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Sample records for craniofacial muscle evokes

  1. Vibration and muscle contraction affect somatosensory evoked potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, LG; Starr, A

    1985-01-01

    We recorded potentials evoked by specific somatosensory stimuli over peripheral nerve, spinal cord, and cerebral cortex. Vibration attenuated spinal and cerebral potentials evoked by mixed nerve and muscle spindle stimulation; in one subject that was tested, there was no effect on cutaneous input. Presynaptic inhibition of Ia input in the spinal cord and muscle spindle receptor occupancy are probably the responsible mechanisms. In contrast, muscle contraction attenuated cerebral potentials to...

  2. Muscle synergies evoked by microstimulation are preferentially encoded during behavior

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    Simon Alexander Overduin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical microstimulation studies provide some of the most direct evidence for the neural representation of muscle synergies. These synergies, i.e. coordinated activations of groups of muscles, have been proposed as building blocks for the construction of motor behaviors by the nervous system. Intraspinal or intracortical microstimulation has been shown to evoke muscle patterns that can be resolved into a small set of synergies similar to those seen in natural behavior. However, questions remain about the validity of microstimulation as a probe of neural function, particularly given the relatively long trains of supratheshold stimuli used in these studies. Here, we examined whether muscle synergies evoked during intracortical microstimulation in two rhesus macaques were similarly encoded by nearby motor cortical units during a purely voluntary behavior involving object reach, grasp, and carry movements. At each microstimulation site we identified the synergy most strongly evoked among those extracted from muscle patterns evoked over all microstimulation sites. For each cortical unit recorded at the same microstimulation site, we then identified the synergy most strongly encoded among those extracted from muscle patterns recorded during the voluntary behavior. We found that the synergy most strongly evoked at an intracortical microstimulation site matched the synergy most strongly encoded by proximal units more often than expected by chance. These results suggest a common neural substrate for microstimulation-evoked motor responses and for the generation of muscle patterns during natural behaviors.

  3. Local myogenic pulp-derived cell injection enhances craniofacial muscle regeneration in vivo.

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    Jung, J E; Song, M J; Shin, S; Choi, Y J; Kim, K H; Chung, C J

    2017-02-01

    To enhance myogenic differentiation in pulp cells isolated from extracted premolars by epigenetic modification using a DNA demethylation agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), and to evaluate the potent stimulatory effect of 5-Aza-treated pulp cell injection for craniofacial muscle regeneration in vivo. Pulp cells were isolated from premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes from four adults (age range, 18-22.1 years). Levels of myogenic differentiation and functional contraction response in vitro were compared between pulp cells with or without pre-treatment of 5-Aza. Changes in muscle regeneration in response to green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled myogenic pulp cell injection in vivo were evaluated using a cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced muscle injury model of the gastrocnemius as well as the masseter muscle in mice. Pre-treatment of 5-Aza in pulp cells stimulated myotube formation, myogenic differentiation in terms of desmin and myogenin expression, and the level of collagen gel contraction. The local injection of 5-Aza pre-treated myogenic pulp cells was engrafted into the host tissue and indicated signs of enhanced muscle regeneration in both the gastrocnemius and the masseter muscles. The epigenetic modification of pulp cells from extracted premolars and the local injection of myogenic pulp cells may stimulate craniofacial muscles regeneration in vivo. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Pedicled Temporalis Muscle Flap for Craniofacial Reconstruction: A 35-Year Clinical Experience with 366 Flaps.

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    Spanio di Spilimbergo, Stefano; Nordera, Paolo; Mardini, Samir; Castiglione, Giusy; Chim, Harvey; Pinna, Vittore; Brunello, Massimo; Cusino, Claudio; Roberto, Squaquara; Baciliero, Ugo

    2017-02-01

    In the past 130 years, the temporalis muscle flap has been used for a variety of different indications. In this age of microsurgery and perforator flaps, the temporalis muscle flap still has many useful applications for craniofacial reconstruction. Three hundred sixty-six temporalis muscle flaps were performed in a single center between 1978 and 2012. The authors divided the cases into two series-before and after 1994-because, after 1994, they started to perform free flap reconstructions, and indications for reconstruction with a temporalis muscle flap were changed RESULTS:: In the series after 1994, flaps were most commonly used for reconstruction of defects in the maxilla, mandible, and oropharynx, in addition to facial reanimation and filling of orbital defects. Complications included total flap necrosis (1.6 percent) and partial flap necrosis (10.7 percent). The rate of material extrusion at the donor site decreased after porous polyethylene was uniformly used for reconstruction from 17.1 to 7.9 percent. The pedicled temporalis muscle flap continues to have many applications in craniofacial reconstruction. With increasing use of free flaps, the authors' indications for the pedicled temporalis muscle flap are now restricted to (1) orbital filling for congenital or acquired anophthalmia; (2) filling of unilateral maxillectomy defects; and (3) facial reanimation in selected cases of facial nerve palsy. Therapeutic, IV.

  5. Craniofacial Pain: Brainstem Mechanisms

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    Barry J Sessle

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent research advances in animals that have identified critical neural elements in the brainstem receiving and transmitting craniofacial nociceptive inputs, as well as some of the mechanisms involved in the modulation and plasticity of nociceptive transmission. Nociceptive neurones in the trigeminal (V brainstem sensory nuclear complex can be classified as nociceptive-specific (NS or wide dynamic range (WDR. Some of these neurones respond exclusively to sensory inputs evoked by stimulation of facial skin or oral mucosa and have features suggesting that they are critical neural elements involved in the ability to localize an acute superficial pain and sense its intensity and duration. Many of the V brainstem nociceptive neurones, however, receive convergent inputs from afferents supplying deep craniofacial tissues (eg, dural vessel, muscle and skin or mucosa. These neurones are likely involved in deep pain, including headache, because few nociceptive neurones receive inputs exclusively from afferents supplying these tissues. These extensive convergent input patterns also appear to be important factors in pain spread and referral, and in central mechanisms underlying neuroplastic changes in V neuronal properties that may occur with injury and inflammation. For example, application of the small fibre excitant and inflammatory irritant mustard oil into the temporomandibular joint, masseter or tongue musculature induces a prolonged but reversible enhancement of responses to cutaneous and deep afferent inputs of most WDR and NS neurones. These effects may be accompanied by increased electromyographic activity reflexly induced in the masticatory muscles by mustard oil, and involve endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate and opioid neurochemical mechanisms. Such peripherally induced modulation of brainstem nociceptive neuronal properties reflects the functional plasticity of the central V system, and may be involved in the development of

  6. Evoked EMG versus Muscle Torque during Fatiguing Functional Electrical Stimulation-Evoked Muscle Contractions and Short-Term Recovery in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

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    Estigoni, Eduardo H.; Fornusek, Che; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Smith, Richard M.; Davis, Glen M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether the relationship between muscle torque and m-waves remained constant after short recovery periods, between repeated intervals of isometric muscle contractions induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES). Eight subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) were recruited for the study. All subjects had their quadriceps muscles group stimulated during three sessions of isometric contractions separated by 5 min of recovery. The evoked-electromyographic (eEMG) signals, as well as the produced torque, were synchronously acquired during the contractions and during short FES bursts applied during the recovery intervals. All analysed m-wave variables changed progressively throughout the three contractions, even though the same muscle torque was generated. The peak to peak amplitude (PtpA), and the m-wave area (Area) were significantly increased, while the time between the stimulus artefact and the positive peak (PosT) were substantially reduced when the muscles became fatigued. In addition, all m-wave variables recovered faster and to a greater extent than did torque after the recovery intervals. We concluded that rapid recovery intervals between FES-evoked exercise sessions can radically interfere in the use of m-waves as a proxy for torque estimation in individuals with SCI. This needs to be further investigated, in addition to seeking a better understanding of the mechanisms of muscle fatigue and recovery. PMID:25479324

  7. Muscle potentials evoked by magnetic stimulation of the sciatic nerve in unilateral sciatic nerve dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Soens, I.; Struys, M. M. R. F.; Van Ham, L. M. L.

    Magnetic stimulation of the sciatic nerve and subsequent recording of the muscle-evoked potential (MEP) was performed in eight dogs and three cats with unilateral sciatic nerve dysfunction. Localisation of the lesion in the sciatic nerve was based on the history, clinical neurological examination

  8. Motor unit activation order during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, CK; Nelson, G; Than, L; Zijdewind, Inge

    The activation order of motor units during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed thenar muscles was determined in seven subjects with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. The median nerve was stimulated percutaneously with pulses of graded intensity to produce

  9. Torque decrease during submaximal evoked contractions of the quadriceps muscle is linked not only to muscle fatigue.

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    Matkowski, Boris; Lepers, Romuald; Martin, Alain

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the neuromuscular mechanisms involved in the torque decrease induced by submaximal electromyostimulation (EMS) of the quadriceps muscle. It was hypothesized that torque decrease after EMS would reflect the fatigability of the activated motor units (MUs), but also a reduction in the number of MUs recruited as a result of changes in axonal excitability threshold. Two experiments were performed on 20 men to analyze 1) the supramaximal twitch superimposed and evoked at rest during EMS (Experiment 1, n = 9) and 2) the twitch response and torque-frequency relation of the MUs activated by EMS (Experiment 2, n = 11). Torque loss was assessed by 15 EMS-evoked contractions (50 Hz; 6 s on/6 s off), elicited at a constant intensity that evoked 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque. The same stimulation intensity delivered over the muscles was used to induce the torque-frequency relation and the single electrical pulse evoked after each EMS contraction (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, supramaximal twitch was induced by femoral nerve stimulation. Torque decreased by ~60% during EMS-evoked contractions and by only ~18% during MVCs. This was accompanied by a rightward shift of the torque-frequency relation of MUs activated and an increase of the ratio between the superimposed and posttetanic maximal twitch evoked during EMS contraction. These findings suggest that the torque decrease observed during submaximal EMS-evoked contractions involved muscular mechanisms but also a reduction in the number of MUs recruited due to changes in axonal excitability. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Whiplash evokes descending muscle recruitment and sympathetic responses characteristic of startle

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    Mang, Daniel WH; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Whiplash injuries are the most common injuries following rear-end collisions. During a rear-end collision, the human muscle response consists of both a postural and a startle response that may exacerbate injury. However, most previous studies only assessed the presence of startle using data collected from the neck muscles and head/neck kinematics. The startle response also evokes a descending pattern of muscle recruitment and changes in autonomic activity. Here we examined the recruitment of axial and appendicular muscles along with autonomic responses to confirm whether these other features of a startle response were present during the first exposure to a whiplash perturbation. Ten subjects experienced a single whiplash perturbation while recording electromyography, electrocardiogram, and electrodermal responses. All subjects exhibited a descending pattern of muscle recruitment, and increasing heart rate and electrodermal responses following the collision. Our results provide further support that the startle response is a component of the response to whiplash collisions. PMID:24932015

  11. The relationship between passive stiffness and evoked twitch properties: the influence of muscle CSA normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, E D; Thompson, B J; Sobolewski, E J; Herda, T J; Costa, P B; Walter, A A; Cramer, J T

    2011-01-01

    Passive stiffness measurements are often used as a clinical tool to examine a muscle's passive lengthening characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between passive stiffness and evoked twitch properties prior to and following normalization of passive stiffness to muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Ten healthy volunteers (mean ± SD age = 23 ± 3 year) performed passive range of motion, evoked twitch, and muscle CSA assessments of the plantar flexor muscles. Passive stiffness was determined from the slope of the final 5° of the angle–torque curve. Peak twitch torque (PTT) and rate of torque development (RTD) were determined via transcutaneous electrical stimulation, and muscle CSA was assessed using a peripheral quantitative computed tomography scanner. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients (r) were used to assess the relationships between passive stiffness and PTT and RTD and normalized passive stiffness (passive stiffness . muscle CSA −1 ) and PTT and RTD. Significant positive relationships were observed between passive stiffness and PTT (P = 0.003, r = 0.828) and RTD (P = 0.003, r = 0.825). There were no significant relationships between normalized passive stiffness and PTT (P = 0.290, r = 0.372) or RTD (P = 0.353, r = 0.329) demonstrating that stiffness did not account for a significant portion of the variance in twitch properties. Passive stiffness was largely influenced by the amount of muscle tissue in this study. Future studies that examine muscle stiffness and its relationship with performance measures, among different populations, and following various interventions may consider normalizing stiffness measurements to muscle CSA

  12. Influence of glutamate-evoked pain and sustained elevated muscle activity on blood oxygenation in the human masseter muscle.

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    Suzuki, Shunichi; Arima, Taro; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Svensson, Peter; Castrillon, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of glutamate-evoked masseter muscle pain on intramuscular oxygenation during rest and sustained elevated muscle activity (SEMA). Seventeen healthy individuals participated in two sessions in which they were injected with glutamate and saline in random order. Each session was divided into three, 10-min periods. During the first (period 1) and the last (period 3) 10-min periods, participants performed five intercalated 1-min bouts of masseter SEMA with 1-min periods of 'rest'. At onset of the second 10-min period, glutamate (0.5 ml, 1 M; Ajinomoto, Tokyo, Japan) or isotonic saline (0.5 ml; 0.9%) was injected into the masseter muscle and the participants kept the muscle relaxed in a resting position for 10 min (period 2). The hemodynamic characteristics of the masseter muscle were recorded simultaneously during the experiment by a laser blood-oxygenation monitor. The results demonstrated that glutamate injections caused significant levels of self-reported pain in the masseter muscle; however, this nociceptive input did not have robust effects on intramuscular oxygenation during rest or SEMA tasks. Interestingly, these findings suggest an uncoupling between acute nociceptive activity and hemodynamic parameters in both resting and low-level active jaw muscles. Further studies are needed to explore the pathophysiological significance of blood-flow changes for persistent jaw-muscle pain conditions. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  13. Intramuscular temperature modulates glutamate-evoked masseter muscle pain intensity in humans.

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    Sato, Hitoshi; Castrillon, Eduardo E; Cairns, Brian E; Bendixen, Karina H; Wang, Kelun; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Wajima, Koichi; Svensson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether glutamate-evoked jaw muscle pain is altered by the temperature of the solution injected. Sixteen healthy volunteers participated and received injections of hot (48°C), neutral (36°C), or cold (3°C) solutions (0.5 mL) of glutamate or isotonic saline into the masseter muscle. Pain intensity was assessed with an electronic visual analog scale (eVAS). Numeric rating scale (NRS) scores of unpleasantness and temperature perception, pain-drawing areas, and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were also measured. Participants filled out the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Two-way or three-way repeated measures ANOVA were used for data analyses. Injection of hot glutamate and cold glutamate solutions significantly increased and decreased, respectively, the peak pain intensity compared with injection of neutral glutamate solution. The duration of glutamate-evoked pain was significantly longer when hot glutamate was injected than when cold glutamate was injected. No significant effect of temperature on pain intensity was observed when isotonic saline was injected. No effect of solution temperature was detected on unpleasantness, heat perception, cold perception, area of pain drawings, or PPTs. There was a significantly greater use of the "numb" term in the MPQ to describe the injection of cold solutions compared to the injection of both neutral and hot solutions. Glutamate-evoked jaw muscle pain was significantly altered by the temperature of the injection solution. Although temperature perception in the jaw muscle is poor, pain intensity is increased when the muscle tissue temperature is elevated.

  14. Analysis of Spontaneous and Nerve-Evoked Calcium Transients in Intact Extraocular Muscles in Vitro

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    Feng, Cheng-Yuan; Hennig, Grant W.; Corrigan, Robert D.; Smith, Terence K.; von Bartheld, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) have unique calcium handling properties, yet little is known about the dynamics of calcium events underlying ultrafast and tonic contractions in myofibers of intact EOMs. Superior oblique EOMs of juvenile chickens were dissected with their nerve attached, maintained in oxygenated Krebs buffer, and loaded with fluo-4. Spontaneous and nerve stimulation-evoked calcium transients were recorded and, following calcium imaging, some EOMs were double-labeled with rhodamine-conjugated alpha-bungarotoxin (rhBTX) to identify EOM myofiber types. EOMs showed two main types of spontaneous calcium transients, one slow type (calcium waves with 1/2max duration of 2–12 s, velocity of 25–50 μm/s) and two fast “flash-like” types (Type 1, 30–90 ms; Type 2, 90–150 ms 1/2max duration). Single pulse nerve stimulation evoked fast calcium transients identical to the fast (Type 1) calcium transients. Calcium waves were accompanied by a local myofiber contraction that followed the calcium transient wavefront. The magnitude of calcium-wave induced myofiber contraction far exceeded those of movement induced by nerve stimulation and associated fast calcium transients. Tetrodotoxin eliminated nerve-evoked transients, but not spontaneous transients. Alpha-bungarotoxin eliminated both spontaneous and nerve-evoked fast calcium transients, but not calcium waves, and caffeine increased wave activity. Calcium waves were observed in myofibers lacking spontaneous or evoked fast transients, suggestive of multiply-innervated myofibers, and this was confirmed by double-labeling with rhBTX. We propose that the abundant spontaneous calcium transients and calcium waves with localized contractions that do not depend on innervation may contribute to intrinsic generation of tonic functions of EOMs. PMID:22579493

  15. Corticobulbar motor evoked potentials from tongue muscles used as a control in cervical spinal surgery

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    Dong-Gun Kim

    Full Text Available Objective: Motor evoked potentials (MEPs changes might be caused to the non-surgically induced factors during cervical spinal surgery. Therefore, control MEPs recorded cranially to the exit of the C5 root are highly recommendable in cervical spinal surgery. We studied whether corticobulbar MEPs (C-MEPs from tongue muscle could be used as a control MEPs in cervical spinal surgery. Methods: Twenty-five consecutive cervical spinal surgeries were analyzed. Stimulation of motor area for tongue was done by subcutaneous electrodes placed at C3/C4 (10–20 EEG System, and recording was done from both sides of tongue. Results: C-MEPs were recorded successfully 24 out of the 25 (96% tested patients. Forty-six out of fifty MEPs (92% from tongue muscles were monitorable from the baseline. In two patients, we could obtain only unilateral C-MEPs. Mean MEPs latencies obtained from the left and right side of the tongue were 11.5 ± 1 ms and 11.5 ± 0.8 ms, respectively. Conclusions: Monitoring C-MEPs from tongue muscles might be useful control in cervical spinal surgery. They were easily elicited and relatively free from phenomenon of peripheral stimulation of the hypoglossal nerves. Significance: This is first study to identify the usefulness of C-MEPs as a control of cervical spinal surgery. Keywords: Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, Motor-evoked potential, Corticospinal tract, Corticobulbar MEPs, Hypoglossal nerve

  16. Electrically evoked local muscle contractions cause an increase in hippocampal BDNF.

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    Maekawa, Takahiro; Ogasawara, Riki; Tsutaki, Arata; Lee, Kihyuk; Nakada, Satoshi; Nakazato, Koichi; Ishii, Naokata

    2018-05-01

    High-intensity exercise has recently been shown to cause an increase in brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Some studies have suggested that myokines secreted from contracting skeletal muscle, such as irisin (one of the truncated form of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)), play important roles in this process. Thus, we hypothesized that locally evoked muscle contractions may cause an increase of BDNF in the hippocampus through some afferent mechanisms. Under anesthesia, Sprague-Dawley rats were fixed on a custom-made dynamometer and their triceps surae muscles were made to maximally contract via delivery of electric stimulations of the sciatic nerve (100 Hz with 1-ms pulse and 3-s duration). Following 50 repeated maximal isometric contractions, the protein expressions of BDNF and activation of its receptor in the hippocampus significantly increased compared with the sham-operated control rats. However, the expression of both BDNF and FNDC5 within stimulated muscles did not significantly increase, nor did their serum concentrations change. These results indicate that local muscular contractions under unconsciousness can induce BDNF expression in the hippocampus. This effect may be mediated by peripheral reception of muscle contraction, but not by systemic factors.

  17. Evoked EMG-based torque prediction under muscle fatigue in implanted neural stimulation

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    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Zhang, Qin; Guiraud, David; Fattal, Charles

    2011-10-01

    In patients with complete spinal cord injury, fatigue occurs rapidly and there is no proprioceptive feedback regarding the current muscle condition. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the muscle state and assess the expected muscle response to improve the current FES system toward adaptive force/torque control in the presence of muscle fatigue. Our team implanted neural and epimysial electrodes in a complete paraplegic patient in 1999. We carried out a case study, in the specific case of implanted stimulation, in order to verify the corresponding torque prediction based on stimulus evoked EMG (eEMG) when muscle fatigue is occurring during electrical stimulation. Indeed, in implanted stimulation, the relationship between stimulation parameters and output torques is more stable than external stimulation in which the electrode location strongly affects the quality of the recruitment. Thus, the assumption that changes in the stimulation-torque relationship would be mainly due to muscle fatigue can be made reasonably. The eEMG was proved to be correlated to the generated torque during the continuous stimulation while the frequency of eEMG also decreased during fatigue. The median frequency showed a similar variation trend to the mean absolute value of eEMG. Torque prediction during fatigue-inducing tests was performed based on eEMG in model cross-validation where the model was identified using recruitment test data. The torque prediction, apart from the potentiation period, showed acceptable tracking performances that would enable us to perform adaptive closed-loop control through implanted neural stimulation in the future.

  18. The effectiveness of FES-evoked EMG potentials to assess muscle force and fatigue in individuals with spinal cord injury.

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    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Estigoni, Eduardo H; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Wahab, Ahmad Khairi Abdul; Davis, Glen M

    2014-07-14

    The evoked electromyographic signal (eEMG) potential is the standard index used to monitor both electrical changes within the motor unit during muscular activity and the electrical patterns during evoked contraction. However, technical and physiological limitations often preclude the acquisition and analysis of the signal especially during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked contractions. Hence, an accurate quantification of the relationship between the eEMG potential and FES-evoked muscle response remains elusive and continues to attract the attention of researchers due to its potential application in the fields of biomechanics, muscle physiology, and rehabilitation science. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of eEMG potentials to assess muscle force and fatigue, particularly as a biofeedback descriptor of FES-evoked contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury. At the outset, 2867 citations were identified and, finally, fifty-nine trials met the inclusion criteria. Four hypotheses were proposed and evaluated to inform this review. The results showed that eEMG is effective at quantifying muscle force and fatigue during isometric contraction, but may not be effective during dynamic contractions including cycling and stepping. Positive correlation of up to r = 0.90 (p peak-to-peak amplitude of the eEMG and the decline in the force output during fatiguing isometric contractions has been reported. In the available prediction models, the performance index of the eEMG signal to estimate the generated muscle force ranged from 3.8% to 34% for 18 s to 70 s ahead of the actual muscle force generation. The strength and inherent limitations of the eEMG signal to assess muscle force and fatigue were evident from our findings with implications in clinical management of spinal cord injury (SCI) population.

  19. The Effectiveness of FES-Evoked EMG Potentials to Assess Muscle Force and Fatigue in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

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    Morufu Olusola Ibitoye

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The evoked electromyographic signal (eEMG potential is the standard index used to monitor both electrical changes within the motor unit during muscular activity and the electrical patterns during evoked contraction. However, technical and physiological limitations often preclude the acquisition and analysis of the signal especially during functional electrical stimulation (FES-evoked contractions. Hence, an accurate quantification of the relationship between the eEMG potential and FES-evoked muscle response remains elusive and continues to attract the attention of researchers due to its potential application in the fields of biomechanics, muscle physiology, and rehabilitation science. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of eEMG potentials to assess muscle force and fatigue, particularly as a biofeedback descriptor of FES-evoked contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury. At the outset, 2867 citations were identified and, finally, fifty-nine trials met the inclusion criteria. Four hypotheses were proposed and evaluated to inform this review. The results showed that eEMG is effective at quantifying muscle force and fatigue during isometric contraction, but may not be effective during dynamic contractions including cycling and stepping. Positive correlation of up to r = 0.90 (p < 0.05 between the decline in the peak-to-peak amplitude of the eEMG and the decline in the force output during fatiguing isometric contractions has been reported. In the available prediction models, the performance index of the eEMG signal to estimate the generated muscle force ranged from 3.8% to 34% for 18 s to 70 s ahead of the actual muscle force generation. The strength and inherent limitations of the eEMG signal to assess muscle force and fatigue were evident from our findings with implications in clinical management of spinal cord injury (SCI population.

  20. Recovery of voluntary and evoked muscle performance following intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat.

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    Duffield, Rob; King, Monique; Skein, Melissa

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of hot conditions on the acute recovery of voluntary and evoked muscle performance and physiological responses following intermittent exercise. Seven youth male and six female team-sport athletes performed two sessions separated by 7 d, involving a 30-min exercise protocol and 60-min passive recovery in either 22 degrees C or 33 degrees C and 40% relative humidity. The exercise protocol involved a 20-s maximal sprint every 5 min, separated by constant-intensity exercise at 100 W on a cycle ergometer. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and a resting evoked twitch (Pf) of the right knee extensors were assessed before and immediately following exercise and again 15, 30, and 60 min postexercise, and capillary blood was obtained at the same time points to measure lactate, pH, and HCO3. During and following exercise, core temperature, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also measured. No differences (P=0.73 to 0.95) in peak power during repeated sprints were present between conditions. Postexercise MVC was reduced (Pheat (83+/-10 vs 74+/-11% recovered). Both heart rate and core temperature were significantly higher (Precovery in the heat. Capillary blood values did not differ between conditions at any time point, whereas sessional RPE was higher 60 min postexercise in the heat. The current data suggests that passive recovery in warm temperatures not only delays cardiovascular and thermal recovery, but may also slow the recovery of MVC and RPE.

  1. Action potential-evoked calcium release is impaired in single skeletal muscle fibers from heart failure patients.

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    Marino DiFranco

    Full Text Available Exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure (HF has been attributed to abnormalities of the skeletal muscles. Muscle function depends on intact excitation-contraction coupling (ECC, but ECC studies in HF models have been inconclusive, due to deficiencies in the animal models and tools used to measure calcium (Ca2+ release, mandating investigations in skeletal muscle from HF patients. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Ca2+ release is significantly impaired in the skeletal muscle of HF patients in whom exercise capacity is severely diminished compared to age-matched healthy volunteers.Using state-of-the-art electrophysiological and optical techniques in single muscle fibers from biopsies of the locomotive vastus lateralis muscle, we measured the action potential (AP-evoked Ca2+ release in 4 HF patients and 4 age-matched healthy controls. The mean peak Ca2+ release flux in fibers obtained from HF patients (10±1.2 µM/ms was markedly (2.6-fold and significantly (p<0.05 smaller than in fibers from healthy volunteers (28±3.3 µM/ms. This impairment in AP-evoked Ca2+ release was ubiquitous and was not explained by differences in the excitability mechanisms since single APs were indistinguishable between HF patients and healthy volunteers.These findings prove the feasibility of performing electrophysiological experiments in single fibers from human skeletal muscle, and offer a new approach for investigations of myopathies due to HF and other diseases. Importantly, we have demonstrated that one step in the ECC process, AP-evoked Ca2+ release, is impaired in single muscle fibers in HF patients.

  2. Contraction-evoked vasodilation and functional hyperaemia are compromised in branching skeletal muscle arterioles of young pre-diabetic mice.

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    Novielli, N M; Jackson, D N

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the effects of pre-diabetes on microvascular network function in contracting skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that pre-diabetes compromises contraction-evoked vasodilation of branching second-order (2A), third-order (3A) and fourth-order (4A) arterioles, where distal arterioles would be affected the greatest. Intravital video microscopy was used to measure arteriolar diameter (in 2A, 3A and 4A) and blood flow (in 2A and 3A) changes to electrical field stimulation of the gluteus maximus muscle in pre-diabetic (The Pound Mouse, PD) and control (c57bl6, CTRL) mice. Baseline diameter and blood flow were similar between groups (2A: ~20 μm, 3A: ~14 μm and 4A: ~8 μm; 2A: ~1 nL s(-1) and 3A: ~0.5 nL s(-1) ). Single tetanic contraction (100 Hz; 200, 400, 800 ms duration) evoked rapid-onset vasodilation (ROV) and blood flow responses that were blunted by ~50% and up to 81%, respectively, in PD vs. CTRL (P contraction (2 and 8 Hz, 30 s) evoked vasodilatory and blood flow responses that were also attenuated by ~50% and up to 71%, respectively, in PD vs. CTRL (P contraction was also up to 2.5-fold greater at 4A vs. 2A in CTRL; however spatial differences in vasodilation across arteriolar branch orders was disrupted in PD. Arteriolar dysregulation in pre-diabetes causes deficits in contraction-evoked dilation and blood flow, where greatest deficits occur at distal arterioles. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Different stimulation frequencies alter synchronous fluctuations in motor evoked potential amplitude of intrinsic hand muscles – a TMS study.

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    Martin Victor Sale

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS varies from trial-to-trial. Synchronous oscillations in cortical neuronal excitability contribute to this variability, however it is not known how different frequencies of stimulation influence MEP variability, and whether these oscillations are rhythmic or aperiodic. We stimulated the motor cortex with TMS at different regular (i.e., rhythmic rates, and compared this with pseudo-random (aperiodic timing. In 18 subjects, TMS was applied at three regular frequencies (0.05 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 1 Hz and one aperiodic frequency (mean 0.2 Hz. MEPs (n = 50 were recorded from three intrinsic hand muscles of the left hand with different functional and anatomical relations. MEP amplitude correlation was highest for the functionally related muscle pair, less for the anatomically related muscle pair and least for the functionally- and anatomically-unrelated muscle pair. MEP correlations were greatest with 1 Hz, and least for stimulation at 0.05 Hz. Corticospinal neuron synchrony is higher with shorter TMS intervals. Further, corticospinal neuron synchrony is similar irrespective of whether the stimulation is periodic or aperiodic. These findings suggest TMS frequency is a crucial consideration for studies using TMS to probe correlated activity between muscle pairs.

  4. Core issues in craniofacial myogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Branchiomeric craniofacial muscles control feeding, breathing and facial expression. These muscles differ on multiple counts from all other skeletal muscles and originate in a progenitor cell population in pharyngeal mesoderm characterized by a common genetic program with an adjacent population of cardiac progenitor cells, the second heart field, that gives rise to much of the heart. The transcription factors and signaling molecules that trigger the myogenic program at sites of branchiomeric muscle formation are correspondingly distinct from those in somite-derived muscle progenitor cells. Here new insights into the regulatory hierarchies controlling branchiomeric myogenesis are discussed. Differences in embryological origin are reflected in the lineage, transcriptional program and proliferative and differentiation properties of branchiomeric muscle satellite cells. These recent findings have important implications for our understanding of the diverse myogenic strategies operative both in the embryo and adult and are of direct biomedical relevance to deciphering the mechanisms underlying the cause and progression of muscle restricted myopathies.

  5. Bradykinin Contributes to Sympathetic and Pressor Responses Evoked by Activation of Skeletal Muscle Afferents P2X in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Xing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Published data suggest that purinergic P2X receptors of muscle afferent nerves contribute to the enhanced sympathetic nervous activity (SNA and blood pressure (BP responses during static exercise in heart failure (HF. In this study, we examined engagement of bradykinin (BK in regulating responses of SNA and BP evoked by P2X stimulation in rats with HF. We further examined cellular mechanisms responsible for BK. We hypothesized that BK potentiates P2X currents of muscle dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons, and this effect is greater in HF due to upregulation of BK kinin B2 and P2X3 receptor. As a result, BK amplifies muscle afferents P2X-mediated SNA and BP responses. Methods: Renal SNA and BP responses were recorded in control rats and rats with HF. Western Blot analysis and patch-clamp methods were employed to examine the receptor expression and function of DRG neurons involved in the effects of BK. Results: BK injected into the arterial blood supply of the hindlimb muscles heightened the reflex SNA and BP responses induced by P2X activation with α,β-methylene ATP to a greater degree in HF rats. In addition, HF upregulated the protein expression of kinin B2 and P2X3 in DRG and the prior application of BK increased the magnitude of α,β-methylene ATP-induced currents in muscle DRG neurons from HF rats. Conclusion: BK plays a facilitating role in modulating muscle afferent P2X-engaged reflex sympathetic and pressor responses. In HF, P2X responsivness is augmented due to increases in expression of kinin B2 and P2X3 receptors and P2X current activity.

  6. Msx homeobox gene family and craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alappat, Sylvia; Zhang, Zun Yi; Chen, Yi Ping

    2003-12-01

    Vertebrate Msx genes are unlinked, homeobox-containing genes that bear homology to the Drosophila muscle segment homeobox gene. These genes are expressed at multiple sites of tissue-tissue interactions during vertebrate embryonic development. Inductive interactions mediated by the Msx genes are essential for normal craniofacial, limb and ectodermal organ morphogenesis, and are also essential to survival in mice, as manifested by the phenotypic abnormalities shown in knockout mice and in humans. This review summarizes studies on the expression, regulation, and functional analysis of Msx genes that bear relevance to craniofacial development in humans and mice. Key words: Msx genes, craniofacial, tooth, cleft palate, suture, development, transcription factor, signaling molecule.

  7. Effect of gamma rays on electrically evoked contractions of non-vascular smooth muscles (rat vas deferens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azroony, R.; Ksies, F.; Alya, G.

    2002-10-01

    We have tried, in this experiment, to study the modifications of non-vascular smooth muscles contraction induced via gamma rays. Smooth muscular fibers were isolated from the vas deferens of an adult rat and contractions were electrically evoked. Our results show that irradiation activates the VOC (Voltage Operated Channel) type of ionic channels which causes an increasing in the inward flux of Ca 2+ and then causes an increasing in the inner calcium concentration [Ca 2] i, the matter which means an increasing in the force of muscular contraction. Concerning to the response of vas deferens smooth muscles to the activation of membrane receptors, we have tried to study the effects of gamma rays on activating adrenergic and cholinergic receptors, also, we have tried to show the effects of different doses of gamma rays (1, 3, 5, 7 Gy) on regulating the contractile response of this type of smooth muscles. And results show that: - Irradiation increases contraction force, mediated by adrenergic and cholinergic receptors, in a dose dependent manner, with E m ax 1 Gy m axc 3 Gy m ax 5 Gy m ax 7 Gy. There is an important shift on irradiated rats (3, 5, 7 Gy) where the maximum effect of Acetylcholine (E m ax) can be obtained in lower concentrations of Acetylcholine. These results mean that irradiation activates the inward flux of Ca 2+ through the ROC (Receptors Operated Channels) type of ionic channels, which rely, in their activation, on activating the membrane receptors. By comparing these results with the effects of gamma rays on activating vascular adrenergic and cholinergic receptors, we concluded that: Non-vascular smooth muscles (vas deferens) are less sensitive to irradiation in comparing with vascular smooth muscles (venae portal hepatica), and irradiation increases the sensitivity of cholinergic receptors to acetylcholine in the smooth muscular fibers of vas deferens while; if decreases this sensitivity in the smooth muscular fibers of venae portal hepatica

  8. Comparison between electrically evoked and voluntary isometric contractions for biceps brachii muscle oxidative metabolism using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Jubeau, Marc; Millet, Guillaume Y; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2009-09-01

    This study compared voluntary (VOL) and electrically evoked isometric contractions by muscle stimulation (EMS) for changes in biceps brachii muscle oxygenation (tissue oxygenation index, DeltaTOI) and total haemoglobin concentration (DeltatHb = oxygenated haemoglobin + deoxygenated haemoglobin) determined by near-infrared spectroscopy. Twelve men performed EMS with one arm followed 24 h later by VOL with the contralateral arm, consisting of 30 repeated (1-s contraction, 1-s relaxation) isometric contractions at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for the first 60 s, and maximal intensity contractions thereafter (MVC for VOL and maximal tolerable current at 30 Hz for EMS) until MVC decreased approximately 30% of pre-exercise MVC. During the 30 contractions at 30% MVC, DeltaTOI decrease was significantly (P < 0.05) greater and DeltatHb was significantly (P < 0.05) lower for EMS than VOL, suggesting that the metabolic demand for oxygen in EMS is greater than VOL at the same torque level. However, during maximal intensity contractions, although EMS torque (approximately 40% of VOL) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than VOL, DeltaTOI was similar and tHb was significantly (P < 0.05) lower for EMS than VOL towards the end, without significant differences between the two sessions in the recovery period. It is concluded that the oxygen demand of the activated biceps brachii muscle in EMS is comparable to VOL at maximal intensity.

  9. Comparison in muscle damage between maximal voluntary and electrically evoked isometric contractions of the elbow flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubeau, Marc; Muthalib, Makii; Millet, Guillaume Y; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2012-02-01

    This study compared between maximal voluntary (VOL) and electrically stimulated (ES) isometric contractions of the elbow flexors for changes in indirect markers of muscle damage to investigate whether ES would induce greater muscle damage than VOL. Twelve non-resistance-trained men (23-39 years) performed VOL with one arm and ES with the contralateral arm separated by 2 weeks in a randomised, counterbalanced order. Both VOL and ES (frequency 75 Hz, pulse duration 250 μs, maximally tolerated intensity) exercises consisted of 50 maximal isometric contractions (4-s on, 15-s off) of the elbow flexors at a long muscle length (160°). Changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (MVC), range of motion, muscle soreness, pressure pain threshold and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before, immediately after and 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h following exercise. The average peak torque over the 50 isometric contractions was greater (P < 0.05) for VOL (32.9 ± 9.8 N m) than ES (16.9 ± 6.3 N m). MVC decreased greater and recovered slower (P < 0.05) after ES (15% lower than baseline at 96 h) than VOL (full recovery). Serum CK activity increased (P < 0.05) only after ES, and the muscles became more sore and tender after ES than VOL (P < 0.05). These results showed that ES induced greater muscle damage than VOL despite the lower torque output during ES. It seems likely that higher mechanical stress imposed on the activated muscle fibres, due to the specificity of motor unit recruitment in ES, resulted in greater muscle damage.

  10. Test imf kursus - Referred Pain and Sensations Evoked by Standardized Palpation of the Masseter Muscle in Healthy Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masuda, Manabu; Iida, Takashi; Exposto, Fernando G

    2018-01-01

    , Tukey post hoc, and McNemar's tests with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: Referred pain/sensations were most commonly evoked with the 2.0-kg stimulus (34.4% of participants; P significant effects of stimulus intensity on NRS...... scores for pain and unpleasantness, as well as for aftersensation (P significant effects on NRS scores for pain and unpleasantness for the 1.0- and 2.0-kg stimuli (P 2.0-kg stimulus (P .... The right masseter muscle was divided into 15 test sites. Mechanical sensitivity of the masseter was assessed with three mechanical stimuli (0.5 kg, 1.0 kg, or 2.0 kg) applied by palpometers to the 15 test sites for 5 seconds each site. Participants scored the perceived intensity of pain and unpleasantness...

  11. Voluntary muscle activation and evoked volitional-wave responses as a function of torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hight, Robert E; Quarshie, Alwyn T; Black, Christopher D

    2018-08-01

    This study employed a unique stimulation paradigm which allowed for the simultaneous assessment of voluntary activation levels (VA) via twitch-interpolation, and the evoked V-wave responses of the plantar flexors during submaximal and maximal contractions. Test-retest reliability was also examined. Fourteen participants repeated a stimulation protocol over four visits to assess VA and evoked V-wave amplitude across torque levels ranging from 20% to 100% MVC. MVC torque and EMG amplitude were also measured. VA increased nonlinearly with torque production and plateaued by 80% MVC. V-wave amplitude increased linearly from 20% to 100% MVC. There were no differences in any dependent variable across visits (p > 0.05). VA demonstrated moderate to substantial reliability across all torque levels (ICC = 0.76-0.91) while V-wave amplitude exhibited fair to moderate reliability from 40% to 100% (ICC = 0.48-0.74). We were able to reliably collect VA and the V-wave simultaneously in the plantar flexors. Collection of VA and V-wave during the same contraction provides distinct information regarding the contribution of motor-unit recruitment and descending cortico-spinal drive/excitability to force production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Toward characterization of craniofacial biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedowski, Tomasz D; Whyne, Cari M; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2010-01-01

    Surgical reconstruction of craniofacial deformities has advanced significantly in recent years. However, unlike orthopedic surgery of the appendicular skeleton, the biomechanical characterization of the human craniofacial skeleton (CFS) has yet to be elucidated. Attempts to simplify facial skeletal structure into straightforward mechanical device analogies have been insufficient in delineating craniofacial biomechanics. Advanced computational engineering analysis methods offer the potential to accurately and completely define the internal mechanical environment of the CFS. This study developed a finite element (FE) model in the I-deas 10 FEM software package of a preserved cadaveric human CFS and compared the predictions of this model against in vitro strain measurement of simulated occlusal loading forces from a single masseter muscle. The FE model applied shell element modeling to capture the behavior of the thin cortical bone that may play an important role in stabilizing the facial structures against functional loads. In vitro testing included strain measurements at 12 locations for a total of 16 independent channels with less than 150 N of tensile force applied through the masseter muscle into the zygomatic arch origin at 4 different orientations, with 3 trials of 500 recorded data points for each loading orientation. Linear regression analysis yielded a moderate prediction (r = 0.57) between the model and experimentally measured strains. Exclusion of strain comparisons in regions that required greater modeling assumptions greatly improved the correlation (r = 0.70). Future validation studies will benefit from improved placement of strain gauges as guided by FE model predicted strain patterns.

  13. Influenza A infection attenuates relaxation responses of mouse tracheal smooth muscle evoked by acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Esther Y; Mann, Tracy S; Burcham, Philip C; Henry, Peter J

    2015-02-15

    The airway epithelium is an important source of relaxant mediators, and damage to the epithelium caused by respiratory tract viruses may contribute to airway hyperreactivity. The aim of this study was to determine whether influenza A-induced epithelial damage would modulate relaxation responses evoked by acrolein, a toxic and prevalent component of smoke. Male BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with influenza A/PR-8/34 (VIRUS-infected) or allantoic fluid (SHAM-infected). On day 4 post-inoculation, isometric tension recording studies were conducted on carbachol pre-contracted tracheal segments isolated from VIRUS and SHAM mice. Relaxant responses to acrolein (30 μM) were markedly smaller in VIRUS segments compared to SHAM segments (2 ± 1% relaxation vs. 28 ± 5%, n=14, pacrolein and SP were reduced in VIRUS segments (>35% reduction, n=6, pacrolein were profoundly diminished in tracheal segments isolated from influenza A-infected mice. The mechanism through which influenza A infection attenuates this response appears to involve reduced production of PGE2 in response to SP due to epithelial cell loss, and may provide insight into the airway hyperreactivity observed with influenza A infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Asymmetry of magnetic motor evoked potentials recorded in calf muscles of the dominant and non-dominant lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olex-Zarychta, Dorota; Koprowski, Robert; Sobota, Grzegorz; Wróbel, Zygmunt

    2009-08-07

    The aim of the study was to determine the applicability of magnetic stimulation and magnetic motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in motor asymmetry studies by obtaining quantitative and qualitative measures of efferent activity during low intensity magnetic stimulation of the dominant and non-dominant lower extremities. Magnetic stimulation of the tibial nerve in the popliteal fossa was performed in 10 healthy male right-handed and right-footed young adults. Responses were recorded from the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscles of the right and left lower extremities. Response characteristics (duration, onset latency, amplitude) were analyzed in relation to the functional dominance of the limbs and in relation to the direction of the current in the magnetic coil by use of the Wilcoxon pair sequence test. The CCW direction of coil current was related to reduced amplitudes of recorded MEPs. Greater amplitudes of evoked potentials were recorded in the non-dominant extremity, both in the CW and CCW coil current directions, with the statistical significance of this effect (p=0.005). No differences in duration of response were found in the CW current direction, while in CCW the time of the left-side response was prolonged (p=0.01). In the non-dominant extremity longer onset latencies were recorded in both current directions, but only for the CW direction the side asymmetries showed a statistical significance of p=0.005. In the dominant extremity the stimulation correlated with stronger paresthesias, especially using the CCW direction of coil current. The results indicate that low intensity magnetic stimulation may be useful in quantitative and qualitative research into the motor asymmetry.

  15. Craniofacial Surgery Fellowship Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Agarwal, Divyansh; Taylor, Jesse A

    2016-06-01

    Applicants for craniofacial surgery fellowships utilize Internet-based resources like the San Francisco (SF) Match to manage applications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accessibility and content of craniofacial surgery fellowship websites (CSFWs). A list of available craniofacial surgery fellowships was compiled from directories of the American Society of Craniofacial Surgery (ACSFS) and SF Match. Accessibility of CSFWs was assessed via links from these directories and a Google search. Craniofacial surgery fellowship websites were evaluated on education and recruitment content and compared via program characteristics. Twenty-four of the 28 US-based craniofacial surgery fellowship programs had a CSFW (86%). The ACSFS and SF Match databases had limited CSFW accessibility, but a Google search revealed most CSFWs had the top search result (76%). In total, CSFWs provided an average of 39% of education and recruitment variables. While most programs provided fellowship program descriptions (96%), application links (96%), and faculty listings (83%), relatively few provided rotation schedules (13%), fellow selection process information (13%), or interview dates (8%). CSFW content did not vary by program location, faculty size, accreditation status, or institutional affiliations (P > 0.05). Craniofacial surgery fellowships often lack readily accessible websites from national program lists and have limited information for interested applicants. The consistent lack of online information across programs suggests future opportunities exist to improve these educational resources.

  16. Factors predicting the feasibility of monitoring lower-limb muscle motor evoked potentials in patients undergoing excision of spinal cord tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Velayutham, Parthiban; Joseph, Mathew; Babu, K Srinivasa

    2011-06-01

    This prospective study on intraoperative muscle motor evoked potentials (MMEPs) from lower-limb muscles in patients undergoing surgery for spinal cord tumors was performed to: 1) determine preoperative clinical features that could predict successful recording of lower-limb MMEPs; 2) determine the muscle in the lower limb from which MMEPs could be most consistently obtained; 3) assess the need to monitor more than 1 muscle per limb; and 4) determine the effect of a successful baseline MMEP recording on early postoperative motor outcome. Of 115 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for spinal cord tumors, 110 were included in this study (44 intramedullary and 66 intradural extramedullary tumors). Muscle MEPs were generated using transcranial electrical stimulation under controlled anesthesia and were recorded from the tibialis anterior, quadriceps, soleus, and external anal sphincter muscles bilaterally. The effect of age (≤ 20 or > 20 years old), location of the tumor (intramedullary or extramedullary), segmental location of the tumor (cervical, thoracic, or lumbar), duration of symptoms (≤ 12 or > 12 months), preoperative functional grade (Nurick Grades 0-3 or 4-5), and muscle power (Medical Research Council Grades 0/5-3/5 or 4/5-5/5) on the success rate of obtaining MMEPs was studied using multiple regression analysis. The effect of the ability to monitor MMEPs on motor outcome at discharge from the hospital was also analyzed. The overall success rate for obtaining baseline lower-limb MMEPs was 68.2% (75 of 110 patients). Eighty-nine percent of patients with Nurick Grades 0-3 had successful MMEP recordings. Muscle MEPs could not be obtained in any patient in whom muscle power was 2/5 or less, but were obtained from 91.4% of patients with muscle power of 4/5 or more. Analysis showed that only preoperative Nurick grade (p ≤ 0.0001) and muscle power (p < 0.0001) were significant predictors of the likelihood of obtaining MMEPs. Responses were most consistently

  17. Reflexive contraction of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle to involuntarily sustain the effective eyelid retraction through the transverse trigeminal proprioceptive nerve on the proximal Mueller's muscle: verification with evoked electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ryokuya; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Osada, Yoshiro; Ban, Midori; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke

    2010-01-01

    We have proposed a hypothetical mechanism to involuntarily sustain the effective eyelid retraction, which consists of not only voluntary but also reflexive contractions of the levator palpebrae superior muscle (LPSM). Voluntary contraction of fast-twitch fibres of the LPSM stretches the mechanoreceptors in Mueller's muscle to evoke trigeminal proprioception, which induces continuous reflexive contraction of slow-twitch fibres of the LPSM through the trigeminal proprioceptive nerve fibres innervating the mechanoreceptors in Mueller's muscle via the oculomotor neurons, as a tonic trigemino-oculomotor reflex. In the common skeletal mixed muscles, electrical stimulation of the proprioceptive nerve, which apparently connects the mechanoreceptors in muscle spindles to the motoneurons, induces the electromyographic response as the Hoffmann reflex. To verify the presence of the trigemino-oculomotor reflex, we confirmed whether intra-operative electrical simulation of the transverse trigeminal proprioceptive nerve on the proximal Mueller's muscle evokes an electromyographic response in the LPSM under general anaesthesia in 12 patients. An ipsilateral, phasic, short-latency response (latency: 2.8+/-0.3 ms) was induced in the ipsilateral LPSM in 10 of 12 subjects. As successful induction of the short-latency response in the ipsilateral LPSM corresponds to the Hoffmann reflex in the common skeletal mixed muscles, the present study is the first electromyographic verification of the presence of the monosynaptic trigemino-oculomotor reflex to induce reflexive contraction of the LPSM. The presence of the trigemino-oculomotor reflex may elucidate the unexplainable blepharoptosis due to surgery, trauma and tumour, all of which may damage the trigeminal proprioceptive nerve fibres to impair the trigemino-oculomotor reflex. Copyright (c) 2008. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Angiotensin II Evokes Angiogenic Signals within Skeletal Muscle through Co-ordinated Effects on Skeletal Myocytes and Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jennifer L.; Liu, Sammy T. K.; Slopack, Dara; Shariati, Khashayar; Hasanee, Adam; Olenich, Sara; Olfert, I. Mark; Haas, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle overload induces the expression of angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, leading to new capillary growth. We found that the overload-induced increase in angiogenesis, as well as increases in VEGF, MMP-2 and MT1-MMP transcripts were abrogated in muscle VEGF KO mice, highlighting the critical role of myocyte-derived VEGF in controlling this process. The upstream mediators that contribute to overload-induced expression of VEGF have yet to be ascertained. We found that muscle overload increased angiotensinogen expression, a precursor of angiotensin (Ang) II, and that Ang II signaling played an important role in basal VEGF production in C2C12 cells. Furthermore, matrix-bound VEGF released from myoblasts induced the activation of endothelial cells, as evidenced by elevated endothelial cell phospho-p38 levels. We also found that exogenous Ang II elevates VEGF expression, as well as MMP-2 transcript levels in C2C12 myotubes. Interestingly, these responses also were observed in skeletal muscle endothelial cells in response to Ang II treatment, indicating that these cells also can respond directly to the stimulus. The involvement of Ang II in muscle overload-induced angiogenesis was assessed. We found that blockade of AT1R-dependent Ang II signaling using losartan did not attenuate capillary growth. Surprisingly, increased levels of VEGF protein were detected in overloaded muscle from losartan-treated rats. Similarly, we observed elevated VEGF production in cultured endothelial cells treated with losartan alone or in combination with Ang II. These studies conclusively establish the requirement for muscle derived VEGF in overload-induced angiogenesis and highlight a role for Ang II in basal VEGF production in skeletal muscle. However, while Ang II signaling is activated following overload and plays a role in muscle VEGF production, inhibition of this pathway is not sufficient to halt overload

  19. Patterns of experimentally induced pain in pericranial muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Hansen, Peter Thede; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2006-01-01

    into the masseter muscle (anova: P pain areas (anova: P cervically innervated muscles had significantly different patterns of spread and referral of pain according to trigeminally vs....... cervically innervated dermatomes (P pain patterns and pain sensitivity in different craniofacial muscles in healthy volunteers, which may be of importance for further research on different craniofacial pain conditions.......Nociceptive mechanisms in the craniofacial muscle tissue are poorly understood. The pain pattern in individual pericranial muscles has not been described before. Experimental muscle pain was induced by standardized infusions of 0.2 ml 1 m hypertonic saline into six craniofacial muscles (masseter...

  20. Dental approach to craniofacial syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger

    2012-01-01

    is essential for insight into craniofacial syndromes. The dentition, thus, becomes central in diagnostics and evaluation of the pathogenesis. Developmental fields can explore and advance the concept of dental approaches to craniofacial syndromes. Discussion. As deviations in teeth persist and do not reorganize...

  1. Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Hayashibe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Time-variant muscle responses under electrical stimulation (ES are often problematic for all the applications of neuroprosthetic muscle control. This situation limits the range of ES usage in relevant areas, mainly due to muscle fatigue and also to changes in stimulation electrode contact conditions, especially in transcutaneous ES. Surface electrodes are still the most widely used in noninvasive applications.Electrical field variations caused by changes in the stimulation contact condition markedly affect the resulting total muscle activation levels. Fatigue phenomena under functional electrical stimulation (FES are also well known source of time-varying characteristics coming from muscle response under ES. Therefore it is essential to monitor the actual muscle state and assess the expected muscle response by ES so as to improve the current ES system in favour of adaptive muscle-response-aware FES control. To deal with this issue, we have been studying a novel control technique using evoked electromyography (eEMG signals to compensate for these muscle time-variances under ES for stable neuroprosthetic muscle control. In this perspective article, I overview the background of this topic and highlight important points to be aware of when using ES to induce the desired muscle activation regardless of the time-variance. I also demonstrate how to deal with the common critical problem of ES to move toward robust neuroprosthetic muscle control with the Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation paradigm.

  2. Defective Resensitization in Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells Evokes β-Adrenergic Receptor Dysfunction in Severe Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manveen K Gupta

    Full Text Available β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR agonists (β2-agonist are the most commonly used therapy for acute relief in asthma, but chronic use of these bronchodilators paradoxically exacerbates airway hyper-responsiveness. Activation of βARs by β-agonist leads to desensitization (inactivation by phosphorylation through G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs which mediate β-arrestin binding and βAR internalization. Resensitization occurs by dephosphorylation of the endosomal βARs which recycle back to the plasma membrane as agonist-ready receptors. To determine whether the loss in β-agonist response in asthma is due to altered βAR desensitization and/or resensitization, we used primary human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs isolated from the lungs of non-asthmatic and fatal-asthmatic subjects. Asthmatic HASMCs have diminished adenylyl cyclase activity and cAMP response to β-agonist as compared to non-asthmatic HASMCs. Confocal microscopy showed significant accumulation of phosphorylated β2ARs in asthmatic HASMCs. Systematic analysis of desensitization components including GRKs and β-arrestin showed no appreciable differences between asthmatic and non-asthmatic HASMCs. However, asthmatic HASMC showed significant increase in PI3Kγ activity and was associated with reduction in PP2A activity. Since reduction in PP2A activity could alter receptor resensitization, endosomal fractions were isolated to assess the agonist ready β2ARs as a measure of resensitization. Despite significant accumulation of β2ARs in the endosomes of asthmatic HASMCs, endosomal β2ARs cannot robustly activate adenylyl cyclase. Furthermore, endosomes from asthmatic HASMCs are associated with significant increase in PI3Kγ and reduced PP2A activity that inhibits β2AR resensitization. Our study shows that resensitization, a process considered to be a homeostasis maintaining passive process is inhibited in asthmatic HASMCs contributing to β2AR dysfunction which may underlie

  3. Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, I M; Furnas, D W; Amlie, R N

    1981-02-01

    No congenital malformation in infants is more profound than anterior craniofacial duplication. The precise term for this rare anomaly is diprosopus, referring to a fetus with a single trunk, normal limbs, and varying degrees of facial duplication. A search of the world literature produced only 16 cases of diprosopus since 1864. Despite the rarity of this anomaly, three such infants were born in the Southern California area during the past year, making this the largest reported series to date. The three infants were born with two distinctly formed faces. Each had four separate eyes, two mouths, two noses, and two ears with a primitive ear or sinus tract at the plane of fusion. In addition, multiple congenital aberrations existed which involved a variety of internal organs. The pathogenesis of diprosopus is not well understood, but environmental stress early in embryologic development has been suggested as a possible factor. The apparent mechanism is a slowing of pregastrulation oxidation with resultant focal developmental arrests.

  4. Craniofacial Reconstruction Evaluation by Geodesic Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Junli; Liu, Cuiting; Wu, Zhongke; Duan, Fuqing; Wang, Kang; Jia, Taorui; Liu, Quansheng

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial reconstruction is to estimate an individual’s face model from its skull. It has a widespread application in forensic medicine, archeology, medical cosmetic surgery, and so forth. However, little attention is paid to the evaluation of craniofacial reconstruction. This paper proposes an objective method to evaluate globally and locally the reconstructed craniofacial faces based on the geodesic network. Firstly, the geodesic networks of the reconstructed craniofacial face and the or...

  5. The Cervical Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMPs) Recorded Along the Sternocleidomastoid Muscles During Head Rotation and Flexion in Normal Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Alexander; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Chunming; Wei, Wei; Mustain, William; Eby, Thomas; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Wu

    2016-08-01

    Tone burst-evoked myogenic potentials recorded from tonically contracted sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) (cervical VEMP or cVEMP) are widely used to assess the vestibular function. Since the cVEMP response is mediated by the vestibulo-collic reflex (VCR) pathways, it is important to understand how the cVEMPs are determined by factors related to either the sensory components (vestibular end organs) or the motor components (SCM) of the VCR pathways. Compared to the numerous studies that have investigated effects of sound parameters on the cVEMPs, there are few studies that have examined effects of SCM-related factors on the cVEMPs. The goal of the present study is to fill this knowledge gap by testing three SCM-related hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that contrary to the current view, the cVEMP response is only present in the SCM ipsilateral to the stimulated ear. The second hypothesis is that the cVEMP response is not only dependent on tonic level of the SCM, but also on how the tonic level is achieved, i.e., by head rotation or head flexion. The third hypothesis is that the SCM is compartmented and the polarity of the cVEMP response is dependent on the recording site. Seven surface electrodes were positioned along the left SCMs in 12 healthy adult subjects, and tone bursts were delivered to the ipsilateral or contralateral ear (8 ms plateau, 1 ms rise/fall, 130 dB SPL, 50-4000 Hz) while subjects activated their SCMs by head rotation (HR condition) or chin downward head flexion (CD condition). The first hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the contralateral cVEMPs were minimal at all recording sites for all the tested tones during both HR and CD conditions. The second hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the ipsilateral cVEMPs were larger in HR condition than in CD condition at recording sites above and below the SCM midpoint. Finally, the third hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the cVEMPs exhibit reversed polarities at the sites

  6. Pediatric considerations in craniofacial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Bernadette L

    2014-08-01

    In many respects, craniofacial trauma in children is akin to that in adults. The appearance of fractures and associated injuries is frequently similar. However, the frequencies of different types of fractures and patterns of injury in younger children vary depending on the age of the child. In addition, there are unique aspects that must be considered when imaging the posttraumatic pediatric face. Some of these are based on normal growth and development of the skull base and craniofacial structures, and others on the varying etiologies and mechanisms of craniofacial injury in children, such as injuries related to toppled furniture, nonaccidental trauma, all-terrain vehicle accidents, and impalement injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Craniofacial duplication: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Pradeep; Deshpande, Mandar; Verma, Nitin; Mahendrakar, Vivek; Mahendrakar, Sandhya

    2013-09-01

    A craniofacial duplication or diprosopus is an unusual variant of conjoined twinning. The reported incidence is one in 180,000-15 million births and 35 cases have been reported till date. The phenotype is wide, with the partial duplication of a few facial structures to complete dicephalus. A complete duplication is associated with a high incidence of anomalies in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system and the respiratory system, whereas no major anomalies are found in the infants with a partial duplication. A term baby with the features of a craniofacial duplication has been described, with the proposed theories on embryogenesis and a brief review of the literature.

  8. Craniofacial morphology in Muenke syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Mette Kirstine; Hermann, Nuno V; Darvann, Tron A

    2007-01-01

    corresponding to bone was created for each individual. The sutures were inspected for synostosis, and the degree of synostosis was assessed. Increased digital markings were recorded for both groups. Craniofacial morphology was assessed quantitatively using bony landmarks and recording of the midsagittal surface...

  9. A Study of Relationship between the Acoustic Sensitivity of Vestibular System and the Ability to Trigger Sound-Evoked Muscle Reflex of the Middle Ear in Adults with Normal Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Emami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The vestibular system is sound sensitive and the sensitivity is related to the saccule. The vestibular afferents are projected to the middle ear muscles (such as the stapedius. The goal of this research was studying the relationship between the vestibular hearing and the sound-evoked muscle reflex of the middle ear to 500 HZ. Materials & Methods: This study was a cross sectional-comparison done in audiology department of Sheikholreis C‍‍linic (Hamadan, Iran. The study groups consisted of thirty healthy people and thirty patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Inclusion criteria of the present study were to have normal hearing on pure tone audiometry, acoustic reflex, and speech discrimination scores. Based on ipsilateral acoustic reflex test at 500HZ, they were divided to normal and abnormal groups. Then they were evaluated by cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs and finally classified in three groups (N Normal ear , (CVUA Contra lateral vertiginous ear with unaffected saccular sensitivity to sound,(IVA Ipsilateral vertiginous ear with affected saccular sensitivity to sound. Results: Thirty affected ears (IVA with decreased vestibular excitability as detected by ab-normal cVEMPs, revealed abnormal findings of acoustic reflex at 500HZ. Whereas, both un-affected (CVUA and normal ears (N had normal results. Multiple comparisons of mean values of cVEMPs (p13,n23 and acoustic reflex at500HZ among the three groups were sig-nificant. The correlation between acoustic reflex at 500HZ and p13 latencies was significant. The n23 latencies showed significant correlation with acoustic reflex at 500HZ. Conclusion: The vestibular sensitivity to sound retains the ability to trigger sound-evoked re-flex of the middle ear at 500 HZ. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2:99-104

  10. Midline Craniofacial Masses in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wyhe, Renae D.; Chamata, Edward S.; Hollier, Larry H.

    2016-01-01

    Nasal dermoids, encephaloceles, and gliomas are rare congenital lesions that result from improper embryologic development. The differentiation between them and a firm understanding of their pathology is necessary to avoid unnecessary complications. In view of their potential intracranial connection, prompt diagnosis and treatment are paramount. The authors review the embryology, diagnoses, radiologic work-up, surgical management, and complications of these midline craniofacial masses in child...

  11. Biomaterials and biologics in craniofacial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrand, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Complications related to surgery, including infection, wound dehiscence, and implant protrusion, are costly and may cause severe morbidity to patients. The choice of implants materials is critical for a successful outcome, particularly in craniofacial reconstructions. This review discusses the potential benefits and drawbacks of biologically active materials used for craniofacial bone repair as alternatives to inert implant prostheses.

  12. Craniofacial imaging informatics and technology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, M W

    2003-01-01

    'Craniofacial imaging informatics' refers to image and related scientific data from the dentomaxillofacial complex, and application of 'informatics techniques' (derived from disciplines such as applied mathematics, computer science and statistics) to understand and organize the information associated with the data. Major trends in information technology determine the progress made in craniofacial imaging and informatics. These trends include industry consolidation, disruptive technologies, Moore's law, electronic atlases and on-line databases. Each of these trends is explained and documented, relative to their influence on craniofacial imaging. Craniofacial imaging is influenced by major trends that affect all medical imaging and related informatics applications. The introduction of cone beam craniofacial computed tomography scanners is an example of a disruptive technology entering the field. An important opportunity lies in the integration of biologic knowledge repositories with craniofacial images. The progress of craniofacial imaging will continue subject to limitations imposed by the underlying technologies, especially imaging informatics. Disruptive technologies will play a major role in the evolution of this field.

  13. More are awaiting for craniofacial intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xindong

    2006-01-01

    The scale of craniofacial intervention lies between the fields of neuro-intervention and peripheral interventional for the main purpose to investigate, diagnose and treat the disease entities originating from or supplied by the external carotid arterial system. Patients are usually refered to the oral and maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery and otolaryngeal surgery. Craniofacial intervention includes mainly the diagnosis and treatment with adjuvant embolization of high-flow vascular diseases, intra-arterial chemotherapy of malignant tumors, embolization of epistaxis, etc. At present, there is no consensus with regard to the diagnosis and treatment of some craniofacial diseases, therefore further investigation and discussion are needed. (authors)

  14. Proprioceptive evoked potentials in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S; Chen, A C; Eder, Derek N

    2000-01-01

    We studied cerebral evoked potentials on the scalp to the stimulation of the right hand from a change in weight of 400-480 g in ten subjects. Rise-time was 20g/10 ms, Inter Stimulus Interval 2s and stimulus duration was 100 ms. The cerebral activations were a double positive contralateral C3'/P70......). Further studies of the PEP are needed to assess the influence of load manipulations and of muscle contraction and to explore the effect of attentional manipulation....

  15. Orthognathic Surgery in Craniofacial Microsomia: Treatment Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Salvador; Torrealba, Ramón; Nuñez, Marcelo; Uribe, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Craniofacial microsomia is a broad term that covers a variety of craniofacial malformation conditions that are caused by alterations in the derivatives of the first and second pharyngeal arches. In general terms, diverse therapeutic alternatives are proposed according to the growth stage and the severity of the alteration. When craniofacial growth has concluded, conventional orthognathic surgery (Le Fort I osteotomy, bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, and genioplasty) provides good alternatives for MI and MIIA type cases. Reconstruction of the mandibular ramus and temporomandibular joint before orthognathic surgery is the indicated treatment for cases MIIB and MIII. The goal of this article is to establish a surgical treatment algorithm for orthognathic surgery on patients with craniofacial microsomia, analyzing the points that allow the ideal treatment for each patient to be chosen. PMID:25674375

  16. Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Tissues. An update

    OpenAIRE

    Litsas, George

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. In childhood, it determines the longitudinal bone growth, skeletal maturation, and acquisition of bone mass. In adulthood, it is necessary to maintain bone mass throughout life. Although an association between craniofacial and somatic development has been clearly established, craniofacial growth involves complex interactions of genes, hormones and environment. Moreover, as an anabolic hormone seems to have an important role in the ...

  17. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2014-06-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  18. Relationships between craniofacial pain and bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, P; Jadidi, F; Arima, T; Baad-Hansen, L; Sessle, B J

    2008-07-01

    A still commonly held view in the literature and clinical practice is that bruxism causes pain because of overloading of the musculoskeletal tissue and craniofacial pain, on the other hand, triggers more bruxism. Furthermore, it is often believed that there is a dose-response gradient so that more bruxism (intensity, duration) leads to more overloading and pain. Provided the existence of efficient techniques to treat bruxism, it would be straightforward in such a simple system to target bruxism as the cause of pain and hence treat the pain. Of course, human biological systems are much more complex and therefore, it is no surprise that the relationship between bruxism and pain is far from being simple or even linear. Indeed, there are unexpected relationships, which complicate the establishment of adequate explanatory models. Part of the reason is the complexity of the bruxism in itself, which presents significant challenges related to operationalized criteria and diagnostic tools and underlying pathophysiology issues, which have been dealt with in other reviews in this issue. However, another important reason is the multifaceted nature of craniofacial pain. This review will address our current understanding of classification issues, epidemiology and neurobiological mechanisms of craniofacial pain. Experimental models of bruxism may help to further the understanding of the relationship between craniofacial pain and bruxism in addition to insights from intervention studies. The review will enable clinicians to understand the reasons why simple cause-effect relationships between bruxism and craniofacial pain are inadequate and the current implications for management of craniofacial pain.

  19. Craniofacial and dental development in Costello syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alice F; Oberoi, Snehlata; Landan, Maya; Charles, Cyril; Massie, Jessica C; Fairley, Cecilia; Rauen, Katherine A; Klein, Ophir D

    2014-06-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a RASopathy characterized by a wide range of cardiac, musculoskeletal, dermatological, and developmental abnormalities. The RASopathies are defined as a group of syndromes caused by activated Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Specifically, CS is caused by activating mutations in HRAS. Although receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, which is upstream of Ras/MAPK, is known to play a critical role in craniofacial and dental development, the craniofacial and dental features of CS have not been systematically defined in a large group of individuals. In order to address this gap in our understanding and fully characterize the CS phenotype, we evaluated the craniofacial and dental phenotype in a large cohort (n = 41) of CS individuals. We confirmed that the craniofacial features common in CS include macrocephaly, bitemporal narrowing, convex facial profile, full cheeks, and large mouth. Additionally, CS patients have a characteristic dental phenotype that includes malocclusion with anterior open bite and posterior crossbite, enamel hypo-mineralization, delayed tooth development and eruption, gingival hyperplasia, thickening of the alveolar ridge, and high palate. Comparison of the craniofacial and dental phenotype in CS with other RASopathies, such as cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), provides insight into the complexities of Ras/MAPK signaling in human craniofacial and dental development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Magnesium Alloys as a Biomaterial for Degradable Craniofacial Screws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sarah E.; Verdelis, Konstantinos; Maiti, Spandan; Pal, Siladitya; Chung, William L.; Chou, Da-Tren; Kumta, Prashant N.; Almarza, Alejandro J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, magnesium (Mg) alloys have received significant attention as a potential biomaterial for degradable implants, and this study was directed at evaluating the suitability of Mg for craniofacial bone screws. The objective was to implant screws fabricated from commercially available Mg-alloys (pure Mg and AZ31) in-vivo in a rabbit mandible. First, Mg-alloy screws were compared to stainless steel screws in an in-vitro pull-out test and determined to have a similar holding strength (~40N). A finite element model of the screw was created using the pull-out test data, and the model can be used for future Mg-alloy screw design. Then, Mg-alloy screws were implanted for 4, 8, and 12 weeks, with two controls of an osteotomy site (hole) with no implant and a stainless steel screw implanted for 12 weeks. MicroCT (computed tomography) was used to assess bone remodeling and Mg-alloy degradation, both visually and qualitatively through volume fraction measurements for all time points. Histologic analysis was also completed for the Mg-alloys at 12 weeks. The results showed that craniofacial bone remodeling occurred around both Mg-alloy screw types. Pure Mg had a different degradation profile than AZ31, however bone growth occurred around both screw types. The degradation rate of both Mg-alloy screw types in the bone marrow space and the muscle were faster than in the cortical bone space at 12 weeks. Furthermore, it was shown that by alloying Mg, the degradation profile could be changed. These results indicate the promise of using Mg-alloys for craniofacial applications. PMID:24384125

  1. Scent-evoked nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Chelsea A; Green, Jeffrey D; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine

    2015-01-01

    Can scents evoke nostalgia; what might be the psychological implications of such an evocation? Participants sampled 12 scents and rated the extent to which each scent was familiar, arousing and autobiographically relevant, as well as the extent to which each scent elicited nostalgia. Participants who were high (compared to low) in nostalgia proneness reported more scent-evoked nostalgia, and scents elicited greater nostalgia to the extent that they were arousing, familiar and autobiographically relevant. Scent-evoked nostalgia predicted higher levels of positive affect, self-esteem, self-continuity, optimism, social connectedness and meaning in life. In addition, scent-evoked nostalgia was characterised by more positive emotions than either non-nostalgic autobiographical memories or non-nostalgic non-autobiographical memories. Finally, scent-evoked nostalgia predicted in-the-moment feelings of personal (general or object-specific) nostalgia. The findings represent a foray into understanding the triggers and affective signature of scent-evoked nostalgia.

  2. The 50 Most Cited Papers in Craniofacial Anomalies and Craniofacial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Nicola A; Joyce, Cormac W; Thomas, Sangeetha; Concannon, Elizabeth; Murray, Dylan

    2015-09-01

    Citation analysis is a recognized scientometric method of classifying cited articles according to the frequency of which they have been referenced. The total number of citations an article receives is considered to reflect it's significance among it's peers. Until now, a bibliometric analysis has never been performed in the specialty of craniofacial anomalies and craniofacial surgery. This citation analysis generates an extensive list of the 50 most influential papers in this developing field. Journals specializing in craniofacial surgery, maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery, neurosurgery, genetics and pediatrics were searched to demonstrate which articles have cultivated the specialty within the past 55 years. The results show an intriguing compilation of papers which outline the fundamental knowledge of craniofacial anomalies and the developments of surgical techniques to manage these patients. This citation analysis provides a summation of the current most popular trends in craniofacial literature. These esteemed papers aid to direct our decision making today within this specialty.

  3. Craniofacial Reconstruction Evaluation by Geodesic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial reconstruction is to estimate an individual’s face model from its skull. It has a widespread application in forensic medicine, archeology, medical cosmetic surgery, and so forth. However, little attention is paid to the evaluation of craniofacial reconstruction. This paper proposes an objective method to evaluate globally and locally the reconstructed craniofacial faces based on the geodesic network. Firstly, the geodesic networks of the reconstructed craniofacial face and the original face are built, respectively, by geodesics and isogeodesics, whose intersections are network vertices. Then, the absolute value of the correlation coefficient of the features of all corresponding geodesic network vertices between two models is taken as the holistic similarity, where the weighted average of the shape index values in a neighborhood is defined as the feature of each network vertex. Moreover, the geodesic network vertices of each model are divided into six subareas, that is, forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and chin, and the local similarity is measured for each subarea. Experiments using 100 pairs of reconstructed craniofacial faces and their corresponding original faces show that the evaluation by our method is roughly consistent with the subjective evaluation derived from thirty-five persons in five groups.

  4. Craniofacial ontogeny in Centrosaurus apertus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Frederickson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Centrosaurus apertus, a large bodied ceratopsid from the Late Cretaceous of North America, is one of the most common fossils recovered from the Belly River Group. This fossil record shows a wide diversity in morphology and size, with specimens ranging from putative juveniles to fully-grown individuals. The goal of this study was to reconstruct the ontogenetic changes that occur in the craniofacial skeleton of C. apertus through a quantitative cladistic analysis. Forty-seven cranial specimens were independently coded in separate data matrices for 80 hypothetical multistate growth characters and 130 hypothetical binary growth characters. Both analyses yielded the max-limit of 100,000 most parsimonious saved trees and the strict consensus collapsed into large polytomies. In order to reduce conflict resulting from missing data, fragmentary individuals were removed and the analyses were rerun. Among both the complete and the reduced data sets the multistate analyses recovered a shorter tree with a higher consistency index (CI than the additive binary data sets. The arrangement within the trees shows a progression of specimens with a recurved nasal horn in the least mature individuals, followed by specimens with straight nasal horns in relatively more mature individuals, and finally specimens with procurved nasal horns in the most mature individuals. The most mature individuals are further characterized by the reduction of the cranial horn ornamentations in late growth stages, a trait that similarly occurs in the growth of other dinosaurs. Bone textural changes were found to be sufficient proxies for relative maturity in individuals that have not reached adult size. Additionally, frill length is congruent with relative maturity status and makes an acceptable proxy for ontogenetic status, especially in smaller individuals. In adult-sized individuals, the fusion of the epiparietals and episquamosals and the orientation of the nasal horn are the best

  5. Advances in Bioprinting Technologies for Craniofacial Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Dafydd O; Farré-Guasch, Elisabet; Helder, Marco N; Gibbs, Susan; Forouzanfar, Tymour; van Zuijlen, Paul P; Wolff, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Recent developments in craniofacial reconstruction have shown important advances in both the materials and methods used. While autogenous tissue is still considered to be the gold standard for these reconstructions, the harvesting procedure remains tedious and in many cases causes significant donor site morbidity. These limitations have subsequently led to the development of less invasive techniques such as 3D bioprinting that could offer possibilities to manufacture patient-tailored bioactive tissue constructs for craniofacial reconstruction. Here, we discuss the current technological and (pre)clinical advances of 3D bioprinting for use in craniofacial reconstruction and highlight the challenges that need to be addressed in the coming years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...... to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...

  7. The Efficacy of Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring Using Transcranial Electrically Stimulated Muscle-evoked Potentials (TcE-MsEPs) for Predicting Postoperative Segmental Upper Extremity Motor Paresis After Cervical Laminoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yasushi; Manabe, Hideki; Izumi, Bunichiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Kazumi; Tanaka, Nobuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Prospective study. To investigate the efficacy of transcranial electrically stimulated muscle-evoked potentials (TcE-MsEPs) for predicting postoperative segmental upper extremity palsy following cervical laminoplasty. Postoperative segmental upper extremity palsy, especially in the deltoid and biceps (so-called C5 palsy), is the most common complication following cervical laminoplasty. Some papers have reported that postoperative C5 palsy cannot be predicted by TcE-MsEPs, although others have reported that it can be predicted. This study included 160 consecutive cases that underwent open-door laminoplasty, and TcE-MsEP monitoring was performed in the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, abductor digiti minimi, tibialis anterior, and abductor hallucis. A >50% decrease in the wave amplitude was defined as an alarm point. According to the monitoring alarm, interventions were performed, which include steroid administration, foraminotomies, etc. Postoperative deltoid and biceps palsy occurred in 5 cases. Among the 155 cases without segmental upper extremity palsy, there were no monitoring alarms. Among the 5 deltoid and biceps palsy cases, 3 had significant wave amplitude decreases in the biceps during surgery, and palsy occurred when the patients awoke from anesthesia (acute type). In the other 2 cases in which the palsy occurred 2 days after the operation (delayed type), there were no significant wave decreases. In all of the cases, the palsy was completely resolved within 6 months. The majority of C5 palsies have been reported to occur several days after surgery, but some of them have been reported to occur immediately after surgery. Our results demonstrated that TcE-MsEPs can predict the acute type, whereas the delayed type cannot be predicted. A >50% wave amplitude decrease in the biceps is useful to predict acute-type segmental upper extremity palsy. Further examination about the interventions for monitoring alarm will be essential for preventing palsy.

  8. Discrimination among adults with craniofacial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to establish the level of perceived discrimination experienced by adults with congenital craniofacial conditions in Australia and to examine predictors of discrimination. Specifically, this study tested whether social support mediates the relationship between discrimination and health. Adults (n = 93) who had been treated at the Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide for congenital craniofacial conditions (not including cleft lip and/or palate) completed questionnaires examining satisfaction with life, quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem, satisfaction with social support, and satisfaction with appearance. A substantial minority of adults with congenital craniofacial conditions reported that they experience discrimination almost every day in a range of areas. Higher reports of discrimination were related to older age, being male, and less education. Other factors related to higher discrimination included lower levels of satisfaction with life, self-esteem, satisfaction with appearance and mental quality of life, as well as higher levels of anxiety and depression. Social support partially mediated the relationship between discrimination and mental health outcomes. The current study shows that discrimination experiences continue into adulthood confirming the importance of ensuring patients are well supported both by psychosocial services as well as within their own social support networks.

  9. Craniofacial orthodontics and postgraduate orthodontic training in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The least clinical experience was recorded in pre-bone graft orthodontics (7.4%) and orthodontic preparation for orthognathic surgery (5.5%). Some of the challenges highlighted by the residents were low patients turn out for orthodontic care and the absence of multidisciplinary treatment for craniofacial patients in their ...

  10. Surgical treatment of craniofacial haemangioma in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: craniofacial area, haemangioma, surgical treatment ... Correspondence to Kamal Abdel-Elah Aly, Pediatric Surgery Unit, ..... Adverse effects of systemic glucocorticosteroid therapy in infants with hemangiomas. Arch Dermatol 2004; 140:963–969. 23 Siegfried EC, Keenan WJ, Al Jureidini S. More on propranolol ...

  11. Advances in bioprinting technologies for craniofacial reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, D.O.; Farré-Guasch, E.; Helder, M.N.; Gibbs, S.; Forouzanfar, T.; van Zuijlen, P.P.; Wolff, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in craniofacial reconstruction have shown important advances in both the materials and methods used. While autogenous tissue is still considered to be the gold standard for these reconstructions, the harvesting procedure remains tedious and in many cases causes significant donor

  12. Craniofacial growth in a whole rat head transplant: how does a non-functional head grow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Y; Hirabayashi, S; Harii, K

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate factors intrinsic to the regulation of craniofacial bone growth, we have developed a new experimental model in which the whole head of an infant rat is transplanted to the body of an isohistogenic rat by means of microvascular anastomosis. In our model, the transplanted head has neither scars nor any moving soft tissue that could modify growth around facial bones. Using this model, we evaluated the growth pattern of the craniofacial complex by means of serial roentgenographic cephalometrics. Ten transplantations were performed using 10-day-old rats as donors and 8-week-old rats as recipients. Cephalograms were taken from the lateral direction at 10, 20, 30, and 40 days after transplantation. Several reference points were selected to analyze the growth pattern. In the present study, we conclude that the size and form of the bony complex are mainly determined genetically. There is craniofacial skeletal growth in the absence of muscle function and brain growth. Further, both the nasal cartilage and the sutures appear to be autonomous growth centers having intrinsic growth potential. Genetic or epigenetic information plays an important role at the skeletal level, but it also affects the muscles through the medium of the muscular tonus responsible for posture and other related phenomena.

  13. Adverse Weather Evokes Nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim

    2018-03-01

    Four studies examined the link between adverse weather and the palliative role of nostalgia. We proposed and tested that (a) adverse weather evokes nostalgia (Hypothesis 1); (b) adverse weather causes distress, which predicts elevated nostalgia (Hypothesis 2); (c) preventing nostalgia exacerbates weather-induced distress (Hypothesis 3); and (d) weather-evoked nostalgia confers psychological benefits (Hypothesis 4). In Study 1, participants listened to recordings of wind, thunder, rain, and neutral sounds. Adverse weather evoked nostalgia. In Study 2, participants kept a 10-day diary recording weather conditions, distress, and nostalgia. We also obtained meteorological data. Adverse weather perceptions were positively correlated with distress, which predicted higher nostalgia. Also, adverse natural weather was associated with corresponding weather perceptions, which predicted elevated nostalgia. (Results were mixed for rain.) In Study 3, preventing nostalgia (via cognitive load) increased weather-evoked distress. In Study 4, weather-evoked nostalgia was positively associated with psychological benefits. The findings pioneer the relevance of nostalgia as source of comfort in adverse weather.

  14. Quantifying Normal Craniofacial Form and Baseline Craniofacial Asymmetry in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min-Jeong; Hallac, Rami R; Ramesh, Jananie; Seaward, James R; Hermann, Nuno V; Darvann, Tron A; Lipira, Angelo; Kane, Alex A

    2018-03-01

    Restoring craniofacial symmetry is an important objective in the treatment of many craniofacial conditions. Normal form has been measured using anthropometry, cephalometry, and photography, yet all of these modalities have drawbacks. In this study, the authors define normal pediatric craniofacial form and craniofacial asymmetry using stereophotogrammetric images, which capture a densely sampled set of points on the form. After institutional review board approval, normal, healthy children (n = 533) with no known craniofacial abnormalities were recruited at well-child visits to undergo full head stereophotogrammetric imaging. The children's ages ranged from 0 to 18 years. A symmetric three-dimensional template was registered and scaled to each individual scan using 25 manually placed landmarks. The template was deformed to each subject's three-dimensional scan using a thin-plate spline algorithm and closest point matching. Age-based normal facial models were derived. Mean facial asymmetry and statistical characteristics of the population were calculated. The mean head asymmetry across all pediatric subjects was 1.5 ± 0.5 mm (range, 0.46 to 4.78 mm), and the mean facial asymmetry was 1.2 ± 0.6 mm (range, 0.4 to 5.4 mm). There were no significant differences in the mean head or facial asymmetry with age, sex, or race. Understanding the "normal" form and baseline distribution of asymmetry is an important anthropomorphic foundation. The authors present a method to quantify normal craniofacial form and baseline asymmetry in a large pediatric sample. The authors found that the normal pediatric craniofacial form is asymmetric, and does not change in magnitude with age, sex, or race.

  15. A comparison of human jaw muscle cross-sectional area and volume in long- and short-face subjects, using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsena, P. H.; van Ginkel, F. C.; van Schijndel, R. A.; Castelijns, J. A.; Tuinzing, D. B.

    Objective: In humans, the vertical craniofacial dimensions vary significantly with the size of the jaw muscles, which are regarded as important controlling factors of craniofacial growth. The functional relevance of the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), indicating maximum muscle strength, is

  16. A comparison of human jaw muscle cross-sectional area and volume in long- and short-face subjects, using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, H.P.W.; van Spronsen, P.H.; van Ginkel, F.C.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Castelijns, J.A.; Tuinzing, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective In humans, the vertical craniofacial dimensions vary significantly with the size of the jaw muscles, which are regarded as important controlling factors of craniofacial growth. The functional relevance of the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), indicating maximum muscle strength, is

  17. A comparison of human jaw muscle cross-sectional area and volume in long- and short-face subjects, using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, H.P.; van Spronsen, P.H.; van Ginkel, F.C.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Castelijns, J.A.; Tuinzing, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In humans, the vertical craniofacial dimensions vary significantly with the size of the jaw muscles, which are regarded as important controlling factors of craniofacial growth. The functional relevance of the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), indicating maximum muscle strength, is

  18. [Diagnosis of facial and craniofacial asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, E; Marchac, D; Renier, D

    2001-10-01

    Craniofacial asymmetry is caused by various aetiologies but clinical examination remains the most important criteria since minor asymmetry is always present. The diagnosis can be confirmed by anthropometric measurements and radiological examinations but only severe asymmetries or asymmetries with an associated functional impairment should be treated. The treatment depends on the cause, and on the time of appearance. Congenital asymmetries might be treated early, during the first year of life if a craniosynostosis is present. Hemifacial microsomia are treated later if there is no breathing impairment. Since the pediatricians have recommended the dorsal position for infant sleeping, an increasing number of posterior flattening of the skull has been appearing, and could be prevented by adequate nursing. Other causes of craniofacial asymmetries are rare and should be adapted to the cause (tumors, atrophies, neurological paralysis, hypertrophies) by a specialized multidisciplinar team.

  19. CT Imaging of Craniofacial Fibrous Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin Unal Erzurumlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous dysplasia is a benign fibroosseous bone dysplasia that can involve single (monostotic or multiple (polyostotic bones. Monostotic form is more frequent in the jaws. It is termed as craniofacial fibrous dysplasia, when it involves, though rarely, adjacent craniofacial bones. A 16-year-old girl consulted for a painless swelling in the right posterior mandible for two years. Panoramic radiography revealed ground-glass ill-defined lesions in the three different regions of the maxilla and mandible. Axial CT scan (bone window showed multiple lesions involving skull base and facial bones. Despite lesions in the skull base, the patient had no abnormal neurological findings. The lesion was diagnosed as fibrous dysplasia based on radiological and histopathological examination. In this paper, CT findings and differential diagnosis of CFD are discussed. CT is a useful imaging technique for CFD cases.

  20. Modeling of Craniofacial Anatomy, Variation, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Signe Strann

    The topic of this thesis is automatic analysis of craniofacial images with respect to changes due to growth and surgery, inter-subject variation and intracranial volume estimation. The methods proposed contribute to the knowledge about specific craniofacial anomalies, as well as provide a tool...... for detailed analyses for clinical and research purposes. Most of the applications in this thesis rely on non-rigid image registration by the means of warping one image into the coordinate system of another image. This warping results in a deformation field that describes the anatomical correspondence between......, thus creating a personalized atlas. The knowledge built into the atlas is e.g. location of anatomical regions and landmarks of importance to surgery planning and evaluation or population studies. With these correspondences, various analyses could be carried out e.g. quantification of growth, inter...

  1. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

    OpenAIRE

    Ewings, Ember L.; Carstens, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affec...

  2. Circulatory CNP Rescues Craniofacial Hypoplasia in Achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, S; Nakao, Kazumasa; Koyama, N; Isobe, Y; Ueda, Y; Kanai, Y; Kondo, E; Fujii, T; Miura, M; Yasoda, A; Nakao, Kazuwa; Bessho, K

    2017-12-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common genetic form of human dwarfism, characterized by midfacial hypoplasia resulting in occlusal abnormality and foramen magnum stenosis, leading to serious neurologic complications and hydrocephalus. Currently, surgery is the only way to manage jaw deformity, neurologic complications, and hydrocephalus in patients with achondroplasia. We previously showed that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a potent stimulator of endochondral bone growth of long bones and vertebrae and is also a potent stimulator in the craniofacial region, which is crucial for midfacial skeletogenesis. In this study, we analyzed craniofacial morphology in a mouse model of achondroplasia, in which fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is specifically activated in cartilage ( Fgfr3 ach mice), and investigated the mechanisms of jaw deformities caused by this mutation. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of CNP on the maxillofacial area in these animals. Fgfr3 ach mice exhibited midfacial hypoplasia, especially in the sagittal direction, caused by impaired endochondral ossification in craniofacial cartilage and by premature closure of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis, an important growth center in craniomaxillofacial skeletogenesis. We crossed Fgfr3 ach mice with transgenic mice in which CNP is expressed in the liver under the control of the human serum amyloid-P component promoter, resulting in elevated levels of circulatory CNP ( Fgfr3 ach /SAP-Nppc-Tg mice). In the progeny, midfacial hypoplasia in the sagittal direction observed in Fgfr3 ach mice was improved significantly by restoring the thickness of synchondrosis and promoting proliferation of chondrocytes in the craniofacial cartilage. In addition, the foramen magnum stenosis observed in Fgfr3 ach mice was significantly ameliorated in Fgfr3 ach /SAP-Nppc-Tg mice due to enhanced endochondral bone growth of the anterior intraoccipital synchondrosis. These results clearly demonstrate the therapeutic

  3. Imaging findings in craniofacial childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freling, Nicole J.M.; Rijn, Rick R. van; Merks, Johannes H.M.; Saeed, Peerooz; Balm, Alfons J.M.; Bras, Johannes; Pieters, Bradley R.; Adam, Judit A.

    2010-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the commonest paediatric soft-tissue sarcoma constituting 3-5% of all malignancies in childhood. RMS has a predilection for the head and neck area and tumours in this location account for 40% of all childhood RMS cases. In this review we address the clinical and imaging presentations of craniofacial RMS, discuss the most appropriate imaging techniques, present characteristic imaging features and offer an overview of differential diagnostic considerations. Post-treatment changes will be briefly addressed. (orig.)

  4. Etiology and treatment in craniofacial fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail D. L.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Facial trauma remains an important pathology in present days because of its effects. Facial deformities and functional alteration affect patient’s life quality and his society reinsertion. First evaluation has to be thorough to avoid any secondary complications .This type of pathology involves a pluridisciplinary approach: ENT, OMF, neurosurgeon,plastic surgeon,intensive care doctor. Healing implies complex biological process .A healed bone is capable to perform normal duties without titanium plates help. Osteosynthesis allows a faster and correct recovery. Doctors need to possess profound knowledge with regard to anatomy and physiology and to be acquainted with the reconstructive methods used in craniofacial surgery. Material and methods. This study evaluates craniofacial trauma patients who suffered different types of surgical interventions at the ENT Clinic and OMF Department of Constanta County Hospital since January the 1st 2013 until June the 1st 2017. Results. The group involves 133 cases, both genders and all ages. These 2 elements play an important role in this pathology because of the fact that the vast majority of patients are young active males. The sex ratio in the study is 7:1. In most of cases, craniofacial traumas appear after aggressions and car accidents. The nose and mandibular are fractured in a higher percentage in comparison to other parts of facial structures. Discussions. Important and sensitive structures located at this level increase the risk of possible important and definitive damages.

  5. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewings Ember

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affect the shape and position of developing adjacent fields. Craniofacial clefts represent states of excess or deficiency within and between specific developmental fields. The neuromeric organization of the embryo is the common denominator for understanding normal anatomy and pathology of the head and neck. Tessier′s observational cleft classification system can be redefined using neuroanatomic embryology. Reassessment of Tessier′s empiric observations demonstrates a more rational rearrangement of cleft zones, particularly near the midline. Neuromeric theory is also a means to understand and define other common craniofacial problems. Cleft palate, encephaloceles, craniosynostosis and cranial base defects may be analyzed in the same way.

  6. Susuks (charm needles) in the craniofacial region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, P.; Ibrahim, N.; Tandjung, Y.R.M.; Shanmuhasuntharam, P.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a study to determine the numbers of susuks (charm needles) and their distribution in the craniofacial region of susuk wearers, and the sex, racial affiliation, and age of the wearers. In addition, we sought to determine whether the presence of susuks posed any potential hazard to patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We studied various radiographs of 33 susuk wearers (age range, 33-69 years) and investigated the most common sites of insertion in the craniofacial region. A susuk was also suspended inside a 1.5-T MRI machine to determined whether it was attracted by the machine's magnet. The largest number of susuks that we observed in the craniofacial region was 39 pins, and susuks were particularly numerous in Malay Muslim women. Other sites with susuks were the maxillofacial region (except the temporomandibular region) and the forehead. The susuks showed no ferromagnetic characteristics. As susuks are made from gold, they are generally biocompatible with human tissue and do not cause problems to their wearers. Gold and the other minor metal constituents found in susuks have no ferromagnetic characteristics and therefore pose no hazard to patients undergoing MRI. (author)

  7. Postoperative infections in craniofacial reconstructive procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; Holy, C; Forrest, C R; Phillips, J H; Antonyshyn, O M

    2001-07-01

    The rate of, and possible risk factors for, postoperative craniofacial infection is unclear. To investigate this problem, we reviewed 349 cases of craniofacial skeletal procedures performed from 1996 to 1999 at our institution. Infection rate was determined and correlated with the use of implants, operative site, and cause of deformity. The inclusion criteria consisted of all procedures requiring autologous or prosthetic implantation in craniofacial skeletal sites, as well as all procedures involving bone or cartilage resection, osteotomies, debridement, reduction and/or fixation. Procedures that did not involve bone or cartilage surgery were excluded. The criteria for diagnosis of infection included clinical confirmation and one or more of 1) intravenous or oral antibiotic treatment outside of the prophylactic surgical regimen; 2) surgical intervention for drainage, irrigation, and or debridement; and 3) microbiological confirmation. Among the 280 surgical cases that fit the inclusion criteria and had complete records, there were 23 cases of postoperative infection (8.2%). The most common site for postoperative infection was the mandible (infection rate = 16.7%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed gunshot wound to be the most significant predictor of postoperative infection. Additionally, porous polyethylene implantation through a transoral route was correlated with a significant risk of postoperative infection.

  8. Nanomaterials for Craniofacial and Dental Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Zhou, T; Lin, S; Shi, S; Lin, Y

    2017-07-01

    Tissue engineering shows great potential as a future treatment for the craniofacial and dental defects caused by trauma, tumor, and other diseases. Due to the biomimetic features and excellent physiochemical properties, nanomaterials are of vital importance in promoting cell growth and stimulating tissue regeneration in tissue engineering. For craniofacial and dental tissue engineering, the frequently used nanomaterials include nanoparticles, nanofibers, nanotubes, and nanosheets. Nanofibers are attractive for cell invasion and proliferation because of their resemblance to extracellular matrix and the presence of large pores, and they have been used as scaffolds in bone, cartilage, and tooth regeneration. Nanotubes and nanoparticles improve the mechanical and chemical properties of scaffold, increase cell attachment and migration, and facilitate tissue regeneration. In addition, nanofibers and nanoparticles are also used as a delivery system to carry the bioactive agent in bone and tooth regeneration, have better control of the release speed of agent upon degradation of the matrix, and promote tissue regeneration. Although applications of nanomaterials in tissue engineering remain in their infancy with numerous challenges to face, the current results indicate that nanomaterials have massive potential in craniofacial and dental tissue engineering.

  9. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano M. Rosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES. METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%. Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%, abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%, prominent occiput (52%, posteriorly rotated (46% and low set ears (44%, and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%. Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%, orofacial clefts (12%, preauricular tags (10%, facial palsy (4%, encephalocele (4%, absence of external auditory canal (2% and asymmetric face (2%. One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature.

  10. Evoked acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, C; Parbo, J; Johnsen, N J

    1985-01-01

    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in response to tonal stimuli at 60 dB p.e. SPL in a small group of normal-hearing adults. Power spectral analysis reveals that the evoked activity from each ear contains energy in preferential frequency bands and the change of stimulus frequency has only...

  11. Predictors of mental health in adults with congenital craniofacial conditions attending the Australian craniofacial unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R M; Mathias, J L

    2013-07-01

    Objective : Adults with craniofacial conditions experience more psychosocial problems than adults in the general population, but little is known about the factors that render a person more or less susceptible to these problems. Guided by research on adults with other conditions that affect appearance, this study examined predictors of psychosocial outcome in adults with craniofacial conditions. Design : Single-sample cross-sectional design. Setting : The Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, one of the main craniofacial treatment centers in Australia. Participants : Adults (N  =  93; 36.9% of the potential sample) with congenital craniofacial conditions (excluding cleft lip and/or cleft palate) who were treated in the Australian Craniofacial Unit. Main Outcome Measures : All participants completed measures assessing anxiety, depression, and quality of life (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Short-Form Health Survey) and variables predicted to affect these outcomes (SF-36 Health Survey - Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Cleft Satisfaction Profile, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Derriford Appearance Scale). Results : Multiple regression analyses revealed that anxiety was predicted by social support, self-esteem, and fear of negative evaluation, while depression was predicted by self-esteem and social support. Physical quality of life was not predicted by any of the measures. Satisfaction with appearance, gender, age, and education were not related to outcome. Conclusions : Interventions designed to increase perceived social support and self-esteem and reduce fear of negative evaluation appear to be indicated and may assist in establishing a causal relationship between these variables.

  12. Top five craniofacial techniques for training in plastic surgery residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kenneth; Kawamoto, Henry K; McCarthy, Joseph G; Bartlett, Scott P; Matthews, David C; Wolfe, S Anthony; Tanna, Neil; Vu, Minh-Thien; Bradley, James P

    2012-03-01

    Despite increasing specialization of craniofacial surgery, certain craniofacial techniques are widely applicable. The authors identified five such craniofacial techniques and queried American Society of Plastic Surgeons members and plastic surgery program directors regarding their comfort level with the procedures and their opinion on resident training for these selected procedures. First, a select group of senior craniofacial surgeons discussed and agreed on the top five procedures. Second, active American Society of Plastic Surgeons were surveyed regarding their opinion on training and their comfort level with each procedure. Third, plastic surgery residency program directors were studied to see which of the top five procedures are taught as part of the plastic surgery residency curriculum. The top five widely applicable craniofacial procedures are technically described and include the following: (1) cranial or iliac bone graft for nasal reconstruction, (2) perialar rim bone graft, (3) lateral canthopexy, (4) osseous genioplasty, and (5) bone graft harvest for orbital floor defects. For practicing plastic surgeons, comfort level in all procedures increased with advancing years in practice (except those with 75 percent), especially those with craniofacial fellowship training, felt competent in all procedures except osseous genioplasty (53 percent). Plastic surgery program directors agreed that all top five procedures should be mastered by graduation. Although program directors felt that all five selected craniofacial procedures should be taught and mastered during residency training, plastic surgeons without craniofacial fellowship training were less comfortable with the techniques. Residency training goals should include competence in core craniofacial techniques.

  13. In vitro quantification of strain patterns in the craniofacial skeleton due to masseter and temporalis activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloul, Asmaa; Regev, Eran; Whyne, Cari M; Beek, Marteen; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2012-09-01

    Many complications in craniofacial surgery can be attributed to a lack of characterization of facial skeletal strain patterns. This study aimed to delineate human midfacial strain patterns under uniform muscle loading. The left sides of 5 fresh-frozen human cadaveric heads were dissected of all soft tissues except the temporalis and masseter muscles. Tensile forces were applied to the free mandibular ends of the muscles. Maxillary alveolar arches were used to restrain the skulls. Eight strain gauges were bonded to the surface of the midface to measure the strain under single muscle loading conditions (100 N). Maxillary strain gauges revealed a biaxial load state for both muscles. Thin antral bone experienced high maximum principal tensile strains (maximum of 685.5 με) and high minimum principal compressive strains (maximum of -722.44 με). Similar biaxial patterns of lower magnitude were measured on the zygoma (maximum of 208.59 με for maximum principal strains and -78.11 με for minimum principal strains). Results, consistent for all specimens and counter to previously accepted concepts of biomechanical behavior of the midface under masticatory muscle loading, included high strain in the thin maxillary antral wall, rotational bending through the maxilla and zygoma, and a previously underestimated contribution of the temporalis muscle. This experimental model produced repeatable strain patterns quantifying the mechanics of the facial skeleton. These new counterintuitive findings underscore the need for accurate characterization of craniofacial strain patterns to address problems in the current treatment methods and develop robust design criteria.

  14. Sensitivity analysis of a validated subject-specific finite element model of the human craniofacial skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedowski, T D; Fialkov, J; Whyne, C M

    2011-01-01

    Developing a more complete understanding of the mechanical response of the craniofacial skeleton (CFS) to physiological loads is fundamental to improving treatment for traumatic injuries, reconstruction due to neoplasia, and deformities. Characterization of the biomechanics of the CFS is challenging due to its highly complex structure and heterogeneity, motivating the utilization of experimentally validated computational models. As such, the objective of this study was to develop, experimentally validate, and parametrically analyse a patient-specific finite element (FE) model of the CFS to elucidate a better understanding of the factors that are of intrinsic importance to the skeletal structural behaviour of the human CFS. An FE model of a cadaveric craniofacial skeleton was created from subject-specific computed tomography data. The model was validated based on bone strain measurements taken under simulated physiological-like loading through the masseter and temporalis muscles (which are responsible for the majority of craniofacial physiologic loading due to mastication). The baseline subject-specific model using locally defined cortical bone thicknesses produced the strongest correlation to the experimental data (r2 = 0.73). Large effects on strain patterns arising from small parametric changes in cortical thickness suggest that the very thin bony structures present in the CFS are crucial to characterizing the local load distribution in the CFS accurately.

  15. Rare craniofacial clefts in Ibadan | Iyun | Nigerian Journal of Plastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Congenital craniofacial clefts are anatomical distortions of the face and cranium with deficiencies of excess of tissue in a linear pattern. The exact incidence of craniofacial clefts is unknown because cases are rare and series tend to be small. The aim of this study is to document our experience with congenital ...

  16. Craniofacial dysmorphology: Studies in honor of Samuel Pruzansky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.M.; Rollnick, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 31 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Regional Specification of Cell-Specific Gene Expression During Craniofacial Development; Timing Cleft Palate Closure - Age Should Not Be the Sole Determinant; Excess of Parental Non-Righthandedness in Children with Right-Sided Cleft Lip: A Preliminary Report; and The Application of Roentgencephalometry to the Study of Craniofacial Anomalies

  17. Achondroplasia: Craniofacial manifestations and considerations in dental management

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Saleem, Afnan; Al-Jobair, Asma

    2010-01-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia dwarfism that manifests with stunted stature and disproportionate limb shortening. Achondroplasia is of dental interest because of its characteristic craniofacial features which include relative macrocephaly, depressed nasal bridge and maxillary hypoplasia. Presence of large head, implanted shunt, airway obstruction and difficulty in head control require special precautions during dental management. Craniofacial manifestations and c...

  18. Orthodontics and foetal pathology: a personal view on craniofacial patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the essentials of studies on the craniofacial skeleton performed over 17 years. It presents data from research into foetal pathology resulting in new views on craniofacial patterning and/or fields for further discussion. The fields described cover all areas seen on profile...

  19. OCT imaging of craniofacial anatomy in xenopus embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Engin; Jonas, Stephan M.; Griffin, John; Hooper, Michael C.; Choma, Michael A.; Khokha, Mustafa K.

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of craniofacial defects is incompletely understood. The ability to obtain large amounts of gene sequence data from families affected by craniofacial defects is opening up new ways to understand molecular genetic etiological factors. One important link between gene sequence data and clinical relevance is biological research into candidate genes and molecular pathways. We present our recent research using OCT as a nondestructive phenotyping modality of craniofacial morphology in Xenopus embryos, an important animal model for biological research in gene and pathway discovery. We define 2D and 3D scanning protocols for a standardized approach to craniofacial imaging in Xenopus embryos. We define standard views and planar reconstructions for visualizing normal anatomy and landmarks. We compare these views and reconstructions to traditional histopathology using alcian blue staining. In addition to being 3D, nondestructive, and having much faster throughout, OCT can identify craniofacial features that are lost during traditional histopathological preparation. We also identify quantitative morphometric parameters to define normative craniofacial anatomy. We also note that craniofacial and cardiac defects are not infrequently present in the same patient (e.g velocardiofacial syndrome). Given that OCT excels at certain aspects of cardiac imaging in Xenopus embryos, our work highlights the potential of using OCT and Xenopus to study molecular genetic factors that impact both cardiac and craniofacial development.

  20. Surgical decompression in endocrine orbitopathy. Visual evoked potential evaluation and effect on the optic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Luigi C; Tieghi, Riccardo; Galie', Manlio; Franco, Filippo; Carinci, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    Endocrine orbitopathy (EO) represents the most frequent and important extrathyroidal stigma of Graves disease. This chronic autoimmune condition involves the orbital contents, including extraocular muscles, periorbital connective-fatty tissue and lacrimal gland. The increase of fat tissue and the enlargement of extraocular muscles within the bony confines of the orbit leads to proptosis, and in the most severe cases optic neuropathy, caused by compression and stretching of the optic nerve. The congestion and the pressure of the enlarged muscles, constrict the nerve and can lead to reduced sight or loss of vision with the so called "orbital apex syndrome". Generally surgical treatment of EO, based on fat and/or orbital wall expansion, is possible and effective in improving exophthalmos and diplopia. Since there are limited reports focussing on optic neuropathy recovery after fat and/or orbital walls decompression the Authors decided to perform a retrospective analysis on a series of patients affected by EO. The study population was composed of 10 patients affected by EO and presenting to the Unit of Cranio Maxillofacial Surgery, Center for Craniofacial Deformities & Orbital Surgery St. Anna Hospital and University, Ferrara, Italy, for evaluation and treatment. A complete Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP) evaluation was performed. There were seven women and three men with a median age of 55 years. Optic nerve VEP amplitude and latency were recorded as normal or pathological. Abnormal results were scored as moderate, mild and severe. Differences in VEP pre and post-operatively were recorded as present or absent (i.e. VEP Delta). Pearson chi square test was applied. There were 20 operated orbits. The first VEP evaluation was performed 3.2 months before surgery and post-operative VEP control was done after a mean of 18.7 months. Fat decompression was performed in all cases and eight patients had also bony decompression. VEP amplitude and latency were affected in 10 and 15

  1. Opitz C syndrome: Trigonocephaly, mental retardation and craniofacial dysmorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Avina Fierro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 4-year-old female child with a dysmorphic and neurological syndrome of trigonocephaly, mental and psychomotor retardation and dysmorphic facial features. The anomalies of the face were the following: slight upward palpebral fissures, ocular hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge, hypoplastic nasal root, short nose with anteverted nares; small low set ears, smooth broad philtrum and thin upper lip. The patient had important cerebral anomalies with diffuse alterations in white matter that caused developmental delay with verbal and nonverbal disabilities and severe learning difficulties. This clinical presentation is compatible with the diagnosis of the Opitz C syndrome, a heterogeneous disease of multiple neurological and craniofacial abnormalities. The physical sign more detectable and notorious is the trigonocephaly that is manifested by a prominent metopic suture, but also can be distinguished the other minor facial anomalies that are found in the eyes, nose, mouth and ears that constitute the phenotype of the disorder. The neurological development was altered by the compression of the cerebral frontal lobes with narrowing of this cerebral area, producing hypotonia with muscle weakness, epileptic episodes manifested by seizures, and neurobehavioral and neurocognitive disorders. This syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance trait; our patient had no chromosomal abnormality in the usual karyotype but the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique showed a balanced translocation between the chromosomes two and eleven: t(2:11 (q32.2/q24.

  2. Craniofacial anthropometry in newborns of Sikkimese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, P; Tamang, B K; Chakraborty, S

    2014-06-01

    Head and face dimensions vary according to race and geographical zone. Hereditary factors also greatly affect the size and shape of the head. There are important medical applications of craniofacial data specific to different racial and ethnic groups. Various cranial and facial anthropometric parameters were assessed in singleton, healthy, full-term newborns of Sikkimese origin in a tertiary care hospital in Sikkim, India. The data were then analysed to determine statistically significant differences between sexes. Forty-five newborns were included in the study. Both male and female newborns were observed to be hyperbrachycephalic and hyperleptoprosopic. The only significant difference between the sexes was in commissural length, which was observed to be greater in male newborns. Craniofacial parameters in Sikkimese newborns vary in comparison with those of other newborns from around the world. Larger studies are needed in order to reveal sex-related variations. Similar studies on various racial groups in North-East India are needed to establish standards for populations with East Asian features.

  3. Craniofacial morphology in unoperated infants with isolated cleft palate. A cephalometric analysis in three projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N.V.; Kreiborg, S.; Jensen, B.L.

    58th Annual Meeting of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association, Minneapolis, Craniofacial morphology, unoperated infants, isolated cleft palate, cephalometric analysis, three projections......58th Annual Meeting of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association, Minneapolis, Craniofacial morphology, unoperated infants, isolated cleft palate, cephalometric analysis, three projections...

  4. International Evoked Potentials Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    The past decade has seen great progress in the measurement of evoked potentials in man; a steady increase in our understanding of their charac­ teristics, their origins and their usefulness; and a growing application in the field of clinical diagnosis. The topic is a truly multidisciplinary one. Important research contributions have been made by workers of many different backgrounds and clinical applications span the specialities. This book represents a revised and updated version of the work originally presented at the international evoked potential symposium held in Nottingham 4-6 1978. The Nottingham Symposium provided a forum for a state-of-the-art discussion amongst workers from many different disciplines and from many different countries. For each major topic in the field an expert review set the scene for discussion of current research presentations. This format is retained in the book: the chapters in Part A provide the context in which the research presented in Part B is set. The task of selecting m...

  5. Cervical column morphology and craniofacial profiles in monozygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Pallisgaard, Carsten; Kjaer, Inger

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies have described the relationships between cervical column morphology and craniofacial morphology. The aims of the present study were to describe cervical column morphology in 38 pairs of adult monozygotic (MZ) twins, and compare craniofacial morphology in twins with fusions with craniofacial morphology in twins without fusion. Visual assessment of cervical column morphology and cephalometric measurements of craniofacial morphology were performed on profile radiographs. In the cervical column, fusion between corpora of the second and third vertebrae was registered as fusion. In the twin group, 8 twin pairs had fusion of the cervical column in both individuals within the pair (sub-group A), 25 pairs had no fusions (subgroup B), and in 5 pairs, cervical column morphology was different within the pair (subgroup C), as one twin had fusion and the other did not. Comparison of craniofacial profiles showed a tendency to increased jaw retrognathia, larger cranial base angle, and larger mandibular inclination in subgroup A than in subgroup B. The same tendency was observed within subgroup C between the individual twins with fusion compared with those without fusion. These results confirm that cervical fusions and craniofacial morphology may be interrelated in twins when analysed on profile radiographs. The study also documents that differences in cervical column morphology can occur in individuals within a pair of MZ twins. It illustrates that differences in craniofacial morphology between individuals within a pair of MZ twins can be associated with cervical fusion.

  6. Psychosocial functioning in adults with congenital craniofacial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R M; Mathias, J L

    2012-05-01

    To examine the psychosocial functioning of adults with congenital craniofacial conditions relative to normative data. Single sample cross-sectional design. The Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, which is one of the main craniofacial treatment centers in Australia. Adults (N  =  93) with congenital craniofacial conditions (excluding cleft lip/palate) who were treated in the Australian Craniofacial Unit. All participants completed self-report scales assessing health-related quality of life (SF-36); life satisfaction, anxiety, and depression (HADS); self-esteem (Rosenberg); appearance-related concerns; perceived social support; and social anxiety. Overall, participants were very similar in psychosocial function to the general population. However, adults with craniofacial conditions were less likely to be married and have children (females), were more likely to be receiving a disability pension, and reported more appearance-related concerns and less social support from friends. They also reported more limitations in both their social activities, due to physical or emotional problems, and usual role activities, because of emotional problems, as well as poorer mental health. These results give cause to be very positive about the long-term outcomes of children who are undergoing treatment for craniofacial conditions, while also identifying specific areas that interventions could target.

  7. Three-dimensional cranio-facial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi Muccelli, R.; Stagul, F.; Pozzi Muccelli, F.; Zuiani, C.; Smathers, R.

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography allows today to reconstruct three-dimensional (eD) images fram axial scans. The authors report their experience in cranio-facial pathology achived in two Departments of Radiology (University of Trieste, Italy and University of Standford, California). 3D images have been realized using two different softwares, one of which allows to reconstruct both soft tissue and bone structures. The application in maxillo-facial traumas, cranio-facial malformations and head tumours are disscussed. 3D images turned out to be very useful for the optimal visualization and for the spatial demostration of the lesion and have potential applications in cranio-facial surgery and radiotherapy

  8. Three-dimensional cranio-facial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi Muccelli, R; Stagul, F; Pozzi Muccelli, F; Zuiani, C; Smathers, R

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography allows today to reconstruct three-dimensional (eD) images fram axial scans. The authors report their experience in cranio-facial pathology achived in two Departments of Radiology (University of Trieste, Italy and University of Standford, California). 3D images have been realized using two different softwares, one of which allows to reconstruct both soft tissue and bone structures. The application in maxillo-facial traumas, cranio-facial malformations and head tumours are disscussed. 3D images turned out to be very useful for the optimal visualization and for the spatial demostration of the lesion and have potential applications in cranio-facial surgery and radiotherapy.

  9. Head posture and cervicovertebral and craniofacial morphology in patients with craniomandibular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggare, J A; Raustia, A M

    1992-07-01

    A relationship between particular characteristics of dental occlusion and craniomandibular disorders (CMD) has been reported, while less attention has been focused on the possible effect of dysfunction of the masticatory system on head posture or cervicovertebral and craniofacial morphology. Natural head position roentgen-cephalograms of 16 young adults with complete dentition taken before and after stomatognathic treatment displayed an extended head posture, smaller size of the uppermost cervical vertebrae, decreased posterior to anterior face height ratio, and a flattened cranial base as compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The lordosis of the cervical spine straightened after stomatognathic treatment. The results are an indication of the close interrelationship between the masticatory muscle system and the muscles supporting the head, and lead to speculation on the principles of treating craniomandibular disorders.

  10. Craniofacial Secular Change in Recent Mexican Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, Katherine; Stull, Kyra E; Hefner, Joseph T

    2016-01-01

    Research by economists suggests that recent Mexican migrants are better educated and have higher socioeconomic status (SES) than previous migrants. Because factors associated with higher SES and improved education can lead to positive secular changes in overall body form, secular changes in the craniofacial complex were analyzed within a recent migrant group from Mexico. The Mexican group represents individuals in the act of migration, not yet influenced by the American environment, and thus can serve as a starting point for future studies of secular change in this population group. The excavation of a historic Hispanic cemetery in Tucson, Arizona, also allows for a comparison between historic Hispanics and recent migrants to explore craniofacial trends over a broad time period, as both groups originate from Mexico. The present research addresses two main questions: (1) Are cranial secular changes evident in recent Mexican migrants? (2) Are historic Hispanics and recent Mexican migrants similar? By studying secular changes within a migrant population group, secular trends may be detected, which will be important for understanding the biological variation of the migrants themselves and will serve as a preliminary investigation of secular change within Mexican migrants. The comparison of a sample of recent Mexican migrants with a historic Hispanic sample, predominantly of Mexican origin, allows us to explore morphological similarities and differences between early and recent Mexicans within the United States. Vault and face size and a total of 82 craniofacial interlandmark distances were used to explore secular changes within the recent Mexican migrants (females, n = 38; males, n = 178) and to explore the morphological similarities between historic Hispanics (females, n = 54; males, n = 58) and recent migrants. Sexes were separated, and multivariate adaptive regression splines and basis splines (quadratic with one knot) were used to assess the direction and magnitude

  11. Music evokes vivid autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfi, Amy M; Karlan, Brett; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Music is strongly intertwined with memories-for example, hearing a song from the past can transport you back in time, triggering the sights, sounds, and feelings of a specific event. This association between music and vivid autobiographical memory is intuitively apparent, but the idea that music is intimately tied with memories, seemingly more so than other potent memory cues (e.g., familiar faces), has not been empirically tested. Here, we compared memories evoked by music to those evoked by famous faces, predicting that music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) would be more vivid. Participants listened to 30 songs, viewed 30 faces, and reported on memories that were evoked. Memories were transcribed and coded for vividness as in Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J. F., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. [2002. Aging and autobiographical memory: Dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17, 677-689]. In support of our hypothesis, MEAMs were more vivid than autobiographical memories evoked by faces. MEAMs contained a greater proportion of internal details and a greater number of perceptual details, while face-evoked memories contained a greater number of external details. Additionally, we identified sex differences in memory vividness: for both stimulus categories, women retrieved more vivid memories than men. The results show that music not only effectively evokes autobiographical memories, but that these memories are more vivid than those evoked by famous faces.

  12. Obstetric significance of fetal craniofacial duplication. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, F A; Pinto, M M; Heller, C I; Norooz, H

    1985-01-01

    Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is a rare form of conjoined twins. Whenever fetal hydrocephalus is diagnosed, a careful search for other anomalies, such as diprosopus, is mandatory. The obstetric management depends upon the time of the diagnosis.

  13. Associations between the Cervical Vertebral Column and Craniofacial Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To summarize recent studies on morphological deviations of the cervical vertebral column and associations with craniofacial morphology and head posture in nonsyndromic patients and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Design. In these recent studies, visual assessment of the cerv......Aim. To summarize recent studies on morphological deviations of the cervical vertebral column and associations with craniofacial morphology and head posture in nonsyndromic patients and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Design. In these recent studies, visual assessment...... of the cervical vertebral column and cephalometric analysis of the craniofacial skeleton were performed on profile radiographs of subjects with neutral occlusion, patients with severe skeletal malocclusions and patients with OSA. Material from human triploid foetuses and mouse embryos was analysed histologically....... Results. Recent studies have documented associations between fusion of the cervical vertebral column and craniofacial morphology, including head posture in patients with severe skeletal malocclusions. Histological studies on prenatal material supported these findings. Conclusion. It is suggested...

  14. Involuntary craniofacial lingual movements in intensive care-acquired quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena, A M; Jog, M; Young, G B

    2012-02-01

    The syndrome of involuntary craniofacial lingual movements in the setting of acute intensive care-acquired quadriplegia (critical illness neuromyopathy) following sepsis-associated encephalopathy has not been previously described. We suggest a localization and treatment for this disabling condition. Three patients (2 female) from our center were quadriplegic from critical illness neuromyopathy when they developed involuntary craniofacial lingual movements following sepsis-associated encephalopathy. Extensive investigations failed to identify an etiology for the abnormal movements. Movements were of large amplitude, of moderate speed, and semi-rhythmic in the jaw, tongue, and palate, persistent and extremely bothersome to all patients. Injection with Botulinum toxin type A was very beneficial. Involuntary craniofacial lingual movements in the setting of flaccid quadriplegia following sepsis-associated encephalopathy are consistent with focal craniofacial brainstem myoclonus and constitutes a new syndrome. Botulinum toxin type A treatment maybe helpful in treatment.

  15. Craniofacial orthodontics and postgraduate orthodontic training in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiekwe, G I; Oguchi, C O; daCosta, O O; Utomi, I L

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial orthodontics has been shown to be a critical component of the care of patients with craniofacial anomalies such as cleft lip and palate. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions and clinical experience in cleft and craniofacial care, of orthodontic residents in Nigeria. Questionnaires were sent out to orthodontic residents in the six Postgraduate Orthodontic Training Centers in the country at that time. The questionnaires were self-administered and covered areas in beliefs in cleft care and the clinical experience and challenges faced by the residents in the provision of craniofacial orthodontic care at their various institutions. Thirty-three respondents returned completed questionnaires, with a response rate of 97%. All the respondents believed that residents should be involved in cleft and craniofacial care. Postnatal counseling was the clinical procedure in which the residents reported the highest level of clinical experience (47.4%). The least clinical experience was recorded in pre-bone graft orthodontics (7.4%) and orthodontic preparation for orthognathic surgery (5.5%). Some of the challenges highlighted by the residents were low patients turn out for orthodontic care and the absence of multidisciplinary treatment for craniofacial patients in their centers. Orthodontic residents in Nigeria believe that they should be involved in the management of patients with craniofacial anomalies and cleft lip and palate. However, majority of the residents have limited clinical experience in the management of these patients. A lot more needs to be done, to expose orthodontic residents in training, to all aspects of the orthodontic and multidisciplinary team care required for the cleft/craniofacial patient.

  16. Applications of Computer Technology in Complex Craniofacial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher M. Day, MD

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion:. Modern 3D technology allows the surgeon to better analyze complex craniofacial deformities, precisely plan surgical correction with computer simulation of results, customize osteotomies, plan distractions, and print 3DPCI, as needed. The use of advanced 3D computer technology can be applied safely and potentially improve aesthetic and functional outcomes after complex craniofacial reconstruction. These techniques warrant further study and may be reproducible in various centers of care.

  17. Stem cells: Update and impact on craniofacial surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, Benjamin; Glotzbach, Jason; Wong, Victor; Nelson, Emily; Hyun, Jeong; Wan, Derrick C.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Longaker, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding field of tissue engineering, surgeons have been eager to apply these principles to craniofacial surgery. Tissue engineering strategies combine the use of a cell type placed on a scaffold and subsequently implanted in vivo to address a tissue defect or tissue dysfunction. In this review we will discuss the current clinical need for skeletal and soft tissue engineering faced by craniofacial surgeons and subsequently we will explore cell types and scaffold designs bein...

  18. Adult psychological functioning of individuals born with craniofacial anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, D B; Bartlett, S P; Whitaker, L A; Paige, K T; Pertschuk, M J; Wadden, T A

    1999-02-01

    This study represents an initial investigation into the adult psychological functioning of individuals born with craniofacial disfigurement. A total of 24 men and women born with a craniofacial anomaly completed paper and pencil measures of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, and experiences of discrimination. An age- and gender-matched control group of 24 non-facially disfigured adults also completed the measures. As expected, craniofacially disfigured adults reported greater dissatisfaction with their facial appearance than did the control group. Craniofacially disfigured adults also reported significantly lower levels of self-esteem and quality of life. Dissatisfaction with facial appearance, self-esteem, and quality of life were related to self-ratings of physical attractiveness. More than one-third of craniofacially disfigured adults (38 percent) reported experiences of discrimination in employment or social settings. Among disfigured adults, psychological functioning was not related to number of surgeries, although the degree of residual facial deformity was related to increased dissatisfaction with facial appearance and greater experiences of discrimination. Results suggest that adults who were born with craniofacial disfigurement, as compared with non-facially disfigured adults, experience greater dissatisfaction with facial appearance and lower self-esteem and quality of life; however, these experiences do not seem to be universal.

  19. Corticospinal excitability changes following prolonged muscle tendon vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyvers, M.; Levin, O.; Baelen, M.G.M. van; Swinnen, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The present experiment addressed the time course of corticospinal excitability changes following interventional muscle tendon vibration. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation, motor evoked potentials of the flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle were recorded for a period

  20. Current state of craniofacial prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Nina; Visser, Anita; van Oort, Robert P; Kusdhany, Lindawati; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W; Krom, Bastiaan P; van der Mei, Henry C; Vissink, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to review the current state of the techniques and materials used to rehabilitate maxillofacial defects. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles pertinent to maxillofacial prostheses published from January 1990 to July 2011. The main clinical stages were the subject of analysis. A multidisciplinary approach is preferred when rehabilitating maxillofacial defects. Surgical reconstruction can be used for smaller defects, but larger defects require a prosthesis to achieve an esthetic rehabilitation. Implant retained prostheses are preferred over adhesive prostheses. Silicone elastomer is currently the best material available for maxillofacial prostheses; however, longevity and discoloration, which are greatly influenced by ultraviolet radiation, microorganisms, and environmental factors, remain significant problems. In the near future, the widespread availability and cost effectiveness of digital systems may improve the workflow and outcomes of facial prostheses. Patients report high satisfaction with their prostheses despite some areas that still need improvement. Maxillofacial prostheses are a reliable treatment option to restore maxillofacial defects and improve quality of life. Significant progress has been made in the application of implants for retention and digital technology for designing surgical guides, suprastructures, and craniofacial prostheses. Further improvements are necessary to enhance longevity of prostheses.

  1. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Theresia Weber-Glass

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman’s (Ekman et al., 1983 basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles / bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the skin conductance response and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles / bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics.

  2. Interaural difference values of vestibular evoked myogenic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Moallemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is a neurologic disease, which often is associated with a unilateral headache. Vestibular abnormalities are common in migraine. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs assess otolith function in particular functional integrity of the saccule and the inferior vestibular nerve. We used VEMP to evaluate if the migraine headache can affect VEMP asymmetry parameters. A total of 25 patients with migraine (22 females and 3 males who were diagnosed according to the criteria of IHS-1988 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Control group consisted of 26 healthy participants (18 female and 8 male, without neurotological symptoms and history of migraine. The short tone burst (95 dB nHL, 500 Hz was presented to ears. VEMP was recorded with surface electromyography over the contracted ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid (SCM muscle. Although current results showed that the amplitude ratio is greater in migraine patients than normal group, there was no statistical difference between two groups in mean asymmetry parameters of VEMP. Asymmetry measurements in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials probably are not indicators of unilateral deficient in saccular pathways of migraine patients.

  3. Craniofacial morphology in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Julsoki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: In addition to well-established physical characteristics, Turner syndrome patients have distinct craniofacial morphology. Since short stature is the most typical characteristic, Turner syndrome patients are commonly treated with growth hormone in order to increase final height. At the same time, growth hormone treatment was found to influence craniofacial growth and morphology in various groups of treated patients. Whereas craniofacial characteristics of Turner syndrome patients are well documented, comparatively little is known of craniofacial morphology of those who are treated with growth hormone. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate craniofacial morphology in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone in comparison to healthy females. Materials and methods: The cephalometric evaluation was conducted on twenty lateral cephalograms of Turner syndrome patients (13.53 ± 4.04 years treated with growth hormone for at least one year (4.94 ± 1.92 years in average. As a control group, forty lateral cephalograms of healthy female controls, who matched Turner syndrome patients by chronological (11.80 ± 2.37 years and skeletal age, were used. Eleven angular, seven linear measurements and six dimensional ratios were measured to describe craniofacial morphology. Results: The results obtained for angular measurements, in cephalometric analyses for Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone, revealed bimaxillary retrognathism. The linear measurements indicated longer mandibular ramus, anterior cranial base and both anterior and posterior facial heights. However, posterior cranial base and maxilla were in proportion to the anterior cranial base, when comparing dimensional ratios. Anterior cranial base, maxilla and mandibular ramus were larger in proportion to mandibular body; as well as posterior facial height was when compared to anterior facial height. Turner syndrome patients treated with growth

  4. Cranio-facial clefts in pre-hispanic America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius-Nunez, A L; Wasiak, D T

    2015-10-01

    Among the representations of congenital malformations in Moche ceramic art, cranio-facial clefts have been portrayed in pottery found in Moche burials. These pottery vessels were used as domestic items during lifetime and funerary offerings upon death. The aim of this study was to examine archeological evidence for representations of cranio-facial cleft malformations in Moche vessels. Pottery depicting malformations of the midface in Moche collections in Lima-Peru were studied. The malformations portrayed on pottery were analyzed using the Tessier classification. Photographs were authorized by the Larco Museo.Three vessels were observed to have median cranio-facial dysraphia in association with midline cleft of the lower lip with cleft of the mandible. ML001489 portrays a median cranio-facial dysraphia with an orbital cleft and a midline cleft of the lower lip extending to the mandible. ML001514 represents a median facial dysraphia in association with an orbital facial cleft and a vertical orbital dystopia. ML001491 illustrates a median facial cleft with a soft tissue cleft. Three cases of midline, orbital and lateral facial clefts have been portrayed in Moche full-figure portrait vessels. They represent the earliest registries of congenital cranio-facial malformations in ancient Peru. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Three-dimensional spiral CT of craniofacial malformations in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binaghi, S.; Gudinchet, F.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To assess the value of three-dimensional CT (3D CT) in the diagnosis and management of suspected paediatric craniofacial malformations. Materials and methods. Twenty-eight children (12 girls, 16 boys) with a mean age of 4 years, suffering from craniofacial or cervical malformations, underwent craniofacial spiral CT. 3D reformatting was performed using an independent workstation. Results. 3D CT allowed the preoperative evaluation of 16 patients with craniosynostosis and the post-surgical management of 2 patients. 3D CT clearly depicted malformations of the skull base involving the petrous bone in seven patients (four cases of Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome, one case of Treacher-Collins syndrome and two cases of Crouzon's disease). Four patients with craniofacial clefts were also evaluated. Radiological findings were confirmed by the clinical and intraoperative findings in all patients that underwent surgical treatment. Movement artefacts and ''Lego effect'' related to abrupt change of cranial vault border were encountered and are discussed. Conclusions. 3D CT of the skull can safely and reliably identify paediatric craniofacial malformations involving bone, and it should be used as morphological mapping to help the surgeon in planning surgical treatment. (orig.)

  6. Myogenic potential of canine craniofacial satellite cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Laura La Rovere

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal fibres have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterise also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs and responsible for the fibre growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here we isolated SCs from canine somitic (SDM: vastus lateralis, rectus abdominus, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas and presomitic (PSDM: lateral rectus, temporalis and retractor bulbi muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM satellite cells were obtained also from Golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD. We characterised the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with ageing and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD and late (MyHC, Myogenin myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD satellite cells and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches.

  7. 75 FR 62553 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel, Secondary Data Analysis R03s: Special Emphasis Panel. Date... Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel, Special Emphasis Panel: Secondary Data Analysis R03s. Date...

  8. E-cigarette aerosol exposure can cause craniofacial defects in Xenopus laevis embryos and mammalian neural crest cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson E Kennedy

    Full Text Available Since electronic cigarette (ECIG introduction to American markets in 2007, vaping has surged in popularity. Many, including women of reproductive age, also believe that ECIG use is safer than traditional tobacco cigarettes and is not hazardous when pregnant. However, there are few studies investigating the effects of ECIG exposure on the developing embryo and nothing is known about potential effects on craniofacial development. Therefore, we have tested the effects of several aerosolized e-cigarette liquids (e-cigAM in an in vivo craniofacial model, Xenopus laevis, as well as a mammalian neural crest cell line. Results demonstrate that e-cigAM exposure during embryonic development induces a variety of defects, including median facial clefts and midface hypoplasia in two of e-cigAMs tested e-cigAMs. Detailed quantitative analyses of the facial morphology revealed that nicotine is not the main factor in inducing craniofacial defects, but can exacerbate the effects of the other e-liquid components. Additionally, while two different e-cigAMs can have very similar consequences on facial appearances, there are subtle differences that could be due to the differences in e-cigAM components. Further assessment of embryos exposed to these particular e-cigAMs revealed cranial cartilage and muscle defects and a reduction in the blood supply to the face. Finally, the expression of markers for vascular and cartilage differentiation was reduced in a mammalian neural crest cell line corroborating the in vivo effects. Our work is the first to show that ECIG use could pose a potential hazard to the developing embryo and cause craniofacial birth defects. This emphasizes the need for more testing and regulation of this new popular product.

  9. E-cigarette aerosol exposure can cause craniofacial defects in Xenopus laevis embryos and mammalian neural crest cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Allyson E; Kandalam, Suraj; Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Dickinson, Amanda J G

    2017-01-01

    Since electronic cigarette (ECIG) introduction to American markets in 2007, vaping has surged in popularity. Many, including women of reproductive age, also believe that ECIG use is safer than traditional tobacco cigarettes and is not hazardous when pregnant. However, there are few studies investigating the effects of ECIG exposure on the developing embryo and nothing is known about potential effects on craniofacial development. Therefore, we have tested the effects of several aerosolized e-cigarette liquids (e-cigAM) in an in vivo craniofacial model, Xenopus laevis, as well as a mammalian neural crest cell line. Results demonstrate that e-cigAM exposure during embryonic development induces a variety of defects, including median facial clefts and midface hypoplasia in two of e-cigAMs tested e-cigAMs. Detailed quantitative analyses of the facial morphology revealed that nicotine is not the main factor in inducing craniofacial defects, but can exacerbate the effects of the other e-liquid components. Additionally, while two different e-cigAMs can have very similar consequences on facial appearances, there are subtle differences that could be due to the differences in e-cigAM components. Further assessment of embryos exposed to these particular e-cigAMs revealed cranial cartilage and muscle defects and a reduction in the blood supply to the face. Finally, the expression of markers for vascular and cartilage differentiation was reduced in a mammalian neural crest cell line corroborating the in vivo effects. Our work is the first to show that ECIG use could pose a potential hazard to the developing embryo and cause craniofacial birth defects. This emphasizes the need for more testing and regulation of this new popular product.

  10. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.

  11. Analysis of Practice Settings for Craniofacial Surgery Fellowship Graduates in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Runyan, Christopher; Taylor, Jesse A

    In North America, the number of craniofacial surgery fellowship graduates is increasing, yet an analysis of practice settings upon graduation is lacking. We characterize the practice types of recent graduates of craniofacial fellowship programs in the United States and Canada. A 6-year cohort of craniofacial fellows in the United States and Canada (2010-2016) were obtained from craniofacial programs recognized by the American Society of Craniofacial Surgery. Practice setting was determined at 1 and 3 years of postgraduation, and predictors of practice setting were determined. A total of 175 craniofacial surgeons were trained at 35 fellowship programs. At 1 year of postgraduation, 33.6% had an academic craniofacial position and 27.1% were in private practice (p = 0.361). A minority of graduates pursued additional fellowships (16.4%), nonacademic craniofacial positions (10.0%), academic noncraniofacial positions (5.7%), and international practices (7.1%). At 3 years of postgraduation, the percentage of graduates in academic craniofacial positions was unchanged (34.5% vs 33.6%, p = 0.790). The strongest predictors of future academic craniofacial practice were completing plastic surgery residency at a program with a craniofacial fellowship program (odds ratio = 6.78, p < 0.001) and completing an academic craniofacial fellowship program (odds ratio = 4.48, p = 0.020). A minority of craniofacial fellowship graduates practice academic craniofacial surgery. A strong academic craniofacial surgery background during residency and fellowship is associated with a future career in academic craniofacial surgery. These data may assist trainees choose training programs that align with career goals and educators select future academic surgeons. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. [Observational study of craniofacial growth and development in Mexican children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijikami, T K; Cedeño Pacheco, E

    1991-01-01

    The election of a investigation about craniofacial growing and development in Mexican children, was done due to a lack of national information in this rubric and as a fundamental part of the "growing and development in the scholastic" module of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, which work hypothesis was that "craniofacial growing and development in Mexican, 6 to 12 children in Xochimilco area are due to nutritional deficiency, second dentition eruption delay and dental maloclution "which was totality confirmed in a 100 Mexican facial characteristic children field work study, with cephalometric studies which permit to determine the craniofacial growing standard. This study was corroborated with a 40 children, 4 years later follow up.

  13. Analysis of Craniofacial Images using Computational Atlases and Deformation Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur

    2008-01-01

    purposes. The basis for most of the applications is non-rigid image registration. This approach brings one image into the coordinate system of another resulting in a deformation field describing the anatomical correspondence between the two images. A computational atlas representing the average anatomy...... of asymmetry. The analyses are applied to the study of three different craniofacial anomalies. The craniofacial applications include studies of Crouzon syndrome (in mice), unicoronal synostosis plagiocephaly and deformational plagiocephaly. Using the proposed methods, the thesis reveals novel findings about...... the craniofacial morphology and asymmetry of Crouzon mice. Moreover, a method to plan and evaluate treatment of children with deformational plagiocephaly, based on asymmetry assessment, is established. Finally, asymmetry in children with unicoronal synostosis is automatically assessed, confirming previous results...

  14. Growth hormone therapy and craniofacial bones: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsas, G

    2013-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has significant effects on linear bone growth, bone mass and bone metabolism. The primary role of GH supplementation in children with GH deficiency, those born small for gestational age or with other types of disorders in somatic development is to increase linear growth. However, GH therapy seems to elicit varying responses in the craniofacial region. Whereas the effects of GH administration on somatic development are well documented, comparatively little is known of its effects on the craniofacial region. The purpose of this review was to search the literature and compile results from both animal and human studies related to the impact of GH on craniofacial growth. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Automated analysis of craniofacial morphology using magnetic resonance images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mallar Chakravarty

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of craniofacial morphology is of interest to scholars working in a wide variety of disciplines, such as anthropology, developmental biology, and medicine. T1-weighted (anatomical magnetic resonance images (MRI provide excellent contrast between soft tissues. Given its three-dimensional nature, MRI represents an ideal imaging modality for the analysis of craniofacial structure in living individuals. Here we describe how T1-weighted MR images, acquired to examine brain anatomy, can also be used to analyze facial features. Using a sample of typically developing adolescents from the Saguenay Youth Study (N = 597; 292 male, 305 female, ages: 12 to 18 years, we quantified inter-individual variations in craniofacial structure in two ways. First, we adapted existing nonlinear registration-based morphological techniques to generate iteratively a group-wise population average of craniofacial features. The nonlinear transformations were used to map the craniofacial structure of each individual to the population average. Using voxel-wise measures of expansion and contraction, we then examined the effects of sex and age on inter-individual variations in facial features. Second, we employed a landmark-based approach to quantify variations in face surfaces. This approach involves: (a placing 56 landmarks (forehead, nose, lips, jaw-line, cheekbones, and eyes on a surface representation of the MRI-based group average; (b warping the landmarks to the individual faces using the inverse nonlinear transformation estimated for each person; and (3 using a principal components analysis (PCA of the warped landmarks to identify facial features (i.e. clusters of landmarks that vary in our sample in a correlated fashion. As with the voxel-wise analysis of the deformation fields, we examined the effects of sex and age on the PCA-derived spatial relationships between facial features. Both methods demonstrated significant sexual dimorphism in

  16. Thin-plate spline analysis of allometry and sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Antonio; Bastir, Markus

    2002-03-01

    The relationship between allometry and sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial complex was analyzed using geometric morphometric methods. Thin-plate splines (TPS) analysis has been applied to investigate the lateral profile of complete adult skulls of known sex. Twenty-nine three-dimensional (3D) craniofacial and mandibular landmark coordinates were recorded from a sample of 52 adult females and 52 adult males of known age and sex. No difference in the influence of size on shape was detected between sexes. Both size and sex had significant influences on shape. As expected, the influence of centroid size on shape (allometry) revealed a shift in the proportions of the neurocranium and the viscerocranium, with a marked allometric variation of the lower face. Adjusted for centroid size, males presented a relatively larger size of the nasopharyngeal space than females. A mean-male TPS transformation revealed a larger piriform aperture, achieved by an increase of the angulation of the nasal bones and a downward rotation of the anterior nasal floor. Male pharynx expansion was also reflected by larger choanae and a more posteriorly inclined basilar part of the occipital clivus. Male muscle attachment sites appeared more pronounced. In contrast, the mean-female TPS transformation was characterized by a relatively small nasal aperture. The occipital clivus inclined anteriorly, and muscle insertion areas became smoothed. Besides these variations, both maxillary and mandibular alveolar regions became prognathic. The sex-specific TPS deformation patterns are hypothesized to be associated with sexual differences in body composition and energetic requirements. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. The fourth dimension in simulation surgery for craniofacial surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, T

    2001-03-01

    The intracranial volume was measured in all 18 cases of craniosynostosis and craniofacial synostosis with 3DCT using a modification of Miyake's formula, with a 6 years' follow-up. 1: There were no cases where the intracranial volume was less than the modified Miyake's formula. 2: Total cranial reshaping, compared to the local forehead advancement, was effective in increasing the intracranial cavity and growth postoperatively. 3: In cases of craniofacial synostosis, there is a possibility that mental retardation will develop if the intracranial volume tends to increase rapidly and more than expected.

  18. Complications in paediatric craniofacial surgery: an initial four year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B M; Jani, P; Bingham, R M; Mackersie, A M; Hayward, R

    1992-04-01

    107 children undergoing transcranial craniofacial surgery in a paediatric hospital have been reviewed to assess the incidence and type of complications which arose. This represents the first 4 years' experience of the craniofacial team. There were no deaths or permanent adverse sequelae of surgery. A total of 53 complications were seen in 42 patients. In 9.3% of patients they were potentially life-threatening, serious in 12.1% and of a minor nature in 28%. The more serious complications were related either to haemorrhage and/or vasovagal shock at operation or to infection post-operatively. Infants undergoing monoblock frontofacial advancements and those with tracheostomies were at particular risk.

  19. CRANIOFACIAL MORPHOLOGY AND DENTAL OCCLUSION IN ADULTS WITH OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Harsløf, Torben

    AIMS: To compare craniofacial characteristics and variation in dental occlusion according to severity of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). OI is a rare inherited disease with fragility of bone and teeth because of abnormalities in the formation of collagen. METHODS: A total of 73 patients...

  20. Craniofacial and temporal bone CT findings in cleidocranial dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Guido E.; Caruso, Paul A.; Curtin, Hugh D.; Small, Juan E.; Jyung, Robert W.; Troulis, Maria J.

    2008-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a multistructural polyostotic genetic disorder that results from mutation of the CBFA1 gene. Hearing loss is a frequent finding in CCD. We describe the CT craniofacial findings in CCD and provide a comprehensive discussion of the CT temporal bone findings in these patients. (orig.)

  1. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments.

  2. Normalization reduces intersubject variability in cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Mark J; Herrmann, Barbara S; Guinan, John J; Rauch, Steven D

    2014-09-01

    Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are used to assess saccular and inferior vestibular nerve function. Normalization of the VEMP waveform has been proposed to reduce the variability in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials by correcting for muscle activation. In this study, we test the hypothesis that normalization of the raw cervical VEMP waveform causes a significant decrease in the intersubject variability. Prospective cohort study. Large specialty hospital, department of otolaryngology. Twenty healthy subjects were used in this study. All subjects underwent cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing using short tone bursts at 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 Hz. Both intersubject and intrasubject variability was assessed. Variability between raw and normalized peak-to-peak amplitudes was compared using the coefficient of variation. Intrasubject variability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient and interaural asymmetry ratio. cVEMPs were present in most ears. Highest peak-to-peak amplitudes were recorded at 750 Hz. Normalization did not alter cVEMP tuning characteristics. Normalization of the cVEMP response caused a significant reduction in intersubject variability of the peak-to-peak amplitude. No significant change was seen in the intrasubject variability. Normalization significantly reduces cVEMP intersubject variability in healthy subjects without altering cVEMP characteristics. By reducing cVEMP amplitude variation due to nonsaccular, muscle-related factors, cVEMP normalization is expected to improve the ability to distinguish between healthy and pathologic responses in the clinical application of cVEMP testing.

  3. Growth hormone positive effects on craniofacial complex in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juloski, Jovana; Dumančić, Jelena; Šćepan, Ivana; Lauc, Tomislav; Milašin, Jelena; Kaić, Zvonimir; Dumić, Miroslav; Babić, Marko

    2016-11-01

    Turner syndrome occurs in phenotypic females with complete or partial absence of X chromosome. The leading symptom is short stature, while numerous but mild stigmata manifest in the craniofacial region. These patients are commonly treated with growth hormone to improve their final height. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of long-term growth hormone therapy on craniofacial morphology in Turner syndrome patients. In this cross-sectional study cephalometric analysis was performed on 13 lateral cephalograms of patients with 45,X karyotype and the average age of 17.3 years, who have received growth hormone for at least two years. The control group consisted of 13 Turner syndrome patients naive to growth hormone treatment, matched to study group by age and karyotype. Sixteen linear and angular measurements were obtained from standard lateral cephalograms. Standard deviation scores were calculated in order to evaluate influence of growth hormone therapy on craniofacial components. In Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone most of linear measurements were significantly larger compared to untreated patients. Growth hormone therapy mainly influenced posterior face height, mandibular ramus height, total mandibular length, anterior face height and maxillary length. While the increase in linear measurements was evident, angular measurements and facial height ratio did not show statistically significant difference. Acromegalic features were not found. Long-term growth hormone therapy has positive influence on craniofacial development in Turner syndrome patients, with the greatest impact on posterior facial height and mandibular ramus. However, it could not compensate X chromosome deficiency and normalize craniofacial features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Academic Productivity of Faculty Associated With Craniofacial Surgery Fellowship Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qing Zhao; Ricci, Joseph A; Silvestre, Jason; Ho, Olivia A; Ganor, Oren; Lee, Bernard T

    2017-11-01

    The H-index is increasingly being used as a measure of academic productivity and has been applied to various surgical disciplines. Here the authors calculate the H-index of craniofacial surgery fellowship faculty in North America in order to determine its utility for academic productivity among craniofacial surgeons. A list of fellowship programs was obtained from the website of the American Society of Craniofacial Surgery. Faculty demographics and institution characteristics were obtained from official program websites and the H-index was calculated using Scopus (Elsevier, USA). Data were assessed using bivariate analysis tools (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests) to determine the relationship between independent variables and career publications, H-index and 5-year H-index (H5-index) of faculty. Dunn test for multiple comparisons was also calculated. A total of 102 faculty members from 29 craniofacial surgery fellowship programs were identified and included. Faculty demographics reflected a median age of 48 (interquartile range [IQR] 13), a predominantly male sample (88/102, 89.7%), and the rank of assistant professor being the most common among faculty members (41/102, 40.2%). Median of career publications per faculty was 37 (IQR 52.5) and medians of H-index and H5-index were 10.0 (IQR 13.75) and 3.5 (IQR 3.25), respectively. Greater age, male gender, Fellow of the American College of Surgeons membership, higher academic rank, and program affiliation with ranked research medical schools were significantly associated with higher H-indices. Variables associated with seniority were positively associated with the H-index. These results suggest that the H-index may be used as an adjunct in determining academic productivity for promotions among craniofacial surgeons.

  5. ACh-evoked membrane hyperpolarization in smooth muscle cells of rat vas deferens in vitro: Involvement of K+ channels and NO%一氧化氮和K+通道参与乙酰胆碱引起的大鼠离体输精管平滑肌细胞超极化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范平; 李丽; 刘政江; 司军强; 张志琴; 赵磊; 马克涛

    2007-01-01

    To explore the underlying mechanism of acetylcholine (Ach)-evoked membrane hyperpolarizing response in isolated rat vas deferens smooth muscle cells (SMCs), intracellular microelectrode recording technique and intracellular microelectrophoresis fluorescent staining technique were used to study Ach-evoked membrane hyperpolarizing response in SMCs freshly isolated from Wistar rat vas deferens. By using microelectrodes containing fluorescent dye 0.1% propidium iodide (PI), 37 and 17 cells were identified as SMCs in outer longitudinal and inner circular muscular layers, respectively. The resting membrane potentials of SMCs were (–53.56±3.88) mV and (–51.62±4.27) mV, respectively. The membrane input resistances were (2 245.60±372.50) MΩ and (2 101.50±513.50) MΩ , respectively. Ach evoked membrane hyperpolarizing response in a concentration-dependent manner with an of 36 μmol/L. This action of Ach was abolished by both a non-sepcific muscarinic (M) receptor antagonist atropine (1 μmol/L) and a selective M 3 receptor antagonist diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine-methiodide (DAMP, 100 nmol/L). Ach-evoked membrane hyperpolarization was also abolished by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 300 μmol/L) and suppressed by an ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channel blocker glipizide (5 μmol/L) and an inward rectifier potassium (K ir ) channel inhibitor bariumion (50 μmol/L). A combination of glipizide and bariumion abolished Ach-evoked membrane hyperpolarizing response. The results suggest that Ach-evoked membrane hyperpolarization in rat vas deferens SMCs is mediated by M 3 receptor followed with activation of K ATP channels, K ir channels, and NO release.%本文旨在探讨大鼠新鲜离体输精管平滑肌细胞中乙酰胆碱(acetylcholine,Ach)引起超极化反应的机制,采用细胞内微电极记录技术和细胞内荧光标记技术研究Ach对大鼠输精管不同走行方向平滑肌细

  6. Noise-evoked otoacoustic emissions in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, B; Wit, HP; van Dijk, P

    2000-01-01

    Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) and acoustical responses evoked by bandlimited Gaussian noise (noise-evoked otoacoustic emissions; NEOAEs) were measured in three normal-hearing subjects. For the NEOAEs the first- and second-order Wiener kernel and polynomial correlation functions up to

  7. Craniofacial CT findings of Gorham-Stout disease and generalized lymphatic anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki; Matsuo, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Ozeki, Michio; Fukao, Toshiyuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Gifu (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    The present study aimed to assess the craniofacial CT imaging features for differentiating between Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) and generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA). Seven patients with GSD and four patients with GLA were included in this study. All patients underwent CT examinations that encompassed the craniofacial bones. The presence, distribution, and type of craniofacial osteolysis were assessed. The clinical symptoms that were associated with craniofacial osteolysis were also reviewed. Craniofacial osteolysis including cranial osteolysis was seen in four of seven (57 %) patients with GSD and in three of four (75 %) patients with GLA. Facial osteolysis was seen in two (29 %) patients with GSD, but this was not observed in patients with GLA. Among patients with craniofacial osteolysis, those with GSD showed diffuse involvement, whereas those with GLA showed multifocal involvement. The craniofacial osteolysis of GSD could be classified into three patterns: medullary involvement, thinning bone, and disappearing bone. The clinical symptoms of craniofacial osteolysis were observed in all patients with GSD but were not present in patients with GLA. Craniofacial involvement was observed in both groups. The craniofacial osteolysis of GSD showed diffuse involvement with clinical symptoms, whereas that of GLA showed multifocal involvement without clinical symptoms. (orig.)

  8. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well ...

  9. Dental and craniofacial findings in eight miniature schnauzer dogs affected by myotonia congenita: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracis, M; Keith, D; Vite, C H

    2000-09-01

    Myotonia is a clinical sign characterized by the delay of skeletal muscle relaxation following the cessation of a voluntary activity or the termination of an electrical or mechanical stimulus. Recently, Miniature Schnauzers with myotonia congenita associated with defective chloride ion conductance across the skeletal muscle membrane were identified. Congenital myotonia in these dogs appears to follow an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Craniofacial and dental findings of eight Miniature Schnauzer dogs with myotonia congenita are described in the present paper. These findings include: delayed dental eruption of both deciduous and permanent dentition: persistent deciduous dentition; unerupted or partially erupted permanent teeth: crowding and rotation of premolar and or incisor teeth: missing teeth: increased interproximal space between the maxillary fourth premolar and first molar teeth: decreased interproximal space between the maxillary canine and lateral incisor teeth: inability to fully close the mouth due to malocclusion: distoclusion: and, decreased mandibular range of motion. A long narrow skull with a flattened zygomatic arch and greater mandibular body curvature were also consistent findings in the affected dogs. The small number of dogs studied prevents conclusive statements about the origin of these abnormalities, however it is interesting that only 1 of 45 unaffected Miniature Schnauzer dogs showed similar traits.

  10. Coordinate Systems Integration for Craniofacial Database from Multimodal Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Suwardhi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a data registration method for craniofacial spatial data of different modalities. The data consists of three dimensional (3D vector and raster data models. The data is stored in object relational database. The data capture devices are Laser scanner, CT (Computed Tomography scan and CR (Close Range Photogrammetry. The objective of the registration is to transform the data from various coordinate systems into a single 3-D Cartesian coordinate system. The standard error of the registration obtained from multimodal imaging devices using 3D affine transformation is in the ranged of 1-2 mm. This study is a step forward for storing the craniofacial spatial data in one reference system in database.

  11. An unusual complication after craniofacial surgery for Apert syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay A Lune

    2014-01-01

    A case of Apert syndrome who had undergone craniofacial surgery elsewhere 4 years back presented to us with purulent discharge near the lateral orbital margin of right orbit, watering and redness of the right eye. He had telltale signs of this syndrome in the form of skull deformities such as brachycephaly, frontal bony prominence, mid-face hypoplasia, proptosis and syndactyly of both hands and feet. There was a surgical scar of previous craniofacial surgery over the bi-coronal region. He had a discharging granuloma over the lateral orbital margin and the adjacent lower eyelid had developed cicatricial ectropion. X-ray and computed tomography scan orbit confirmed the clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis of the underlying zygomatic bone at the site of miniplate and screw fixation of the earlier surgery. He was treated with excision of granuloma and extraction of loose screw and infected miniplate while ectropion was corrected by rotation advancement of temporal skin flap.

  12. Craniofacial and pharyngeal airway morphology in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balos Tuncer, Burcu; Canigur Bavbek, Nehir; Ozkan, Cigdem; Tuncer, Cumhur; Eroglu Altinova, Alev; Gungor, Kahraman; Akturk, Mujde; Balos Toruner, Fusun

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in craniofacial characteristics, upper spine and pharyngeal airway morphology in patients with acromegaly compared with healthy individuals. Twenty-one patients with acromegaly were compared with 22 controls by linear and angular measurements on cephalograms. The differences between the mean values of cephalometric parameters were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U-test. With respect to controls, anterior (pacromegaly. Craniofacial changes were predominantly found in the frontal bone (pacromegaly exhibited diminished dimensions at nasal (pacromegaly. Current results point to the importance of the reduced airway dimensions and that dentists and/or orthodontists should be aware of the cranial or dental abnormalities in patients with acromegaly.

  13. RSK2 is a modulator of craniofacial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Laugel-Haushalter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The RSK2 gene is responsible for Coffin-Lowry syndrome, an X-linked dominant genetic disorder causing mental retardation, skeletal growth delays, with craniofacial and digital abnormalities typically associated with this syndrome. Craniofacial and dental anomalies encountered in this rare disease have been poorly characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined, using X-Ray microtomographic analysis, the variable craniofacial dysmorphism and dental anomalies present in Rsk2 knockout mice, a model of Coffin-Lowry syndrome, as well as in triple Rsk1,2,3 knockout mutants. We report Rsk mutation produces surpernumerary teeth midline/mesial to the first molar. This highly penetrant phenotype recapitulates more ancestral tooth structures lost with evolution. Most likely this leads to a reduction of the maxillary diastema. Abnormalities of molar shape were generally restricted to the mesial part of both upper and lower first molars (M1. Expression analysis of the four Rsk genes (Rsk1, 2, 3 and 4 was performed at various stages of odontogenesis in wild-type (WT mice. Rsk2 is expressed in the mesenchymal, neural crest-derived compartment, correlating with proliferative areas of the developing teeth. This is consistent with RSK2 functioning in cell cycle control and growth regulation, functions potentially responsible for severe dental phenotypes. To uncover molecular pathways involved in the etiology of these defects, we performed a comparative transcriptomic (DNA microarray analysis of mandibular wild-type versus Rsk2-/Y molars. We further demonstrated a misregulation of several critical genes, using a Rsk2 shRNA knock-down strategy in molar tooth germs cultured in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals RSK2 regulates craniofacial development including tooth development and patterning via novel transcriptional targets.

  14. Ciliopathy Protein Tmem107 Plays Multiple Roles in Craniofacial Development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Celá, Petra; Hampl, Marek; Shylo, N.; Christopher, K. J.; Kavková, M.; Landová, Marie; Zikmund, T.; Weatherbee, S. D.; Kaiser, J.; Buchtová, Marcela

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2018), s. 108-117 ISSN 0022-0345 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GB14-37368G; GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : craniofacial anomalies * growth/development * mineralized tissue/development * orofacial clefts * cell signaling Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 4.755, year: 2016

  15. The suture provides a niche for mesenchymal stem cells of craniofacial bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hu; Feng, Jifan; Ho, Thach-Vu; Grimes, Weston; Urata, Mark; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue undergoes constant turnover supported by stem cells. Recent studies showed that perivascular mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to the turnover of long bones. Craniofacial bones are flat bones derived from a different embryonic origin than the long bones. The identity and regulating niche for craniofacial bone MSCs remain unknown. Here, we identify Gli1+ cells within the suture mesenchyme as the major MSC population for craniofacial bones. They are not associated with vasculature, give rise to all craniofacial bones in the adult and are activated during injury repair. Gli1+ cells are typical MSCs in vitro. Ablation of Gli1+ cells leads to craniosynostosis and arrest of skull growth, indicating these cells are an indispensible stem cell population. Twist1+/− mice with craniosynostosis show reduced Gli1+ MSCs in sutures, suggesting that craniosynostosis may result from diminished suture stem cells. Our study indicates that craniofacial sutures provide a unique niche for MSCs for craniofacial bone homeostasis and repair. PMID:25799059

  16. Redundant roles of PRDM family members in zebrafish craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hai-Lei; Clouthier, David E; Artinger, Kristin B

    2013-01-01

    PRDM proteins are evolutionary conserved Zn-Finger transcription factors that share a characteristic protein domain organization. Previous studies have shown that prdm1a is required for the specification and differentiation of neural crest cells in the zebrafish. Here we examine other members of this family, specifically prdm3, 5, and 16, in the differentiation of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton. prdm3 and prdm16 are strongly expressed in the pharyngeal arches, while prdm5 is expressed specifically in the area of the forming neurocranium. Knockdown of prdm3 and prdm16 results in a reduction in the neural crest markers dlx2a and barx1 and defects in both the viscerocranium and the neurocranium. The knockdown of prdm3 and prdm16 in combination is additive in the neurocranium, but not in the viscerocranium. Injection of sub-optimal doses of prdm1a with prdm3 or prdm16 Morpholinos together leads to more severe phenotypes in the viscerocranium and neurocranium. prdm5 mutants have defects in the neurocranium and prdm1a and prdm5 double mutants also show more severe phenotypes. Overall, our data reveal that prdm3, 5, and 16 are involved in the zebrafish craniofacial development and that prdm1a may interact with prdm3, 5, and 16 in the formation of the craniofacial skeleton in zebrafish. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia - A review of current management techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadavalli Guruprasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous dysplasia is a pathologic condition of bone of unknown etiology with no apparent familial, hereditary or congenital basis. Lichtenstein first coined the term in 1938 and in 1942 he and Jaffe separated it from other fibro-osseous lesions. It is a bone tumor that, although benign, has the potential to cause significant cosmetic and functional disturbance, particularly in the craniofacial skeleton. Its management poses significant challenges to the surgeon. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is 1 of 3 types of fibrous dysplasia that can affect the bones of the craniofacial complex, including the mandible and maxilla. Fibrous dysplasia is a skeletal developmental disorder of the bone-forming mesenchyme that manifests as a defect in osteoblastic differentiation and maturation. It is a lesion of unknown etiology, uncertain pathogenesis, and diverse histopathology. Fibrous dysplasia represents about 2, 5% of all bone tumors and over 7% of all benign tumours. Over the years, we have gained a better understanding of its etiology, clinical behavior, and both surgical and non-surgical treatments.

  18. Advances in imaging: impact on studying craniofacial bone structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S

    2003-01-01

    Methods for measuring the structure of craniofacial bones are discussed in this paper. In addition to the three-dimensional macro-structure of the craniofacial skeleton, there is considerable interest in imaging the bone at a microscopic resolution in order to depict the micro-architecture of the trabecular bone itself. In addition to the density of the bone, the microarchitecture reflects bone quality. An understanding of bone quality and density changes has implications for a number of craniofacial pathologies, as well as for implant design and understanding the biomechanical function and loading of the jaw. Trabecular bone micro-architecture has been recently imaged using imaging methods such as micro-computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and the images have been used in finite element models to assess bone mechanical properties. In this paper, some of the recent advances in micro-computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are reviewed, and their potential for imaging the trabecular bone in mandibular bones is presented. Examples of in vitro and in vivo images are presented.

  19. Role played by acid-sensitive ion channels in evoking the exercise pressor reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Shawn G; McCord, Jennifer L; Rainier, Jon; Liu, Zhuqing; Kaufman, Marc P

    2008-10-01

    The exercise pressor reflex arises from contracting skeletal muscle and is believed to play a role in evoking the cardiovascular responses to static exercise, effects that include increases in arterial pressure and heart rate. This reflex is believed to be evoked by the metabolic and mechanical stimulation of thin fiber muscle afferents. Lactic acid is known to be an important metabolic stimulus evoking the reflex. Until recently, the only antagonist for acid-sensitive ion channels (ASICs), the receptors to lactic acid, was amiloride, a substance that is also a potent antagonist for both epithelial sodium channels as well as voltage-gated sodium channels. Recently, a second compound, A-317567, has been shown to be an effective and selective antagonist to ASICs in vitro. Consequently, we measured the pressor responses to the static contraction of the triceps surae muscles in decerebrate cats before and after a popliteal arterial injection of A-317567 (10 mM solution; 0.5 ml). We found that this ASIC antagonist significantly attenuated by half (Pacid injection into the popliteal artery. In contrast, A-317567 had no effect on the pressor responses to tendon stretch, a pure mechanical stimulus, and to a popliteal arterial injection of capsaicin, which stimulated transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channels. We conclude that ASICs on thin fiber muscle afferents play a substantial role in evoking the metabolic component of the exercise pressor reflex.

  20. Anteverted internal auditory canal as an inner ear anomaly in patients with craniofacial microsomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux-Lebeau, Bénédicte; Saliba, Issam

    2014-09-01

    Craniofacial microsomia involves structure of the first and second branchial arches. A wide range of ear anomalies, affecting external, middle and inner ear, has been described in association with this condition. We report three cases of anteverted internal auditory canal in patients presenting craniofacial microsomia. This unique internal auditory canal orientation was found on high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bones. This internal auditory canal anomaly is yet unreported in craniofacial anomalies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. 3D craniofacial registration using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yucong; Zhao, Junli; Deng, Qingqiong; Duan, Fuqing

    2017-01-01

    Craniofacial registration is used to establish the point-to-point correspondence in a unified coordinate system among human craniofacial models. It is the foundation of craniofacial reconstruction and other craniofacial statistical analysis research. In this paper, a non-rigid 3D craniofacial registration method using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection is proposed. First, the gradient descent optimization is utilized to improve a cylindrical surface fitting (CSF) for the reference craniofacial model. Second, the thin-plate spline transform (TPST) is applied to deform a target craniofacial model to the reference model. Finally, the cylindrical surface projection (CSP) is used to derive the point correspondence between the reference and deformed target models. To accelerate the procedure, the iterative closest point ICP algorithm is used to obtain a rough correspondence, which can provide a possible intersection area of the CSP. Finally, the inverse TPST is used to map the obtained corresponding points from the deformed target craniofacial model to the original model, and it can be realized directly by the correspondence between the original target model and the deformed target model. Three types of registration, namely, reflexive, involutive and transitive registration, are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed craniofacial registration algorithm. Comparison with the methods in the literature shows that the proposed method is more accurate.

  2. 3D craniofacial registration using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucong Chen

    Full Text Available Craniofacial registration is used to establish the point-to-point correspondence in a unified coordinate system among human craniofacial models. It is the foundation of craniofacial reconstruction and other craniofacial statistical analysis research. In this paper, a non-rigid 3D craniofacial registration method using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection is proposed. First, the gradient descent optimization is utilized to improve a cylindrical surface fitting (CSF for the reference craniofacial model. Second, the thin-plate spline transform (TPST is applied to deform a target craniofacial model to the reference model. Finally, the cylindrical surface projection (CSP is used to derive the point correspondence between the reference and deformed target models. To accelerate the procedure, the iterative closest point ICP algorithm is used to obtain a rough correspondence, which can provide a possible intersection area of the CSP. Finally, the inverse TPST is used to map the obtained corresponding points from the deformed target craniofacial model to the original model, and it can be realized directly by the correspondence between the original target model and the deformed target model. Three types of registration, namely, reflexive, involutive and transitive registration, are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed craniofacial registration algorithm. Comparison with the methods in the literature shows that the proposed method is more accurate.

  3. Disruption of Msx-1 and Msx-2 reveals roles for these genes in craniofacial, eye, and axial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerst-Potts, L; Sadler, T W

    1997-05-01

    In mouse embryos, the muscle segment homeobox genes, Msx-1 and Msx-2 are expressed during critical stages of neural tube, neural crest, and craniofacial development, suggesting that these genes play important roles in organogenesis and cell differentiation. Although the patterns of expression are intriguing, little is known about the function of these genes in vertebrate embryonic development. Therefore, the expression of both genes, separately and together, was disrupted using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and whole embryo culture techniques. Antisense attenuation of Msx-1 during early stages of neurulation produced hypoplasia of the maxillary, mandibular, and frontonasal prominences, eye anomalies, and somite and neural tube abnormalities. Eye defects consisted of enlarged optic vesicles, which may ultimately result in micropthalmia similar to that observed in Small eye mice homozygous for mutations in the Pax-6 gene. Histological sections and SEM analysis revealed a thinning of the neuroepithelium in the diencephalon and optic vesicle and mesenchymal deficiencies in the craniofacial region. Injections of Msx-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides produced similar malformations as those targeting Msx-1, with the exception that there was an increase in number and severity of neural tube and somite defects. Embryos injected with the combination of Msx-1 + Msx-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides showed no novel abnormalities, suggesting that the genes do not operate in a redundant manner.

  4. Maternal environment and craniofacial growth: geometric morphometric analysis of mandibular shape changes with in utero thyroxine overexposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterke, Matthew J; Judd, Margaret A; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Howie, R Nicole; Weinberg, Seth M; Cray, James J

    2018-07-01

    An estimated 3% of US pregnancies are affected by maternal thyroid dysfunction, with between one and three of every 1000 pregnancies being complicated by overactive maternal thyroid levels. Excess thyroid hormones are linked to neurological impairment and excessive craniofacial variation, affecting both endochondral and intramembranous bone. Using a geometric morphometric approach, this study evaluates the role of in utero thyroxine overexposure on the growth of offspring mandibles in a sample of 241 mice. Canonical variate analysis utilized 16 unilateral mandibular landmarks obtained from 3D micro-computed tomography to assess shape changes between unexposed controls (n = 63) and exposed mice (n = 178). By evaluating shape changes in the mandible among three age groups (15, 20 and 25 days postnatal) and different dosage levels (low, medium and high), this study found that excess maternal thyroxine alters offspring mandibular shape in both age- and dosage-dependent manners. Group differences in overall shape were significant (P < 0.001), and showed major changes in regions of the mandible associated with muscle attachment (coronoid process, gonial angle) and regions of growth largely governed by articulation with the cranial base (condyle) and occlusion (alveolus). These results compliment recent studies demonstrating that maternal thyroxine levels can alter the cranial base and cranial vault of offspring, contributing to a better understanding of both normal and abnormal mandibular development, as well as the medical implications of craniofacial growth and development. © 2018 Anatomical Society.

  5. Automated analysis of prerecorded evoked electromyographic activity from rat muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basarab-Horwath, I; Dewhurst, D G; Dixon, R; Meehan, A S; Odusanya, S

    1989-03-01

    An automated microprocessor-based data acquisition and analysis system has been developed specifically to quantify electromyographic (EMG) activity induced by the convulsant agent catechol in the anaesthetized rat. The stimulus and EMG response are recorded on magnetic tape. On playback, the stimulus triggers a digital oscilloscope and, via interface circuitry, a BBC B microcomputer. The myoelectric activity is digitized by the oscilloscope before being transferred under computer control via a RS232 link to the microcomputer. This system overcomes the problems of dealing with signals of variable latency and allows quantification of latency, amplitude, area and frequency of occurrence of specific components within the signal. The captured data can be used to generate either signal or superimposed high resolution graphic reproductions of the original waveforms. Although this system has been designed for a specific application, it could easily be modified to allow analysis of any complex waveform.

  6. 75 FR 82033 - National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... and Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... 31C, 31 Center Drive, 6th Floor, Conference Room 10, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, PhD, Director, Division of Extramural Activities, Natl. Inst. of Dental and Craniofacial Research...

  7. 76 FR 51995 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... 31 C, 31 Center Drive, 6th Floor, Conference Room 10, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, PhD, Director, Division of Extramural Activities, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial...

  8. A stereotactic system for guiding complex craniofacial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; Phillips, J H; Gruss, J S; Kassel, E E; Zuker, R M

    1992-02-01

    A stereotactic system has been designed to address the problem of achieving symmetry in complex and extensive craniofacial defects. Preliminary testing suggests that such a system, which allows for the intraoperative application of preoperative CT planning, will be useful in guiding the reconstruction of congenital or acquired bony time, is being used to investigate the correlation of intraoperative globe position following enophthalmos correction with long-term outcome, particularly as it relates to the size and location of the orbital defect, and the timing of the procedure.

  9. Inhibition of muscle spindle afferent activity during masseter muscle fatigue in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Orazio; Della Torre, Giovannella; Lucchi, Maria Luisa; Chiocchetti, Roberto; Bortolami, Ruggero; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2003-09-01

    The influence of muscle fatigue on the jaw-closing muscle spindle activity has been investigated by analyzing: (1) the field potentials evoked in the trigeminal motor nucleus (Vmot) by trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) stimulation, (2) the orthodromic and antidromic responses evoked in the Vmes by stimulation of the peripheral and central axons of the muscle proprioceptive afferents, and (3) the extracellular unitary discharge of masseter muscle spindles recorded in the Vmes. The masseter muscle was fatigued by prolonged tetanic masseter nerve electrical stimulation. Pre- and postsynaptic components of the potentials evoked in the Vmot showed a significant reduction in amplitude following muscle fatigue. Orthodromic and antidromic potentials recorded in the Vmes also showed a similar amplitude decrease. Furthermore, muscle fatigue caused a decrease of the discharge frequency of masseter muscle spindle afferents in most of the examined units. The inhibition of the potential amplitude and discharge frequency was strictly correlated with the extent of muscle fatigue and was mediated by the group III and IV afferent muscle fibers activated by fatigue. In fact, the inhibitory effect was abolished by capsaicin injection in the masseter muscle that provokes selective degeneration of small afferent muscle fibers containing neurokinins. We concluded that fatigue signals originating from the muscle and traveling through capsaicin-sensitive fibers are able to diminish the proprioceptive input by a central presynaptic influence. In the second part of the study, we examined the central projection of the masseter small afferents sensitive to capsaicin at the electron-microscopic level. Fiber degeneration was induced by injecting capsaicin into the masseter muscle. Degenerating terminals were found on the soma and stem process in Vmes and on the dendritic tree of neurons in Vmot. This suggests that small muscle afferents may influence the muscle spindle activity through

  10. Influence of detomidine and buprenorphine on motor-evoked potentials in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollet, H; Van Ham, L; Gasthuys, F; Dewulf, J; Vanderstraeten, G; Deprez, P

    2003-04-26

    Horses need to be sedated before they are investigated by transcranial magnetic stimulation because of the mild discomfort induced by the evoked muscle contraction and the noise of stimulation. This paper describes the influence of a combination of detomidine (10 microg/kg bodyweight) and a low dose of buprenorphine (2.4 microg/kg) on the onset latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of magnetic motor-evoked potentials in normal horses. There were no significant differences between measurements of these parameters made before the horses were sedated and measurements made 10 and 30 minutes after the drugs were administered.

  11. Edentulation alters material properties of cortical bone in the human craniofacial skeleton: functional implications for craniofacial structure in primate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, Paul C.; Wang, Qian; Peterson, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal adaptations to reduced function are an important source of skeletal variation and may be indicative of environmental pressures that lead to evolutionary changes. Humans serve as a model animal to investigate the effects of loss of craniofacial function through edentulation. In the human maxilla, it is known that edentulation leads to significant changes in skeletal structure such as residual ridge resorption and loss of cortical thickness. However, little is known about changes in bone tissue structure and material properties, which are also important for understanding skeletal mechanics but are often ignored. The aims of this study were to determine cortical material properties in edentulous crania and to evaluate differences with dentate crania and thus examine the effects of loss of function on craniofacial structure. Cortical bone samples from fifteen edentulous human skulls were measured for thickness and density. Elastic properties and directions of maximum stiffness were determined by using ultrasonic techniques. These data were compared to those from dentate crania reported in a previous investigation. Cortical bone from all regions of the facial skeleton of edentulous individuals is thinner than in dentate skulls. Elastic and shear moduli, and density are similar or greater in the zygoma and cranial vault of edentulous individuals, while these properties are less in the maxilla. Most cortical bone, especially in edentulous maxillae, has reduced directional orientation. The loss of significant occlusal loads following edentulation may contribute to the change in material properties and the loss of orientation over time during the normal process of bone remodeling. These results suggest that area-specific cortical microstructural changes accompany bone resorption following edentulation. They also suggest that functional forces are important for maintaining bone mass throughout the craniofacial skeleton, even in areas such as the browridges, which

  12. Hyperthyroidism Evokes Myocardial Ceramide Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Mikłosz; Bartłomiej Łukaszuk; Adrian Chabowski; Filip Rogowski; Krzysztof Kurek; Małgorzata Żendzian-Piotrowska

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormones (THs) are key regulators of cardiac physiology as well as modulators of different cellular signals including the sphingomyelin/ceramide pathway. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of hyperthyroidism on the metabolism of sphingolipids in the muscle heart. Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated for 10 days with triiodothyronine (T3) at a dose of 50µg/100g of body weight. Animals were then anaesthetized and samples of the left ventricle were excise...

  13. Operative correction and follow-up of craniofacial duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrikova, Bibiana; Hassfeld, Stefan; Steiner, Hans H; Hähnel, Stefan; Krempien, Robert; Mühling, Joachim

    2007-03-01

    Anterior craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is an extremely rare form of conjoined twins. The children share a single trunk with normal extremities and varying degrees of facial malformation. Duplication of specific structures, such as the nose (diprosopus dirrhinus), eyes (diprosopus tetraophthalmus), and ears, is possible. The authors present a case of partial facial duplication (diprosopus dirrhinus) in a male infant. The clinical and radiographic findings and the surgical correction and follow-up are described. In a single surgical session, the authors were able to achieve not only a functionally but also an aesthetically acceptable result. In the postoperative course, the child showed nearly normal growth and satisfactory psychosocial and motor development. However, 40 months postoperatively, we noticed a tendency of the orbitae to diverge (i.e., toward hypertelorism). The surgical management of complex craniofacial malformations such as diprosopus needs a precise morphologic analysis of the patient's deformity followed by a clear treatment plan. A staged reconstructive approach is carried out to coincide with facial growth patterns and brain and eye function. If the interorbital distance in our patient increases progressively, a second operation for reduction of the interorbital distance may be necessary.

  14. Craniofacial resection in nasal cavity and paranasal sinus carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Garzon, Williams Rene; Cohn, Fabrizio; Toscano Mancheno, Roberto; Chonlong Saltos, Maria Jose

    2006-01-01

    The nasal cavity and paranasal sinus carcinoma include 1% of all malignant tumors and 3% in head and neck region. The majority of tumors of this region are squamous cell carcinomas, which rises in the maxillary sinus and generates symptoms when it reaches a great size. Treatment is very difficult. The Cat scan and magnetic resonance are helpful to evaluate the tumor extent, asses erode bone boundary and evaluate growth in soft tissues of intra skull like the dura overlying the frontal lobe and brain. The growth of the tumor in the anterior skull base is not a contraindication for surgical treatment. A combined intracranial facial approach to the paranasal sinuses carcinoma enables complete tumor resection and edges without neoplasm. The 5 year survival for patients who undergo anterior craniofacial resection is approximately 50 to 60%, and local tumor control is obtained in 65%. We present a patient with squamous carcinoma of superior maxillary antrum and skull base encroachment invasion resolved with craniofacial resection. (The author)

  15. Craniofacial Surgery and Adverse Outcomes: An Inquiry Into Medical Negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svider, Peter F; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Folbe, Adam J; Carron, Michael A; Zuliani, Giancarlo F; Shkoukani, Mahdi A

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate factors contributing to medical negligence relevant to craniofacial surgery. Retrospective analysis of verdict and settlement reports on the Westlaw legal database for outcome, awards, physician defendants, and other specific factors raised in malpractice litigation. Of 42 verdicts and settlement reports included, 52.4% were resolved with either an out-of-court settlement or plaintiff verdict, with aggregate payments totaling $50.1M (in 2013 dollars). Median settlements and jury-awarded damages were $988,000 and $555,000, respectively. Payments in pediatric cases ($1.2M) were significantly higher. Plastic surgeons, oral surgeons, and otolaryngologists were the most commonly named defendants. The most common alleged factors included intraoperative negligence (69.0%), permanent deficits (54.8%), requiring additional surgery (52.4%), missed/delayed diagnosis of a complication (42.9%), disfigurement/scarring (28.6%), postoperative negligence (28.6%), and inadequate informed consent (20.6% of surgical cases). Failure to diagnose a fracture (19.0%) and cleft-reparative procedures (14.3%) were the most frequently litigated entities. Medical negligence related to craniofacial surgery involves plaintiffs in a wide age range as well as physician defendants in numerous specialties, and proceedings resolved with settlement and plaintiff verdict involve substantial payments. Cases with death, allegedly permanent injuries, and pediatric plaintiffs had significantly higher payments. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Creation of three-dimensional craniofacial standards from CBCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyan, Krishna; Palomo, Martin; Hans, Mark

    2006-03-01

    Low-dose three-dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is becoming increasingly popular in the clinical practice of dental medicine. Two-dimensional Bolton Standards of dentofacial development are routinely used to identify deviations from normal craniofacial anatomy. With the advent of CBCT three dimensional imaging, we propose a set of methods to extend these 2D Bolton Standards to anatomically correct surface based 3D standards to allow analysis of morphometric changes seen in craniofacial complex. To create 3D surface standards, we have implemented series of steps. 1) Converting bi-plane 2D tracings into set of splines 2) Converting the 2D splines curves from bi-plane projection into 3D space curves 3) Creating labeled template of facial and skeletal shapes and 4) Creating 3D average surface Bolton standards. We have used datasets from patients scanned with Hitachi MercuRay CBCT scanner providing high resolution and isotropic CT volume images, digitized Bolton Standards from age 3 to 18 years of lateral and frontal male, female and average tracings and converted them into facial and skeletal 3D space curves. This new 3D standard will help in assessing shape variations due to aging in young population and provide reference to correct facial anomalies in dental medicine.

  17. Hyperthyroidism evokes myocardial ceramide accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikłosz, Agnieszka; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Chabowski, Adrian; Rogowski, Filip; Kurek, Krzysztof; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are key regulators of cardiac physiology as well as modulators of different cellular signals including the sphingomyelin/ceramide pathway. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of hyperthyroidism on the metabolism of sphingolipids in the muscle heart. Male Wistar rats were treated for 10 days with triiodothyronine (T3) at a dose of 50µg/100g of body weight. Animals were then anaesthetized and samples of the left ventricle were excised. We have demonstrated that prolonged, in vivo, T3 treatment increased the content of sphinganine (SFA), sphingosine (SFO), ceramide (CER) and sphingomyelin (SM), but decreased the level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in cardiac muscle. Accordingly, the changes in sphingolipids content were accompanied by a lesser activity of neutral sphingomyelinase and without significant changes in ceramidases activity. Hyperthyroidism also induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) with subsequently increased expression of mitochondrial proteins: cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX IV), β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD), carnityne palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) and nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α). We conclude that prolonged T3 treatment increases sphingolipids metabolism which is reflected by higher concentration of SFA and CER in heart muscle. Furthermore, hyperthyroidism-induced increase in heart sphingomyelin (SM) concentration might be one of the mechanisms underlying maintenance of CER at relatively low level by its conversion to SM together with decreased S1P content. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Hyperthyroidism Evokes Myocardial Ceramide Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mikłosz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid hormones (THs are key regulators of cardiac physiology as well as modulators of different cellular signals including the sphingomyelin/ceramide pathway. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of hyperthyroidism on the metabolism of sphingolipids in the muscle heart. Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated for 10 days with triiodothyronine (T3 at a dose of 50µg/100g of body weight. Animals were then anaesthetized and samples of the left ventricle were excised. Results: We have demonstrated that prolonged, in vivo, T3 treatment increased the content of sphinganine (SFA, sphingosine (SFO, ceramide (CER and sphingomyelin (SM, but decreased the level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P in cardiac muscle. Accordingly, the changes in sphingolipids content were accompanied by a lesser activity of neutral sphingomyelinase and without significant changes in ceramidases activity. Hyperthyroidism also induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK with subsequently increased expression of mitochondrial proteins: cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX IV, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD, carnityne palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I and nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α. Conclusions: We conclude that prolonged T3 treatment increases sphingolipids metabolism which is reflected by higher concentration of SFA and CER in heart muscle. Furthermore, hyperthyroidism-induced increase in heart sphingomyelin (SM concentration might be one of the mechanisms underlying maintenance of CER at relatively low level by its conversion to SM together with decreased S1P content.

  19. DESCRIPTION OF BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED RESPONSES (AIR AND BONE CONDUCTION IN CHILDREN WITH NORMAL HEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pashkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hearing level in small children with conductive hearing loss associated with congenital craniofacial abnormalities, particularly with agenesis of external ear and external auditory meatus is a pressing issue. Conventional methods of assessing hearing in the first years of life, i. e. registration of brainstem auditory evoked responses to acoustic stimuli in the event of air conduction, does not give an indication of the auditory analyzer’s condition due to potential conductive hearing loss in these patients. This study was aimed at assessing potential of diagnosing the auditory analyzer’s function with registering brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs to acoustic stimuli transmitted by means of a bone vibrator. The study involved 17 children aged 3–10 years with normal hearing. We compared parameters of registering brainstem auditory evoked responses (peak V depending on the type of stimulus transmission (air/bone in children with normal hearing. The data on thresholds of the BAERs registered to acoustic stimuli in the event of air and bone conduction obtained in this study are comparable; hearing thresholds in the event of acoustic stimulation by means of a bone vibrator correlates with the results of the BAERs registered to the stimuli transmitted by means of air conduction earphones (r = 0.9. High correlation of thresholds of BAERs to the stimuli transmitted by means of a bone vibrator with thresholds of BAERs registered when air conduction earphones were used helps to assess auditory analyzer’s condition in patients with any form of conductive hearing loss.  

  20. Diagnostic imaging of craniofacial trauma and fractures and their sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago-Tellez, C.H.; Kunz, C.

    2001-01-01

    The value and applications of the CT modalities are on the rise, particularly since the availability of spiral CT techniques, while conventional native diagnostics is increasingly used for special imaging purposes. Multiplanar spiral CT enables high-quality coronary 2D reconstructions which, in the acute phase, make redundant primary coronary imaging modalities. Exact knowledge of typical fracture patterns facilitates the analysis of images of the relevant facial areas. 3D reconstructions are indispensable in pin-pointed surgery planning, generation of stereolithographic models, and image-guided interventions for examination of post-traumatic deformities. Since a secondary correction only very rarely leads to restitutio ad integrum, it is necessary to detect the therapy-relevant injuries very early, during acute diagnostic imaging, in order to lay the basis for subsequent therapy and restoration of the craniofacial structures and functions. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Sella turcica-Its importance in orthodontics and craniofacial morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritha Pottipalli Sathyanarayana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sella turcica is a structure which can be readily seen on lateral cephalometric radiographs and sella point is routinely traced for various cephalometric analyses. The search was carried out using the following key words (sella turcica, bridging of sella, size, shape of sella turcica and with the following search engine (Pubmed, Cochrane, Google scholar. The morphology is very important for the cephalometric position of the reference point sella, not only for evaluating craniofacial morphology, but also when growth changes and orthodontic treatment results are to be evaluated. This makes it a good source of additional diagnostic information related to pathology of the pituitary gland, or to various syndromes that affect the craniofacial region. Clinicians should be familiar with the normal radiographic anatomy and morphologic variability of this area, in order to recognize and investigate deviations that may reflect pathological situations, even before these become clinically apparent. During embryological development, the sella turcica area is the key point for the migration of the neural crest cells to the frontonasal and maxillary developmental fields. The neural crest cells are involved in the formation and development of sella turcica and teeth. The size of sella turcica ranges from 4 to 12 mm for the vertical and 5 to 16 mm for the anteroposterior dimension. There are many classification systems regarding the shape of sella turcica. Majority of the studies show that about 67% of the subjects had normal appearance and about 33% showed variations. The prevalence of sella turcica bridging is high in class III malocclusions and dental anomalies.

  2. Enhanced brainstem and cortical evoked response amplitudes: single-trial covariance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, G C

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop analytic procedures that improve the definition of sensory evoked response components. Such procedures could benefit all recordings but would especially benefit difficult recordings where many trials are contaminated by muscle and movement artifacts. First, cross-correlation and latency adjustment analyses were applied to the human brainstem frequency-following response and cortical auditory evoked response recorded on the same trials. Lagged cross-correlation functions were computed, for each of 17 subjects, between single-trial data and templates consisting of the sinusoid stimulus waveform for the brainstem response and the subject's own smoothed averaged evoked response P2 component for the cortical response. Trials were considered in the analysis only if the maximum correlation-squared (r2) exceeded .5 (negatively correlated trials were thus included). Identical correlation coefficients may be based on signals with quite different amplitudes, but it is possible to assess amplitude by the nonnormalized covariance function. Next, an algorithm is applied in which each trial with negative covariance is matched to a trial with similar, but positive, covariance and these matched-trial pairs are deleted. When an evoked response signal is present in the data, the majority of trials positively correlate with the template. Thus, a residual of positively correlated trials remains after matched covariance trials are deleted. When these residual trials are averaged, the resulting brainstem and cortical responses show greatly enhanced amplitudes. This result supports the utility of this analysis technique in clarifying and assessing evoked response signals.

  3. The future of research in craniofacial biology and what this will mean for oral health professional education and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, H C

    2014-06-01

    Today, and looking to the future, scientific discoveries from cellular, developmental and molecular biology inform our understanding of cell, tissue and organ morphogenesis as exemplified in skin, bone, cartilage, dentine, enamel, muscle, nerve and many organs such as salivary glands and teeth. Present day biomedical science yields principles for the biomimetic design and fabrication of cells, tissues and organs. Bioengineering has become a strategy that can 'mimic' biological processes, and inform clinical procedures for tissue and organ replacements. The future of regenerative craniofacial biology holds enormous promise for the diagnosis and treatment of congenital birth defects, traumatic injuries, degenerative chronic diseases as well as for Mendelian single gene and complex multigene diseases and disorders. The past 50 years have heralded the completion of the human genome and the introduction of 'personalized medicine and dentistry', the utilization of stem cell therapy for an array of diseases and disorders, the 'proof of principle' to reverse select inherited diseases such as anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (ED), and the fruits from interdisciplinary research drawn from the diverse biomedical sciences. Looking to the future, we can readily anticipate as major goals to emphasize the clinician's role in identifying clinical phenotypes that can lead to differential diagnosis, and rejuvenate missing or damaged tissues by establishing processes for the utilization of gene, cell and/or protein therapies. The future is replete with remarkable opportunities to enhance clinical outcomes for congenital as well as acquired craniofacial malformations. Clinicians play a pivotal role because critical thinking and sound clinical acumen substantially improve diagnostic precision and thereby clinical health outcomes. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  4. Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus): report of a case with a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, S S; Hammouri, M F

    1995-01-01

    A case of craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is presented. Details on this rare form of conjoined twins are described, and the proposed theories of its embryogenesis are discussed with brief review of the pertinent literature.

  5. 77 FR 35990 - National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel; Molecular Characterization of Salivary Tumors RFA: R01 and R21...: Jayalakshmi Raman, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Institute of Dental...

  6. Extensive expression of craniofacial related homeobox genes in canine mammary sarcomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensman, H.; Goransson, H.; Leuchowius, K.J.; Stromberg, S.; Ponten, F.; Isaksson, A.; Rutteman, G.R.; Heldin, N.; Pejler, G.; Hellmen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Extensive expression of craniofacial related homeobox genes in canine mammary sarcomas Journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment Publisher Springer Netherlands ISSN 0167-6806 (Print) 1573-7217 (Online) Issue Volume 118, Number 2 / November, 2009 Category Preclinical Study DOI

  7. Removal of symptomatic craniofacial titanium hardware following craniotomy: Case series and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri K. Palejwala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium craniofacial hardware has become commonplace for reconstruction and bone flap fixation following craniotomy. Complications of titanium hardware include palpability, visibility, infection, exposure, pain, and hardware malfunction, which can necessitate hardware removal. We describe three patients who underwent craniofacial reconstruction following craniotomies for trauma with post-operative courses complicated by medically intractable facial pain. All three patients subsequently underwent removal of the symptomatic craniofacial titanium hardware and experienced rapid resolution of their painful parasthesias. Symptomatic plates were found in the region of the frontozygomatic suture or MacCarty keyhole, or in close proximity with the supraorbital nerve. Titanium plates, though relatively safe and low profile, can cause local nerve irritation or neuropathy. Surgeons should be cognizant of the potential complications of titanium craniofacial hardware and locations that are at higher risk for becoming symptomatic necessitating a second surgery for removal.

  8. The Role of Sonic Hedgehog in Craniofacial Patterning, Morphogenesis and Cranial Neural Crest Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Sebastian; Boglev, Yeliz; Owens, Harley; Goldie, Stephen J

    2016-08-03

    Craniofacial defects (CFD) are a significant healthcare problem worldwide. Understanding both the morphogenetic movements which underpin normal facial development, as well as the molecular factors which regulate these processes, forms the cornerstone of future diagnostic, and ultimately, preventative therapies. The soluble morphogen Sonic hedgehog ( Shh ), a vertebrate orthologue of Drosophila hedgehog , is a key signalling factor in the regulation of craniofacial skeleton development in vertebrates, operating within numerous tissue types in the craniofacial primordia to spatiotemporally regulate the formation of the face and jaws. This review will provide an overview of normal craniofacial skeleton development, and focus specifically on the known roles of Shh in regulating the development and progression of the first pharyngeal arch, which in turn gives rise to both the upper jaw (maxilla) and lower jaw (mandible).

  9. The Role of Sonic Hedgehog in Craniofacial Patterning, Morphogenesis and Cranial Neural Crest Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Dworkin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial defects (CFD are a significant healthcare problem worldwide. Understanding both the morphogenetic movements which underpin normal facial development, as well as the molecular factors which regulate these processes, forms the cornerstone of future diagnostic, and ultimately, preventative therapies. The soluble morphogen Sonic hedgehog (Shh, a vertebrate orthologue of Drosophila hedgehog, is a key signalling factor in the regulation of craniofacial skeleton development in vertebrates, operating within numerous tissue types in the craniofacial primordia to spatiotemporally regulate the formation of the face and jaws. This review will provide an overview of normal craniofacial skeleton development, and focus specifically on the known roles of Shh in regulating the development and progression of the first pharyngeal arch, which in turn gives rise to both the upper jaw (maxilla and lower jaw (mandible.

  10. 78 FR 45934 - The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Strategic Plan Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... diseases and disorders, has a distinguished record of supporting research to advance the oral health of the... revolutionizing how we understand, prevent, diagnose and manage dental, oral, and craniofacial diseases and...

  11. Facilitation of soleus but not tibialis anterior motor evoked potentials before onset of antagonist contraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Zuur, Abraham Theodore; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: It is well documented that corticospinal projections to motoneurons of one muscle inhibit antagonist motoneurons through collaterals to reciprocally organized spinal inhibitory interneurons. During and just prior to dorsiflexion of the ankle, soleus motoneurons are thus inhibited...... the MEP is evoked. Methods: Seated subjects (n=11) were instructed to react to an auditory cue by contracting either the tibialis anterior (TA) or soleus muscle of the left ankle to 30% of their maximal dorsiflexion voluntary contraction (MVC) or plantar flexion MVC, respectively. Focal TMS at 1.2 x motor...

  12. Contractility and supersensitivity to adrenaline in dystrophic muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamori, M

    1975-01-01

    In the adductor pollicis muscle of patients with limb-girdle and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophies and possible carriers of Duchenne type muscular dystrophy, abnormal active state properties were found at the time when there was no alteration of needle electromyography and evoked muscle action potentials. Adrenaline induced a marked reduction of incomplete tetanus via beta receptors without change in neuromuscular transmission. PMID:1151415

  13. Torque and mechanomyogram relationships during electrically-evoked isometric quadriceps contractions in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Islam, Md Anamul; Kean, Victor S P; Davis, Glen M

    2016-08-01

    The interaction between muscle contractions and joint loading produces torques necessary for movements during activities of daily living. However, during neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-evoked contractions in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), a simple and reliable proxy of torque at the muscle level has been minimally investigated. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between muscle mechanomyographic (MMG) characteristics and NMES-evoked isometric quadriceps torques in persons with motor complete SCI. Six SCI participants with lesion levels below C4 [(mean (SD) age, 39.2 (7.9) year; stature, 1.71 (0.05) m; and body mass, 69.3 (12.9) kg)] performed randomly ordered NMES-evoked isometric leg muscle contractions at 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion angles on an isokinetic dynamometer. MMG signals were detected by an accelerometer-based vibromyographic sensor placed over the belly of rectus femoris muscle. The relationship between MMG root mean square (MMG-RMS) and NMES-evoked torque revealed a very high association (R(2)=0.91 at 30°; R(2)=0.98 at 60°; and R(2)=0.97 at 90° knee angles; Ptorque, between 0.65 and 0.79 for MMG-RMS, and from 0.67 to 0.73 for MMG-PTP. Their standard error of measurements (SEM) ranged between 10.1% and 31.6% (of mean values) for torque, MMG-RMS and MMG-PTP. The MMG peak frequency (MMG-PF) of 30Hz approximated the stimulation frequency, indicating NMES-evoked motor unit firing rate. The results demonstrated knee angle differences in the MMG-RMS versus NMES-isometric torque relationship, but a similar torque related pattern for MMG-PF. These findings suggested that MMG was well associated with torque production, reliably tracking the motor unit recruitment pattern during NMES-evoked muscle contractions. The strong positive relationship between MMG signal and NMES-evoked torque production suggested that the MMG might be deployed as a direct proxy for muscle torque or fatigue measurement during

  14. Partial craniofacial duplication: a review of the literature and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Melinda A; Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Lara-Sanchez, Pedro A; Schweitzer, Daniela; Jacobson, Lia; Clarke, Noreen; Hammoudeh, Jeffery; Urata, Mark M; Magee, William P

    2014-06-01

    Diprosopus (Greek; di-, "two" + prosopon, "face"), or craniofacial duplication, is a rare craniofacial anomaly referring to the complete duplication of facial structures. Partial craniofacial duplication describes a broad spectrum of congenital anomalies, including duplications of the oral cavity. This paper describes a 15 month-old female with a duplicated oral cavity, mandible, and maxilla. A Tessier type 7 cleft, midline meningocele, and duplicated hypophysis were also present. The preoperative evaluation, surgical approach, postoperative results, and a review of the literature are presented. The surgical approach was designed to preserve facial nerve innervation to the reconstructed cheek and mouth. The duplicated mandible and maxilla were excised and the remaining left maxilla was bone grafted. Soft tissue repair included closure of the Tessier type VII cleft. Craniofacial duplication remains a rare entity that is more common in females. The pathophysiology remains incompletely characterized, but is postulated to be due to duplication of the notochord, as well as duplication of mandibular growth centres. While diprosopus is a severe deformity often associated with anencephaly, patients with partial duplication typically benefit from surgical treatment. Managing craniofacial duplication requires a detailed preoperative evaluation as well as a comprehensive, staged treatment plan. Long-term follow up is needed appropriately to address ongoing craniofacial deformity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The fusion of craniofacial reconstruction and microsurgery: a functional and aesthetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, Justin M; Abt, Nicholas B; Shridharani, Sachin M; Bojovic, Branko; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Dorafshar, Amir H

    2014-10-01

    Reconstruction of large, composite defects in the craniofacial region has evolved significantly over the past half century. During this time, there have been significant advances in craniofacial and microsurgical surgery. These contributions have often been in parallel; however, over the past 10 years, these two disciplines have begun to overlap more frequently, and the techniques of one have been used to advance the other. In the current review, the authors aim to describe the available options for free tissue reconstruction in craniofacial surgery. A review of microsurgical reconstructive options of aesthetic units within the craniofacial region was undertaken with attention directed toward surgeon flap preference. Anatomical areas analyzed included scalp, calvaria, forehead, frontal sinus, nose, maxilla and midface, periorbita, mandible, lip, and tongue. Although certain flaps such as the ulnar forearm flap and lateral circumflex femoral artery-based flaps were used in multiple reconstructive sites, each anatomical location possesses a unique array of flaps to maximize outcomes. Craniofacial surgery, like plastic surgery, has made tremendous advancements in the past 40 years. With innovations in technology, flap design, and training, microsurgery has become safer, faster, and more commonplace than at any time in history. Reconstructive microsurgery allows the surgeon to be creative in this approach, and free tissue transfer has become a mainstay of modern craniofacial reconstruction.

  16. Characterization of music-evoked autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, Petr; Tomic, Stefan T; Rakowski, Sonja K

    2007-11-01

    Despite music's prominence in Western society and its importance to individuals in their daily lives, very little is known about the memories and emotions that are often evoked when hearing a piece of music from one's past. We examined the content of music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) using a novel approach for selecting stimuli from a large corpus of popular music, in both laboratory and online settings. A set of questionnaires probed the cognitive and affective properties of the evoked memories. On average, 30% of the song presentations evoked autobiographical memories, and the majority of songs also evoked various emotions, primarily positive, that were felt strongly. The third most common emotion was nostalgia. Analyses of written memory reports found both general and specific levels of autobiographical knowledge to be represented, and several social and situational contexts for memory formation were common across many memories. The findings indicate that excerpts of popular music serve as potent stimuli for studying the structure of autobiographical memories.

  17. Evoked electromyography to rocuronium in orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius in facial nerve injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yian; Chen, Lianhua; Li, Shitong

    2013-11-01

    Muscles innervated by the facial nerve show different sensitivities to muscle relaxants than muscles innervated by somatic nerves, especially in the presence of facial nerve injury. We compared the evoked electromyography (EEMG) response of orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius in with and without a non-depolarizing muscle relaxant in a rabbit model of graded facial nerve injury. Differences in EEMG response and inhibition by rocuronium were measured in the orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius muscles 7 to 42 d after different levels of facial nerve crush injuries in adult rabbits. Baseline EEMG of orbicularis oris was significantly smaller than those of the gastrocnemius. Gastrocnemius was more sensitive to rocuronium than the facial muscles (P rocuronium was negatively correlated with the magnitude of facial nerve injury but the sensitivity to rocuronium was not. No significant difference was found in the onset time and the recovery time of rocuronium among gastrocnemius and normal or damaged facial muscles. Muscles innervated by somatic nerves are more sensitive to rocuronium than those innervated by the facial nerve, but while facial nerve injury reduced EEMG responses, the sensitivity to rocuronium is not altered. Partial neuromuscular blockade may be a suitable technique for conducting anesthesia and surgery safely when EEMG monitoring is needed to preserve and protect the facial nerve. Additional caution should be used if there is a risk of preexisting facial nerve injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  19. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to your provider about the risks and benefits of medicines. How can I prevent muscle cramps? To prevent muscle cramps, you can Stretch your muscles, especially before exercising. If you often get leg cramps at night, ...

  20. Muscle metaboreflex control of the circulation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2010-01-01

    . It can both elevate and decrease muscle blood flow depending on (1) the intensity and mode of contraction, (2) the limb in which the reflex is evoked, (3) the strength of the signal defined by the muscle mass, (4) the extent to which blood flow is redistributed from inactive vascular beds to increase......This review covers the control of blood pressure, cardiac output and muscle blood flow by the muscle metaboreflex which involves chemically sensitive nerves located in muscle parenchyma activated by metabolites accumulating in the muscle during contraction. The efferent response to metaboreflex...... activation is an increase in sympathetic nerve activity that constricts the systemic vasculature and also evokes parallel inotropic and chronotropic effects on the heart to increase cardiac output. The metaboreflex elicits a significant blood pressure elevating response during exercise and functions...

  1. Brainstem evoked potentials in infantile spasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Masahito; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Murakawa, Kazuyoshi; Tayama, Masanobu; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    1992-01-01

    In ten patients with infantile spasms, brainstem evoked potentials and MRI examinations were performed to evaluate the brainstem involvement. The result of short latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) following the right median nerve stimulation revealed abnormal findings including the absence or low amplitudes of the waves below wave P3 and delayed central conduction time in 7 of the ten patients. The result of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) revealed abnormal findings including low amplitudes of wave V, prolonged interpeak latency of waves I-V and absence of the waves below wave IV in 5 of the ten patients. The result of the MRI examinations revealed various degrees of the brainstem atrophy in 6 of the ten patients, all of whom showed abnormal brainstem evoked potentials. The result of this study demonstrates that patients with infantile spasms are frequently associated with brainstem dysfunction and raises the possibility that brainstem atrophy might be a cause of infantile spasms. (author)

  2. Slow cortical evoked potentials after noise exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Wedel, H; Opitz, H J

    1979-07-01

    Human cortical evoked potentials under conditions of stimuation are registrated in the post-stimulatory phase of a five minutes lasting equally masking white noise (90 dB HL). Changes of the evoked potentials during adaptation, possible analogy with high tone losses after noise representation and the origin of tinnitus are examined. Stimulation was started 3 sec after the off-effect of the noise. For five minutes periodically tone bursts were represented. Each train of stimulation consists of tone bursts of three frequencies: 2 kcs, 4 kcs, 8 kcs. The 0.5 sec lasting tones were separated by pauses of 2 sec. During the experiment stimulation and analysis were controlled by a computer. Changes in latency and amplitudes of the cortical evoked potentials were registered. Changes of the adaptation patterns as a function of the poststimulatory time are discussed.

  3. Evoking prescribed spike times in stochastic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doose, Jens; Lindner, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Single cell stimulation in vivo is a powerful tool to investigate the properties of single neurons and their functionality in neural networks. We present a method to determine a cell-specific stimulus that reliably evokes a prescribed spike train with high temporal precision of action potentials. We test the performance of this stimulus in simulations for two different stochastic neuron models. For a broad range of parameters and a neuron firing with intermediate firing rates (20-40 Hz) the reliability in evoking the prescribed spike train is close to its theoretical maximum that is mainly determined by the level of intrinsic noise.

  4. Brain correlates of music-evoked emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Music is a universal feature of human societies, partly owing to its power to evoke strong emotions and influence moods. During the past decade, the investigation of the neural correlates of music-evoked emotions has been invaluable for the understanding of human emotion. Functional neuroimaging studies on music and emotion show that music can modulate activity in brain structures that are known to be crucially involved in emotion, such as the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, hippocampus, insula, cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. The potential of music to modulate activity in these structures has important implications for the use of music in the treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders.

  5. Influence of prenatal EGCG treatment and Dyrk1a dosage reduction on craniofacial features associated with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElyea, Samantha D; Starbuck, John M; Tumbleson-Brink, Danika M; Harrington, Emily; Blazek, Joshua D; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Kula, Katherine; Roper, Randall J

    2016-11-15

    Trisomy 21 (Ts21) affects craniofacial precursors in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The resultant craniofacial features in all individuals with Ts21 may significantly affect breathing, eating and speaking. Using mouse models of DS, we have traced the origin of DS-associated craniofacial abnormalities to deficiencies in neural crest cell (NCC) craniofacial precursors early in development. Hypothetically, three copies of Dyrk1a (dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), a trisomic gene found in most humans with DS and mouse models of DS, may significantly affect craniofacial structure. We hypothesized that we could improve DS-related craniofacial abnormalities in mouse models using a Dyrk1a inhibitor or by normalizing Dyrk1a gene dosage. In vitro and in vivo treatment with Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a Dyrk1a inhibitor, modulated trisomic NCC deficiencies at embryonic time points. Furthermore, prenatal EGCG treatment normalized some craniofacial phenotypes, including cranial vault in adult Ts65Dn mice. Normalization of Dyrk1a copy number in an otherwise trisomic Ts65Dn mice normalized many dimensions of the cranial vault, but did not correct all craniofacial anatomy. These data underscore the complexity of the gene–phenotype relationship in trisomy and suggest that changes in Dyrk1a expression play an important role in morphogenesis and growth of the cranial vault. These results suggest that a temporally specific prenatal therapy may be an effective way to ameliorate some craniofacial anatomical changes associated with DS.

  6. Osterix-Cre transgene causes craniofacial bone development defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Mishina, Yuji; Liu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    The Cre/loxP system has been widely used to generate tissue-specific gene knockout mice. Inducible (Tet-off) Osx-GFP::Cre (Osx-Cre) mouse line that targets osteoblasts is widely used in the bone research field. In this study, we investigated the effect of Osx-Cre on craniofacial bone development. We found that newborn Osx-Cre mice showed severe hypomineralization in parietal, frontal, and nasal bones as well as the coronal sutural area when compared to control mice. As the mice matured the intramembranous bone hypomineralization phenotype became less severe. The major hypomineralization defect in parietal, frontal, and nasal bones had mostly disappeared by postnatal day 21, but the defect in sutural areas persisted. Importantly, Doxycycline treatment eliminated cranial bone defects at birth which indicates that Cre expression may be responsible for the phenotype. In addition, we showed that the primary calvarial osteoblasts isolated from neonatal Osx-Cre mice had comparable differentiation ability compared to their littermate controls. This study reinforces the idea that Cre positive litter mates are indispensable controls in studies using conditional gene deletion. PMID:25550101

  7. Craniofacial and maxillary anomalies: Anesthetic implications and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in the craniofacial surgery has imposed challenges on the attending anesthesiologist for the successful conduct reconstructive surgery. The anesthesiologist remains a key person in the multidisciplinary tasks involved in such surgery. Most of these patients belong to smaller age group and have difficult airway due to various syndromes associated with it. The other major problems faced by the anesthesiologist in such surgery are intra-operative hypothermia due to prolonged surgery and significant blood loss as well as fluid shifts associated with it. A well-equipped intensive care unit is a must for the post-operative care of such patients. Even the adult patients coming for maxillofacial trauma surgery require careful vigilance both intra-operatively as well as post-operatively due to frequent difficult airway associated with it. A careful pre-operative evaluation and discussion with the surgeons, proper planning for airway management, intra-operative care and post-operative intensive care backup is required for the successful outcome in these surgeries. The current review is an attempt to describe in short the important anesthesia aspects and challenges related to various cranio-maxillary lesions.

  8. Characterization of the bending strength of craniofacial sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloul, Asmaa; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Whyne, Cari M

    2013-03-15

    The complex, thin and irregular bones of the human craniofacial skeleton (CFS) are connected together through bony articulations and connective tissues. These articulations are known as sutures and are commonly divided into two groups, facial and cranial sutures, based on their location in the CFS. CFS sutures can exhibit highly variable degrees of interdigitation and complexity and are believed to play a role in accommodating the mechanical demands of the skull. This study aimed to evaluate the mechanical behavior of CFS bone samples with and without sutures and to determine the effect of sutural interdigitations on mechanical strength. Sagittal, coronal, frontozygomatic and zygomaticotemporal sutures along with adjacent bone samples not containing sutures were excised from six fresh-frozen cadaveric heads. The interdigitation of the sutures was quantified through μCT based analysis. Three-point bending to failure was performed on a total of 29 samples. The bending strength of bone samples without sutures demonstrated a non-significant increase of 14% as compared to samples containing sutures (P=0.2). The bending strength of bones containing sutures was positively correlated to the sutural interdigitation index (R=0.701, P=0.002). The higher interdigitation indices found in human cranial vs. facial sutures may be present to resist bending loads as a functional requirement in protecting the brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bone markers in craniofacial bone deformations and dysplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Seifert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of bony deformations and dysplasias are often present in the facial skeleton. Bone defects can be either localized or general. Quite often they are not only present in the skull but also can be found in other parts of the skeleton. In many cases the presence and levels of specific bone markers should be measured in order to fully describe their activity and presence in the skeleton. Fibrous dysplasia (FD is the most common one in the facial skeleton; however, other bone deformations regarding bone growth and activity can also be present. Every clinician should be aware of all common, rare and uncommon bony diseases and conditions such as cherubism, Paget’s disease, osteogenesis imperfecta and others related to genetic conditions. We present standard (calcium, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and specialized bone markers (pyridinium, deoxypyridinium, hydroxyproline, RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway, growth hormone, insulin-like growth hormone-1 that can be used to evaluate, measure or describe the processes occurring in craniofacial bones.

  10. Analysis of an In-Service Examination for Core Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Chang, Benjamin; Taylor, Jesse A

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about designing an effective residency curriculum for pediatric craniofacial surgery. This study elucidates the pediatric craniofacial curriculum of the Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Examination (PSITE) to facilitate knowledge acquisition during residency. Approximately, 6 consecutive PSITEs were reviewed for pediatric craniofacial questions (2010-2015). Subjects were categorized according to topics on the American Board of Plastic Surgery written board examination. Questions were categorized using an educational taxonomy model. Answer references were categorized by source and publication lag. Of 1174 PSITE questions, 147 tested pediatric craniofacial topics (12.5%). Questions appeared predominately in the Craniomaxillofacial section (83.0%, p < 0.001). The annual representation was stable more than 6 years (range: 10.2%-14.4%, p = 0.842). Question taxonomy favored interpretation (45.6%) and decision-making (40.8%) over recall (13.6%, p < 0.001) skills, and 41 questions had an associated image (27.9%) and most were photographic (76.7%, p < 0.001). The most frequently tested categories on the American Board of Plastic Surgery written examination content outline were craniofacial anomalies (23.5%), benign and malignant tumors (17.6%), and cleft lip and palate (12.5%). Overall, 80 unique journals were cited 304 times with a mean publication lag of 9.4 ± 10.9 years. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (34.5%) was the most cited journal (p < 0.001). These data may assist in designating core knowledge competency in pediatric craniofacial surgery for plastic surgery residents. A further understanding of PSITE utility for core knowledge competency in pediatric craniofacial surgery would be the focus of future work. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evoked Brain Activity and Personnel Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Shucard and Horn (1972), Galbraith, Gliddon, and Busk (1970), and Callaway (1975), the latter using Navy recruits. Callaway’s own work was reported at...G.C., Gliddon, J.B., & Busk , J. (1970). Visual evoked responses in mentally retarded and nonretarded subjects. American Journal of Mental Deficiency

  12. Is Urgent Evoke a Digital Ba?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmand, Mette

    2018-01-01

    of such a platform, the World Bank’s online game Urgent Evoke, which has been designed with the pur- pose of engaging citizens in developing innovative solutions for sociopolitical problems like poverty. The analysis is based on Nonaka’s concept of Ba, which means “place” and is described as a platform for advancing...

  13. Auditory and visual evoked potentials during hyperoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. B. D.; Strawbridge, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental study of the auditory and visual averaged evoked potentials (AEPs) recorded during hyperoxia, and investigation of the effect of hyperoxia on the so-called contingent negative variation (CNV). No effect of hyperoxia was found on the auditory AEP, the visual AEP, or the CNV. Comparisons with previous studies are discussed.

  14. Interhemispheric Asymmetries in Visual Evoked Potential Amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-12

    Layne, 1965) and of patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome (Malerstein and Callaway, 1969) . In the schizophrenics, the high variability is related to poor...communication. Malerstein, A. J., Callaway, E. Two-tone average evoked response in Korsakoff patients. J. Psychiatr. Res. 6: 253-260, 1969. Marsh, G

  15. Effect of caffeine on vestibular evoked myogenic potential: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Maria Eduarda Di Cavalcanti Alves de; Costa, Klinger Vagner Teixeira da; Menezes, Pedro de Lemos

    2017-12-24

    Caffeine can be considered the most consumed drug by adults worldwide, and can be found in several foods, such as chocolate, coffee, tea, soda and others. Overall, caffeine in moderate doses, results in increased physical and intellectual productivity, increases the capacity of concentration and reduces the time of reaction to sensory stimuli. On the other hand, high doses can cause noticeable signs of mental confusion and error induction in intellectual tasks, anxiety, restlessness, muscle tremors, tachycardia, labyrinthine changes, and tinnitus. Considering that the vestibular evoked myogenic potential is a clinical test that evaluates the muscular response of high intensity auditory stimulation, the present systematic review aimed to analyze the effects of caffeine on vestibular evoked myogenic potential. This study consisted of the search of the following databases: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, SciELO and ClinicalTrials.gov. Additionally, the gray literature was also searched. The search strategy included terms related to intervention (caffeine or coffee consumption) and the primary outcome (vestibular evoked myogenic potential). Based on the 253 potentially relevant articles identified through the database search, only two full-text publications were retrieved for further evaluation, which were maintained for qualitative analysis. Analyzing the articles found, caffeine has no effect on vestibular evoked myogenic potential in normal individuals. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-channel motor evoked potential monitoring during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gun Kim

    Full Text Available Objectives: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF surgery is the most common surgical procedure for the cervical spine with low complication rate. Despite the potential prognostic benefit, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM, a method for detecting impending neurological compromise, is not routinely used in ACDF surgery. The present study aimed to identify the potential benefits of monitoring multi-channel motor evoked potentials (MEPs during ACDF surgery. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 200 consecutive patients who received IONM with multi-channel MEPs and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs. On average, 9.2 muscles per patient were evaluated under MEP monitoring. Results: The rate of MEP change during surgery in the multi-level ACDF group was significantly higher than the single-level group. Two patients from the single-level ACDF group (1.7% and four patients from the multi-level ACDF group (4.9% experienced post-operative motor deficits. Multi-channel MEPs monitoring during single and multi-level ACDF surgery demonstrated higher sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive value than SSEP monitoring. Conclusions: Multi-channel MEP monitoring might be beneficial for the detection of segmental injury as well as long tract injury during single- and multi-level ACDF surgery. Significance: This is first large scale study to identify the usefulness of multi-channel MEPs in monitoring ACDF surgery. Keywords: Disc disease, Somatosensory evoked potentials, Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, Motor evoked potentials, Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

  17. Craniofacial morphometric analysis of individuals with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alice F; Larson, Jacinda R; Jones, Kyle B; Liberton, Denise K; Landan, Maya; Wang, Zhifeng; Boekelheide, Anne; Langham, Margaret; Mushegyan, Vagan; Oberoi, Snehlata; Brao, Rosalie; Wen, Timothy; Johnson, Ramsey; Huttner, Kenneth; Grange, Dorothy K; Spritz, Richard A; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Jheon, Andrew H; Klein, Ophir D

    2014-09-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most prevalent type of ectodermal dysplasia (ED). ED is an umbrella term for a group of syndromes characterized by missing or malformed ectodermal structures, including skin, hair, sweat glands, and teeth. The X-linked recessive (XL), autosomal recessive (AR), and autosomal dominant (AD) types of HED are caused by mutations in the genes encoding ectodysplasin (EDA1), EDA receptor (EDAR), or EDAR-associated death domain (EDARADD). Patients with HED have a distinctive facial appearance, yet a quantitative analysis of the HED craniofacial phenotype using advanced three-dimensional (3D) technologies has not been reported. In this study, we characterized craniofacial morphology in subjects with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) by use of 3D imaging and geometric morphometrics (GM), a technique that uses defined landmarks to quantify size and shape in complex craniofacial morphologies. We found that the XLHED craniofacial phenotype differed significantly from controls. Patients had a smaller and shorter face with a proportionally longer chin and midface, prominent midfacial hypoplasia, a more protrusive chin and mandible, a narrower and more pointed nose, shorter philtrum, a narrower mouth, and a fuller and more rounded lower lip. Our findings refine the phenotype of XLHED and may be useful both for clinical diagnosis of XLHED and to extend understanding of the role of EDA in craniofacial development.

  18. The imaging findings of metastatic neuroblastoma in the craniofacial bone in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Xin; Wang Zhenchang; Xian Junfang; Li Mei; Yan Fei; Chen Qinghua; Yang Bentao; Chang Qinglin; Tian Qichang; Liu Zhonglin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristic imaging findings of metastatic neuroblastoma in the craniofacial bone in children. Methods: Imaging findings in 12 patients with metastatic neuroblastoma in the craniofacial bone were analyzed retrospectively. Among them, 10 patients undenvent plain CT scan, 6 underwent MRI and 7 underwent whole body single-photon emission computed tomography bone scanning. Results: In the 10 patients with CT images, lytic bone destruction and soft tissue masses were found in 9 eases, in which periosteal reaction was observed in 8 patients with spiculated periosteal reaction in 3 patients. The remaining 1 patient didn't show any abnormalities on CT images but had abnormal findings in bone scanning. Six patients with MR images showed abnormal signal intensity in the bone marrow of the craniofacial bone and adjacent soft tissue masses. Postcontrast T 1 -weighted imaging in 5 patients demonstrated remarkable enhancement of the bone marrow and soft tissue masses. Bone scanning of 7 patients showed abnormal foci of increased radionuclide activity of the craniofacial bone in 7 patients and metastasis at other body parts in 6 patients. Conclusion: The metastatic neuroblastoma in the craniofacial bone has its characteristic imaging findings which are helpful for correct diagnosis. (authors)

  19. Three-Dimensional Bioprinting for Regenerative Dentistry and Craniofacial Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregon, F; Vaquette, C; Ivanovski, S; Hutmacher, D W; Bertassoni, L E

    2015-09-01

    Craniofacial tissues are organized with complex 3-dimensional (3D) architectures. Mimicking such 3D complexity and the multicellular interactions naturally occurring in craniofacial structures represents one of the greatest challenges in regenerative dentistry. Three-dimensional bioprinting of tissues and biological structures has been proposed as a promising alternative to address some of these key challenges. It enables precise manufacture of various biomaterials with complex 3D architectures, while being compatible with multiple cell sources and being customizable to patient-specific needs. This review describes different 3D bioprinting methods and summarizes how different classes of biomaterials (polymer hydrogels, ceramics, composites, and cell aggregates) may be used for 3D biomanufacturing of scaffolds, as well as craniofacial tissue analogs. While the fabrication of scaffolds upon which cells attach, migrate, and proliferate is already in use, printing of all the components that form a tissue (living cells and matrix materials together) to produce tissue constructs is still in its early stages. In summary, this review seeks to highlight some of the key advantages of 3D bioprinting technology for the regeneration of craniofacial structures. Additionally, it stimulates progress on the development of strategies that will promote the translation of craniofacial tissue engineering from the laboratory bench to the chair side. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  20. Forecasting craniofacial growth in individuals with class III malocclusion by computational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auconi, Pietro; Scazzocchio, Marco; Defraia, Efisio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2014-04-01

    To develop a mathematical model that adequately represented the pattern of craniofacial growth in class III subject consistently, with the goal of using this information to make growth predictions that could be amenable to longitudinal verification and clinical use. A combination of computational techniques (i.e. Fuzzy clustering and Network analysis) was applied to cephalometric data derived from 429 untreated growing female patients with class III malocclusion to visualize craniofacial growth dynamics and correlations. Four age groups of subjects were examined individually: from 7 to 9 years of age, from 10 to 12 years, from 13 to 14 years, and from 15 to 17 years. The connections between pathway components of class III craniofacial growth can be visualized from Network profiles. Fuzzy clustering analysis was able to define further growth patterns and coherences of the traditionally reported dentoskeletal characteristics of this structural imbalance. Craniofacial growth can be visualized as a biological, space-constraint-based optimization process; the prediction of individual growth trajectories depends on the rate of membership to a specific 'winner' cluster, i.e. on a specific individual growth strategy. The reliability of the information thus gained was tested to forecast craniofacial growth of 28 untreated female class III subjects followed longitudinally. The combination of Fuzzy clustering and Network algorithms allowed the development of principles for combining multiple auxological cephalometric features into a joint global model and to predict the individual risk of the facial pattern imbalance during growth.

  1. Customized Polymethyl Methacrylate Implants for the Reconstruction of Craniofacial Osseous Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Fernandes da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial defects represent alterations in the anatomy and morphology of the cranial vault and the facial bones that potentially affect an individual’s psychological and social well-being. Although a variety of techniques and restorative procedures have been described for the reconstruction of the affected area, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, a biocompatible and nondegradable acrylic resin-based implant, is the most widely used alloplastic material for such craniomaxillofacial reconstruction. The aim of this study was to describe a technique for aesthetic and functional preoperative customized reconstruction of craniofacial bone defects from a small series of patients offered by the Brazilian public health system. Three adult male patients attended consultation with chief complaints directly related to their individual craniofacial bone defects. With the aid of multislice computed tomography scans and subsequent fabrication of the three-dimensional craniofacial prototype, custom-made PMMA implants were fabricated preoperatively. Under general anesthesia, with access to the craniofacial defects with a coronal approach, the PMMA implants were adapted and fixated to the facial skeleton with titanium plates and screws. Postoperative evaluation demonstrated uneventful recovery and an excellent aesthetic result. Customized prefabricated PMMA implants manufactured over the rapid prototyping models proved to be effective and feasible.

  2. Craniofacial morphology and sleep apnea in children with obstructed upper airways: differences between genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Renata; Monteiro, Roberta; Paulo, Maria Luiza de Melo; Buranello, Fernando; Imamura, Rui

    2012-06-01

    To correlate sleep apnea with craniofacial characteristics and facial patterns according to gender. In this prospective survey we studied 77 male and female children (3-12 years old) with an upper airway obstruction due to tonsil and adenoid enlargement. Children with lung problems, neurological disorders and syndromes, obstructive septal deviation, previous orthodontic treatment, orthodontic surgeries or oral surgeries, or obesity were excluded. Patients were subjected to physical examinations, nasal fiberoptic endoscopy, teleradiography for cephalometric analysis, and polysomnography. Cephalometric analysis included the following skeletal craniofacial measurements: facial axis (FA), facial depth (FD), mandibular plane angle (MP), lower facial height (LFH), mandibular arch (MA), and vertical growth coefficient (VERT) index. The prevalence of sleep apnea was 46.75% with no statistical difference between genders. Among children with obstructive sleep apnea (Apneia Hypopnea Index - AHI ≥ 1) boys had higher AHI values than girls. A predominance of the dolichofacial pattern (81.9%) was observed. The following skeletal craniofacial measurements correlated with AHI in boys: FD (r(s)=-0.336/p=0.020), MP (r(s)=0.486/p=0.00), and VERT index (r(s)=-0.337/p=0.019). No correlations between craniofacial measurements and AHI were identified in girls. Craniofacial morphology may influence the severity of sleep apnea in boys but not in girls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of three-dimensional computed tomography in craniofacial clinical practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P J; Yong, R; Surman, T L; Rajion, Z A; Ranjitkar, S

    2014-06-01

    Following the invention of the first computed tomography (CT) scanner in the early 1970s, many innovations in three-dimensional (3D) diagnostic imaging technology have occurred, leading to a wide range of applications in craniofacial clinical practice and research. Three-dimensional image analysis provides superior and more detailed information compared with conventional plain two-dimensional (2D) radiography, with the added benefit of 3D printing for preoperative treatment planning and regenerative therapy. Current state-of-the-art multidetector CT (MDCT), also known as medical CT, has an important role in the diagnosis and management of craniofacial injuries and pathology. Three-dimensional cone beam CT (CBCT), pioneered in the 1990s, is gaining increasing popularity in dental and craniofacial clinical practice because of its faster image acquisition at a lower radiation dose, but sound guidelines are needed to ensure its optimal clinical use. Recent innovations in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) have revolutionized craniofacial biology research by enabling higher resolution scanning of teeth beyond the capabilities of MDCT and CBCT, presenting new prospects for translational clinical research. Even after four decades of refinement, CT technology continues to advance and broaden the horizons of craniofacial clinical practice and phenomics research. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  4. Normalization of auditory evoked potential and visual evoked potential in patients with idiot savant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Zhang, M; Wang, J; Lou, F; Liang, J

    1999-03-01

    To investigate the variations of auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) of patients with idiot savant (IS) syndrome. Both AEP and VEP were recorded from 7 patients with IS syndrome, 21 mentally retarded (MR) children without the syndrome and 21 normally age-matched controls, using a Dantec concerto SEEG-16 BEAM instrument. Both AEP and VEP of MR group showed significantly longer latencies (P1 and P2 latencies of AEP, P savant syndrome presented normalized AEP and VEP.

  5. Combined ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential in individuals with vestibular hyporeflexia and in patients with Ménière's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tatiana Rocha; de Resende, Luciana Macedo; Santos, Marco Aurélio Rocha

    The vestibular evoked myogenic potential is a potential of mean latency that measures the muscle response to auditory stimulation. This potential can be generated from the contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and also from the contraction of extraocular muscles in response to high-intensity sounds. This study presents a combined or simultaneous technique of cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential in individuals with changes in the vestibular system, for use in otoneurologic diagnosis. To characterize the records and analyze the results of combined cervical and ocular VEMP in individuals with vestibular hyporeflexia and in those with Ménière's disease. The study included 120 subjects: 30 subjects with vestibular hyporeflexia, 30 with Ménière's disease, and 60 individuals with normal hearing. Data collection was performed by simultaneously recording the cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential. There were differences between the study groups (individuals with vestibular hyporeflexia and individuals with Ménière's disease) and the control group for most of wave parameters in combined cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential. For cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential, it was observed that the prolongation of latency of the P13 and N23 waves was the most frequent finding in the group with vestibular hyporeflexia and in the group with Ménière's disease. For ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential, prolonged latency of N10 and P15 waves was the most frequent finding in the study groups. Combined cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential presented relevant results for individuals with vestibular hyporeflexia and for those with Ménière's disease. There were differences between the study groups and the control group for most of the wave parameters in combined cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia

  6. Genetic influence demonstrated for MEG-recorded somatosensory evoked responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Ent, D.; van Soelen, I.L.C.; Stam, K.J.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2010-01-01

    We tested for a genetic influence on magnetoencephalogram (MEG)-recorded somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) in 20 monozygotic (MZ) and 14 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. Previous electroencephalogram (EEG) studies that demonstrated a genetic contribution to evoked responses generally focused on

  7. Visually Evoked Spiking Evolves While Spontaneous Ongoing Dynamics Persist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K; Darokhan, Ziauddin

    2016-01-01

    attractor. Its existence guarantees that evoked spiking return to the spontaneous state. However, the spontaneous ongoing spiking state and the visual evoked spiking states are qualitatively different and are separated by a threshold (separatrix). The functional advantage of this organization...

  8. Click-Evoked Auditory Efferent Activity: Rate and Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothalingam, Sriram; Kurke, Julianne; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2018-05-07

    There currently are no standardized protocols to evaluate auditory efferent function in humans. Typical tests use broadband noise to activate the efferents, but only test the contralateral efferent pathway, risk activating the middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR), and are laborious for clinical use. In an attempt to develop a clinical test of bilateral auditory efferent function, we have designed a method that uses clicks to evoke efferent activity, obtain click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), and monitor MEMR. This allows for near-simultaneous estimation of cochlear and efferent function. In the present study, we manipulated click level (60, 70, and 80 dB peak-equivalent sound pressure level [peSPL]) and rate (40, 50, and 62.5 Hz) to identify an optimal rate-level combination that evokes measurable efferent modulation of CEOAEs. Our findings (n = 58) demonstrate that almost all click levels and rates used caused significant inhibition of CEOAEs, with a significant interaction between level and rate effects. Predictably, bilateral activation produced greater inhibition compared to stimulating the efferents only in the ipsilateral or contralateral ear. In examining the click rate-level effects during bilateral activation in greater detail, we observed a 1-dB inhibition of CEOAE level for each 10-dB increase in click level, with rate held constant at 62.5 Hz. Similarly, a 10-Hz increase in rate produced a 0.74-dB reduction in CEOAE level, with click level held constant at 80 dB peSPL. The effect size (Cohen's d) was small for either monaural condition and medium for bilateral, faster-rate, and higher-level conditions. We were also able to reliably extract CEOAEs from efferent eliciting clicks. We conclude that clicks can indeed be profitably employed to simultaneously evaluate cochlear health using CEOAEs as well as their efferent modulation. Furthermore, using bilateral clicks allows the evaluation of both the crossed and uncrossed elements of the auditory

  9. Characterization of craniofacial sutures using the finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloul, Asmaa; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Wagner, Diane; Whyne, Cari M

    2014-01-03

    Characterizing the biomechanical behavior of sutures in the human craniofacial skeleton (CFS) is essential to understand the global impact of these articulations on load transmission, but is challenging due to the complexity of their interdigitated morphology, the multidirectional loading they are exposed to and the lack of well-defined suture material properties. This study aimed to quantify the impact of morphological features, direction of loading and suture material properties on the mechanical behavior of sutures and surrounding bone in the CFS. Thirty-six idealized finite element (FE) models were developed. One additional specimen-specific FE model was developed based on the morphology obtained from a µCT scan to represent the morphological complexity inherent in CFS sutures. Outcome variables of strain energy (SE) and von Mises stress (σvm) were evaluated to characterize the sutures' biomechanical behavior. Loading direction was found to impact the relationship between SE and interdigitation index and yielded varied patterns of σvm in both the suture and surrounding bone. Adding bone connectivity reduced suture strain energy and altered the σvm distribution. Incorporating transversely isotropic material properties was found to reduce SE, but had little impact on stress patterns. High-resolution µCT scanning of the suture revealed a complex morphology with areas of high and low interdigitations. The specimen specific suture model results were reflective of SE absorption and σvm distribution patterns consistent with the simplified FE results. Suture mechanical behavior is impacted by morphologic factors (interdigitation and connectivity), which may be optimized for regional loading within the CFS. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The heterogeneity of craniofacial morphology in Prader-Willi patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belengeanu, D; Bratu, Cristina; Stoian, Monica; Motoc, A; Ormerod, Eli; Podariu, Angela Codruţa; Farcaş, Simona; Andreescu, Nicoleta

    2012-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome is a complex genetic disorder with narrow spectrum of facial phenotypic signs, which make the clinical diagnosis difficult in some cases. There are several reports describing the craniofacial appearance of Prader-Willi patients, but there are only a few cephalometric studies for these patients. In this study were included 18 patients with Prader-Willi syndrome and a control group of 18 subjects of both sexes selected based on specific criteria. The cephalometric radiographs of the patients were taken using the standardized technique with centric teeth in occlusion and lips in relaxed position. Angular, horizontal and linear measurements were analyzed for the study group and for the control group. We established that in Prader-Willi patients, there is a decrease of the majority of parameters but the degree of this reduction varies widely between patients and clinically typical facies not always have smaller measurements which can be found in an unusual facies. Facial dysmorphism in Prader-Willi patients varies a group ranging from miss proportions that do not alter the facial architecture as regard of facial typology, skeletal class and pattern of development to a severe disturbance of those. There is a degree of clinical heterogeneity between subjects with Prader-Willi syndrome on clinical evaluation and cephalometric study confirms the heterogeneity for this patients. Because the identification of smaller dimensions for majority of parameters in children and adults, the possibility of developmental delay or growth retardation delay can be excluded. These findings are important for the orthodontist for optimum timing of orthodontic management of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome.

  11. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.)

  12. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-08-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.).

  13. Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technology in Craniofacial Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Woo Choi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to medicine via computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing. To investigate the current status of 3D printing technology and its clinical application, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. In addition, the benefits and possibilities of the clinical application of 3D printing in craniofacial surgery are reviewed, based on personal experiences with more than 500 craniofacial cases conducted using 3D printing tactile prototype models.

  14. Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technology in Craniofacial Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namkug

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to medicine via computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing. To investigate the current status of 3D printing technology and its clinical application, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. In addition, the benefits and possibilities of the clinical application of 3D printing in craniofacial surgery are reviewed, based on personal experiences with more than 500 craniofacial cases conducted using 3D printing tactile prototype models. PMID:26015880

  15. EEG and EMG responses to emotion-evoking stimuli processed without conscious awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, B E; Warrenburg, S; Schwartz, G E; Janer, L D

    1992-12-01

    Dichotic stimulus pairs were constructed with one word that was emotionally neutral and another that evoked either negative or positive feelings. Temporal and spectral overlap between the members of each pair was so great that the two words fused into a single auditory percept. Subjects were consciously aware of hearing only one word from most pairs; sometimes the emotion-evoking word was heard consciously, other times the neutral word was heard consciously. Subjects were instructed to let their thoughts wander in response to the word they heard, during which time EEG alpha activity over left and right frontal regions, and muscle activity (EMG) in the corrugator ("frowning") and zygomatic ("smiling") regions were recorded. Both EEG and EMG provided evidence of emotion-specific responses to stimuli that were processed without conscious awareness. Moreover both suggested relatively greater right hemisphere activity with unconscious rather than conscious processing.

  16. Relationships between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability in patients with cervico-craniofacial pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Beltran-Alacreu, Hector; Paris-Alemany, Alba; Angulo-Díaz-Parreño, Santiago; La Touche, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This cross-sectional correlation study explored the relationships between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability in patients with chronic cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP). Moreover, we investigated the test–retest intrarater reliability of two craniocervical posture measurements: head posture (HP) and the sternomental distance (SMD). Methods Fifty-three asymptomatic subjects and 60 CCFP patients were recruited. One rater measured HP and the SMD using a cervical range of motion device and a digital caliper, respectively. The Spanish versions of the neck disability index and the craniofacial pain and disability inventory were used to assess pain-related disability (neck disability and craniofacial disability, respectively). Results We found no statistically significant correlations between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability variables (HP and neck disability [r=0.105; P>0.05]; HP and craniofacial disability [r=0.132; P>0.05]; SMD and neck disability [r=0.126; P>0.05]; SMD and craniofacial disability [r=0.195; P>0.05]). A moderate positive correlation was observed between HP and SMD for both groups (asymptomatic subjects, r=0.447; CCFP patients, r=0.52). Neck disability was strongly positively correlated with craniofacial disability (r=0.79; Pposture, but these differences were very small (mean difference =1.44 cm for HP; 6.24 mm for SMD). The effect sizes reached by these values were estimated to be small for SMD (d=0.38) and medium for HP (d=0.76). Conclusion The results showed no statistically significant correlations between craniocervical posture and variables of pain-related disability, but a strong correlation between the two variables of disability was found. Our findings suggest that small differences between CCFP patients and asymptomatic subjects exist with respect to the two measurements used to assess craniocervical posture (HP and SMD), and these measures demonstrated high test–retest intrarater reliability for

  17. Flood, disaster, and turmoil: social issues in cleft and craniofacial care and crisis relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Ronald P; van Aalst, John A; Fox, Lynn; Stein, Margot; Moses, Michael; Cassell, Cynthia H

    2011-11-01

    To examine social issues in the conduct of cleft and craniofacial care through relief programs in disrupted crisis contexts. Social, health policy, and ethical analyses. At best, craniofacial team care is multidisciplinary, coordinated, and sustained, requiring a long-term relationship between team members, patients, and families. Disasters and societal turmoil interrupt such relationships, causing craniofacial care to become a secondary concern. Providing craniofacial team care in a crisis setting requires rebuilding disrupted coordination and communication. Crisis relief care involves a complex set of expectations and responsibilities and raises issues such as (1) quality assurance, infection control, appropriate standards of care, and follow-up care/continuity; (2) equity of access to services and clinical ethics in the context of war and/or deprivation; (3) training of visitors in the local nation or site; (4) disciplinary composition of teams, interprofessional communication/rivalry, and credentials of clinicians; (5) ownership of the site and local visitor relations; (6) fundraising and marketing strategies; and (7) ethical issues in the doctor-patient relationship. Specific ethical standards for international cleft and craniofacial care delivery also apply to domestic and global crisis relief contexts. Guidance on issues related to professional experience, informed consent, and continuity of care will help care providers address social and ethical issues raised in crisis relief programs. This paper proposes that the Position Paper of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association (ACPA) on International Treatment Programs should be used as a template to develop and disseminate a set of standards that apply to crisis relief.

  18. Thought-evoking approaches in engineering problems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    In creating the value-added product in not distant future, it is necessary and inevitable to establish a holistic and though-evoking approach to the engineering problem, which should be at least associated with the inter-disciplinary knowledge and thought processes across the whole engineering spheres. It is furthermore desirable to integrate it with trans-disciplinary aspects ranging from manufacturing culture, through liberal-arts engineering, and industrial sociology.   The thought-evoking approach can be exemplified and typified by representative engineering problems: unveiling essential features in ‘Tangential Force Ratio and Interface Pressure’, prototype development for ‘Bio-mimetic Needle’ and application of ‘Water-jet Machining to Artificial Hip Joint’, product innovation in ‘Heat Sink for Computer’, application of ‘Graph Theory’ to similarity evaluation of production systems, leverage among reciprocity attributes in ‘Industrial and Engineering Designs for Machine Enclosure’,...

  19. Craniofacial norms in white adult males. Final report 1 Oct 80-30 Sep 83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, K.K.; Lestrel, P.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish clinical 'norms' of craniofacial skeletal orientation and the associated soft tissue facial profile for adult white males. Lateral and frontal cephalometric radiographs and study casts taken on 305 white males, with 28 or more teeth and 25-75 years of age, were used to develop these craniofacial standards. The goal of the research program has been to develop a computerized approach based upon dentofacial templates for the fabrication of complete dentures and to define clinical standards that can be applied in assessing the prosthodontic and orthodontic treatment needs of adult patients

  20. Short-interval and long-interval intracortical inhibition of TMS-evoked EEG potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premoli, Isabella; Király, Julia; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Zipser, Carl M; Rossini, Pierre; Zrenner, Christoph; Ziemann, Ulf; Belardinelli, Paolo

    2018-03-15

    Inhibition in the human motor cortex can be probed by means of paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) at interstimulus intervals of 2-3 ms (short-interval intracortical inhibition, SICI) or ∼100 ms (long-interval intracortical inhibition, LICI). Conventionally, SICI and LICI are recorded as motor evoked potential (MEP) inhibition in the hand muscle. Pharmacological experiments indicate that they are mediated by GABAA and GABAB receptors, respectively. SICI and LICI of TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) and their pharmacological properties have not been systematically studied. Here, we sought to examine SICI by ppTMS-evoked compared to single-pulse TMS-evoked TEPs, to investigate its pharmacological manipulation and to compare SICI with our previous results on LICI. PpTMS-EEG was applied to the left motor cortex in 16 healthy subjects in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, testing the effects of a single oral dose 20 mg of diazepam, a positive modulator at the GABAA receptor, vs. 50 mg of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on SICI of TEPs. We found significant SICI of the N100 and P180 TEPs prior to drug intake. Diazepam reduced SICI of the N100 TEP, while baclofen enhanced it. Compared to our previous ppTMS-EEG results on LICI, the SICI effects on TEPs, including their drug modulation, were largely analogous. Findings suggest a similar interaction of paired-pulse effects on TEPs irrespective of the interstimulus interval. Therefore, SICI and LICI as measured with TEPs cannot be directly derived from SICI and LICI measured with MEPs, but may offer novel insight into paired-pulse responses recorded directly from the brain rather than muscle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Botulinum toxin injection causes hyper-reflexia and increased muscle stiffness of the triceps surae muscle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Wienecke, Jacob; Lorentzen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum toxin is used to diminish spasticity and reduce the risk of development of contractures. Here, we investigated changes in muscle stiffness caused by reflex activity or elastic muscle properties following botulinum toxin injection in the triceps surae muscle in rats. Forty-four rats...... received injection of botulinum toxin in the left triceps surae muscle. Control measurements were performed on the non-injected contralateral side in all rats. Acute experiments were performed 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks following injection. The triceps surae muscle was dissected free, the Achilles tendon was cut...... and attached to a muscle puller. The resistance of the muscle to stretches of different amplitudes and velocities was systematically investigated. Reflex mediated torque was normalized to the maximal muscle force (Mmax) evoked by supramaximal stimulation of the tibial nerve. Botulinum toxin injection caused...

  2. Effect of practicing yoga on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shambhu, Tejaswini; Kumar, Shubhaganga Dhrruva; Prabhu, Prashanth

    2017-10-01

    The present study attempted to determine the effect of practicing yoga on functioning of sacculo-collic pathway using cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP). cVEMP was recorded from 40 participants (20 who practice yoga regularly and 20 who do not practice yoga regularly). The differences in amplitude of P1, N1, P1-N1 complex, asymmetry ratio and latencies of P1 and N1 of cVEMP were compared between both the groups. The results of the study showed that there was a significant increase (p yoga was significantly lower (Mean = 6.73) compared to the control group (Mean = 19.13). Multivariate regression analyses suggested that the number of years of yoga practice significantly predicted the amplitude of P1-N1 complex (β = 0.70, p yoga improves postural control and strengthens the muscles and vestibular system leading to enhanced cVEMP responses. The plastic changes in the vestibular system and increased muscular strength because of constant practicing of yoga could have led to changes in cVEMP responses. However, further studies on a larger group of individuals are essential for better clinical applicability of the results.

  3. Unilateral cleft lip and palate : treatment outcome and long-term craniofacial growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollet, Petrus Josephus Paulinus Maria

    2006-01-01

    Treatment results of children with a complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate (UCLP) from the Cleft Palate Craniofacial Unit of the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre were evaluated and compared with prominent European cleft centers. Treatment outcome of the Nijmegen patients with UCLP and

  4. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel; Review of NIDCR Institutional Career Development Award K12... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, One Democracy Plaza, 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Victor Henriquez, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer...

  5. G-Protein α-Subunit Gsα Is Required for Craniofacial Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run Lei

    Full Text Available The heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gsα couples receptors to activate adenylyl cyclase and is required for the intracellular cAMP response and protein kinase A (PKA activation. Gsα is ubiquitously expressed in many cell types; however, the role of Gsα in neural crest cells (NCCs remains unclear. Here we report that NCCs-specific Gsα knockout mice die within hours after birth and exhibit dramatic craniofacial malformations, including hypoplastic maxilla and mandible, cleft palate and craniofacial skeleton defects. Histological and anatomical analysis reveal that the cleft palate in Gsα knockout mice is a secondary defect resulting from craniofacial skeleton deficiencies. In Gsα knockout mice, the morphologies of NCCs-derived cranial nerves are normal, but the development of dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia are impaired. Furthermore, loss of Gsα in NCCs does not affect cranial NCCs migration or cell proliferation, but significantly accelerate osteochondrogenic differentiation. Taken together, our study suggests that Gsα is required for neural crest cells-derived craniofacial development.

  6. Increased levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds underlie the craniofacial disorder, Treacher Collins syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-01-01

    mice die perinatally as a result of severe craniofacial anomalies that include agenesis of the nasal passages, abnormal development of the maxilla, exencephaly and anophthalmia. These defects arise due to a massive increase in the levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds, which are the site...

  7. Effectiveness of the cervical vertebral maturation method to predict postpeak circumpubertal growth of craniofacial structures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fudalej, P.S.; Bollen, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to assess effectiveness of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method to predict circumpubertal craniofacial growth in the postpeak period. METHODS: The CVM stage was determined in 176 subjects (51 adolescent boys and 125 adolescent girls) on cephalograms taken at the

  8. Murine craniofacial development requires Hdac3-mediated repression of Msx gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikhil; Gupta, Mudit; Trivedi, Chinmay M; Singh, Manvendra K; Li, Li; Epstein, Jonathan A

    2013-05-15

    Craniofacial development is characterized by reciprocal interactions between neural crest cells and neighboring cell populations of ectodermal, endodermal and mesodermal origin. Various genetic pathways play critical roles in coordinating the development of cranial structures by modulating the growth, survival and differentiation of neural crest cells. However, the regulation of these pathways, particularly at the epigenomic level, remains poorly understood. Using murine genetics, we show that neural crest cells exhibit a requirement for the class I histone deacetylase Hdac3 during craniofacial development. Mice in which Hdac3 has been conditionally deleted in neural crest demonstrate fully penetrant craniofacial abnormalities, including microcephaly, cleft secondary palate and dental hypoplasia. Consistent with these abnormalities, we observe dysregulation of cell cycle genes and increased apoptosis in neural crest structures in mutant embryos. Known regulators of cell cycle progression and apoptosis in neural crest, including Msx1, Msx2 and Bmp4, are upregulated in Hdac3-deficient cranial mesenchyme. These results suggest that Hdac3 serves as a critical regulator of craniofacial morphogenesis, in part by repressing core apoptotic pathways in cranial neural crest cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The FaceBase Consortium: a comprehensive resource for craniofacial researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, James F.; Fisher, Shannon; Harris, Matthew P.; Holmes, Greg; Hooper, Joan E.; Wang Jabs, Ethylin; Jones, Kenneth L.; Kesselman, Carl; Klein, Ophir D.; Maas, Richard L.; Marazita, Mary L.; Selleri, Licia; Spritz, Richard A.; van Bakel, Harm; Visel, Axel; Williams, Trevor J.; Wysocka, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The FaceBase Consortium, funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, is designed to accelerate understanding of craniofacial developmental biology by generating comprehensive data resources to empower the research community, exploring high-throughput technology, fostering new scientific collaborations among researchers and human/computer interactions, facilitating hypothesis-driven research and translating science into improved health care to benefit patients. The resources generated by the FaceBase projects include a number of dynamic imaging modalities, genome-wide association studies, software tools for analyzing human facial abnormalities, detailed phenotyping, anatomical and molecular atlases, global and specific gene expression patterns, and transcriptional profiling over the course of embryonic and postnatal development in animal models and humans. The integrated data visualization tools, faceted search infrastructure, and curation provided by the FaceBase Hub offer flexible and intuitive ways to interact with these multidisciplinary data. In parallel, the datasets also offer unique opportunities for new collaborations and training for researchers coming into the field of craniofacial studies. Here, we highlight the focus of each spoke project and the integration of datasets contributed by the spokes to facilitate craniofacial research. PMID:27287806

  10. 75 FR 28031 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel; Teleconference Review of R03 Applications for Mechanisms, Models... Research Special Emphasis Panel; Teleconference Review of Small Research Grants for Data Analysis and....121, Oral Diseases and Disorders Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated: May 13, 2010...

  11. Inheritance of craniofacial features in Colombian families with class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Otero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available L Otero, L Quintero, D Champsaur, E SimancaPontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, ColombiaIntroduction: The inheritance of class III malocclusion has been well documented, but the inheritance of craniofacial structures in Colombian families with this malocclusion has been not yet reported.Patients and methods: The study sample of 25 families comprised 186 untreated orthodontic individuals from 8 to 60 years old. Pedigrees were drawn using Cyrillic software. Complete family histories for each proband were ascertained and the affection status of relatives was confirmed by lateral cephalograms and facial and dental photographs. Analysis of variance and odds ratio test for each parameter was performed to estimate inheritance from parents to offspring and to determine similar phenotypic features in relatives.Results: The analysis of the pedigrees suggests autosomal dominant inheritance. The craniofacial characteristics that showed more resemblance between parents and offspring were middle facial height, shorter anterior cranial base and mandibular prognathism. In contrast the protrusion of upper lip and maxillary retrusion were the phenotypic features that contributed to class III in the majority of families.Conclusion: Knowledge of the inheritance of craniofacial phenotypes in class III malocclusion will enable the design of new therapies to treat this malocclusion.Keywords: inheritance, craniofacial, phenotype, class III malocclusion

  12. The FaceBase Consortium: A comprehensive program to facilitate craniofacial research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochheiser, Harry; Aronow, Bruce J.; Artinger, Kristin; Beaty, Terri H.; Brinkley, James F.; Chai, Yang; Clouthier, David; Cunningham, Michael L.; Dixon, Michael; Donahue, Leah Rae; Fraser, Scott E.; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Iwata, Junichi; Klein, Ophir; Marazita, Mary L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Murray, Stephen; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Postlethwait, John; Potter, Steven; Shapiro, Linda; Spritz, Richard; Visel, Axel; Weinberg, Seth M.; Trainor, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The FaceBase Consortium consists of ten interlinked research and technology projects whose goal is to generate craniofacial research data and technology for use by the research community through a central data management and integrated bioinformatics hub. Funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) and currently focused on studying the development of the middle region of the face, the Consortium will produce comprehensive datasets of global gene expression patterns, regulatory elements and sequencing; will generate anatomical and molecular atlases; will provide human normative facial data and other phenotypes; conduct follow up studies of a completed genome-wide association study; generate independent data on the genetics of craniofacial development, build repositories of animal models and of human samples and data for community access and analysis; and will develop software tools and animal models for analyzing and functionally testing and integrating these data. The FaceBase website (http://www.facebase.org) will serve as a web home for these efforts, providing interactive tools for exploring these datasets, together with discussion forums and other services to support and foster collaboration within the craniofacial research community. PMID:21458441

  13. Thin-plate spline analysis of craniofacial growth in Class I and Class II subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano; Stahl, Franka; McNamara, James A

    2007-07-01

    To compare the craniofacial growth characteristics of untreated subjects with Class II division 1 malocclusion with those of subjects with normal (Class I) occlusion from the prepubertal through the postpubertal stages of development. The Class II division 1 sample consisted of 17 subjects (11 boys and six girls). The Class I sample also consisted of 17 subjects (13 boys and four girls). Three craniofacial regions (cranial base, maxilla, and mandible) were analyzed on the lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups by means of thin-plate spline analysis at T1 (prepubertal) and T2 (postpubertal). Both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons were performed on both size and shape differences between the two groups. The results showed an increased cranial base angulation as a morphological feature of Class II malocclusion at the prepubertal developmental phase. Maxillary changes in either shape or size were not significant. Subjects with Class II malocclusion exhibited a significant deficiency in the size of the mandible at the completion of active craniofacial growth as compared with Class I subjects. A significant deficiency in the size of the mandible became apparent in Class II subjects during the circumpubertal period and it was still present at the completion of active craniofacial growth.

  14. BoneSource hydroxyapatite cement: a novel biomaterial for craniofacial skeletal tissue engineering and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, C D; Costantino, P D; Takagi, S; Chow, L C

    1998-01-01

    BoneSource-hydroxyapatite cement is a new self-setting calcium phosphate cement biomaterial. Its unique and innovative physical chemistry coupled with enhanced biocompatibility make it useful for craniofacial skeletal reconstruction. The general properties and clinical use guidelines are reviewed. The biomaterial and surgical applications offer insight into improved outcomes and potential new uses for hydroxyapatite cement systems.

  15. Recurrent meningitis and frontal encephalocele as delayed complications of craniofacial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumussoy, Murat; Ugur, Omer; Cukurova, Ibrahim; Uluyol, Sinan

    2014-03-01

    Frontal sinus back table fractures are seen rarely; also, typical presentation of frontal sinus encephalocele as a delayed complication of frontal sinus fracture is seen more rarely. We present a case of frontal encephalocele and recurrent meningitis as delayed complications of craniofacial trauma. Diagnosis, management, and treatment approaches of these complications are discussed.

  16. Utility of MDP bone SPECT in the detection of osseous invasion in craniofacial malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.; Haq, S.; Sohaib, M.; Khan, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The study was designed to observe the role of SPECT imaging for the detection of osseous invasion in craniofacial malignancies. Material and Methods: Radionuclide bone imaging with Tc-99m MDP was done on 20 patients with different craniofacial malignancies. The planar imaging comprised of anterior, lateral and oblique lateral views of the skull. SPECT imaging was done taking 64 views of the skull in a 360 deg. circular path, each of 40 seconds with 128x128 matrix. Visual interpretation of the scans was done and a score of 0, 1, or 2 allocated, representing a lesion as definitely absent, doubtful or definitely present, respectively. SPECT images were compared with planar scans. Results: SPECT was proven superior to planar imaging and radiographs in detection as well as efficient demonstration of the extent of osseous invasion of a craniofacial cancer. The sensitivity was 100% for SPECT, 83.3% for planar and 33.3% for radiographs. Conclusion: SPECT imaging of the skull can serve as an extremely useful complementary investigation in the patients with craniofacial malignancies to assess them for osseous invasion, particularly in tumors likely to invade the skull base

  17. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous propacetamol vs rectal paracetamol in children after major craniofacial surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Sandra A.; van Dijk, Monique; van Leeuwen, Pim; Searle, Susan; Anderson, Brian J.; Tibboel, Dick; Mathot, Ron A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous and rectal paracetamol were compared in nonventilated infants after craniofacial surgery in a double-blind placebo controlled study. During surgery all infants (6 months-2 years) received a rectal loading dose of 40 mg.kg(-1) paracetamol 2 h

  18. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous propacetamol vs rectal paracetamol in children after major craniofacial surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Sandra A.; Van Dijk, Monique; Van Leeuwen, Pim; Searle, Susan; Anderson, Brian J.; Tibboel, Dick; Mathot, Ron A. A.

    Background: The pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous and rectal paracetamol were compared in nonventilated infants after craniofacial surgery in a double-blind placebo controlled study. Methods: During surgery all infants (6 months-2 years) received a rectal loading dose of 40

  19. The influence of craniofacial to standing height proportion on perceived attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naini, F B; Cobourne, M T; McDonald, F; Donaldson, A N A

    2008-10-01

    An idealised male image, based on Vitruvian Man, was created. The craniofacial height was altered from a proportion of 1/6 to 1/10 of standing height, creating 10 images shown in random order to 89 observers (74 lay people; 15 clinicians), who ranked the images from the most to the least attractive. The main outcome was the preference ranks of image attractiveness given by the observers. Linear regressions were used to assess what influences the choice for the most and the least attractive images, followed by a multivariate rank ordinal logistic regression to test the influence of age, gender, ethnicity and professional status of the observer. A craniofacial height to standing height proportion of 1/7.5 was perceived as the most attractive (36%), followed by a proportion of 1/8 (26%). The images chosen as most attractive by more than 10% of observers had a mean proportion of 1/7.8(min=1/7; max=1/8.5). The images perceived as most unattractive had a proportion of 1/6 and 1/10. The choice of images was not influenced by the age, gender, ethnicity or professional status of the observers. The ideal craniofacial height to standing height proportion is in the range 1/7 to 1/8.5. This finding should be considered when planning treatment to alter craniofacial or facial height.

  20. Psychological impact of visible differences in patients with congenital craniofacial anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varun Pratap; Moss, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    Patients with craniofacial anomalies often have appearance concerns and related social anxiety which can affect their quality of life. This study assessed the psychological impact of facial and dental appearance in patients with craniofacial anomalies in comparison to a general population control group. The study involved 102 adult patients (51% male) with congenital craniofacial anomalies and 102 controls (49% male). Both groups completed the Nepali version of Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS) and the Psychological Impact of Dental Aesthetic Questionnaire (PIDAQ) in a clinical setting to assess appearance-related distress, avoidance, and anxiety. There was a significant difference between patients and controls on both PIDAQ (mean score for patients 33.25 ± 9.45 while for controls 27.52 ± 5.67, p experienced greater negative psychological impact of living with their appearance (PIDAQ) and more appearance-related distress (DAS) than controls. DAS scores were not associated with gender. There was no association of the place of residence (rural vs. urban) with PIDAQ or DAS59 scores. There is a significant psychological impact of altered facial and dental appearance in patients with craniofacial anomalies compared to controls. There was no effect of locality (rural/urban) on the psychological impact of facial and dental appearance in patients.

  1. Mild traumatic brain injury diagnosis frequently remains unrecorded in subjects with craniofacial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljula, Jussi; Cygnel, Hanna; Mäkinen, Elina; Tuomivaara, Veli; Karttunen, Vesa; Karttunen, Ari; Hillbom, Matti

    2012-12-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in subjects with craniofacial fractures are usually diagnosed by emergency room physicians. We investigated how often TBI remains unrecorded in these subjects, and whether diagnostic accuracy has improved after the implementation of new TBI guidelines. All subjects with craniofacial fractures admitted to Oulu University Hospital in 1999 and in 2007 were retrospectively identified. New guidelines for improving the diagnostic accuracy of TBI were implemented between 2000 and 2006. Clinical symptoms of TBI were gathered from notes on hospital charts and compared to the recorded diagnoses at discharge. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors for TBI to remain unrecorded. Of 194 subjects with craniofacial fracture, 111(57%) had TBI, 40 in 1999 and 71 in 2007. Fifty-one TBIs (46%) remained unrecorded at discharge, 48 being mild and 3 moderate-to-severe. Subjects with unrecorded TBI were significantly less frequently referred to follow-up visits. Failures to record the TBI diagnosis were less frequent (29/71, 41%) in 2007 than in 1999 (22/40, 55%), but the difference was not statistically significant. The most significant independent predictor for this failure was the clinical specialty (other than neurology/neurosurgery) of the examining physician (palcohol intoxication did not hamper the diagnosis of TBI. TBIs remain frequently unrecorded in subjects with craniofacial fractures. Recording of mild TBI slightly but insignificantly improved after the implementation of new guidelines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiography, Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Craniofacial Structures in Pig

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyllar, M.; Štembírek, Jan; Putnová, I.; Stehlík, L.; Odehnalová, S.; Buchtová, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 6 (2014), s. 435-452 ISSN 0340-2096 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP304/08/P289 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : craniofacial structures in pig Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.672, year: 2014

  3. Obstructive sleep apnea prevents the expected difference in craniofacial growth of boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ligia Juliano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It was to compare cephalometric measures of mouth-breather boys and girls and with the cephalometric pattern observed in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS patients. METHODS: Craniofacial measurements of lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained from 144 children aged 7-14 years were compared between boys and girls, and both were compared to cephalometric pattern of OSAS patients. RESULTS: Mouth-breather boys and girls had no gender differences regarding to craniofacial morphology while nose-breather boys and girls showed those expected differences. Nose-breather boys presented a more retruded mandible and proinclined upper incisor when compared to nose-breather girls, but mouth-breather boys and girls had no differences. The measure NS.GoGn was the only variable with an interaction with gender and breathing. CONCLUSIONS: There were no cephalometric difference in mouth breather-boys and girls related to normal growth, suggesting that oral breathing make the same craniofacial morphology and both have craniofacial morphology close to that of OSAS patients.

  4. 3-D analysis of tooth formation and eruption in patients with craniofacial anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiborg, Sven; Larsen, Per; Bro-Nielsen, Morten

    1996-01-01

    A number of craniofacial anomalies or syndromes involve severe disturbances of tooth formation and eruption (e.g. Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, tricho-dento-osseous syndrome, cleidocranial dysplasia, and cleft lip and palate). So far, studies of these dental problems have been limited to two...

  5. In vivo bone strain and finite-element modeling of the craniofacial haft in catarrhine primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Callum F; Berthaume, Michael A; Dechow, Paul C; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Porro, Laura B; Richmond, Brian G; Spencer, Mark; Strait, David

    2011-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding patterns of stress, strain and deformation in the craniofacial skeleton are central to adaptive explanations for the evolution of primate craniofacial form. The complexity of craniofacial skeletal morphology makes it difficult to evaluate these hypotheses with in vivo bone strain data. In this paper, new in vivo bone strain data from the intraorbital surfaces of the supraorbital torus, postorbital bar and postorbital septum, the anterior surface of the postorbital bar, and the anterior root of the zygoma are combined with published data from the supraorbital region and zygomatic arch to evaluate the validity of a finite-element model (FEM) of a macaque cranium during mastication. The behavior of this model is then used to test hypotheses regarding the overall deformation regime in the craniofacial haft of macaques. This FEM constitutes a hypothesis regarding deformation of the facial skeleton during mastication. A simplified verbal description of the deformation regime in the macaque FEM is as follows. Inferior bending and twisting of the zygomatic arches about a rostrocaudal axis exerts inferolaterally directed tensile forces on the lateral orbital wall, bending the wall and the supraorbital torus in frontal planes and bending and shearing the infraorbital region and anterior zygoma root in frontal planes. Similar deformation regimes also characterize the crania of Homo and Gorilla under in vitro loading conditions and may be shared among extant catarrhines. Relatively high strain magnitudes in the anterior root of the zygoma suggest that the morphology of this region may be important for resisting forces generated during feeding. PMID:21105871

  6. Current and emerging basic science concepts in bone biology: implications in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Adam J; Mesa, John; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing research in bone biology has brought cutting-edge technologies into everyday use in craniofacial surgery. Nonetheless, when osseous defects of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton are encountered, autogenous bone grafting remains the criterion standard for reconstruction. Accordingly, the core principles of bone graft physiology continue to be of paramount importance. Bone grafts, however, are not a panacea; donor site morbidity and operative risk are among the limitations of autologous bone graft harvest. Bone graft survival is impaired when irradiation, contamination, and impaired vascularity are encountered. Although the dura can induce calvarial ossification in children younger than 2 years, the repair of critical-size defects in the pediatric population may be hindered by inadequate bone graft donor volume. The novel and emerging field of bone tissue engineering holds great promise as a limitless source of autogenous bone. Three core constituents of bone tissue engineering have been established: scaffolds, signals, and cells. Blood supply is the sine qua non of these components, which are used both individually and concertedly in regenerative craniofacial surgery. The discerning craniofacial surgeon must determine the proper use for these bone graft alternatives, while understanding their concomitant risks. This article presents a review of contemporary and emerging concepts in bone biology and their implications in craniofacial surgery. Current practices, areas of controversy, and near-term future applications are emphasized.

  7. Effect of chemotherapy on survival of craniofacial osteosarcoma: a systematic review of 201 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeele, L. E.; Kostense, P. J.; van der Waal, I.; Snow, G. B.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible value of chemotherapy in the treatment of craniofacial osteosarcoma (CFOS). In a systematic review, data of 201 patients (age, 36.6 +/- 19.0 years [mean +/- SD]) from 20 uncontrolled series on CFOS indexed in Medline and Excerpta Medica between 1974 and 1994 were pooled; 180

  8. 78 FR 24762 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ..., Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, Ph.D., Director, Division of Extramural Activities... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  9. 75 FR 13561 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Floor, 31 Center Drive, Conference Room 10, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, PhD... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as...

  10. 75 FR 13562 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ..., Room 117, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, PhD, Director, Division of... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  11. 77 FR 68136 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    .... Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, Ph.D., Director, Division of Extramural Activities, National... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  12. 76 FR 22111 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ..., MD 20892. Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, PhD, Director, Division of Extramural Activities, Natl... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  13. 77 FR 14816 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: National Institutes of Health, Building 30, 30 Center Drive, 117, Bethesda, MD 20892 Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, Ph.D., Director, Division of Extramural Activities, Natl Inst of Dental and...

  14. 75 FR 69451 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, PhD, Director, Division of Extramural Activities, Natl Inst of Dental and... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  15. 76 FR 66077 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Center Drive, 117, Bethesda, MD 20892 Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, PhD, Director, Division of... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  16. 77 FR 49820 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Center Drive, 6th Floor, 10, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Alicia J. Dombroski, Ph.D., Director... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as...

  17. Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Neural Crest Cells in Craniofacial Skeletal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Morikawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial skeletal tissues are composed of tooth and bone, together with nerves and blood vessels. This composite material is mainly derived from neural crest cells (NCCs. The neural crest is transient embryonic tissue present during neural tube formation whose cells have high potential for migration and differentiation. Thus, NCCs are promising candidates for craniofacial tissue regeneration; however, the clinical application of NCCs is hindered by their limited accessibility. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are easily accessible in adults, have similar potential for self-renewal, and can differentiate into skeletal tissues, including bones and cartilage. Therefore, MSCs may represent good sources of stem cells for clinical use. MSCs are classically identified under adherent culture conditions, leading to contamination with other cell lineages. Previous studies have identified mouse- and human-specific MSC subsets using cell surface markers. Additionally, some studies have shown that a subset of MSCs is closely related to neural crest derivatives and endothelial cells. These MSCs may be promising candidates for regeneration of craniofacial tissues from the perspective of developmental fate. Here, we review the fundamental biology of MSCs in craniofacial research.

  18. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  19. Music-Evoked Emotions—Current Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt

    2017-01-01

    The present study is focused on a review of the current state of investigating music-evoked emotions experimentally, theoretically and with respect to their therapeutic potentials. After a concise historical overview and a schematic of the hearing mechanisms, experimental studies on music listeners and on music performers are discussed, starting with the presentation of characteristic musical stimuli and the basic features of tomographic imaging of emotional activation in the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), which offer high spatial resolution in the millimeter range. The progress in correlating activation imaging in the brain to the psychological understanding of music-evoked emotion is demonstrated and some prospects for future research are outlined. Research in psychoneuroendocrinology and molecular markers is reviewed in the context of music-evoked emotions and the results indicate that the research in this area should be intensified. An assessment of studies involving measuring techniques with high temporal resolution down to the 10 ms range, as, e.g., electroencephalography (EEG), event-related brain potentials (ERP), magnetoencephalography (MEG), skin conductance response (SCR), finger temperature, and goose bump development (piloerection) can yield information on the dynamics and kinetics of emotion. Genetic investigations reviewed suggest the heredity transmission of a predilection for music. Theoretical approaches to musical emotion are directed to a unified model for experimental neurological evidence and aesthetic judgment. Finally, the reports on musical therapy are briefly outlined. The study concludes with an outlook on emerging technologies and future research fields. PMID:29225563

  20. Fuz regulates craniofacial development through tissue specific responses to signaling factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zichao Zhang

    Full Text Available The planar cell polarity effector gene Fuz regulates ciliogenesis and Fuz loss of function studies reveal an array of embryonic phenotypes. However, cilia defects can affect many signaling pathways and, in humans, cilia defects underlie several craniofacial anomalies. To address this, we analyzed the craniofacial phenotype and signaling responses of the Fuz(-/- mice. We demonstrate a unique role for Fuz in regulating both Hedgehog (Hh and Wnt/β-catenin signaling during craniofacial development. Fuz expression first appears in the dorsal tissues and later in ventral tissues and craniofacial regions during embryonic development coincident with cilia development. The Fuz(-/- mice exhibit severe craniofacial deformities including anophthalmia, agenesis of the tongue and incisors, a hypoplastic mandible, cleft palate, ossification/skeletal defects and hyperplastic malformed Meckel's cartilage. Hh signaling is down-regulated in the Fuz null mice, while canonical Wnt signaling is up-regulated revealing the antagonistic relationship of these two pathways. Meckel's cartilage is expanded in the Fuz(-/- mice due to increased cell proliferation associated with the up-regulation of Wnt canonical target genes and decreased non-canonical pathway genes. Interestingly, cilia development was decreased in the mandible mesenchyme of Fuz null mice, suggesting that cilia may antagonize Wnt signaling in this tissue. Furthermore, expression of Fuz decreased expression of Wnt pathway genes as well as a Wnt-dependent reporter. Finally, chromatin IP experiments demonstrate that β-catenin/TCF-binding directly regulates Fuz expression. These data demonstrate a new model for coordination of Hh and Wnt signaling and reveal a Fuz-dependent negative feedback loop controlling Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  1. Ellis van Creveld2 is required for postnatal craniofacial bone development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Mohammed K.; Zhang, Honghao; Ohyama, Yoshio; Venkitapathi, Sundharamani; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Takeda, Haruko; Ray, Manas; Scott, Greg; Tsuji, Takehito; Kunieda, Tetsuo; Mishina, Yuji; Mochida, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is a genetic disorder with mutations in either EVC or EVC2 gene. Previous case studies reported that EvC patients underwent orthodontic treatment, suggesting the presence of craniofacial bone phenotypes. To investigate whether a mutation in EVC2 gene causes a craniofacial bone phenotype, Evc2 knockout (KO) mice were generated and cephalometric analysis was performed. The heads of wild type (WT), heterozygous (Het) and homozygous Evc2 KO mice (1-, 3- and 6-week-old) were prepared and cephalometric analysis based on the selected reference points on lateral X-ray radiographs was performed. The linear and angular bone measurements were then calculated, compared between WT, Het and KO and statistically analyzed at each time point. Our data showed that length of craniofacial bones in KO was significantly lowered by ~20% to that of WT and Het, the growth of certain bones, including nasal bone, palatal length and premaxilla was more affected in KO, and the reduction in these bone length was more significantly enhanced at later postnatal time points (3 and 6 weeks) than early time point (1 week). Furthermore, bone-to-bone relationship to cranial base and cranial vault in KO was remarkably changed, i.e. cranial vault and nasal bone were depressed and premaxilla and mandible were developed in a more ventral direction. Our study was the first to show the cause-effect relationship between Evc2 deficiency and craniofacial defects in EvC syndrome, demonstrating that Evc2 is required for craniofacial bone development and its deficiency leads to specific facial bone growth defect. PMID:27090777

  2. Cranio-facial remodeling in domestic dogs is associated with changes in larynx position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotsky, Kyle; Rendall, Drew; Chase, Kevin; Riede, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    The hyo-laryngeal complex is a multi-segmented structure integrating the oral and pharyngeal cavities and thus a variety of critical functions related to airway control, feeding, and vocal communication. Currently, we lack a complete understanding of how the hyoid complex, and the functions it mediates, can also be affected by changes in surrounding cranio-facial dimensions. Here, we explore these relationships in a breed of domestic dog, the Portuguese Water Dog, which is characterized by strong cranio-facial variation. We used radiographic images of the upper body and head of 55 adult males and 51 adult females to obtain detailed measures of cranio-facial variation and hyoid anatomy. Principal components analysis revealed multiple orthogonal dimensions of cranio-facial variation, some of which were associated with significant differences in larynx position: the larynx occupied a more descended position in individuals with shorter, broader faces than in those with longer, narrower faces. We then tested the possibility that caudal displacement of the larynx in brachycephalic individuals might reflect a degree of tongue crowding resulting from facial shortening and reduction of oral and pharyngeal spaces. A cadaver sample was used to obtain detailed measurements of constituent bones of the hyoid skeleton and of the tongue body, and their relationships to cranio-facial size and shape and overall body size supported the tongue-crowding hypothesis. Considering the presence of descended larynges in numerous mammalian taxa, our findings establish an important precedent for the possibility that laryngeal descent can be initiated, and even sustained, in part in response to remodeling of the face and cranium for selective pressures unrelated to vocal production. These integrated changes could also have been involved in hominin evolution, where the different laryngeal positions in modern humans compared with nonhuman primates have been traditionally linked to the evolution

  3. Computer vision and soft computing for automatic skull-face overlay in craniofacial superimposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campomanes-Álvarez, B Rosario; Ibáñez, O; Navarro, F; Alemán, I; Botella, M; Damas, S; Cordón, O

    2014-12-01

    Craniofacial superimposition can provide evidence to support that some human skeletal remains belong or not to a missing person. It involves the process of overlaying a skull with a number of ante mortem images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence. Within the craniofacial superimposition process, the skull-face overlay stage just focuses on achieving the best possible overlay of the skull and a single ante mortem image of the suspect. Although craniofacial superimposition has been in use for over a century, skull-face overlay is still applied by means of a trial-and-error approach without an automatic method. Practitioners finish the process once they consider that a good enough overlay has been attained. Hence, skull-face overlay is a very challenging, subjective, error prone, and time consuming part of the whole process. Though the numerical assessment of the method quality has not been achieved yet, computer vision and soft computing arise as powerful tools to automate it, dramatically reducing the time taken by the expert and obtaining an unbiased overlay result. In this manuscript, we justify and analyze the use of these techniques to properly model the skull-face overlay problem. We also present the automatic technical procedure we have developed using these computational methods and show the four overlays obtained in two craniofacial superimposition cases. This automatic procedure can be thus considered as a tool to aid forensic anthropologists to develop the skull-face overlay, automating and avoiding subjectivity of the most tedious task within craniofacial superimposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lifting the veil on the dynamics of neuronal activities evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingshuo; Virtanen, Juha P; Oeltermann, Axel; Schwarz, Cornelius; Giese, Martin A; Ziemann, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used non-invasive tool to study and modulate human brain functions. However, TMS-evoked activity of individual neurons has remained largely inaccessible due to the large TMS-induced electromagnetic fields. Here, we present a general method providing direct in vivo electrophysiological access to TMS-evoked neuronal activity 0.8–1 ms after TMS onset. We translated human single-pulse TMS to rodents and unveiled time-grained evoked activities of motor cortex layer V neurons that show high-frequency spiking within the first 6 ms depending on TMS-induced current orientation and a multiphasic spike-rhythm alternating between excitation and inhibition in the 6–300 ms epoch, all of which can be linked to various human TMS responses recorded at the level of spinal cord and muscles. The advance here facilitates a new level of insight into the TMS-brain interaction that is vital for developing this non-invasive tool to purposefully explore and effectively treat the human brain. PMID:29165241

  5. Limb venous distension evokes sympathetic activation via stimulation of the limb afferents in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; McQuillan, Patrick M.; Blaha, Cheryl; Kunselman, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    We have recently shown that a saline infusion in the veins of an arterially occluded human forearm evokes a systemic response with increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and blood pressure. In this report, we examined whether this response was a reflex that was due to venous distension. Blood pressure (Finometer), heart rate, and MSNA (microneurography) were assessed in 14 young healthy subjects. In the saline trial (n = 14), 5% forearm volume normal saline was infused in an arterially occluded arm. To block afferents in the limb, 90 mg of lidocaine were added to the same volume of saline in six subjects during a separate visit. To examine whether interstitial perfusion of normal saline alone induced the responses, the same volume of albumin solution (5% concentration) was infused in 11 subjects in separate studies. Lidocaine abolished the MSNA and blood pressure responses seen with saline infusion. Moreover, compared with the saline infusion, an albumin infusion induced a larger (MSNA: Δ14.3 ± 2.7 vs. Δ8.5 ± 1.3 bursts/min, P blood pressure responses. These data suggest that venous distension activates afferent nerves and evokes a powerful systemic sympathoexcitatory reflex. We posit that the venous distension plays an important role in evoking the autonomic adjustments seen with postural stress in human subjects. PMID:22707559

  6. Lifting the veil on the dynamics of neuronal activities evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingshuo; Virtanen, Juha P; Oeltermann, Axel; Schwarz, Cornelius; Giese, Martin A; Ziemann, Ulf; Benali, Alia

    2017-11-22

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used non-invasive tool to study and modulate human brain functions. However, TMS-evoked activity of individual neurons has remained largely inaccessible due to the large TMS-induced electromagnetic fields. Here, we present a general method providing direct in vivo electrophysiological access to TMS-evoked neuronal activity 0.8-1 ms after TMS onset. We translated human single-pulse TMS to rodents and unveiled time-grained evoked activities of motor cortex layer V neurons that show high-frequency spiking within the first 6 ms depending on TMS-induced current orientation and a multiphasic spike-rhythm alternating between excitation and inhibition in the 6-300 ms epoch, all of which can be linked to various human TMS responses recorded at the level of spinal cord and muscles. The advance here facilitates a new level of insight into the TMS-brain interaction that is vital for developing this non-invasive tool to purposefully explore and effectively treat the human brain.

  7. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Tahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency.

  8. Laser-evoked coloration in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, H.Y.; Rosseinsky, David; Lim, G.C.

    2005-01-01

    Laser-evoked coloration in polymers has long been a major aim of polymer technology for potential applications in product surface decoration, marking personalised images and logos. However, the coloration results reported so far were mostly attributed to laser-induced thermal-chemical reactions. The laser-irradiated areas are characterized with grooves due to material removal. Furthermore, only single color was laser-induced in any given polymer matrix. To induce multiple colors in a given polymer matrix with no apparent surface material removal is most desirable and challenging and may be achieved through laser-induced photo-chemical reactions. However, little public information is available at present. We report that two colors of red and green have been produced on an initially transparent CPV/PVA samples through UV laser-induced photo-chemical reactions. This is believed the first observation of laser-induced multiple-colors in the given polymer matrix. It is believed that the colorants underwent photo-effected electron transfer with suitable electron donors from the polymers to change from colorless bipyridilium Bipm 2+ to the colored Bipm + species. The discovery may lead to new approaches to the development of laser-evoked multiple coloration in polymers

  9. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Almeida Nogueira da Gama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP evaluates the integrity of the auditory pathways to the brainstem. The aim of this study was to evoke BAEPs in 21 clinically normal horses. The animals were sedated with detomidine hydrochloride (0.013mg.kg-1 BW. Earphones were inserted and rarefaction clicks at 90 dB and noise masking at 40 dB were used. After performing the test, the latencies of waves (I, II, III, IV, and V and interpeaks(I-III, III-V, and I-V were identified. The mean latencies of the waves were as follows: wave I, 2.4 ms; wave II, 2.24 ms; wave III, 3.61ms; wave IV, 4.61ms; and wave V, 5.49ms. The mean latencies of the interpeaks were as follows: I-III, 1.37ms; III-V, 1.88ms; and I-V, 3.26ms. This is the first study using BAEPs in horses in Brazil, and the observed latencies will be used as normative data for the interpretation of tests performed on horses with changes related to auditory system or neurologic abnormalities.

  10. Pattern visual evoked potentials in malingering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; Akio, T; Matsuda, E; Wakami, Y

    2001-03-01

    We previously developed a new method for estimating objective visual acuity by means of pattern visual evoked potentials (PVEP). In this study, this method was applied to the diagnosis of malingering. Six patients ranging in age from 40 to 54 years (mean 47 years) with suspected malingering were evaluated by means of the visual evoked potential test, optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) inhibition test, and the visual field test. In the PVEP study, the stimulus consisted of black and white checkerboards (39', 26', 15', and 9') with a visual angle of 8 degrees, contrast level of 15%, and a frequency of 0.7 Hz. One hundred PVEP responses were averaged per session. Routine ophthalmic examinations were normal in all patients. Five patients had a tubularly constricted visual field, and the remaining patient had a normal visual field. The objective visual acuities of the six patients estimated from PVEP were better than their subjective visual acuities estimated with Landolt rings. Among a variety of psychophysical and electrophysiologic ancillary tests, we consider our PVEP method a useful method for objectively determining visual acuity in a patient with signs of ocular malingering.

  11. Evoked potentials in pediatric cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Bhanushali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortical evoked potentials (EP provide localized data regarding brain function and may offer prognostic information and insights into the pathologic mechanisms of malariamediated cerebral injury. As part of a prospective cohort study, we obtained somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs and brainstem auditory EPs (AEPs within 24 hours of admission on 27 consecutive children admitted with cerebral malaria (CM. Children underwent follow-up for 12 months to determine if they had any long term neurologic sequelae. EPs were obtained in 27 pediatric CM admissions. Two children died. Among survivors followed an average of 514 days, 7/25 (28.0% had at least one adverse neurologic outcome. Only a single subject had absent cortical EPs on admission and this child had a good neurologic outcome. Among pediatric CM survivors, cortical EPs are generally intact and do not predict adverse neurologic outcomes. Further study is needed to determine if alterations in cortical EPs can be used to predict a fatal outcome in CM.

  12. Music-evoked emotions in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Daijyu; Arai, Makoto; Itokawa, Masanari

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have reported that people with schizophrenia have impaired musical abilities. Here we developed a simple music-based assay to assess patient's ability to associate a minor chord with sadness. We further characterize correlations between impaired musical responses and psychiatric symptoms. We exposed participants sequentially to two sets of sound stimuli, first a C-major progression and chord, and second a C-minor progression and chord. Participants were asked which stimulus they associated with sadness, the first set, the second set, or neither. The severity of psychiatric symptoms was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Study participants were 29 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 29 healthy volunteers matched in age, gender and musical background. 37.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]:19.1-56.7) of patients with schizophrenia associated the minor chord set as sad, compared with 97.9% (95%CI: 89.5-103.6) of controls. Four patients were diagnosed with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, and all four failed to associate the minor chord with sadness. Patients who did not recognize minor chords as sad had significantly higher scores on all PANSS subscales. A simple test allows music-evoked emotions to be assessed in schizophrenia patient, and may show potential relationships between music-evoked emotions and psychiatric symptoms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Kinesthetic illusions attenuate experimental muscle pain, as do muscle and cutaneous stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, André; Aimonetti, Jean-Marc; Roll, Jean-Pierre; Ribot-Ciscar, Edith

    2015-07-30

    In the present study, muscle pain was induced experimentally in healthy subjects by administrating hypertonic saline injections into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. We first aimed at comparing the analgesic effects of mechanical vibration applied to either cutaneous or muscle receptors of the TA or to both types simultaneously. Secondly, pain alleviation was compared in subjects in whom muscle tendon vibration evoked kinesthetic illusions of the ankle joint. Muscle tendon vibration, which primarily activated muscle receptors, reduced pain intensity by 30% (p<0.01). In addition, tangential skin vibration reduced pain intensity by 33% (p<0.01), primarily by activating cutaneous receptors. Concurrently stimulating both sensory channels induced stronger analgesic effects (-51%, p<0.01), as shown by the lower levels of electrodermal activity. The strongest analgesic effects of the vibration-induced muscle inputs occurred when illusory movements were perceived (-38%, p=0.01). The results suggest that both cutaneous and muscle sensory feedback reduce muscle pain, most likely via segmental and supraspinal processes. Further clinical trials are needed to investigate these new methods of muscle pain relief. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tooth agenesis and craniofacial morphology in pre-orthodontic children with and without morphological deviations in the upper cervical spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasemi, Ashkan; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze differences in prevalence and pattern of tooth agenesis and craniofacial morphology between non syndromic children with tooth agenesis with and without upper cervical spine morphological deviations and to analyze associations between craniofacial morphology and tooth agenesis...... in the two groups together. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-six pre-orthodontic children with tooth agenesis were divided into two groups with (19 children, mean age 11.9) and without (107 children, mean age 11.4) upper spine morphological deviations. Visual assessment of upper spine morphology...... and measurements of craniofacial morphology were performed on lateral cephalograms. Tooth agenesis was evaluated from orthopantomograms. RESULTS: No significant differences in tooth agenesis and craniofacial morphology were found between children with and without upper spine morphological deviations (2.2 ± 1.6 vs...

  15. Three-dimensional image display by CT data processing and clinical applications in orthopaedics and craniofacial surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonneveld, F.W.; Akkerveeken, P.F. van; Koornneef, L.

    1988-01-01

    The methods of generating three-dimensional images from two-dimensional CT data are described. Four cases are reported explaining its use in the planning of orthopaedic and craniofacial surgery. (orig.) [de

  16. Neurophysiological mechanisms of bradykinin-evoked mucosal chloride secretion in guinea pig small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mei-Hua; Ji, Wan-Sheng; Zhao, Ting-Kun; Fang, Chun-Yan; Mao, Shu-Mei; Gao, Zhi-Qin

    2016-02-15

    To investigate the mechanism for bradykinin (BK) to stimulate intestinal secretomotor neurons and intestinal chloride secretion. Muscle-stripped guinea pig ileal preparations were mounted in Ussing flux chambers for the recording of short-circuit current (Isc). Basal Isc and Isc stimulated by BK when preincubated with the BK receptors antagonist and other chemicals were recorded using the Ussing chamber system. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in the intestine was determined by enzyme immunologic assay (EIA). Application of BK or B2 receptor (B2R) agonist significantly increased the baseline Isc compared to the control. B2R antagonist, tetrodotoxin and scopolamine (blockade of muscarinic receptors) significantly suppressed the increase in Isc evoked by BK. The BK-evoked Isc was suppressed by cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or COX-2 specific inhibitor as well as nonselective COX inhibitors. Preincubation of submucosa/mucosa preparations with BK for 10 min significantly increased PGE2 production and this was abolished by the COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors. The BK-evoked Isc was suppressed by nonselective EP receptors and EP4 receptor antagonists, but selective EP1 receptor antagonist did not have a significant effect on the BK-evoked Isc. Inhibitors of PLC, PKC, calmodulin or CaMKII failed to suppress BK-induced PGE2 production. The results suggest that BK stimulates neurogenic chloride secretion in the guinea pig ileum by activating B2R, through COX increasing PGE2 production. The post-receptor transduction cascade includes activation of PLC, PKC, CaMK, IP3 and MAPK.

  17. Comparison of joint torque evoked with monopolar and tripolar-cuff electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarler, Matthew D; Mortimer, J Thomas

    2003-09-01

    Using a self-sizing spiral-cuff electrode placed on the sciatic nerve of the cat, the joint torque evoked with stimulation applied to contacts in a monopolar configuration was judged to be the same as the torque evoked by stimulation applied to contacts in a tripolar configuration. Experiments were carried out in six acute cat preparations. In each experiment, a 12-contact electrode was placed on the sciatic nerve and used to effect both the monopolar and tripolar electrode configurations. The ankle torque produced by electrically evoked isometric muscle contraction was measured in three dimensions: plantar flexion, internal rotation, and inversion. Based on the recorded ankle torque, qualitative and quantitative comparisons were performed to determine if any significant difference existed in the pattern or order in which motor nerve fibers were recruited. No significant difference was found at a 98% confidence interval in either the recruitment properties or the repeatability of the monopolar and tripolar configurations. Further, isolated activation of single fascicles within the sciatic nerve was observed. Once nerve fibers in a fascicle were activated, recruitment of that fascicle was modulated over the full range before "spill-over" excitation occurred in neighboring fascicles. These results indicate that a four contact, monopolar nerve-cuff electrode is a viable substitute for a 12 contact, tripolar nerve-cuff electrode. The results of this study are also consistent with the hypothesis that multicontact self-sizing spiral-cuff electrodes can be used in motor prostheses to provide selective control of many muscles. These findings should also apply to other neuroprostheses employing-cuff electrodes on nerve trunks.

  18. Your Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  19. Identification of mastication organ muscle forces in the biocybernetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijak, Edward; Margielewicz, Jerzy; Gąska, Damian; Lietz-Kijak, Danuta; Więckiewicz, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE PAPER: This paper is an attempt to mathematically describe the mastication organ muscle functioning, taking into consideration the impact of the central nervous system. To conduct model tests, three types of craniums were prepared: short, normal, and long. The necessary numeric data, required to prepare the final calculation models of different craniofacial types, were used to identify muscle and occlusion forces generated by muscles in the area of incisors and molars. The mandible in model tests was treated as a nondeformable stiff form. The formal basis for the formulated research problem was reached using the laws and principles of mechanics and control theory. The proposed method treats muscles as "black boxes," whose properties automatically adapt to the nature of the occlusion load. The identified values of occlusion forces referred to measurements made in clinical conditions. The conducted verification demonstrated a very good consistency of model and clinical tests' results. The proposed method is an alternative approach to the so far applied methods of muscle force identification. Identification of muscle forces without taking into account the impact of the nervous system does not fully reflect the conditions of mastication organ muscle functioning.

  20. Music evokes vicarious emotions in listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Why do we listen to sad music? We seek to answer this question using a psychological approach. It is possible to distinguish perceived emotions from those that are experienced. Therefore, we hypothesized that, although sad music is perceived as sad, listeners actually feel (experience) pleasant emotions concurrent with sadness. This hypothesis was supported, which led us to question whether sadness in the context of art is truly an unpleasant emotion. While experiencing sadness may be unpleasant, it may also be somewhat pleasant when experienced in the context of art, for example, when listening to sad music. We consider musically evoked emotion vicarious, as we are not threatened when we experience it, in the way that we can be during the course of experiencing emotion in daily life. When we listen to sad music, we experience vicarious sadness. In this review, we propose two sides to sadness by suggesting vicarious emotion.

  1. Exploring the Medical and Psychosocial Concerns of Adolescents and Young Adults With Craniofacial Microsomia: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kayla V; Ormond, Kelly E; Moscarello, Tia; Bruce, Janine S; Bereknyei Merrell, Sylvia; Chang, Kay W; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of adolescents and young adults with craniofacial microsomia, including the impact of growing up with this craniofacial condition on daily life and sense of self. The results may guide future research on optimally supporting individuals with craniofacial microsomia during this critical life phase. Participants were recruited through a craniofacial center, online patient support groups, and social media sites. Eleven individual semistructured interviews with participants between 12 and 22 years old were conducted by a single interviewer, transcribed, iteratively coded, and thematically analyzed. Five themes were evident in the data: (1) impact on personal growth and character development, (2) negative psychosocial impact, (3) deciding to hide or reveal the condition, (4) desire to make personal surgical decisions, and (5) struggles with hearing loss. We identified both medical and psychosocial concerns prevalent among adolescents with craniofacial microsomia. Although adolescents with craniofacial microsomia exhibit considerable resilience, the challenges they face impact their sense of self and should be addressed through psychosocial support and counseling. Further research should investigate the potential benefit of the wider use of hearing aids, as well as the involvement of patients in decision-making about reconstructive ear surgery.

  2. The ribosome biogenesis factor Nol11 is required for optimal rDNA transcription and craniofacial development in Xenopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N Griffin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of ribosomes is ubiquitous and fundamental to life. As such, it is surprising that defects in ribosome biogenesis underlie a growing number of symptomatically distinct inherited disorders, collectively called ribosomopathies. We previously determined that the nucleolar protein, NOL11, is essential for optimal pre-rRNA transcription and processing in human tissue culture cells. However, the role of NOL11 in the development of a multicellular organism remains unknown. Here, we reveal a critical function for NOL11 in vertebrate ribosome biogenesis and craniofacial development. Nol11 is strongly expressed in the developing cranial neural crest (CNC of both amphibians and mammals, and knockdown of Xenopus nol11 results in impaired pre-rRNA transcription and processing, increased apoptosis, and abnormal development of the craniofacial cartilages. Inhibition of p53 rescues this skeletal phenotype, but not the underlying ribosome biogenesis defect, demonstrating an evolutionarily conserved control mechanism through which ribosome-impaired craniofacial cells are removed. Excessive activation of this mechanism impairs craniofacial development. Together, our findings reveal a novel requirement for Nol11 in craniofacial development, present the first frog model of a ribosomopathy, and provide further insight into the clinically important relationship between specific ribosome biogenesis proteins and craniofacial cell survival.

  3. Postoperative assessment of surgical results using three dimensional surface reconstruction CT (3D-CT) in a craniofacial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Jiro; Sato, Kaoru; Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Takashi; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa; Akagawa, Tetsuya.

    1988-01-01

    In 1983, Michael W. Vannier and Jeffrey L. Marsh developed a computer method that reconstructs three dimensional (3D) born and soft tissue surfaces, given a high resolution CT scan-series of the facial skeleton. This method has been applied to craniofacial anomalies, basal encephaloceles, and musculoskeletal anomalies. In this study, a postoperative assessment of the craniofacial surgical results has been accomplished using this 3D-CT in 2 children with craniofacial dysmorphism. The authors discuss the advantages of this 3D-CT imaging method in the postoperative assessments of craniofacial anomalies. Results are detailed in the following listing : 1) a postoperative 3D-CT reveals the anatomical details corrected by the craniofacial surgery more precisely and stereographically than conventional radiological methods ; 2) secondary changes of the cranium after the surgery, such as bony formation in the area of the osteotomy and postoperative asymmetric deformities, are detected early by the 3D-CT imaging technique, and, 3) 3D-CT mid-sagittal and top axial views of the intracranial skull base are most useful in postoperative assessments of the surgical results. Basesd on our experience, we expect that three dimensional surface reconstructions from CT scans will become to be used widely in the postoperative assessments of the surgical results of craniofacial anomalies. (author)

  4. Dicer activity in neural crest cells is essential for craniofacial organogenesis and pharyngeal arch artery morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xuguang; Wang, Qin; Jiao, Kai

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating gene expression during numerous biological/pathological processes. Dicer encodes an RNase III endonuclease that is essential for generating most, if not all, functional miRNAs. In this work, we applied a conditional gene inactivation approach to examine the function of Dicer during neural crest cell (NCC) development. Mice with NCC-specific inactivation of Dicer died perinatally. Cranial and cardiac NCC migration into target tissues was not affected by Dicer disruption, but their subsequent development was disturbed. NCC derivatives and their associated mesoderm-derived cells displayed massive apoptosis, leading to severe abnormalities during craniofacial morphogenesis and organogenesis. In addition, the 4th pharyngeal arch artery (PAA) remodeling was affected, resulting in interrupted aortic arch artery type B (IAA-B) in mutant animals. Taken together, our results show that Dicer activity in NCCs is essential for craniofacial development and pharyngeal arch artery morphogenesis. PMID:21256960

  5. Associations between craniofacial morphology, head posture, and cervical vertebral body fusions in men with sleep apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanholt, Palle; Petri, Niels; Wildschiødtz, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    . The patients were divided into 4 groups according to fusion in the cervical vertebrae: group I, no fusions (42 subjects); group II, fusion of cervical vertebrae 2 and 3 (15 subjects); group III, occipitalization (10 subjects); and group IV, block fusion (11 subjects). Mean differences of craniofacial...... dimensions between the groups were assessed by unpaired t tests. RESULTS: No significant differences were seen between groups I and III. Between groups I and II, significant differences were seen in jaw relationship (P face height and mandibular length deviated...... significantly. No significant differences were seen in head posture. CONCLUSIONS: OSA patients with block fusions in the cervical vertebrae and fusion of 2 vertebrae differed significantly in craniofacial profile from other OSA patients....

  6. The slant of the forehead as a craniofacial feature of impulsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Guerrero-Apolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Impulsiveness has been the subject of much research, but little is known about the possible relationship between craniofacial anatomy and impulsiveness. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between one aspect of craniofacial structure (the angle of inclination of the forehead and impulsiveness. Method: Photographs in profile were obtained from 131 volunteers who had been fined for driving at high speed and were undergoing a court-mandated driving license point-recovery course. They completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11, the Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P, and Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale (V. The angle of the slant of the forehead was measured with a photographic support and a protractor. Results: High positive concordance was found between forehead inclination and 14 out of the 15 impulsiveness factors studied. Conclusions: The angle of inclination of the forehead was significantly associated with self-reported impulsiveness in this sample of traffic violators.

  7. Characteristics of associated craniofacial trauma in patients with head injuries: An experience with 100 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial fractures and concomitant cranial injuries carry the significant potential for mortality and neurological morbidity mainly in young adults. Aims and Objectives: To analyze the characteristics of head injuries and associated facial injuries, the management options and outcome following cranio-facial trauma. Methods: This retrospective review was performed at Justice K. S. Hegde Charitable Hospital, and associated A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. Following Ethical Committee approval, hospital charts and radiographs of 100 consecutive patients of cranio-facial trauma managed at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Neurosurgery between January 2004 and December 2004 were reviewed. Results: Majority of the patients were in the 2nd to 4th decade (79% with a male to female ratio of -8.09:1. Road traffic accidents were the common cause of craniofacial trauma in present study (54% followed by fall from height (30%. Loss of consciousness was the most common clinical symptom (62% followed by headache (33%. Zygoma was the most commonly fractured facial bone 48.2% (alone 21.2%, in combination 27.2%. Majority of patients had mild head injury and managed conservatively in present series. Causes of surgical intervention for intracranial lesions were compound depressed fracture, contusion and intracranial hematoma. Operative indications for facial fractures were displaced facial bone fractures. Major causes of mortality were associated systemic injuries. Conclusion: Adult males are the most common victims in craniofacial trauma, and road traffic accidents were responsible for the majority. Most of the patients sustained mild head injuries and were managed conservatively. Open reduction and internal fixation with miniplates was used for displaced facial bone fractures.

  8. Acute and chronic craniofacial pain: brainstem mechanisms of nociceptive transmission and neuroplasticity, and their clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessle, B J

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent advances in knowledge of brainstem mechanisms related to craniofacial pain. It also draws attention to their clinical implications, and concludes with a brief overview and suggestions for future research directions. It first describes the general organizational features of the trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex (VBSNC), including its input and output properties and intrinsic characteristics that are commensurate with its strategic role as the major brainstem relay of many types of somatosensory information derived from the face and mouth. The VBSNC plays a crucial role in craniofacial nociceptive transmission, as evidenced by clinical, behavioral, morphological, and electrophysiological data that have been especially derived from studies of the relay of cutaneous nociceptive afferent inputs through the subnucleus caudalis of the VBSNC. The recent literature, however, indicates that some fundamental differences exist in the processing of cutaneous vs. other craniofacial nociceptive inputs to the VBSNC, and that rostral components of the VBSNC may also play important roles in some of these processes. Modulatory mechanisms are also highlighted, including the neurochemical substrate by which nociceptive transmission in the VBSNC can be modulated. In addition, the long-term consequences of peripheral injury and inflammation and, in particular, the neuroplastic changes that can be induced in the VBSNC are emphasized in view of the likely role that central sensitization, as well as peripheral sensitization, can play in acute and chronic pain. The recent findings also provide new insights into craniofacial pain behavior and are particularly relevant to many approaches currently in use for the management of pain and to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures aimed at manipulating peripheral inputs and central processes underlying nociceptive transmission and its control within the VBSNC.

  9. Reliable classification of facial phenotypic variation in craniofacial microsomia: a comparison of physical exam and photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgfeld, Craig B; Heike, Carrie L; Saltzman, Babette S; Leroux, Brian G; Evans, Kelly N; Luquetti, Daniela V

    2016-03-31

    Craniofacial microsomia is a common congenital condition for which children receive longitudinal, multidisciplinary team care. However, little is known about the etiology of craniofacial microsomia and few outcome studies have been published. In order to facilitate large, multicenter studies in craniofacial microsomia, we assessed the reliability of phenotypic classification based on photographs by comparison with direct physical examination. Thirty-nine children with craniofacial microsomia underwent a physical examination and photographs according to a standardized protocol. Three clinicians completed ratings during the physical examination and, at least a month later, using respective photographs for each participant. We used descriptive statistics for participant characteristics and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to assess reliability. The agreement between ratings on photographs and physical exam was greater than 80 % for all 15 categories included in the analysis. The ICC estimates were higher than 0.6 for most features. Features with the highest ICC included: presence of epibulbar dermoids, ear abnormalities, and colobomas (ICC 0.85, 0.81, and 0.80, respectively). Orbital size, presence of pits, tongue abnormalities, and strabismus had the lowest ICC, values (0.17 or less). There was not a strong tendency for either type of rating, physical exam or photograph, to be more likely to designate a feature as abnormal. The agreement between photographs and physical exam regarding the presence of a prior surgery was greater than 90 % for most features. Our results suggest that categorization of facial phenotype in children with CFM based on photographs is reliable relative to physical examination for most facial features.

  10. Severe craniofacial sclerosis with multiple anomalies in a boy and his mother

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currarino, G; Friedman, J M

    1986-09-01

    A boy is described with severe hyperostosis of the cranium and facial bones, and many other abnormalities including macrocephaly, abnormal facies, cleft palate, conductive hearing loss, speech defect, dental and digital anomalies, delayed skeletal development, short fibulas, short stature of postnatal onset, cervical kyphosis, and progressive lumbar lordosis. His mother exhibited craniofacial sclerosis, similar dental defects, and mild osteopathia striata without other abnormalities. This family may represent a previously undescribed inherited syndrome with cranial sclerosis.

  11. Severe craniofacial sclerosis with multiple anomalies in a boy and his mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, G.; Friedman, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A boy is described with severe hyperostosis of the cranium and facial bones, and many other abnormalities including macrocephaly, abnormal facies, cleft palate, conductive hearing loss, speech defect, dental and digital anomalies, delayed skeletal development, short fibulas, short stature of postnatal onset, cervical kyphosis, and progressive lumbar lordosis. His mother exhibited craniofacial sclerosis, similar dental defects, and mild osteopathia striata without other abnormalities. This family may represent a previously undescribed inherited syndrome with cranial sclerosis. (orig.)

  12. Developing business opportunities from concept to end point for craniofacial surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Spencer A

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial surgeons repair a wide variety of soft and hard tissues that produce the clinical expertise to recognize the need for an improved device or novel regenerative stem cell or use of molecules that may dramatically change the way clinical care for improved patient outcomes. The business pathway to bring a concept to clinical care requires knowledge, mentoring, and a team of experts in business and patent law.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA and craniofacial covariability of Chad Basin females indicate past population events

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Martin; Černý, Viktor; Brůžek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2008), s. 465-474 ISSN 1042-0533 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1587 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : craniofacial morphology * mitochondrial DNA * sub - Saharan Africa * population history Sub ject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.976, year: 2008 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118903453/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0

  14. Prevention of Cutaneous Tissue Contracture During Removal of Craniofacial Implant Superstructures for CT and MRI Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Sullivan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Head and neck cancer patients who have lost facial parts following surgical intervention frequently require craniofacial implant retained facial prostheses for restoration. Many craniofacial implant patients require computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans as part of their long-term follow-up care. Consequently removal of implant superstructures and peri-abutment tissue management is required for those studies. The purpose of the present paper was to describe a method for eliminating cranial imaging artifacts in patients with craniofacial implants.Material and Methods: Three patients wearing extraoral implant retained facial prostheses needing either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies were discussed. Peri-implant soft tissues contracture after removal of percutaneous craniofacial implant abutments during computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies was prevented using a method proposed by authors. The procedure involves temporary removal of the supra-implant components prior to imaging and filling of the tissue openings with polyvinyl siloxane dental impression material.Results: Immediately after filling of the tissue openings with polyvinyl siloxane dental impression material patients were sent for the imaging studies, and were asked to return for removal of the silicone plugs and reconnection of all superstructure hardware after imaging procedures were complete. The silicone plugs were easily removed with a dental explorer. The percutaneous abutments were immediately replaced and screwed into the implants which were at the bone level.Conclusions: Presented herein method eliminates the source of artifacts and prevents contracture of percutaneous tissues upon removal of the implant abutments during imaging.

  15. Functional anatomy of vagina muscles in the blood-feeding insect, Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, R G; O'Donnell, M J

    2009-11-01

    The physiology of the muscles associated with the vagina in the blood-feeding insect, Rhodnius prolixus Stal, was investigated with the use of Methylene Blue staining to visualize the anatomy, and a micro force transducer to record spontaneous and neurally-evoked contractions. The vagina is associated with a dorsal muscle and a set of paired lateral muscles. The dorsal muscle extends from the base of the common oviduct to apodemes located laterally on sternite VIII, the first genital segment. The lateral muscles extend from a medially-located apodeme on the posterior edge of sternite VI around each side of the common oviduct to travel posteriorly along the side of the vagina before inserting laterally on apodemes on sternite VIII. The vagina muscles display spontaneous and neurally-evoked contractions that are prolonged but transient. The response to evoked contractions shows that the muscles are innervated by both excitatory and inhibitory motor axons. The degree of tension generated by evoked contractions is dependent on the frequency of stimulation with maximal tension being generated at 20-30Hz. This tension, which often exceeds 400mg, is transient and returns to a baseline within 1 to 2min during continuous stimulation. These results, which are the first to describe this chamber in this well-studied insect, are discussed with respect to the act of egg laying.

  16. Skeletal muscle properties and fatigue resistance in relation to smoking history

    OpenAIRE

    W?st, Rob C. I.; Morse, Christopher I.; de Haan, Arnold; Rittweger, J?rn; Jones, David A.; Degens, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Although smoking-related diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are often accompanied by increased peripheral muscle fatigability, the extent to which this is a feature of the disease or a direct effect of smoking per se is not known. Skeletal muscle function was investigated in terms of maximal voluntary isometric torque, activation, contractile properties and fatigability, using electrically evoked contractions of the quadriceps muscle of 40 smokers [19 men and 21 w...

  17. Ethnical evaluation of Bangladeshi young adults in terms of morphometrically-analyzed craniofacial skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Md. Rizvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric study for the craniofacial relations and variations in humans have long been used to differentiate various racial groups in physical anthropology. The objective of this study was to describe the morphological features of craniofacial skeleton in Bangladeshi young adults and to compare it with already reported standards for the Caucasian population as well as cephalometric values of other Indian races using Steiner′s reference norms. The study was conducted for 52 Bangladeshi young adults (27 male and 25 females, aged 21-27 years, having balanced and harmonious facial profiles, clinically acceptable occlusion with permanent dentition and no history of orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalograms taken of these subjects were used for a series of morphometric analyses. Bangladeshi subjects were more protrusive skeletally and dentally than Caucasians. Furthermore, the mandibular plane angle was smaller in Bangladeshi subjects than in the Caucasians. Present results also suggest that the Astrics, Dravidians, and Armenoid who penetrated into Bengal in the early ages may have contributed substantially to the morphogenesis of craniofacial skeleton in the present Bengalis. The results of this study support the idea that a single standard of facial esthetics should not be applied to all racial and ethnic groups.

  18. Decreasing the effective radiation dose in pediatric craniofacial CT by changing head position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, Ryne A.; Kuang, Anna A.; Schwartz, Daniel L.; Selden, Nathan R.; Stevens, Donna M.; Bardo, Dianna M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Children are exposed to ionizing radiation during pre- and post-operative evaluation for craniofacial surgery. The primary purpose of the study was to decrease effective radiation dose while preserving the diagnostic quality of the study. In this prospective study 49 children were positioned during craniofacial CT (CFCT) imaging with their neck fully extended into an exaggerated sniff position, parallel to the CT gantry, to eliminate the majority of the cervical spine and the thyroid gland from radiation exposure. Image-quality and effective radiation dose comparisons were made retrospectively in age-matched controls (n = 49). When compared to CT scans reviewed retrospectively, the prospective examinations showed a statistically significant decrease in z-axis length by 16% (P < 0.0001) and delivered a reduced effective radiation dose by 18% (P < 0.0001). The subjective diagnostic quality of the exams performed in the prospective arm was maintained despite a slight decrease in the quality of the brain windows. There was statistically significant improvement in the quality of the bone windows and three-dimensional reconstructed images. Altering the position of the head by extending the neck during pediatric craniofacial CT imaging statistically reduces the effective radiation dose while maintaining the diagnostic quality of the images. (orig.)

  19. A Morpholino-based screen to identify novel genes involved in craniofacial morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Vida Senkus; Feng, Weiguo; Hernandez-Lagunas, Laura; Artinger, Kristin Bruk; Williams, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The regulatory mechanisms underpinning facial development are conserved between diverse species. Therefore, results from model systems provide insight into the genetic causes of human craniofacial defects. Previously, we generated a comprehensive dataset examining gene expression during development and fusion of the mouse facial prominences. Here, we used this resource to identify genes that have dynamic expression patterns in the facial prominences, but for which only limited information exists concerning developmental function. RESULTS This set of ~80 genes was used for a high throughput functional analysis in the zebrafish system using Morpholino gene knockdown technology. This screen revealed three classes of cranial cartilage phenotypes depending upon whether knockdown of the gene affected the neurocranium, viscerocranium, or both. The targeted genes that produced consistent phenotypes encoded proteins linked to transcription (meis1, meis2a, tshz2, vgll4l), signaling (pkdcc, vlk, macc1, wu:fb16h09), and extracellular matrix function (smoc2). The majority of these phenotypes were not altered by reduction of p53 levels, demonstrating that both p53 dependent and independent mechanisms were involved in the craniofacial abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS This Morpholino-based screen highlights new genes involved in development of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton with wider relevance to formation of the face in other species, particularly mouse and human. PMID:23559552

  20. A role for chemokine signaling in neural crest cell migration and craniofacial development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Eugenia C. Olesnicky; Birkholz, Denise A.; Artinger, Kristin Bruk

    2009-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a unique population of multipotent cells that migrate along defined pathways throughout the embryo and give rise to many diverse cell types including pigment cells, craniofacial cartilage and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Aberrant migration of NCCs results in a wide variety of congenital birth defects including craniofacial abnormalities. The chemokine Sdf1 and its receptors, Cxcr4 and Cxcr7, have been identified as key components in the regulation of cell migration in a variety of tissues. Here we describe a novel role for the zebrafish chemokine receptor Cxcr4a in the development and migration of cranial NCCs (CNCCs). We find that loss of Cxcr4a, but not Cxcr7b results in aberrant CNCC migration, defects in the neurocranium, as well as cranial ganglia dismorphogenesis. Moreover, overexpression of either Sdf1b or Cxcr4a causes aberrant CNCC migration and results in ectopic craniofacial cartilages. We propose a model in which Sdf1b signaling from the pharyngeal arch endoderm and optic stalk to Cxcr4a expressing CNCCs is important for both the proper condensation of the CNCCs into pharyngeal arches and the subsequent patterning and morphogenesis of the neural crest derived tissues. PMID:19576198

  1. In vivo impact of Dlx3 conditional inactivation in Neural Crest-Derived Craniofacial Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, Olivier; Isaac, Juliane; Zah, Angela; Hwang, Joonsung; Berdal, Ariane; Lian, Jane B.; Morasso, Maria I.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in DLX3 in humans lead to defects in craniofacial and appendicular bones, yet the in vivo activity related to Dlx3 function during normal skeletal development have not been fully elucidated. Here we used a conditional knockout approach to analyze the effects of neural crest deletion of Dlx3 on craniofacial bones development. At birth, mutant mice exhibit a normal overall positioning of the skull bones, but a change in the shape of the calvaria was observed. Molecular analysis of the genes affected in the frontal bones and mandibles from these mice identified several bone markers known to affect bone development, with a strong prediction for increased bone formation and mineralization in vivo. Interestingly, while a subset of these genes were similarly affected in frontal bones and mandibles (Sost, Mepe, Bglap, Alp, Ibsp, Agt), several genes, including Lect1 and Calca, were specifically affected in frontal bones. Consistent with these molecular alterations, cells isolated from the frontal bone of mutant mice exhibited increased differentiation and mineralization capacities ex vivo, supporting cell autonomous defects in neural crest cells. However, adult mutant animals exhibited decreased bone mineral density in both mandibles and calvaria, as well as a significant increase in bone porosity. Together, these observations suggest that mature osteoblasts in the adult respond to signals that regulate adult bone mass and remodeling. This study provides new downstream targets for Dlx3 in craniofacial bone, and gives additional evidence of the complex regulation of bone formation and homeostasis in the adult skeleton. PMID:22886599

  2. 3D-Printing Technologies for Craniofacial Rehabilitation, Reconstruction, and Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Ethan L; Farris, Ashley L; Hung, Ben P; Dias, Miguel; Garcia, Juan R; Dorafshar, Amir H; Grayson, Warren L

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of craniofacial defects can present many challenges due to the variety of tissue-specific requirements and the complexity of anatomical structures in that region. 3D-printing technologies provide clinicians, engineers and scientists with the ability to create patient-specific solutions for craniofacial defects. Currently, there are three key strategies that utilize these technologies to restore both appearance and function to patients: rehabilitation, reconstruction and regeneration. In rehabilitation, 3D-printing can be used to create prostheses to replace or cover damaged tissues. Reconstruction, through plastic surgery, can also leverage 3D-printing technologies to create custom cutting guides, fixation devices, practice models and implanted medical devices to improve patient outcomes. Regeneration of tissue attempts to replace defects with biological materials. 3D-printing can be used to create either scaffolds or living, cellular constructs to signal tissue-forming cells to regenerate defect regions. By integrating these three approaches, 3D-printing technologies afford the opportunity to develop personalized treatment plans and design-driven manufacturing solutions to improve aesthetic and functional outcomes for patients with craniofacial defects.

  3. Influences of palatoplasty by the push-back procedure on craniofacial morphology and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Kudo, Motonori; Yamamoto, Yuko

    2012-12-01

    For patients with a cleft palate, the push-back procedure which accompanies posterior shifting of palatal flap is thought to be most effective way of. achieving adequate velopharyngeal function. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influences of the push-back procedure on the craniofacial morphology and its growth. Using cephalometry we compared the craniofacial morphology and growth of three groups of Japanese children, living in the same region (Hokkaido, Japan). 1) 28 children (13 girls and 15 boys) with operated submucous cleft palates at the ages of 9 and 14 respectively. 2) 12 age-matched children (7 girls and 5 boys) with unoperated submucous cleft palates. 3) 60 age-matched non-cleft children (30 girls and 30 boys) with normal occlusion. None of them received dentofacial orthopaedic treatment. While the patients who had been operated on had significant differences in posterior upper facial height and inclination of the palatal plane when compared with non-cleft children or unoperated cleft children, they showed no statistically significant difference in anteroposterior positioning of anterior part of the maxilla, compared with the unoperated. The influences of palatoplasty by the push-back procedure with posterior positioning of the palatal flaps on craniofacial morphology are additional to the cleft palate, and of minor concern. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Craniofacial Reconstruction by a Cost-Efficient Template-Based Process Using 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Msallem, MD, DMD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Craniofacial defects often result in aesthetic and functional deficits, which affect the patient’s psyche and wellbeing. Patient-specific implants remain the optimal solution, but their use is limited or impractical due to their high costs. This article describes a fast and cost-efficient workflow of in-house manufactured patient-specific implants for craniofacial reconstruction and cranioplasty. As a proof of concept, we present a case of reconstruction of a craniofacial defect with involvement of the supraorbital rim. The following hybrid manufacturing process combines additive manufacturing with silicone molding and an intraoperative, manual fabrication process. A computer-aided design template is 3D printed from thermoplastics by a fused deposition modeling 3D printer and then silicone molded manually. After sterilization of the patient-specific mold, it is used intraoperatively to produce an implant from polymethylmethacrylate. Due to the combination of these 2 straightforward processes, the procedure can be kept very simple, and no advanced equipment is needed, resulting in minimal financial expenses. The whole fabrication of the mold is performed within approximately 2 hours depending on the template’s size and volume. This reliable technique is easy to adopt and suitable for every health facility, especially those with limited financial resources in less privileged countries, enabling many more patients to profit from patient-specific treatment.

  5. Availability of cosmetic treatment using novel cosmetics-based material on patients with craniofacial concavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shigeto; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Sagehashi, Yoshinori; Sasaki, Keiichi; Sato, Naoko

    2018-03-08

    Patients treated with maxillofacial prosthetics often experience emotional problems because of the remaining facial skin concavity such as a surgical scar. In such cases, cosmetic treatment can potentially correct their skin tone imperfections and deformities. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical availability of novel cosmetics-based material for craniofacial small concavity by initiating a cosmetic treatment in a preliminary case. Eighteen patients with aesthetic problems such as craniofacial deformities, small defects, and concavities on their faces underwent cosmetic treatment that was performed by makeup practitioners. Data were collected from the patient's charts and a survey questionnaire. A visual analog scale was used to conduct a survey regarding the satisfaction levels of the patients following cosmetic treatment with a novel cosmetics-based material. The cosmetic treatment was performed for a concavity on the left midface of a 67-year-old woman with partial maxillectomy. The novel cosmetics-based material was manufactured from a semi-translucent oil base. The satisfaction level of the patient increased after undergoing the cosmetic treatment. Regarding clinical applications, the novel cosmetics-based material can help reduce their cosmetic disturbance and restore the small deformity. These results suggest that the cosmetic treatment with the novel cosmetics-based material can be used as a subsidiary method for facial prostheses or an independent new method for correcting patients' small craniofacial concavity and for reducing visible deformity. Copyright © 2018 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lyophilized Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF Promotes Craniofacial Bone Regeneration through Runx2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Freeze-drying is an effective means to control scaffold pore size and preserve its composition. The purpose of the present study was to determine the applicability of lyophilized Platelet-rich fibrin (LPRF as a scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration and to compare its biological effects with commonly used fresh Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF. LPRF caused a 4.8-fold ± 0.4-fold elevation in Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 expression in alveolar bone cells, compared to a 3.6-fold ± 0.2-fold increase when using fresh PRF, and a more than 10-fold rise of alkaline phosphatase levels and mineralization markers. LPRF-induced Runx2 expression only occurred in alveolar bone and not in periodontal or dental follicle cells. LPRF also caused a 1.6-fold increase in osteoblast proliferation (p < 0.001 when compared to fresh PRF. When applied in a rat craniofacial defect model for six weeks, LPRF resulted in 97% bony coverage of the defect, compared to 84% for fresh PRF, 64% for fibrin, and 16% without scaffold. Moreover, LPRF thickened the trabecular diameter by 25% when compared to fresh PRF and fibrin, and only LPRF and fresh PRF resulted in the formation of interconnected trabeculae across the defect. Together, these studies support the application of lyophilized PRF as a biomimetic scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration and mineralized tissue engineering.

  7. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  8. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People who cannot actively move one or more joints can do exercises using braces or splints . When ... A.M. Editorial team. Muscle Disorders Read more Neuromuscular Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  9. Central representation of muscle pain and mechanical hyperesthesia in the orofacial region: a positron emission tomography study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Rron; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels Staehlin

    2004-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of the human brain have revealed a network of brain regions involved in the processing of nociceptive information. However, little is known of the cerebral processing of pain originating from muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the cerebral activation...... pattern evoked by experimental jaw-muscle pain and its interference by simultaneous mechanical stimuli, which has been shown to evoke hyperesthesia. Ten healthy subjects participated in a PET study and jaw-muscle pain was induced by bolus injections of 5% hypertonic saline into the right masseter muscle....... Repeated von Frey hair stimulation (0.5 Hz) of the skin above the masseter muscle was used as the mechanical stimulus. Hypertonic saline injections caused strong muscle pain spreading to adjacent areas. von Frey stimulation was rated as non-painful but produced hyperesthesia during jaw-muscle pain. Jaw...

  10. Transcriptional dynamics of a conserved gene expression network associated with craniofacial divergence in Arctic charr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Ehsan Pashay; Kapralova, Kalina Hristova; Pálsson, Arnar; Maier, Valerie Helene; Gudbrandsson, Jóhannes; Snorrason, Sigurdur S; Jónsson, Zophonías O; Franzdóttir, Sigrídur Rut

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the molecular basis of craniofacial variation can provide insights into key developmental mechanisms of adaptive changes and their role in trophic divergence and speciation. Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a polymorphic fish species, and, in Lake Thingvallavatn in Iceland, four sympatric morphs have evolved distinct craniofacial structures. We conducted a gene expression study on candidates from a conserved gene coexpression network, focusing on the development of craniofacial elements in embryos of two contrasting Arctic charr morphotypes (benthic and limnetic). Four Arctic charr morphs were studied: one limnetic and two benthic morphs from Lake Thingvallavatn and a limnetic reference aquaculture morph. The presence of morphological differences at developmental stages before the onset of feeding was verified by morphometric analysis. Following up on our previous findings that Mmp2 and Sparc were differentially expressed between morphotypes, we identified a network of genes with conserved coexpression across diverse vertebrate species. A comparative expression study of candidates from this network in developing heads of the four Arctic charr morphs verified the coexpression relationship of these genes and revealed distinct transcriptional dynamics strongly correlated with contrasting craniofacial morphologies (benthic versus limnetic). A literature review and Gene Ontology analysis indicated that a significant proportion of the network genes play a role in extracellular matrix organization and skeletogenesis, and motif enrichment analysis of conserved noncoding regions of network candidates predicted a handful of transcription factors, including Ap1 and Ets2, as potential regulators of the gene network. The expression of Ets2 itself was also found to associate with network gene expression. Genes linked to glucocorticoid signalling were also studied, as both Mmp2 and Sparc are responsive to this pathway. Among those, several transcriptional

  11. Metabolic control of muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2003-01-01

    that combined blockade of NOS and PGI2, and NOS and cytochrome P450, both attenuate exercise-induced hyperemia in humans. Combined vasodilator blockade studies offer the potential to uncover important interactions and compensatory vasodilator responses. The signaling pathways that link metabolic events evoked...... to exert control of muscle vasodilation. Adenosine, nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelial-derived hyperpolarization factor (EDHF) are possible mediators of muscle vasodilation during exercise. In humans, adenosine has been shown to contribute to functional hyperemia as blood flow...... by muscle contraction to vasodilatory signals in the local vascular bed remains an important area of study....

  12. Contributions of central command and muscle feedback to sympathetic nerve activity in contracting human skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eBoulton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During voluntary contractions, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA to contracting muscles increases in proportion to force but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. To shed light on these mechanisms, particularly the influences of central command and muscle afferent feedback, the present study tested the hypothesis that MSNA is greater during voluntary compared with electrically-evoked contractions. Seven male subjects performed a series of 1-minute isometric dorsiflexion contractions (left leg separated by 2-minute rest periods, alternating between voluntary and electrically-evoked contractions at similar forces (5-10 % of maximum. MSNA was recorded continuously (microneurography from the left peroneal nerve and quantified from cardiac-synchronised, negative-going spikes in the neurogram. Compared with pre-contraction values, MSNA increased by 51 ± 34 % (P 0.05. MSNA analysed at 15-s intervals revealed that this effect of voluntary contraction appeared 15-30 s after contraction onset (P < 0.01, remained elevated until the end of contraction, and disappeared within 15 s after contraction. These findings suggest that central command, and not feedback from contracting muscle, is the primary mechanism responsible for the increase in MSNA to contracting muscle. The time-course of MSNA suggests that there is a longer delay in the onset of this effect compared with its cessation after contraction.

  13. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 50th anniversary editorial board commentary: anatomy, basic sciences, and genetics--then and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Mark P; Cooper, Gregory M; Marazita, Mary L

    2014-05-01

    To celebrate the 50th year of the Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal we look back to where we started in 1964 and where we are now, and we speculate about directions for the future in a "Then and Now" editorial series. This editorial examines changing trends and perspectives in anatomical, basic science, and genetic studies published in this 50-year interval. In volume 1 there were 45 total papers, seven (16%) of which were peer-reviewed basic science and genetic articles published: four in anatomy, three in craniofacial biology, and none in genetics. In contrast, in volume 50, of 113 articles there were 47 (42%) peer-reviewed basic science and genetic articles published: 30 in anatomy, five in craniofacial biology, and 12 in genetics. Topical analysis of published manuscripts then and now reveal that similar topics in anatomy and craniofacial biology are still being researched today (e.g., phenotypic variability, optimal timing of surgery, presurgical orthopedics, bone grafting); whereas, most of the more recent papers use advanced technology to address old questions. In contrast, genetic publications have clearly increased in frequency during the last 50 years, which parallels advances in the field during this time. However, all of us have noticed that the more "cutting-edge" papers in these areas are not being submitted for publication to the journal, but instead to discipline-specific journals. Concerted efforts are therefore indicated to attract and publish these cutting-edge papers in order to keep the Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal in the forefront of orofacial cleft and craniofacial anomaly research and to provide a valuable service to American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association members.

  14. Relationships between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability in patients with cervico-craniofacial pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva I

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ibai López-de-Uralde-Villanueva,1–4 Hector Beltran-Alacreu,1–3 Alba Paris-Alemany,1–4 Santiago Angulo-Díaz-Parreño,2,3,5 Roy La Touche1–4 1Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Science, 2Research Group on Movement and Behavioral Science and Study of Pain, The Center for Advanced Studies University La Salle, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Aravaca, Madrid, Spain; 3Institute of Neuroscience and Craniofacial Pain (INDCRAN, Madrid, Spain; 4Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research, IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain; 5Faculty of Medicine, Universidad San Pablo CEU, Madrid, Spain Objectives: This cross-sectional correlation study explored the relationships between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability in patients with chronic cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP. Moreover, we investigated the test–retest intrarater reliability of two craniocervical posture measurements: head posture (HP and the sternomental distance (SMD. Methods: Fifty-three asymptomatic subjects and 60 CCFP patients were recruited. One rater measured HP and the SMD using a cervical range of motion device and a digital caliper, respectively. The Spanish versions of the neck disability index and the craniofacial pain and disability inventory were used to assess pain-related disability (neck disability and craniofacial disability, respectively. Results: We found no statistically significant correlations between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability variables (HP and neck disability [r=0.105; P>0.05]; HP and craniofacial disability [r=0.132; P>0.05]; SMD and neck disability [r=0.126; P>0.05]; SMD and craniofacial disability [r=0.195; P>0.05]. A moderate positive correlation was observed between HP and SMD for both groups (asymptomatic subjects, r=0.447; CCFP patients, r=0.52. Neck disability was strongly positively correlated with craniofacial disability (r=0.79; P>0.001. The test–retest intrarater reliability of the HP measurement was high for

  15. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in miniature pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Shi

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The latencies and thresholds of VEMPs recorded from the neck extensor muscle and the masseter muscle appear to be comparable in normal adult Bama miniature pigs, although the amplitude recorded from the neck extensor muscle seems to be higher than that from the masseter muscle. However, because of their usually relatively superficial and easily accessible location, as well as their large volume and strong contractions, masseter muscles may be better target muscles for recording myogenic potentials.

  16. Psychological and physiological responses to odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kaori; Kawanishi, Yoko; Tsuboi, Hirohito; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Sadato, Norihiro; Oshida, Akiko; Katayama, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Ohira, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    The "Proust phenomenon" occurs when a certain smell evokes a specific memory. Recent studies have demonstrated that odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli because of the direct neural communication between the olfactory system and the amygdala. The amygdala is known to regulate various physiological activities including the endocrine and immune systems; therefore, odor-evoked autobiographic memory may trigger various psychological and physiological responses; however, the responses elicited by this memory remains obscure. In this study, we aimed to investigate the psychological and physiological responses accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated changes in their mood states and autonomic nervous, endocrine, and immune activities when autobiographic memory was evoked in the participants by asking them to smell an odor(s) that was nostalgic to them. The autobiographic memories associated with positive emotion resulted in increased positive mood states, such as comfort and happiness, and decreased negative mood states, such as anxiety. Furthermore, heart rate was decreased, skin-conductance level was increased, and peripheral interleukin-2 level was decreased after smelling the nostalgic odor. These psychological and physiological responses were significantly correlated. The present study suggests that odor-evoked autobiographic memory along with a positive feeling induce various physiological responses, including the autonomic nervous and immune activities. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to observe an interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memories and immune function.

  17. Visually Evoked Spiking Evolves While Spontaneous Ongoing Dynamics Persist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K.; Darokhan, Ziauddin; Valentiniene, Sonata; Roland, Per E.

    2016-01-01

    Neurons in the primary visual cortex spontaneously spike even when there are no visual stimuli. It is unknown whether the spiking evoked by visual stimuli is just a modification of the spontaneous ongoing cortical spiking dynamics or whether the spontaneous spiking state disappears and is replaced by evoked spiking. This study of laminar recordings of spontaneous spiking and visually evoked spiking of neurons in the ferret primary visual cortex shows that the spiking dynamics does not change: the spontaneous spiking as well as evoked spiking is controlled by a stable and persisting fixed point attractor. Its existence guarantees that evoked spiking return to the spontaneous state. However, the spontaneous ongoing spiking state and the visual evoked spiking states are qualitatively different and are separated by a threshold (separatrix). The functional advantage of this organization is that it avoids the need for a system reorganization following visual stimulation, and impedes the transition of spontaneous spiking to evoked spiking and the propagation of spontaneous spiking from layer 4 to layers 2–3. PMID:26778982

  18. Auditory evoked potential measurements in elasmobranchs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Brandon; Mann, David

    2005-04-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) were first used to examine hearing in elasmobranchs by Corwin and Bullock in the late 1970s and early 1980s, marking the first time AEPs had been measured in fishes. Results of these experiments identified the regions of the ear and brain in which sound is processed, though no actual hearing thresholds were measured. Those initial experiments provided the ground work for future AEP experiments to measure fish hearing abilities in a manner that is much faster and more convenient than classical conditioning. Data will be presented on recent experiments in which AEPs were used to measure the hearing thresholds of two species of elasmobranchs: the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, and the yellow stingray, Urobatis jamaicencis. Audiograms were analyzed and compared to previously published audiograms obtained using classical conditioning with results indicating that hearing thresholds were similar for the two methods. These data suggest that AEP testing is a viable option when measuring hearing in elasmobranchs and can increase the speed in which future hearing measurements can be obtained.

  19. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in rock musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høydal, Erik Harry; Lein Størmer, Carl Christian; Laukli, Einar; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2017-09-01

    Our focus in this study was the assessment of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) in a large group of rock musicians. A further objective was to analyse tinnitus among rock musicians as related to TEOAEs. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random. A control group was included at random for comparison. We recruited 111 musicians and a control group of 40 non-musicians. Testing was conducted by using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, TEOAEs and a questionnaire. TEOAE SNR in the half-octave frequency band centred on 4 kHz was significantly lower bilaterally in musicians than controls. This effect was strongly predicted by age and pure-tone hearing threshold levels in the 3-6 kHz range. Bilateral hearing thresholds were significantly higher at 6 kHz in musicians. Twenty percent of the musicians had permanent tinnitus. There was no association between the TEOAE parameters and permanent tinnitus. Our results suggest an incipient hearing loss at 6 kHz in rock musicians. Loss of TEOAE SNR in the 4 kHz half-octave frequency band was observed, but it was related to higher mean 3-6 kHz hearing thresholds and age. A large proportion of rock musicians have permanent tinnitus.

  20. Deconvolution of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütkenhöner, Bernd; Basel, Türker

    2012-02-07

    The vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) and the associated variance modulation can be understood by a convolution model. Two functions of time are incorporated into the model: the motor unit action potential (MUAP) of an average motor unit, and the temporal modulation of the MUAP rate of all contributing motor units, briefly called rate modulation. The latter is the function of interest, whereas the MUAP acts as a filter that distorts the information contained in the measured data. Here, it is shown how to recover the rate modulation by undoing the filtering using a deconvolution approach. The key aspects of our deconvolution algorithm are as follows: (1) the rate modulation is described in terms of just a few parameters; (2) the MUAP is calculated by Wiener deconvolution of the VEMP with the rate modulation; (3) the model parameters are optimized using a figure-of-merit function where the most important term quantifies the difference between measured and model-predicted variance modulation. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated with simulated data. An analysis of real data confirms the view that there are basically two components, which roughly correspond to the waves p13-n23 and n34-p44 of the VEMP. The rate modulation corresponding to the first, inhibitory component is much stronger than that corresponding to the second, excitatory component. But the latter is more extended so that the two modulations have almost the same equivalent rectangular duration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Surface electrical stimulation to evoke referred sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Johanna C; Blok, Derek C; Slopsema, Julia P; Boss, John M; Heyboer, Lane A; Tobias, Carson M; Polasek, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation (SES) is being investigated as a noninvasive method to evoke natural sensations distal to electrode location. This may improve treatment for phantom limb pain as well as provide an alternative method to deliver sensory feedback. The median and/or ulnar nerves of 35 subjects were stimulated at the elbow using surface electrodes. Strength-duration curves of hand sensation were found for each subject. All subjects experienced sensation in their hand, which was mostly described as a paresthesia-like sensation. The rheobase and chronaxie values were found to be lower for the median nerve than the ulnar nerve, with no significant difference between sexes. Repeated sessions with the same subject resulted in sufficient variability to suggest that recalculating the strength-duration curve for each electrode placement is necessary. Most of the recruitment curves in this study were generated with 28 to 36 data points. To quickly reproduce these curves with limited increase in error, we recommend 10 data points. Future studies will focus on obtaining different sensations using SES with the strength-duration curve defining the threshold of the effective parameter space.

  2. Function of skeletal muscle tissue formed after myoblast transplantation into irradiated mouse muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernig, A; Zweyer, M; Irintchev, A

    2000-01-15

    1. Pretreatment of muscles with ionising radiation enhances tissue formation by transplanted myoblasts but little is known about the effects on muscle function. We implanted myoblasts from an expanded, male-donor-derived, culture (i28) into X-ray irradiated (16 Gy) or irradiated and damaged soleus muscles of female syngeneic mice (Balb/c). Three to 6 months later the isometric contractile properties of the muscles were studied in vitro, and donor nuclei were visualised in muscle sections with a Y chromosome-specific DNA probe. 2. Irradiated sham-injected muscles had smaller masses than untreated solei and produced less twitch and tetanic force (all by about 18 %). Injection of 106 myoblasts abolished these deficiencies and innervation appeared normal. 3. Cryodamage of irradiated solei produced muscle remnants with few (1-50) or no fibres. Additional myoblast implantation led to formation of large muscles (25 % above normal) containing numerous small-diameter fibres. Upon direct electrical stimulation, these muscles produced considerable twitch (53 % of normal) and tetanic forces (35 % of normal) but innervation was insufficient as indicated by weak nerve-evoked contractions and elevated ACh sensitivity. 4. In control experiments on irradiated muscles, reinnervation was found to be less complete after botulinum toxin paralysis than after nerve crush indicating that proliferative arrest of irradiated Schwann cells may account for the observed innervation deficits. 5. Irradiation appears to be an effective pretreatment for improving myoblast transplantation. The injected cells can even produce organised contractile tissue replacing whole muscle. However, impaired nerve regeneration limits the functional performance of the new muscle.

  3. Biceps brachii muscle oxygenation in electrical muscle stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Jubeau, Marc; Millet, Guillaume Y; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Ferrari, Marco; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare between electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) and maximal voluntary (VOL) isometric contractions of the elbow flexors for changes in biceps brachii muscle oxygenation (tissue oxygenation index, TOI) and haemodynamics (total haemoglobin volume, tHb = oxygenated-Hb + deoxygenated-Hb) determined by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The biceps brachii muscle of 10 healthy men (23-39 years) was electrically stimulated at high frequency (75 Hz) via surface electrodes to evoke 50 intermittent (4-s contraction, 15-s relaxation) isometric contractions at maximum tolerated current level (EMS session). The contralateral arm performed 50 intermittent (4-s contraction, 15-s relaxation) maximal voluntary isometric contractions (VOL session) in a counterbalanced order separated by 2-3 weeks. Results indicated that although the torque produced during EMS was approximately 50% of VOL (P<0.05), there was no significant difference in the changes in TOI amplitude or TOI slope between EMS and VOL over the 50 contractions. However, the TOI amplitude divided by peak torque was approximately 50% lower for EMS than VOL (P<0.05), which indicates EMS was less efficient than VOL. This seems likely because of the difference in the muscles involved in the force production between conditions. Mean decrease in tHb amplitude during the contraction phases was significantly (P<0.05) greater for EMS than VOL from the 10th contraction onwards, suggesting that the muscle blood volume was lower in EMS than VOL. It is concluded that local oxygen demand of the biceps brachii sampled by NIRS is similar between VOL and EMS.

  4. Morphometric analysis of craniofacial features in mono- and dizygotic twins discordant for unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Alexis Y; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-09-01

    To compare craniofacial differences between twins discordant for surgically repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP) during the developmental ages and to test the effect of zygosity on the shape and size of the craniofacial skeleton of the same twins by means of thin plate spline (TPS) analysis. Lateral and posteroanterior (PA) cephalometric films from 19 sets of monozygotic (MZ) twins (15 male and 4 female) and 10 dizygotic (DZ) twins (7 male and 3 female) were analyzed. TPS analysis evaluated statistically significant differences in the craniofacial shape and size between affected and unaffected twins within MZ and DZ twin couples. No statistically significant differences in craniofacial shape or size between CLP and non-CLP MZ or DZ twins were observed. The level of morphological similarity in CLP vs non-CLP MZ twins was statistically greater than in DZ twins. Morphometric analysis showed that surgically repaired CLP does not produce significant shape or size differences in the craniofacial features of MZ or DZ twins discordant for unilateral CLP.

  5. The Duration of Motor Responses Evoked with Intracortical Microstimulation in Rats Is Primarily Modulated by Stimulus Amplitude and Train Duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Watson

    Full Text Available Microstimulation of brain tissue plays a key role in a variety of sensory prosthetics, clinical therapies and research applications, however the effects of stimulation parameters on the responses they evoke remain widely unknown. In particular, the effects of parameters when delivered in the form of a stimulus train as opposed to a single pulse are not well understood despite the prevalence of stimulus train use. We aimed to investigate the contribution of each parameter of a stimulus train to the duration of the motor responses they evoke in forelimb muscles. We used constant-current, biphasic, square wave pulse trains in acute terminal experiments under ketamine anaesthesia. Stimulation parameters were systematically tested in a pair-wise fashion in the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex in 7 Sprague-Dawley rats while motor evoked potential (MEP recordings from the forelimb were used to quantify the influence of each parameter in the train. Stimulus amplitude and train duration were shown to be the dominant parameters responsible for increasing the total duration of the MEP, while interphase interval had no effect. Increasing stimulus frequency from 100-200 Hz or pulse duration from 0.18-0.34 ms were also effective methods of extending response durations. Response duration was strongly correlated with peak time and amplitude. Our findings suggest that motor cortex intracortical microstimulations are often conducted at a higher frequency rate and longer train duration than necessary to evoke maximal response duration. We demonstrated that the temporal properties of the evoked response can be both predicted by certain response metrics and modulated via alterations to the stimulation signal parameters.

  6. [Maturation of cerebral somatosensory evoked potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, J; Zhu, Y; Georgesco, M; Echenne, B; Rodiere, M

    1985-07-01

    Cerebral somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were elicited by stimulation of the median nerve and/or posterior tibial nerve in 117 children of 1 day to 16 years old. A major negative wave (N) was consistently recorded from the parietal region of the scalp when the arm was stimulated. The peak latency, the onset latency, the rising time and the duration of H wave are closely correlated with age and body length. The latencies are shortest in the subjects of 1-3 years old. SEPs to lower extremity stimulation were inconstant in the infants before the age of one. The major positive wave (P) has a variable topographic distribution along the middle line, over the scalp. The latencies are also very variable in the different subjects of the same age as well as in the same subject with different locations of active electrode. Among the parameters studied as for N wave, only the rising time of P wave is significantly correlated with age. The latencies of P wave have the shortest value in the subjects of 1-3 years old. The comparison of SEPs to upper and to lower limb stimulations shows that there is no relationship between them in respect to their morphology and amplitude. The minimum value of the latencies of N and P waves was observed at the same age but the difference between the peak latencies of P and N waves in the same subject increases considerably after 2 years of age and reaches the adult value after 5 years of age. These resultats indicate that the maturation of the peripheral somatosensory pathways proceeds at a higher rate than that of the central somatosensory pathways, that the maturation of the somatosensory pathways of the upper limb precedes that of the lower limb, and that the rising time of N or P waves is a good index of cortical maturation. The clinical utility of these SEPs in pediatrics is discussed.

  7. Pudendal somatosensory evoked potentials in normal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo A. Cavalcanti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP is an electrophysiological test used to evaluate sensory innervations in peripheral and central neuropathies. Pudendal SSEP has been studied in dysfunctions related to the lower urinary tract and pelvic floor. Although some authors have already described technical details pertaining to the method, the standardization and the influence of physiological variables in normative values have not yet been established, especially for women. The aim of the study was to describe normal values of the pudendal SSEP and to compare technical details with those described by other authors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clitoral sensory threshold and pudendal SSEP latency was accomplished in 38 normal volunteers. The results obtained from stimulation performed on each side of the clitoris were compared to ages, body mass index (BMI and number of pregnancies. RESULTS: The values of clitoral sensory threshold and P1 latency with clitoral left stimulation were respectively, 3.64 ± 1.01 mA and 37.68 ± 2.60 ms. Results obtained with clitoral right stimulation were 3.84 ± 1.53 mA and 37.42 ± 3.12 ms, respectively. There were no correlations between clitoral sensory threshold and P1 latency with age, BMI or height of the volunteers. A significant difference was found in P1 latency between nulliparous women and volunteers who had been previously submitted to cesarean section. CONCLUSIONS: The SSEP latency represents an accessible and reproducible method to investigate the afferent pathways from the genitourinary tract. These results could be used as normative values in studies involving genitourinary neuropathies in order to better clarify voiding and sexual dysfunctions in females.

  8. Visual Evoked Response in Children Subjected to Prenatal Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neural conduction, or arousal level. S. Afr. Med. J., 48 ... pression treatment in either development or IQ, whether ... children in brain function at an electrophysiological level, ..... Perry, N. W. and Childers, D. G. (1969): The Human Visual Evoked.

  9. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential in HIV-Positive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluísio C

    2015-10-20

    To characterize the findings of brainstem auditory evoked potential in HIV-positive individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. This research was a cross-sectional, observational, and descriptive study. Forty-five HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to the antiretroviral treatment - research groups I and II, respectively - and 30 control group individuals) were assessed through brainstem auditory evoked potential. There were no significant between-group differences regarding wave latencies. A higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential was observed in the HIV-positive groups when compared to the control group. The most common alteration was in the low brainstem. HIV-positive individuals have a higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential that suggests central auditory pathway impairment when compared to HIV-negative individuals. There was no significant difference between individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment.

  10. Can visual evoked potentials be used in biometric identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Alan J; Lalor, Edmund C; Reilly, Richard B

    2006-01-01

    Due to known differences in the anatomical structure of the visual pathways and generators in different individuals, the use of visual evoked potentials offers the possibility of an alternative to existing biometrics methods. A study based on visual evoked potentials from 13 individuals was carried out to assess the best combination of temporal, spectral and AR modeling features to realize a robust biometric. From the results it can be concluded that visual evoked potentials show considerable biometric qualities, with classification accuracies reaching a high of 86.54% and that a specific temporal and spectral combination was found to be optimal. Based on these results the visual evoked potential may be a useful tool in biometric identification when used in conjunction with more established biometric methods.

  11. Methodologic aspects of acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Vendelbo; Nedergaard, Ove A.

    1999-01-01

    The acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit isolated thoracic aorta precontracted by phenylephrine was studied. Phenylephrine caused a steady contraction that was maintained for 6 h. In the presence of calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and ascorbic acid the contraction decreased...

  12. Towards a neural basis of music-evoked emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    Music is capable of evoking exceptionally strong emotions and of reliably affecting the mood of individuals. Functional neuroimaging and lesion studies show that music-evoked emotions can modulate activity in virtually all limbic and paralimbic brain structures. These structures are crucially involved in the initiation, generation, detection, maintenance, regulation and termination of emotions that have survival value for the individual and the species. Therefore, at least some music-evoked emotions involve the very core of evolutionarily adaptive neuroaffective mechanisms. Because dysfunctions in these structures are related to emotional disorders, a better understanding of music-evoked emotions and their neural correlates can lead to a more systematic and effective use of music in therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Evokes Unique Segment-Specific Vasoconstriction of the Renal Microvasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletary, Sean T.; Cook, Anthony K.; Hobbs, Janet L.; Pollock, Jennifer S.; Inscho, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite, has been implicated in regulating vascular tone and participating in chronic and acute kidney injury. However, little is known about the role of S1P in the renal microcirculation. Here, we directly assessed the vasoresponsiveness of preglomerular and postglomerular microvascular segments to exogenous S1P using the in vitro blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. Superfusion of S1P (0.001–10 μM) evoked concentration-dependent vasoconstriction in preglomerular microvessels, predominantly afferent arterioles. After administration of 10 μM S1P, the diameter of afferent arterioles decreased to 35%±5% of the control diameter, whereas the diameters of interlobular and arcuate arteries declined to 50%±12% and 68%±6% of the control diameter, respectively. Notably, efferent arterioles did not respond to S1P. The S1P receptor agonists FTY720 and FTY720-phosphate and the specific S1P1 receptor agonist SEW2871 each evoked modest afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction. Conversely, S1P2 receptor inhibition with JTE-013 significantly attenuated S1P-mediated afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction. Moreover, blockade of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels with diltiazem or nifedipine attenuated S1P-mediated vasoconstriction. Intravenous injection of S1P in anesthetized rats reduced renal blood flow dose dependently. Western blotting and immunofluorescence revealed S1P1 and S1P2 receptor expression in isolated preglomerular microvessels and microvascular smooth muscle cells. These data demonstrate that S1P evokes segmentally distinct preglomerular vasoconstriction via activation of S1P1 and/or S1P2 receptors, partially via L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels. Accordingly, S1P may have a novel function in regulating afferent arteriolar resistance under physiologic conditions. PMID:24578134

  14. A Telehealth System for Remote Auditory Evoked Potential Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Millan, Jorge; Yunda, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    A portable, Internet-based EEG/Auditory Evoked Potential (AEP) monitoring system was developed for remote electrophysiological studies during sleep. The system records EEG/AEP simultaneously at the subject?s home for increased comfort and flexibility. The system provides simultaneous recording and remote viewing of EEG, EMG and EOG waves and allows on-line averaging of auditory evoked potentials. The design allows the recording of all major AEP components (brainstem, middle and late latency E...

  15. Brain-immune interaction accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Bai, Yu; Yamakawa, Kaori; Toyama, Asako; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Oshida, Akiko; Sanada, Kazue; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET) recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions.

  16. Brain–Immune Interaction Accompanying Odor-Evoked Autobiographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Bai, Yu; Yamakawa, Kaori; Toyama, Asako; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Oshida, Akiko; Sanada, Kazue; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET) recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions. PMID:23977312

  17. Brain-immune interaction accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Matsunaga

    Full Text Available The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interferon-γ (IFN-γ, were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions.

  18. Craniofacial morphology of Homo floresiensis: description, taxonomic affinities, and evolutionary implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifu, Yousuke; Baba, Hisao; Sutikna, Thomas; Morwood, Michael J; Kubo, Daisuke; Saptomo, E Wahyu; Jatmiko; Awe, Rokhus Due; Djubiantono, Tony

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes in detail the external morphology of LB1/1, the nearly complete and only known cranium of Homo floresiensis. Comparisons were made with a large sample of early groups of the genus Homo to assess primitive, derived, and unique craniofacial traits of LB1 and discuss its evolution. Principal cranial shape differences between H. floresiensis and Homo sapiens are also explored metrically. The LB1 specimen exhibits a marked reductive trend in its facial skeleton, which is comparable to the H. sapiens condition and is probably associated with reduced masticatory stresses. However, LB1 is craniometrically different from H. sapiens showing an extremely small overall cranial size, and the combination of a primitive low and anteriorly narrow vault shape, a relatively prognathic face, a rounded oval foramen that is greatly separated anteriorly from the carotid canal/jugular foramen, and a unique, tall orbital shape. Whereas the neurocranium of LB1 is as small as that of some Homo habilis specimens, it exhibits laterally expanded parietals, a weak suprameatal crest, a moderately flexed occipital, a marked facial reduction, and many other derived features that characterize post-habilis Homo. Other craniofacial characteristics of LB1 include, for example, a relatively narrow frontal squama with flattened right and left sides, a marked frontal keel, posteriorly divergent temporal lines, a posteriorly flexed anteromedial corner of the mandibular fossa, a bulbous lateral end of the supraorbital torus, and a forward protruding maxillary body with a distinct infraorbital sulcus. LB1 is most similar to early Javanese Homo erectus from Sangiran and Trinil in these and other aspects. We conclude that the craniofacial morphology of LB1 is consistent with the hypothesis that H. floresiensis evolved from early Javanese H. erectus with dramatic island dwarfism. However, further field discoveries of early hominin skeletal remains from Flores and detailed analyses of the

  19. Psychometric evaluation of a motor control test battery of the craniofacial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Piekartz, H; Stotz, E; Both, A; Bahn, G; Armijo-Olivo, S; Ballenberger, N

    2017-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the structural and known-group validity as well as the inter-rater reliability of a test battery to evaluate the motor control of the craniofacial region. Seventy volunteers without TMD and 25 subjects with TMD (Axes I) per the DC/TMD were asked to execute a test battery consisting of eight tests. The tests were video-taped in the same sequence in a standardised manner. Two experienced physical therapists participated in this study as blinded assessors. We used exploratory factor analysis to identify the underlying component structure of the eight tests. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α), inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient) and construct validity (ie, hypothesis testing-known-group validity) (receiver operating curves) were also explored for the test battery. The structural validity showed the presence of one factor underlying the construct of the test battery. The internal consistency was excellent (0.90) as well as the inter-rater reliability. All values of reliability were close to 0.9 or above indicating very high inter-rater reliability. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.93 for rater 1 and 0.94 for rater two, respectively, indicating excellent discrimination between subjects with TMD and healthy controls. The results of the present study support the psychometric properties of test battery to measure motor control of the craniofacial region when evaluated through videotaping. This test battery could be used to differentiate between healthy subjects and subjects with musculoskeletal impairments in the cervical and oro-facial regions. In addition, this test battery could be used to assess the effectiveness of management strategies in the craniofacial region. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Art of Coping with a Craniofacial Difference: Helping Others through “Positive Exposure”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Johanna; Sutton, Erica; Guidotti, Rick; Shapiro, Kristin; Ball, Karen; McLean, Diane; Biesecker, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Finding ways to cope with social stigmatization is an important aspect of achieving adaptation for people living with visible genetic differences. This study describes the way individuals with craniofacial differences use an innovative photography and video experience with Positive Exposure (PE), a non-profit organization based in New York City, as a way to cope with their conditions. Thirty-five individuals between 12 and 61 years of age participated in this study. We administered surveys comprised of open-ended qualitative questions and quantitative measures designed to assess self-esteem, perceived stigma, and hopefulness. Data for this analysis was generated from the written questionnaires and interview transcripts. Most participants reported high levels of self-esteem and hopefulness, suggesting that they were relatively well adapted to their condition. Almost all participants described experiences of stigmatization throughout their lives. However, participants demonstrated their ability to implement a variety of coping strategies to manage stigma. ‘Helping others’ emerged as a prominent strategy among participants, aiding in the often lifelong process of adapting to their genetic difference. PE was described as an avenue through which participants could reach out to individuals and society at large, helping them adapt further to their condition. ‘Helping others’ may also benefit individuals with craniofacial differences who do not consider themselves to be well adapted to their condition. Health care providers can collaborate with PE, advocacy groups and other community or support groups to identify additional ways individuals with craniofacial differences can help themselves by reaching out to others. PMID:18478594

  1. Synchrotron Phase Tomography: An Emerging Imaging Method for Microvessel Detection in Engineered Bone of Craniofacial Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Giuliani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The engineering of large 3D constructs, such as certain craniofacial bone districts, is nowadays a critical challenge. Indeed, the amount of oxygen needed for cell survival is able to reach a maximum diffusion distance of ~150–200 μm from the original vascularization vector, often hampering the long-term survival of the regenerated tissues. Thus, the rapid growth of new blood vessels, delivering oxygen and nutrients also to the inner cells of the bone grafts, is mandatory for their long-term function in clinical practice. Unfortunately, significant progress in this direction is currently hindered by a lack of methods with which to visualize these processes in 3D and reliably quantify them. In this regard, a challenging method for simultaneous 3D imaging and analysis of microvascularization and bone microstructure has emerged in recent years: it is based on the use of synchrotron phase tomography. This technique is able to simultaneously identify multiple tissue features in a craniofacial bone site (e.g., the microvascular and the calcified tissue structure. Moreover, it overcomes the intrinsic limitations of both histology, achieving only a 2D characterization, and conventional tomographic approaches, poorly resolving the vascularization net in the case of an incomplete filling of the newly formed microvessels by contrast agents. Indeed, phase tomography, being based on phase differences among the scattered X-ray waves, is capable of discriminating tissues with similar absorption coefficients (like vessels and woven bone in defined experimental conditions. The approach reviewed here is based on the most recent experiences applied to bone regeneration in the craniofacial region.

  2. Investigation of an outbreak of craniofacial deformity in yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, K N; Young, M J; Alley, M R

    2014-09-01

    To investigate an outbreak of severe craniofacial deformity in yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes, hōiho) chicks at a single breeding site on the Otago Peninsula in the South Island of New Zealand. Morbidity and mortality of yellow-eyed penguins breeding on the coastal regions of Otago was monitored from November 2008 to March 2009. Dead chicks and unhatched eggs were recovered and examined. Between October and December 2008 32 eggs were recorded at 17 nests in the Okia Reserve. Eleven chicks survived to about 90 days of age, of which eight were found to have moderate to severe craniofacial deformity. The six most severe chicks were subject to euthanasia and examined in detail at necropsy, and the remaining two affected chicks were released to the wild after a period of care in a rehabilitation centre. Post-mortem samples were analysed for inorganic and organic toxins. The six deformed chicks all had severe shortening of the mandible and maxilla by 20-50 mm. The rostral and caudal regions of the skull were approximately 40 and 80% of normal length, respectively. Other, more variable lesions included cross bill deformity, malformed bill keratin, microphthalmia with misshapen scleral ossicles and oral soft tissue excess thought to be secondary to bony malformations. During the same year, mild sporadic bill deformities were also reported in 10 unrelated chicks from >167 chicks at other breeding sites on the southern Otago coast. Concentrations of organic toxins and heavy metals in body tissues from affected chicks were apparently similar to those in unaffected chicks on other beaches. No cause of this outbreak of craniofacial deformity could be established although the high prevalence at a single site suggests that it was due to an unidentified local teratogen.

  3. Craniofacial reconstruction using patient-specific implants polyether ether ketone with computer-assisted planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Oscar J; Lalezarzadeh, Frank; Dayan, Erez; Shin, Joseph; Buchbinder, Daniel; Smith, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Reconstruction of bony craniofacial defects requires precise understanding of the anatomic relationships. The ideal reconstructive technique should be fast as well as economical, with minimal donor-site morbidity, and provide a lasting and aesthetically pleasing result. There are some circumstances in which a patient's own tissue is not sufficient to reconstruct defects. The development of sophisticated software has facilitated the manufacturing of patient-specific implants (PSIs). The aim of this study was to analyze the utility of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) PSIs for craniofacial reconstruction. We performed a retrospective chart review from July 2009 to July 2013 in patients who underwent craniofacial reconstruction using PEEK-PSIs using a virtual process based on computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. A total of 6 patients were identified. The mean age was 46 years (16-68 y). Operative indications included cancer (n = 4), congenital deformities (n = 1), and infection (n = 1). The mean surgical time was 3.7 hours and the mean hospital stay was 1.5 days. The mean surface area of the defect was 93.4 ± 43.26 cm(2), the mean implant cost was $8493 ± $837.95, and the mean time required to manufacture the implants was 2 weeks. No major or minor complications were seen during the 4-year follow-up. We found PEEK implants to be useful in the reconstruction of complex calvarial defects, demonstrating a low complication rate, good outcomes, and high patient satisfaction in this small series of patients. Polyether ether ketone implants show promising potential and warrant further study to better establish the role of this technology in cranial reconstruction.

  4. Effects of a child with a craniofacial anomaly on stability of the parental relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Dane; Pai, Lori; Belfer, Myron L; Mulliken, John B

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine rates of divorce in parents of children with various types of craniofacial anomalies and to analyze possible confounding factors. A 29-question survey was sent to parents of all children evaluated in the Craniofacial Centre between 1992 and 1997. Parents were questioned regarding pre- and postnatal marital stability, whether the child's facial anomaly contributed to divorce, and involvement in the child's welfare. Using deformational posterior plagiocephaly as a control group, rates of divorce vs. non-divorce were compared for craniofacial anomalies, categorized as asymmetric (hemifacial microsomia, unilateral coronal synostosis, cleft lip, cleft lip/palate) or symmetric (syndromic-craniosynostosis, orbital hypertelorism, Treacher Collins syndrome). Major anomalies (hemifacial microsomia, craniosynostosis, orbital hypertelorism, Treacher Collins syndrome) were also compared to minor anomalies (cleft lip, cleft lip/palate). Surveys were sent to both parents in 412 families; 403 surveys were returned; and the results were evaluated in 275 families (67%). Frequency analysis demonstrated an overall divorce rate of 6.8% and 4.9% separation. Anomalies associated with the highest rate of divorce were hemifacial microsomia (24.0%), syndromic craniosynostosis (12.2%), and cleft lip/palate (6.8%). 79% of non-divorced couples reported a strong prenatal relationship, whereas 59% of divorced couples reported a problematic relationship. Following birth of the affected child, 47% of non-divorced couples responded that the bonds became stronger and 41% of divorced couples thought the relationship worsened. Two-sided Fisher exact test comparing control vs. all other anomalies showed significance (p=.030) for rates of divorce. Separation of anomalies into asymmetric vs. symmetric and major vs. minor categories demonstrated no significant difference in divorce rate (p>.05). The mother was more likely to become a child's primary caregiver

  5. Identification of Isthmin 1 as a Novel Clefting and Craniofacial Patterning Gene in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdon, Lisa A; Darbro, Benjamin W; Petrin, Aline L; Hulstrand, Alissa M; Standley, Jennifer M; Brouillette, Rachel B; Long, Abby; Mansilla, M Adela; Cornell, Robert A; Murray, Jeffrey C; Houston, Douglas W; Manak, J Robert

    2018-01-01

    Orofacial clefts are one of the most common birth defects, affecting 1-2 per 1000 births, and have a complex etiology. High-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization has increased the ability to detect copy number variants (CNVs) that can be causative for complex diseases such as cleft lip and/or palate. Utilizing this technique on 97 nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate cases and 43 cases with cleft palate only, we identified a heterozygous deletion of Isthmin 1 in one affected case, as well as a deletion in a second case that removes putative 3' regulatory information. Isthmin 1 is a strong candidate for clefting, as it is expressed in orofacial structures derived from the first branchial arch and is also in the same "synexpression group" as fibroblast growth factor 8 and sprouty RTK signaling antagonist 1a and 2 , all of which have been associated with clefting. CNVs affecting Isthmin 1 are exceedingly rare in control populations, and Isthmin 1 scores as a likely haploinsufficiency locus. Confirming its role in craniofacial development, knockdown or clustered randomly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9-generated mutation of isthmin 1 in Xenopus laevis resulted in mild to severe craniofacial dysmorphologies, with several individuals presenting with median clefts. Moreover, knockdown of isthmin 1 produced decreased expression of LIM homeobox 8 , itself a gene associated with clefting, in regions of the face that pattern the maxilla. Our study demonstrates a successful pipeline from CNV identification of a candidate gene to functional validation in a vertebrate model system, and reveals Isthmin 1 as both a new human clefting locus as well as a key craniofacial patterning gene. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Craniofacial structure variations in patients with palatal anomalies and velopharyngeal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachmani, Ariela; Aizenbud, Dror; Nageris, Ben; Emodi, Omri; Kassem, Firas

    2017-02-01

    Cephalometric evaluation of craniofacial and craniopharyngeal morphology is important for understanding the factors affecting velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) in patients with palatal anomalies. In this study, 366 patients with VPD were retrospectively stratified into cleft lip and palate (CLP), cleft palate (CP), submucous cleft palate (SMCP), occult submucous cleft palate (OSMCP), and non-CP groups. Lateral cephalometrics were used to assess craniofacial, craniopharyngeal, and velopharyngeal anatomy. The average craniofacial morphology in patients with VPD differed significantly according to the type of palatal anomaly. The non-CP and OSMCP groups differed from the CLP, CP, and SMCP groups in nasopharyngeal size and shape as depicted by a larger ANS-Ptm-Ve angle, a smaller S-N-Ba and NBa-PP angles, and a shorter linear value of S-Ar in the non-CP group. The CLP and CP groups had shorter ANS-Ptm, shorter Ptm-P, and smaller SNA and SNB angles. VPD patients with overt clefts have different skeletal and nasopharyngeal shapes compared to non-CP and OSMCP. Velopharyngeal function assessment should include the size and shape of the nasopharyngeal space in addition to the size and the activity of the velum and posterior and lateral walls of the nasopharynx. This should enable a more precise understanding of VPD pathology, and lead to improvements in the posterior pharyngeal flap technique in order to obtain better postoperative speech outcomes after surgical management of velopharyngeal dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Speech characteristics in a Ugandan child with a rare paramedian craniofacial cleft: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lierde, K M; Bettens, K; Luyten, A; De Ley, S; Tungotyo, M; Balumukad, D; Galiwango, G; Bauters, W; Vermeersch, H; Hodges, A

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the speech characteristics in an English-speaking Ugandan boy of 4.5 years who has a rare paramedian craniofacial cleft (unilateral lip, alveolar, palatal, nasal and maxillary cleft, and associated hypertelorism). Closure of the lip together with the closure of the hard and soft palate (one-stage palatal closure) was performed at the age of 5 months. Objective as well as subjective speech assessment techniques were used. The speech samples were perceptually judged for articulation, intelligibility and nasality. The Nasometer was used for the objective measurement of the nasalance values. The most striking communication problems in this child with the rare craniofacial cleft are an incomplete phonetic inventory, a severely impaired speech intelligibility with the presence of very severe hypernasality, mild nasal emission, phonetic disorders (omission of several consonants, decreased intraoral pressure in explosives, insufficient frication of fricatives and the use of a middorsum palatal stop) and phonological disorders (deletion of initial and final consonants and consonant clusters). The increased objective nasalance values are in agreement with the presence of the audible nasality disorders. The results revealed that several phonetic and phonological articulation disorders together with a decreased speech intelligibility and resonance disorders are present in the child with a rare craniofacial cleft. To what extent a secondary surgery for velopharyngeal insufficiency, combined with speech therapy, will improve speech intelligibility, articulation and resonance characteristics is a subject for further research. The results of such analyses may ultimately serve as a starting point for specific surgical and logopedic treatment that addresses the specific needs of children with rare facial clefts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Semilongitudinal cephalometric study of craniofacial growth in untreated Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ann E Zionic; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2009-06-01

    Class III growth in white subjects is poorly characterized because of the low prevalence of the disharmony and the clinical tendency to treat this condition early. The purpose of this study was to investigate craniofacial growth changes by using longitudinal cephalometric records of white subjects with untreated Class III malocclusions to provide comparison data for studies of Class III treatment outcomes. Longitudinal records of 103 subjects were analyzed. Annual incremental growth changes in craniofacial variables from early childhood to late adolescence were examined for each sex. Inferential statistics were applied to changes in mandibular length, midfacial length, and lower anterior facial height of each sex (Wilcoxon tests) and between sexes (Mann-Whitney U tests). In the girls, the adolescent spurt in mandibular growth occurred between the ages of 10 and 12 years. In the boys, the adolescent mandibular growth spurt was between 12 and 15 years. Statistically significant growth changes in the average increments of growth of these linear measurements occurred in both sexes between 12 and 15 years. Adolescent peaks in midfacial growth were at prepubertal ages in both sexes. During childhood (5-7 years), much craniofacial growth occurred. Moreover, there was considerable mandibular growth relative to the maxilla in Class III subjects after the adolescent growth spurt. White Class III subjects showed definite worsening of the relative mandibular prognathism and sagittal skeletal discrepancy between the jaws with growth. The growth pattern of 3 fundamental cephalometric measurements (lower anterior face height, midfacial length, and mandibular length) exhibited differences between Class III male and female subjects in both the timing and the size of average growth increments in the adolescent growth spurt.

  9. The accuracy of a designed software for automated localization of craniofacial landmarks on CBCT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahidi, Shoaleh; Bahrampour, Ehsan; Soltanimehr, Elham; Zamani, Ali; Oshagh, Morteza; Moattari, Marzieh; Mehdizadeh, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional projection radiographs have been traditionally considered the modality of choice for cephalometric analysis. To overcome the shortcomings of two-dimensional images, three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) has been used to evaluate craniofacial structures. However, manual landmark detection depends on medical expertise, and the process is time-consuming. The present study was designed to produce software capable of automated localization of craniofacial landmarks on cone beam (CB) CT images based on image registration and to evaluate its accuracy. The software was designed using MATLAB programming language. The technique was a combination of feature-based (principal axes registration) and voxel similarity-based methods for image registration. A total of 8 CBCT images were selected as our reference images for creating a head atlas. Then, 20 CBCT images were randomly selected as the test images for evaluating the method. Three experts twice located 14 landmarks in all 28 CBCT images during two examinations set 6 weeks apart. The differences in the distances of coordinates of each landmark on each image between manual and automated detection methods were calculated and reported as mean errors. The combined intraclass correlation coefficient for intraobserver reliability was 0.89 and for interobserver reliability 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.93). The mean errors of all 14 landmarks were <4 mm. Additionally, 63.57% of landmarks had a mean error of <3 mm compared with manual detection (gold standard method). The accuracy of our approach for automated localization of craniofacial landmarks, which was based on combining feature-based and voxel similarity-based methods for image registration, was acceptable. Nevertheless we recommend repetition of this study using other techniques, such as intensity-based methods

  10. Quantification of the proportion of motor neurons recruited by transcranial electrical stimulation during intraoperative motor evoked potential monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Shunji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Minamide, Akihito; Nakagawa, Yukihiro; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Munehito

    2013-12-01

    Transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs) are widely used to monitor motor function during spinal surgery. However, they are much smaller and more variable in amplitude than responses evoked by maximal peripheral nerve stimulation, suggesting that a limited number of spinal motor neurons to the target muscle are excited by transcranial stimulation. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of motor neurons recruited during TcMEP monitoring under general anesthesia. In twenty patients who underwent thoracic and/or lumbar spinal surgery with TcMEP monitoring, the triple stimulation technique (TST) was applied to the unilateral upper arm intraoperatively. Total intravenous anesthesia was employed. Trains of four stimuli were delivered with maximal intensity and an inter-pulse interval of 1.5 ms. TST responses were recorded from the abductor digiti minimi muscle, and the negative peak amplitude and area were measured and compared between the TST test (two collisions between transcranial and proximal and distal peripheral stimulation) and control response (two collisions between two proximal and one distal peripheral stimulation). The highest degree of superimposition of the TST test and control responses was chosen from several trials per patient. The average ratios (test:control) were 17.1 % (range 1.8-38 %) for the amplitudes and 21.6 % (range 2.9-40 %) for the areas. The activity of approximately 80 % of the motor units to the target muscle cannot be detected by TcMEP monitoring. Therefore, changes in evoked potentials must be interpreted cautiously when assessing segmental motor function with TcMEP monitoring.

  11. Beyond the evoked/intrinsic neural process dichotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Bolt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary functional neuroimaging research has increasingly focused on characterization of intrinsic or “spontaneous” brain activity. Analysis of intrinsic activity is often contrasted with analysis of task-evoked activity that has traditionally been the focus of cognitive neuroscience. But does this evoked/intrinsic dichotomy adequately characterize human brain function? Based on empirical data demonstrating a close functional interdependence between intrinsic and task-evoked activity, we argue that the dichotomy between intrinsic and task-evoked activity as unobserved contributions to brain activity is artificial. We present an alternative picture of brain function in which the brain’s spatiotemporal dynamics do not consist of separable intrinsic and task-evoked components, but reflect the enaction of a system of mutual constraints to move the brain into and out of task-appropriate functional configurations. According to this alternative picture, cognitive neuroscientists are tasked with describing both the temporal trajectory of brain activity patterns across time, and the modulation of this trajectory by task states, without separating this process into intrinsic and task-evoked components. We argue that this alternative picture of brain function is best captured in a novel explanatory framework called enabling constraint. Overall, these insights call for a reconceptualization of functional brain activity, and should drive future methodological and empirical efforts.

  12. Cervical vertebral column morphology related to craniofacial morphology and head posture in preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, Torill; Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time.......In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time....

  13. American Association of Orthodontists Foundation Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection: Overview of a powerful tool for orthodontic research and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon; Curry, Sean

    2015-08-01

    This article reports on the current status of the American Association of Orthodontists Foundation (AAOF) Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection--an AAOF-supported multi-institutional project that uses the Internet and cloud computing to collect and share craniofacial images and data for orthodontic research and education. The project gives investigators and clinicians all over the world online access to longitudinal information on craniofacial development in untreated children with malocclusions of various types. It also is a unique source of control samples for testing the validity of consensually accepted beliefs about the effects of orthodontic treatment or of failure to treat. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vaginismus, a component of a general defensive reaction. an investigation of pelvic floor muscle activity during exposure to emotion-inducing film excerpts in women with and without vaginismus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, J.; Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the mechanism underlying vaginismus, which may be part of a general defense mechanism. Exposure to a threatening situation will evoke an increase in muscle activity. This muscle reaction will not be restricted to the pelvic floor but will also occur in postural muscles, such

  15. Common dental features and craniofacial development of three siblings with Ter Haar syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K; Pabla, R; Hay, N; Ayliffe, P

    2014-02-01

    Ter Haar syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome with <30 cases reported worldwide. There is nothing within the published literature regarding the dental development and dental features of these patients. This case series examines three patients with Ter Haar syndrome and tracks their dental development and identifies common dental and skeletal features. All three patients received dental treatment and regular follow-up at Great Ormond Street Hospital Dental Department. These patients have many common dental and craniofacial features which poses the question as to whether these features are due to Ter Haar syndrome.

  16. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: Report of a case using computed tomographic scan diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Diwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibro-osseous lesions are benign mesenchymal tumors in which mineralized tissue, blood vessels, and giant cells, in varying proportions, replace normal bone. Although this group of lesions includes reactive lesions, harmatomas, and neoplasms, they cannot be distinguished only on the basis of the histopathology which can only confirm their common fibro-osseous nature. Definitive diagnosis requires thorough radiological evaluation. Computed tomographic images of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia on bone windows may be helpful and allow precise pre-operative diagnosis and surgical planning.

  17. Craniofacial mucormycosis following assault: an unusual presentation of an unusual disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melsom, S.M.; Khangure, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    A case of craniofacial mucormycosis following assault is discussed. A female diabetic developed peri-orbital cellulitis adjacent to a scalp wound which progressed to a necrotizing fasciitis. This did not respond to treatment. Subsequently the patient developed a hemiparesis, with CT imaging showing peri-orbital and paranasal sinus inflammatory changes, evidence of cavernous sinus invasion and development of a middle cerebral artery territory infarction. The patient died shortly afterwards. The imaging findings and their relationship to the pathological spread of mucor infection are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technology in Craniofacial Plastic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Namkug

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to m...

  19. Craniofacial Statistical Deformation Models of Wild-type mice and Crouzon mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2007-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome is characterised by the premature fusion of cranial sutures and synchondroses leading to craniofacial growth disturbances. The gene causing the syndrome was discovered approximately a decade ago and recently the first mouse model of the syndrome was generated. In this study, a set...... of Micro CT scannings of the heads of wild-type (normal) mice and Crouzon mice were investigated. Statistical deformation models were built to assess the anatomical differences between the groups, as well as the within-group anatomical variation. Following the approach by Rueckert et al. we built an atlas...

  20. Analog and digital filtering of the brain stem auditory evoked response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, K T; Franks, R

    1989-07-01

    This study compared the filtering effects on the auditory evoked potential of zero and standard phase shift digital filters (the former was a mathematical approximation of a standard Butterworth filter). Conventional filters were found to decrease the height of the evoked response in the majority of waveforms compared to zero phase shift filters. A 36-dB/octave zero phase shift high pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 100 Hz produced a 16% reduction in wave amplitude compared to the unfiltered control. A 36-dB/octave, 100-Hz standard phase shift high pass filter produced a 41% reduction, and a 12-dB/octave, 150-Hz standard phase shift high pass filter produced a 38% reduction in wave amplitude compared to the unfiltered control. A decrease in the mean along with an increase in the variability of wave IV/V latency was also noted with conventional compared to zero phase shift filters. The increase in the variability of the latency measurement was due to the difficulty in waveform identification caused by the phase shift distortion of the conventional filter along with the variable decrease in wave latency caused by phase shifting responses with different spectral content. Our results indicated that a zero phase shift high pass filter of 100 Hz was the most desirable filter studied for the mitigation of spontaneous brain activity and random muscle artifact.

  1. Additive genetic variation in the craniofacial skeleton of baboons (genus Papio) and its relationship to body and cranial size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joganic, Jessica L; Willmore, Katherine E; Richtsmeier, Joan T; Weiss, Kenneth M; Mahaney, Michael C; Rogers, Jeffrey; Cheverud, James M

    2018-02-01

    Determining the genetic architecture of quantitative traits and genetic correlations among them is important for understanding morphological evolution patterns. We address two questions regarding papionin evolution: (1) what effect do body and cranial size, age, and sex have on phenotypic (V P ) and additive genetic (V A ) variation in baboon crania, and (2) how might additive genetic correlations between craniofacial traits and body mass affect morphological evolution? We use a large captive pedigreed baboon sample to estimate quantitative genetic parameters for craniofacial dimensions (EIDs). Our models include nested combinations of the covariates listed above. We also simulate the correlated response of a given EID due to selection on body mass alone. Covariates account for 1.2-91% of craniofacial V P . EID V A decreases across models as more covariates are included. The median genetic correlation estimate between each EID and body mass is 0.33. Analysis of the multivariate response to selection reveals that observed patterns of craniofacial variation in extant baboons cannot be attributed solely to correlated response to selection on body mass, particularly in males. Because a relatively large proportion of EID V A is shared with body mass variation, different methods of correcting for allometry by statistically controlling for size can alter residual V P patterns. This may conflate direct selection effects on craniofacial variation with those resulting from a correlated response to body mass selection. This shared genetic variation may partially explain how selection for increased body mass in two different papionin lineages produced remarkably similar craniofacial phenotypes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Skeletal muscle contraction-induced vasodilation in the microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Kijeong

    2017-10-01

    Maximal whole body exercise leads skeletal muscle blood flow to markedly increase to match metabolic demands, a phenomenon termed exercise hyperaemia that is accomplished by increasing vasodilation. However, local vasodilatory mechanisms in response to skeletal muscle contraction remain uncertain. This review highlights metabolic vasodilators released from contracting skeletal muscle, endothelium, or blood cells. As a considerable skeletal muscle vasodilation potentially results in hypotension, sympathetic nerve activity needs to be augmented to elevate cardiac output and blood pressure during dynamic exercise. However, since the enhanced sympathetic vasoconstriction restrains skeletal muscle blood flow, intramuscular arteries have an indispensable ability to blunt sympathetic activity for exercise hyperaemia. In addition, we discuss that mechanical compression of the intramuscular vasculature contributes to causing the initial phase of increasing vasodilation following a single muscle contraction. We have also chosen to focus on conducted (or ascending) electrical signals that evoke vasodilation of proximal feed arteries to elevate blood flow in the microcirculation of skeletal muscle. Endothelial hyperpolarization originating within distal arterioles ascends into the proximal feed arteries, thereby increasing total blood flow in contracting skeletal muscle. This brief review summarizes molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow to a single or sustained muscle contraction.

  3. Prognostic value of motor evoked potentials elicited by multipulse magnetic stimulation in a surgically induced transitory lesion of the supplementary motor area: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, F; Krzan, M; Jallo, G; Epstein, F; Deletis, V

    2000-01-01

    Surgery involving the supplementary motor area (SMA) places the patient at risk of transient motor deficit. To predict outcome in patients with early postoperative hypokinesis would be relevant to both the patient and the surgical team. A 15 year old girl with a large left thalamic tumour removed through a left transcallosal approach is described. Despite intraoperatively preserved muscle motor evoked potentials (mMEPs) from all limbs, elicited by multipulse electrical st...

  4. A zebrafish screen for craniofacial mutants identifies wdr68 as a highly conserved gene required for endothelin-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amsterdam Adam

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Craniofacial birth defects result from defects in cranial neural crest (NC patterning and morphogenesis. The vertebrate craniofacial skeleton is derived from cranial NC cells and the patterning of these cells occurs within the pharyngeal arches. Substantial efforts have led to the identification of several genes required for craniofacial skeletal development such as the endothelin-1 (edn1 signaling pathway that is required for lower jaw formation. However, many essential genes required for craniofacial development remain to be identified. Results Through screening a collection of insertional zebrafish mutants containing approximately 25% of the genes essential for embryonic development, we present the identification of 15 essential genes that are required for craniofacial development. We identified 3 genes required for hyomandibular development. We also identified zebrafish models for Campomelic Dysplasia and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. To further demonstrate the utility of this method, we include a characterization of the wdr68 gene. We show that wdr68 acts upstream of the edn1 pathway and is also required for formation of the upper jaw equivalent, the palatoquadrate. We also present evidence that the level of wdr68 activity required for edn1 pathway function differs between the 1st and 2nd arches. Wdr68 interacts with two minibrain-related kinases, Dyrk1a and Dyrk1b, required for embryonic growth and myotube differentiation, respectively. We show that a GFP-Wdr68 fusion protein localizes to the nucleus with Dyrk1a in contrast to an engineered loss of function mutation Wdr68-T284F that no longer accumulated in the cell nucleus and failed to rescue wdr68 mutant animals. Wdr68 homologs appear to exist in all eukaryotic genomes. Notably, we found that the Drosophila wdr68 homolog CG14614 could substitute for the vertebrate wdr68 gene even though insects lack the NC cell lineage. Conclusion This work represents a systematic

  5. Capsaicin-sensitive muscle afferents modulate the monosynaptic reflex in response to muscle ischemia and fatigue in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Torre, G; Brunetti, O; Pettorossi, V E

    2002-01-01

    The role of muscle ischemia and fatigue in modulating the monosynaptic reflex was investigated in decerebrate and spinalized rats. Field potentials and fast motoneuron single units in the lateral gastrocnemious (LG) motor pool were evoked by dorsal root stimulation. Muscle ischemia was induced by occluding the LG vascular supply and muscle fatigue by prolonged tetanic electrical stimulation of the LG motor nerve. Under muscle ischemia the monosynaptic reflex was facilitated since the size of the early and late waves of the field potential and the excitability of the motoneuron units increased. This effect was abolished after L3-L6 dorsal rhizotomy, but it was unaffected after L3-L6 ventral rhizotomy. By contrast, the monosynaptic reflex was inhibited by muscle fatiguing stimulation, and this effect did not fully depend on the integrity of the dorsal root. However, when ischemia was combined with repetitive tetanic muscle stimulation the inhibitory effect of fatigue was significantly enhanced. Both the ischemia and fatigue effects were abolished by capsaicin injected into the LG muscle at a dose that blocked a large number of group III and IV muscle afferents. We concluded that muscle ischemia and fatigue activate different groups of muscle afferents that are both sensitive to capsaicin, but enter the spinal cord through different roots. They are responsible for opposite effects, when given separately: facilitation during ischemia and inhibition during fatigue; however, in combination, ischemia enhances the responsiveness of the afferent fibres to fatigue.

  6. Muscle activity pattern dependent pain development and alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-12-01

    note is that intensive muscle strength training actually may rehabilitate painful muscles, which has recently been repeatedly proven in randomized controlled trials. With training the maximal muscle activation and strength can be shown to recover, and consequently allow for decreased relative muscle load during occupational repetitive work tasks. Exercise training induces adaptation of metabolic and stress-related mRNA and protein responses in the painful muscles, which is in contrast to the responses evoked during repetitive work tasks per se. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Different Stimulation Frequencies Alter Synchronous Fluctuations in Motor Evoked Potential Amplitude of Intrinsic Hand Muscles—a TMS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Martin V.; Rogasch, Nigel C.; Nordstrom, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) varies from trial-to-trial. Synchronous oscillations in cortical neuronal excitability contribute to this variability, however it is not known how different frequencies of stimulation influence MEP variability, and whether these oscillations are rhythmic or aperiodic. We stimulated the motor cortex with TMS at different regular (i.e., rhythmic) rates, and compared this with pseudo-random (aperiodic) timing. In 18 subjects, TMS was applied at three regular frequencies (0.05 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 1 Hz) and one aperiodic frequency (mean 0.2 Hz). MEPs (n = 50) were recorded from three intrinsic hand muscles of the left hand with different functional and anatomical relations. MEP amplitude correlation was highest for the functionally related muscle pair, less for the anatomically related muscle pair and least for the functionally- and anatomically-unrelated muscle pair. MEP correlations were greatest with 1 Hz, and least for stimulation at 0.05 Hz. Corticospinal neuron synchrony is higher with shorter TMS intervals. Further, corticospinal neuron synchrony is similar irrespective of whether the stimulation is periodic or aperiodic. These findings suggest TMS frequency is a crucial consideration for studies using TMS to probe correlated activity between muscle pairs. PMID:27014031

  8. The paradox of music-evoked sadness: an online survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liila Taruffi

    Full Text Available This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772. The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no "real-life" implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life.

  9. The Paradox of Music-Evoked Sadness: An Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners’ experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no “real-life” implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life. PMID:25330315

  10. The paradox of music-evoked sadness: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no "real-life" implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life.

  11. Cortical evoked potentials to an auditory illusion: binaural beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Hillel; Starr, Arnold; Michalewski, Henry J; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi

    2009-08-01

    To define brain activity corresponding to an auditory illusion of 3 and 6Hz binaural beats in 250Hz or 1000Hz base frequencies, and compare it to the sound onset response. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to unmodulated tones of 250 or 1000Hz to one ear and 3 or 6Hz higher to the other, creating an illusion of amplitude modulations (beats) of 3Hz and 6Hz, in base frequencies of 250Hz and 1000Hz. Tones were 2000ms in duration and presented with approximately 1s intervals. Latency, amplitude and source current density estimates of ERP components to tone onset and subsequent beats-evoked oscillations were determined and compared across beat frequencies with both base frequencies. All stimuli evoked tone-onset P(50), N(100) and P(200) components followed by oscillations corresponding to the beat frequency, and a subsequent tone-offset complex. Beats-evoked oscillations were higher in amplitude with the low base frequency and to the low beat frequency. Sources of the beats-evoked oscillations across all stimulus conditions located mostly to left lateral and inferior temporal lobe areas in all stimulus conditions. Onset-evoked components were not different across stimulus conditions; P(50) had significantly different sources than the beats-evoked oscillations; and N(100) and P(200) sources located to the same temporal lobe regions as beats-evoked oscillations, but were bilateral and also included frontal and parietal contributions. Neural activity with slightly different volley frequencies from left and right ear converges and interacts in the central auditory brainstem pathways to generate beats of neural activity to modulate activities in the left temporal lobe, giving rise to the illusion of binaural beats. Cortical potentials recorded to binaural beats are distinct from onset responses. Brain activity corresponding to an auditory illusion of low frequency beats can be recorded from the scalp.

  12. Geometric morphometrics in primatology: craniofacial variation in Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Wood, C G; Luboga, S A

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, morphometric studies have relied on statistical analysis of distances, angles or ratios to investigate morphometric variation among taxa. Recently, geometric techniques have been developed for the direct analysis of landmark data. In this paper, we offer a summary (with examples) of three of these newer techniques, namely shape coordinate, thin-plate spline and relative warp analyses. Shape coordinate analysis detected significant craniofacial variation between 4 modern human populations, with African and Australian Aboriginal specimens being relatively prognathous compared with their Eurasian counterparts. In addition, the Australian specimens exhibited greater basicranial flexion than all other samples. The observed relationships between size and craniofacial shape were weak. The decomposition of shape variation into affine and non-affine components is illustrated via a thin-plate spline analysis of Homo and Pan cranial landmarks. We note differences between Homo and Pan in the degree of prognathism and basicranial flexion and the position and orientation of the foramen magnum. We compare these results with previous studies of these features in higher primates and discuss the utility of geometric morphometrics as a tool in primatology and physical anthropology. We conclude that many studies of morphological variation, both within and between taxa, would benefit from the graphical nature of these techniques.

  13. Craniofacial morphology in children with van der Woude syndrome and isolated cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heliövaara, Arja; Karhulahti, Rekina; Rautio, Jorma

    2015-01-01

    To compare cephalometrically 6-year-old children with van der Woude syndrome and cleft palate (VWS) to children with isolated cleft palate alone (CP). A retrospective case-control study. Forty-four children with VWS were compared to 73 children with CP using lateral cephalograms. The mean age of the children with VWS was 6.6 years (range = 5.9-8.2) and that of the children with CP, 6.2 years (range = 5.7-6.7). Palatal closure had been done at a mean age of 1.4 years (range = 0.8-2.2), mostly with the Veau-Wardill-Killner or the Cronin pushback surgical techniques. The data was collected over a 30-year period. Linear and angular measurements were obtained from lateral cephalograms. A Student's t-test was used in the statistical analysis. The craniofacial morphology in children with VWS and CP was similar, but those with VWS had slightly smaller diameters of the lower pharyngeal airway. The maxilla and mandible were well related to each other, although a little retrusive in relation to the cranial base. The soft tissue profile reflected the skeletal relationships, no significant protrusion of the lower lip was noted. Six-year-old children with VWS and CP have similar craniofacial morphology.

  14. Sagittal and Vertical Craniofacial Growth Pattern and Timing of Circumpubertal Skeletal Maturation: A Multiple Regression Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Perinetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the associations between the timing of skeletal maturation and craniofacial growth is of primary importance when planning a functional treatment for most of the skeletal malocclusions. This cross-sectional study was thus aimed at evaluating whether sagittal and vertical craniofacial growth has an association with the timing of circumpubertal skeletal maturation. A total of 320 subjects (160 females and 160 males were included in the study (mean age, 12.3±1.7 years; range, 7.6–16.7 years. These subjects were equally distributed in the circumpubertal cervical vertebral maturation (CVM stages 2 to 5. Each CVM stage group also had equal number of females and males. Multiple regression models were run for each CVM stage group to assess the significance of the association of cephalometric parameters (ANB, SN/MP, and NSBa angles with age of attainment of the corresponding CVM stage (in months. Significant associations were seen only for stage 3, where the SN/MP angle was negatively associated with age (β coefficient, −0.7. These results show that hyperdivergent and hypodivergent subjects may have an anticipated and delayed attainment of the pubertal CVM stage 3, respectively. However, such association remains of little entity and it would become clinically relevant only in extreme cases.

  15. Advances of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and dental tissue in craniofacial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maobin; Zhang, Hongming; Gangolli, Riddhi

    2014-05-01

    Bone and dental tissues in craniofacial region work as an important aesthetic and functional unit. Reconstruction of craniofacial tissue defects is highly expected to ensure patients to maintain good quality of life. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been developed in the last two decades, and been advanced with the stem cell technology. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells are one of the most extensively studied post-natal stem cell population, and are widely utilized in cell-based therapy. Dental tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells are a relatively new stem cell population that isolated from various dental tissues. These cells can undergo multilineage differentiation including osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation, thus provide an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering. In this review, we discuss the important issues in mesenchymal stem cell biology including the origin and functions of mesenchymal stem cells, compare the properties of these two types of mesenchymal cells, update recent basic research and clinic applications in this field, and address important future challenges.

  16. A comparative study of craniofacial morphology of cleft lip children with or without palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Su Beom; Kim, Young Ju; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any difference existed in craniofacial morphology between cleft children and normal subjects. Thirty three measurements of the various regions of cranium and face were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiograms in 40 cleft children (27 males, 13 females) and 40 normal subjects (23 males, 17 females) in our dental hospital from Jan. 1988 to Dec. 1995. The measurements were compared with those in control subjects who had no history of craniofacial abnormalities.. The obtained results were as follows; l. In the cranium, the cleft children had significantly shorter posterior cranial base length (S-Ba) and total antero-posterior cranial base length (N-Ba) (P<0.05). 2. In the upper face, the cleft children had significantly shorter upper anterior facial height (N-ANS) and upper posterior facial height (Ptm'-SNL) (P<0.05). 3. In the lower face, the cleft children had significantly shorter antero-posterior mandibular length (Pog-Ar) and antero-posterior mandibular body length (Pog-Go) (P<0.05). 4. In the facial profile, the cleft children had significantly shorter total facial height (N-Me) and posterior facial height (S-Go) (P<0.05).

  17. Thin-plate spline analysis of craniofacial morphology in subjects with adenoid or tonsillar hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Michela; Ballanti, Fabiana; Polimeni, Antonella; Franchi, Lorenzo; Cozza, Paola

    2011-04-01

    To compare the skeletal features of subjects with adenoid hypertrophy with those of children with tonsillar hypertrophy using thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis. A group of 20 subjects (9 girls and 11 boys; mean age 8.4 ± 0.9 years) with adenoid hypertrophy (AG) was compared with a group of 20 subjects (10 girls and 10 boys; mean age 8.2 ± 1.1 years) with tonsillar hypertrophy (TG). Craniofacial morphology was analyzed on the lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups by means of TPS analysis. A cross-sectional comparison was performed on both size and shape differences between the two groups. AG exhibited statistically significant shape and size differences in craniofacial configuration with respect to TG. Subjects with adenoid hypertrophy showed an upward dislocation of the anterior region of the maxilla, a more downward/backward position of the anterior region of the mandibular body and an upward/backward displacement of the condylar region. Conversely, subjects with tonsillar hypertrophy showed a downward dislocation of the anterior region of the maxilla, a more upward/forward position of the anterior region of the mandibular body and a downward/forward displacement of the condylar region. Subjects with adenoid hypertrophy exhibited features suggesting a more retrognathic mandible while subjects with tonsillar hypertrophy showed features suggesting a more prognathic mandible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CT interpretation of craniofacial anomalies: a comparative analysis by undergraduate dental students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaia, Bruno Felipe; Perella, Andreia; Cara, Ana Claudia Ballet de; Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmao Paraiso

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of computed tomography (CT) image interpretation made in axial slices (2D-CT) and 3D reconstructed images (3D-CT) of patients with craniofacial anomalies. The analyses were made by undergraduate dental students, and compared with the diagnoses considered upon surgical intervention. Computed tomography of 43 patients were analyzed independently by three calibrated examiners (undergraduate students) with, respectively, one, two, and three semesters of experience in craniofacial CT training and interpretation. The analysis of 2D-CT and 3D-CT images were performed at distinct times using an independent workstation associated with a specific computer graphics software for volumetric images. The analysis of inter-examiner agreement and of the agreement between observers and the gold standard was performed using the Kappa test. The accuracy evaluation presented a progressively higher value for examiners with progressively broader experience in 2D-CT and 3D-CT image interpretation. 3D-CT analyses allowed a higher inter-examiner agreement (1 - 0.896) than 2D-CT analyses (1 - 0.614). 3D-CT was considered more precise and accurate than 2D-CT for all students' evaluations. The reproducibility and accuracy varied according to the experience in CT interpretation, and the most experienced student achieved results closer to the gold standard. (author)

  19. Lyophilized platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) promotes craniofacial bone regeneration through Runx2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Reed, David A; Min, Liu; Gopinathan, Gokul; Li, Steve; Dangaria, Smit J; Li, Leo; Geng, Yajun; Galang, Maria-Therese; Gajendrareddy, Praveen; Zhou, Yanmin; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G H

    2014-05-14

    Freeze-drying is an effective means to control scaffold pore size and preserve its composition. The purpose of the present study was to determine the applicability of lyophilized Platelet-rich fibrin (LPRF) as a scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration and to compare its biological effects with commonly used fresh Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). LPRF caused a 4.8-fold±0.4-fold elevation in Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) expression in alveolar bone cells, compared to a 3.6-fold±0.2-fold increase when using fresh PRF, and a more than 10-fold rise of alkaline phosphatase levels and mineralization markers. LPRF-induced Runx2 expression only occurred in alveolar bone and not in periodontal or dental follicle cells. LPRF also caused a 1.6-fold increase in osteoblast proliferation (pfibrin, and 16% without scaffold. Moreover, LPRF thickened the trabecular diameter by 25% when compared to fresh PRF and fibrin, and only LPRF and fresh PRF resulted in the formation of interconnected trabeculae across the defect. Together, these studies support the application of lyophilized PRF as a biomimetic scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration and mineralized tissue engineering.

  20. Dental and craniofacial characteristics in a patient with Dubowitz syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullo Domenica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dubowitz syndrome is a very rare, autosomal recessive disease characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, a high sloping forehead, facial asymmetry, blepharophimosis, sparse hair and eyebrows, low-set ears and mental retardation. Symptoms vary between patients, but other characteristics include a soft high-pitched voice, dental and craniofacial abnormalities, partial webbing of the fingers and toes, palate deformations, genital abnormalities, eczema, hyperactivity, preference for concrete over abstract thinking, language difficulties and an aversion to crowds. Case presentation We describe the craniofacial and dental characteristics of a 12-year-old Caucasian Italian boy with both the typical and less common findings of Dubowitz syndrome. Conclusion Diagnosis of Dubowitz syndrome is mainly based on the facial phenotype. Possible conditions for differential diagnosis include Bloom syndrome, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, and fetal alcohol syndrome. As there are few reports of this syndrome in the literature, we hope this case report will enable health professionals to recognize the phenotypic alterations of this syndrome, and allow early referral for the necessary multidisciplinary treatments.

  1. Emotional and behavioral reactions to facially deformed patients before and after craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, R C; Ford, M E; Wilhelm, W M; Rogers-Salyer, M; Salyer, K E

    1988-09-01

    The present experiment investigated whether observers' emotional and behavioral reactions to facially deformed patients could be substantially improved by surgical procedures conducted by well-trained specialists in an experienced multidisciplinary team. Also investigated was the hypothesis that emotional states mediate the effects of physical attractiveness and facial deformity on social interaction. Twenty patients between the ages of 3 months and 17 years were randomly selected from over 2000 patients' files of Kenneth E. Salyer of Dallas, Texas. Patient diagnoses included facial clefts, hypertelorism, Treacher Collins syndrome, and craniofacial dysostoses (Crouzon's and Apert's syndromes). Rigorously standardized photographs of patients taken before and after surgery were shown to 22 "naive" raters ranging in age from 18 to 54 years. Raters were asked to predict their emotional and behavioral responses to the patients. These ratings indicated that observers' behavioral reactions to facially deformed children and adolescents would be more positive following craniofacial surgery. Similarly, the ratings indicated that observers' emotional reactions to these patients would be more positive following surgery. The results are discussed in terms of current sociopsychologic theoretical models for the effects of attractiveness on social interaction. A new model is presented that implicates induced emotional states as a mediating process in explaining the effects of attractiveness and facial deformity on the quality of social interactions. Limitations of the current investigation and directions for future research are also discussed.

  2. pitx2 Deficiency results in abnormal ocular and craniofacial development in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    Full Text Available Human PITX2 mutations are associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, an autosomal-dominant developmental disorder that involves ocular anterior segment defects, dental hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphism and umbilical abnormalities. Characterization of the PITX2 pathway and identification of the mechanisms underlying the anomalies associated with PITX2 deficiency is important for better understanding of normal development and disease; studies of pitx2 function in animal models can facilitate these analyses. A knockdown of pitx2 in zebrafish was generated using a morpholino that targeted all known alternative transcripts of the pitx2 gene; morphant embryos generated with the pitx2(ex4/5 splicing-blocking oligomer produced abnormal transcripts predicted to encode truncated pitx2 proteins lacking the third (recognition helix of the DNA-binding homeodomain. The morphological phenotype of pitx2(ex4/5 morphants included small head and eyes, jaw abnormalities and pericardial edema; lethality was observed at ∼6-8-dpf. Cartilage staining revealed a reduction in size and an abnormal shape/position of the elements of the mandibular and hyoid pharyngeal arches; the ceratobranchial arches were also decreased in size. Histological and marker analyses of the misshapen eyes of the pitx2(ex4/5 morphants identified anterior segment dysgenesis and disordered hyaloid vasculature. In summary, we demonstrate that pitx2 is essential for proper eye and craniofacial development in zebrafish and, therefore, that PITX2/pitx2 function is conserved in vertebrates.

  3. A three-dimensional comparison of a morphometric and conventional cephalometric midsagittal planes for craniofacial asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damstra, Janalt; Fourie, Zacharias; De Wit, Marnix; Ren, Yijin

    2012-02-01

    Morphometric methods are used in biology to study object symmetry in living organisms and to determine the true plane of symmetry. The aim of this study was to determine if there are clinical differences between three-dimensional (3D) cephalometric midsagittal planes used to describe craniofacial asymmetry and a true symmetry plane derived from a morphometric method based on visible facial features. The sample consisted of 14 dry skulls (9 symmetric and 5 asymmetric) with metallic markers which were imaged with cone-beam computed tomography. An error study and statistical analysis were performed to validate the morphometric method. The morphometric and conventional cephalometric planes were constructed and compared. The 3D cephalometric planes constructed as perpendiculars to the Frankfort horizontal plane resembled the morphometric plane the most in both the symmetric and asymmetric groups with mean differences of less than 1.00 mm for most variables. However, the standard deviations were often large and clinically significant for these variables. There were clinically relevant differences (>1.00 mm) between the different 3D cephalometric midsagittal planes and the true plane of symmetry determined by the visible facial features. The difference between 3D cephalometric midsagittal planes and the true plane of symmetry determined by the visible facial features were clinically relevant. Care has to be taken using cephalometric midsagittal planes for diagnosis and treatment planning of craniofacial asymmetry as they might differ from the true plane of symmetry as determined by morphometrics.

  4. Dental and craniofacial characteristics in a patient with Dubowitz syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballini, Andrea; Cantore, Stefania; Tullo, Domenica; Desiate, Apollonia

    2011-01-27

    Dubowitz syndrome is a very rare, autosomal recessive disease characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, a high sloping forehead, facial asymmetry, blepharophimosis, sparse hair and eyebrows, low-set ears and mental retardation. Symptoms vary between patients, but other characteristics include a soft high-pitched voice, dental and craniofacial abnormalities, partial webbing of the fingers and toes, palate deformations, genital abnormalities, eczema, hyperactivity, preference for concrete over abstract thinking, language difficulties and an aversion to crowds. We describe the craniofacial and dental characteristics of a 12-year-old Caucasian Italian boy with both the typical and less common findings of Dubowitz syndrome. Diagnosis of Dubowitz syndrome is mainly based on the facial phenotype. Possible conditions for differential diagnosis include Bloom syndrome, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, and fetal alcohol syndrome. As there are few reports of this syndrome in the literature, we hope this case report will enable health professionals to recognize the phenotypic alterations of this syndrome, and allow early referral for the necessary multidisciplinary treatments.

  5. A comparative study of craniofacial morphology of cleft lip children with or without palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Su Beom; Kim, Young Ju; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any difference existed in craniofacial morphology between cleft children and normal subjects. Thirty three measurements of the various regions of cranium and face were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiograms in 40 cleft children (27 males, 13 females) and 40 normal subjects (23 males, 17 females) in our dental hospital from Jan. 1988 to Dec. 1995. The measurements were compared with those in control subjects who had no history of craniofacial abnormalities.. The obtained results were as follows; l. In the cranium, the cleft children had significantly shorter posterior cranial base length (S-Ba) and total antero-posterior cranial base length (N-Ba) (P<0.05). 2. In the upper face, the cleft children had significantly shorter upper anterior facial height (N-ANS) and upper posterior facial height (Ptm'-SNL) (P<0.05). 3. In the lower face, the cleft children had significantly shorter antero-posterior mandibular length (Pog-Ar) and antero-posterior mandibular body length (Pog-Go) (P<0.05). 4. In the facial profile, the cleft children had significantly shorter total facial height (N-Me) and posterior facial height (S-Go) (P<0.05).

  6. Sagittal and Vertical Craniofacial Growth Pattern and Timing of Circumpubertal Skeletal Maturation: A Multiple Regression Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Luigi; Riatti, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the associations between the timing of skeletal maturation and craniofacial growth is of primary importance when planning a functional treatment for most of the skeletal malocclusions. This cross-sectional study was thus aimed at evaluating whether sagittal and vertical craniofacial growth has an association with the timing of circumpubertal skeletal maturation. A total of 320 subjects (160 females and 160 males) were included in the study (mean age, 12.3 ± 1.7 years; range, 7.6–16.7 years). These subjects were equally distributed in the circumpubertal cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages 2 to 5. Each CVM stage group also had equal number of females and males. Multiple regression models were run for each CVM stage group to assess the significance of the association of cephalometric parameters (ANB, SN/MP, and NSBa angles) with age of attainment of the corresponding CVM stage (in months). Significant associations were seen only for stage 3, where the SN/MP angle was negatively associated with age (β coefficient, −0.7). These results show that hyperdivergent and hypodivergent subjects may have an anticipated and delayed attainment of the pubertal CVM stage 3, respectively. However, such association remains of little entity and it would become clinically relevant only in extreme cases. PMID:27995136

  7. Premature birth--Studies on orthodontic treatment need, craniofacial morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsson, Liselotte

    2009-01-01

    A series of studies have been initiated implying a unique opportunity to evaluate and compare malocclusion traits, orthodontic treatment need, craniofacial morphology, mandibular function, signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and headache between extremely preterm (EPT; born before the 29th week of gestation) and very preterm (VPT; born between 29 and 32 weeks of gestation) and full-term born children. THIS THESIS WAS BASED ON FOUR STUDIES: Paper I. A systematic literature review was undertaken to answer the following questions: Does prematurity result in alterations of palatal morphology, dental occlusion, tooth-crown dimensions, tooth maturation and eruption? What role does neonatal oral intubation play in the appearance of the alterations? Are the alterations in morphology permanent or transient? The literature search spanned from January 1966 to November 2002 and was later extended to September 2008. Furthermore, a quality analysis of the methodological soundness of the studies in the review was performed. Paper II-IV. The aims were to compare EPT and VPT 8- to 10-year-old children with matched full-term controls considering: Prevalence of malocclusion traits and orthodontic treatment need (Paper II). Craniofacial morphology (Paper III). Mandibular function, signs and symptoms of TMD and headache (Paper IV). KEY FINDINGS IN PAPER I AND THE SUPPLEMENTARY SEARCH: Moderate scientific evidence existed for more malocclusion traits among premature children. Limited evidence was found for no delay in dental eruption, if corrected age was considered for the premature children. Insufficientwas considered for the premature children. Insufficient evidence was found for altered tooth-crown dimensions and permanent alteration of palatal morphology among prematurely children. Thus, further well-designed controlled studies which should also consider orthodontic treatment need, craniofacial morphology, TMD and headache are needed. KEY FINDINGS IN PAPER II

  8. El polimetilmetacrilato en la reconstrucción craneofacial The polymethylmethacrylate in the craniofacial repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ángel Peñón Vivas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción de defectos craneofaciales constituye un reto para el cirujano maxilofacial. Si bien existe una amplia gama de materiales para la reconstrucción, cada cual tiene ventajas y desventajas además de indicaciones para su utilización. Por lo que nos hemos dado a la tarea de emplear el polimetilmetacrilato como una opción económica y efectiva en la reconstrucción de defectos craneofaciales. Con este objetivo se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, no comparativo, en el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital Universitario "Miguel Enríquez" en el periodo comprendido desde enero de 2006 a diciembre de 2008. Se incluyeron un total de 14 pacientes, los cuales recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico para la reconstrucción craneofacial mediante el empleo del polimetilmetacrilato. El mayor número de pacientes que recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico para la reconstrucción craneofacial con polimetilmetacrilato se encontró en el grupo de 16 a 25 años de edad, con un predominio del sexo masculino y mayor afectación de los pacientes de color de piel blanca. En todos los casos estudiados la etiología de la deformidad fue traumática; dentro de ellos el mayor por ciento le correspondió a los accidentes viales, seguido de los causados por violencia. El diagnóstico que predominó fue el de las fracturas orbitomalares de grado IV. El piso de órbita fue la localización o estructura más reconstruida. Se presentaron únicamente como complicaciones, la infección y la colección subcutánea. El polimetilmetacrilato es un material económico y efectivo que permite obtener excelentes resultados estéticos y funcionales en la reconstrucción de defectos craneofaciales adquiridos.The repair of craniofacial defects is a challenge for the maxillofacial surgeon. There are a great range of materials for reconstruction, where each has advantages and disadvantages as well as indications for its use. Polymethylmethacrylate is an

  9. Muscle-specific integrins in masseter muscle fibers of chimpanzees: an immunohistochemical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Vaccarino

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Most notably, recent comparative genomic analyses strongly indicate that the marked differences between modern human and chimpanzees are likely due more to changes in gene regulation than to modifications of the genes. The most peculiar aspect of hominoid karyotypes is that human have 46 chromosomes whereas gorillas and chimpanzees have 48. Interestingly, human and chimpanzees do share identical inversions on chromosome 7 and 9 that are not evident in the gorilla karyotype. Thus, the general phylogeny suggests that humans and chimpanzees are sister taxa; based on this, it seems that human-chimpanzee sequence similarity is an astonishing 99%. At this purpose, of particular interest is the inactivation of the myosin heavy chain 16 (MYH16 gene, most prominently expressed in the masticatory muscle of mammals. It has been showed that the loss of this gene in humans may have resulted in smaller masticatory muscle and consequential changes to cranio-facial morphology and expansion of the human brain case. Powerful masticatory muscles are found in most primates; contrarily, in both modern and fossil member Homo, these muscles are considerably smaller. The evolving hominid masticatory apparatus shifted towards a pattern of gracilization nearly simultaneously with accelerated encephalization in early Homo. To better comprehend the real role of the MYH16 gene, we studied the primary proteins present in the muscle fibers of humans and non-humans, in order to understand if they really can be influenced by MYH16 gene. At this aim we examined the muscle-specific integrins, alpha 7B and beta 1D-integrins, and their relative fetal isoforms, alpha 7A and beta 1A-integrins, analyzing, by immunohistochemistry, muscle biopsies of two components of a chimpanzee's group in captivity, an alpha male and a non-alpha male subjects; all these integrins participate in vital biological processes such as maintenance of tissue integrity, embryonic development, cell

  10. Trunk muscle recruitment patterns in simulated precrash events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, Jóna Marín; Fice, Jason B; Mang, Daniel W H; Brolin, Karin; Davidsson, Johan; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2018-02-28

    To quantify trunk muscle activation levels during whole body accelerations that simulate precrash events in multiple directions and to identify recruitment patterns for the development of active human body models. Four subjects (1 female, 3 males) were accelerated at 0.55 g (net Δv = 4.0 m/s) in 8 directions while seated on a sled-mounted car seat to simulate a precrash pulse. Electromyographic (EMG) activity in 4 trunk muscles was measured using wire electrodes inserted into the left rectus abdominis, internal oblique, iliocostalis, and multifidus muscles at the L2-L3 level. Muscle activity evoked by the perturbations was normalized by each muscle's isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) activity. Spatial tuning curves were plotted at 150, 300, and 600 ms after acceleration onset. EMG activity remained below 40% MVC for the three time points for most directions. At the 150- and 300 ms time points, the highest EMG amplitudes were observed during perturbations to the left (-90°) and left rearward (-135°). EMG activity diminished by 600 ms for the anterior muscles, but not for the posterior muscles. These preliminary results suggest that trunk muscle activity may be directionally tuned at the acceleration level tested here. Although data from more subjects are needed, these preliminary data support the development of modeled trunk muscle recruitment strategies in active human body models that predict occupant responses in precrash scenarios.

  11. Craniofacial morphology of Dutch patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate and noncleft controls at the age of 15 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dungen, G.M.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Prahl-Andersen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Comparison of craniofacial morphology in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients to that of a noncleft control group at the age of 15 years. Design: A cross-sectional study of cephalometric data. Subjects and Methods: Cephalometric records of 41 consecutive patients (32 boys and 9 girls)

  12. Postnatal treatment factors affecting craniofacial morphology of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M K; Iida, J; Sato, Y; Kajii, Takashi S

    2013-12-01

    We have evaluated the craniofacial morphology of Japanese patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and assessed the various postnatal factors that affect it. Lateral cephalograms of 140 subjects (mean (SD) aged 7 (2) years) with UCLP were taken before orthodontic treatment. Surgeons from Hokkaido University Hospital had done the primary operations. The craniofacial morphology was assessed by angular and linear cephalometric measurements. Cheiloplasty, palatoplasty, and preoperative orthopaedic treatment were chosen as postnatal factors. To compare the assessments of the postnatal factors, we made angular and linear cephalometric measurements for each subject and converted them into Z scores in relation to the mean (SD) of the two variables. Subjects treated by the modified Millard cheiloplasty had larger sella-nasion-point A (SNA) and nasion-point A-pogonion (NA-POG) measurements than subjects treated by the modified Millard with a vomer flap cheiloplasty. Two-stage palatoplasty showed consistently better craniofacial morphology than the other palatoplasty. Subjects who had preoperative orthopaedic treatment with a Hotz plate had significantly larger upper incisor/sella-nasion (U1-SN) measurements than who had no preoperative orthopaedic treatment or an active plate. We conclude that in subjects treated by a modified Millard type of cheiloplasty, a two-stage palatoplasty, and a Hotz plate there were fewer adverse effects on craniofacial morphology. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Craniofacial morphology in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients consecutively treated with 1-stage repair of the cleft.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fudalej, P.S.; Surowiec, Z.; Offert, B.; Dudkiewicz, Z.; Katsaros, C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the craniofacial morphology of children with a complete unilateral cleft lip and palate treated with a 1-stage simultaneous cleft repair performed in the first year of life. METHODS: Cephalograms and extraoral profile photographs of 61 consecutively treated

  14. Craniofacial morphology, head posture, and nasal respiratory resistance in obstructive sleep apnoea : An inter-ethnic comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, M.L.; Sandham, John; Ang, PK; Wong, DC; Tan, WC; Huggare, J

    The aim of this study was to measure craniofacial morphology and nasal respiratory resistance (NRR) in Malay, Indian and Chinese subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The sample consisted of 34 male subjects, 27-52 years of age (Malay n = 11, which included five mild and six moderate-severe

  15. Does postoperative 'M' technique (R) massage with or without mandarin oil reduce infants' distress after major craniofacial surgery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marjan; Lucas, Cees; Bredero, Hansje; van Adrichem, Leon; Tibboel, Dick; van Dijk, Monique

    2012-01-01

    de jong m., lucas c., bredero h., van adrichem l., tibboel d. & van dijk m. (2011) Does postoperative M technique (R) massage with or without mandarin oil reduce infants distress after major craniofacial surgery? Journal of Advanced Nursing68(6), 17481757. Abstract Aim. This article is a report of a

  16. In vivo antinociceptive and muscle relaxant activity of leaf and bark of Buddleja asiatica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkatullah, -; Ibrar, Muhammad; Ikram, Nazia; Rauf, Abdur; Hadda, Taibi Ben; Bawazeer, Saud; Khan, Haroon; Pervez, Samreen

    2016-09-01

    The current study was designed to assess the antinociceptive and skeleton muscle relaxant effect of leaves and barks of Buddleja asiatica in animal models. In acetic acid induced writhing test, pretreatment of ethanolic extract of leaves and barks evoked marked dose dependent antinociceptive effect with maximum of 70% and 67% pain relief at 300mg/kg i.p. respectively. In chimney test, the ethanolic extract of leaves and barks evoked maximum of 66.66% and 53.33% muscle relaxant effect after 90min of treatment at 300mg/kg i.p respectively. In traction test, the ethanolic extract of leaves and barks caused maximum of 60% and 73.33% muscle relaxant effect after 90min of treatment at 300mg/kg i.p respectively. In short, both leaves and barks demonstrated profound antinociceptive and skeleton muscle relaxant effects and thus the study provided natural healing agents for the treatment of said disorders.

  17. Postnatal changes in electromyographic signals during piglet growth, and in relation to muscle fibre types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ninette Kieme; Ravn, L.S.; Guy, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses non-invasive evoked surface electromyography (SEMG) to investigate postnatal muscle development in pigs, and to assess any correlation between recorded signal parameters and muscle fibre types in two different skeletal muscles. Four litters (n=43) of Large White x Landrace pigs were...... used. Evoked SEMG mesurements were taken on days 2, 5, 14, 26, 60 and 151 post partum from m. Longissimus dorsi (LD) and on days 14, 26, 60 and 151 post partum from m. Biceps femoris (BF). A third of each litter was slaughtered at days 27, 61 and 153 post partum. Biopsy samples for LD and BF were taken...... to categorize day 5 post partum, whilst for BF significant increases occurred from days 14 to 26 post partum. Fibre type development in both muscles showed a significant decrease in type IIA fibre number (Ptype IIB fibre number (P

  18. The effects of curiosity-evoking events on activity enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikman, Elif; MacInnis, Deborah J; Ülkümen, Gülden; Cavanaugh, Lisa A

    2016-09-01

    Whereas prior literature has studied the positive effects of curiosity-evoking events that are integral to focal activities, we explore whether and how a curiosity-evoking event that is incidental to a focal activity induces negative outcomes for enjoyment. Four experiments and 1 field study demonstrate that curiosity about an event that is incidental to an activity in which individuals are engaged, significantly affects enjoyment of a concurrent activity. The reason why is that curiosity diverts attention away from the concurrent activity and focuses attention on the curiosity-evoking event. Thus, curiosity regarding an incidental event decreases enjoyment of a positive focal activity but increases enjoyment of a negative focal activity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Do video games evoke specific types of epileptic seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccioli, Marta; Vigevano, Federico; Buttinelli, Carla; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée G A

    2005-11-01

    We determined whether epileptic clinical manifestations evoked by playing video games (VG) differ from those evoked by intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) or striped patterns (P). We exposed nine children who had TV- and VG-evoked seizures in daily life to 12 VG after standardized photic stimulation and pattern stimulation. Their EEGs were recorded continuously, analyzed, and then correlated with a video of their behavior. Similar types of clinical signs were seen during VG, P, and IPS, but the signs we observed were more subtle during the VG. Eight patients showed a clear lateralization. A new observation was the lowering of the eyelids to a state of half-closed. Our study suggests that the type of visual stimulus provoking a photoparoxysmal response or seizure is not particularly relevant. The children belonged to different epilepsy groups, and our findings add to the discussion on the boundaries of the epilepsy types.

  20. Stimulator with arbitrary waveform for auditory evoked potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, H R; Romao, M; Placido, D; Provenzano, F; Tierra-Criollo, C J

    2007-01-01

    The technological improvement helps many medical areas. The audiometric exams involving the auditory evoked potentials can make better diagnoses of auditory disorders. This paper proposes the development of a stimulator based on Digital Signal Processor. This stimulator is the first step of an auditory evoked potential system based on the ADSP-BF533 EZ KIT LITE (Analog Devices Company - USA). The stimulator can generate arbitrary waveform like Sine Waves, Modulated Amplitude, Pulses, Bursts and Pips. The waveforms are generated through a graphical interface programmed in C++ in which the user can define the parameters of the waveform. Furthermore, the user can set the exam parameters as number of stimuli, time with stimulation (Time ON) and time without stimulus (Time OFF). In future works will be implemented another parts of the system that includes the acquirement of electroencephalogram and signal processing to estimate and analyze the evoked potential

  1. Stimulator with arbitrary waveform for auditory evoked potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, H R; Romao, M; Placido, D; Provenzano, F; Tierra-Criollo, C J [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica (DEE), Nucleo de Estudos e Pesquisa em Engenharia Biomedica NEPEB, Av. Ant. Carlos, 6627, sala 2206, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31.270-901 (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    The technological improvement helps many medical areas. The audiometric exams involving the auditory evoked potentials can make better diagnoses of auditory disorders. This paper proposes the development of a stimulator based on Digital Signal Processor. This stimulator is the first step of an auditory evoked potential system based on the ADSP-BF533 EZ KIT LITE (Analog Devices Company - USA). The stimulator can generate arbitrary waveform like Sine Waves, Modulated Amplitude, Pulses, Bursts and Pips. The waveforms are generated through a graphical interface programmed in C++ in which the user can define the parameters of the waveform. Furthermore, the user can set the exam parameters as number of stimuli, time with stimulation (Time ON) and time without stimulus (Time OFF). In future works will be implemented another parts of the system that includes the acquirement of electroencephalogram and signal processing to estimate and analyze the evoked potential.

  2. Radiographic cephalometry analysis of head posture and craniofacial morphology in oral breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević Vladanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nasal breathing plays an important role in overall physical growth and mental development, as well as in the growth of the craniofacial complex. Oral breathing over a long period of time, can cause changes in position of the head relative to the cervical spine and jaw relationship. It can cause an open bite and the narrowness of the maxillary arch due to increased pressure of strained face. The aim of this study was to analyze the position of the head and craniofacial morphology in oral breathing children, and compare the values obtained compared with those of the same parameters in nasal brething children. Methods. We analyzed the profile cephalometric radiographs of 60 patients who had various orthodontic problems. In the first group there were 30 patients aged 8–14 years, in which oral breathing is confirmed by clinical examination. In the second group there were 30 patients of the same age who had orthodontic problems, but did not show clinical signs of oral breathing. The analyses covered the following: craniocervical angle (NS/OPT, the length of the anterior cranial base (NS, anterior facial height (N-Me, posterior facial height (S-Go, the angle of maxillary prognathism (SNA, angle of mandibular prognathism (SNB, difference between angles SNA and SNB (ANB angle, the angle of the basal planes of the jaws (SpP/MP, cranial base angle (NSB, and the angle of facial convexity (NA/Apg. Results. The average value of the craniocervical angle (NS/OPT was significantly higher in OB children (p = 0.004. There were significantly different values of SNA (p < 0.001, ANB (p < 0.001, NA/APg (p < 0.001 and length of the anterior cranial base (NS (p = 0.024 between groups. Conclusion. Oral breathing children have pronounced retroflexion of the head in relation to the cervical spine compared to nasal breathing children, and the most prominent characteristics of the craniofacial morphology of skeletal jaw relationship of class II and

  3. Zebrafish con/disp1 reveals multiple spatiotemporal requirements for Hedgehog-signaling in craniofacial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwend Tyler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate head skeleton is derived largely from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC. Genetic studies in zebrafish and mice have established that the Hedgehog (Hh-signaling pathway plays a critical role in craniofacial development, partly due to the pathway's role in CNCC development. Disruption of the Hh-signaling pathway in humans can lead to the spectral disorder of Holoprosencephaly (HPE, which is often characterized by a variety of craniofacial defects including midline facial clefting and cyclopia 12. Previous work has uncovered a role for Hh-signaling in zebrafish dorsal neurocranium patterning and chondrogenesis, however Hh-signaling mutants have not been described with respect to the ventral pharyngeal arch (PA skeleton. Lipid-modified Hh-ligands require the transmembrane-spanning receptor Dispatched 1 (Disp1 for proper secretion from Hh-synthesizing cells to the extracellular field where they act on target cells. Here we study chameleon mutants, lacking a functional disp1(con/disp1. Results con/disp1 mutants display reduced and dysmorphic mandibular and hyoid arch cartilages and lack all ceratobranchial cartilage elements. CNCC specification and migration into the PA primorida occurs normally in con/disp1 mutants, however disp1 is necessary for post-migratory CNCC patterning and differentiation. We show that disp1 is required for post-migratory CNCC to become properly patterned within the first arch, while the gene is dispensable for CNCC condensation and patterning in more posterior arches. Upon residing in well-formed pharyngeal epithelium, neural crest condensations in the posterior PA fail to maintain expression of two transcription factors essential for chondrogenesis, sox9a and dlx2a, yet continue to robustly express other neural crest markers. Histology reveals that posterior arch residing-CNCC differentiate into fibrous-connective tissue, rather than becoming chondrocytes. Treatments with Cyclopamine, to

  4. Effectiveness of the cervical vertebral maturation method to predict postpeak circumpubertal growth of craniofacial structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudalej, Piotr; Bollen, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to assess effectiveness of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method to predict circumpubertal craniofacial growth in the postpeak period. The CVM stage was determined in 176 subjects (51 adolescent boys and 125 adolescent girls) on cephalograms taken at the end of treatment (T2; mean ages, 15.75 years [boys] and 15.23 years [girls]) in subjects from the postretention database at the University of Washington in Seattle. Craniofacial growth was evaluated from the following measurements on cephalograms at T2 and end of follow-up (T3) (mean ages, 29.01 years [men] and 28.08 years [women]): condylion to gnathion, condylion to gonion, gonion to gnathion, sella to gnathion, nasion to menton, anterior nasal spine to menton, and sella to gonion. The change of each variable from T2 to T3 was assessed with paired t tests. Parametric (t tests or analysis of variance [ANOVA]) or nonparametric (Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis) tests were used to detect intergroup differences. One hundred eight subjects (35 boys, 73 girls) demonstrated CVM stage 3, 56 (16 boys, 40 girls) were in CVM stage 4, and 12 (all girls) were in CVM stage 5 at T2. Intrasex comparisons showed that boys in CVM stages 3 and 4 could be differentiated regarding changes of all variables. In the girls, only those in CVM stages 3 and 4 could be differentiated based on the amount of changes of 2 measurements: condylion to gonion and sella to gonion. Intersex comparisons showed that boys in CVM stage 3 had significantly more changes than girls (P <0.01). Boys in CVM stage 4 showed significant differences compared with girls in CVM stage 4 for only 2 variables (sella to gonion and condylion to gonion; P <0.001 and P = 0.012, respectively). The CVM method was modestly effective in determining the amount of postpeak circumpubertal craniofacial growth. Copyright 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An Anthropometric Study of Cranio-Facial Measurements and Their Correlation with Vertical Dimension of Occlusion among Saudi Arabian Subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Muhammed Irfan; Haralur, Satheesh B; Khan, Muhammed Farhan; Al Ahmari, Maram Awdah; Al Shahrani, Nourah Falah; Shaik, Sharaz

    2018-04-15

    Determining and restoring physiological vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) is the critical step during complete mouth rehabilitation. The improper VDO compromises the aesthetics, phonetics and functional efficiency of the prosthesis. Various methods are suggested to determine the accurate VDO, including the facial measurements in the clinical situations with no pre-extraction records. The generalisation of correlation between the facial measurements to VDO is criticised due to gender dimorphism and racial differences. Hence, it is prudent to verify the hypothesis of facial proportion and correlation of lower third of the face to remaining craniofacial measurements in different ethnic groups. The objective of the study was to evaluate the correlation of craniofacial measurements and OVD in the Saudi-Arabian ethnic group. Total of 228 participants from Saudi-Arabian Ethnic group were randomly recruited in this cross-sectional study. Fifteen craniofacial measurements were recorded with modified digital Vernier callipers, and OVD was recorded at centric occlusion. The obtained data were analysed by using the Spearman's correlation and linear regression analysis. The Mean OVD in male participants was higher (69.25 ± 5.54) in comparison to female participants (57.41 ± 5.32). The craniofacial measurement of Exocanthion-right labial commissure and the Mesial wall of the right external auditory canal-orbitale lateral had a strong positive correlation with VDO. The strong correlation was recorded with a trichion-upper border of right eyebrow line and trichion-Nasion only in males. Meanwhile, the length of an auricle recorded the positive correlation in female participants. Being simple and non-invasive technique, craniofacial measurements and linear equations could be routinely utilised to determine VDO.

  6. Facial Phenotyping by Quantitative Photography Reflects Craniofacial Morphology Measured on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Icelandic Sleep Apnea Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kate; Schwab, Richard J.; Maislin, Greg; Lee, Richard W.W.; Benedikstdsottir, Bryndis; Pack, Allan I.; Gislason, Thorarinn; Juliusson, Sigurdur; Cistulli, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: (1) To determine whether facial phenotype, measured by quantitative photography, relates to underlying craniofacial obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk factors, measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); (2) To assess whether these associations are independent of body size and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional cohort. Setting: Landspitali, The National University Hospital, Iceland. Participants: One hundred forty patients (87.1% male) from the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort who had both calibrated frontal and profile craniofacial photographs and upper airway MRI. Mean ± standard deviation age 56.1 ± 10.4 y, body mass index 33.5 ± 5.05 kg/m2, with on-average severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index 45.4 ± 19.7 h-1). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Relationships between surface facial dimensions (photos) and facial bony dimensions and upper airway soft-tissue volumes (MRI) was assessed using canonical correlation analysis. Photo and MRI craniofacial datasets related in four significant canonical correlations, primarily driven by measurements of (1) maxillary-mandibular relationship (r = 0.8, P photography and MRI. This study confirms that facial photographic phenotype reflects underlying aspects of craniofacial skeletal abnormalities associated with OSA. Therefore, facial photographic phenotyping may be a useful tool to assess intermediate phenotypes for OSA, particularly in large-scale studies. Citation: Sutherland K, Schwab RJ, Maislin G, Lee RW, Benedikstdsottir B, Pack AI, Gislason T, Juliusson S, Cistulli PA. Facial phenotyping by quantitative photography reflects craniofacial morphology measured on magnetic resonance imaging in icelandic sleep apnea patients. SLEEP 2014;37(5):959-968. PMID:24790275

  7. Recording visual evoked potentials and auditory evoked P300 at 9.4T static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrubla, Jorge; Neuner, Irene; Hahn, David; Boers, Frank; Shah, N Jon

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous recording of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown a number of advantages that make this multimodal technique superior to fMRI alone. The feasibility of recording EEG at ultra-high static magnetic field up to 9.4 T was recently demonstrated and promises to be implemented soon in fMRI studies at ultra high magnetic fields. Recording visual evoked potentials are expected to be amongst the most simple for simultaneous EEG/fMRI at ultra-high magnetic field due to the easy assessment of the visual cortex. Auditory evoked P300 measurements are of interest since it is believed that they represent the earliest stage of cognitive processing. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of recording visual evoked potentials and auditory evoked P300 in a 9.4 T static magnetic field. For this purpose, EEG data were recorded from 26 healthy volunteers inside a 9.4 T MR scanner using a 32-channel MR compatible EEG system. Visual stimulation and auditory oddball paradigm were presented in order to elicit evoked related potentials (ERP). Recordings made outside the scanner were performed using the same stimuli and EEG system for comparison purposes. We were able to retrieve visual P100 and auditory P300 evoked potentials at 9.4 T static magnetic field after correction of the ballistocardiogram artefact using independent component analysis. The latencies of the ERPs recorded at 9.4 T were not different from those recorded at 0 T. The amplitudes of ERPs were higher at 9.4 T when compared to recordings at 0 T. Nevertheless, it seems that the increased amplitudes of the ERPs are due to the effect of the ultra-high field on the EEG recording system rather than alteration in the intrinsic processes that generate the electrophysiological responses.

  8. Dedicated Stereophotogrammetric X-Ray System For Craniofacial Research And Treatment Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon; Moffitt, Francis; Curry, Sean; Isaacson, Robert J.

    1983-07-01

    We have constructed and brought into use what we believe to be the first dedicated coplanar craniofacial stereometric x-ray system for clinical use. Paired Machlett Dynamax 50/58 x-ray tubes with 0.3 mm focal spots are employed. Displacement between emitters is 16 inches. The focus film distance for both emitters is 66.5 inches. The mid-sagittal plane to focus distance is 60 inches. One film of each stereo pair conforms with the standards of the Second Roentgenocephalometric Workshop and can be used to make all standard two-dimensional orthodontic and cephalometric measurements. When supplemented by data from the conjugate film, a three-dimensional coordinate map can be generated as a machine operation. Specialized complementary software has been developed to increase the reliability of landmark location both in two and in three dimensions.

  9. International confederation for cleft lip and palate and related craniofacial anomalies task force report: holistic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Hillary L

    2014-11-01

    Objective : This paper describes the process and outcomes of the 2013 American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association task force on Holistic Outcomes. The goals and membership of the task force are presented. Methods : Using internet communication, the group introduced themselves, shared ideas and information related to holistic assessment and implementation of using a validated holistic measure, the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) at participating international sites. Results : Data from the sites were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Administration of the COHIP was successful. It varied from self-completion as well as verbal presentation due to language differences and a function of the short time period to complete collection. Additionally qualitative comments were reported by the task force site directors. Conclusions : Future directions for holistic assessment and communication among task force members and sites were discussed at the Congress and are presented in this report.

  10. Effect of Injection Molding Melt Temperatures on PLGA Craniofacial Plate Properties during In Vitro Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Pimenta de Melo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present mechanical and physicochemical properties during in vitro degradation of PLGA material as craniofacial plates based on different values of injection molded temperatures. Injection molded plates were submitted to in vitro degradation in a thermostat bath at 37 ± 1°C by 16 weeks. The material was removed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 days; then bending stiffness, crystallinity, molecular weights, and viscoelasticity were studied. A significant decrease of molecular weight and mechanical properties over time and a difference in FT-IR after 60 days showed faster degradation of the material in the geometry studied. DSC analysis confirmed that the crystallization occurred, especially in higher melt temperature condition. DMA analysis suggests a greater contribution of the viscous component of higher temperature than lower temperature in thermomechanical behavior. The results suggest that physical-mechanical properties of PLGA plates among degradation differ per injection molding temperatures.

  11. Jaw-motor effects of experimental jaw-muscle pain and stress in patients with deep bite and matched control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Svensson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    clenching, during evoked pain and stress between deep bite patients and controls was investigated. DESIGN: In 30 deep bite patients and in 30 sex-/age-matched controls with neutral occlusion EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from masseter and anterior temporalis muscles before and during evoked pain......OBJECTIVE: The effect of experimental jaw-muscle pain and stress on masticatory muscle activity in TMD-patients has been discussed. Furthermore, associations between TMD and deep bite patients have been studied. Accordingly in the present study, comparison of EMG responses at rest, maximal...... and before and during a stress task. Evoked pain was induced by injections of glutamate into the masseter (local pain) and brachioradialis (remote pain) muscles and resting EMG activity was recorded before and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10min. A precision task was used to simulate a stressful condition and EMG...

  12. Bioinformatic analysis of Msx1 and Msx2 involved in craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiewen; Mou, Zhifang; Shen, Shunyao; Dong, Yuefu; Yang, Tong; Shen, Steve Guofang

    2014-01-01

    Msx1 and Msx2 were revealed to be candidate genes for some craniofacial deformities, such as cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL/P) and craniosynostosis. Many other genes were demonstrated to have a cross-talk with MSX genes in causing these defects. However, there is no systematic evaluation for these MSX gene-related factors. In this study, we performed systematic bioinformatic analysis for MSX genes by combining using GeneDecks, DAVID, and STRING database, and the results showed that there were numerous genes related to MSX genes, such as Irf6, TP63, Dlx2, Dlx5, Pax3, Pax9, Bmp4, Tgf-beta2, and Tgf-beta3 that have been demonstrated to be involved in CL/P, and Fgfr2, Fgfr1, Fgfr3, and Twist1 that were involved in craniosynostosis. Many of these genes could be enriched into different gene groups involved in different signaling ways, different craniofacial deformities, and different biological process. These findings could make us analyze the function of MSX gens in a gene network. In addition, our findings showed that Sumo, a novel gene whose polymorphisms were demonstrated to be associated with nonsyndromic CL/P by genome-wide association study, has protein-protein interaction with MSX1, which may offer us an alternative method to perform bioinformatic analysis for genes found by genome-wide association study and can make us predict the disrupted protein function due to the mutation in a gene DNA sequence. These findings may guide us to perform further functional studies in the future.

  13. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF UPPER AND MIDDLE FACIAL ZONE TRAUMAS IN PROGRESS OF CONCOMITANT TRAUMATIC CRANIOFACIAL INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagvilava, G; Gvenetadze, Z; Toradze, G; Devidze, I; Gvenetadze, G

    2015-09-01

    In 2012-2015, 207 patients with concomitant craniofacial injuries, who underwent surgical treatment, were observed; among them 176 were men and 31- women. Age of the patients ranged from 16 to 60 years. According to localization and severity of trauma and a priority of surgical intervention, the patients conventionally were divided into 3 groups by the authors: I group (65 patients) - craniofacial injuries; the skull as well as upper and middle areas of face (subcranial and frontobasal fractures) were affected (fractured). II group (80 patients) - severe traumatic injuries of upper and especially middle zones of the face, accompanied with closed craniocerebral trauma, no need in neurosurgery. III group (62 patients) -on the background of serious head traumas, the injuries of face bones were less severe (injury of one or two anatomic areas with displacement of fractured fragments but without bone tissue defects) According to the obtained results a priority was always given to the neurosurgery (vital testimony).The reconstructive surgeries on face skeleton was conducted in combination involving neurosurgeons (I group patients). Reconstructive surgeries of facial bones were conducted in the patients of II group, immediately or at primary deferred period of time but in the patients of III group the surgical procedures for removal of early secondary or traumatic residual fractures have been performed. Reposition of the fractured facial bone fragments was performed in an open way and fixation was carried out by titanium plates and mesh cage (at bone tissue defect). For prevention and elimination of post-traumatic inflammatory processes, the final stage of surgical intervention was: sanation of nasal accessory sinuses and catheterization (5-7 days) of external carotid arteries for administration of antibiotics and other medical preparations. Early and differentiated approach to face injuries, worsening in the course of craniocephalic trauma was not revealed in any patient

  14. Skeletal dysplasia with craniofacial deformity and disproportionate dwarfism in hair sheep of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, F P M; Medeiros, G X; Figueiredo, A P M; Thompson, K; Riet-Correa, F

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a newly described form of skeletal dysplasia affecting Brazilian hair sheep of the Cabugi breed. This breed is characterized by having a short head and in some cases the animals are smaller and more compact than sheep of similar breeds. Lambs born with craniofacial abnormalities and dwarfism that die at 2-6 months of age are frequent in this breed. In a flock of 68 ewes and three rams of the Cabugi breed, 134 lambs were born over a 4-year period. Of these, 14 (10.4%) had marked cranial abnormalities and dwarfism and died or were humanely destroyed, 43 (32%) had a normal face and 77 (57.5%) had the short face characteristic of the breed. Dwarf lambs were much smaller than normal, with short legs, a domed head with retruded muzzle and protruded mandible, sternal deformities and exophthalmic eyes situated more laterally in the face than normal. Microscopical examination of long bones of the limbs, bones of the base of the skull and vertebrae showed no lesions. Bones from four affected lambs and one control lamb were macerated for morphometric examination. Although the length of the spinal cord was similar, there was disproportionate shortening of the appendicular bones, particularly the distal segments. Thus the disease was defined as a skeletal dysplasia characterized by craniofacial deformity and disproportionate dwarfism. It is suggested that the disease is inherited as an incomplete dominant trait. The shortened face, which is a feature of the Cabugi breed, may represent the heterozygous state and the more severe, often lethal, dwarfism may occur in homozygotes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A lateral cephalometric study of craniofacial variation in Korean child twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Rae; You, Dong Soo

    1974-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate the degree of similarities and differences in components of craniofacial complex between Korean twins and normal children by lateral cephalometric analysis. Dimensions of S-N, S-Ba, N-Ba, Go-Me, Ar-Go and Ar-Me were plotted against linear measurement and angles of N-S-Ba and gonial against angular measurement in twins and control groups. The lateral cephalograms of twin were composed of 88 twins aged from 7 to 12:44 males aged 10.65 and 44 females aged 9. 55, while those of 50 normalities were composed of 25 male and 25 female aged 10.9 respectively. In order to analyze growth proportion and sexual differences, twins were divided into 3 groups according to two year age intervals and the author compared male with female in 3 groups. For the purpose of observing similarities and differences in twins and normalities by sex, total twins were compared with normalities. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There was no difference in craniofacial complex between twins and normalities. 2. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in both twins and normalities, but there were no statistical significances of sexual differences in both groups. 3. The growth proportion of mandible by aging was larger than that of face in twins. 4. The growth pattern of gonial angle showed slight reducing tendency in twin by aging. 5. There was little difference in the growth proportion of both male and female.

  16. Alcohol percutaneous neurolysis of the sphenopalatine ganglion in the management of refractory cranio-facial pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastler, Adrian [Grenoble University Hospital, Neuroradiology Department, Grenoble (France); Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory, EA4268, IFR133, Besancon (France); Cadel, Gilles; Gory, Guillaume [Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory, EA4268, IFR133, Besancon (France); Comte, Alexandre [University Hospital Besancon, Functional Imaging Research Department, Besancon (France); Piccand, Veronique [University Hospital Jean Minjoz, Pain Evaluation and Treatment Unit, Besancon (France); Tavernier, Laurent [Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory, EA4268, IFR133, Besancon (France); University Hospital Jean Minjoz, Head and Neck Surgery-Otolaryngology Unit, Besancon (France); Kastler, Bruno [Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory, EA4268, IFR133, Besancon (France); University Hospital Jean Minjoz, Interventional Pain Management Unit, Besancon (France)

    2014-07-15

    The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPN) has been proven to be involved in various types of facial pain syndromes. Management of these cranio-facial pain syndromes can be challenging, and existing specific treatments are sometimes inefficient and may fail. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate alcohol SPN in the management of cranio-facial pain. Forty-two patients suffering from refractory facial pain who underwent 58 consecutive SPN were included in this study between 2000 and 2013. Patients were divided into three groups: group ''cluster headache'' (CH), group ''persistent idiopathic facial pain'' (PFIP), and group ''Other''. Pain was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale scores (measured immediately before and after procedure and at regular intervals following the procedure). Alcohol SPN was considered to be effective when pain relief was equal to or greater than 50 % and lasting for at least 1 month. All procedures were realized ambulatory under CT guidance and consisted of an injection of 1 ml of absolute alcohol. Overall efficacy rate of alcohol SPN was 67.2 %, with mean pain relief duration of 10.3 months. Procedure was graded either not painful or tolerable by patients in 64.2 %. Analysis showed a higher efficacy rate in the groups CH (76.5 %) and PFIP (85.7 %) compared to the group Other (40 %). No difference was found between groups regarding the recurrence rate. Alcohol SPN under CT guidance appears as a safe and effective treatment of refractory facial pain, especially in cases of cluster headache and persistent idiopathic facial pain. (orig.)

  17. A lateral cephalometric study of craniofacial variation in Korean child twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Rae; You, Dong Soo [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-11-15

    A study was performed to investigate the degree of similarities and differences in components of craniofacial complex between Korean twins and normal children by lateral cephalometric analysis. Dimensions of S-N, S-Ba, N-Ba, Go-Me, Ar-Go and Ar-Me were plotted against linear measurement and angles of N-S-Ba and gonial against angular measurement in twins and control groups. The lateral cephalograms of twin were composed of 88 twins aged from 7 to 12:44 males aged 10.65 and 44 females aged 9. 55, while those of 50 normalities were composed of 25 male and 25 female aged 10.9 respectively. In order to analyze growth proportion and sexual differences, twins were divided into 3 groups according to two year age intervals and the author compared male with female in 3 groups. For the purpose of observing similarities and differences in twins and normalities by sex, total twins were compared with normalities. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There was no difference in craniofacial complex between twins and normalities. 2. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in both twins and normalities, but there were no statistical significances of sexual differences in both groups. 3. The growth proportion of mandible by aging was larger than that of face in twins. 4. The growth pattern of gonial angle showed slight reducing tendency in twin by aging. 5. There was little difference in the growth proportion of both male and female.

  18. Alcohol percutaneous neurolysis of the sphenopalatine ganglion in the management of refractory cranio-facial pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastler, Adrian; Cadel, Gilles; Gory, Guillaume; Comte, Alexandre; Piccand, Veronique; Tavernier, Laurent; Kastler, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPN) has been proven to be involved in various types of facial pain syndromes. Management of these cranio-facial pain syndromes can be challenging, and existing specific treatments are sometimes inefficient and may fail. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate alcohol SPN in the management of cranio-facial pain. Forty-two patients suffering from refractory facial pain who underwent 58 consecutive SPN were included in this study between 2000 and 2013. Patients were divided into three groups: group ''cluster headache'' (CH), group ''persistent idiopathic facial pain'' (PFIP), and group ''Other''. Pain was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale scores (measured immediately before and after procedure and at regular intervals following the procedure). Alcohol SPN was considered to be effective when pain relief was equal to or greater than 50 % and lasting for at least 1 month. All procedures were realized ambulatory under CT guidance and consisted of an injection of 1 ml of absolute alcohol. Overall efficacy rate of alcohol SPN was 67.2 %, with mean pain relief duration of 10.3 months. Procedure was graded either not painful or tolerable by patients in 64.2 %. Analysis showed a higher efficacy rate in the groups CH (76.5 %) and PFIP (85.7 %) compared to the group Other (40 %). No difference was found between groups regarding the recurrence rate. Alcohol SPN under CT guidance appears as a safe and effective treatment of refractory facial pain, especially in cases of cluster headache and persistent idiopathic facial pain. (orig.)

  19. Disturbances in dental development and craniofacial growth in children treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterbacka, M; Ringdén, O; Remberger, M; Huggare, J; Dahllöf, G

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the correlation between age, degree of disturbances in dental development, and vertical growth of the face in children treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). 39 long-term survivors of HSCT performed in childhood and transplanted before the age of 12, at a mean age of 6.8±3.3 years. Panoramic and cephalometric radiographs were taken at a mean age of 16.2 years. For each patient two age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. The area of three mandibular teeth was measured and a cephalometric analysis was performed. The mean area of the mandibular central incisor, first and second molar was significantly smaller in the HSCT group, and the vertical growth of the face was significantly reduced, especially in the lower third, compared to healthy controls. A statistically significant correlation between age at HSCT, degree of disturbances in dental development, and vertical growth of the face was found. Children subjected to pre-HSCT chemotherapy protocols had significantly more growth reduction in vertical craniofacial variables compared to children without pre-HSCT chemotherapy. Conditioning regimens including busulfan or total body irradiation had similar deleterious effects on tooth area reduction and craniofacial parameters. The younger the child is at HSCT, the greater the impairment in dental and vertical facial development. This supports the suggestion that the reduction in lower facial height found in SCT children mainly is a result of impaired dental development and that young age is a risk factor for more severe disturbances. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. High frequency oscillations evoked by peripheral magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, S; Simon, L; Fiedler, P; Strohmeier, D; Haueisen, J

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and / or fields (SEF) is a well-established and important tool for investigating the functioning of the peripheral and central human nervous system. A standard technique to evoke SEPs / SEFs is the stimulation of the median nerve by using a bipolar electrical stimulus. We aim at an alternative stimulation technique enabling stimulation of deep nerve structures while reducing patient stress and error susceptibility. In the current study, we apply a commercial transcranial magnetic stimulation system for peripheral magnetic stimulation of the median nerve. We compare the results of simultaneously recorded EEG signals to prove applicability of our technique to evoke SEPs including low frequency components (LFC) as well as high frequency oscillations (HFO). Therefore, we compare amplitude, latency and time-frequency characteristics of the SEP of 14 healthy volunteers after electric and magnetic stimulation. Both low frequency components and high frequency oscillations were detected. The HFOs were superimposed onto the primary cortical response N20. Statistical analysis revealed significantly lower amplitudes and increased latencies for LFC and HFO components after magnetic stimulation. The differences indicate the inability of magnetic stimulation to elicit supramaximal responses. A psycho-perceptual evaluation showed that magnetic stimulation was less unpleasant for 12 out of the 14 volunteers. In conclusion, we showed that LFC and HFO components related to median nerve stimulation can be evoked by peripheral magnetic stimulation.

  1. Evoked responses to sinusoidally modulated sound in unanaesthetized dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielen, A.M.; Kamp, A.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Reneau, J.P.; Storm van Leeuwen, W.

    1. 1. Responses evoked by sinusoidally amplitude-modulated sound in unanaesthetized dogs have been recorded from inferior colliculus and from auditory cortex structures by means of chronically indwelling stainless steel wire electrodes. 2. 2. Harmonic analysis of the average responses demonstrated

  2. Prior Expectations Evoke Stimulus Templates in the Primary Visual Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, P.; Failing, F.M.; de Lange, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to rhythmic stimulation results in facilitated responses to events that appear in-phase with the rhythm and modulation of anticipatory and target-evoked brain activity, presumably reflecting "exogenous," unintentional temporal expectations. However, the extent to which this effect is

  3. The role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Visual Evoked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: To report our experience in management of patients with optic neuritis. The effects of brain magnetic resonance imaging and visual evoked potential on management were investigated. Methods: This is a four years clinical trial that included patients presenting with first attack of optic neuritis older than 16 years ...

  4. Estimation of Electrically-Evoked Knee Torque from Mechanomyography Using Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olusola Ibitoye

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty of real-time muscle force or joint torque estimation during neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES in physical therapy and exercise science has motivated recent research interest in torque estimation from other muscle characteristics. This study investigated the accuracy of a computational intelligence technique for estimating NMES-evoked knee extension torque based on the Mechanomyographic signals (MMG of contracting muscles that were recorded from eight healthy males. Simulation of the knee torque was modelled via Support Vector Regression (SVR due to its good generalization ability in related fields. Inputs to the proposed model were MMG amplitude characteristics, the level of electrical stimulation or contraction intensity, and knee angle. Gaussian kernel function, as well as its optimal parameters were identified with the best performance measure and were applied as the SVR kernel function to build an effective knee torque estimation model. To train and test the model, the data were partitioned into training (70% and testing (30% subsets, respectively. The SVR estimation accuracy, based on the coefficient of determination (R2 between the actual and the estimated torque values was up to 94% and 89% during the training and testing cases, with root mean square errors (RMSE of 9.48 and 12.95, respectively. The knee torque estimations obtained using SVR modelling agreed well with the experimental data from an isokinetic dynamometer. These findings support the realization of a closed-loop NMES system for functional tasks using MMG as the feedback signal source and an SVR algorithm for joint torque estimation.

  5. Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S.; Cacciatore, Timothy W.; Cordo, Paul J.; Horak, Fay B.

    2011-01-01

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs1, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention. PMID:22214974

  6. Extraocular muscle function testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...

  7. [The modified method registration of kinesthetic evoked potentials and its application for research of proprioceptive sensitivity disorders at spondylogenic cervical myelopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, S A; Voronin, S G

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the efficacy of modified (passive radiocarpal articulation flexion/extension) and «standard» (passive radiocarpal articulation flexion) methods of kinesthetic evoked potentials for proprioceptive sensitivity assessment in healthy subjects and patients with spondylotic cervical myelopathy. The study included 14 healthy subjects (4 women and 10 men, mean age 54.1±10.5 years) and 8 patients (2 women and 6 men, mean age 55.8±10.9 years) with spondylotic cervical myelopathy. Muscle-joint sensation was examined during the clinical study. A modified method of kinesthetic evoked potentials was developed. This method differed from the "standard" one by the organization of a cycle including several passive movements,where each new movement differed from the preceding one by the direction. The modified method of kinesthetic evoked potentials ensures more reliable kinesthetic sensitivity assessment due to movement variability. Asignificant increaseof the latent periods of the early components of the response was found in patients compared to healthy subjects. The modified method of kinesthetic evoked potentials can be used for objective diagnosis of proprioceptive sensitivity disorders in patients with spondylotic cervical myelopathy.

  8. Visual evoked potentials in patients after methanol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pavel; Zakharov, Sergey; Diblík, Pavel; Pelclová, Daniela; Ridzoň, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of the visual evoked potentials (VEP) examination in patients after severe poisoning by methanol. The group of 47 patients (38 males and 9 females) was assembled out of persons who survived an outbreak of poisoning by the methanol adulterated alcohol beverages, which happened in the Czech Republic in 2012-2013. The visual evoked potentials examination was performed using monocular checkerboard pattern-reversal stimulation. Two criteria of abnormality were chosen: missing evoked response, and wave P1 latency > 117 ms. Non-parametric statistical methods (median, range, and the median test) were used to analyze factors influencing the VEP abnormality. The visual evoked potential was abnormal in 20 patients (43%), 5 of them had normal visual acuity on the Snellen chart. The VEP abnormality did not correlate significantly with initial serum concentrations of methanol, formic acid or lactate; however, it showed statistically significant inverse relation to the initial serum pH: the subgroup with the abnormal VEP had significantly lower median pH in comparison with the subgroup with the normal VEP (7.16 vs. 7.34, p = 0.04). The abnormality was not related to chronic alcohol abuse. The visual evoked potentials examination appeared sensitive enough to detected even subclinical impairment of the optic system. Metabolic acidosis is likely to be the key factor related to the development of visual damage induced by methanol. The examination performed with a delay of 1-9 months after the poisoning documented the situation relatively early after the event. It is considered as a baseline for the planned long-term follow-up of the patients, which will make it possible to assess the dynamics of the observed changes, their reversibility, and the occurrence of potential late sequelae. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  9. Transcranial electric stimulation for intraoperative motor evoked potential monitoring: dependence of required stimulation current on interstimulus interval value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksimovic, Boban; Szelenyi, Andrea; Seifert, Volker; Damjanovic, Aleksandar; Damjanovic, Aleksandra; Rasulic, Lukas

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between stimulus intensity by constant current transcranial electric stimulation and interstimulus interval (ISI) for eliciting muscle motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in three different hand muscles and the tibialis anterior muscles. We tested intraoperatively different monophasic constant current pulses and ISIs in 22 patients with clinically normal motor function. Motor thresholds of contralateral muscle MEPs were determined at 0.5 milliseconds (ms) pulse duration and ISIs of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 ms using a train of 2, 3, and 5 monophasic constant current pulses of 62 to 104 mA before craniotomy and after closure of the dura mater. The lowest stimulation threshold to elicit MEPs in the examined muscles was achieved with a train of 5 pulses (ISI: 3 ms) before craniotomy, which was statistically significant compared with 2 pulses (ISI: 3 ms) as well as 3 pulses (ISIs: 3 and 10 ms). An ISI of 3 ms gave the lowest motor thresholds with statistical significance compared with the ISIs of 4 ms (2 pulses) and of 1 ms (3 pulses). All current intensity (mA) and ISI (ms) relationship graphs had a trend of the exponential function as y = a + bx + c ρ (x), where y is intensity (mA) and x is ISI (ms). The minimum of the function was determined for each patient and each muscle. The difference was statistically significant between 3 and 5 pulses before craniotomy and between 3 and 5 pulses and 2 and 5 pulses after closure of the dura mater. In adult neurosurgical patients with a normal motor status, a train of 5 pulses and an ISI of 3 ms provide the lowest motor thresholds. We provided evidence of the dependence of required stimulation current on ISI. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Botulinum toxin injection causes hyper-reflexia and increased muscle stiffness of the triceps surae muscle in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingel, Jessica; Wienecke, Jacob; Lorentzen, Jakob; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-12-01

    Botulinum toxin is used with the intention of diminishing spasticity and reducing the risk of development of contractures. Here, we investigated changes in muscle stiffness caused by reflex activity or elastic muscle properties following botulinum toxin injection in the triceps surae muscle in rats. Forty-four rats received injection of botulinum toxin in the left triceps surae muscle. Control measurements were performed on the noninjected contralateral side in all rats. Acute experiments were performed, 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk following injection. The triceps surae muscle was dissected free, and the Achilles tendon was cut and attached to a muscle puller. The resistance of the muscle to stretches of different amplitudes and velocities was systematically investigated. Reflex-mediated torque was normalized to the maximal muscle force evoked by supramaximal stimulation of the tibial nerve. Botulinum toxin injection caused severe atrophy of the triceps surae muscle at all time points. The force generated by stretch reflex activity was also strongly diminished but not to the same extent as the maximal muscle force at 2 and 4 wk, signifying a relative reflex hyperexcitability. Passive muscle stiffness was unaltered at 1 wk but increased at 2, 4, and 8 wk (P botulinum toxin causes a relative increase in reflex stiffness, which is likely caused by compensatory neuroplastic changes. The stiffness of elastic elements in the muscles also increased. The data are not consistent with the ideas that botulinum toxin is an efficient antispastic medication or that it may prevent development of contractures. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. The influence of caffeine on calorics and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNerney, Kathleen; Coad, Mary Lou; Burkard, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Prior to undergoing vestibular function testing, it is not uncommon for clinicians to request that patients abstain from caffeine 24 hr prior to the administration of the tests. However, there is little evidence that caffeine affects vestibular function. To evaluate whether the results from two tests commonly used in a clinical setting to assess vestibular function (i.e., calorics and the cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential [cVEMP]) are affected by caffeine. Subjects were tested with and without consuming a moderate amount of caffeine prior to undergoing calorics and cVEMPs. Thirty young healthy controls (mean = 23.28 yr; females = 21). Subjects were excluded if they reported any history of vestibular/balance impairment. The Variotherm Plus Caloric Irrigator was used to administer the water, while the I-Portal VNG software was used to collect and analyze subjects' eye movements. The TECA Evoked Potential System was used for the cVEMP stimulus presentation as well as for the data collection. During cVEMP collection, subjects were asked to monitor their sternocleidomastoid muscle contraction with a Delsys EMG monitor. IBM SPSS Statistics 20 was used to statistically analyze the results via paired t-tests. Analysis of the data revealed that ingestion of caffeine did not significantly influence the results of either test of vestibular function. The results revealed that a moderate amount of caffeine does not have a clinically significant effect on the results from caloric and cVEMP tests in young healthy adults. Future research is necessary to determine whether similar results would be obtained from individuals with a vestibular impairment, as well as older adults. American Academy of Audiology.

  12. Rehabilitative treatment of cleft lip and palate: experience of the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies/USP (HRAC/USP - Part 1: overall aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto de Souza Freitas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate is the most common among craniofacial malformations and causes several esthetic and functional implications that require rehabilitation. This paper aims to generally describe the several aspects related to this complex pathology and the treatment protocol used by the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, University of São Paulo (HRAC-USP along 40 years of experience in the treatment of individuals with cleft lip and palate.

  13. Predictability of hand skill and cognitive abilities from craniofacial width in right- and left-handed men and women: relation of skeletal structure to cerebral function

    OpenAIRE

    Dayi, Ertunc; Okuyan, Mukadder; Tan, Uner

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a family of homeobox genes involved in brain and craniofacial development was identified. In light of this genetic background, we hypothesized that some functional characteristics of human brain (hand skill, cognition) may be linked to some structural characteristics of human skull (e.g. craniofacial width) in humans. Hand preference was assessed by the Oldfield`s Handedness Questionaire. Hand skill was measured by Peg Moving Task. Face width was measured from the anteroposterior ce...

  14. Differences in descending control of external oblique and latissimus dorsi muscles in humans: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Francesca; Delves, Suzanne; Alexander, Caroline M; Strutton, Paul H

    2011-07-01

    Descending bilateral control of external oblique (EO) and latissimus dorsi (LD) was investigated using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Contralateral (CL) motor evoked potential (MEP) thresholds were lower and latencies were shorter than for ipsilateral (IL) MEPs. Hotspots for EO were symmetrical; this was not the case for LD. The volumes of drive to the left and right muscles were not different. The laterality index was not different between the left and right muscles. The average index for the EO muscles was closer to zero than that for LD, suggesting a stronger IL drive to EO. The symmetry of drive to each muscle did not differ; however, the symmetry of drive varies within a subject for different muscles and between subjects for the same muscle. The findings may be useful in understanding a number of clinical conditions relating to the trunk and also for predicting the outcome of rehabilitative strategies.

  15. An inventory and update of jealousy-evoking partner behaviours in modern society.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Groothof, Hinke A. K.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify the most important jealousy-evoking partner behaviours and to examine the extent to which these behaviours evoke jealousy. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was constructed containing 42 jealousy-evoking partner behaviours, including a partner's

  16. Influence of craniofacial and upper spine morphology on mandibular advancement device treatment outcome in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanholt, Palle; Petri, Niels; Wildschiødtz, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess cephalometric predictive markers in terms of craniofacial morphology including posterior cranial fossa and upper spine morphology for mandibular advancement device (MAD) treatment outcome in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea...... patients and the no success treatment group of 19 patients. Before MAD treatment lateral cephalograms were taken and analyses of the craniofacial morphology including the posterior cranial fossa and upper spine morphology were performed. Differences between the groups were analysed by Fisher's exact test......, t-test, and multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Upper spine morphological deviations occurred non-significantly in 25 per cent in the success treatment group and in 42.1 per cent in the no success treatment group. Body mass index (BMI; P

  17. Multimodal physiotherapy treatment based on a biobehavioral approach for patients with chronic cervico-craniofacial pain: a prospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Martín, Fernando; González-Ferrero, Luis; Martín-Alcocer, Noelia; Paris-Alemany, Alba; La Touche, Roy

    2018-01-17

    The purpose of this prospective case series was to observe and describe changes in patients with chronic cervico-craniofacial pain of muscular origin treated with multimodal physiotherapy based on a biobehavioral approach. Nine patients diagnosed with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder and neck pain were treated with 6 sessions over the course of 2 weeks including: (1) orthopedic manual physiotherapy (joint mobilizations, neurodynamic mobilization, and dynamic soft tissue mobilizations); (2) therapeutic exercises (motor control and muscular endurance exercises); and (3) patient education. The outcome measures of craniofacial (CF-PDI) and neck disability (NDI), kinesiophobia (TSK-11) and catastrophizing (PCS), and range of cervical and mandibular motion (ROM) and posture were collected at baseline, and at 2 and 14 weeks post-baseline. Compared to baseline, statistically significant (p posture were observed following a multimodal physiotherapy treatment based on a biobehavioral approach.

  18. Original Solution for Middle Ear Implant and Anesthetic/Surgical Management in a Child with Severe Craniofacial Dysmorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bianchin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the novel solution adopted in positioning middle ear implant in a child with bilateral congenital aural atresia and craniofacial dysmorphism that have posed a significant challenge for the safe and correct management of deafness. A five-year-old child, affected by a rare congenital disease (Van Maldergem Syndrome, suffered from conductive hearing loss. Conventional skin-drive bone-conduction device, attached with a steel spring headband, has been applied but auditory restoration was not optimal. The decision made was to position Vibrant Soundbridge, a middle ear implant, with an original surgical application due to hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity. Intubation procedure was complicated due to child craniofacial deformities. Postoperative hearing rehabilitation involved a multidisciplinary team, showing improved social skills and language development.

  19. Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging - strength training as a countermeasure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Per; Suetta, Charlotte; Caserotti, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    and size (sarcopenia), resulting in impaired mechanical muscle performance that in turn leads to a reduced functional capacity during everyday tasks. Concurrently, maximum muscle strength, power, and rate of force development are decreased with aging, even in highly trained master athletes. The impairment...... to elicit effective countermeasures in elderly individuals even at a very old age (>80 years) by evoking muscle hypertrophy along with substantial changes in neuromuscular function, respectively. Notably, the training-induced changes in muscle mass and nervous system function leads to an improved functional...

  20. Functional analysis of the zebrafish ortholog of HMGCS1 reveals independent functions for cholesterol and isoprenoids in craniofacial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M Quintana

    Full Text Available There are 8 different human syndromes caused by mutations in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. A subset of these disorders such as Smith-Lemli-Opitz disorder, are associated with facial dysmorphia. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying such facial deficits are not fully understood, primarily because of the diverse functions associated with the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Recent evidence has demonstrated that mutation of the zebrafish ortholog of HMGCR results in orofacial clefts. Here we sought to expand upon these data, by deciphering the cholesterol dependent functions of the cholesterol synthesis pathway from the cholesterol independent functions. Moreover, we utilized loss of function analysis and pharmacological inhibition to determine the extent of sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling in animals with aberrant cholesterol and/or isoprenoid synthesis. Our analysis confirmed that mutation of hmgcs1, which encodes the first enzyme in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, results in craniofacial abnormalities via defects in cranial neural crest cell differentiation. Furthermore targeted pharmacological inhibition of the cholesterol synthesis pathway revealed a novel function for isoprenoid synthesis during vertebrate craniofacial development. Mutation of hmgcs1 had no effect on Shh signaling at 2 and 3 days post fertilization (dpf, but did result in a decrease in the expression of gli1, a known Shh target gene, at 4 dpf, after morphological deficits in craniofacial development and chondrocyte differentiation were observed in hmgcs1 mutants. These data raise the possibility that deficiencies in cholesterol modulate chondrocyte differentiation by a combination of Shh independent and Shh dependent mechanisms. Moreover, our results describe a novel function for isoprenoids in facial development and collectively suggest that cholesterol regulates craniofacial development through versatile mechanisms.

  1. Expression of Dlx-5 and Msx-1 in Craniofacial Skeletons and Ilia of Rats Treated With Zoledronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Bin; Yang, Pan; Wu, Shichao; Li, Lin; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Wenyi

    2017-05-01

    Because of the different embryologic origins of the craniofacial skeleton and ilium, differences in gene expression patterns have been observed between the jaw bones and ilium. Distal-less homeobox (Dlx) genes and Msh homeobox genes, particularly Dlx-5 and Msx-1, play major roles in cell differentiation and osteogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of zoledronate (ZOL) on the craniofacial skeleton and ilium by detecting changes in Dlx-5 and Msx-1 expression at both the protein and messenger RNA levels. A total of 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: ZOL group (n = 12), in which the rats were injected intraperitoneally with zoledronic acid for 12 weeks, and control group (n = 12), in which the rats were injected with saline solution for 12 weeks. By use of immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the expression levels of Dlx-5 and Msx-1 in the craniofacial skeleton (including the maxilla, mandible, and parietal bone) and ilium were examined. Dlx-5 expression in the maxilla and mandible was increased at the protein and messenger RNA levels in the ZOL group compared with the control group (P Msx-1 expression in the maxilla and mandible was decreased in the ZOL group (P Msx-1 expression in the ilium was decreased in the ZOL group (P Msx-1 expression in the parietal bone was observed between the 2 groups (P > .05). Site-specific differences in the effects of ZOL on the craniofacial skeleton and ilium could be explained by differently altered tendencies in Dlx-5 and Msx-1 expression. The jaw bones were more susceptible to the effects of ZOL than the parietal bone and ilium. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Original Solution for Middle Ear Implant and Anesthetic/Surgical Management in a Child with Severe Craniofacial Dysmorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bianchin; Lorenzo Tribi; Aronne Reverzani; Patrizia Formigoni; Valeria Polizzi

    2015-01-01

    We describe the novel solution adopted in positioning middle ear implant in a child with bilateral congenital aural atresia and craniofacial dysmorphism that have posed a significant challenge for the safe and correct management of deafness. A five-year-old child, affected by a rare congenital disease (Van Maldergem Syndrome), suffered from conductive hearing loss. Conventional skin-drive bone-conduction device, attached with a steel spring headband, has been applied but auditory restoration ...

  3. Craniofacial morphology of children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate following labioplasty and palatoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Handoko Utomo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A complete unilateral cleft lip and palate generally results in asymmetry of the midface. The lack of continuity in the perilabial musculature through the midline contributes to a malpositioning of the underlying osseus structures which are often underdeveloped. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the craniofacial morphology among children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate following labioplasty and palatoplasty as compared with children without cleft lip and palate at the same pubertal age. Methods: A series of 14 consecutively treated subjects with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate following labioplasty and palatoplasty were compared with 14 pubertal stage-matched controls with normal craniofacial structure. Pubertal stage was determined with cervical vertebral maturation (CVM method improved by Baccetti et al, 2002. Lateral cephalograms were used for comparison. An unpaired t-test was run for 14 subjects with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate and 14 normal subjects. Results: There were significant cephalometric differences in anterior cranial base length (p = .002, cranial base length (p = .001, maxillary length (p = .000, mandibular length (p = .000, mandibular ramus height (p = .000, mandibular body length (p = .002, and upper anterior face height (p = .004. There was no significant cephalometric difference in posterior cranial base length (p = .051, lower anterior face height (p = .206, posterior face height (p = .865, growth pattern/ facial type (p = .202. Conclusion: There were craniofacial morphology differences between children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate post labioplasty and palatoplasty and children without cleft lip and palate at the age of pubertal. Children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate post labioplasty and palatoplasty had shorter length of the anterior cranial base, cranial base, maxilla, mandible, mandibular

  4. Abdominal acupuncture reduces laser-evoked potentials in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzaglia, C.; Liguori, S.; Minciotti, I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Acupuncture is known to reduce clinical pain, although the exact mechanism is unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on laser-evoked potential amplitudes and laser pain perception. Methods: In order to evaluate whether abdominal acupuncture...... is able to modify pain perception, 10 healthy subjects underwent a protocol in which laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and laser pain perception were collected before the test (baseline), during abdominal acupuncture, and 15. min after needle removal. The same subjects also underwent a similar protocol...... in which, however, sham acupuncture without any needle penetration was used. Results: During real acupuncture, both N1 and N2/P2 amplitudes were reduced, as compared to baseline (p . < 0.01). The reduction lasted up to 15. min after needle removal. Furthermore, laser pain perception was reduced during...

  5. Automatic classification of visual evoked potentials based on wavelet decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiakiewicz, Paweł; Dobrowolski, Andrzej P.; Tomczykiewicz, Kazimierz

    2017-04-01

    Diagnosis of part of the visual system, that is responsible for conducting compound action potential, is generally based on visual evoked potentials generated as a result of stimulation of the eye by external light source. The condition of patient's visual path is assessed by set of parameters that describe the time domain characteristic extremes called waves. The decision process is compound therefore diagnosis significantly depends on experience of a doctor. The authors developed a procedure - based on wavelet decomposition and linear discriminant analysis - that ensures automatic classification of visual evoked potentials. The algorithm enables to assign individual case to normal or pathological class. The proposed classifier has a 96,4% sensitivity at 10,4% probability of false alarm in a group of 220 cases and area under curve ROC equals to 0,96 which, from the medical point of view, is a very good result.

  6. Single-sweep spectral analysis of contact heat evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine M; Graversen, Carina; Frøkjaer, Jens B

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The cortical response to nociceptive thermal stimuli recorded as contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) may be altered by morphine. However, previous studies have averaged CHEPs over multiple stimuli, which are confounded by jitter between sweeps. Thus, the aim was to assess single-sweep ch......AIMS: The cortical response to nociceptive thermal stimuli recorded as contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) may be altered by morphine. However, previous studies have averaged CHEPs over multiple stimuli, which are confounded by jitter between sweeps. Thus, the aim was to assess single...... by 13% (P = 0.04) and 9% (P = 0.007), while the beta and gamma bands were increased by 10% (P = 0.006) and 24% (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The decreases in the delta and theta band are suggested to represent a decrease in the pain specific morphology of the CHEPs, which indicates a diminished pain response...

  7. Report of an unsual case of anophthalmia and craniofacial cleft in a newborn with Toxoplasma gondii congenital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Estrada, Gabriel Emmanuel; Gómez-Toscano, Valeria; Cedillo-Peláez, Carlos; Sesman-Bernal, Ana Luisa; Bosch-Canto, Vanessa; Mayorga-Butrón, José Luis; Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Correa, Dolores

    2017-07-03

    We present one unusual case of anophthalmia and craniofacial cleft, probably due to congenital toxoplasmosis only. A two-month-old male had a twin in utero who disappeared between the 7 th and the 14 th week of gestation. At birth, the baby presented anophthalmia and craniofacial cleft, and no sign compatible with genetic or exposition/deficiency problems, like the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome or maternal vitamin A deficiency. Congenital toxoplasmosis was confirmed by the presence of IgM abs and IgG neo-antibodies in western blot, as well as by real time PCR in blood. CMV infection was also discarded by PCR and IgM negative results. Structures suggestive of T. gondii pseudocysts were observed in a biopsy taken during the first functional/esthetic surgery. We conclude that this is a rare case of anophthalmia combined with craniofacial cleft due to congenital toxoplasmosis, that must be considered by physicians. This has not been reported before.

  8. Bioactive Sr(II/Chitosan/Poly(ε-caprolactone Scaffolds for Craniofacial Tissue Regeneration. In Vitro and In Vivo Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzia Rodríguez-Méndez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In craniofacial tissue regeneration, the current gold standard treatment is autologous bone grafting, however, it presents some disadvantages. Although new alternatives have emerged there is still an urgent demand of biodegradable scaffolds to act as extracellular matrix in the regeneration process. A potentially useful element in bone regeneration is strontium. It is known to promote stimulation of osteoblasts while inhibiting osteoclasts resorption, leading to neoformed bone. The present paper reports the preparation and characterization of strontium (Sr containing hybrid scaffolds formed by a matrix of ionically cross-linked chitosan and microparticles of poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL. These scaffolds of relatively facile fabrication were seeded with osteoblast-like cells (MG-63 and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs for application in craniofacial tissue regeneration. Membrane scaffolds were prepared using chitosan:PCL ratios of 1:2 and 1:1 and 5 wt % Sr salts. Characterization was performed addressing physico-chemical properties, swelling behavior, in vitro biological performance and in vivo biocompatibility. Overall, the composition, microstructure and swelling degree (≈245% of scaffolds combine with the adequate dimensional stability, lack of toxicity, osteogenic activity in MG-63 cells and hBMSCs, along with the in vivo biocompatibility in rats allow considering this system as a promising biomaterial for the treatment of craniofacial tissue regeneration.

  9. Distinct functional and temporal requirements for zebrafish Hdac1 during neural crest-derived craniofacial and peripheral neuron development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatius, Myron S; Unal Eroglu, Arife; Malireddy, Smitha; Gallagher, Glen; Nambiar, Roopa M; Henion, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression is accomplished by both genetic and epigenetic means and is required for the precise control of the development of the neural crest. In hdac1(b382) mutants, craniofacial cartilage development is defective in two distinct ways. First, fewer hoxb3a, dlx2 and dlx3-expressing posterior branchial arch precursors are specified and many of those that are consequently undergo apoptosis. Second, in contrast, normal numbers of progenitors are present in the anterior mandibular and hyoid arches, but chondrocyte precursors fail to terminally differentiate. In the peripheral nervous system, there is a disruption of enteric, DRG and sympathetic neuron differentiation in hdac1(b382) mutants compared to wildtype embryos. Specifically, enteric and DRG-precursors differentiate into neurons in the anterior gut and trunk respectively, while enteric and DRG neurons are rarely present in the posterior gut and tail. Sympathetic neuron precursors are specified in hdac1(b382) mutants and they undergo generic neuronal differentiation but fail to undergo noradrenergic differentiation. Using the HDAC inhibitor TSA, we isolated enzyme activity and temporal requirements for HDAC function that reproduce hdac1(b382) defects in craniofacial and sympathetic neuron development. Our study reveals distinct functional and temporal requirements for zebrafish hdac1 during neural crest-derived craniofacial and peripheral neuron development.

  10. Distinct functional and temporal requirements for zebrafish Hdac1 during neural crest-derived craniofacial and peripheral neuron development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myron S Ignatius

    Full Text Available The regulation of gene expression is accomplished by both genetic and epigenetic means and is required for the precise control of the development of the neural crest. In hdac1(b382 mutants, craniofacial cartilage development is defective in two distinct ways. First, fewer hoxb3a, dlx2 and dlx3-expressing posterior branchial arch precursors are specified and many of those that are consequently undergo apoptosis. Second, in contrast, normal numbers of progenitors are present in the anterior mandibular and hyoid arches, but chondrocyte precursors fail to terminally differentiate. In the peripheral nervous system, there is a disruption of enteric, DRG and sympathetic neuron differentiation in hdac1(b382 mutants compared to wildtype embryos. Specifically, enteric and DRG-precursors differentiate into neurons in the anterior gut and trunk respectively, while enteric and DRG neurons are rarely present in the posterior gut and tail. Sympathetic neuron precursors are specified in hdac1(b382 mutants and they undergo generic neuronal differentiation but fail to undergo noradrenergic differentiation. Using the HDAC inhibitor TSA, we isolated enzyme activity and temporal requirements for HDAC function that reproduce hdac1(b382 defects in craniofacial and sympathetic neuron development. Our study reveals distinct functional and temporal requirements for zebrafish hdac1 during neural crest-derived craniofacial and peripheral neuron development.

  11. Pharmacology of Bradykinin-Evoked Coughing in Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Matthew M.; Adams, Gregory; Mazzone, Stuart B.; Mori, Nanako; Yu, Li; Canning, Brendan J.

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinin has been implicated as a mediator of the acute pathophysiological and inflammatory consequences of respiratory tract infections and in exacerbations of chronic diseases such as asthma. Bradykinin may also be a trigger for the coughing associated with these and other conditions. We have thus set out to evaluate the pharmacology of bradykinin-evoked coughing in guinea pigs. When inhaled, bradykinin induced paroxysmal coughing that was abolished by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonis...

  12. Pharmacology of Bradykinin-Evoked Coughing in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Matthew M; Adams, Gregory; Mazzone, Stuart B; Mori, Nanako; Yu, Li; Canning, Brendan J

    2016-06-01

    Bradykinin has been implicated as a mediator of the acute pathophysiological and inflammatory consequences of respiratory tract infections and in exacerbations of chronic diseases such as asthma. Bradykinin may also be a trigger for the coughing associated with these and other conditions. We have thus set out to evaluate the pharmacology of bradykinin-evoked coughing in guinea pigs. When inhaled, bradykinin induced paroxysmal coughing that was abolished by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140. These cough responses rapidly desensitized, consistent with reports of B2 receptor desensitization. Bradykinin-evoked cough was potentiated by inhibition of both neutral endopeptidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (with thiorphan and captopril, respectively), but was largely unaffected by muscarinic or thromboxane receptor blockade (atropine and ICI 192605), cyclooxygenase, or nitric oxide synthase inhibition (meclofenamic acid and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine). Calcium influx studies in bronchopulmonary vagal afferent neurons dissociated from vagal sensory ganglia indicated that the tachykinin-containing C-fibers arising from the jugular ganglia mediate bradykinin-evoked coughing. Also implicating the jugular C-fibers was the observation that simultaneous blockade of neurokinin2 (NK2; SR48968) and NK3 (SR142801 or SB223412) receptors nearly abolished the bradykinin-evoked cough responses. The data suggest that bradykinin induces coughing in guinea pigs by activating B2 receptors on bronchopulmonary C-fibers. We speculate that therapeutics targeting the actions of bradykinin may prove useful in the treatment of cough. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Temporal suppression and augmentation of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Sarah; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates temporal suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), occurring when a suppressor-click is presented close in time to a test-click (e.g. 0-8ms). Various temporal suppression methods for examining temporal changes in cochlear compression were evaluated and me...... under test. Temporal suppression was shown to be comparable for CEOAEs and SSOAEs, indicating similar underlying cochlear nonlinear mechanisms. This study contributes to a better understanding of the temporal properties of cochlear dynamics....

  14. Sympathetic skin response evoked by laser skin stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, P.; Truini, A.; Serrao, M.; Iannetti, G. D.; Parisi, L.; Pozzessere, G.; Cruccu, G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evoke sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) in healthy subjects using laser stimulation and to compare these responses with those induced by conventional electrical stimuli. Twenty healthy subjects were investigated. SSRs were obtained using electrical and laser stimuli delivered to the wrist controlateral to the recording site. The sympathetic sudomotor conduction velocity (SSFCV) was measured in 8 subjects by simultaneously recording the SSR from the hand and ...

  15. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in chronic alcoholics.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Y W; McLeod, J G; Tuck, R R; Feary, P A

    1985-01-01

    Brain stem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) were performed on 25 alcoholic patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, 56 alcoholic patients without Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, 24 of whom had cerebellar ataxia, and 37 control subjects. Abnormal BAERs were found in 48% of patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, in 25% of alcoholic patients without Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome but with cerebellar ataxia, and in 13% of alcoholic patients without Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome or ataxia. The mean...

  16. Adaptation of rat jaw muscle fibers in postnatal development with a different food consistency: an immunohistochemical and electromyographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuhiko; Sano, Ryota; Korfage, Joannes A M; Nakamura, Saika; Kinouchi, Nao; Kawakami, Emi; Tanne, Kazuo; Langenbach, Geerling E J; Tanaka, Eiji

    2010-06-01

    The development of the craniofacial system occurs, among other reasons, as a response to functional needs. In particular, the deficiency of the proper masticatory stimulus affects the growth. The purpose of this study was to relate alterations of muscle activity during postnatal development to adaptational changes in the muscle fibers. Fourteen 21-day-old Wistar strain male rats were randomly divided into two groups and fed on either a solid (hard-diet group) or a powder (soft-diet group) diet for 63 days. A radio-telemetric device was implanted to record muscle activity continuously from the superficial masseter, anterior belly of digastric and anterior temporalis muscles. The degree of daily muscle use was quantified by the total duration of muscle activity per day (duty time), the total burst number and their average length exceeding specified levels of the peak activity (5, 20 and 50%). The fiber type composition of the muscles was examined by the myosin heavy chain content of fibers by means of immunohistochemical staining and their cross-sectional area was measured. All muscle fibers were identified as slow type I and fast type IIA, IIX or IIB (respectively, with increasing twitch contraction speed and fatigability). At lower activity levels (exceeding 5% of the peak activity), the duty time of the anterior belly of the digastric muscle was significantly higher in the soft-diet group than in the hard-diet group (P fast transition of muscle fiber was shown in only the superficial masseter muscle. Therefore, the reduction in the amount of powerful muscle contractions could be important for the slow-to-fast transition of the myosin heavy chain isoform in muscle fibers.

  17. Changes in craniofacial development due to modifications of the treatment of unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smahel, Z; Müllerova, Z; Nejedly, A; Horak, I

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the craniofacial morphology of children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) resulting from differing management protocols practiced in Prague from 1945 to 1976. The craniofacial morphologies of four groups of patients were compared. Two groups were assessed retrospectively (individuals born from 1945 to 1963), and two groups were followed on a longitudinal basis (individuals born from 1966 to 1976). The study was conducted at the Cleft Lip and Palate Center at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Prague, which has a catchment area population of 6 million. The subjects were a consecutive series of adult males (n = 84) who had complete UCLP without associated malformations. Patients born from 1945 to 1955 did not receive centralized orthodontic therapy. From 1945 to 1965, the alveolar process in the area of the cleft was not surgically repaired. Primary bone grafting was used for the group born from 1965 to 1972, and primary periosteoplasty was used in the subsequent period. Throughout the period covered by the study, the palate was operated on by pushback and pharyngeal flap surgery. From 1945 to 1965, the lip was repaired initially according to Veau, and later according to Tennison and Randall, and during this time, fixed appliances were used for orthodontic treatment. The results for the period from 1945 to 1955 are characterized by mandibular overclosure with anterior crossbite. Centralized orthodontic treatment in the later period improved sagittal jaw relations due to the posterior displacement of the mandible and an edge-to-edge bite was attained, but maxillary retrusion was unchanged. Primary bone grafting increased retrusion of the maxilla, which was compensated by further posterior displacement of the mandible. An edge-to-edge bite was also obtained. Primary periosteoplasty reduced maxillary retrusion, and the marked proclination of the upper dentoalveolar component with fixed appliances resulted in a

  18. Trends in medical malpractice claims in patients with cleft or craniofacial abnormalities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Rounak B; Kilpatrick, Lauren A; Wood, Jeyhan S; Drake, Amelia F

    2016-11-01

    To describe medical malpractice trends in patients with cleft and/or craniofacial abnormalities. A modified Delphi approach was used to gather search terms. Search settings included "all jury verdicts and settlements", with jurisdiction of "all states" and "all federal courts" (by court and circuit). A retrospective review of WestLawNext legal database was conducted. Cases were excluded if they did not have a direct association from the patient's craniofacial anomaly or if they were not related to malpractice. Forty-two cases met inclusion criteria. Cases closed between 1981 and 2014 were included. The mean payment among claims with an indemnity payment was $3.9 million. Of cases brought to trial, 62% were in favor of the plaintiff. Amongst physicians named as co-defendants, pediatricians were most commonly named (24%), followed by plastic surgeons (16%), obstetricians (7.8%), and radiologists (7.8%). "Missed diagnosis" was the most common type of negligent claim (45%), followed by "surgical error" (21%), and "medication error" (17%). "Anoxic brain injury" resulted in the highest median indemnity payment for complication of patient management ($3.5 million), followed by "wrongful birth" ($1.03 million), and "minor physical injury" ($520,000). No specific type of negligent claim (p = 0.764) nor complication of patient management (p = 0.61) was associated with a greater indemnity payment. Mean indemnity payment was $920,000 prior to 2001 and $4.4 million after 2001 (p = 0.058). Mean indemnity payments were fourteen-fold greater in patients as compared to those in the overall population ($3.9 million versus $274,887) and seven-fold greater than those in the average pediatric population ($3.9 million versus $520,923). All healthcare providers should be aware of the associated medical malpractice claims that may be incurred when treating patients at risk for these conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Index finger somatosensory evoked potentials in blind Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giriyappa, Dayananda; Subrahmanyam, Roopakala Mysore; Rangashetty, Srinivasa; Sharma, Rajeev

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, vision has been considered the dominant modality in our multi-sensory perception of the surrounding world. Sensory input via non-visual tracts becomes of greater behavioural relevance in totally blind individuals to enable effective interaction with the world around them. These include audition and tactile perceptions, leading to an augmentation in these perceptions when compared with normal sighted individuals. The objective of the present work was to study the index finger somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in totally blind and normal sighted individuals. SEPs were recorded in 15 Braille reading totally blind females and compared with 15 age-matched normal sighted females. Latency and amplitudes of somatosensory evoked potential waveforms (N9, N13, and N20) were measured. Amplitude of N20 SEP (a cortical somatosensory evoked potential) was significantly larger in the totally blind than in normal sighted individuals (p Braille reading right index finger. Totally blind Braille readers have larger N20 amplitude, suggestive of greater somatosensory cortical representation of the Braille reading index finger.

  20. Neuronal Rac1 Is Required for Learning-Evoked Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew P.; Freewoman, Julia; Cord, Branden; Babu, Harish; Brakebusch, Cord

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning and memory relies on synaptic plasticity as well as network adaptations provided by the addition of adult-born neurons. We have previously shown that activity-induced intracellular signaling through the Rho family small GTPase Rac1 is necessary in forebrain projection neurons for normal synaptic plasticity in vivo, and here we show that selective loss of neuronal Rac1 also impairs the learning-evoked increase in neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus. Earlier work has indicated that experience elevates the abundance of adult-born neurons in the hippocampus primarily by enhancing the survival of neurons produced just before the learning event. Loss of Rac1 in mature projection neurons did reduce learning-evoked neurogenesis but, contrary to our expectations, these effects were not mediated by altering the survival of young neurons in the hippocampus. Instead, loss of neuronal Rac1 activation selectively impaired a learning-evoked increase in the proliferation and accumulation of neural precursors generated during the learning event itself. This indicates that experience-induced alterations in neurogenesis can be mechanistically resolved into two effects: (1) the well documented but Rac1-independent signaling cascade that enhances the survival of young postmitotic neurons; and (2) a previously unrecognized Rac1-dependent signaling cascade that stimulates the proliferative production and retention of new neurons generated during learning itself. PMID:23884931

  1. Perceptual learning of acoustic noise generates memory-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrillon, Thomas; Kouider, Sid; Agus, Trevor; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2015-11-02

    Experience continuously imprints on the brain at all stages of life. The traces it leaves behind can produce perceptual learning [1], which drives adaptive behavior to previously encountered stimuli. Recently, it has been shown that even random noise, a type of sound devoid of acoustic structure, can trigger fast and robust perceptual learning after repeated exposure [2]. Here, by combining psychophysics, electroencephalography (EEG), and modeling, we show that the perceptual learning of noise is associated with evoked potentials, without any salient physical discontinuity or obvious acoustic landmark in the sound. Rather, the potentials appeared whenever a memory trace was observed behaviorally. Such memory-evoked potentials were characterized by early latencies and auditory topographies, consistent with a sensory origin. Furthermore, they were generated even on conditions of diverted attention. The EEG waveforms could be modeled as standard evoked responses to auditory events (N1-P2) [3], triggered by idiosyncratic perceptual features acquired through learning. Thus, we argue that the learning of noise is accompanied by the rapid formation of sharp neural selectivity to arbitrary and complex acoustic patterns, within sensory regions. Such a mechanism bridges the gap between the short-term and longer-term plasticity observed in the learning of noise [2, 4-6]. It could also be key to the processing of natural sounds within auditory cortices [7], suggesting that the neural code for sound source identification will be shaped by experience as well as by acoustics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Binaural interaction in auditory evoked potentials: Brainstem, middle- and long-latency components

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, DL; Starr, A

    1993-01-01

    Binaural interaction occurs in the auditory evoked potentials when the sum of the monaural auditory evoked potentials are not equivalent to the binaural evoked auditory potentials. Binaural interaction of the early- (0-10 ms), middle- (10-50 ms) and long-latency (50-200 ms) auditory evoked potentials was studied in 17 normal young adults. For the early components, binaural interaction was maximal at 7.35 ms accounting for a reduction of 21% of the amplitude of the binaural evoked potentials. ...

  3. Etiologies of pediatric craniofacial injuries: a comparison of injuries involving all-terrain vehicles and golf carts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lauren C; McKinnon, Brian J; Hughes, C Anthony

    2013-03-01

    To determine incidence and etiologies of craniofacial injuries in the pediatric population through comparison of injuries caused by all-terrain vehicles and golf cart trauma. Case series with chart review. Level 1 trauma center. Retrospective review of pediatric traumas at a tertiary academic medical center from 2003 to 2012 identified 196 patients whose injuries resulted from accidents involving either all-terrain vehicles or golf carts. Data was collected and variables such as age, gender, driver vs. passenger, location of accident, Glasgow coma scale, Injury severity scale, Abbreviated injury scale, and presence or absence of helmet use were examined. 196 pediatric patients were identified: 68 patients had injuries resulting from golf cart accidents, and 128 patients from ATV accidents. 66.4% of ATV-related traumas were male, compared to 52.9% of golf cart-related traumas. Ages of injured patients were similar between the two modalities with average age of ATV traumas 10.8 (±4.0) years and golf cart traumas 10.0 (±4.6) years. Caucasians were most commonly involved in both ATV (79.7%) and golf cart traumas (85.3%). 58.6% of all ATV related trauma and 69.1% of all golf cart trauma resulted in craniofacial injuries. The most common craniofacial injury was a closed head injury with brief loss of consciousness, occurring in 46.1% of the ATV traumas and 54.4% of the golf cart traumas. Temporal bone fractures were the second most common type of craniofacial injury, occurring in 5.5% of ATV accidents and 7.4% of the golf cart traumas. Length of hospital stay and, cases requiring surgery and severity scores were similar between both populations. Intensive care admissions and injury severity scores approached but not reach statistical significance (0.096 and 0.083, respectively). The only statistically significant differences between the two modalities were helmet use (P=0.00018%) and days requiring ventilator assistance (P=0.025). ATVs and golf carts are often exempt

  4. Cooperation of electrically stimulated muscle and pneumatic muscle to realize RUPERT bi-directional motion for grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xikai Tu; Jiping He; Yue Wen; Jian Huang; Xinhan Huang; Hailong Huang; Meng Guo; Yong Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Robot-assisted rehabilitation is an active area of research to meet the demand of repetitive therapy in stroke rehabilitation. Robotic upper-extremity repetitive trainer (RUPERT) with its unidirectional pneumatic muscle actuation (PMA) can be used by most stroke patients that have difficulty moving in one direction because of a weak agonist or hyperactive antagonist. In this research, to broaden the usage of RUPERT, we not only add grasping functionality to the rehabilitation robot with the help of surface Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) but also realize the robot joint bi-directional motion by using a PMA in cooperation with surface FES evoked paralyzed muscle force. This integrative rehabilitation strategy is explored for training patients to practice coordinated reaching and grasping functions. The effectiveness of this FES electrically evoked bio-actuator way is verified through a method that separates the mixed electromyogram (MEMG) into the electrically evoked electromyogram (EEMG) and voluntary electromyogram (VEMG). This is a promising approach to alleviate the size and mechanical complexity of the robot, thereby the cost of the joint bi-directional actuator rehabilitation robot by means of their own characteristics of stroke subjects.

  5. Locomotor-like leg movements evoked by rhythmic arm movements in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sylos-Labini

    Full Text Available Motion of the upper limbs is often coupled to that of the lower limbs in human bipedal locomotion. It is unclear, however, whether the functional coupling between upper and lower limbs is bi-directional, i.e. whether arm movements can affect the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry. Here we tested the effects of voluntary rhythmic arm movements on the lower limbs. Participants lay horizontally on their side with each leg suspended in an unloading exoskeleton. They moved their arms on an overhead treadmill as if they walked on their hands. Hand-walking in the antero-posterior direction resulted in significant locomotor-like movements of the legs in 58% of the participants. We further investigated quantitatively the responses in a subset of the responsive subjects. We found that the electromyographic (EMG activity of proximal leg muscles was modulated over each cycle with a timing similar to that of normal locomotion. The frequency of kinematic and EMG oscillations in the legs typically differed from that of arm oscillations. The effect of hand-walking was direction specific since medio-lateral arm movements did not evoke appreciably leg air-stepping. Using externally imposed trunk movements and biomechanical modelling, we ruled out that the leg movements associated with hand-walking were mainly due to the mechanical transmission of trunk oscillations. EMG activity in hamstring muscles associated with hand-walking often continued when the leg movements were transiently blocked by the experimenter or following the termination of arm movements. The present results reinforce the idea that there exists a functional neural coupling between arm and legs.

  6. Heat adaptation of bioabsorbable craniofacial plates: a critical review of science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, William S

    2009-11-01

    Bioabsorbable fixation plates often require adaptation to the bone. This is typically accomplished by heating the plates to above the glass transition temperature and placing the softened plates against the bone or a prebent template until cool. Upon cooling, the plates regain stiffness and can be attached to bone to obtain anatomic fixation. This procedure is both efficient and effective and has been used throughout the craniofacial skeleton. There are many types of equipment available to heat the plates, each with advantages and disadvantages. Although a conceptually simple process, there are several nuances that have been reported in the literature, including transient effects on plate mechanical properties, memory effects, differences between wet and dry heating, and others. Upon the backdrop of the overwhelming clinical success of heat adaptation, this review critically evaluates the method and provides a comprehensive examination and explanation of the basic science and technology involved. This should help give surgeons a better understanding of the process that can help improve their use and further advance the technology.

  7. Craniofacial morphology in Chinese female twins: a semi-longitudinal cephalometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jing; Deng, Hui; Cao, CaiFang; Ishikawa, Masaaki

    2005-12-01

    It would be of benefit to have a better understanding of the relative effects of genetics and environmental factors on craniofacial parameters when undertaking orthodontic therapy and treatment planning. However, there is a lack of such information in pre-adolescents. The aim of this study was to verify the degree of genetic and environmental contribution to the growth of the facial skeleton in twins aged 6 to 12 years. The material comprised the lateral cephalograms of 89 pairs of female twins in Beijing, China, of whom 61 pairs were diagnosed by DNA analysis as monozygotic (MZ) and 28 pairs as dizygotic (DZ). Four main groups (with a starting age of 6, 7, 9 and 11 years) were studied in a semi-longitudinal manner, with a sub-group further investigated for 2-4 consecutive years. The total sample therefore consisted of 183 pairs (MZ 110, DZ 73) aged from 6 to 12 years. The depths of the cranial base, mid and lower face were measured, as well as anterior and posterior face height. A two-tailed t-test showed significant environmental effects on lower face depth (P < 0.01), whilst genetic effects on face height were also significant (P < 0.01). The results suggest that early orthodontic intervention would have a greater influence on the antero-posterior rather than on the vertical plane of growth.

  8. Postnatal craniofacial skeleton development following a pushback operation of patients with cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteporn, S; Enemark, H; Melsen, B

    1991-10-01

    A longitudinal growth study of the craniofacial skeleton in 52 (19 males, 33 females) Danish individuals with cleft palates was performed. Thirty (13 males, 17 females) had clefts of the soft palate only or clefts extending into the posterior third of the hard palate. Twenty-two (6 males, 16 females) had more extensive clefts including up to two-thirds of the hard palate. The cleft was closed with a pushback operation at 22 months of age. Orthodontic treatment was included in the early mixed dentition. Lateral cephalometries were obtained at 5, 8, 12, 16, and 21 years of age. Twenty-four variables were digitized and analyzed. The results indicated that patients with more extensive clefts demonstrated significantly smaller anterior cranial base length (N-S), total cranial base length (N-Ba), maxillary dentoalveolar base length (A-PMP), mandibular length (Cd-Pgn), upper anterior and posterior facial heights (N-ANS and P-PMP), and total facial height (N-Gn). Patients with the more extensive clefts reached maximum growth spurt later than patients with less extensive clefts in all dimensions except the A-PMP and the lower and total facial heights.

  9. An analysis of malar fat volume in two age groups: implications for craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Christina L; Popelka, Gerald R; Barrera, Jose E; Most, Sam P

    2012-12-01

    Objective To evaluate how malar fat pad (MFP) volumes vary with age, after controlling for gender and body mass index (BMI). Study Design A prospective case-control study evaluating volume of the MFP in women of two age groups. Methods Soft tissue dimensions were measured in eight subjects using magnetic resonance imaging. A multiplanar localizing sequence, followed in sagittal and coronal orientations using a turbo spin echo sequence, was performed to define the MFP. Volumetric calculations were then performed using a 3D image analysis application (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions, Republic of Singapore) to circumscribe areas, orient dimensions, and calculate volumes of the MFP. Results These data reveal no significant difference in the mean (standard deviation) right MFP (p = 0.50), left MFP (p = 0.41), or total MFP (p = 0.45) volumes when comparing the two age groups. In addition, these data indicate that there was no correlation between age and total MFP volume (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.27). Moreover, there was no correlation between age and the ratio of total volume/BMI (Pearson correlation coefficient -0.18). Conclusions Although the sample size of this study was small, these data indicate that ptosis of midfacial fat is more important than volume loss in midfacial aging. These data would suggest repositioning as the primary modality for craniofacial reconstruction.

  10. Effects of ethylene oxide sterilization on 82: 18 PLLA/PGA copolymer craniofacial fixation plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, William S

    2010-01-01

    Bioabsorbable devices are generally susceptible to some form of degradation or alteration of material properties in response to exposure to the terminal sterilization cycle. In addition to affecting the material strength, sterilization can also increase the rate of hydrolysis, both of which can impact clinical performance. The impact of sterilization on the material/device is unpredictable and must be empirically determined. This study examined the effects of ethylene oxide treatment on the material properties of LactoSorb 82:18 poly(L-lactic acid)-poly(glycolic acid) craniofacial plates. Compared with untreated control plates, there was no effect on the initial inherent viscosity (1.3 dL/g), the glass transition temperature (58 degrees C), or on the flexural mechanical properties. Furthermore, there was no effect on the in vitro rate of hydrolysis and mechanical strength loss profile. This provides evidence that the ethylene oxide sterilization cycle is compatible with these copolymer plates and that such treatment should not affect the clinical performance.

  11. Examination of craniofacial bones associated with auricular anomaly using three-dimensional computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Iwao, Fumiya

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3D-CT) was performed in 60 patients with auricular anomaly to determine the site and severity of deformity in the hemifacial microsomia. Auricular anomaly, underdevelopment and malposition of the cranium, temporo-mandibular joint, zygoma, maxilla and mandible were observed in almost all of the patients; however, the severity of these malformations varied from patient to patient. Regarding severest deformity, there were positional differences among patients. According to impairment sites, hemifacial microsomia fell into the following five types: (1) cranium type, (2) maxillary alveolar process type, (3) localized mandibular ramus type, (4) overall mandibular type, and (5) complex type (combination of the aforementioned types). Facial asymmetry accompanied by auricular anomaly was associated with various pathologic conditions. The temporomandibular joint was often deviated towards the anteromedial side for localized mandibular ramus type and overall mandibular type. Posterial deviation was predominant for cranium type. In patients with hemifacial microsomia of the cranium type associated with protrusion mainly in the occipital region on the affected side, deformity was considered attributable to underdevelopment of the temporal bone and delay in closure of the temporo-occipital suture. The deformity for cranium type may be defined as the second branchial syndrome. In conclusion, hemifacial microsomia have various deformities and may fall into five categories. Craniofacial microsomia and hemi-auriculo-temporo-mandibular dysplastic syndrome give a more precise concept for auricular anomaly. (N.K.)

  12. Examination of craniofacial bones associated with auricular anomaly using three-dimensional computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Iwao, Fumiya (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-07-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3D-CT) was performed in 60 patients with auricular anomaly to determine the site and severity of deformity in the hemifacial microsomia. Auricular anomaly, underdevelopment and malposition of the cranium, temporo-mandibular joint, zygoma, maxilla and mandible were observed in almost all of the patients; however, the severity of these malformations varied from patient to patient. Regarding severest deformity, there were positional differences among patients. According to impairment sites, hemifacial microsomia fell into the following five types: (1) cranium type, (2) maxillary alveolar process type, (3) localized mandibular ramus type, (4) overall mandibular type, and (5) complex type (combination of the aforementioned types). Facial asymmetry accompanied by auricular anomaly was associated with various pathologic conditions. The temporomandibular joint was often deviated towards the anteromedial side for localized mandibular ramus type and overall mandibular type. Posterial deviation was predominant for cranium type. In patients with hemifacial microsomia of the cranium type associated with protrusion mainly in the occipital region on the affected side, deformity was considered attributable to underdevelopment of the temporal bone and delay in closure of the temporo-occipital suture. The deformity for cranium type may be defined as the second branchial syndrome. In conclusion, hemifacial microsomia have various deformities and may fall into five categories. Craniofacial microsomia and hemi-auriculo-temporo-mandibular dysplastic syndrome give a more precise concept for auricular anomaly. (N.K.).

  13. Associations Between Disinfection By-Product Exposures and Craniofacial Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, John A; Wright, J Michael; Evans, Amanda; Rivera-Núñez, Zorimar; Meyer, Amy; Narotsky, Michael G

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations between craniofacial birth defects (CFDs) and disinfection by-product (DBP) exposures, including the sum of four trihalomethanes (THM4) and five haloacetic acids (HAA5) (ie, DBP9). We calculated first trimester adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for different DBPs in a matched case-control study of 366 CFD cases in Massachusetts towns with complete 1999 to 2004 THM and HAA data. We detected elevated aORs for cleft palate with DBP9 (highest quintile aOR = 3.52; 95% CI: 1.07, 11.60), HAA5, trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), and dichloroacetic acid. We detected elevated aORs for eye defects with TCAA and chloroform. This is the first epidemiological study of DBPs to examine eye and ear defects, as well as HAAs and CFDs. The associations for cleft palate and eye defects highlight the importance of examining specific defects and DBPs beyond THM4.

  14. The impact of suction drainage on orbital compartment syndrome after craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenzl, Carlton R; Golio, Dominick

    2014-07-01

    Postoperative orbital compartment syndrome is a potentially blinding complication of surgery in the orbital region. We describe the technique of orbital drain placement as a method of preventing vision loss resulting from orbital compartment syndrome. We present a retrospective case series of 29 patients who underwent orbital fracture, facial fracture, and orbital implant removal from 7/4/2008 to 5/3/2013 by the same craniofacial surgeon. An orbital drain was placed in each patient. The drainage was recorded daily until drain removal. Criteria for removal included less than or equal to 5 mL of drainage in 24 hours. Of the 29 patients included in this study, 21 were men and 8 were women. Ages ranged from 17 to 67 years. The postoperative drainage ranged from less than 1 mL to 71 mL of serosanguinous fluid. All drains were removed between the first and sixth postoperative days. No postoperative visual loss, infections, or additional antibiotics were recorded with follow-up reaching as far as 40 months. Postoperative orbital compartment syndrome is a dangerous complication of surgery in the orbital region. Its rapid onset necessitates immediate intervention to prevent permanent vision loss. Morphologic changes to the optic nerve as well as reductions in electroretinogram a- and b-wave amplitudes have been demonstrated with as little as 7 mL of fluid accumulation. Intraoperative orbital drain placement should be considered in all patients undergoing surgery in the orbital region as a preventative measure.

  15. External versus Internal Distraction Devices in Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Craniofacial Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmiel, Adi; Nseir, Saleh; Emodi, Omri; Aizenbud, Dror

    2014-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is often associated with congenital craniofacial malformations due to hypoplastic mandible and decreased pharyngeal airway. In this study, we will compare external and internal distraction devices for mandibular lengthening in terms of effectiveness, results, patient comfort, and complications. Thirty-seven patients were treated by bilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis for obstructive sleep apnea: 20 with external and 17 with internal distraction devices. Lengthening of the mandible and increase of the pharyngeal airway were obtained in all patients. Using the external devices, the average mandibular elongation was 30 mm versus 22 mm with the internal devices; however, after 1 year, the results were more stable with internal devices. External devices carried greater risk for pin tract infection than the internal devices (27.5% vs 5.88%). In addition, pin loosening in 22.5% required pin replacement or led to reduced retention period. Internal devices had a precise and predictable vector of lengthening and left less visible scars at the submandibular area but carried the disadvantage of requiring a second operation for device removal. In very young children with severe micrognathia, it was impossible to place internal devices, and external devices were used. Internal devices should be the first choice because they are more comfortable to the patients, more predictable vector of lengthening, are less vulnerable to dislodgement, and leave reduced scarring, with the great disadvantage of second operation for removal. However, external devices still should be considered mainly in severely hypoplastic cases, and the surgeon should be prepared for both options.

  16. Craniofacial features as assessed by lateral cephalometric measurements in children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerasathpurush Allareddy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of the present study is to examine the craniofacial development of patients with Down syndrome (DS and compare them with a neurotypical population. Methods This study is a cross-sectional analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs of participants with DS. The study population consisted of children and young adults with DS aged 3–25 years. Cephalometric data were summarized by age and sex. Raw and normalized z-scores were computed. One-sample t tests were used to test whether mean z-scores differed from zero. The demographic characteristics between those with or without lateral cephalograms among all study participants were compared by Fisher’s exact tests. Results The study sample comprised of 27 participants with DS. Study subjects demonstrated a class III skeletal pattern. This was more pronounced in the older age groups as compared to younger age groups. Subjects also had an increased proportionate lower anterior face height to total facial height compared to normative standards. Gonial angles, mandibular plane angles, and airway measurements increased with age. Conclusions Patients with Down syndrome present typically with class III skeletal pattern and long lower anterior facial heights. In patients with Down syndrome, comprehensive phase of orthodontic treatment may be best initiated following cessation of growth.

  17. Ethanol Sclerotherapy for the Management of Craniofacial Venous Malformations: the Interim Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ho; Kim, Keon Ha; Jeon, Pyoung; Byun, Hong Sik; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Young Wook; Kim, Dong Ik; Choi, Joon Young

    2009-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the safety and feasibility of ethanol sclerotherapy for treating craniofacial venous malformations (CVMs). From May 1998 to April 2007, 87 patients (40 men and 47 women; age range, 2-68 years) with CVMs underwent staged ethanol sclerotherapy (range, 1-21 sessions; median number of sessions, 2) by the direct puncture technique. Clinical follow up (range, 0-120 months; mean follow up, 35 months; median follow up, 28 months) was performed for all the patients. Therapeutic outcomes were established by evaluating the clinical outcome of the signs and symptoms in all patients, as well as the degree of devascularization, which was determined on the follow-up imaging, in 71 patients. A total of 305 procedures with the use of ethanol were performed in 87 patients. Follow-up imaging studies were performed for 71 of 87 patients. Twenty-three (32%) of the 71 patients showed excellent outcomes, 37 patients (52%) showed good outcomes and 11 patients (16%) showed poor outcomes. Ethanol sclerotherapy was considered effective for 60 patients. All the minor complications such as bulla (n = 5) healed with only wound dressing and observation. Any major complication such as skin necrosis did not develop. Percutaneous ethanol sclerotherapy is an effective, safe treatment for CVMs

  18. Craniofacial and brain abnormalities in Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, L; Horev, G; Schwarz, M; Karmazyn, B; Laron, Z

    2002-04-01

    To investigate abnormalities in the craniofacial structures and in the brain in patients with Laron syndrome. Eleven patients with classical Laron syndrome, nine untreated adults aged 36-68 years and two children aged 4 and 9 years (the latter treated by IGF-I), were studied. Magnetic resonance images of the brain were obtained in all the patients. One patient also underwent computed tomography. The maximal diameter of the maxillary and frontal sinuses was measured and compared with reference values, the size of the sphenoid sinus was evaluated in relation to the sella, and the mastoids were evaluated qualitatively (small or normal). The brain was evaluated for congenital anomalies and parenchymal lesions. In the adult untreated patients, the paranasal sinuses and mastoids were small; in six patients, the bone marrow in the base of the skull was not mature. The diploe of the calvaria was thin. On computed tomography in one adult patient, the sutures were still open. A minimal or mild degree of diffuse brain parenchymal loss was seen in ten patients. One patient demonstrated a lacunar infarct and another periventricular high signals on T2-weighted images. Two patients had cerebellar atrophy. The present study has demonstrated the important role IGF-I plays in the development of the brain and bony structures of the cranium.

  19. Facial soft tissue thickness database of Gujarati population for forensic craniofacial reconstruction

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    Anand Lodha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The forensic facial reconstruction is a scientific art to construct the ante-mortem face from the human skull. The facial recognition is made by reconstructing the contours of the facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT.These FSTT data are essential for probable face reconstruction but the data of FSTT at particular anthropological landmarks differ in various ethnic groups. Until now several works have been reported on different population but no study exists in which the FSTT of a Gujarati population has been measured. The aim of this study is to compile a set of soft tissue depth data of Gujarati population of India to add to existing literature on FSTT. Computed tomography (CT-scan has been utilized to measure the 25 different FSTT landmarks of 324 male and 165 female. Present study shows significant differences in certain FSTT of Gujarati population from that of other populations. Our compiled data set of FSTT for the Gujarati population is important in understanding craniofacial characteristics of the Gujarati population and potentially be helpful in forensic identification.

  20. An overview of recent advances in designing orthopedic and craniofacial implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantripragada, Venkata P; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Ebraheim, Nabil A; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C

    2013-11-01

    Great deal of research is still going on in the field of orthopedic and craniofacial implant development to resolve various issues being faced by the industry today. Despite several disadvantages of the metallic implants, they continue to be used, primarily because of their superior mechanical properties. In order to minimize the harmful effects of the metallic implants and its by-products, several modifications are being made to these materials, for instance nickel-free stainless steel, cobalt-chromium and titanium alloys are being introduced to eliminate the toxic effects of nickel being released from the alloys, introduce metallic implants with lower modulus, reduce the cost of these alloys by replacing rare elements with less expensive elements etc. New alloys like tantalum, niobium, zirconium, and magnesium are receiving attention given their satisfying mechanical and biological properties. Non-oxide ceramics like silicon nitride and silicon carbide are being currently developed as a promising implant material possessing a combination of properties such as good wear and corrosion resistance, increased ductility, good fracture and creep resistance, and relatively high hardness in comparison to alumina. Polymer/magnesium composites are being developed to improve mechanical properties as well as retain polymer's property of degradation. Recent advances in orthobiologics are proving interesting as well. This paper thus deals with the latest improvements being made to the existing implant materials and includes new materials being introduced in the field of biomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.