

    The use of human organs and tissues for transplantation in Australia has increased significantly over the past 30 years. In 1997, the Australian Coordinating Committee on Organ Registries and Donation (ACCORD) reported a total number of 190 organ donors, 636 corneal donors and 1509 bone donors Australia wide. Of the 1509 bone donations, 143 came from cadaveric sources and 1366 were made by living donors. Bone transplantation is not as widely recognised as solid organ or corneal transplantation. Due to improved technology and surgical skills, the demand for bone transplantation has increased markedly. This Clinical Update will provide an overview of the physiological aspects of bone transplantation and explore bone banking, a key step in the complex and critical process of bone transplantation.

  14. Transcriptional dynamics of a conserved gene expression network associated with craniofacial divergence in Arctic charr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Ehsan Pashay; Kapralova, Kalina Hristova; Pálsson, Arnar; Maier, Valerie Helene; Gudbrandsson, Jóhannes; Snorrason, Sigurdur S; Jónsson, Zophonías O; Franzdóttir, Sigrídur Rut

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the molecular basis of craniofacial variation can provide insights into key developmental mechanisms of adaptive changes and their role in trophic divergence and speciation. Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a polymorphic fish species, and, in Lake Thingvallavatn in Iceland, four sympatric morphs have evolved distinct craniofacial structures. We conducted a gene expression study on candidates from a conserved gene coexpression network, focusing on the development of craniofacial elements in embryos of two contrasting Arctic charr morphotypes (benthic and limnetic). Four Arctic charr morphs were studied: one limnetic and two benthic morphs from Lake Thingvallavatn and a limnetic reference aquaculture morph. The presence of morphological differences at developmental stages before the onset of feeding was verified by morphometric analysis. Following up on our previous findings that Mmp2 and Sparc were differentially expressed between morphotypes, we identified a network of genes with conserved coexpression across diverse vertebrate species. A comparative expression study of candidates from this network in developing heads of the four Arctic charr morphs verified the coexpression relationship of these genes and revealed distinct transcriptional dynamics strongly correlated with contrasting craniofacial morphologies (benthic versus limnetic). A literature review and Gene Ontology analysis indicated that a significant proportion of the network genes play a role in extracellular matrix organization and skeletogenesis, and motif enrichment analysis of conserved noncoding regions of network candidates predicted a handful of transcription factors, including Ap1 and Ets2, as potential regulators of the gene network. The expression of Ets2 itself was also found to associate with network gene expression. Genes linked to glucocorticoid signalling were also studied, as both Mmp2 and Sparc are responsive to this pathway. Among those, several transcriptional

  15. Vertical and horizontal subsidiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Daniluk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article makes an attempt to analyze the principle of subsidiarity in its two main manifestations, namely vertical and horizontal, to outline the principles of relations between the state and regions within the vertical subsidiarity, and features a collaboration of the government and civil society within the horizontal subsidiarity. Scientists identify two types, or two levels of the subsidiarity principle: vertical subsidiarity and horizontal subsidiarity. First, vertical subsidiarity (or territorial concerning relations between the state and other levels of subnational government, such as regions and local authorities; second, horizontal subsidiarity (or functional concerns the relationship between state and citizen (and civil society. Vertical subsidiarity expressed in the context of the distribution of administrative responsibilities to the appropriate higher level lower levels relative to the state structure, ie giving more powers to local government. However, state intervention has subsidiary-lower action against local authorities in cases of insolvency last cope on their own, ie higher organisms intervene only if the duties are less authority is insufficient to achieve the goals. Horizontal subsidiarity is within the relationship between power and freedom, and is based on the assumption that the concern for the common good and the needs of common interest community, able to solve community members (as individuals and citizens’ associations and role of government, in accordance horizontal subsidiarity comes to attracting features subsidiarity assistance, programming, coordination and possibly control.

  16. Relationships between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability in patients with cervico-craniofacial pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva I

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ibai López-de-Uralde-Villanueva,1–4 Hector Beltran-Alacreu,1–3 Alba Paris-Alemany,1–4 Santiago Angulo-Díaz-Parreño,2,3,5 Roy La Touche1–4 1Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Science, 2Research Group on Movement and Behavioral Science and Study of Pain, The Center for Advanced Studies University La Salle, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Aravaca, Madrid, Spain; 3Institute of Neuroscience and Craniofacial Pain (INDCRAN, Madrid, Spain; 4Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research, IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain; 5Faculty of Medicine, Universidad San Pablo CEU, Madrid, Spain Objectives: This cross-sectional correlation study explored the relationships between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability in patients with chronic cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP. Moreover, we investigated the test–retest intrarater reliability of two craniocervical posture measurements: head posture (HP and the sternomental distance (SMD. Methods: Fifty-three asymptomatic subjects and 60 CCFP patients were recruited. One rater measured HP and the SMD using a cervical range of motion device and a digital caliper, respectively. The Spanish versions of the neck disability index and the craniofacial pain and disability inventory were used to assess pain-related disability (neck disability and craniofacial disability, respectively. Results: We found no statistically significant correlations between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability variables (HP and neck disability [r=0.105; P>0.05]; HP and craniofacial disability [r=0.132; P>0.05]; SMD and neck disability [r=0.126; P>0.05]; SMD and craniofacial disability [r=0.195; P>0.05]. A moderate positive correlation was observed between HP and SMD for both groups (asymptomatic subjects, r=0.447; CCFP patients, r=0.52. Neck disability was strongly positively correlated with craniofacial disability (r=0.79; P>0.001. The test–retest intrarater reliability of the HP measurement was high for

  17. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram.......01). Furthermore, AKG administration induced significantly higher bone mineral density of the cortical bone by 7.1% (P

  18. [Duane vertical surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, M L; Gómez de Liaño, P; Merino, P; Franco, G

    2014-04-01

    We report 3 cases with a vertical incomitance in upgaze, narrowing of palpebral fissure, and pseudo-overaction of both inferior oblique muscles. Surgery consisted of an elevation of both lateral rectus muscles with an asymmetrical weakening. A satisfactory result was achieved in 2 cases, whereas a Lambda syndrome appeared in the other case. The surgical technique of upper-insertion with a recession of both lateral rectus muscles improved vertical incomitance in 2 of the 3 patients; however, a residual deviation remains in the majority of cases. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Vertical market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Alexander; Martin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids this stra......Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids...

  20. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  1. Morphometric analysis of craniofacial features in mono- and dizygotic twins discordant for unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Alexis Y; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-09-01

    To compare craniofacial differences between twins discordant for surgically repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP) during the developmental ages and to test the effect of zygosity on the shape and size of the craniofacial skeleton of the same twins by means of thin plate spline (TPS) analysis. Lateral and posteroanterior (PA) cephalometric films from 19 sets of monozygotic (MZ) twins (15 male and 4 female) and 10 dizygotic (DZ) twins (7 male and 3 female) were analyzed. TPS analysis evaluated statistically significant differences in the craniofacial shape and size between affected and unaffected twins within MZ and DZ twin couples. No statistically significant differences in craniofacial shape or size between CLP and non-CLP MZ or DZ twins were observed. The level of morphological similarity in CLP vs non-CLP MZ twins was statistically greater than in DZ twins. Morphometric analysis showed that surgically repaired CLP does not produce significant shape or size differences in the craniofacial features of MZ or DZ twins discordant for unilateral CLP.

  2. Vertical Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Kevin; Mc Glinchey, Jude

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines the growth in popularity of vertical search engines, their origins, the differences between them and well-known broad based search engines such as Google and Yahoo. We also discuss their use in business-to-business, their marketing and advertising costs, what the revenue streams are and who uses them.

  3. Vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides a vertical cavity laser comprising a grating layer comprising an in-plane grating, the grating layer having a first side and having a second side opposite the first side and comprising a contiguous core grating region having a grating structure, wherein an index...

  4. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    -, č. 5 (2009), s. 53-63 ISSN 1801-8483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : sea surface topography * satellite altimetry * vertical frames Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  5. Broken bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Broken bone URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... following steps to reduce your risk of a broken bone: Wear protective ... pads. Create a safe home for young children. Place a gate at stairways ...

  6. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  7. Craniofacial morphology of Homo floresiensis: description, taxonomic affinities, and evolutionary implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifu, Yousuke; Baba, Hisao; Sutikna, Thomas; Morwood, Michael J; Kubo, Daisuke; Saptomo, E Wahyu; Jatmiko; Awe, Rokhus Due; Djubiantono, Tony

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes in detail the external morphology of LB1/1, the nearly complete and only known cranium of Homo floresiensis. Comparisons were made with a large sample of early groups of the genus Homo to assess primitive, derived, and unique craniofacial traits of LB1 and discuss its evolution. Principal cranial shape differences between H. floresiensis and Homo sapiens are also explored metrically. The LB1 specimen exhibits a marked reductive trend in its facial skeleton, which is comparable to the H. sapiens condition and is probably associated with reduced masticatory stresses. However, LB1 is craniometrically different from H. sapiens showing an extremely small overall cranial size, and the combination of a primitive low and anteriorly narrow vault shape, a relatively prognathic face, a rounded oval foramen that is greatly separated anteriorly from the carotid canal/jugular foramen, and a unique, tall orbital shape. Whereas the neurocranium of LB1 is as small as that of some Homo habilis specimens, it exhibits laterally expanded parietals, a weak suprameatal crest, a moderately flexed occipital, a marked facial reduction, and many other derived features that characterize post-habilis Homo. Other craniofacial characteristics of LB1 include, for example, a relatively narrow frontal squama with flattened right and left sides, a marked frontal keel, posteriorly divergent temporal lines, a posteriorly flexed anteromedial corner of the mandibular fossa, a bulbous lateral end of the supraorbital torus, and a forward protruding maxillary body with a distinct infraorbital sulcus. LB1 is most similar to early Javanese Homo erectus from Sangiran and Trinil in these and other aspects. We conclude that the craniofacial morphology of LB1 is consistent with the hypothesis that H. floresiensis evolved from early Javanese H. erectus with dramatic island dwarfism. However, further field discoveries of early hominin skeletal remains from Flores and detailed analyses of the

  8. Psychometric evaluation of a motor control test battery of the craniofacial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Piekartz, H; Stotz, E; Both, A; Bahn, G; Armijo-Olivo, S; Ballenberger, N

    2017-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the structural and known-group validity as well as the inter-rater reliability of a test battery to evaluate the motor control of the craniofacial region. Seventy volunteers without TMD and 25 subjects with TMD (Axes I) per the DC/TMD were asked to execute a test battery consisting of eight tests. The tests were video-taped in the same sequence in a standardised manner. Two experienced physical therapists participated in this study as blinded assessors. We used exploratory factor analysis to identify the underlying component structure of the eight tests. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α), inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient) and construct validity (ie, hypothesis testing-known-group validity) (receiver operating curves) were also explored for the test battery. The structural validity showed the presence of one factor underlying the construct of the test battery. The internal consistency was excellent (0.90) as well as the inter-rater reliability. All values of reliability were close to 0.9 or above indicating very high inter-rater reliability. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.93 for rater 1 and 0.94 for rater two, respectively, indicating excellent discrimination between subjects with TMD and healthy controls. The results of the present study support the psychometric properties of test battery to measure motor control of the craniofacial region when evaluated through videotaping. This test battery could be used to differentiate between healthy subjects and subjects with musculoskeletal impairments in the cervical and oro-facial regions. In addition, this test battery could be used to assess the effectiveness of management strategies in the craniofacial region. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Art of Coping with a Craniofacial Difference: Helping Others through “Positive Exposure”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Johanna; Sutton, Erica; Guidotti, Rick; Shapiro, Kristin; Ball, Karen; McLean, Diane; Biesecker, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Finding ways to cope with social stigmatization is an important aspect of achieving adaptation for people living with visible genetic differences. This study describes the way individuals with craniofacial differences use an innovative photography and video experience with Positive Exposure (PE), a non-profit organization based in New York City, as a way to cope with their conditions. Thirty-five individuals between 12 and 61 years of age participated in this study. We administered surveys comprised of open-ended qualitative questions and quantitative measures designed to assess self-esteem, perceived stigma, and hopefulness. Data for this analysis was generated from the written questionnaires and interview transcripts. Most participants reported high levels of self-esteem and hopefulness, suggesting that they were relatively well adapted to their condition. Almost all participants described experiences of stigmatization throughout their lives. However, participants demonstrated their ability to implement a variety of coping strategies to manage stigma. ‘Helping others’ emerged as a prominent strategy among participants, aiding in the often lifelong process of adapting to their genetic difference. PE was described as an avenue through which participants could reach out to individuals and society at large, helping them adapt further to their condition. ‘Helping others’ may also benefit individuals with craniofacial differences who do not consider themselves to be well adapted to their condition. Health care providers can collaborate with PE, advocacy groups and other community or support groups to identify additional ways individuals with craniofacial differences can help themselves by reaching out to others. PMID:18478594

  10. Investigation of an outbreak of craniofacial deformity in yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, K N; Young, M J; Alley, M R

    2014-09-01

    To investigate an outbreak of severe craniofacial deformity in yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes, hōiho) chicks at a single breeding site on the Otago Peninsula in the South Island of New Zealand. Morbidity and mortality of yellow-eyed penguins breeding on the coastal regions of Otago was monitored from November 2008 to March 2009. Dead chicks and unhatched eggs were recovered and examined. Between October and December 2008 32 eggs were recorded at 17 nests in the Okia Reserve. Eleven chicks survived to about 90 days of age, of which eight were found to have moderate to severe craniofacial deformity. The six most severe chicks were subject to euthanasia and examined in detail at necropsy, and the remaining two affected chicks were released to the wild after a period of care in a rehabilitation centre. Post-mortem samples were analysed for inorganic and organic toxins. The six deformed chicks all had severe shortening of the mandible and maxilla by 20-50 mm. The rostral and caudal regions of the skull were approximately 40 and 80% of normal length, respectively. Other, more variable lesions included cross bill deformity, malformed bill keratin, microphthalmia with misshapen scleral ossicles and oral soft tissue excess thought to be secondary to bony malformations. During the same year, mild sporadic bill deformities were also reported in 10 unrelated chicks from >167 chicks at other breeding sites on the southern Otago coast. Concentrations of organic toxins and heavy metals in body tissues from affected chicks were apparently similar to those in unaffected chicks on other beaches. No cause of this outbreak of craniofacial deformity could be established although the high prevalence at a single site suggests that it was due to an unidentified local teratogen.

  11. Craniofacial reconstruction using patient-specific implants polyether ether ketone with computer-assisted planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Oscar J; Lalezarzadeh, Frank; Dayan, Erez; Shin, Joseph; Buchbinder, Daniel; Smith, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Reconstruction of bony craniofacial defects requires precise understanding of the anatomic relationships. The ideal reconstructive technique should be fast as well as economical, with minimal donor-site morbidity, and provide a lasting and aesthetically pleasing result. There are some circumstances in which a patient's own tissue is not sufficient to reconstruct defects. The development of sophisticated software has facilitated the manufacturing of patient-specific implants (PSIs). The aim of this study was to analyze the utility of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) PSIs for craniofacial reconstruction. We performed a retrospective chart review from July 2009 to July 2013 in patients who underwent craniofacial reconstruction using PEEK-PSIs using a virtual process based on computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. A total of 6 patients were identified. The mean age was 46 years (16-68 y). Operative indications included cancer (n = 4), congenital deformities (n = 1), and infection (n = 1). The mean surgical time was 3.7 hours and the mean hospital stay was 1.5 days. The mean surface area of the defect was 93.4 ± 43.26 cm(2), the mean implant cost was $8493 ± $837.95, and the mean time required to manufacture the implants was 2 weeks. No major or minor complications were seen during the 4-year follow-up. We found PEEK implants to be useful in the reconstruction of complex calvarial defects, demonstrating a low complication rate, good outcomes, and high patient satisfaction in this small series of patients. Polyether ether ketone implants show promising potential and warrant further study to better establish the role of this technology in cranial reconstruction.

  12. Effects of a child with a craniofacial anomaly on stability of the parental relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Dane; Pai, Lori; Belfer, Myron L; Mulliken, John B

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine rates of divorce in parents of children with various types of craniofacial anomalies and to analyze possible confounding factors. A 29-question survey was sent to parents of all children evaluated in the Craniofacial Centre between 1992 and 1997. Parents were questioned regarding pre- and postnatal marital stability, whether the child's facial anomaly contributed to divorce, and involvement in the child's welfare. Using deformational posterior plagiocephaly as a control group, rates of divorce vs. non-divorce were compared for craniofacial anomalies, categorized as asymmetric (hemifacial microsomia, unilateral coronal synostosis, cleft lip, cleft lip/palate) or symmetric (syndromic-craniosynostosis, orbital hypertelorism, Treacher Collins syndrome). Major anomalies (hemifacial microsomia, craniosynostosis, orbital hypertelorism, Treacher Collins syndrome) were also compared to minor anomalies (cleft lip, cleft lip/palate). Surveys were sent to both parents in 412 families; 403 surveys were returned; and the results were evaluated in 275 families (67%). Frequency analysis demonstrated an overall divorce rate of 6.8% and 4.9% separation. Anomalies associated with the highest rate of divorce were hemifacial microsomia (24.0%), syndromic craniosynostosis (12.2%), and cleft lip/palate (6.8%). 79% of non-divorced couples reported a strong prenatal relationship, whereas 59% of divorced couples reported a problematic relationship. Following birth of the affected child, 47% of non-divorced couples responded that the bonds became stronger and 41% of divorced couples thought the relationship worsened. Two-sided Fisher exact test comparing control vs. all other anomalies showed significance (p=.030) for rates of divorce. Separation of anomalies into asymmetric vs. symmetric and major vs. minor categories demonstrated no significant difference in divorce rate (p>.05). The mother was more likely to become a child's primary caregiver

  13. Identification of Isthmin 1 as a Novel Clefting and Craniofacial Patterning Gene in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdon, Lisa A; Darbro, Benjamin W; Petrin, Aline L; Hulstrand, Alissa M; Standley, Jennifer M; Brouillette, Rachel B; Long, Abby; Mansilla, M Adela; Cornell, Robert A; Murray, Jeffrey C; Houston, Douglas W; Manak, J Robert

    2018-01-01

    Orofacial clefts are one of the most common birth defects, affecting 1-2 per 1000 births, and have a complex etiology. High-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization has increased the ability to detect copy number variants (CNVs) that can be causative for complex diseases such as cleft lip and/or palate. Utilizing this technique on 97 nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate cases and 43 cases with cleft palate only, we identified a heterozygous deletion of Isthmin 1 in one affected case, as well as a deletion in a second case that removes putative 3' regulatory information. Isthmin 1 is a strong candidate for clefting, as it is expressed in orofacial structures derived from the first branchial arch and is also in the same "synexpression group" as fibroblast growth factor 8 and sprouty RTK signaling antagonist 1a and 2 , all of which have been associated with clefting. CNVs affecting Isthmin 1 are exceedingly rare in control populations, and Isthmin 1 scores as a likely haploinsufficiency locus. Confirming its role in craniofacial development, knockdown or clustered randomly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9-generated mutation of isthmin 1 in Xenopus laevis resulted in mild to severe craniofacial dysmorphologies, with several individuals presenting with median clefts. Moreover, knockdown of isthmin 1 produced decreased expression of LIM homeobox 8 , itself a gene associated with clefting, in regions of the face that pattern the maxilla. Our study demonstrates a successful pipeline from CNV identification of a candidate gene to functional validation in a vertebrate model system, and reveals Isthmin 1 as both a new human clefting locus as well as a key craniofacial patterning gene. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  14. Craniofacial structure variations in patients with palatal anomalies and velopharyngeal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachmani, Ariela; Aizenbud, Dror; Nageris, Ben; Emodi, Omri; Kassem, Firas

    2017-02-01

    Cephalometric evaluation of craniofacial and craniopharyngeal morphology is important for understanding the factors affecting velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) in patients with palatal anomalies. In this study, 366 patients with VPD were retrospectively stratified into cleft lip and palate (CLP), cleft palate (CP), submucous cleft palate (SMCP), occult submucous cleft palate (OSMCP), and non-CP groups. Lateral cephalometrics were used to assess craniofacial, craniopharyngeal, and velopharyngeal anatomy. The average craniofacial morphology in patients with VPD differed significantly according to the type of palatal anomaly. The non-CP and OSMCP groups differed from the CLP, CP, and SMCP groups in nasopharyngeal size and shape as depicted by a larger ANS-Ptm-Ve angle, a smaller S-N-Ba and NBa-PP angles, and a shorter linear value of S-Ar in the non-CP group. The CLP and CP groups had shorter ANS-Ptm, shorter Ptm-P, and smaller SNA and SNB angles. VPD patients with overt clefts have different skeletal and nasopharyngeal shapes compared to non-CP and OSMCP. Velopharyngeal function assessment should include the size and shape of the nasopharyngeal space in addition to the size and the activity of the velum and posterior and lateral walls of the nasopharynx. This should enable a more precise understanding of VPD pathology, and lead to improvements in the posterior pharyngeal flap technique in order to obtain better postoperative speech outcomes after surgical management of velopharyngeal dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Speech characteristics in a Ugandan child with a rare paramedian craniofacial cleft: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lierde, K M; Bettens, K; Luyten, A; De Ley, S; Tungotyo, M; Balumukad, D; Galiwango, G; Bauters, W; Vermeersch, H; Hodges, A

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the speech characteristics in an English-speaking Ugandan boy of 4.5 years who has a rare paramedian craniofacial cleft (unilateral lip, alveolar, palatal, nasal and maxillary cleft, and associated hypertelorism). Closure of the lip together with the closure of the hard and soft palate (one-stage palatal closure) was performed at the age of 5 months. Objective as well as subjective speech assessment techniques were used. The speech samples were perceptually judged for articulation, intelligibility and nasality. The Nasometer was used for the objective measurement of the nasalance values. The most striking communication problems in this child with the rare craniofacial cleft are an incomplete phonetic inventory, a severely impaired speech intelligibility with the presence of very severe hypernasality, mild nasal emission, phonetic disorders (omission of several consonants, decreased intraoral pressure in explosives, insufficient frication of fricatives and the use of a middorsum palatal stop) and phonological disorders (deletion of initial and final consonants and consonant clusters). The increased objective nasalance values are in agreement with the presence of the audible nasality disorders. The results revealed that several phonetic and phonological articulation disorders together with a decreased speech intelligibility and resonance disorders are present in the child with a rare craniofacial cleft. To what extent a secondary surgery for velopharyngeal insufficiency, combined with speech therapy, will improve speech intelligibility, articulation and resonance characteristics is a subject for further research. The results of such analyses may ultimately serve as a starting point for specific surgical and logopedic treatment that addresses the specific needs of children with rare facial clefts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Semilongitudinal cephalometric study of craniofacial growth in untreated Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ann E Zionic; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2009-06-01

    Class III growth in white subjects is poorly characterized because of the low prevalence of the disharmony and the clinical tendency to treat this condition early. The purpose of this study was to investigate craniofacial growth changes by using longitudinal cephalometric records of white subjects with untreated Class III malocclusions to provide comparison data for studies of Class III treatment outcomes. Longitudinal records of 103 subjects were analyzed. Annual incremental growth changes in craniofacial variables from early childhood to late adolescence were examined for each sex. Inferential statistics were applied to changes in mandibular length, midfacial length, and lower anterior facial height of each sex (Wilcoxon tests) and between sexes (Mann-Whitney U tests). In the girls, the adolescent spurt in mandibular growth occurred between the ages of 10 and 12 years. In the boys, the adolescent mandibular growth spurt was between 12 and 15 years. Statistically significant growth changes in the average increments of growth of these linear measurements occurred in both sexes between 12 and 15 years. Adolescent peaks in midfacial growth were at prepubertal ages in both sexes. During childhood (5-7 years), much craniofacial growth occurred. Moreover, there was considerable mandibular growth relative to the maxilla in Class III subjects after the adolescent growth spurt. White Class III subjects showed definite worsening of the relative mandibular prognathism and sagittal skeletal discrepancy between the jaws with growth. The growth pattern of 3 fundamental cephalometric measurements (lower anterior face height, midfacial length, and mandibular length) exhibited differences between Class III male and female subjects in both the timing and the size of average growth increments in the adolescent growth spurt.

  17. The accuracy of a designed software for automated localization of craniofacial landmarks on CBCT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahidi, Shoaleh; Bahrampour, Ehsan; Soltanimehr, Elham; Zamani, Ali; Oshagh, Morteza; Moattari, Marzieh; Mehdizadeh, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional projection radiographs have been traditionally considered the modality of choice for cephalometric analysis. To overcome the shortcomings of two-dimensional images, three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) has been used to evaluate craniofacial structures. However, manual landmark detection depends on medical expertise, and the process is time-consuming. The present study was designed to produce software capable of automated localization of craniofacial landmarks on cone beam (CB) CT images based on image registration and to evaluate its accuracy. The software was designed using MATLAB programming language. The technique was a combination of feature-based (principal axes registration) and voxel similarity-based methods for image registration. A total of 8 CBCT images were selected as our reference images for creating a head atlas. Then, 20 CBCT images were randomly selected as the test images for evaluating the method. Three experts twice located 14 landmarks in all 28 CBCT images during two examinations set 6 weeks apart. The differences in the distances of coordinates of each landmark on each image between manual and automated detection methods were calculated and reported as mean errors. The combined intraclass correlation coefficient for intraobserver reliability was 0.89 and for interobserver reliability 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.93). The mean errors of all 14 landmarks were <4 mm. Additionally, 63.57% of landmarks had a mean error of <3 mm compared with manual detection (gold standard method). The accuracy of our approach for automated localization of craniofacial landmarks, which was based on combining feature-based and voxel similarity-based methods for image registration, was acceptable. Nevertheless we recommend repetition of this study using other techniques, such as intensity-based methods

  18. Cervical vertebral column morphology related to craniofacial morphology and head posture in preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, Torill; Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time.......In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time....

  19. American Association of Orthodontists Foundation Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection: Overview of a powerful tool for orthodontic research and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon; Curry, Sean

    2015-08-01

    This article reports on the current status of the American Association of Orthodontists Foundation (AAOF) Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection--an AAOF-supported multi-institutional project that uses the Internet and cloud computing to collect and share craniofacial images and data for orthodontic research and education. The project gives investigators and clinicians all over the world online access to longitudinal information on craniofacial development in untreated children with malocclusions of various types. It also is a unique source of control samples for testing the validity of consensually accepted beliefs about the effects of orthodontic treatment or of failure to treat. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Common dental features and craniofacial development of three siblings with Ter Haar syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K; Pabla, R; Hay, N; Ayliffe, P

    2014-02-01

    Ter Haar syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome with <30 cases reported worldwide. There is nothing within the published literature regarding the dental development and dental features of these patients. This case series examines three patients with Ter Haar syndrome and tracks their dental development and identifies common dental and skeletal features. All three patients received dental treatment and regular follow-up at Great Ormond Street Hospital Dental Department. These patients have many common dental and craniofacial features which poses the question as to whether these features are due to Ter Haar syndrome.

  1. Craniofacial mucormycosis following assault: an unusual presentation of an unusual disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melsom, S.M.; Khangure, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    A case of craniofacial mucormycosis following assault is discussed. A female diabetic developed peri-orbital cellulitis adjacent to a scalp wound which progressed to a necrotizing fasciitis. This did not respond to treatment. Subsequently the patient developed a hemiparesis, with CT imaging showing peri-orbital and paranasal sinus inflammatory changes, evidence of cavernous sinus invasion and development of a middle cerebral artery territory infarction. The patient died shortly afterwards. The imaging findings and their relationship to the pathological spread of mucor infection are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  2. Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technology in Craniofacial Plastic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Namkug

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to m...

  3. Craniofacial Statistical Deformation Models of Wild-type mice and Crouzon mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2007-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome is characterised by the premature fusion of cranial sutures and synchondroses leading to craniofacial growth disturbances. The gene causing the syndrome was discovered approximately a decade ago and recently the first mouse model of the syndrome was generated. In this study, a set...... of Micro CT scannings of the heads of wild-type (normal) mice and Crouzon mice were investigated. Statistical deformation models were built to assess the anatomical differences between the groups, as well as the within-group anatomical variation. Following the approach by Rueckert et al. we built an atlas...

  4. Additive genetic variation in the craniofacial skeleton of baboons (genus Papio) and its relationship to body and cranial size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joganic, Jessica L; Willmore, Katherine E; Richtsmeier, Joan T; Weiss, Kenneth M; Mahaney, Michael C; Rogers, Jeffrey; Cheverud, James M

    2018-02-01

    Determining the genetic architecture of quantitative traits and genetic correlations among them is important for understanding morphological evolution patterns. We address two questions regarding papionin evolution: (1) what effect do body and cranial size, age, and sex have on phenotypic (V P ) and additive genetic (V A ) variation in baboon crania, and (2) how might additive genetic correlations between craniofacial traits and body mass affect morphological evolution? We use a large captive pedigreed baboon sample to estimate quantitative genetic parameters for craniofacial dimensions (EIDs). Our models include nested combinations of the covariates listed above. We also simulate the correlated response of a given EID due to selection on body mass alone. Covariates account for 1.2-91% of craniofacial V P . EID V A decreases across models as more covariates are included. The median genetic correlation estimate between each EID and body mass is 0.33. Analysis of the multivariate response to selection reveals that observed patterns of craniofacial variation in extant baboons cannot be attributed solely to correlated response to selection on body mass, particularly in males. Because a relatively large proportion of EID V A is shared with body mass variation, different methods of correcting for allometry by statistically controlling for size can alter residual V P patterns. This may conflate direct selection effects on craniofacial variation with those resulting from a correlated response to body mass selection. This shared genetic variation may partially explain how selection for increased body mass in two different papionin lineages produced remarkably similar craniofacial phenotypes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Calvarial Suture-Derived Stem Cells and Their Contribution to Cranial Bone Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Doro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the natural turnover during life, the bones in the skeleton possess the ability to self-repair in response to injury or disease-related bone loss. Based on studies of bone defect models, both processes are largely supported by resident stem cells. In the long bones, the source of skeletal stem cells has been widely investigated over the years, where the major stem cell population is thought to reside in the perivascular niche of the bone marrow. In contrast, we have very limited knowledge about the stem cells contributing to the repair of calvarial bones. In fact, until recently, the presence of specific stem cells in adult craniofacial bones was uncertain. These flat bones are mainly formed via intramembranous rather than endochondral ossification and thus contain minimal bone marrow space. It has been previously proposed that the overlying periosteum and underlying dura mater provide osteoprogenitors for calvarial bone repair. Nonetheless, recent studies have identified a major stem cell population within the suture mesenchyme with multiple differentiation abilities and intrinsic reparative potential. Here we provide an updated review of calvarial stem cells and potential mechanisms of regulation in the context of skull injury repair.

  6. Assessment of the dental and skeletal effects of fan-type rapid maxillary expansion screw and Hyrax screw on craniofacial structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umarevathi Gopalakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the skeletal and dental effects of fan-type rapid maxillary expansion (RME appliance and Hyrax RME appliance on the craniofacial structures. Materials and Methods: The sample of the study included 12 patients with constricted maxillary arches. Acrylic bonded type of attachment was used for both groups. Changes in sagittal, vertical, and transverse relationship were assessed with lateral and frontal cephalograms, respectively. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured with stone models. Pre- and immediate post-treatment records were statistically analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences between the groups were evaluated using Mann–Whitney U-test. Since the data pertaining to intercanine width and intermolar width were normally distributed, parametric test of signifi cance (unpaired t-test was used to compare them. Results: Results showed that Hyrax presented with signifi cantly greater increments for both nasal cavity width and maxillary width when compared to fan-type RME. Both groups had retroclination of incisors. The increase in the intercanine width was almost similar in both groups. Conclusion: Fan-type RME caused only minimal expansion of the intermolar width when compared to the Hyrax. The ratio between the intercanine and intermolar width expansion was nearly 4:1 in the fan-type RME and 0.75:1 in Hyrax.

  7. Vertical steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuda, F.; Kondr, M.; Kresta, M.; Kusak, V.; Manek, O.; Turon, S.

    1982-01-01

    A vertical steam generator for nuclear power plants and dual purpose power plants consists of a cylindrical vessel in which are placed heating tubes in the form upside-down U. The heating tubes lead to the jacket of the cylindrical collector placed in the lower part of the steam generator perpendicularly to its vertical axis. The cylindrical collector is divided by a longitudinal partition into the inlet and outlet primary water sections of the heating tubes. One ends of the heating tube leads to the jacket of the collector for primary water feeding and the second ends of the heating tubes into the jacket of the collector which feeds and offtakes primary water from the heating tubes. (B.S.)

  8. Vertical organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-11

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  9. A zebrafish screen for craniofacial mutants identifies wdr68 as a highly conserved gene required for endothelin-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amsterdam Adam

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Craniofacial birth defects result from defects in cranial neural crest (NC patterning and morphogenesis. The vertebrate craniofacial skeleton is derived from cranial NC cells and the patterning of these cells occurs within the pharyngeal arches. Substantial efforts have led to the identification of several genes required for craniofacial skeletal development such as the endothelin-1 (edn1 signaling pathway that is required for lower jaw formation. However, many essential genes required for craniofacial development remain to be identified. Results Through screening a collection of insertional zebrafish mutants containing approximately 25% of the genes essential for embryonic development, we present the identification of 15 essential genes that are required for craniofacial development. We identified 3 genes required for hyomandibular development. We also identified zebrafish models for Campomelic Dysplasia and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. To further demonstrate the utility of this method, we include a characterization of the wdr68 gene. We show that wdr68 acts upstream of the edn1 pathway and is also required for formation of the upper jaw equivalent, the palatoquadrate. We also present evidence that the level of wdr68 activity required for edn1 pathway function differs between the 1st and 2nd arches. Wdr68 interacts with two minibrain-related kinases, Dyrk1a and Dyrk1b, required for embryonic growth and myotube differentiation, respectively. We show that a GFP-Wdr68 fusion protein localizes to the nucleus with Dyrk1a in contrast to an engineered loss of function mutation Wdr68-T284F that no longer accumulated in the cell nucleus and failed to rescue wdr68 mutant animals. Wdr68 homologs appear to exist in all eukaryotic genomes. Notably, we found that the Drosophila wdr68 homolog CG14614 could substitute for the vertebrate wdr68 gene even though insects lack the NC cell lineage. Conclusion This work represents a systematic

  10. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... several inches long with a hollow core to capture the bone specimen. The CT scanner is typically ... IV), ultrasound machine and devices that monitor your heart beat and blood pressure. top of page How ...

  11. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  12. Bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, P.

    2008-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are malignancies with peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. The most frequent are osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET, in an older adults are seen chondrosarcomas, other ones are rare. In general, biology of sarcomas is closely related to pediatric malignancies with fast growth, local aggressiveness, tendency to early hematogenic dissemination and chemo sensitivity. Diagnostics and treatment of bone sarcomas should be done in well experienced centres due to low incidence and broad issue of this topic. An interdisciplinary approach and staff education is essential in due care of patients with bone sarcoma. If these criteria are achieved, the cure rate is contemporary at 65 - 70 %, while some subpopulation of patients has chance for cure up to 90 %. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET are discussed below as types of most frequent bone sarcoma. (author)

  13. Geometric morphometrics in primatology: craniofacial variation in Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Wood, C G; Luboga, S A

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, morphometric studies have relied on statistical analysis of distances, angles or ratios to investigate morphometric variation among taxa. Recently, geometric techniques have been developed for the direct analysis of landmark data. In this paper, we offer a summary (with examples) of three of these newer techniques, namely shape coordinate, thin-plate spline and relative warp analyses. Shape coordinate analysis detected significant craniofacial variation between 4 modern human populations, with African and Australian Aboriginal specimens being relatively prognathous compared with their Eurasian counterparts. In addition, the Australian specimens exhibited greater basicranial flexion than all other samples. The observed relationships between size and craniofacial shape were weak. The decomposition of shape variation into affine and non-affine components is illustrated via a thin-plate spline analysis of Homo and Pan cranial landmarks. We note differences between Homo and Pan in the degree of prognathism and basicranial flexion and the position and orientation of the foramen magnum. We compare these results with previous studies of these features in higher primates and discuss the utility of geometric morphometrics as a tool in primatology and physical anthropology. We conclude that many studies of morphological variation, both within and between taxa, would benefit from the graphical nature of these techniques.

  14. Craniofacial morphology in children with van der Woude syndrome and isolated cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heliövaara, Arja; Karhulahti, Rekina; Rautio, Jorma

    2015-01-01

    To compare cephalometrically 6-year-old children with van der Woude syndrome and cleft palate (VWS) to children with isolated cleft palate alone (CP). A retrospective case-control study. Forty-four children with VWS were compared to 73 children with CP using lateral cephalograms. The mean age of the children with VWS was 6.6 years (range = 5.9-8.2) and that of the children with CP, 6.2 years (range = 5.7-6.7). Palatal closure had been done at a mean age of 1.4 years (range = 0.8-2.2), mostly with the Veau-Wardill-Killner or the Cronin pushback surgical techniques. The data was collected over a 30-year period. Linear and angular measurements were obtained from lateral cephalograms. A Student's t-test was used in the statistical analysis. The craniofacial morphology in children with VWS and CP was similar, but those with VWS had slightly smaller diameters of the lower pharyngeal airway. The maxilla and mandible were well related to each other, although a little retrusive in relation to the cranial base. The soft tissue profile reflected the skeletal relationships, no significant protrusion of the lower lip was noted. Six-year-old children with VWS and CP have similar craniofacial morphology.

  15. Pedicled Temporalis Muscle Flap for Craniofacial Reconstruction: A 35-Year Clinical Experience with 366 Flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanio di Spilimbergo, Stefano; Nordera, Paolo; Mardini, Samir; Castiglione, Giusy; Chim, Harvey; Pinna, Vittore; Brunello, Massimo; Cusino, Claudio; Roberto, Squaquara; Baciliero, Ugo

    2017-02-01

    In the past 130 years, the temporalis muscle flap has been used for a variety of different indications. In this age of microsurgery and perforator flaps, the temporalis muscle flap still has many useful applications for craniofacial reconstruction. Three hundred sixty-six temporalis muscle flaps were performed in a single center between 1978 and 2012. The authors divided the cases into two series-before and after 1994-because, after 1994, they started to perform free flap reconstructions, and indications for reconstruction with a temporalis muscle flap were changed RESULTS:: In the series after 1994, flaps were most commonly used for reconstruction of defects in the maxilla, mandible, and oropharynx, in addition to facial reanimation and filling of orbital defects. Complications included total flap necrosis (1.6 percent) and partial flap necrosis (10.7 percent). The rate of material extrusion at the donor site decreased after porous polyethylene was uniformly used for reconstruction from 17.1 to 7.9 percent. The pedicled temporalis muscle flap continues to have many applications in craniofacial reconstruction. With increasing use of free flaps, the authors' indications for the pedicled temporalis muscle flap are now restricted to (1) orbital filling for congenital or acquired anophthalmia; (2) filling of unilateral maxillectomy defects; and (3) facial reanimation in selected cases of facial nerve palsy. Therapeutic, IV.

  16. A comparative study of craniofacial morphology of cleft lip children with or without palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Su Beom; Kim, Young Ju; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any difference existed in craniofacial morphology between cleft children and normal subjects. Thirty three measurements of the various regions of cranium and face were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiograms in 40 cleft children (27 males, 13 females) and 40 normal subjects (23 males, 17 females) in our dental hospital from Jan. 1988 to Dec. 1995. The measurements were compared with those in control subjects who had no history of craniofacial abnormalities.. The obtained results were as follows; l. In the cranium, the cleft children had significantly shorter posterior cranial base length (S-Ba) and total antero-posterior cranial base length (N-Ba) (P<0.05). 2. In the upper face, the cleft children had significantly shorter upper anterior facial height (N-ANS) and upper posterior facial height (Ptm'-SNL) (P<0.05). 3. In the lower face, the cleft children had significantly shorter antero-posterior mandibular length (Pog-Ar) and antero-posterior mandibular body length (Pog-Go) (P<0.05). 4. In the facial profile, the cleft children had significantly shorter total facial height (N-Me) and posterior facial height (S-Go) (P<0.05).

  17. Thin-plate spline analysis of craniofacial morphology in subjects with adenoid or tonsillar hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Michela; Ballanti, Fabiana; Polimeni, Antonella; Franchi, Lorenzo; Cozza, Paola

    2011-04-01

    To compare the skeletal features of subjects with adenoid hypertrophy with those of children with tonsillar hypertrophy using thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis. A group of 20 subjects (9 girls and 11 boys; mean age 8.4 ± 0.9 years) with adenoid hypertrophy (AG) was compared with a group of 20 subjects (10 girls and 10 boys; mean age 8.2 ± 1.1 years) with tonsillar hypertrophy (TG). Craniofacial morphology was analyzed on the lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups by means of TPS analysis. A cross-sectional comparison was performed on both size and shape differences between the two groups. AG exhibited statistically significant shape and size differences in craniofacial configuration with respect to TG. Subjects with adenoid hypertrophy showed an upward dislocation of the anterior region of the maxilla, a more downward/backward position of the anterior region of the mandibular body and an upward/backward displacement of the condylar region. Conversely, subjects with tonsillar hypertrophy showed a downward dislocation of the anterior region of the maxilla, a more upward/forward position of the anterior region of the mandibular body and a downward/forward displacement of the condylar region. Subjects with adenoid hypertrophy exhibited features suggesting a more retrognathic mandible while subjects with tonsillar hypertrophy showed features suggesting a more prognathic mandible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CT interpretation of craniofacial anomalies: a comparative analysis by undergraduate dental students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaia, Bruno Felipe; Perella, Andreia; Cara, Ana Claudia Ballet de; Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmao Paraiso

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of computed tomography (CT) image interpretation made in axial slices (2D-CT) and 3D reconstructed images (3D-CT) of patients with craniofacial anomalies. The analyses were made by undergraduate dental students, and compared with the diagnoses considered upon surgical intervention. Computed tomography of 43 patients were analyzed independently by three calibrated examiners (undergraduate students) with, respectively, one, two, and three semesters of experience in craniofacial CT training and interpretation. The analysis of 2D-CT and 3D-CT images were performed at distinct times using an independent workstation associated with a specific computer graphics software for volumetric images. The analysis of inter-examiner agreement and of the agreement between observers and the gold standard was performed using the Kappa test. The accuracy evaluation presented a progressively higher value for examiners with progressively broader experience in 2D-CT and 3D-CT image interpretation. 3D-CT analyses allowed a higher inter-examiner agreement (1 - 0.896) than 2D-CT analyses (1 - 0.614). 3D-CT was considered more precise and accurate than 2D-CT for all students' evaluations. The reproducibility and accuracy varied according to the experience in CT interpretation, and the most experienced student achieved results closer to the gold standard. (author)

  19. Dental and craniofacial characteristics in a patient with Dubowitz syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullo Domenica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dubowitz syndrome is a very rare, autosomal recessive disease characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, a high sloping forehead, facial asymmetry, blepharophimosis, sparse hair and eyebrows, low-set ears and mental retardation. Symptoms vary between patients, but other characteristics include a soft high-pitched voice, dental and craniofacial abnormalities, partial webbing of the fingers and toes, palate deformations, genital abnormalities, eczema, hyperactivity, preference for concrete over abstract thinking, language difficulties and an aversion to crowds. Case presentation We describe the craniofacial and dental characteristics of a 12-year-old Caucasian Italian boy with both the typical and less common findings of Dubowitz syndrome. Conclusion Diagnosis of Dubowitz syndrome is mainly based on the facial phenotype. Possible conditions for differential diagnosis include Bloom syndrome, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, and fetal alcohol syndrome. As there are few reports of this syndrome in the literature, we hope this case report will enable health professionals to recognize the phenotypic alterations of this syndrome, and allow early referral for the necessary multidisciplinary treatments.

  20. Emotional and behavioral reactions to facially deformed patients before and after craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, R C; Ford, M E; Wilhelm, W M; Rogers-Salyer, M; Salyer, K E

    1988-09-01

    The present experiment investigated whether observers' emotional and behavioral reactions to facially deformed patients could be substantially improved by surgical procedures conducted by well-trained specialists in an experienced multidisciplinary team. Also investigated was the hypothesis that emotional states mediate the effects of physical attractiveness and facial deformity on social interaction. Twenty patients between the ages of 3 months and 17 years were randomly selected from over 2000 patients' files of Kenneth E. Salyer of Dallas, Texas. Patient diagnoses included facial clefts, hypertelorism, Treacher Collins syndrome, and craniofacial dysostoses (Crouzon's and Apert's syndromes). Rigorously standardized photographs of patients taken before and after surgery were shown to 22 "naive" raters ranging in age from 18 to 54 years. Raters were asked to predict their emotional and behavioral responses to the patients. These ratings indicated that observers' behavioral reactions to facially deformed children and adolescents would be more positive following craniofacial surgery. Similarly, the ratings indicated that observers' emotional reactions to these patients would be more positive following surgery. The results are discussed in terms of current sociopsychologic theoretical models for the effects of attractiveness on social interaction. A new model is presented that implicates induced emotional states as a mediating process in explaining the effects of attractiveness and facial deformity on the quality of social interactions. Limitations of the current investigation and directions for future research are also discussed.

  1. pitx2 Deficiency results in abnormal ocular and craniofacial development in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    Full Text Available Human PITX2 mutations are associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, an autosomal-dominant developmental disorder that involves ocular anterior segment defects, dental hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphism and umbilical abnormalities. Characterization of the PITX2 pathway and identification of the mechanisms underlying the anomalies associated with PITX2 deficiency is important for better understanding of normal development and disease; studies of pitx2 function in animal models can facilitate these analyses. A knockdown of pitx2 in zebrafish was generated using a morpholino that targeted all known alternative transcripts of the pitx2 gene; morphant embryos generated with the pitx2(ex4/5 splicing-blocking oligomer produced abnormal transcripts predicted to encode truncated pitx2 proteins lacking the third (recognition helix of the DNA-binding homeodomain. The morphological phenotype of pitx2(ex4/5 morphants included small head and eyes, jaw abnormalities and pericardial edema; lethality was observed at ∼6-8-dpf. Cartilage staining revealed a reduction in size and an abnormal shape/position of the elements of the mandibular and hyoid pharyngeal arches; the ceratobranchial arches were also decreased in size. Histological and marker analyses of the misshapen eyes of the pitx2(ex4/5 morphants identified anterior segment dysgenesis and disordered hyaloid vasculature. In summary, we demonstrate that pitx2 is essential for proper eye and craniofacial development in zebrafish and, therefore, that PITX2/pitx2 function is conserved in vertebrates.

  2. A three-dimensional comparison of a morphometric and conventional cephalometric midsagittal planes for craniofacial asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damstra, Janalt; Fourie, Zacharias; De Wit, Marnix; Ren, Yijin

    2012-02-01

    Morphometric methods are used in biology to study object symmetry in living organisms and to determine the true plane of symmetry. The aim of this study was to determine if there are clinical differences between three-dimensional (3D) cephalometric midsagittal planes used to describe craniofacial asymmetry and a true symmetry plane derived from a morphometric method based on visible facial features. The sample consisted of 14 dry skulls (9 symmetric and 5 asymmetric) with metallic markers which were imaged with cone-beam computed tomography. An error study and statistical analysis were performed to validate the morphometric method. The morphometric and conventional cephalometric planes were constructed and compared. The 3D cephalometric planes constructed as perpendiculars to the Frankfort horizontal plane resembled the morphometric plane the most in both the symmetric and asymmetric groups with mean differences of less than 1.00 mm for most variables. However, the standard deviations were often large and clinically significant for these variables. There were clinically relevant differences (>1.00 mm) between the different 3D cephalometric midsagittal planes and the true plane of symmetry determined by the visible facial features. The difference between 3D cephalometric midsagittal planes and the true plane of symmetry determined by the visible facial features were clinically relevant. Care has to be taken using cephalometric midsagittal planes for diagnosis and treatment planning of craniofacial asymmetry as they might differ from the true plane of symmetry as determined by morphometrics.

  3. Dental and craniofacial characteristics in a patient with Dubowitz syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballini, Andrea; Cantore, Stefania; Tullo, Domenica; Desiate, Apollonia

    2011-01-27

    Dubowitz syndrome is a very rare, autosomal recessive disease characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, a high sloping forehead, facial asymmetry, blepharophimosis, sparse hair and eyebrows, low-set ears and mental retardation. Symptoms vary between patients, but other characteristics include a soft high-pitched voice, dental and craniofacial abnormalities, partial webbing of the fingers and toes, palate deformations, genital abnormalities, eczema, hyperactivity, preference for concrete over abstract thinking, language difficulties and an aversion to crowds. We describe the craniofacial and dental characteristics of a 12-year-old Caucasian Italian boy with both the typical and less common findings of Dubowitz syndrome. Diagnosis of Dubowitz syndrome is mainly based on the facial phenotype. Possible conditions for differential diagnosis include Bloom syndrome, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, and fetal alcohol syndrome. As there are few reports of this syndrome in the literature, we hope this case report will enable health professionals to recognize the phenotypic alterations of this syndrome, and allow early referral for the necessary multidisciplinary treatments.

  4. A comparative study of craniofacial morphology of cleft lip children with or without palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Su Beom; Kim, Young Ju; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any difference existed in craniofacial morphology between cleft children and normal subjects. Thirty three measurements of the various regions of cranium and face were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiograms in 40 cleft children (27 males, 13 females) and 40 normal subjects (23 males, 17 females) in our dental hospital from Jan. 1988 to Dec. 1995. The measurements were compared with those in control subjects who had no history of craniofacial abnormalities.. The obtained results were as follows; l. In the cranium, the cleft children had significantly shorter posterior cranial base length (S-Ba) and total antero-posterior cranial base length (N-Ba) (P<0.05). 2. In the upper face, the cleft children had significantly shorter upper anterior facial height (N-ANS) and upper posterior facial height (Ptm'-SNL) (P<0.05). 3. In the lower face, the cleft children had significantly shorter antero-posterior mandibular length (Pog-Ar) and antero-posterior mandibular body length (Pog-Go) (P<0.05). 4. In the facial profile, the cleft children had significantly shorter total facial height (N-Me) and posterior facial height (S-Go) (P<0.05).

  5. Local myogenic pulp-derived cell injection enhances craniofacial muscle regeneration in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J E; Song, M J; Shin, S; Choi, Y J; Kim, K H; Chung, C J

    2017-02-01

    To enhance myogenic differentiation in pulp cells isolated from extracted premolars by epigenetic modification using a DNA demethylation agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), and to evaluate the potent stimulatory effect of 5-Aza-treated pulp cell injection for craniofacial muscle regeneration in vivo. Pulp cells were isolated from premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes from four adults (age range, 18-22.1 years). Levels of myogenic differentiation and functional contraction response in vitro were compared between pulp cells with or without pre-treatment of 5-Aza. Changes in muscle regeneration in response to green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled myogenic pulp cell injection in vivo were evaluated using a cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced muscle injury model of the gastrocnemius as well as the masseter muscle in mice. Pre-treatment of 5-Aza in pulp cells stimulated myotube formation, myogenic differentiation in terms of desmin and myogenin expression, and the level of collagen gel contraction. The local injection of 5-Aza pre-treated myogenic pulp cells was engrafted into the host tissue and indicated signs of enhanced muscle regeneration in both the gastrocnemius and the masseter muscles. The epigenetic modification of pulp cells from extracted premolars and the local injection of myogenic pulp cells may stimulate craniofacial muscles regeneration in vivo. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Premature birth--Studies on orthodontic treatment need, craniofacial morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsson, Liselotte

    2009-01-01

    A series of studies have been initiated implying a unique opportunity to evaluate and compare malocclusion traits, orthodontic treatment need, craniofacial morphology, mandibular function, signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and headache between extremely preterm (EPT; born before the 29th week of gestation) and very preterm (VPT; born between 29 and 32 weeks of gestation) and full-term born children. THIS THESIS WAS BASED ON FOUR STUDIES: Paper I. A systematic literature review was undertaken to answer the following questions: Does prematurity result in alterations of palatal morphology, dental occlusion, tooth-crown dimensions, tooth maturation and eruption? What role does neonatal oral intubation play in the appearance of the alterations? Are the alterations in morphology permanent or transient? The literature search spanned from January 1966 to November 2002 and was later extended to September 2008. Furthermore, a quality analysis of the methodological soundness of the studies in the review was performed. Paper II-IV. The aims were to compare EPT and VPT 8- to 10-year-old children with matched full-term controls considering: Prevalence of malocclusion traits and orthodontic treatment need (Paper II). Craniofacial morphology (Paper III). Mandibular function, signs and symptoms of TMD and headache (Paper IV). KEY FINDINGS IN PAPER I AND THE SUPPLEMENTARY SEARCH: Moderate scientific evidence existed for more malocclusion traits among premature children. Limited evidence was found for no delay in dental eruption, if corrected age was considered for the premature children. Insufficientwas considered for the premature children. Insufficient evidence was found for altered tooth-crown dimensions and permanent alteration of palatal morphology among prematurely children. Thus, further well-designed controlled studies which should also consider orthodontic treatment need, craniofacial morphology, TMD and headache are needed. KEY FINDINGS IN PAPER II

  7. El polimetilmetacrilato en la reconstrucción craneofacial The polymethylmethacrylate in the craniofacial repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ángel Peñón Vivas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción de defectos craneofaciales constituye un reto para el cirujano maxilofacial. Si bien existe una amplia gama de materiales para la reconstrucción, cada cual tiene ventajas y desventajas además de indicaciones para su utilización. Por lo que nos hemos dado a la tarea de emplear el polimetilmetacrilato como una opción económica y efectiva en la reconstrucción de defectos craneofaciales. Con este objetivo se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, no comparativo, en el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital Universitario "Miguel Enríquez" en el periodo comprendido desde enero de 2006 a diciembre de 2008. Se incluyeron un total de 14 pacientes, los cuales recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico para la reconstrucción craneofacial mediante el empleo del polimetilmetacrilato. El mayor número de pacientes que recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico para la reconstrucción craneofacial con polimetilmetacrilato se encontró en el grupo de 16 a 25 años de edad, con un predominio del sexo masculino y mayor afectación de los pacientes de color de piel blanca. En todos los casos estudiados la etiología de la deformidad fue traumática; dentro de ellos el mayor por ciento le correspondió a los accidentes viales, seguido de los causados por violencia. El diagnóstico que predominó fue el de las fracturas orbitomalares de grado IV. El piso de órbita fue la localización o estructura más reconstruida. Se presentaron únicamente como complicaciones, la infección y la colección subcutánea. El polimetilmetacrilato es un material económico y efectivo que permite obtener excelentes resultados estéticos y funcionales en la reconstrucción de defectos craneofaciales adquiridos.The repair of craniofacial defects is a challenge for the maxillofacial surgeon. There are a great range of materials for reconstruction, where each has advantages and disadvantages as well as indications for its use. Polymethylmethacrylate is an

  8. Response of ramus following vertical lengthening with distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzuner-Oncul, Aysegul Mine; Kisnisci, Reha S

    2011-09-01

    Vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable surgical procedures in the management of musculoskeletal maxillofacial deformities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of the mandibular ramus following vertical lengthening by means of distraction osteogenesis. This study included eight non-syndromic adult patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis. The vertical height deficiency of the mandibular ramus and the ramus/condyle unit on the affected side were simultaneously reconstructed by transportation of a bone segment using distraction osteogenesis following gap arthroplasty. Lateral and posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms taken postoperatively before active distraction, at the completion of distraction and 6, 12, 24 months after distraction, were compared to evaluate the changes of the ramus height. In all cases the vertical ramus and ramus/condyle unit height loss were successfully reconstructed by distraction osteogenesis. There was no relapse in the amount of height gained by distraction osteogenesis at the 24 months follow-up review (p>0.05). Acute one stage vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable musculoskeletal procedures with relapse being a significant adverse outcome. In this clinical study gradual vertical lengthening of the ramus through ramus/condyle unit distraction osteogenesis has maintained the initial vertical ramus height gained for 24 months. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  10. Bone--bone marrow interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, H.M.

    1976-01-01

    Within medullary cavities, blood formation tends to be concentrated near bone surfaces and this raises interesting questions about hematopoietic consequences of radionuclide fixation in osseous tissue. Thus, it may be important, on the one hand, to consider the medullary radiation dose distribution as well as total marrow dose from bone-bound radioelements and, on the other, to inquire about possible hematopoietic implications of radiation damage to endosteal surfaces per se. The reasons for this are discussed

  11. Craniofacial morphology of Dutch patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate and noncleft controls at the age of 15 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dungen, G.M.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Prahl-Andersen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Comparison of craniofacial morphology in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients to that of a noncleft control group at the age of 15 years. Design: A cross-sectional study of cephalometric data. Subjects and Methods: Cephalometric records of 41 consecutive patients (32 boys and 9 girls)

  12. Postnatal treatment factors affecting craniofacial morphology of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M K; Iida, J; Sato, Y; Kajii, Takashi S

    2013-12-01

    We have evaluated the craniofacial morphology of Japanese patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and assessed the various postnatal factors that affect it. Lateral cephalograms of 140 subjects (mean (SD) aged 7 (2) years) with UCLP were taken before orthodontic treatment. Surgeons from Hokkaido University Hospital had done the primary operations. The craniofacial morphology was assessed by angular and linear cephalometric measurements. Cheiloplasty, palatoplasty, and preoperative orthopaedic treatment were chosen as postnatal factors. To compare the assessments of the postnatal factors, we made angular and linear cephalometric measurements for each subject and converted them into Z scores in relation to the mean (SD) of the two variables. Subjects treated by the modified Millard cheiloplasty had larger sella-nasion-point A (SNA) and nasion-point A-pogonion (NA-POG) measurements than subjects treated by the modified Millard with a vomer flap cheiloplasty. Two-stage palatoplasty showed consistently better craniofacial morphology than the other palatoplasty. Subjects who had preoperative orthopaedic treatment with a Hotz plate had significantly larger upper incisor/sella-nasion (U1-SN) measurements than who had no preoperative orthopaedic treatment or an active plate. We conclude that in subjects treated by a modified Millard type of cheiloplasty, a two-stage palatoplasty, and a Hotz plate there were fewer adverse effects on craniofacial morphology. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Craniofacial morphology in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients consecutively treated with 1-stage repair of the cleft.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fudalej, P.S.; Surowiec, Z.; Offert, B.; Dudkiewicz, Z.; Katsaros, C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the craniofacial morphology of children with a complete unilateral cleft lip and palate treated with a 1-stage simultaneous cleft repair performed in the first year of life. METHODS: Cephalograms and extraoral profile photographs of 61 consecutively treated

  14. Craniofacial morphology, head posture, and nasal respiratory resistance in obstructive sleep apnoea : An inter-ethnic comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, M.L.; Sandham, John; Ang, PK; Wong, DC; Tan, WC; Huggare, J

    The aim of this study was to measure craniofacial morphology and nasal respiratory resistance (NRR) in Malay, Indian and Chinese subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The sample consisted of 34 male subjects, 27-52 years of age (Malay n = 11, which included five mild and six moderate-severe

  15. Does postoperative 'M' technique (R) massage with or without mandarin oil reduce infants' distress after major craniofacial surgery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marjan; Lucas, Cees; Bredero, Hansje; van Adrichem, Leon; Tibboel, Dick; van Dijk, Monique

    2012-01-01

    de jong m., lucas c., bredero h., van adrichem l., tibboel d. & van dijk m. (2011) Does postoperative M technique (R) massage with or without mandarin oil reduce infants distress after major craniofacial surgery? Journal of Advanced Nursing68(6), 17481757. Abstract Aim. This article is a report of a

  16. Vertical vector face lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Vertical organic transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted. (topical review)

  18. STEM CELL ORIGIN DIFFERENTLY AFFECTS BONE TISSUE ENGINEERING STRATEGIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eMattioli-Belmonte

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering is a promising research area for the improvement of traditional bone grafting procedure drawbacks. Thanks to the capability of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation, stem cells are one of the major actors in tissue engineering approaches, and adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are considered to be appropriate for regenerative medicine strategies. Bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs are the earliest- discovered and well-known stem cell population used in bone tissue engineering. However, several factors hamper BM-MSC clinical application and subsequently, new stem cell sources have been investigated for these purposes. The successful identification and combination of tissue engineering, scaffold, progenitor cells, and physiologic signalling molecules enabled the surgeon to design, recreate the missing tissue in its near natural form. On the basis of these considerations, we analysed the capability of two different scaffolds, planned for osteochondral tissue regeneration, to modulate differentiation of adult stem cells of dissimilar local sources (i.e. periodontal ligament, maxillary periosteum as well as adipose-derived stem cells, in view of possible craniofacial tissue engineering strategies. We demonstrated that cells are differently committed toward the osteoblastic phenotype and therefore, considering their peculiar features, they may alternatively represent interesting cell sources in different stem cell-based bone/periodontal tissue regeneration approaches.

  19. Postradiation sarcoma of bone: review of 78 Mayo Clinic cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weatherby, R.P.; Dahlin, D.C.; Ivins, J.C.

    1981-05-01

    Postradiation sarcoma of bone is an uncommon but serious sequela of radiation therapy. Seventy-eight Mayo Clinic patients have been treated for sarcomas arising in irradiated bones. They received their initial radiotherapy for a wide variety of nonneoplastic and neoplastic conditions, both benign and malignant. Thirty-five sarcomas arose in bone that was normal at the time of radiotherapy, and 43 arose in irradiated preexisting osseous lesions. The latent period between radiotherapy and diagnosis of sarcoma averaged 14.3 years. Ninety percent of the postradiation sarcomas were either osteosarcomas or fibrosarcomas; chondrosarcoma, malignant (fibrous) histiocytoma, malignant lymphoma, Ewing's tumor, and metastasizing chondroblastoma also occurred. Prompt radical surgery, when feasible, is usually the treatment of choice for the sarcoma. About 30% of patients with sarcomas of the extremities or craniofacial bones survived 5 years without recurrence; there were no disease-free survivors among patients with tumors of the vertebral column, pelvis, or shoulder girdle. The low risk of sarcoma following radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer should not be a contraindication to its use in these patients; however, radiation therapy for benign bone tumors should be reserved for lesions that are not amenable to surgical treatment. An unusual case is also reported herein in which a fibrosarcoma was discovered in the humerus of a patient who had received radiotherapy 55 years previously for a verified osteosarcoma in the same site.

  20. Postradiation sarcoma of bone: review of 78 Mayo Clinic cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherby, R.P.; Dahlin, D.C.; Ivins, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Postradiation sarcoma of bone is an uncommon but serious sequela of radiation therapy. Seventy-eight Mayo Clinic patients have been treated for sarcomas arising in irradiated bones. They received their initial radiotherapy for a wide variety of nonneoplastic and neoplastic conditions, both benign and malignant. Thirty-five sarcomas arose in bone that was normal at the time of radiotherapy, and 43 arose in irradiated preexisting osseous lesions. The latent period between radiotherapy and diagnosis of sarcoma averaged 14.3 years. Ninety percent of the postradiation sarcomas were either osteosarcomas or fibrosarcomas; chondrosarcoma, malignant (fibrous) histiocytoma, malignant lymphoma, Ewing's tumor, and metastasizing chondroblastoma also occurred. Prompt radical surgery, when feasible, is usually the treatment of choice for the sarcoma. About 30% of patients with sarcomas of the extremities or craniofacial bones survived 5 years without recurrence; there were no disease-free survivors among patients with tumors of the vertebral column, pelvis, or shoulder girdle. The low risk of sarcoma following radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer should not be a contraindication to its use in these patients; however, radiation therapy for benign bone tumors should be reserved for lesions that are not amenable to surgical treatment. An unusual case is also reported herein in which a fibrosarcoma was discovered in the humerus of a patient who had received radiotherapy 55 years previously for a verified osteosarcoma in the same site

  1. Radiographic cephalometry analysis of head posture and craniofacial morphology in oral breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević Vladanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nasal breathing plays an important role in overall physical growth and mental development, as well as in the growth of the craniofacial complex. Oral breathing over a long period of time, can cause changes in position of the head relative to the cervical spine and jaw relationship. It can cause an open bite and the narrowness of the maxillary arch due to increased pressure of strained face. The aim of this study was to analyze the position of the head and craniofacial morphology in oral breathing children, and compare the values obtained compared with those of the same parameters in nasal brething children. Methods. We analyzed the profile cephalometric radiographs of 60 patients who had various orthodontic problems. In the first group there were 30 patients aged 8–14 years, in which oral breathing is confirmed by clinical examination. In the second group there were 30 patients of the same age who had orthodontic problems, but did not show clinical signs of oral breathing. The analyses covered the following: craniocervical angle (NS/OPT, the length of the anterior cranial base (NS, anterior facial height (N-Me, posterior facial height (S-Go, the angle of maxillary prognathism (SNA, angle of mandibular prognathism (SNB, difference between angles SNA and SNB (ANB angle, the angle of the basal planes of the jaws (SpP/MP, cranial base angle (NSB, and the angle of facial convexity (NA/Apg. Results. The average value of the craniocervical angle (NS/OPT was significantly higher in OB children (p = 0.004. There were significantly different values of SNA (p < 0.001, ANB (p < 0.001, NA/APg (p < 0.001 and length of the anterior cranial base (NS (p = 0.024 between groups. Conclusion. Oral breathing children have pronounced retroflexion of the head in relation to the cervical spine compared to nasal breathing children, and the most prominent characteristics of the craniofacial morphology of skeletal jaw relationship of class II and

  2. Zebrafish con/disp1 reveals multiple spatiotemporal requirements for Hedgehog-signaling in craniofacial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwend Tyler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate head skeleton is derived largely from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC. Genetic studies in zebrafish and mice have established that the Hedgehog (Hh-signaling pathway plays a critical role in craniofacial development, partly due to the pathway's role in CNCC development. Disruption of the Hh-signaling pathway in humans can lead to the spectral disorder of Holoprosencephaly (HPE, which is often characterized by a variety of craniofacial defects including midline facial clefting and cyclopia 12. Previous work has uncovered a role for Hh-signaling in zebrafish dorsal neurocranium patterning and chondrogenesis, however Hh-signaling mutants have not been described with respect to the ventral pharyngeal arch (PA skeleton. Lipid-modified Hh-ligands require the transmembrane-spanning receptor Dispatched 1 (Disp1 for proper secretion from Hh-synthesizing cells to the extracellular field where they act on target cells. Here we study chameleon mutants, lacking a functional disp1(con/disp1. Results con/disp1 mutants display reduced and dysmorphic mandibular and hyoid arch cartilages and lack all ceratobranchial cartilage elements. CNCC specification and migration into the PA primorida occurs normally in con/disp1 mutants, however disp1 is necessary for post-migratory CNCC patterning and differentiation. We show that disp1 is required for post-migratory CNCC to become properly patterned within the first arch, while the gene is dispensable for CNCC condensation and patterning in more posterior arches. Upon residing in well-formed pharyngeal epithelium, neural crest condensations in the posterior PA fail to maintain expression of two transcription factors essential for chondrogenesis, sox9a and dlx2a, yet continue to robustly express other neural crest markers. Histology reveals that posterior arch residing-CNCC differentiate into fibrous-connective tissue, rather than becoming chondrocytes. Treatments with Cyclopamine, to

  3. Effectiveness of the cervical vertebral maturation method to predict postpeak circumpubertal growth of craniofacial structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudalej, Piotr; Bollen, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to assess effectiveness of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method to predict circumpubertal craniofacial growth in the postpeak period. The CVM stage was determined in 176 subjects (51 adolescent boys and 125 adolescent girls) on cephalograms taken at the end of treatment (T2; mean ages, 15.75 years [boys] and 15.23 years [girls]) in subjects from the postretention database at the University of Washington in Seattle. Craniofacial growth was evaluated from the following measurements on cephalograms at T2 and end of follow-up (T3) (mean ages, 29.01 years [men] and 28.08 years [women]): condylion to gnathion, condylion to gonion, gonion to gnathion, sella to gnathion, nasion to menton, anterior nasal spine to menton, and sella to gonion. The change of each variable from T2 to T3 was assessed with paired t tests. Parametric (t tests or analysis of variance [ANOVA]) or nonparametric (Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis) tests were used to detect intergroup differences. One hundred eight subjects (35 boys, 73 girls) demonstrated CVM stage 3, 56 (16 boys, 40 girls) were in CVM stage 4, and 12 (all girls) were in CVM stage 5 at T2. Intrasex comparisons showed that boys in CVM stages 3 and 4 could be differentiated regarding changes of all variables. In the girls, only those in CVM stages 3 and 4 could be differentiated based on the amount of changes of 2 measurements: condylion to gonion and sella to gonion. Intersex comparisons showed that boys in CVM stage 3 had significantly more changes than girls (P <0.01). Boys in CVM stage 4 showed significant differences compared with girls in CVM stage 4 for only 2 variables (sella to gonion and condylion to gonion; P <0.001 and P = 0.012, respectively). The CVM method was modestly effective in determining the amount of postpeak circumpubertal craniofacial growth. Copyright 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Facial Phenotyping by Quantitative Photography Reflects Craniofacial Morphology Measured on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Icelandic Sleep Apnea Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kate; Schwab, Richard J.; Maislin, Greg; Lee, Richard W.W.; Benedikstdsottir, Bryndis; Pack, Allan I.; Gislason, Thorarinn; Juliusson, Sigurdur; Cistulli, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: (1) To determine whether facial phenotype, measured by quantitative photography, relates to underlying craniofacial obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk factors, measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); (2) To assess whether these associations are independent of body size and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional cohort. Setting: Landspitali, The National University Hospital, Iceland. Participants: One hundred forty patients (87.1% male) from the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort who had both calibrated frontal and profile craniofacial photographs and upper airway MRI. Mean ± standard deviation age 56.1 ± 10.4 y, body mass index 33.5 ± 5.05 kg/m2, with on-average severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index 45.4 ± 19.7 h-1). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Relationships between surface facial dimensions (photos) and facial bony dimensions and upper airway soft-tissue volumes (MRI) was assessed using canonical correlation analysis. Photo and MRI craniofacial datasets related in four significant canonical correlations, primarily driven by measurements of (1) maxillary-mandibular relationship (r = 0.8, P photography and MRI. This study confirms that facial photographic phenotype reflects underlying aspects of craniofacial skeletal abnormalities associated with OSA. Therefore, facial photographic phenotyping may be a useful tool to assess intermediate phenotypes for OSA, particularly in large-scale studies. Citation: Sutherland K, Schwab RJ, Maislin G, Lee RW, Benedikstdsottir B, Pack AI, Gislason T, Juliusson S, Cistulli PA. Facial phenotyping by quantitative photography reflects craniofacial morphology measured on magnetic resonance imaging in icelandic sleep apnea patients. SLEEP 2014;37(5):959-968. PMID:24790275

  5. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  6. Histone Deacetylases in Bone Development and Skeletal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth W.; Carpio, Lomeli R.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (Hdacs) are conserved enzymes that remove acetyl groups from lysine side chains in histones and other proteins. Eleven of the 18 Hdacs encoded by the human and mouse genomes depend on Zn2+ for enzymatic activity, while the other 7, the sirtuins (Sirts), require NAD2+. Collectively, Hdacs and Sirts regulate numerous cellular and mitochondrial processes including gene transcription, DNA repair, protein stability, cytoskeletal dynamics, and signaling pathways to affect both development and aging. Of clinical relevance, Hdacs inhibitors are United States Food and Drug Administration-approved cancer therapeutics and are candidate therapies for other common diseases including arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy, heart disease, HIV infection, neurodegeneration, and numerous aging-related disorders. Hdacs and Sirts influence skeletal development, maintenance of mineral density and bone strength by affecting intramembranous and endochondral ossification, as well as bone resorption. With few exceptions, inhibition of Hdac or Sirt activity though either loss-of-function mutations or prolonged chemical inhibition has negative and/or toxic effects on skeletal development and bone mineral density. Specifically, Hdac/Sirt suppression causes abnormalities in physiological development such as craniofacial dimorphisms, short stature, and bone fragility that are associated with several human syndromes or diseases. In contrast, activation of Sirts may protect the skeleton from aging and immobilization-related bone loss. This knowledge may prolong healthspan and prevent adverse events caused by epigenetic therapies that are entering the clinical realm at an unprecedented rate. In this review, we summarize the general properties of Hdacs/Sirts and the research that has revealed their essential functions in bone forming cells (e.g., osteoblasts and chondrocytes) and bone resorbing osteoclasts. Finally, we offer predictions on future research in this area and the utility of

  7. From bone biology to bone analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenau, E.; Saggese, G.; Peter, F.; Baroncelli, G.I.; Shaw, N.J.; Crabtree, N.J.; Zadik, Z.; Neu, C.M.; Noordam, C.; Radetti, G.; Hochberg, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Bone development is one of the key processes characterizing childhood and adolescence. Understanding this process is not only important for physicians treating pediatric bone disorders, but also for clinicians and researchers dealing with postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. Bone densitometry has

  8. Dedicated Stereophotogrammetric X-Ray System For Craniofacial Research And Treatment Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon; Moffitt, Francis; Curry, Sean; Isaacson, Robert J.

    1983-07-01

    We have constructed and brought into use what we believe to be the first dedicated coplanar craniofacial stereometric x-ray system for clinical use. Paired Machlett Dynamax 50/58 x-ray tubes with 0.3 mm focal spots are employed. Displacement between emitters is 16 inches. The focus film distance for both emitters is 66.5 inches. The mid-sagittal plane to focus distance is 60 inches. One film of each stereo pair conforms with the standards of the Second Roentgenocephalometric Workshop and can be used to make all standard two-dimensional orthodontic and cephalometric measurements. When supplemented by data from the conjugate film, a three-dimensional coordinate map can be generated as a machine operation. Specialized complementary software has been developed to increase the reliability of landmark location both in two and in three dimensions.

  9. Head posture and cervicovertebral and craniofacial morphology in patients with craniomandibular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggare, J A; Raustia, A M

    1992-07-01

    A relationship between particular characteristics of dental occlusion and craniomandibular disorders (CMD) has been reported, while less attention has been focused on the possible effect of dysfunction of the masticatory system on head posture or cervicovertebral and craniofacial morphology. Natural head position roentgen-cephalograms of 16 young adults with complete dentition taken before and after stomatognathic treatment displayed an extended head posture, smaller size of the uppermost cervical vertebrae, decreased posterior to anterior face height ratio, and a flattened cranial base as compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The lordosis of the cervical spine straightened after stomatognathic treatment. The results are an indication of the close interrelationship between the masticatory muscle system and the muscles supporting the head, and lead to speculation on the principles of treating craniomandibular disorders.

  10. International confederation for cleft lip and palate and related craniofacial anomalies task force report: holistic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Hillary L

    2014-11-01

    Objective : This paper describes the process and outcomes of the 2013 American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association task force on Holistic Outcomes. The goals and membership of the task force are presented. Methods : Using internet communication, the group introduced themselves, shared ideas and information related to holistic assessment and implementation of using a validated holistic measure, the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) at participating international sites. Results : Data from the sites were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Administration of the COHIP was successful. It varied from self-completion as well as verbal presentation due to language differences and a function of the short time period to complete collection. Additionally qualitative comments were reported by the task force site directors. Conclusions : Future directions for holistic assessment and communication among task force members and sites were discussed at the Congress and are presented in this report.

  11. Effect of Injection Molding Melt Temperatures on PLGA Craniofacial Plate Properties during In Vitro Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Pimenta de Melo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present mechanical and physicochemical properties during in vitro degradation of PLGA material as craniofacial plates based on different values of injection molded temperatures. Injection molded plates were submitted to in vitro degradation in a thermostat bath at 37 ± 1°C by 16 weeks. The material was removed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 days; then bending stiffness, crystallinity, molecular weights, and viscoelasticity were studied. A significant decrease of molecular weight and mechanical properties over time and a difference in FT-IR after 60 days showed faster degradation of the material in the geometry studied. DSC analysis confirmed that the crystallization occurred, especially in higher melt temperature condition. DMA analysis suggests a greater contribution of the viscous component of higher temperature than lower temperature in thermomechanical behavior. The results suggest that physical-mechanical properties of PLGA plates among degradation differ per injection molding temperatures.

  12. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  13. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Kids / Broken Bones What's in this ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  14. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Parents / Broken Bones What's in this ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  15. Bioinformatic analysis of Msx1 and Msx2 involved in craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiewen; Mou, Zhifang; Shen, Shunyao; Dong, Yuefu; Yang, Tong; Shen, Steve Guofang

    2014-01-01

    Msx1 and Msx2 were revealed to be candidate genes for some craniofacial deformities, such as cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL/P) and craniosynostosis. Many other genes were demonstrated to have a cross-talk with MSX genes in causing these defects. However, there is no systematic evaluation for these MSX gene-related factors. In this study, we performed systematic bioinformatic analysis for MSX genes by combining using GeneDecks, DAVID, and STRING database, and the results showed that there were numerous genes related to MSX genes, such as Irf6, TP63, Dlx2, Dlx5, Pax3, Pax9, Bmp4, Tgf-beta2, and Tgf-beta3 that have been demonstrated to be involved in CL/P, and Fgfr2, Fgfr1, Fgfr3, and Twist1 that were involved in craniosynostosis. Many of these genes could be enriched into different gene groups involved in different signaling ways, different craniofacial deformities, and different biological process. These findings could make us analyze the function of MSX gens in a gene network. In addition, our findings showed that Sumo, a novel gene whose polymorphisms were demonstrated to be associated with nonsyndromic CL/P by genome-wide association study, has protein-protein interaction with MSX1, which may offer us an alternative method to perform bioinformatic analysis for genes found by genome-wide association study and can make us predict the disrupted protein function due to the mutation in a gene DNA sequence. These findings may guide us to perform further functional studies in the future.

  16. A lateral cephalometric study of craniofacial variation in Korean child twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Rae; You, Dong Soo

    1974-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate the degree of similarities and differences in components of craniofacial complex between Korean twins and normal children by lateral cephalometric analysis. Dimensions of S-N, S-Ba, N-Ba, Go-Me, Ar-Go and Ar-Me were plotted against linear measurement and angles of N-S-Ba and gonial against angular measurement in twins and control groups. The lateral cephalograms of twin were composed of 88 twins aged from 7 to 12:44 males aged 10.65 and 44 females aged 9. 55, while those of 50 normalities were composed of 25 male and 25 female aged 10.9 respectively. In order to analyze growth proportion and sexual differences, twins were divided into 3 groups according to two year age intervals and the author compared male with female in 3 groups. For the purpose of observing similarities and differences in twins and normalities by sex, total twins were compared with normalities. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There was no difference in craniofacial complex between twins and normalities. 2. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in both twins and normalities, but there were no statistical significances of sexual differences in both groups. 3. The growth proportion of mandible by aging was larger than that of face in twins. 4. The growth pattern of gonial angle showed slight reducing tendency in twin by aging. 5. There was little difference in the growth proportion of both male and female.

  17. Alcohol percutaneous neurolysis of the sphenopalatine ganglion in the management of refractory cranio-facial pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastler, Adrian [Grenoble University Hospital, Neuroradiology Department, Grenoble (France); Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory, EA4268, IFR133, Besancon (France); Cadel, Gilles; Gory, Guillaume [Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory, EA4268, IFR133, Besancon (France); Comte, Alexandre [University Hospital Besancon, Functional Imaging Research Department, Besancon (France); Piccand, Veronique [University Hospital Jean Minjoz, Pain Evaluation and Treatment Unit, Besancon (France); Tavernier, Laurent [Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory, EA4268, IFR133, Besancon (France); University Hospital Jean Minjoz, Head and Neck Surgery-Otolaryngology Unit, Besancon (France); Kastler, Bruno [Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory, EA4268, IFR133, Besancon (France); University Hospital Jean Minjoz, Interventional Pain Management Unit, Besancon (France)

    2014-07-15

    The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPN) has been proven to be involved in various types of facial pain syndromes. Management of these cranio-facial pain syndromes can be challenging, and existing specific treatments are sometimes inefficient and may fail. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate alcohol SPN in the management of cranio-facial pain. Forty-two patients suffering from refractory facial pain who underwent 58 consecutive SPN were included in this study between 2000 and 2013. Patients were divided into three groups: group ''cluster headache'' (CH), group ''persistent idiopathic facial pain'' (PFIP), and group ''Other''. Pain was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale scores (measured immediately before and after procedure and at regular intervals following the procedure). Alcohol SPN was considered to be effective when pain relief was equal to or greater than 50 % and lasting for at least 1 month. All procedures were realized ambulatory under CT guidance and consisted of an injection of 1 ml of absolute alcohol. Overall efficacy rate of alcohol SPN was 67.2 %, with mean pain relief duration of 10.3 months. Procedure was graded either not painful or tolerable by patients in 64.2 %. Analysis showed a higher efficacy rate in the groups CH (76.5 %) and PFIP (85.7 %) compared to the group Other (40 %). No difference was found between groups regarding the recurrence rate. Alcohol SPN under CT guidance appears as a safe and effective treatment of refractory facial pain, especially in cases of cluster headache and persistent idiopathic facial pain. (orig.)

  18. A lateral cephalometric study of craniofacial variation in Korean child twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Rae; You, Dong Soo [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-11-15

    A study was performed to investigate the degree of similarities and differences in components of craniofacial complex between Korean twins and normal children by lateral cephalometric analysis. Dimensions of S-N, S-Ba, N-Ba, Go-Me, Ar-Go and Ar-Me were plotted against linear measurement and angles of N-S-Ba and gonial against angular measurement in twins and control groups. The lateral cephalograms of twin were composed of 88 twins aged from 7 to 12:44 males aged 10.65 and 44 females aged 9. 55, while those of 50 normalities were composed of 25 male and 25 female aged 10.9 respectively. In order to analyze growth proportion and sexual differences, twins were divided into 3 groups according to two year age intervals and the author compared male with female in 3 groups. For the purpose of observing similarities and differences in twins and normalities by sex, total twins were compared with normalities. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There was no difference in craniofacial complex between twins and normalities. 2. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in both twins and normalities, but there were no statistical significances of sexual differences in both groups. 3. The growth proportion of mandible by aging was larger than that of face in twins. 4. The growth pattern of gonial angle showed slight reducing tendency in twin by aging. 5. There was little difference in the growth proportion of both male and female.

  19. Alcohol percutaneous neurolysis of the sphenopalatine ganglion in the management of refractory cranio-facial pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastler, Adrian; Cadel, Gilles; Gory, Guillaume; Comte, Alexandre; Piccand, Veronique; Tavernier, Laurent; Kastler, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPN) has been proven to be involved in various types of facial pain syndromes. Management of these cranio-facial pain syndromes can be challenging, and existing specific treatments are sometimes inefficient and may fail. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate alcohol SPN in the management of cranio-facial pain. Forty-two patients suffering from refractory facial pain who underwent 58 consecutive SPN were included in this study between 2000 and 2013. Patients were divided into three groups: group ''cluster headache'' (CH), group ''persistent idiopathic facial pain'' (PFIP), and group ''Other''. Pain was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale scores (measured immediately before and after procedure and at regular intervals following the procedure). Alcohol SPN was considered to be effective when pain relief was equal to or greater than 50 % and lasting for at least 1 month. All procedures were realized ambulatory under CT guidance and consisted of an injection of 1 ml of absolute alcohol. Overall efficacy rate of alcohol SPN was 67.2 %, with mean pain relief duration of 10.3 months. Procedure was graded either not painful or tolerable by patients in 64.2 %. Analysis showed a higher efficacy rate in the groups CH (76.5 %) and PFIP (85.7 %) compared to the group Other (40 %). No difference was found between groups regarding the recurrence rate. Alcohol SPN under CT guidance appears as a safe and effective treatment of refractory facial pain, especially in cases of cluster headache and persistent idiopathic facial pain. (orig.)

  20. Bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients

  1. Ceramic and non-ceramic hydroxyapatite as a bone graft material: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S R; Passi, D; Singh, P; Bhuibhar, A

    2015-03-01

    Treatment of dental, craniofacial and orthopedic defects with bone graft substitutes has shown promising result achieving almost complete bone regeneration depending on product resorption similar to human bone's physicochemical and crystallographic characteristics. Among these, non-ceramic and ceramic hydroxyapatite being the main inorganic salt of bone is the most studied calcium phosphate material in clinical practices ever since 1970s and non-ceramic since 1985. Its "chemical similarity" with the mineralized phase of biologic bone makes it unique. Hydroxyapatite as an excellent carrier of osteoinductive growth factors and osteogenic cell populations is also useful as drug delivery vehicle regardless of its density. Porous ceramic and non-ceramic hydroxyapatite is osteoconductive, biocompatible and very inert. The need for bone graft material keeps on increasing with increased age of the population and the increased conditions of trauma. Recent advances in genetic engineering and doping techniques have made it possible to use non-ceramic hydroxyapatite in larger non-ceramic crystals and cluster forms as a successful bone graft substitute to treat various types of bone defects. In this paper we have mentioned some recently studied properties of hydroxyapatite and its various uses through a brief review of the literatures available to date.

  2. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling...... of aged bones....

  3. Bone graft revascularization strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of avascular necrotic bone by pedicled bone grafting is a well-known treatment with little basic research supporting its application. A new canine model was used to simulate carpal bone avascular necrosis. Pedicled bone grafting proved to increase bone remodeling and bone blood flow,

  4. Bone marker gene expression in calvarial bones: different bone microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Osama

    2017-12-01

    In calvarial mice, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells and then differentiate into osteoblasts that differentiate into osteocytes, which become embedded within the bone matrix. In this case, the cells participating in bone formation include MSCs, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes. The calvariae of C57BL/KaLwRijHsD mice consist of the following five bones: two frontal bones, two parietal bones and one interparietal bone. This study aimed to analyse some bone marker genes and bone related genes to determine whether these calvarial bones have different bone microenvironments. C57BL/KaLwRijHsD calvariae were carefully excised from five male mice that were 4-6 weeks of age. Frontal, parietal, and interparietal bones were dissected to determine the bone microenvironment in calvariae. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was used to determine the morphology of different calvarial bones under microscopy. TaqMan was used to analyse the relative expression of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANK, RANKL, OPG, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in different parts of the calvariae. Histological analysis demonstrated different bone marrow (BM) areas between the different parts of the calvariae. The data show that parietal bones have the smallest BM area compared to frontal and interparietal bones. TaqMan data show a significant increase in the expression level of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANKL, OPG, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in the parietal bones compared with the frontal and interparietal bones of calvariae. This study provides evidence that different calvarial bones, frontal, parietal and interparietal, contain different bone microenvironments.

  5. Vertical guidance of shearers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, J.

    1985-01-01

    Mining Engineers have always been aware of the basic need to avoid contamination of the mined product, by controlling the cutting horizon at the coal face. The ability to maintain the optimum cutting horizon results in more effective roof control and ensures a safer and more efficient working environment, for men and machinery. The cost of treatment in the surface coal preparation plant is reduced. Transportation through the total mine system of material finally destined for the spoil heap is minimised. A reduction in product contamination is achieved and makes more effective use of the mine capacity. These benefits make possible significant improvements in productivity and financial returns. Exploitation of micro computer based systems has enabled the successful development of equipment which employs sensors to detect the very low natural gamma radiation from roof strata; to determine and allow control of the position of the cut relative to the roof and floor. This paper reviews the experience gained by the National Coal Board, particularly in South Yorkshire Area, with the vertical steering of ranging drum shearers. It outlines the benefits and considers the future for this technology and its contribution to total coal face automation

  6. A demographic analysis of vertical root fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stephen; Berman, Louis H; Blanco, Lucia; Bakland, Leif; Kim, Jay S

    2006-12-01

    Teeth with vertical root fractures (VRFs) have complete or incomplete fractures that extends through the enamel, dentin and pulp, down the long axis of the tooth. Several different variables were investigated and statistically evaluated as to their correlation with the presence of VRFs. Specifically analyzed were gender, tooth location, age, radiographic and clinical findings, bruxism, and pulpal status. The data were collected from three different endodontists, from three different geographic locations, comprising a total of 227 teeth. Although VRFs may occur in conjunction with any of the parameters investigated, only certain factors were found to occur in a significant number of cases. The results indicate that VRFs are statistically more prevalent in mandibular molars and maxillary premolars. They are associated with periradicular bone loss, pain to percussion, extensive restorations, and seem to occur more often in females and older patients. However, VRFs are not necessarily related to periapical bone loss, a widening of the periodontal ligament space, associated periodontal pockets, a sinus tract, particular pulpal status, or bruxism.

  7. Rehabilitative treatment of cleft lip and palate: experience of the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies/USP (HRAC/USP - Part 1: overall aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto de Souza Freitas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate is the most common among craniofacial malformations and causes several esthetic and functional implications that require rehabilitation. This paper aims to generally describe the several aspects related to this complex pathology and the treatment protocol used by the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, University of São Paulo (HRAC-USP along 40 years of experience in the treatment of individuals with cleft lip and palate.

  8. Predictability of hand skill and cognitive abilities from craniofacial width in right- and left-handed men and women: relation of skeletal structure to cerebral function

    OpenAIRE

    Dayi, Ertunc; Okuyan, Mukadder; Tan, Uner

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a family of homeobox genes involved in brain and craniofacial development was identified. In light of this genetic background, we hypothesized that some functional characteristics of human brain (hand skill, cognition) may be linked to some structural characteristics of human skull (e.g. craniofacial width) in humans. Hand preference was assessed by the Oldfield`s Handedness Questionaire. Hand skill was measured by Peg Moving Task. Face width was measured from the anteroposterior ce...

  9. [Frontier in bone biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Bone is an active organ in which bone mass is maintained by the balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption, i.e., coupling of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent advances in molecular bone biology uncovered the molecular mechanism of the coupling. A fundamental role of osteocyte in the maintenance of bone mass and whole body metabolism has also been revealed recently. Moreover, neurons and neuropeptides have been shown to be intimately involved in bone homeostasis though inter-organ network, in addition to "traditional" regulators of bone metabolism such as soluble factors and cytokines

  10. A strange bone damage of the frontal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwermer, B.

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a case in which the patient's own history ('therapy-resistant headaches') and 'autotrepanation of the calotte' alledgedly performed by the patient himself are rather convincing in the light of the X-ray pictures revealing a defect running vertically through the calotte to the lamina interna both in p.a. and in lateral projections. The fact that there were no complications postoperatively suggests that the frontal bone was not penetrated completely, i.e. the dura mater was not injured. (orig./TRV) [de

  11. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor intensity as observed in data. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input or final-goods trade is liberalised and when the fixed cost of vertical integration is reduced. At the same time, one observes firms that shift away from either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting. Further, we provide guidance for testing the open...

  12. Alternatives to Autologous Bone Graft in Alveolar Cleft Reconstruction: The State of Alveolar Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fan; Leland, Hyuma; Jedrzejewski, Breanna; Auslander, Allyn; Maniskas, Seija; Swanson, Jordan; Urata, Mark; Hammoudeh, Jeffrey; Magee, William

    2018-05-01

    Alveolar cleft reconstruction has historically relied on autologous iliac crest bone grafting (ICBG), but donor site morbidity, pain, and prolonged hospitalization have prompted the search for bone graft substitutes. The authors evaluated bone graft substitutes with the highest levels of evidence, and highlight the products that show promise in alveolar cleft repair and in maxillary augmentation. This comprehensive review guides the craniofacial surgeon toward safe and informed utilization of biomaterials in the alveolar cleft.A literature search was performed to identify in vitro human studies that fulfilled the following criteria: Level I or Level II of evidence, ≥30 subjects, and a direct comparison between a autologous bone graft and a bone graft substitute. A second literature search was performed that captured all studies, regardless of level of evidence, which evaluated bone graft substitutes for alveolar cleft repair or alveolar augmentation for dental implants. Adverse events for each of these products were tabulated as well.Sixteen studies featuring 6 bone graft substitutes: hydroxyapatite, demineralized bone matrix (DBM), β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), calcium phosphate, recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), and rhBMP7 fit the inclusion criteria for the first search. Through our second search, the authors found that DBM, TCP, rhBMP-2, and rhBMP7 have been studied most extensively in the alveolar cleft literature, though frequently in studies using less rigorous methodology (Level III evidence or below). rhBMP-2 was the best studied and showed comparable efficacy to ICBG in terms of volume of bone regeneration, bone density, and capacity to accommodate tooth eruption within the graft site. Pricing for products ranged from $290 to $3110 per 5 mL.The balance between innovation and safety is a complex process requiring constant vigilance and evaluation. Here, the authors profile several bone graft substitutes that demonstrate the most

  13. Influence of craniofacial and upper spine morphology on mandibular advancement device treatment outcome in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanholt, Palle; Petri, Niels; Wildschiødtz, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess cephalometric predictive markers in terms of craniofacial morphology including posterior cranial fossa and upper spine morphology for mandibular advancement device (MAD) treatment outcome in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea...... patients and the no success treatment group of 19 patients. Before MAD treatment lateral cephalograms were taken and analyses of the craniofacial morphology including the posterior cranial fossa and upper spine morphology were performed. Differences between the groups were analysed by Fisher's exact test......, t-test, and multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Upper spine morphological deviations occurred non-significantly in 25 per cent in the success treatment group and in 42.1 per cent in the no success treatment group. Body mass index (BMI; P

  14. Multimodal physiotherapy treatment based on a biobehavioral approach for patients with chronic cervico-craniofacial pain: a prospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Martín, Fernando; González-Ferrero, Luis; Martín-Alcocer, Noelia; Paris-Alemany, Alba; La Touche, Roy

    2018-01-17

    The purpose of this prospective case series was to observe and describe changes in patients with chronic cervico-craniofacial pain of muscular origin treated with multimodal physiotherapy based on a biobehavioral approach. Nine patients diagnosed with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder and neck pain were treated with 6 sessions over the course of 2 weeks including: (1) orthopedic manual physiotherapy (joint mobilizations, neurodynamic mobilization, and dynamic soft tissue mobilizations); (2) therapeutic exercises (motor control and muscular endurance exercises); and (3) patient education. The outcome measures of craniofacial (CF-PDI) and neck disability (NDI), kinesiophobia (TSK-11) and catastrophizing (PCS), and range of cervical and mandibular motion (ROM) and posture were collected at baseline, and at 2 and 14 weeks post-baseline. Compared to baseline, statistically significant (p posture were observed following a multimodal physiotherapy treatment based on a biobehavioral approach.

  15. Functional analysis of the zebrafish ortholog of HMGCS1 reveals independent functions for cholesterol and isoprenoids in craniofacial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M Quintana

    Full Text Available There are 8 different human syndromes caused by mutations in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. A subset of these disorders such as Smith-Lemli-Opitz disorder, are associated with facial dysmorphia. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying such facial deficits are not fully understood, primarily because of the diverse functions associated with the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Recent evidence has demonstrated that mutation of the zebrafish ortholog of HMGCR results in orofacial clefts. Here we sought to expand upon these data, by deciphering the cholesterol dependent functions of the cholesterol synthesis pathway from the cholesterol independent functions. Moreover, we utilized loss of function analysis and pharmacological inhibition to determine the extent of sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling in animals with aberrant cholesterol and/or isoprenoid synthesis. Our analysis confirmed that mutation of hmgcs1, which encodes the first enzyme in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, results in craniofacial abnormalities via defects in cranial neural crest cell differentiation. Furthermore targeted pharmacological inhibition of the cholesterol synthesis pathway revealed a novel function for isoprenoid synthesis during vertebrate craniofacial development. Mutation of hmgcs1 had no effect on Shh signaling at 2 and 3 days post fertilization (dpf, but did result in a decrease in the expression of gli1, a known Shh target gene, at 4 dpf, after morphological deficits in craniofacial development and chondrocyte differentiation were observed in hmgcs1 mutants. These data raise the possibility that deficiencies in cholesterol modulate chondrocyte differentiation by a combination of Shh independent and Shh dependent mechanisms. Moreover, our results describe a novel function for isoprenoids in facial development and collectively suggest that cholesterol regulates craniofacial development through versatile mechanisms.

  16. E-cigarette aerosol exposure can cause craniofacial defects in Xenopus laevis embryos and mammalian neural crest cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson E Kennedy

    Full Text Available Since electronic cigarette (ECIG introduction to American markets in 2007, vaping has surged in popularity. Many, including women of reproductive age, also believe that ECIG use is safer than traditional tobacco cigarettes and is not hazardous when pregnant. However, there are few studies investigating the effects of ECIG exposure on the developing embryo and nothing is known about potential effects on craniofacial development. Therefore, we have tested the effects of several aerosolized e-cigarette liquids (e-cigAM in an in vivo craniofacial model, Xenopus laevis, as well as a mammalian neural crest cell line. Results demonstrate that e-cigAM exposure during embryonic development induces a variety of defects, including median facial clefts and midface hypoplasia in two of e-cigAMs tested e-cigAMs. Detailed quantitative analyses of the facial morphology revealed that nicotine is not the main factor in inducing craniofacial defects, but can exacerbate the effects of the other e-liquid components. Additionally, while two different e-cigAMs can have very similar consequences on facial appearances, there are subtle differences that could be due to the differences in e-cigAM components. Further assessment of embryos exposed to these particular e-cigAMs revealed cranial cartilage and muscle defects and a reduction in the blood supply to the face. Finally, the expression of markers for vascular and cartilage differentiation was reduced in a mammalian neural crest cell line corroborating the in vivo effects. Our work is the first to show that ECIG use could pose a potential hazard to the developing embryo and cause craniofacial birth defects. This emphasizes the need for more testing and regulation of this new popular product.

  17. E-cigarette aerosol exposure can cause craniofacial defects in Xenopus laevis embryos and mammalian neural crest cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Allyson E; Kandalam, Suraj; Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Dickinson, Amanda J G

    2017-01-01

    Since electronic cigarette (ECIG) introduction to American markets in 2007, vaping has surged in popularity. Many, including women of reproductive age, also believe that ECIG use is safer than traditional tobacco cigarettes and is not hazardous when pregnant. However, there are few studies investigating the effects of ECIG exposure on the developing embryo and nothing is known about potential effects on craniofacial development. Therefore, we have tested the effects of several aerosolized e-cigarette liquids (e-cigAM) in an in vivo craniofacial model, Xenopus laevis, as well as a mammalian neural crest cell line. Results demonstrate that e-cigAM exposure during embryonic development induces a variety of defects, including median facial clefts and midface hypoplasia in two of e-cigAMs tested e-cigAMs. Detailed quantitative analyses of the facial morphology revealed that nicotine is not the main factor in inducing craniofacial defects, but can exacerbate the effects of the other e-liquid components. Additionally, while two different e-cigAMs can have very similar consequences on facial appearances, there are subtle differences that could be due to the differences in e-cigAM components. Further assessment of embryos exposed to these particular e-cigAMs revealed cranial cartilage and muscle defects and a reduction in the blood supply to the face. Finally, the expression of markers for vascular and cartilage differentiation was reduced in a mammalian neural crest cell line corroborating the in vivo effects. Our work is the first to show that ECIG use could pose a potential hazard to the developing embryo and cause craniofacial birth defects. This emphasizes the need for more testing and regulation of this new popular product.

  18. Craniofacial morphology of children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate following labioplasty and palatoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Handoko Utomo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A complete unilateral cleft lip and palate generally results in asymmetry of the midface. The lack of continuity in the perilabial musculature through the midline contributes to a malpositioning of the underlying osseus structures which are often underdeveloped. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the craniofacial morphology among children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate following labioplasty and palatoplasty as compared with children without cleft lip and palate at the same pubertal age. Methods: A series of 14 consecutively treated subjects with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate following labioplasty and palatoplasty were compared with 14 pubertal stage-matched controls with normal craniofacial structure. Pubertal stage was determined with cervical vertebral maturation (CVM method improved by Baccetti et al, 2002. Lateral cephalograms were used for comparison. An unpaired t-test was run for 14 subjects with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate and 14 normal subjects. Results: There were significant cephalometric differences in anterior cranial base length (p = .002, cranial base length (p = .001, maxillary length (p = .000, mandibular length (p = .000, mandibular ramus height (p = .000, mandibular body length (p = .002, and upper anterior face height (p = .004. There was no significant cephalometric difference in posterior cranial base length (p = .051, lower anterior face height (p = .206, posterior face height (p = .865, growth pattern/ facial type (p = .202. Conclusion: There were craniofacial morphology differences between children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate post labioplasty and palatoplasty and children without cleft lip and palate at the age of pubertal. Children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate post labioplasty and palatoplasty had shorter length of the anterior cranial base, cranial base, maxilla, mandible, mandibular

  19. Report of an unsual case of anophthalmia and craniofacial cleft in a newborn with Toxoplasma gondii congenital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Estrada, Gabriel Emmanuel; Gómez-Toscano, Valeria; Cedillo-Peláez, Carlos; Sesman-Bernal, Ana Luisa; Bosch-Canto, Vanessa; Mayorga-Butrón, José Luis; Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Correa, Dolores

    2017-07-03

    We present one unusual case of anophthalmia and craniofacial cleft, probably due to congenital toxoplasmosis only. A two-month-old male had a twin in utero who disappeared between the 7 th and the 14 th week of gestation. At birth, the baby presented anophthalmia and craniofacial cleft, and no sign compatible with genetic or exposition/deficiency problems, like the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome or maternal vitamin A deficiency. Congenital toxoplasmosis was confirmed by the presence of IgM abs and IgG neo-antibodies in western blot, as well as by real time PCR in blood. CMV infection was also discarded by PCR and IgM negative results. Structures suggestive of T. gondii pseudocysts were observed in a biopsy taken during the first functional/esthetic surgery. We conclude that this is a rare case of anophthalmia combined with craniofacial cleft due to congenital toxoplasmosis, that must be considered by physicians. This has not been reported before.

  20. Distinct functional and temporal requirements for zebrafish Hdac1 during neural crest-derived craniofacial and peripheral neuron development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatius, Myron S; Unal Eroglu, Arife; Malireddy, Smitha; Gallagher, Glen; Nambiar, Roopa M; Henion, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression is accomplished by both genetic and epigenetic means and is required for the precise control of the development of the neural crest. In hdac1(b382) mutants, craniofacial cartilage development is defective in two distinct ways. First, fewer hoxb3a, dlx2 and dlx3-expressing posterior branchial arch precursors are specified and many of those that are consequently undergo apoptosis. Second, in contrast, normal numbers of progenitors are present in the anterior mandibular and hyoid arches, but chondrocyte precursors fail to terminally differentiate. In the peripheral nervous system, there is a disruption of enteric, DRG and sympathetic neuron differentiation in hdac1(b382) mutants compared to wildtype embryos. Specifically, enteric and DRG-precursors differentiate into neurons in the anterior gut and trunk respectively, while enteric and DRG neurons are rarely present in the posterior gut and tail. Sympathetic neuron precursors are specified in hdac1(b382) mutants and they undergo generic neuronal differentiation but fail to undergo noradrenergic differentiation. Using the HDAC inhibitor TSA, we isolated enzyme activity and temporal requirements for HDAC function that reproduce hdac1(b382) defects in craniofacial and sympathetic neuron development. Our study reveals distinct functional and temporal requirements for zebrafish hdac1 during neural crest-derived craniofacial and peripheral neuron development.

  1. Distinct functional and temporal requirements for zebrafish Hdac1 during neural crest-derived craniofacial and peripheral neuron development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myron S Ignatius

    Full Text Available The regulation of gene expression is accomplished by both genetic and epigenetic means and is required for the precise control of the development of the neural crest. In hdac1(b382 mutants, craniofacial cartilage development is defective in two distinct ways. First, fewer hoxb3a, dlx2 and dlx3-expressing posterior branchial arch precursors are specified and many of those that are consequently undergo apoptosis. Second, in contrast, normal numbers of progenitors are present in the anterior mandibular and hyoid arches, but chondrocyte precursors fail to terminally differentiate. In the peripheral nervous system, there is a disruption of enteric, DRG and sympathetic neuron differentiation in hdac1(b382 mutants compared to wildtype embryos. Specifically, enteric and DRG-precursors differentiate into neurons in the anterior gut and trunk respectively, while enteric and DRG neurons are rarely present in the posterior gut and tail. Sympathetic neuron precursors are specified in hdac1(b382 mutants and they undergo generic neuronal differentiation but fail to undergo noradrenergic differentiation. Using the HDAC inhibitor TSA, we isolated enzyme activity and temporal requirements for HDAC function that reproduce hdac1(b382 defects in craniofacial and sympathetic neuron development. Our study reveals distinct functional and temporal requirements for zebrafish hdac1 during neural crest-derived craniofacial and peripheral neuron development.

  2. Trends in medical malpractice claims in patients with cleft or craniofacial abnormalities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Rounak B; Kilpatrick, Lauren A; Wood, Jeyhan S; Drake, Amelia F

    2016-11-01

    To describe medical malpractice trends in patients with cleft and/or craniofacial abnormalities. A modified Delphi approach was used to gather search terms. Search settings included "all jury verdicts and settlements", with jurisdiction of "all states" and "all federal courts" (by court and circuit). A retrospective review of WestLawNext legal database was conducted. Cases were excluded if they did not have a direct association from the patient's craniofacial anomaly or if they were not related to malpractice. Forty-two cases met inclusion criteria. Cases closed between 1981 and 2014 were included. The mean payment among claims with an indemnity payment was $3.9 million. Of cases brought to trial, 62% were in favor of the plaintiff. Amongst physicians named as co-defendants, pediatricians were most commonly named (24%), followed by plastic surgeons (16%), obstetricians (7.8%), and radiologists (7.8%). "Missed diagnosis" was the most common type of negligent claim (45%), followed by "surgical error" (21%), and "medication error" (17%). "Anoxic brain injury" resulted in the highest median indemnity payment for complication of patient management ($3.5 million), followed by "wrongful birth" ($1.03 million), and "minor physical injury" ($520,000). No specific type of negligent claim (p = 0.764) nor complication of patient management (p = 0.61) was associated with a greater indemnity payment. Mean indemnity payment was $920,000 prior to 2001 and $4.4 million after 2001 (p = 0.058). Mean indemnity payments were fourteen-fold greater in patients as compared to those in the overall population ($3.9 million versus $274,887) and seven-fold greater than those in the average pediatric population ($3.9 million versus $520,923). All healthcare providers should be aware of the associated medical malpractice claims that may be incurred when treating patients at risk for these conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inservice testing of vertical pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, R.E. Jr.; Schumann, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problems that may occur with vertical pumps while inservice tests are conducted in accordance with existing American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code, Section XI, standards. The vertical pump types discussed include single stage, multistage, free surface, and canned mixed flow pumps. Primary emphasis is placed on the hydraulic performance of the pump and the internal and external factors to the pump that impact hydraulic performance. In addition, the paper considers the mechanical design features that can affect the mechanical performance of vertical pumps. The conclusion shows how two recommended changes in the Code standards may increase the quality of the pump's operational readiness assessment during its service life

  4. Radiographic Comparison of Bovine Bone Substitute Alone versus Bovine Bone Substitute and Simvastatin for Human Maxillary Sinus Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Reza Rasouli Ghahroudi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of bovine bone substitute (Compact Bone B. ® alone versus bovine bone substitute and simvastatin for human maxillary sinus augmentation.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 16 sinuses in eight patients. Radiographic assessments were done preoperatively (T0, immediately (T1 and at nine months after sinus grafting (T2. Alveolar bone height and density were assessed on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT scans using Planmeca Romexis™ Imaging Software 2.2.Results: The change in alveolar bone height and density between T0, T1 and T2 was significant in both groups. Alveolar bone height (h0, h1, h2 and vertical height of the grafted bone (g1, g2 in three lines (anterior, middle and posterior were not significantly different between groups. The grafted bone height shrinkage (% in the anterior, middle and posterior limits of the augmented area were not significantly different between groups. The existing alveolar and grafted bone density increased significantly in both groups between T1 and T2, except for the existing alveolar bone density in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences between the alveolar bone density values obtained in TI and T2 between groups, except for the existing alveolar bone density at T1.Conclusions: This study did not show any significant positive effect for simvastatin in maxillary sinus augmentation based on radiographic examination.

  5. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  6. A self-setting iPSMSC-alginate-calcium phosphate paste for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Song, Yang; Weir, Michael D; Sun, Jinyu; Zhao, Liang; Simon, Carl G; Xu, Hockin H K

    2016-02-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are promising for dental and craniofacial repairs. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop an injectable cell delivery system based on encapsulation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iPSMSCs) in microbeads; (2) develop a novel tissue engineered construct by dispersing iPSMSC-microbeads in CPC to investigate bone regeneration in an animal model for the first time. iPSMSCs were pre-osteoinduced for 2 weeks (OS-iPSMSCs), or transduced with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2-iPSMSCs). Cells were encapsulated in fast-degradable alginate microbeads. Microbeads were mixed with CPC paste and filled into cranial defects in nude rats. Four groups were tested: (1) CPC-microbeads without cells (CPC control); (2) CPC-microbeads-iPSMSCs (CPC-iPSMSCs); (3) CPC-microbeads-OS-iPSMSCs (CPC-OS-iPSMSCs); (4) CPC-microbeads-BMP2-iPSMSCs (CPC-BMP2-iPSMSCs). Cells maintained good viability inside microbeads after injection. The microbeads were able to release the cells which had more than 10-fold increase in live cell density from 1 to 14 days. The cells exhibited up-regulation of osteogenic markers and deposition of minerals. In vivo, new bone area fraction (mean±SD; n=5) for CPC-iPSMSCs group was (22.5±7.6)%. New bone area fractions were (38.9±18.4)% and (44.7±22.8)% for CPC-OS-iPSMSCs group and CPC-BMP2-iPSMSCs group, respectively, 2-3 times the (15.6±11.2)% in CPC control at 12 weeks (pdental and craniofacial bone regenerations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  8. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  9. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radialx7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels

  10. Dental and craniofacial findings in eight miniature schnauzer dogs affected by myotonia congenita: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracis, M; Keith, D; Vite, C H

    2000-09-01

    Myotonia is a clinical sign characterized by the delay of skeletal muscle relaxation following the cessation of a voluntary activity or the termination of an electrical or mechanical stimulus. Recently, Miniature Schnauzers with myotonia congenita associated with defective chloride ion conductance across the skeletal muscle membrane were identified. Congenital myotonia in these dogs appears to follow an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Craniofacial and dental findings of eight Miniature Schnauzer dogs with myotonia congenita are described in the present paper. These findings include: delayed dental eruption of both deciduous and permanent dentition: persistent deciduous dentition; unerupted or partially erupted permanent teeth: crowding and rotation of premolar and or incisor teeth: missing teeth: increased interproximal space between the maxillary fourth premolar and first molar teeth: decreased interproximal space between the maxillary canine and lateral incisor teeth: inability to fully close the mouth due to malocclusion: distoclusion: and, decreased mandibular range of motion. A long narrow skull with a flattened zygomatic arch and greater mandibular body curvature were also consistent findings in the affected dogs. The small number of dogs studied prevents conclusive statements about the origin of these abnormalities, however it is interesting that only 1 of 45 unaffected Miniature Schnauzer dogs showed similar traits.

  11. Postnatal craniofacial skeleton development following a pushback operation of patients with cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteporn, S; Enemark, H; Melsen, B

    1991-10-01

    A longitudinal growth study of the craniofacial skeleton in 52 (19 males, 33 females) Danish individuals with cleft palates was performed. Thirty (13 males, 17 females) had clefts of the soft palate only or clefts extending into the posterior third of the hard palate. Twenty-two (6 males, 16 females) had more extensive clefts including up to two-thirds of the hard palate. The cleft was closed with a pushback operation at 22 months of age. Orthodontic treatment was included in the early mixed dentition. Lateral cephalometries were obtained at 5, 8, 12, 16, and 21 years of age. Twenty-four variables were digitized and analyzed. The results indicated that patients with more extensive clefts demonstrated significantly smaller anterior cranial base length (N-S), total cranial base length (N-Ba), maxillary dentoalveolar base length (A-PMP), mandibular length (Cd-Pgn), upper anterior and posterior facial heights (N-ANS and P-PMP), and total facial height (N-Gn). Patients with the more extensive clefts reached maximum growth spurt later than patients with less extensive clefts in all dimensions except the A-PMP and the lower and total facial heights.

  12. An analysis of malar fat volume in two age groups: implications for craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Christina L; Popelka, Gerald R; Barrera, Jose E; Most, Sam P

    2012-12-01

    Objective To evaluate how malar fat pad (MFP) volumes vary with age, after controlling for gender and body mass index (BMI). Study Design A prospective case-control study evaluating volume of the MFP in women of two age groups. Methods Soft tissue dimensions were measured in eight subjects using magnetic resonance imaging. A multiplanar localizing sequence, followed in sagittal and coronal orientations using a turbo spin echo sequence, was performed to define the MFP. Volumetric calculations were then performed using a 3D image analysis application (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions, Republic of Singapore) to circumscribe areas, orient dimensions, and calculate volumes of the MFP. Results These data reveal no significant difference in the mean (standard deviation) right MFP (p = 0.50), left MFP (p = 0.41), or total MFP (p = 0.45) volumes when comparing the two age groups. In addition, these data indicate that there was no correlation between age and total MFP volume (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.27). Moreover, there was no correlation between age and the ratio of total volume/BMI (Pearson correlation coefficient -0.18). Conclusions Although the sample size of this study was small, these data indicate that ptosis of midfacial fat is more important than volume loss in midfacial aging. These data would suggest repositioning as the primary modality for craniofacial reconstruction.

  13. Effects of ethylene oxide sterilization on 82: 18 PLLA/PGA copolymer craniofacial fixation plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, William S

    2010-01-01

    Bioabsorbable devices are generally susceptible to some form of degradation or alteration of material properties in response to exposure to the terminal sterilization cycle. In addition to affecting the material strength, sterilization can also increase the rate of hydrolysis, both of which can impact clinical performance. The impact of sterilization on the material/device is unpredictable and must be empirically determined. This study examined the effects of ethylene oxide treatment on the material properties of LactoSorb 82:18 poly(L-lactic acid)-poly(glycolic acid) craniofacial plates. Compared with untreated control plates, there was no effect on the initial inherent viscosity (1.3 dL/g), the glass transition temperature (58 degrees C), or on the flexural mechanical properties. Furthermore, there was no effect on the in vitro rate of hydrolysis and mechanical strength loss profile. This provides evidence that the ethylene oxide sterilization cycle is compatible with these copolymer plates and that such treatment should not affect the clinical performance.

  14. Associations Between Disinfection By-Product Exposures and Craniofacial Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, John A; Wright, J Michael; Evans, Amanda; Rivera-Núñez, Zorimar; Meyer, Amy; Narotsky, Michael G

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations between craniofacial birth defects (CFDs) and disinfection by-product (DBP) exposures, including the sum of four trihalomethanes (THM4) and five haloacetic acids (HAA5) (ie, DBP9). We calculated first trimester adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for different DBPs in a matched case-control study of 366 CFD cases in Massachusetts towns with complete 1999 to 2004 THM and HAA data. We detected elevated aORs for cleft palate with DBP9 (highest quintile aOR = 3.52; 95% CI: 1.07, 11.60), HAA5, trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), and dichloroacetic acid. We detected elevated aORs for eye defects with TCAA and chloroform. This is the first epidemiological study of DBPs to examine eye and ear defects, as well as HAAs and CFDs. The associations for cleft palate and eye defects highlight the importance of examining specific defects and DBPs beyond THM4.

  15. The impact of suction drainage on orbital compartment syndrome after craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenzl, Carlton R; Golio, Dominick

    2014-07-01

    Postoperative orbital compartment syndrome is a potentially blinding complication of surgery in the orbital region. We describe the technique of orbital drain placement as a method of preventing vision loss resulting from orbital compartment syndrome. We present a retrospective case series of 29 patients who underwent orbital fracture, facial fracture, and orbital implant removal from 7/4/2008 to 5/3/2013 by the same craniofacial surgeon. An orbital drain was placed in each patient. The drainage was recorded daily until drain removal. Criteria for removal included less than or equal to 5 mL of drainage in 24 hours. Of the 29 patients included in this study, 21 were men and 8 were women. Ages ranged from 17 to 67 years. The postoperative drainage ranged from less than 1 mL to 71 mL of serosanguinous fluid. All drains were removed between the first and sixth postoperative days. No postoperative visual loss, infections, or additional antibiotics were recorded with follow-up reaching as far as 40 months. Postoperative orbital compartment syndrome is a dangerous complication of surgery in the orbital region. Its rapid onset necessitates immediate intervention to prevent permanent vision loss. Morphologic changes to the optic nerve as well as reductions in electroretinogram a- and b-wave amplitudes have been demonstrated with as little as 7 mL of fluid accumulation. Intraoperative orbital drain placement should be considered in all patients undergoing surgery in the orbital region as a preventative measure.

  16. External versus Internal Distraction Devices in Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Craniofacial Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmiel, Adi; Nseir, Saleh; Emodi, Omri; Aizenbud, Dror

    2014-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is often associated with congenital craniofacial malformations due to hypoplastic mandible and decreased pharyngeal airway. In this study, we will compare external and internal distraction devices for mandibular lengthening in terms of effectiveness, results, patient comfort, and complications. Thirty-seven patients were treated by bilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis for obstructive sleep apnea: 20 with external and 17 with internal distraction devices. Lengthening of the mandible and increase of the pharyngeal airway were obtained in all patients. Using the external devices, the average mandibular elongation was 30 mm versus 22 mm with the internal devices; however, after 1 year, the results were more stable with internal devices. External devices carried greater risk for pin tract infection than the internal devices (27.5% vs 5.88%). In addition, pin loosening in 22.5% required pin replacement or led to reduced retention period. Internal devices had a precise and predictable vector of lengthening and left less visible scars at the submandibular area but carried the disadvantage of requiring a second operation for device removal. In very young children with severe micrognathia, it was impossible to place internal devices, and external devices were used. Internal devices should be the first choice because they are more comfortable to the patients, more predictable vector of lengthening, are less vulnerable to dislodgement, and leave reduced scarring, with the great disadvantage of second operation for removal. However, external devices still should be considered mainly in severely hypoplastic cases, and the surgeon should be prepared for both options.

  17. Craniofacial features as assessed by lateral cephalometric measurements in children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerasathpurush Allareddy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of the present study is to examine the craniofacial development of patients with Down syndrome (DS and compare them with a neurotypical population. Methods This study is a cross-sectional analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs of participants with DS. The study population consisted of children and young adults with DS aged 3–25 years. Cephalometric data were summarized by age and sex. Raw and normalized z-scores were computed. One-sample t tests were used to test whether mean z-scores differed from zero. The demographic characteristics between those with or without lateral cephalograms among all study participants were compared by Fisher’s exact tests. Results The study sample comprised of 27 participants with DS. Study subjects demonstrated a class III skeletal pattern. This was more pronounced in the older age groups as compared to younger age groups. Subjects also had an increased proportionate lower anterior face height to total facial height compared to normative standards. Gonial angles, mandibular plane angles, and airway measurements increased with age. Conclusions Patients with Down syndrome present typically with class III skeletal pattern and long lower anterior facial heights. In patients with Down syndrome, comprehensive phase of orthodontic treatment may be best initiated following cessation of growth.

  18. Ethanol Sclerotherapy for the Management of Craniofacial Venous Malformations: the Interim Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ho; Kim, Keon Ha; Jeon, Pyoung; Byun, Hong Sik; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Young Wook; Kim, Dong Ik; Choi, Joon Young

    2009-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the safety and feasibility of ethanol sclerotherapy for treating craniofacial venous malformations (CVMs). From May 1998 to April 2007, 87 patients (40 men and 47 women; age range, 2-68 years) with CVMs underwent staged ethanol sclerotherapy (range, 1-21 sessions; median number of sessions, 2) by the direct puncture technique. Clinical follow up (range, 0-120 months; mean follow up, 35 months; median follow up, 28 months) was performed for all the patients. Therapeutic outcomes were established by evaluating the clinical outcome of the signs and symptoms in all patients, as well as the degree of devascularization, which was determined on the follow-up imaging, in 71 patients. A total of 305 procedures with the use of ethanol were performed in 87 patients. Follow-up imaging studies were performed for 71 of 87 patients. Twenty-three (32%) of the 71 patients showed excellent outcomes, 37 patients (52%) showed good outcomes and 11 patients (16%) showed poor outcomes. Ethanol sclerotherapy was considered effective for 60 patients. All the minor complications such as bulla (n = 5) healed with only wound dressing and observation. Any major complication such as skin necrosis did not develop. Percutaneous ethanol sclerotherapy is an effective, safe treatment for CVMs

  19. Facial soft tissue thickness database of Gujarati population for forensic craniofacial reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Lodha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The forensic facial reconstruction is a scientific art to construct the ante-mortem face from the human skull. The facial recognition is made by reconstructing the contours of the facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT.These FSTT data are essential for probable face reconstruction but the data of FSTT at particular anthropological landmarks differ in various ethnic groups. Until now several works have been reported on different population but no study exists in which the FSTT of a Gujarati population has been measured. The aim of this study is to compile a set of soft tissue depth data of Gujarati population of India to add to existing literature on FSTT. Computed tomography (CT-scan has been utilized to measure the 25 different FSTT landmarks of 324 male and 165 female. Present study shows significant differences in certain FSTT of Gujarati population from that of other populations. Our compiled data set of FSTT for the Gujarati population is important in understanding craniofacial characteristics of the Gujarati population and potentially be helpful in forensic identification.

  20. An overview of recent advances in designing orthopedic and craniofacial implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantripragada, Venkata P; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Ebraheim, Nabil A; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C

    2013-11-01

    Great deal of research is still going on in the field of orthopedic and craniofacial implant development to resolve various issues being faced by the industry today. Despite several disadvantages of the metallic implants, they continue to be used, primarily because of their superior mechanical properties. In order to minimize the harmful effects of the metallic implants and its by-products, several modifications are being made to these materials, for instance nickel-free stainless steel, cobalt-chromium and titanium alloys are being introduced to eliminate the toxic effects of nickel being released from the alloys, introduce metallic implants with lower modulus, reduce the cost of these alloys by replacing rare elements with less expensive elements etc. New alloys like tantalum, niobium, zirconium, and magnesium are receiving attention given their satisfying mechanical and biological properties. Non-oxide ceramics like silicon nitride and silicon carbide are being currently developed as a promising implant material possessing a combination of properties such as good wear and corrosion resistance, increased ductility, good fracture and creep resistance, and relatively high hardness in comparison to alumina. Polymer/magnesium composites are being developed to improve mechanical properties as well as retain polymer's property of degradation. Recent advances in orthobiologics are proving interesting as well. This paper thus deals with the latest improvements being made to the existing implant materials and includes new materials being introduced in the field of biomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist

  2. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Bone Graft Alternatives Patient Education Committee Patient Education Committee ... procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone grafts that are transplanted ...

  3. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the ... lose bone faster than it can be replaced. Menopause—the time when menstrual periods end, which usually ...

  4. Bone and fat connection in aging bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo

    2008-07-01

    The fat and bone connection plays an important role in the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss. This review will focus on the age-induced mechanisms regulating the predominant differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes. Additionally, bone marrow fat will be considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to osteoporosis. There are two types of bone and fat connection. The 'systemic connection', usually seen in obese patients, is hormonally regulated and associated with high bone mass and strength. The 'local connection' happens inside the bone marrow. Increasing amounts of bone marrow fat affect bone turnover through the inhibition of osteoblast function and survival and the promotion of osteoclast differentiation and activation. This interaction is regulated by paracrine secretion of fatty acids and adipokines. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be quantified using noninvasive methods and could be used as a therapeutic approach due to its capacity to transdifferentiate into bone without affecting other types of fat in the body. The bone and fat connection within the bone marrow constitutes a typical example of lipotoxicity. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be used as a new diagnostic and therapeutic approach for osteoporosis in older persons.

  5. Dating of cremated bones

    OpenAIRE

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...

  6. Bone-anchored titanium implants for auricular rehabilitation: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumieiro, Emne Hammoud; Dib, Luciano Lauria; Jahn, Ricardo Schmitutz; Santos Junior, João Ferreira dos; Nannmark, Ulf; Granström, Gösta; Abrahão, Márcio

    2009-01-01

    Osseointegrated implants have acquired an important role in the prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with craniofacial defects. The main indications are lack of local tissue for autogenous reconstruction, previous reconstruction failure and selection of this technique by the patient. This paper presents a clinical case and discusses indications and advantages of the osseointegrated implant technique for retention of auricular prostheses. Case report, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). A female patient received three auricular implants after surgical resection of a hemangioma in her left ear. The time taken for osseointegration of the temporal bone was three months. After fabrication of the implant-retained auricular prosthesis, the patient was monitored for 12 months. The clinical parameters evaluated showed good postoperative healing, healthy peri-implant tissue, good hygiene and no loss of implants. Good hygiene combined with thin and immobile peri-implant soft tissues resulted in minimal complications. Craniofacial implant integration appears to be site-dependent; increasing age affects osseointegration in the temporal bone. The frequency of adverse skin reactions in peri-implant tissues is generally low. The surgical technique for rehabilitation using implant-retained auricular prostheses seems to be simple. It is associated with low rates of adverse skin reactions and long-term complications. Prostheses anchored by osseointegrated implants seem to provide better retention than do prostheses supported on spectacle frames, less risk of discoloration through the use of adhesives and better esthetic results than do prostheses anchored in the surgical cavity.

  7. Bioactivation of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite with foamed gelatin gel. A new injectable self-setting bone analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessì, M; Alvarez-Perez, M A; De Santis, R; Ginebra, M P; Planell, J A; Ambrosio, L

    2014-02-01

    An alternative approach to bone repair for less invasive surgical techniques, involves the development of biomaterials directly injectable into the injury sites and able to replicate a spatially organized platform with features of bone tissue. Here, the preparation and characterization of an innovative injectable bone analogue made of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite and foamed gelatin is presented. The biopolymer features and the cement self-setting reaction were investigated by rheological analysis. The porous architecture, the evolution of surface morphology and the grains dimension were analyzed with electron microscopy (SEM/ESEM/TEM). The physico-chemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction and FTIR analysis. Moreover, an injection test was carried out to prove the positive effect of gelatin on the flow ensuing that cement is fully injectable. The cement mechanical properties are adequate to function as temporary substrate for bone tissue regeneration. Furthermore, MG63 cells and bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were able to migrate and proliferate inside the pores, and hMSCs differentiated to the osteoblastic phenotype. The results are paving the way for an injectable bone substitute with properties that mimic natural bone tissue allowing the successful use as bone filler for craniofacial and orthopedic reconstructions in regenerative medicine.

  8. In Situ Splitting of a Rib Bone Graft for Reconstruction of Orbital Floor and Medial Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Tetsuji; Yanai, Tetsu; Yasuta, Masato; Harada, Yoshimi; Morikawa, Aya; Watanabe, Hidetaka; Kurokawa, Masato

    2017-06-01

    In situ splitting of rib bone graft was conducted in 22 patients for the repair of orbital fracture with no other complicating fractures. A bone graft was harvested from the sixth or seventh rib in the right side. The repair of the orbital floor and medial wall was successful in all the cases. Ten patients had bone grafting to the orbital floor, eight had it done onto medial wall, and 4 onto both floor and wall after reduction. The mean length of in situ rib bone graft was 40.9 mm (range, 20-70 mm), the mean width of these was 14.9 mm (range, 8-20 mm). The bone grafting was done by one leaf for 15 cases and two leafs for 7 cases in size of defects. The technique of in situ splitting of a rib bone graft for the repair of the orbital floor and medial wall is a simple and safe procedure, easily taking out the in situ splitting of a rib, and less pain in donor site. It has proved to be an optimal choice in craniofacial reconstruction, especially the defects of orbital floor and medial wall.

  9. Late effects of radiation on mature and growing bone; Effets tardifs des radiations sur l`os mature et en croissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuz, O.; Mornex, F. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lyon-Sud, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France); Bourhis, J. [Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    1997-12-01

    The physiopathology of radiation-induced bone damage is no completely elucidated. Ionizing radiation may induce an inhibition or an impairment of growing bone. This fact is of particular importance in children, and represents one of the most important dose-limiting factors in the radiotherapeutic management of children with malignant diseases. Scoliosis, epiphyseal slippage, avascular necrosis, abnormalities of craniofacial growth may be observed after radiation. Child`s age at the time of treatment, location of irradiated bone and irradiation characteristics may influence the radiation related observed effects. In adults, pathological analysis of mature bone after ionizing radiation exposure are rare, suggesting that it is difficult to draw a clear feature of the action of radiation on the bone. Osteoporosis, medullary fibrosis and cytotoxicity on bone cells lead to fracture or necrosis. Various factors can influence bone tolerance to radiation such as bone involvement by tumor cells or infection, which is frequent is mandibulary osteoradionecrosis. Technical improvements in radiation techniques have also decreased radio-induced bone complications : the volume, fractionation and total dose are essential to consider. The absence of a consistent radiation-induced late effects evaluation scale has hampered efforts to analyze the influence of various therapeutic maneuvers and the comparison of results from different reported series. The currently proposed evaluation scale may help harmonizing the classification of radiation-induced bone late effects. (author)

  10. Vertical distraction of the severely resorbed edentulous mandible : An assessment of treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Stellingsma, Kees; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the treatment outcome (implant survival, surgical complications, patient satisfaction) of vertical distraction of the severely resorbed edentulous mandible. Materials and Methods: Forty-six patients with severe resorption of the edentulous mandible (bone height 5 to 8 mm, median 6

  11. An anencephalic monocephalus diprosopus "headed twin": postmortem and CT findings with emphasis on the cranial bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Gazanfer; Balci, Sevim; Erzen, Canan

    2005-01-01

    Monocephalus diprosopus is a form of conjoined twinning characterized by a single body, one unusual head and two faces or a spectrum of duplication of the craniofacial structures. Such cases have been mainly described according to postmortem pathologic examination. This presented case is a 26-week-stillborn female fetus, with unusual facial appearance with four eyes, two mouths, two noses, two ears and a defective cranial vault. To our knowledge, a detailed computerized tomography (CT) examination of the aberrant facial and cranial bones of such a case has not been reported to date. In this reported case, we present an anencephalic monocephalus diprosopus "headed twin", and describe the CT findings with emphasis on the cranial bones.

  12. Vertical distribution of pelagic photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsgaard, Maren Moltke

    chlorophyll maxima (DCM) to be a general feature in the ocean. Today, it is generally accepted that DCMs occur in most of our oceans still, despite this empirical knowledge, subsurface primary production is still largely ignored in marine science. The work included in this PhD examines the vertical...... each of the three regions combined with 15 years of survey data for the Baltic Sea transition zone. Overall, the results of this PhD work show that the vertical distribution of phytoplankton and their activity is important for the understanding, dynamics and functioning of pelagic ecosystems. It, thus......, emphasizes that future research and modelling exercises aimed at improving understanding of pelagic ecosystems and their role in the global ocean should include a consideration of the vertical heterogeneity in phytoplankton distributions and activity....

  13. Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Gupta, Vinay; Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh; Kamboj, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge. PMID:23162154

  14. Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge.

  15. Building a progressive vertical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charette, D.

    2008-01-01

    AAER Inc. is a Quebec-based company that manufactures turbines using proven European designs. This presentation discussed the company's business model. The company places an emphasis on identifying strategic and key components currently available for its turbines. Market analyses are performed in order to determine ideal suppliers and define business strategies and needs. The company invests in long-term relationships with its suppliers. Business partners for AAER are of a similar size and have a mutual understanding and respect for the company's business practices. Long-term agreements with suppliers are signed in order to ensure reliability and control over costs. Progressive vertical integration has been achieved by progressively manufacturing key components and integrating a North American supply chain. The company's secure supply chain and progressive vertical integration has significantly reduced financial costs and provided better quality control. It was concluded that vertical integration has also allowed AAER to provide better customer service and reduce transportation costs. tabs., figs

  16. Craniofacial changes and symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Thomé Pacheco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The main cause of mouth breathing and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB in childhood is associated with upper airway narrowing to varying degrees. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of morphological and functional craniofacial changes and the main clinical symptoms of SDB in healthy children. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted. A sample comprising 687 healthy schoolchildren, aged 7-12 years old and attending public schools, was assessed by medical history, clinical medical and dental examination, and respiratory tests. The self-perceived quality of life of mouth breathing children was obtained by a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of the total sample, 520 children were nose breathers (NB while 167 (24.3% were mouth breathers (MB; 32.5% had severe hypertrophy of the palatine tonsils, 18% had a Mallampati score of III or IV, 26.1% had excessive overjet and 17.7% had anterior open bite malocclusion. Among the MB, 53.9% had atresic palate, 35.9% had lip incompetence, 33.5% reported sleepiness during the day, 32.2% often sneezed, 32.2% had a stuffy nose, 19.6% snored, and 9.4% reported having the feeling to stop breathing while asleep. However, the self-perception of their quality of life was considered good. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of facial changes as well as signs and symptoms of mouth breathing were found among health children, requiring early diagnosis and treatment to reduce the risk of SDB.

  17. Evolution of ANB and SN-GoGn angles during craniofacial growth: A retrospective longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Oyonarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the evolution of the ANB and SN-GoGn angles throughout development, in a longitudinal sample of Caucasian patients. Materials and Methods: Historical cephalometric records from North American individuals available at the American Association of Orthodontists Foundation Craniofacial Legacy Growth Collection website were used to carry out an exploratory longitudinal study. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of orthodontically untreated males and females were included. Individuals with three or more longitudinal cephalometric records at pre- and post-pubertal stages, with at least one postpubertal radiograph available in vertebral cervical maturation stage (cervical vertebral maturation 5 or 6, were selected. Seventy-one individuals met the inclusion criteria. ANB, SNA, SNB, and SN-GoGn angles were measured. Individuals were classified according to the latest postpubertal ANB angle available and grouped by CVM. Descriptive statistics were obtained for the cephalometric variables, and differences between genders were analyzed. Results: Forty-five individuals were classified as skeletal Class I at the end of growth, 17 as Class II, and 9 as Class III. ANB values decrease as growth occurs in every group (average ANB decrease between the stages CVM 1 and 6: Class I - 1.5°, Class II - 0.7°, and Class III - 3.1°. For SN-GoGn angle, a constant reduction was observed as skeletal maturation increased (Average SN-GoGn decrease between the stages CVM 1 and 6: Class I - 4°, Class II - 2.5°, and Class III - 4.9°. Conclusions: ANB and SN-GoGn angles decrease during growth. The magnitude varies depending on individual sagittal characteristics, Class III individuals displaying the greatest reduction, and Class II individuals the least.

  18. How Research Training Will Shape the Future of Dental, Oral, and Craniofacial Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Rena N; Colombo, John S

    2017-09-01

    This is a critical time in the history of the dental profession for it to fully embrace the responsibility to safeguard its reputation as a learned profession. In this golden era of scientific and technological advances, opportunities abound to create new diagnostics, preventions, treatments, and cures to improve oral health. Dental schools are the largest national resource entrusted with the responsibility to educate, train, and retain oral health researchers who can leverage such technologies and research opportunities that will benefit the profession at large as well as patients. This article reemphasizes the theme that research training and scholarship must be inextricably woven into the environment and culture in dental schools to ensure the future standing of the profession. An overview of the history of support provided by the National Institutes of Health and National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research for the training and career development of dentist-scientists is presented. In addition, new data on the outcomes of such investments are presented along with a comparison with other health professions. This overview underscores the need to expand the capacity of a well-trained cadre of oral health researchers through the reengineering of training programs. Such strategies will best prepare future graduates for team science, clinical trials, and translational research as well as other emerging opportunities. The urgent need for national organizations like the American Dental Association, American Dental Education Association, and American Association for Dental Research to create new alliances and novel initiatives to assist dental schools and universities in fulfilling their research mission is emphasized. To ignore such calls for action is to disavow a valuable legacy inherited by the dental profession. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  19. Evolution of design considerations in complex craniofacial reconstruction using patient-specific implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Sean; Bhatia, Satyajeet; Eggbeer, Dominic; Morris, Daniel S; Hayhurst, Caroline

    2017-06-01

    Previously published evidence has established major clinical benefits from using computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and additive manufacturing to produce patient-specific devices. These include cutting guides, drilling guides, positioning guides, and implants. However, custom devices produced using these methods are still not in routine use, particularly by the UK National Health Service. Oft-cited reasons for this slow uptake include the following: a higher up-front cost than conventionally fabricated devices, material-choice uncertainty, and a lack of long-term follow-up due to their relatively recent introduction. This article identifies a further gap in current knowledge - that of design rules, or key specification considerations for complex computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing/additive manufacturing devices. This research begins to address the gap by combining a detailed review of the literature with first-hand experience of interdisciplinary collaboration on five craniofacial patient case studies. In each patient case, bony lesions in the orbito-temporal region were segmented, excised, and reconstructed in the virtual environment. Three cases translated these digital plans into theatre via polymer surgical guides. Four cases utilised additive manufacturing to fabricate titanium implants. One implant was machined from polyether ether ketone. From the literature, articles with relevant abstracts were analysed to extract design considerations. In all, 19 frequently recurring design considerations were extracted from previous publications. Nine new design considerations were extracted from the case studies - on the basis of subjective clinical evaluation. These were synthesised to produce a design considerations framework to assist clinicians with prescribing and design engineers with modelling. Promising avenues for further research are proposed.

  20. Craniofacial abnormalities in homozygous Small eye (Sey/Sey) embryos and newborn mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M H; Chang, H H; Shaw, J P

    1995-06-01

    The Small eye (Sey) gene in the mouse is lethal in the homozygous state. It is located on chromosome 2, is a mutation in the Pax-6 gene, and is genetically homologous with the human aniridia 2 (AN2) gene mutation. Numerous studies over the last few years, using genetic and molecular biological approaches, have investigated both the location of the gene as well as its possible mode of action. In the homozygous state, the primary defect appears to be limited to the failure of differentiation of the presumptive lens and nasal placodes. Such mice therefore display a characteristic phenotype; they possess neither eyes nor any nasal derivatives. Their heterozygous (Sey/+) and normal (+/+) littermates may be distinguished before birth only by a detailed examination of their eyes. Few detailed morphological/histological studies have been undertaken to date in the Sey/Sey embryos and newborn, and in the present study we describe a variety of craniofacial abnormalities that have not previously been reported. We observed, with one exception, delayed closure of the palate, and the presence in 80% of mice of an abnormal complement of upper incisor teeth, so that 35% possessed 1 supernumerary tooth while 45% possessed 2 supernumerary teeth. In these mice, a total of either 3 or 4, rather than the normal complement of 2, upper incisor teeth were present. Possibly the most unexpected finding, however, was the presence of a median cartilaginous rod-like structure which protruded between the 2 maxillae to give the Alizarin red S and Alcian blue-stained 'cleared' skulls of the newborn mice a characteristic 'unicorn-like' appearance. While this structure appeared to be a rostral extension of the chondrocranium, its exact derivation is unclear.

  1. A discussion of current issues and concepts in the practice of skull-photo/craniofacial superimposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, G M; Steyn, M

    2016-05-01

    A recent review paper on cranio-facial superimposition (CFS) stated that "there have been specific conceptual variances" from the original methods used in the practice of skull-photo superimposition, leading to poor results as far as accuracy is concerned. It was argued that the deviations in the practice of the technique have resulted in the reduced accuracies (for both failure to include and failure to exclude) that are noted in several recent studies. This paper aims to present the results from recent research to highlight the advancement of skull-photo/cranio-facial superimposition, and to discuss some of the issues raised regarding deviations from original techniques. The evolving methodology of CFS is clarified in context with the advancement of technology, forensic science and specifically within the field of forensic anthropology. Developments in the skull-photo/cranio-facial superimposition techniques have largely focused on testing reliability and accuracy objectively. Techniques now being employed by forensic anthropologists must conform to rigorous scientific testing and methodologies. Skull-photo/cranio-facial superimposition is constantly undergoing accuracy and repeatability testing which is in line with the principles of the scientific method and additionally allows for advancement in the field. Much of the research has indicated that CFS is useful in exclusion which is consistent with the concept of Popperian falsifiability - a hypothesis and experimental design which is falsifiable. As the hypothesis is disproved or falsified, another evolves to replace it and explain the new observations. Current and future studies employing different methods to test the accuracy and reliability of skull-photo/cranio-facial superimposition will enable researchers to establish the contribution the technique can have for identification purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel FOXA2 mutation causes Hyperinsulinism, Hypopituitarism with Craniofacial and Endoderm-derived organ abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Dinesh; Vignola, Maria Lillina; Gualtieri, Angelica; Scagliotti, Valeria; McNamara, Paul; Peak, Matthew; Didi, Mohammed; Gaston-Massuet, Carles; Senniappan, Senthil

    2017-11-15

    Congenital hypopituitarism (CH) is characterized by the deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones and can present alone or in association with complex disorders. Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a disorder of unregulated insulin secretion despite hypoglycaemia that can occur in isolation or as part of a wider syndrome. Molecular diagnosis is unknown in many cases of CH and CHI. The underlying genetic etiology causing the complex phenotype of CH and CHI is unknown. In this study, we identified a de novo heterozygous mutation in the developmental transcription factor, forkhead box A2, FOXA2 (c.505T>C, p.S169P) in a child with CHI and CH with craniofacial dysmorphic features, choroidal coloboma and endoderm-derived organ malformations in liver, lung and gastrointestinal tract by whole exome sequencing. The mutation is at a highly conserved residue within the DNA binding domain. We demonstrated strong expression of Foxa2 mRNA in the developing hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas, lungs and oesophagus of mouse embryos using in situ hybridization. Expression profiling on human embryos by immunohistochemistry showed strong expression of hFOXA2 in the neural tube, third ventricle, diencephalon and pancreas. Transient transfection of HEK293T cells with Wt (Wild type) hFOXA2 or mutant hFOXA2 showed an impairment in transcriptional reporter activity by the mutant hFOXA2. Further analyses using western blot assays showed that the FOXA2 p.(S169P) variant is pathogenic resulting in lower expression levels when compared with Wt hFOXA2. Our results show, for the first time, the causative role of FOXA2 in a complex congenital syndrome with hypopituitarism, hyperinsulinism and endoderm-derived organ abnormalities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Hybrid Vertical-Cavity Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source (2) for light circuits on a silicon platform (3). A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region (101) arranged between a top mirror (4) and a bottom grating-mirror (12) in a grating region (11) in a silicon layer (10) on a substrate. A waveguide...... (18, 19) for receiving light from the grating region (11) is formed within or to be connected to the grating region, and functions as an 5 output coupler for the VCL. Thereby, vertical lasing modes (16) are coupled to lateral in-plane modes (17, 20) of the in-plane waveguide formed in the silicon...

  4. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  5. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales G, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  6. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  7. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  8. Sex-specific differences of craniofacial traits in Croatia: the impact of environment in a small geographic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buretic-Tomljanovic, Alena; Giacometti, Jasminka; Ostojic, Sasa; Kapovic, Miljenko

    2007-01-01

    Craniometric variation in humans reflects different genetic and environmental influences. Long-term climatic adaptation is less likely to show an impact on size and shape variation in a small local area than at the global level. The aim of this work was to assess the contribution of the particular environmental factors to body height and craniofacial variability in a small geographic area of Croatia. A total of 632 subjects, aged 18-21, participated in the survey. Body height, head length, head breadth, head height, head circumference, cephalic index, morphological face height, face breadth, and facial index were analysed regarding geographic, climatic and dietary conditions in different regions of the country, and correlated with the specific climatic variables (cumulative multiyear sunshine duration, cumulative multiyear average precipitation, multiyear average air temperatures) and calcium concentrations in drinking water. Significant differences between groups classified according to geographic, climatic or dietary affiliation, and the impact of the environmental predictors on the variation in the investigated traits were assessed using multiple forward stepwise regression analyses. Higher body height measures in both sexes were significantly correlated with Mediterranean diet type. Mediterranean diet type also contributed to higher head length and head circumference measures in females. Cephalic index values correlated to geographic regions in both sexes, showing an increase from southern to eastern Croatia. In the same direction, head length significantly decreased in males and head breadth increased in females. Mediterranean climate was associated with higher and narrower faces in females. The analysis of the particular climatic variables did not reveal a significant influence on body height in either sex. Concurrently, climatic features influenced all craniofacial traits in females and only head length and facial index in males. Mediterranean climate

  9. Translocations disrupting PHF21A in the Potocki-Shaffer-syndrome region are associated with intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyung-Goo; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Leach, Natalia T

    2012-01-01

    development, and suppression of the latter led to both craniofacial abnormalities and neuronal apoptosis. Along with lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), PHF21A, also known as BHC80, is a component of the BRAF-histone deacetylase complex that represses target-gene transcription. In lymphoblastoid cell lines...... from two translocation subjects in whom PHF21A was directly disrupted by the respective breakpoints, we observed derepression of the neuronal gene SCN3A and reduced LSD1 occupancy at the SCN3A promoter, supporting a direct functional consequence of PHF21A haploinsufficiency on transcriptional...

  10. Application of bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondain, J.E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Bone scanning has varied applications, particularly in the file of oncology. It is used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with cancers that metastatize to the bones (breast, prostate CA), also in primary bone cancers, infections of the bones and joints. In early stages of primary breast CA (stage I and II), the incidence of unsuspected bone metastasis is only 1-5%. On the other hand, bone scans serve as a baseline study if bone mets occur at some later stage. In patients with stage II and III breast CA, the conversion from normal to abnormal bone scans is 15% and 17%, respectively, clearly in favor of a baseline bone scan. For prostate CA, bone scanning should be used in conjunction with PSA level determination. In advanced disease, a bone scan will define the extent of the metastases, show problematic lesions in weight-bearing bones, and even allow us to evaluate response to therapy in follow-up bone scans. In patients with lung CA, a positive bone scan will make surgery of the primary lesion inappropriate. For other cancers, a bone scan maybe used if there are other signs, whether clinical or chemical, indicating bone involvement. In patients with GIT, liver, skin, brain or bladder CA, routine bone scanning may be considered superfluous. For patients with suspected infection, a 3-phase bone scan is more desirable. In patients with septic arthritis, the bones of each side of the joint take up the radiopharmaceutical while in patients with cellulitis without bony involvement, only the first two phases (dynamic and bloodpool images) will be abnormal. Bone scanning is also used in avascular lesions such as Legg-calve-Perthes disease where one will see reduced uptake of Tc99m MDP. The advent of SPECT imaging has greatly increased the sensitivity in diagnosing AVN. (author)

  11. Vladimir Byurchiev, Ankle Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Churyumov, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Vladimir says that today not many children play with ankle bones. He recalls when he was young, children played with bones more often. According to Vladimir, various games using ankle bones develop flexibility, agility, and muscle in children’s hands. Ankles bones are taken from the back legs of a cow or a sheep. It is possible to determine the age and health of animals by examining this particular bone. Arcadia

  12. Vertical reactor coolant pump instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant to determine and correct increasing vibrations in the vertical reactor coolant pumps is described. Diagnostic procedures to determine the vibration causes and evaluate the corractive measures taken are also described

  13. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  14. Craniofacial stability in patients with Crouzon or Apert syndrome after Le Fort III distraction osteogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, J.H.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.; Buschang, P.H.; van Adrichem, L.N.A.; Prahl-Andersen, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Le Fort III osteotomy with distraction osteogenesis (DO) is used to improve the retruded midface in patients with Crouzon or Apert syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate sagittal and vertical preoperative and postoperative cephalometric changes of DO of the midface in patients with

  15. Craniofacial stability in patients with crouzon or apert syndrome after le fort III distraction osteogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Reitsma (Jacobus Harmen); E.M. Ongkosuwito (Edwin); P.H. Buschang (Peter); L.N.A. V Adrichem (Léon); B. Prahl-Andersen (Birte)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Le Fort III osteotomy with distraction osteogenesis (DO) is used to improve the retruded midface in patients with Crouzon or Apert syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate sagittal and vertical preoperative and postoperative cephalometric changes of DO of the midface in patients

  16. Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafting in Patients Born With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate: A 20-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Fatemeh; Wiklander, Laila; Reiser, Erika; Thor, Andreas; Hakelius, Malin; Nowinski, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    To identify factors of oral health important for the final outcome, after secondary alveolar bone grafting in patients born with unilateral cleft lip and palate and compare occlusal radiographs with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in assessment of alveolar bone height. Observational follow-up study. Cleft Lip and Palate Team, Craniofacial Center, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. 40 nonsyndromic, Caucasian patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate. Clinical examination, CBCT, and occlusal radiographs. Alveolar bone height was evaluated according to Bergland index at a 20-year follow-up. The alveolar bone height in the cleft area was significantly reduced compared to a previously reported 10-year follow-up in the same cohort by total ( P = .045) and by subgroup with dental restoration ( P = .0078). This was positively correlated with the gingival bleeding index (GBI) ( r = 0.51, P = .0008) and presence of dental restorations in the cleft area ( r = 0.45, P = .0170). There was no difference in the Bergland index generated from scoring the alveolar bone height on occlusal radiographs as with the equivalent index on CBCT. Patients rehabilitated with complex dental restoration seems to be at higher risk for progression of bone loss in the cleft area. Supportive periodontal therapy should be implemented after complex dental restorations in cleft patients. Conventional occlusal radiographs provide an adequate image for evaluating postoperative bone height in clinical follow-up.

  17. Osseous Flap of Galea and Periosteum Filled With Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Platelet-Rich Plasma, Bone Dust, and Hyaluronic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Ryane Schmidt; Viterbo, Fausto; Deffune, Elenice; Domingues, Maria Aparecida Custodio; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline; Paschoalinotte, Eloisa Elena

    2017-10-01

    Reconstructive surgery to craniofacial deformities caused by tumor ressections, traumas or congenital malformation are frequent in medicine practice. It aims to provide the patients with better quality of life and functional improvement of speech, breathing, chewing, and swallowing. Many are the techniques described in the literature to recover bone defects. This study evaluated a vascularized galeal and periosteum flap in rabbits, which could possibly substitute the bone graft in reconstructive surgery, especially for facial defects. It involved rabbits, divided into 12 groups, submitted to a surgical procedure to construct the galea and periosteum cranial flap filled with fragments of cranial bone, platelet-rich plasma, mesenchimal stem cells, and hyaluronic acid. The evaluation methods included image examinations and histological analysis.The results demonstrated bone formation with the use of platelet-rich plasma, mesenchimal stem cells, and bone fragments. The use of several enrichment materials of osseous cellular stimulation improved the quality and bone tissue organization. The more enrichment factor used, the better the tissue quality result was.Much research should be done to improve the methods and to analyze if results in human have the same bone formation as it happened in rabbits.

  18. Craniofacial Manifestations of Systemic Disorders: CT and MR Imaging Findings and Imaging Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Arasa, V Carlota; Chapman, Margaret N; Kuno, Hirofumi; Fujita, Akifumi; Sakai, Osamu

    2018-01-01

    Many systemic diseases or conditions can affect the maxillofacial bones; however, they are often overlooked or incidentally found at routine brain or head and neck imaging performed for other reasons. Early identification of some conditions may significantly affect patient care and alter outcomes. Early recognition of nonneoplastic hematologic disorders, such as thalassemia and sickle cell disease, may help initiate earlier treatment and prevent serious complications. The management of neoplastic diseases such as lymphoma, leukemia, or Langerhans cell histiocytosis may be different if diagnosed early, and metastases to the maxillofacial bones may be the first manifestation of an otherwise occult neoplasm. Endocrinologic and metabolic disorders also may manifest with maxillofacial conditions. Earlier recognition of osteoporosis may alter treatment and prevent complications such as insufficiency fractures, and identification of acromegaly may lead to surgical treatment if there is an underlying growth hormone-producing adenoma. Bone dysplasias sometimes are associated with skull base foraminal narrowing and subsequent involvement of the cranial nerves. Inflammatory processes such as rheumatoid arthritis and sarcoidosis may affect the maxillofacial bones, skull base, and temporomandibular joints. Radiologists should be familiar with the maxillofacial computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of common systemic disorders because these may be the first manifestations of an otherwise unrevealed systemic process with potential for serious complications. Online supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2018.

  19. DON-induced changes in bone homeostasis in mink dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Ewa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to investigate the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue and mineral density of long bones in mink dams exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON since one day after mating, throughout gestation (ca. 46 d and lactation to pelt harvesting. Material and Methods: Thirty clinically healthy multiparous minks (Neovison vison of the standard dark brown type were used. After the mating, the minks were randomly assigned into two equal groups: nontreated control group and DON group fed wheat contaminated naturally with DON at a concentration of 1.1 mg·kg-1 of feed. Results: The final body weight and weight and length of the femur did not differ between the groups. However, DON contamination decreased mechanical endurance of the femur. Furthermore, DON reduced the mean relative wall thickness and vertical wall thickness of the femur, while vertical cortical index, midshaft volume, and cross-sectional moment of inertia increased. Finally, DON contamination did not alter bone tissue density, bone mineral density, or bone mineral content, but decreased the values of all investigated structural and material properties. Conclusion: DON at applied concentration probably intensified the process of endosteal resorption, which was the main reason for bone wall thinning and the weakening of the whole bone.

  20. Piezosurgical osteotomy for harvesting intraoral block bone graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmiganthan, Mahalingam; Gokulanathan, Subramanium; Shanmugasundaram, Natarajan; Daniel, Rajkumar; Ramesh, Sadashiva B.

    2012-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic vibrations for the cutting of bone was first introduced two decades ago. Piezoelectric surgery is a minimally invasive technique that lessens the risk of damage to surrounding soft tissues and important structures such as nerves, vessels, and mucosa. It also reduces damage to osteocytes and permits good survival of bony cells during harvesting of bone. Grafting with intraoral bone blocks is a good way to reconstruct severe horizontal and vertical bone resorption in future implants sites. The piezosurgery system creates an effective osteotomy with minimal or no trauma to soft tissue in contrast to conventional surgical burs or saws and minimizes a patient's psychological stress and fear during osteotomy under local anesthesia. The purpose of this article is to describe the harvesting of intraoral bone blocks using the piezoelectric surgery device. PMID:23066242