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Sample records for cracking taste codes

  1. Cryptography cracking codes

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  2. The insular taste cortex contributes to odor quality coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G Veldhuizen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite distinct peripheral and central pathways, stimulation of both the olfactory and the gustatory systems may give rise to the sensation of sweetness. Whether there is a common central mechanism producing sweet quality sensations or two discrete mechanisms associated independently with gustatory and olfactory stimuli is currently unknown. Here we used fMRI to determine whether odor sweetness is represented in the piriform olfactory cortex, which is thought to code odor quality, or in the insular taste cortex, which is thought to code taste quality. Fifteen participants sampled two concentrations of a pure sweet taste (sucrose, two sweet food odors (chocolate and strawberry, and two sweet floral odors (lilac and rose. Replicating prior work we found that olfactory stimulation activated the piriform, orbitofrontal and insular cortices. Of these regions, only the insula also responded to sweet taste. More importantly, the magnitude of the response to the food odors, but not to the non-food odors, in this region of insula was positively correlated with odor sweetness rating. These findings demonstrate that insular taste cortex contributes to odor quality coding by representing the taste-like aspects of food odors. Since the effect was specific to the food odors, and only food odors are experienced with taste, we suggest this common central mechanism develops as a function of experiencing flavors.

  3. Cracking the Genetic Code | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Cracking the Genetic Code, From NIH Director Dr. Francis S. Collins Past Issues / ... moment in science in 2000: Cracking of the genetic code raised the prospect of pinpointing the root causes ...

  4. Bitter taste stimuli induce differential neural codes in mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Wilson

    Full Text Available A growing literature suggests taste stimuli commonly classified as "bitter" induce heterogeneous neural and perceptual responses. Here, the central processing of bitter stimuli was studied in mice with genetically controlled bitter taste profiles. Using these mice removed genetic heterogeneity as a factor influencing gustatory neural codes for bitter stimuli. Electrophysiological activity (spikes was recorded from single neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius during oral delivery of taste solutions (26 total, including concentration series of the bitter tastants quinine, denatonium benzoate, cycloheximide, and sucrose octaacetate (SOA, presented to the whole mouth for 5 s. Seventy-nine neurons were sampled; in many cases multiple cells (2 to 5 were recorded from a mouse. Results showed bitter stimuli induced variable gustatory activity. For example, although some neurons responded robustly to quinine and cycloheximide, others displayed concentration-dependent activity (p<0.05 to quinine but not cycloheximide. Differential activity to bitter stimuli was observed across multiple neurons recorded from one animal in several mice. Across all cells, quinine and denatonium induced correlated spatial responses that differed (p<0.05 from those to cycloheximide and SOA. Modeling spatiotemporal neural ensemble activity revealed responses to quinine/denatonium and cycloheximide/SOA diverged during only an early, at least 1 s wide period of the taste response. Our findings highlight how temporal features of sensory processing contribute differences among bitter taste codes and build on data suggesting heterogeneity among "bitter" stimuli, data that challenge a strict monoguesia model for the bitter quality.

  5. Cracking the code of oscillatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe G Schyns

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Neural oscillations are ubiquitous measurements of cognitive processes and dynamic routing and gating of information. The fundamental and so far unresolved problem for neuroscience remains to understand how oscillatory activity in the brain codes information for human cognition. In a biologically relevant cognitive task, we instructed six human observers to categorize facial expressions of emotion while we measured the observers' EEG. We combined state-of-the-art stimulus control with statistical information theory analysis to quantify how the three parameters of oscillations (i.e., power, phase, and frequency code the visual information relevant for behavior in a cognitive task. We make three points: First, we demonstrate that phase codes considerably more information (2.4 times relating to the cognitive task than power. Second, we show that the conjunction of power and phase coding reflects detailed visual features relevant for behavioral response--that is, features of facial expressions predicted by behavior. Third, we demonstrate, in analogy to communication technology, that oscillatory frequencies in the brain multiplex the coding of visual features, increasing coding capacity. Together, our findings about the fundamental coding properties of neural oscillations will redirect the research agenda in neuroscience by establishing the differential role of frequency, phase, and amplitude in coding behaviorally relevant information in the brain.

  6. A New Class of TAST Codes With A Simplified Tree Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Damen, Mohamed Oussama; Badr, Ahmed A

    2010-01-01

    We consider in this paper the design of full diversity and high rate space-time codes with moderate decoding complexity for arbitrary number of transmit and receive antennas and arbitrary input alphabets. We focus our attention to codes from the threaded algebraic space-time (TAST) framework since the latter includes most known full diversity space-time codes. We propose a new construction of the component single-input single-output (SISO) encoders such that the equivalent code matrix has an upper triangular form. We accomplish this task by designing each SISO encoder to create an ISI-channel in each thread. This, in turn, greatly simplifies the QR-decomposition of the composite channel and code matrix, which is essential for optimal or near-optimal tree search algorithms, such as the sequential decoder.

  7. Taste coding of complex naturalistic taste stimuli and traditional taste stimuli in the parabrachial pons of the awake, freely licking rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Joshua D; Weiss, Michael S; Victor, Jonathan D; Di Lorenzo, Patricia M

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have shown that taste-responsive cells in the brainstem taste nuclei of rodents respond to sensory qualities other than gustation. Such data suggest that cells in the classical gustatory brainstem may be better tuned to respond to stimuli that engage multiple sensory modalities than to stimuli that are purely gustatory. Here, we test this idea by recording the electrophysiological responses to complex, naturalistic stimuli in single neurons in the parabrachial pons (PbN, the second neural relay in the central gustatory pathway) in awake, freely licking rats. Following electrode implantation and recovery, we presented both prototypical and naturalistic taste stimuli and recorded the responses in the PbN. Prototypical taste stimuli (NaCl, sucrose, citric acid, and caffeine) and naturalistic stimuli (clam juice, grape juice, lemon juice, and coffee) were matched for taste quality and intensity (concentration). Umami (monosodium glutamate + inosine monophosphate) and fat (diluted heavy cream) were also tested. PbN neurons responded to naturalistic stimuli as much or more than to prototypical taste stimuli. Furthermore, they convey more information about naturalistic stimuli than about prototypical ones. Moreover, multidimensional scaling analyses showed that across unit responses to naturalistic stimuli were more widely separated than responses to prototypical taste stimuli. Interestingly, cream evoked a robust and widespread response in PbN cells. Collectively, these data suggest that natural foods are more potent stimulators of PbN cells than purely gustatory stimuli. Probing PbN cells with pure taste stimuli may underestimate the response repertoire of these cells.

  8. NASCRAC - A computer code for fracture mechanics analysis of crack growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. O.; Eason, E. D.; Thomas, J. M.; Bianca, C. J.; Salter, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    NASCRAC - a computer code for fracture mechanics analysis of crack growth - is described in this paper. The need for such a code is increasing as requirements grow for high reliability and low weight in aerospace components. The code is comprehensive and versatile, as well as user friendly. The major purpose of the code is calculation of fatigue, corrosion fatigue, or stress corrosion crack growth, and a variety of crack growth relations can be selected by the user. Additionally, crack retardation models are included. A very wide variety of stress intensity factor solutions are contained in the code, and extensive use is made of influence functions. This allows complex stress gradients in three-dimensional crack problems to be treated easily and economically. In cases where previous stress intensity factor solutions are not adequate, new influence functions can be calculated by the code. Additional features include incorporation of J-integral solutions from the literature and a capability for estimating elastic-plastic stress redistribution from the results of a corresponding elastic analysis. An example problem is presented which shows typical outputs from the code.

  9. STAC -- a new Swedish code for statistical analysis of cracks in SG-tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poern, K. [Poern Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator (SG) tubes in pressurized water reactor plants are exposed to various types of degradation processes, among which stress corrosion cracking in particular has been observed. To be able to evaluate the safety importance of such cracking of SG-tubes one has to have a good and empirically founded knowledge about the scope and the size of the cracks as well as the rate of their continuous growth. The basis of experience is to a large extent constituted of the annually performed SG-inspections and crack sizing procedures. On the basis of this experience one can estimate the distribution of existing crack lengths, and modify this distribution with regard to maintenance (plugging) and the predicted rate of crack propagation. Finally, one can calculate the rupture probability of SG-tubes as a function of a given critical crack length. On account of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate an introductory study has been performed in order to get a survey of what has been done elsewhere in this field. The study resulted in a proposal of a computerizable model to be able to estimate the distribution of true cracks, to modify this distribution due to the crack growth and to compute the probability of tube rupture. The model has now been implemented in a compute code, called STAC (STatistical Analysis of Cracks). This paper is aimed to give a brief outline of the model to facilitate the understanding of the possibilities and limitations associated with the model.

  10. Mammalian Sweet Taste Receptors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Greg; Hoon, Mark A; Chandrashekar, Jayaram; Zhang, Yifeng; Ryba, Nicholas J.P; Zuker, Charles S

    2001-01-01

    ... and information coding, and have focused on the isolation and characterization of genes encoding sweet and bitter taste receptors. The identification of taste receptors generates powerful molecular tools to investigate not only the function of taste receptor cells, but also the logic of taste coding. For example, defining the size and diversity of the re...

  11. Thermal Cracking Analysis during Pipe Cooling of Mass Concrete Using Particle Flow Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipe cooling systems are among the potentially effective measures to control the temperature of mass concrete. However, if not properly controlled, thermal cracking in concrete, especially near water pipes, might occur, as experienced in many mass concrete structures. In this paper, a new numerical approach to simulate thermal cracking based on particle flow code is used to shed more light onto the process of thermal crack propagation and the effect of thermal cracks on thermal fields. Key details of the simulation, including the procedure of obtaining thermal and mechanical properties of particles, are presented. Importantly, a heat flow boundary based on an analytical solution is proposed and used in particle flow code in two dimensions to simulate the effect of pipe cooling. The simulation results are in good agreement with the monitored temperature data and observations on cored specimens from a real concrete gravity dam, giving confidence to the appropriateness of the adopted simulation. The simulated results also clearly demonstrate why thermal cracks occur and how they propagate, as well as the influence of such cracks on thermal fields.

  12. Cracking the chromatin code: Precise rule of nucleosome positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Edward N.

    2011-03-01

    Various aspects of packaging DNA in eukaryotic cells are outlined in physical rather than biological terms. The informational and physical nature of packaging instructions encoded in DNA sequences is discussed with the emphasis on signal processing difficulties - very low signal-to-noise ratio and high degeneracy of the nucleosome positioning signal. As the author has been contributing to the field from its very onset in 1980, the review is mostly focused at the works of the author and his colleagues. The leading concept of the overview is the role of deformational properties of DNA in the nucleosome positioning. The target of the studies is to derive the DNA bendability matrix describing where along the DNA various dinucleotide elements should be positioned, to facilitate its bending in the nucleosome. Three different approaches are described leading to derivation of the DNA deformability sequence pattern, which is a simplified linear presentation of the bendability matrix. All three approaches converge to the same unique sequence motif CGRAAATTTYCG or, in binary form, YRRRRRYYYYYR, both representing the chromatin code.

  13. MicroFract: An image based code for microstructural crack path prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaghavan, Veera; Srivastava, Siddhartha

    Brittle failure is prevalent in ceramics, fiber composites and metals where the microstructural cracks propagate in the path of least resistance following weak interfaces and grain boundaries. We formulate an image-based methodology for identifying the path of least resistance in the microstructure. In this approach, a user specifies the line direction of the macroscopic crack and a cohesive energy map corresponding to the weak and strong interfaces in the microstructure. The path of least resistance is formulated as a process of minimizing a discretized cost function based on an Ising-type energy model. The main advantage of this algorithm is that it can be exactly solved by the max-flow min-cut theorem. The results are shown via 2D examples from literature and the code and examples are made available to the community.

  14. Cracking the particle code of the universe the hunt for the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    Moffat, John W

    2014-01-01

    Among the current books that celebrate the discovery of the Higgs boson, Cracking the Particle Code of the Universe is a rare objective treatment of the subject. The book is an insider's behind-the-scenes look at the arcane, fascinating world of theoretical and experimental particle physics leading up to the recent discovery of a new boson. If the new boson is indeed the Higgs particle, its discovery represents an important milestone in the history of particle physics. However, despite the pressure to award Nobel Prizes to physicists associated with the Higgs boson, John Moffat argues that the

  15. Technical justification for ASME code section xi crack detection by visual examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E. [Applied Science and Technology, Poway, CA (United States); Rashid, Y.R. [ANATECH Corp., San Diego (United States)

    2001-07-01

    A critical technical element of nuclear power plant license renewal in the United States is the demonstration that the effects of aging do not compromise the intended safety function(s) of a system, structure, or component during the extended term of operation. The demonstration may take either of two forms. First, it can be shown that the design basis for the system, structure, or component is sufficiently robust that the aging effects have been insignificant through the current license term, and will continue to be insignificant through the extended term. Alternatively, it can be shown that, while the aging effects may be potentially significant, those effects can be managed and functionality maintained by defined programmatic activities during the extended term of operation. The first of the two approaches is generally provided by the construction basis, such as construction in accordance with the ASME Code Section III and other consensus codes and standards. The second of the two approaches is often provided by periodic inservice inspection and testing, in accordance with the ASME Code Section XI. The purpose of the ASME Section XI inspections and tests is to assure that systems, components, and structures are fit for continued service until the next scheduled inspection or test. The purpose of this paper is to document the effectiveness of the current ASME Code Section XI visual examination procedures in detecting the effects of aging for systems, structures, and components that are tolerant of mature cracks. (author)

  16. Taste - impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of what is perceived as "taste" is actually smell. People who have taste problems often have a smell disorder that can make it hard to identify ... flavor. (Flavor is a combination of taste and smell.) Taste problems can be caused by anything that ...

  17. Cracking the Code of Press Headlines: From Difficulty to Opportunity for the Foreign Language Learner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael White

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los materiales de prensa constituyen un recurso muy atractivo para la clase de inglés como lengua extranjera y el primer contacto con dichos recursos es característicamente a través del titular. A pesar de que el titular esté diseñado para atraer y captar al lector, muy a menudo resulta de difícil comprensión incluso para el estudiante avanzado en lengua inglesa y esto puede hacer estragos en cuanto a motivación y confianza por parte del alumnado. El artículo actual se propone combatir esta paradoja mediante un análisis estructural de titulares. Mantiene que dichos titulares utilizan pautas sistemáticas que una vez expuestas y analizadas proporcionan al alumnado las claves para su comprensión. El objetivo es doble: por un lado facilita la comprensión y mejora la motivación por parte del alumno y, por otra parte, le ayuda a dominar mejor los entresijos de la sintaxis y la fraseología de la lengua inglesa.While press materials, are widely used both as an ESP materials resource and as a research source by ESP practitioners, press headlines in English confront the Non Native Speaker (NNS and to some extent the Native Speaker (NS with a notorious paradox: headlines are crafted to raise communication potential and yet, rather than communicate, they often perplex the reader. This may be devastating for motivation on the part of the English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL student where even those at advanced level suffer frustration on failing to cope with headlines. The main arguments of this article are that headline perplexity is generated by the very communicatively driven strategies used in their configurations, that these strategies form patterns and that these patterns can be singled out and analysed in such a way as to enable the student to crack the code and thereby turn a liability into an asset, a stumbling block into a stepping stone.

  18. The development of taste transduction and taste chip technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; LIU Qingjun; XU Ying; CAI Hua; QIN Lifeng; WANG Lijiang; WANG Ping

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsic perception process of taste is obviously far less known than those of vision, audition, touch and olfaction. Despite that taste cells utilize a variety of sensory mechanisms to translate plenty of gustatory sensations such as sour, sweet, bitter, salty and umami into cellular signals, gustatory perception mechanisms are still under exploration due to the lack of effective methods on cellular and molecular level. Recently the development of molecular biological and electrophysiological studies has promoted exploration of olfactory and gustatory transduction and coding mechanisms dramatically. Based on the studies of artificial olfaction, artificial taste and cell-based biosensor in our laboratory, this paper reviews the current research on taste transduction mechanism. We introduce the recent advances in cell chip that combined biology with microelectronics, discuss taste cell chip as well as its potential of prospective application in taste transduction mechanism in detail and propose the research trends of taste chip in future.

  19. Taste Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may help scientists develop drugs targeting the gut taste receptors to treat obesity and diabetes. Where can I ... Smell Smell Disorders News Unraveling the enigma of salty taste detection: New findings could help identify successful ...

  20. Cracking the Neural Code for Sensory Perception by Combining Statistics, Intervention, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzeri, Stefano; Harvey, Christopher D; Piasini, Eugenio; Latham, Peter E; Fellin, Tommaso

    2017-02-08

    The two basic processes underlying perceptual decisions-how neural responses encode stimuli, and how they inform behavioral choices-have mainly been studied separately. Thus, although many spatiotemporal features of neural population activity, or "neural codes," have been shown to carry sensory information, it is often unknown whether the brain uses these features for perception. To address this issue, we propose a new framework centered on redefining the neural code as the neural features that carry sensory information used by the animal to drive appropriate behavior; that is, the features that have an intersection between sensory and choice information. We show how this framework leads to a new statistical analysis of neural activity recorded during behavior that can identify such neural codes, and we discuss how to combine intersection-based analysis of neural recordings with intervention on neural activity to determine definitively whether specific neural activity features are involved in a task.

  1. A guide into glycosciences: How chemistry, biochemistry and biology cooperate to crack the sugar code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, Dolores; Bovin, Nicolai V; Davis, Anthony P; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Romero, Antonio; Roy, René; Smetana, Karel; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The most demanding challenge in research on molecular aspects within the flow of biological information is posed by the complex carbohydrates (glycan part of cellular glycoconjugates). How the 'message' encoded in carbohydrate 'letters' is 'read' and 'translated' can only be unraveled by interdisciplinary efforts. This review provides a didactic step-by-step survey of the concept of the sugar code and the way strategic combination of experimental approaches characterizes structure-function relationships, with resources for teaching. The unsurpassed coding capacity of glycans is an ideal platform for generating a broad range of molecular 'messages'. Structural and functional analyses of complex carbohydrates have been made possible by advances in chemical synthesis, rendering production of oligosaccharides, glycoclusters and neoglycoconjugates possible. This availability facilitates to test the glycans as ligands for natural sugar receptors (lectins). Their interaction is a means to turn sugar-encoded information into cellular effects. Glycan/lectin structures and their spatial modes of presentation underlie the exquisite specificity of the endogenous lectins in counterreceptor selection, that is, to home in on certain cellular glycoproteins or glycolipids. Understanding how sugar-encoded 'messages' are 'read' and 'translated' by lectins provides insights into fundamental mechanisms of life, with potential for medical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sixth taste – starch taste?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientists from Oregon State University, USA, came up with the newest theory of the sixth taste – starch taste that might soon join the basic five tastes. This argument is supported by studies done on both animals and humans, the results of which seem to indicate the existence of separate receptors for starch taste, others than for sweet taste. Starch is a glucose homopolymer that forms an α-glucoside chain called glucosan or glucan. This polysaccharide constitutes the most important source of carbohydrates in food. It can be found in groats, potatoes, legumes, grains, manioc and corn. Apart from its presence in food, starch is also used in textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and stationery industries as well as in glue production. This polysaccharide is made of an unbranched helical structure – amylose (15–20%, and a structure that forms branched chains – amylopectin (80–85%. The starch structure, degree of its crystallisation or hydration as well as its availability determine the speed of food-contained starch hydrolysis by amylase. So far, starch has been considered tasteless, but the newest report shows that for people of different origins it is associated with various aliments specific for each culture. Apart from a number of scientific experiments using sweet taste inhibitors, the existence of the sixth taste is also confirmed by molecular studies. However, in order to officially include starch taste to the basic human tastes, it must fulfil certain criteria. The aim of the study is to present contemporary views on starch.

  3. Taste processing in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A. Apostolopoulou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste allows animals to detect chemical substances in their environment to initiate appropriate behaviors: to find food or a mate, to avoid hostile environments and predators. Drosophila larvae are a promising model organism to study gustation. Their simple nervous system triggers stereotypic behavioral responses, and the coding of taste can be studied by genetic tools at the single cell level. This review briefly summarizes recent progress on how taste information is sensed and processed by larval cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs. The focus lies on several studies, which revealed cellular and molecular mechanisms required to process sugar, salt, and bitter substances.

  4. Smell and Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Smell & Taste Smell & Taste Patient Health Information News media ... passages, or, at times, brain tumors. HOW DO SMELL AND TASTE WORK? Smell and taste belong to ...

  5. Cracking the Binary Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazlehurst Benny

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a critique of the ‘binary’ nature of much biblical interpretation and ethical belief in the Church, rejecting simplistic ‘either-or’ approaches to both. Instead there is offered an interpretation of key biblical texts through the lenses of circumstances, needs and motivation. It is argued that, when these factors are taken into account, even for Evangelicals, there is no longer a substantive biblical case against the acceptance of faithful, loving same-sex partnerships and the development of a positive Christian ethic for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. At the very least, the complexity of the interpretive task must lead to greater openness to and acceptance of those from whom we differ.

  6. Cryptography: Cracking Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myerscough, Don; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an activity whose objectives are to encode and decode messages using linear functions and their inverses; to use modular arithmetic, including use of the reciprocal for simple equation solving; to analyze patterns and make and test conjectures; to communicate procedures and algorithms; and to use problem-solving strategies. (ASK)

  7. Molecular neurobiology of Drosophila taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Erica Gene; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2015-10-01

    Drosophila is a powerful model in which to study the molecular and cellular basis of taste coding. Flies sense tastants via populations of taste neurons that are activated by compounds of distinct categories. The past few years have borne witness to studies that define the properties of taste neurons, identifying functionally distinct classes of sweet and bitter taste neurons that express unique subsets of gustatory receptor (Gr) genes, as well as water, salt, and pheromone sensing neurons that express members of the pickpocket (ppk) or ionotropic receptor (Ir) families. There has also been significant progress in terms of understanding how tastant information is processed and conveyed to higher brain centers, and modulated by prior dietary experience or starvation.

  8. Drosophila bitter taste(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice eFrench

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most animals possess taste receptors neurons detecting potentially noxious compounds. In humans, the ligands which activate these neurons define a sensory space called bitter. By extension, this term has been used in animals and insects to define molecules which induce aversive responses. In this review, based on our observations carried out in Drosophila, we examine how bitter compounds are detected and if the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons respond only to molecules bitter to humans. Like most animals, flies detect bitter chemicals through a specific population of taste neurons, distinct from those responding to sugars or to other modalities. Activating bitter-sensitive taste neurons induce aversive reactions and inhibits feeding. Bitter molecules also contribute to the suppression of sugar-neuron responses and can lead to a complete inhibition of the responses to sugar at the periphery. Since some bitter molecules activate bitter-sensitive neurons and some inhibit sugar detection, bitter molecules are represented by two sensory spaces which are only partially congruent. In addition to molecules which impact feeding, we recently discovered that the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons also induces grooming. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the wings and of the legs can sense chemicals from the gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, thus adding another biological function to these receptors. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the proboscis also respond to inhibitory pheromones such as 7-tricosene. Activating these neurons by bitter molecules in the context of sexual encounter inhibits courting and sexual reproduction, while activating these neurons with 7-tricosene in a feeding context will inhibit feeding. The picture that emerges from these observations is that the taste system is composed of detectors which monitor different categories of ligands, which facilitate or inhibit behaviors depending on the context (feeding, sexual reproduction

  9. Changing Tastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line; Christensen, Bodil Just; Holm, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Gastric bypass surgery is a specific medical technology that alters the body in ways that force the patient to fundamentally change his or her eating habits. When patients enrol for surgery, they enter a learning process, encountering new and at times contested ways of sensing their bodies, tasting......’ and hence a rupture in the person’s sense of self and social relations. We suggest that eating should be conceptualised as a practice that extends beyond the boundaries of our bodies and into diverse realms of relations and practices, and that changing the way we eat also changes the fundamentally embodied...

  10. Taste and Smell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our senses of taste and smell give us great pleasure. Taste helps us enjoy food and beverages. Smell lets us enjoy the scents and fragrances like roses or coffee. Taste and smell also protect us, letting us know when food ...

  11. What Are Taste Buds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your taste buds for letting you appreciate the saltiness of pretzels and the sweetness of ice cream. ... allow you to experience tastes that are sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. How exactly do your taste ...

  12. Habitual Tastes and Embedded Taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    of the national cuisine indicates continuity over time. There seems, hence, to be a gap between the multiplicity of instances of experience and recollection that belongs to the sphere of the individual and a historical memory embedded in the larger context of a society. From a common-sense perspective, this gap...... may be bridged by story-telling or other ways of handing over historically embedded practices, but this leaves a more fundamental question unanswered. Namely, that given that all remembrance has individual recollection as the point of departure, then how does individual recollection of tastes...

  13. Changing Tastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line; Christensen, Bodil Just; Holm, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    Gastric bypass surgery is a specific medical technology that alters the body in ways that force the patient to fundamentally change his or her eating habits. When patients enrol for surgery, they enter a learning process, encountering new and at times contested ways of sensing their bodies, tasting......, and experiencing hunger and fullness. In this paper, we explore how patients begin to eat again after gastric bypass surgery. The empirical data used here are drawn from a Danish fieldwork study of persons undergoing obesity surgery. The material presented shows how the patients used instructions on how to eat. We...... explore the ways in which diverse new experiences and practices of hunger and fullness are part of the process of undergoing surgery for severe obesity. New sensory experiences lead to uncertainty; as a result, patients practice what we term mimetic eating, which reflects a ‘sensory displacement...

  14. BOOK REVIEW Cracking the Einstein Code: Relativity and the Birth of Black Hole Physics With an Afterword by Roy Kerr Cracking the Einstein Code: Relativity and the Birth of Black Hole Physics With an Afterword by Roy Kerr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    General relativity is arguably the most beautiful scientific theory ever conceived but its status within mainstream physics has vacillated since it was proposed in 1915. It began auspiciously with the successful explanation of the precession of Mercury and the dramatic confirmation of light-bending in the 1919 solar eclipse expedition, which turned Einstein into an overnight celebrity. Though little noticed at the time, there was also Karl Schwarzschild's discovery of the spherically symmetric solution in 1916 (later used to predict the existence of black holes) and Alexander Friedmann's discovery of the cosmological solution in 1922 (later confirmed by the discovery of the cosmic expansion). Then for 40 years the theory was more or less forgotten, partly because most physicists were turning their attention to the even more radical developments of quantum theory but also because the equations were too complicated to solve except in situations involving special symmetries or very weak gravitational fields (where general relativity is very similar to Newtonian theory). Furthermore, it was not clear that strong gravitational fields would ever arise in the real universe and, even if they did, it seemed unlikely that Einstein's equations could then be solved. So research in relativity became a quiet backwater as mainstream physics swept forward in other directions. Even Einstein lost interest, turning his attention to the search for a unified field theory. This book tells the remarkable story of how the tide changed in 1963, when the 28-year-old New Zealand mathematician Roy Kerr discovered an exact solution of Einstein's equations which represents a rotating black hole, thereby cracking the code of the title. The paper was just a few pages long, it being left for others to fill in the extensive beautiful mathematics which underlay the result, but it ushered in a golden age of relativity and is now one of the most cited works in physics. Coincidentally, Kerr

  15. Behavioral genetics and taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmanov Alexander A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on behavioral genetic studies of sweet, umami, bitter and salt taste responses in mammals. Studies involving mouse inbred strain comparisons and genetic analyses, and their impact on elucidation of taste receptors and transduction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the effect of genetic variation in taste responsiveness on complex traits such as drug intake is considered. Recent advances in development of genomic resources make behavioral genetics a powerful approach for understanding mechanisms of taste.

  16. Acetylcholine is released from taste cells, enhancing taste signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-07-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), a candidate neurotransmitter that has been implicated in taste buds, elicits calcium mobilization in Receptor (Type II) taste cells. Using RT-PCR analysis and pharmacological interventions, we demonstrate that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 mediates these actions. Applying ACh enhanced both taste-evoked Ca2+ responses and taste-evoked afferent neurotransmitter (ATP) secretion from taste Receptor cells. Blocking muscarinic receptors depressed taste-evoked responses in Receptor cells, suggesting that ACh is normally released from taste cells during taste stimulation. ACh biosensors confirmed that, indeed, taste Receptor cells secrete acetylcholine during gustatory stimulation. Genetic deletion of muscarinic receptors resulted in significantly diminished ATP secretion from taste buds. The data demonstrate a new role for acetylcholine as a taste bud transmitter. Our results imply specifically that ACh is an autocrine transmitter secreted by taste Receptor cells during gustatory stimulation, enhancing taste-evoked responses and afferent transmitter secretion.

  17. Cracking the nodule worm code advances knowledge of parasite biology and biotechnology to tackle major diseases of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Rahul; Joachim, Anja; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Rosa, Bruce A; Martin, John C; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Ozersky, Philip; Wilson, Richard K; Ranganathan, Shoba; Sternberg, Paul W; Gasser, Robin B; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-11-01

    Many infectious diseases caused by eukaryotic pathogens have a devastating, long-term impact on animal health and welfare. Hundreds of millions of animals are affected by parasitic nematodes of the order Strongylida. Unlocking the molecular biology of representatives of this order, and understanding nematode-host interactions, drug resistance and disease using advanced technologies could lead to entirely new ways of controlling the diseases that they cause. Oesophagostomum dentatum (nodule worm; superfamily Strongyloidea) is an economically important strongylid nematode parasite of swine worldwide. The present article reports recent advances made in biology and animal biotechnology through the draft genome and developmental transcriptome of O. dentatum, in order to support biological research of this and related parasitic nematodes as well as the search for new and improved interventions. This first genome of any member of the Strongyloidea is 443 Mb in size and predicted to encode 25,291 protein-coding genes. Here, we review the dynamics of transcription throughout the life cycle of O. dentatum, describe double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and infer molecules involved in development and reproduction, and in inducing or modulating immune responses or disease. The secretome predicted for O. dentatum is particularly rich in peptidases linked to interactions with host tissues and/or feeding activity, and a diverse array of molecules likely involved in immune responses. This research progress provides an important resource for future comparative genomic and molecular biological investigations as well as for biotechnological research toward new anthelmintics, vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  18. Tasting with Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Whenever we eat and drink something, we experience the sense of taste. We attribute the sense of taste to gustation without doubt, but it is not true. The olfaction is the most important component of the flavor. On the other hand, the gustation (basic tastes is affected strongly by the olfaction; when participants tasted solutions containing odors without any tastants, they reported there were some tastes. Odors of the foods and beverages show interaction with (potentiate and/or inhibit basic tastes, and determined the flavor of them. Here, some experiments exploring about the role of the vision in the sense of taste are shown: The color of sushi distorted (enhanced or eliminated the perception of fishy, the color of the packages of chocolate distorted the perception of taste, the color of syrup determined the participants' ability of identification of the flavor, and so on. These results show the vision is an important component of the sense of taste. These visual effects on taste are supposed to be mediated by the olfaction. It is because there are many studies showing the vision affects the olfaction, but studies showing the vision affects gustation are very little and inconsistent with each other.

  19. Tasting in mundane practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna

    2015-01-01

    in a restaurant; medical professionals and patients in a hospital; and people gathered for a wine tasting event, daily dinner or a meal in a convent. The ethnographic materials are used to engage with what so far social science literatures on tasting tend to take for granted: that tasting is a physiological......This thesis presents an ethnographic investigation into practices of tasting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in various Western Europe settings in which people sensually engaged with food and drinks, the chapters show how tasting is done by research subjects in sensory science laboratories; guests...... particular practices, the chapters unpack each of these assumptions. What emerges is an alternative, composite understanding of tasting as variously done in varied mundane practices....

  20. A question of taste

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchison, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    A career in science is shaped by many factors, one of the most important being our tastes in research. These typically form early and are shaped by subsequent successes and failures. My tastes run to microscopes, chemistry, and spatial organization of cytoplasm. I will try to identify where they came from, how they shaped my career, and how they continue to evolve. My hope is to inspire young scientists to identify and celebrate their own unique tastes.

  1. The taste of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesz, Bruno; Trevisan, Marcos A; Sigman, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Zarlino, one of the most important music theorists of the XVI century, described the minor consonances as 'sweet' (dolci) and 'soft' (soavi) (Zarlino 1558/1983, in On the Modes New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1983). Hector Berlioz, in his Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration (London: Novello, 1855), speaks about the 'small acid-sweet voice' of the oboe. In line with this tradition of describing musical concepts in terms of taste words, recent empirical studies have found reliable associations between taste perception and low-level sound and musical parameters, like pitch and phonetic features. Here we investigated whether taste words elicited consistent musical representations by asking trained musicians to improvise on the basis of the four canonical taste words: sweet, sour, bitter, and salty. Our results showed that, even in free improvisation, taste words elicited very reliable and consistent musical patterns:'bitter' improvisations are low-pitched and legato (without interruption between notes), 'salty' improvisations are staccato (notes sharply detached from each other), 'sour' improvisations are high-pitched and dissonant, and 'sweet' improvisations are consonant, slow, and soft. Interestingly, projections of the improvisations of taste words to musical space (a vector space defined by relevant musical parameters) revealed that, in musical space, improvisations based on different taste words were nearly orthogonal or opposite. Decoding methods could classify binary choices of improvisations (i.e., identify the improvisation word from the melody) at performance of around 80%--well above chance. In a second experiment we investigated the mapping from perception of music to taste words. Fifty-seven non-musical experts listened to a fraction of the improvisations. We found that listeners classified with high performance the taste word which had elicited the improvisation. Our results, furthermore, show that associations of taste and music

  2. Clindamycin and taste disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Mark C H; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Topical use of clindamycin has been associated with taste disorders in the literature, but little is known about the nature of this adverse drug reaction. The aim of this article was to describe reports of clindamycin-induced taste disorders and to analyse the factors involved. METHODS: The ad

  3. Probabilistic Analysis of Crack Width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marková

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic analysis of crack width of a reinforced concrete element is based on the formulas accepted in Eurocode 2 and European Model Code 90. Obtained values of reliability index b seem to be satisfactory for the reinforced concrete slab that fulfils requirements for the crack width specified in Eurocode 2. However, the reliability of the slab seems to be insufficient when the European Model Code 90 is considered; reliability index is less than recommended value 1.5 for serviceability limit states indicated in Eurocode 1. Analysis of sensitivity factors of basic variables enables to find out variables significantly affecting the total crack width.

  4. Taste as feeling

    OpenAIRE

    Highmore, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This article is premised on two presumptions. The first is, I think, uncontroversial, the second less so. The first presumption is that today, serious discussions about taste usually start out by rehearsing Pierre Bourdieu’s contribution to our understanding of how taste preferences operate in society. This, then, is merely to recognize that when Bourdieu first published books such as The Love of Art (1969, written with Alain Darbel) and Distinctions: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Tas...

  5. Smell and taste disorders [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landis, Basile N.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Smell and taste disorders can markedly affect the quality of life. In recent years we have become much better in the assessment of the ability to smell and taste. In addition, information is now available to say something about the prognosis of individual patients. With regard to therapy there also seems to be low but steady progress. Of special importance for the treatment is the ability of the olfactory epithelium to regenerate.

  6. Gustatory insular cortex, aversive taste memory and taste neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Prior research indicates a role for the gustatory insular cortex (GC) in taste neophobia. Rats with lesions of the GC show much weaker avoidance to a novel and potentially dangerous taste than do neurologically intact animals. The current study used the retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as a tool to determine whether the GC modulates neophobia by processing taste novelty or taste danger. The results show that GC lesions attenuate CTA retention (Experiment 1) and impair taste neophobia (Experiment 2). Given that normal CTA retention does not involve the processing of taste novelty, the pattern of results suggests that the GC is involved in taste neophobia via its function in processing the danger conveyed by a taste stimulus.

  7. Multiaxial mixed-mode cracking - small crack initiation and propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, M. de; Reis, L.; Li Bin [Lisbon Univ. (Portugal). ICEMS - Inst. of Material and Surface Science and Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Both the fatigue crack path and fatigue life of CK45 steel and 42CrMo4 steel under various multiaxial loading paths are studied in this paper. The replica method was applied to monitor the crack initiation and small crack growth, the fractographic analyses were carried out on the fracture surface and the crack initiation angle was measured. The effects of non-proportional loading on both the crack path and fatigue life were studied, and the flattening of asperities on the crack surface due to compressive normal stress was also observed. An improved model is proposed based on correcting the strain range parameter of the ASME code approach, taking into account the additional hardening caused by the non-proportional loading path, which can improve the predictions of the fatigue lives for various non-proportional loading paths and provide an easy way to overcome the drawbacks of the current ASME code approach for non-proportional fatigue. Based on these corrected strain range parameters, a strain intensity factor range is used to correlate with the experimental results of small crack growth rates. It is concluded that the orientation of the early crack growth can be predicted well by the critical damage plane, but the fatigue life can not be predicted accurately using only the parameters on the critical plane, since the damage on all the planes contributes to fatigue damage as stated by the integral approaches. (orig.)

  8. Extraversion and taste sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, Yuriy; Mipando, Mwapatsa

    2008-03-01

    The rationale for investigating the gustatory reactivity as influenced by personality dimensions was suggested by some prior findings of an association between extraversion and acuity in other sensory systems. Detection thresholds for sweet, salty, and bitter qualities of taste were measured in 60 young healthy male and female volunteers using a two-alternative forced-choice technique. Personality of the responders was assessed using the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Multivariate analysis of variance failed to demonstrate a statistically significant interaction between an extraversion-introversion score, neuroticism score, smoking, gender and age. The only reliable negative association was found between the body mass index (BMI) and taste sensitivity (Roy's largest root = 0.05, F(7436.5) = 8.34, P = 0.003). Possible reasons for lack of differences between introverts and extraverts in the values of taste detection thresholds were discussed.

  9. Knuckle Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask The Expert Ask a Question Physician Corner Rheumatology Conference Rheumatology Rounds Case Rounds Radiology Rounds Pathophysiology of the ... Appointment Information Contact Us Our Faculty Our Staff Rheumatology Specialty Centers Knuckle Cracking Q & A September 10, ...

  10. (Re)tasting places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    What does geographical origin mean? It is an expression that associates food and wine with a specific place, an association embedded in the concept ‘terroir’ that refers to the complex interaction between a physical environment and local craftsmanship. It is a claim protected through labelling...... particularly attractive Central to the interest of this paper is to approach an understanding of geographical origin as a point of reference for taste. In terms of being sensory experience, taste is subjective. It is difficult to describe verbally and yet at the same time it is a trigger of the memory of past...

  11. Voltage-gated sodium channels in taste bud cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Mark E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste bud cells transmit information regarding the contents of food from taste receptors embedded in apical microvilli to gustatory nerve fibers innervating basolateral membranes. In particular, taste cells depolarize, activate voltage-gated sodium channels, and fire action potentials in response to tastants. Initial cell depolarization is attributable to sodium influx through TRPM5 in sweet, bitter, and umami cells and an undetermined cation influx through an ion channel in sour cells expressing PKD2L1, a candidate sour taste receptor. The molecular identity of the voltage-gated sodium channels that sense depolarizing signals and subsequently initiate action potentials coding taste information to gustatory nerve fibers is unknown. Results We describe the molecular and histological expression profiles of cation channels involved in electrical signal transmission from apical to basolateral membrane domains. TRPM5 was positioned immediately beneath tight junctions to receive calcium signals originating from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation, while PKD2L1 was positioned at the taste pore. Using mouse taste bud and lingual epithelial cells collected by laser capture microdissection, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channel transcripts were expressed in taste tissue. SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A were expressed beneath tight junctions in subsets of taste cells. SCN3A and SCN9A were expressed in TRPM5 cells, while SCN2A was expressed in TRPM5 and PKD2L1 cells. HCN4, a gene previously implicated in sour taste, was expressed in PKD2L1 cells and localized to cell processes beneath the taste pore. Conclusion SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channels are positioned to sense initial depolarizing signals stemming from taste receptor activation and initiate taste cell action potentials. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A gene products likely account for the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents in taste receptor cells.

  12. Mixing methods, tasting fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna; Mol, Annemarie; Satalkar, Priya

    2011-01-01

    hard to name. Pleasure and embarrassment, food-­like vitality, erotic titillation, the satisfaction or discomfort that follow a meal-we suggest that these may all be included in "tasting." Thus teasing the language alters what speakers and eaters may sense and say. It complements the repertoires...

  13. The taste looks good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwers, A.

    2005-01-01

    For over two decades, fruit and other agricultural products have been sorted using the 'electronic eye'. The eye selects purely by such external properties as colour, and cannot judge taste. Dr Gerrit Polder, an electrical engineer at Wageningen University, carried out his doctorate research at Delf

  14. The taste looks good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwers, A.

    2005-01-01

    For over two decades, fruit and other agricultural products have been sorted using the 'electronic eye'. The eye selects purely by such external properties as colour, and cannot judge taste. Dr Gerrit Polder, an electrical engineer at Wageningen University, carried out his doctorate research at

  15. Learning through the taste system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Taste is the final arbiter of which chemicals from the environment will be admitted to the body. The action of swallowing a substance leads to a physiological consequence of which the taste system should be informed. Accordingly, taste neurons in the central nervous system are closely allied with those that receive input from the viscera so as to monitor the impact of a recently ingested substance. There is behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, gene expression, and neurochemical evidence that the consequences of ingestion influence subsequent food selection through development of either a conditioned taste aversion (if illness ensues or a conditioned taste preference (if satiety. This ongoing communication between taste and the viscera permits the animal to tailor its taste system to its individual needs over a lifetime.

  16. Taste didactic reflection theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    and gastrophysicists), and social sciences (anthropologists) as well as educators (preschool, elementary, secondary and vocational schools, colleges and universities) and chefs. Through interdisciplinary research collaboration and communication we attempt to span the perceived chasm separating food-sensory science...... and the humanities and social sciences. We do so by engaging scholars from different disciplines in a close, collaborative effort hereby generating new knowledge on taste. The center thus includes researchers from several universities and colleges, chefs from innovation kitchens, and teachers from elementary schools......, high schools and vocational educations. By integrating research, taste, learning, didactics and communication, our projects focus on three main areas: sensory sciences and didactics; gastrophysics and the integration of scientific disciplines; and innovation and honing of culinary skills. While we...

  17. Tasting the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    in the West there seems now to be a growing openness towards other ­­- pop, sub, non-western etc. - cultures. But what does this mean? Have we finally learned to overcome cultural differences, understand foreign art forms and maybe even approach what is common to all? Has the increasing globalization......Recent research in sociology of art indicates an increasing heterogeneity and openness in cultural taste and consumption. This tendency also appears to be sanctified by developments in the arts and aesthetic theory of the last decades. Compared to former more exclusive and elitist cultures of taste...... and aestheticization made us appreciate cultural diversity? The aim of this article is to examine the character and possible social implications of the apparent new openness. To do this it presents the main results of the resent research in sociology of art. Combining an aesthetic and a sociological perspective...

  18. Tasting edge effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bocquet, L

    2006-01-01

    We show that the baking of potato wedges constitutes a crunchy example of edge effects, which are usually demonstrated in electrostatics. A simple model of the diffusive transport of water vapor around the potato wedges shows that the water vapor flux diverges at the sharp edges in analogy with its electrostatic counterpart. This increased evaporation at the edges leads to the crispy taste of these parts of the potatoes.

  19. Tasting edge effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquet, Lydéric

    2007-02-01

    We show that the baking of potato wedges constitutes a crunchy example of edge effects, which are usually demonstrated in electrostatics. A simple model of the diffusive transport of water vapor around the potato wedges shows that the water vapor flux diverges at the sharp edges in analogy with its electrostatic counterpart. This increased evaporation at the edges leads to the crispy taste of these parts of the potatoes.

  20. Frequently consumed vegetables have almost no taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. dr Olaf van Kooten; Vera van Stokkom; M Mars; M Stieger; P.S Teo; C de Graaf

    2015-01-01

    Taste is a main driver in preferences and food choices. Humans are predispositioned to prefer sweet and salty tastes and reject bitter and sour tastes, therefore bitter taste is often thought to cause the rejection of vegetables by children. In our study we investigated the taste and fattiness

  1. TRPs in taste and chemesthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    TRP channels are expressed in taste buds, nerve fibers, and keratinocytes in the oronasal cavity. These channels play integral roles in transducing chemical stimuli, giving rise to sensations of taste, irritation, warmth, coolness, and pungency. Specifically, TRPM5 acts downstream of taste receptors in the taste transduction pathway. TRPM5 channels convert taste-evoked intracellular Ca(2+) release into membrane depolarization to trigger taste transmitter secretion. PKD2L1 is expressed in acid-sensitive (sour) taste bud cells but is unlikely to be the transducer for sour taste. TRPV1 is a receptor for pungent chemical stimuli such as capsaicin and for several irritants (chemesthesis). It is controversial whether TRPV1 is present in the taste buds and plays a direct role in taste. Instead, TRPV1 is expressed in non-gustatory sensory afferent fibers and in keratinocytes of the oronasal cavity. In many sensory fibers and epithelial cells lining the oronasal cavity, TRPA1 is also co-expressed with TRPV1. As with TRPV1, TRPA1 transduces a wide variety of irritants and, in combination with TRPV1, assures that there is a broad response to noxious chemical stimuli. Other TRP channels, including TRPM8, TRPV3, and TRPV4, play less prominent roles in chemesthesis and no known role in taste, per se. The pungency of foods and beverages is likely highly influenced by the temperature at which they are consumed, their acidity, and, for beverages, their carbonation. All these factors modulate the activity of TRP channels in taste buds and in the oronasal mucosa.

  2. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  3. VALIDATION OF CRACK INTERACTION LIMIT MODEL FOR PARALLEL EDGE CRACKS USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Daud

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shielding interaction effects of two parallel edge cracks in finite thickness plates subjected to remote tension load is analyzed using a developed finite element analysis program. In the present study, the crack interaction limit is evaluated based on the fitness of service (FFS code, and focus is given to the weak crack interaction region as the crack interval exceeds the length of cracks (b > a. Crack interaction factors are evaluated based on stress intensity factors (SIFs for Mode I SIFs using a displacement extrapolation technique. Parametric studies involved a wide range of crack-to-width (0.05 ≤ a/W ≤ 0.5 and crack interval ratios (b/a > 1. For validation, crack interaction factors are compared with single edge crack SIFs as a state of zero interaction. Within the considered range of parameters, the proposed numerical evaluation used to predict the crack interaction factor reduces the error of existing analytical solution from 1.92% to 0.97% at higher a/W. In reference to FFS codes, the small discrepancy in the prediction of the crack interaction factor validates the reliability of the numerical model to predict crack interaction limits under shielding interaction effects. In conclusion, the numerical model gave a successful prediction in estimating the crack interaction limit, which can be used as a reference for the shielding orientation of other cracks.

  4. Positional cloning of the human quantitative trait locus underlying taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Un-kyung; Jorgenson, Eric; Coon, Hilary; Leppert, Mark; Risch, Neil; Drayna, Dennis

    2003-02-21

    The ability to taste the substance phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) has been widely used for genetic and anthropological studies, but genetic studies have produced conflicting results and demonstrated complex inheritance for this trait. We have identified a small region on chromosome 7q that shows strong linkage disequilibrium between single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and PTC taste sensitivity in unrelated subjects. This region contains a single gene that encodes a member of the TAS2R bitter taste receptor family. We identified three coding SNPs giving rise to five haplotypes in this gene worldwide. These haplotypes completely explain the bimodal distribution of PTC taste sensitivity, thus accounting for the inheritance of the classically defined taste insensitivity and for 55 to 85% of the variance in PTC sensitivity. Distinct phenotypes were associated with specific haplotypes, which demonstrates that this gene has a direct influence on PTC taste sensitivity and that sequence variants at different sites interact with each other within the encoded gene product.

  5. Facial and affective reactions to tastes and their modulation by sadness and joy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimel, Ellen; Macht, Michael; Krumhuber, Eva; Ellgring, Heiner

    2006-09-30

    This study examined adults' affective and facial reactions to tastes which differ in quality and valence, and the impact of sadness and joy on these reactions. Thirty-six male and female subjects participated voluntarily. Subjects each tasted 6 ml of a sweet chocolate drink, a bitter quinine solution (0.0015 M) and a bitter-sweet soft drink. Following a baseline period, either joy or sadness was induced using film clips before the same taste stimuli were presented for a second time. Subjects rated the drinks' pleasantness and intensity of taste immediately after each stimulus presentation. Facial reactions were videotaped and analysed using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS [P. Ekman, W.V. Friesen, Facial Action Coding System: Manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press; 1978., P. Ekman, W. Friesen, J. Hager, Facial Action Coding System. Salt Lake City, Utah: Research Nexus; 2002.]). The results strongly indicated that the tastes produced specific facial reactions that bear strong similarities to the facial reactivity patterns found in human newborns. The data also suggest that some adults' facial reactions serve additional communicative functions. Emotions modulated taste ratings, but not facial reactions to tastes. In particular, ratings of the sweet stimulus were modulated in congruence with emotion quality, such that joy increased and sadness decreased the pleasantness and sweetness of the sweet stimulus. No emotion-congruent modulation was found for the pleasantness and intensity ratings of the bitter or the bitter-sweet stimulus. This 'robustness' of bitter taste ratings may reflect a biologically meaningful mechanism.

  6. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...

  7. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  8. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  9. Taste and hypertension in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja

    2016-01-01

    approaches to mitigate cardiovascular disease (CVD) could well take a different spin in the future following the discovery of taste receptors (TAS1R and TAS2R) in the cardiovascular system. Finally, long-term dietary strategies to minimize the risk of development of hypertension and CVD are discussed......The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste...... and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset...

  10. Taste and hypertension in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja;

    2016-01-01

    The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste...... and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset...... of hypertension. This goes hand in hand with the medical concept of sodium sensitivity, which also increases with age, particularly in hypertensive patients. The association of hypertension with the loss of taste acuity less definitive with some data/conclusions masked by the use of anti-hypertensive drugs...

  11. What is taste and how do we teach taste?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    . Here, the intention is to use ‘taste’ as a means to teach home economics and food education. This section answers the question of how to teach in a way that enables the students to develop knowledge and skills in relation to the four dimensions of taste. In this section four knowledge types...... and argument forms are presented, each related to one of the four taste dimensions, because they provide a basis for structuring an appropriate curriculum of taste. The final aim is to enable students to make well-reasoned food decisions with ‘taste’ as the compass of judgment....

  12. A Taste of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, L

    2013-01-01

    This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be too rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a "taste" of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school website: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/.

  13. Taste as didactic element in food education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    argues that most of the research literature on taste education has a very reductive understanding of taste and is essentially totally distrustful concerning children’s taste. Taste is seen as a barrier for ‘correct’ eating habits and not as an important sense, a source to pleasure or happiness...

  14. Application of the cracked pipe element to creep crack growth prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brochard, J.; Charras, T.

    1997-04-01

    The modification of a computer code for leak before break analysis is very briefly described. The CASTEM2000 code was developed for ductile fracture assessment of piping systems with postulated circumferential through-wall cracks under static or dynamic loading. The modification extends the capabilities of the cracked pipe element to the determination of fracture parameters under creep conditions (C*, {phi}c and {Delta}c). The model has the advantage of evaluating significant secondary effects, such as those from thermal loading.

  15. Type 1 Taste Receptors in Taste and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochem, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Our sense of taste allows us to evaluate the nutritive value of foods prior to ingesting them. Sweet taste signals the presence of sugars, and savory taste signals the presence of amino acids. The ability to identify these macronutrients in foods was likely crucial for the survival of our species when nourishing food sources were sparse. In modern, industrialized settings, taste perception continues to play an important role in human health as we attempt to prevent and treat conditions stemming from overnutrition. Recent research has revealed that type 1 taste receptors (T1Rs), which are largely responsible for sweet and umami taste, may also influence the absorption and metabolism of the foods we eat. Preliminary research shows that T1Rs contribute to intestinal glucose absorption, blood sugar and insulin regulation, and the body's responses to excessive energy intake. In light of these findings, T1Rs have come to be understood as nutrient sensors, among other roles, that facilitate the selection, digestion, and metabolism of foods. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Understanding taste dysfunction in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Laura; Mahon, Suzanne M

    2012-04-01

    Taste dysfunction is a significant but underestimated issue for patients with cancer. Impaired taste results in changes in diet and appetite, early satiety, and impaired social interactions. Nurses can play a key role in educating patients and families on the pathophysiology of taste dysfunction by suggesting interventions to treat the consequences of taste dysfunction, when available, and offering psychosocial support as patients cope with this often devastating consequence of treatment. Taste recognition helps humans identify the nutritional quality of food and signals the digestive tract to begin secreting enzymes. Spoiled or tainted foods typically are recognized by their bad taste. Along with the other sensory systems, taste is crucial for helping patients treated for cancer feel normal. This article will review the anatomy and physiology of taste; define the different types of taste dysfunction, including the underlying pathophysiologic basis related to cancer treatment; and discuss potential nursing interventions to manage the consequences of taste dysfunction.

  17. [Factors that alter taste perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, E R; Silva-Netto, C R

    1990-01-01

    Dysfunction of taste perception is a significant problem for many individuals. Taste anomalies may affect health not only by directly affecting liquid and solid food intake, but also by creating a state of depression due to the loss of an important source of pleasure. Many factors alter taste perception, such as lesions of the oral mucosa, cigarette smoking, radiation, chemotherapy, renal disease, hepatitis, leprosy, hormones, nutrition, use of dentures, medications, and aging. Gum or ice chewing may temporarily help loss of taste. Patients should be encouraged to chew their food thoroughly, alternating the sides of the mouth, or alternating different foods. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no cure for this alteration, and patience is then the only possibility.

  18. Taste is a didactic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard

    2015-01-01

    of expectations to students’ learning. This article presents the results of a new quantitative study that investigates students’ work with taste in relation to their own expected learning in the subject Food Knowledge, viewed in the light of three didactic elements: motivation, student participation...... and innovation in school. The method is a questionnaire among students (N= 769) who have competed in Food Fight, a competition that forms part of Food Knowledge. The connection between taste and learning is a relatively unexplored field, and the analysis in this article indicates that the experience of working...... with taste in Food Knowledge may have an effect on students’ expected learning that is equally positive – or even more so – as that of known didactic elements like student participation and innovation. Therefore, teachers need to create balance between didactic elements and remember to incorporate taste...

  19. Photoelastic studies of crack propagation and crack arrest. [Homalite 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, G.R.; Dally, J.W.; Kobayashi, T.; Fourney, W.L.; Etheridge, J.M.

    1977-09-01

    This report describes the third year effort on research programs dealing with the characterization of dynamic aspects of fracture. The results included in this report are (1) verification of the BCL one-dimensional computer code; (2) determination of a-dot--K relationship from modified compact-tension specimen of Homalite 100; (3) verification of the MRL procedure for K/sub Ia/ measurement with machine-loaded C-DCB specimen of Homalite 100; (4) influence of adhesive toughness, adhesive thickness, and toughness of the arrest section on crack behavior in duplex specimens of both the M-CT and R-DCB types; (5) crack propagation in a thermally stressed ring specimen; and (6) development of a two-dimensional finite-difference code to predict fracture behavior in specimens of rectangular geometry under various a-dot vs K relationships. 118 figures, 53 tables.

  20. Taste of Clindamycin and Acetaminophen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Kimberlee A; Wo, Shane R; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the taste palatability of liquid clindamycin and acetaminophen products on the market. Subjects rated the palatability of 3 clindamycin suspensions, 1 amoxicillin suspension (tasted twice), an acetaminophen elixir, and an acetaminophen suspension in a randomized blinded fashion on a 0 to 5 scale. Forty-six adults aged 20 to 82 years volunteered for this study. Means (and 95% confidence intervals) were as follows: amoxicillin-first taste 3.6 (3.3-3.9), amoxicillin-second taste 3.5 (3.2-3.7). Clindamycin Rising, Perrigo, Greenstone; 2.0 (1.6-2.5), 3.0 (2.7-3.3), and 2.2 (1.8-2.6), respectively. Acetaminophen elixir 0.6 (0.4-0.8) and acetaminophen suspension 3.4 (3.1-3.6). One clindamycin tasted significantly better than the others. Additionally, although 2 acetaminophen formulations are currently available over-the-counter, the suspension is more palatable and less costly. Medicaid drug programs that perpetuate the use of elixir should change their coverage to save money and provide patients access to better tasting acetaminophen.

  1. DBEM crack propagation for nonlinear fracture problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Citarella

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional crack propagation simulation is performed by the Dual Boundary Element Method (DBEM. The Stress Intensity Factors (SIFs along the front of a semi elliptical crack, initiated from the external surface of a hollow axle, are calculated for bending and press fit loading separately and for a combination of them. In correspondence of the latter loading condition, a crack propagation is also simulated, with the crack growth rates calculated using the NASGRO3 formula, calibrated for the material under analysis (steel ASTM A469. The J-integral and COD approaches are selected for SIFs calculation in DBEM environment, where the crack path is assessed by the minimum strain energy density criterion (MSED. In correspondence of the initial crack scenario, SIFs along the crack front are also calculated by the Finite Element (FE code ZENCRACK, using COD, in order to provide, by a cross comparison with DBEM, an assessment on the level of accuracy obtained. Due to the symmetry of the bending problem a pure mode I crack propagation is realised with no kinking of the propagating crack whereas for press fit loading the crack propagation becomes mixed mode. The crack growth analysis is nonlinear because of normal gap elements used to model the press fit condition with added friction, and is developed in an iterative-incremental procedure. From the analysis of the SIFs results related to the initial cracked configuration, it is possible to assess the impact of the press fit condition when superimposed to the bending load case.

  2. Effect of interaction of embedded crack and free surface on remaining fatigue life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genshichiro Katsumata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Embedded crack located near free surface of a component interacts with the free surface. When the distance between the free surface and the embedded crack is short, stress at the crack tip ligament is higher than that at the other area of the cracked section. It can be easily expected that fatigue crack growth is fast, when the embedded crack locates near the free surface. To avoid catastrophic failures caused by fast fatigue crack growth at the crack tip ligament, fitness-for-service (FFS codes provide crack-to-surface proximity rules. The proximity rules are used to determine whether the cracks should be treated as embedded cracks as-is, or transformed to surface cracks. Although the concepts of the proximity rules are the same, the specific criteria and the rules to transform embedded cracks into surface cracks differ amongst FFS codes. This paper focuses on the interaction between an embedded crack and a free surface of a component as well as on its effects on the remaining fatigue lives of embedded cracks using the proximity rules provided by the FFS codes. It is shown that the remaining fatigue lives for the embedded cracks strongly depend on the crack aspect ratio and location from the component free surface. In addition, it can be said that the proximity criteria defined by the API and RSE-M codes give overly conservative remaining lives. On the contrary, the WES and AME codes always give long remaining lives and non-conservative estimations. When the crack aspect ratio is small, ASME code gives non-conservative estimation.

  3. Expression of genes encoding multi-transmembrane proteins in specific primate taste cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Moyer

    expressed in primate taste buds provides new insights into the processes of taste cell development, signal transduction, and information coding. Discrete taste cell populations exhibit highly specific gene expression patterns, supporting a model whereby each mature taste receptor cell is responsible for sensing, transmitting, and coding a specific taste quality.

  4. Controlling or trusting children’s taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Leer, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    that design and evaluate taste education programs for children. Our main argument is that most of the literature on taste education has a very reductive understanding of taste and is essentially totally distrustful concerning children’s taste. Taste is seen as a barrier for ‘correct’ eating habits...... and not as an important sense, a source to pleasure, or a central way of sensually understanding and approaching the world. In other words, taste literacy becomes a tool to push children towards ‘hegemonic nutrition’. Theoretically, the paper is inspired by the reworking of Foucault’s governmentality concept in recent...

  5. Gear Crack Propagation Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Reduced weight is a major design goal in aircraft power transmissions. Some gear designs incorporate thin rims to help meet this goal. Thin rims, however, may lead to bending fatigue cracks. These cracks may propagate through a gear tooth or into the gear rim. A crack that propagates through a tooth would probably not be catastrophic, and ample warning of a failure could be possible. On the other hand, a crack that propagates through the rim would be catastrophic. Such cracks could lead to disengagement of a rotor or propeller from an engine, loss of an aircraft, and fatalities. To help create and validate tools for the gear designer, the NASA Lewis Research Center performed in-house analytical and experimental studies to investigate the effect of rim thickness on gear-tooth crack propagation. Our goal was to determine whether cracks grew through gear teeth (benign failure mode) or through gear rims (catastrophic failure mode) for various rim thicknesses. In addition, we investigated the effect of rim thickness on crack propagation life. A finite-element-based computer program simulated gear-tooth crack propagation. The analysis used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, and quarter-point, triangular elements were used at the crack tip to represent the stress singularity. The program had an automated crack propagation option in which cracks were grown numerically via an automated remeshing scheme. Crack-tip stress-intensity factors were estimated to determine crack-propagation direction. Also, various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack-propagation life. Experiments were performed in Lewis' Spur Gear Fatigue Rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Gears with various backup ratios were tested to validate crack-path predictions. Also, test gears were installed with special crack-propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending-fatigue crack growth. From both predictions and tests, gears with backup ratios

  6. Computer vision cracks the leaf code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Peter; Zhang, Shengping; Chikkerur, Sharat; Little, Stefan A; Wing, Scott L; Serre, Thomas

    2016-03-22

    Understanding the extremely variable, complex shape and venation characters of angiosperm leaves is one of the most challenging problems in botany. Machine learning offers opportunities to analyze large numbers of specimens, to discover novel leaf features of angiosperm clades that may have phylogenetic significance, and to use those characters to classify unknowns. Previous computer vision approaches have primarily focused on leaf identification at the species level. It remains an open question whether learning and classification are possible among major evolutionary groups such as families and orders, which usually contain hundreds to thousands of species each and exhibit many times the foliar variation of individual species. Here, we tested whether a computer vision algorithm could use a database of 7,597 leaf images from 2,001 genera to learn features of botanical families and orders, then classify novel images. The images are of cleared leaves, specimens that are chemically bleached, then stained to reveal venation. Machine learning was used to learn a codebook of visual elements representing leaf shape and venation patterns. The resulting automated system learned to classify images into families and orders with a success rate many times greater than chance. Of direct botanical interest, the responses of diagnostic features can be visualized on leaf images as heat maps, which are likely to prompt recognition and evolutionary interpretation of a wealth of novel morphological characters. With assistance from computer vision, leaves are poised to make numerous new contributions to systematic and paleobotanical studies.

  7. Application of the cracked pipe element to creep crack growth prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brochard, J.; Charras, T. [C.E.A.-C.E.-Saclay DRN/DMT, Gif Sur Yvette (France); Ghoudi, M. [C.E.A.-C.E.-Saclay, Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    1997-04-01

    Modifications to a computer code for ductile fracture assessment of piping systems with postulated circumferential through-wall cracks under static or dynamic loading are very briefly described. The modifications extend the capabilities of the CASTEM2000 code to the determination of fracture parameters under creep conditions. The main advantage of the approach is that thermal loads can be evaluated as secondary stresses. The code is applicable to piping systems for which crack propagation predictions differ significantly depending on whether thermal stresses are considered as primary or secondary stresses.

  8. Taste-modifying protein from miracle fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, K; Beidler, L M

    1968-09-20

    The active principle of miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) is a basic glycoprotein with a probable molecular weight of 44,000. Application of the protein to the tongue modifies the taste so that one tastes sour substances as sweet.

  9. A National Test of Taste and Smell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the only national U.S. health survey that combines both in-person interviews with physical examinations. In ... Read More "Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance" Articles At Last: A National Test of Taste and ...

  10. Preexposure to Salty and Sour Taste Enhances Conditioned Taste Aversion to Novel Sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Veronica L.; Moran, Anan; Bernstein, Max; Katz, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an intensively studied single-trial learning paradigm whereby animals are trained to avoid a taste that has been paired with malaise. Many factors influence the strength of aversion learning; prominently studied among these is taste novelty--the fact that preexposure to the taste conditioned stimulus (CS)…

  11. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  12. Sugars, Sweet Taste Receptors, and Brain Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen A; Owyang, Chung

    2017-06-24

    Sweet taste receptors are composed of a heterodimer of taste 1 receptor member 2 (T1R2) and taste 1 receptor member 3 (T1R3). Accumulating evidence shows that sweet taste receptors are ubiquitous throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract as well as the hypothalamus. These sweet taste receptors are heavily involved in nutrient sensing, monitoring changes in energy stores, and triggering metabolic and behavioral responses to maintain energy balance. Not surprisingly, these pathways are heavily regulated by external and internal factors. Dysfunction in one or more of these pathways may be important in the pathogenesis of common diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Minimum fatigue pre-crack extension for fracture testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, C.L.; Voormeeren, L.O.

    2013-01-01

    The minimum pre-crack necessary to achieve an accurate measurement of the J-integral is examined with the use of elastic-plastic finite element analysis. This minimum pre-crack is shorter than what is specified in fracture codes ASTM E1820 and BS 7448. A variety of steel properties are considered, b

  14. Modified Dugdale cracks and Fictitious cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1998-01-01

    (displacement) respectively of material considered. The practical applicability of the two models is limited such that predicted strength sigma_CR must be less than sigma_L/3, which corresponds to an assumption that fictitious cracks are much smaller than real crack lengths considered. The reason......A number of theories are presented in the literature on crack mechanics by which the strength of damaged materials can be predicted. Among these are theories based on the well-known Dugdale model of a crack prevented from spreading by self-created constant cohesive flow stressed acting in local...... Dugdale crack is the same as if it has been weakened by the well-known Griffith crack, namely sigma_CR = (EG_CR/phi)^1/2 where E and 1 are Young's modulus and crack half-length respectively, and G_CR is the so-called critical energy release rate. The physical significance of G_CR, however, is different...

  15. Crack initiation and crack growth behavior of carbon and low-alloy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavenda, D.J.; Luebbers, P.R.; Chopra, O.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1997-01-01

    Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. These curves were based on tests of smooth polished specimens at room temperature in air. The effects of reactor coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves, but recent test data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of carbon and low-alloy steels. Under certain loading and environmental conditions, fatigue lives of test specimens may be a factor of {approx}70 shorter than in air. Results of fatigue tests that examine the influence of reactor environment on crack imitation and crack growth of carbon and low-alloy steels are presented. Crack lengths as a function of fatigue cycles were determined in air by a surface replication technique, and in water by block loading that leaves marks on the fracture surface. Decreases in fatigue life of low-alloy steels in high-dissolved-oxygen (DO) water are primarily caused by the effects of environment during early stages of fatigue damage, i.e., growth of short cracks <100 {micro}m in depth. For crack sizes of >100 {micro}m, crack growth rates in high-DO water are higher than in air by one order of magnitude. The effects of LWR environments on growth of short cracks are discussed.

  16. Expected taste intensity affects response to sweet drinks in primary taste cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andrew T; Lloyd, Donna M; Kuenzel, Johanna; Poliakoff, Ellen; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B; Thomas, Anna

    2011-06-11

    Expectations about a food can impact on its taste, but this may represent a perceptual change or a bias in response at the decision-making stage. We hypothesised that expectation of taste intensity should be underpinned by modulation of activity in primary taste cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that expecting a very sweet drink, but receiving a less sweet drink, enhanced the reported sweetness and bolstered activity in taste cortex, relative to a less sweet drink without this expectation. The activation overlapped with primary taste cortex activation found in 11 recent taste studies. Our findings provide evidence that taste expectation modulates activity in an area consistently reported as primary taste cortex, implying that expectation effects do indeed impact on taste perception.

  17. The Importance of Taste for Food Demand and the Experienced Taste Effect of Healthy Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    This paper quantitatively analyzes the importance of taste versus health in food demand, as well as the effect on consumers’ experienced taste of the non-intrinsic value of healthy labels. Our analysis is based on taste experiments and Vickrey second price auctions on potato chips and bread. Our...... findings imply a large positive effect on demand for potato chips from higher taste scores: when consumers’ experienced taste from potato chips improves by one unit, the average WTP for a 150 gram bag of chips increases by 20 euro cents. The effect from taste on bread demand seems smaller, but may...

  18. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2012-03-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance - with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used - an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli.

  19. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2014-01-01

    The significance of taste for human health:Throughout most of human evolution, the daily decisions of what to put into ones mouth and swallow and what to reject presented challenges fraught with danger. Energy-rich foods were often difficult to find; protein was in short supply; sodium was scarce. Moreover, many plants that did contain nutrients were also equipped with defensive compounds that were poisonous. Now many humans over consume exactly the foods that they evolved to find particu...

  20. Tasting Beijing ,Approaching Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Sponsored by Beijing Tour Administration, co-organized by Singapore Conference and Exhibition Administration Service Co., Ltd. and Beijing Relation Exhibition Co., Ltd., "2007 Beijing International Tour Expo" was held in Beijing in June. Commissioner Du Jiang gave a presentation with the opening ceremmony, and pointed out that with the theme of "Tasting Beijing, Approaching Olympic Games", the expo was a platform of promoting the communication and cooperation between the Chinese and foreign tourism industries.

  1. Taste perception and food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Rossella; Di Feola, Mariarosaria; Di Domenico, Simone; Scala, M Giuseppa; Artesi, Ginevra; Valente, Serena; Smarrazzo, Andrea; Turco, Francesca; Morini, Gabriella; Greco, Luigi

    2012-05-01

    The extent to which variation in taste perception influences food preferences is, to date, controversial. Bitterness in food triggers an innate aversion that is responsible for dietary restriction in children. We investigated the association among genetic variations in bitter receptor TAS2R38 and food choices in healthy children in the Mediterranean area, to develop appropriate tools to evaluate the relation among genetic predisposition, dietary habits, and feeding disorders. The aims of the study were to get a first baseline picture of taste sensitivity in healthy adults and their children and to explore taste sensitivity in a preliminary sample of obese children and in samples affected by functional gastrointestinal diseases. Individuals (98 children, 87 parents, 120 adults) were recruited from the general population in southern Italy. Bitterness sensitivity was assessed by means of a suprathreshold method with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil. Genomic DNA from saliva was used to genotype individuals for 3 polymorphisms of TAS2R38 receptor, A49P, A262 V, and V296I. Food intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Children's taste sensation differed from that of adults: we observed a higher frequency of supertasters among children even in the mother-child dyads with the same diplotypes. Among adults, supertaster status was related with proline-alanine-valine (taster allele) homozygous haplotype, whereas supertaster children were mainly heterozygous. Regarding the food choices, we found that a higher percentage of taster children avoided bitter vegetables or greens altogether compared with taster adults. Taster status was also associated with body mass index in boys. Greater sensitivity to 6-propyl-2-thiouracil predicts lower preferences for vegetables in children, showing an appreciable effect of the genetic predisposition on food choices. None of the obese boys was a supertaster.

  2. Oxytocin signaling in mouse taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Sinclair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide, oxytocin (OXT, acts on brain circuits to inhibit food intake. Mutant mice lacking OXT (OXT knockout overconsume salty and sweet (i.e. sucrose, saccharin solutions. We asked if OXT might also act on taste buds via its receptor, OXTR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using RT-PCR, we detected the expression of OXTR in taste buds throughout the oral cavity, but not in adjacent non-taste lingual epithelium. By immunostaining tissues from OXTR-YFP knock-in mice, we found that OXTR is expressed in a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells, and also in cells on the periphery of taste buds. Single-cell RT-PCR confirmed this cell-type assignment. Using Ca2+ imaging, we observed that physiologically appropriate concentrations of OXT evoked [Ca2+]i mobilization in a subset of taste cells (EC50 approximately 33 nM. OXT-evoked responses were significantly inhibited by the OXTR antagonist, L-371,257. Isolated OXT-responsive taste cells were neither Receptor (Type II nor Presynaptic (Type III cells, consistent with our immunofluorescence observations. We also investigated the source of OXT peptide that may act on taste cells. Both RT-PCR and immunostaining suggest that the OXT peptide is not produced in taste buds or in their associated nerves. Finally, we also examined the morphology of taste buds from mice that lack OXTR. Taste buds and their constituent cell types appeared very similar in mice with two, one or no copies of the OXTR gene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that OXT elicits Ca2+ signals via OXTR in murine taste buds. OXT-responsive cells are most likely a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells. OXT itself is not produced locally in taste tissue and is likely delivered through the circulation. Loss of OXTR does not grossly alter the morphology of any of the cell types contained in taste buds. Instead, we speculate that OXT-responsive Glial-like (Type I taste bud cells modulate taste signaling and afferent

  3. Frequently consumed vegetables have almost no taste : Posterpresentatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokkom, Vera van; Kooten, Olaf van; Teo, P.S; Mars, M; Stieger, M; Graaf, C de

    2015-01-01

    Taste is a main driver in preferences and food choices. Humans are predispositioned to prefer sweet and salty tastes and reject bitter and sour tastes, therefore bitter taste is often thought to cause the rejection of vegetables by children. In our study we investigated the taste and fattiness inten

  4. Anatomy, physiology and diagnostic considerations of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissink, A.; Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Visser, A.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Weissenbruch, R. van; Nieuw Amerongen, A. van

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. The taste perception is performed by taste buds which can distinguish salt, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. Moreover, 2,000-4,000 smells can be recognized. Many taste disorders are in fact smell disorders. Saliva affects taste perception because it ser

  5. [Sensors for Measuring Taste and Smell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toko, Kiyoshi

    2017-05-01

    Gustatory and olfactory senses receive chemical substances at the biological membranes of taste and olfactory cells, respectively. The present review article describes electronic tongue (taste sensor) and electronic nose (odor sensor) developed based on biomimetic technology. A taste sensor is now commercially sold and utilized in pharmaceutical and food companies across the world. An electronic nose with high sensitivity was also commercialized in Japan. These sensors provide novel methods for analyzing chemical substances instead of using conventional tools.

  6. Taste of Milk from Inflamed Breasts of Breastfeeding Mothers with Mastitis Evaluated Using a Taste Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Michiko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Kumagai, Masanori; Muto, Hajime; Kodama, Hideya

    2014-01-01

    Background: The refusal of infants to suckle from a breast that is inflamed with mastitis suggests that the taste of the milk has changed. However, the taste of milk from a breast with mastitis has never been empirically determined. The present study compares the taste of milk from breastfeeding mothers with or without mastitis and identifies specific changes in the taste of milk from mothers with mastitis.

  7. TASTE MASKING IN PHARMACEUTICAL: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Saurabh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. Nevertheless it is that arena of product development that has been overlooked and undermined for its importance. The problem of bitter and obnoxious taste of is a challenge to the pharmacist in the present scenario. Taste is an important parameter governing compliance. Several oral pharmaceuticals and bulking agents have unpleasant, bitter-tasting components. In numerous cases, the bitter taste modality is an undesirable trait of the product or formulations and can considerably affect its acceptability by consumers. Bitter characteristics found in such systems have been eliminated or minimized by various known processes, but no universally applicable technology for bitterness inhibition has ever been recognized. The desire of improved palatability in these products has prompted the development of numerous formulations with improved performance and acceptability Taste masking technologies offer a great scope for invention and patents. Several approaches like adding flavors and sweeteners, use of coating polymers for inhibiting bitterness, microencapsulation, prodrug formation, formation of inclusion and molecular complexes, solid dispersion system, addition of effervescent agents and application of ion exchange resins have been tried by the formulators to mask the unpleasant taste of the bitter drugs. The present review attempts to give a brief account of different technologies of taste masking with respect to dosage form and novel methods of evaluation of taste masking effect.

  8. The Importance of Taste for Food Demand and the Experienced Taste Effect of Healthy Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    This paper quantitatively analyzes the importance of taste versus health in food demand, as well as the effect on consumers’ experienced taste of the non-intrinsic value of healthy labels. Our analysis is based on taste experiments and Vickrey second price auctions on potato chips and bread. Our...

  9. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  10. Experimental and numerical study on crack propagation in pre-cracked beam specimens under three-point bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hadi Haeri

    2016-01-01

    A simultaneous experimental and numerical study on crack propagation in the pre-cracked beams specimens (concrete-like materials) is carried out using three-point bending flexural test. The crack propagation and coalescence paths of internal cracks in side beam specimens are experimentally studied by inserting double internal cracks. The effects of crack positions on the fracturing path in the bridge areas of the double cracked beam specimens are also studied. It has been observed that the breaking of concrete-like cracked beams specimens occurs mainly by the propagation of wing cracks emanating from the tips of the pre-existing cracks in the numerical and experimental analyses, respectively. The same specimens are numerically simulated by an indirect boundary element method (IBEM) known as displacement discontinuity method (DDM) using higher displacement discontinuity. These numerical results are compared with the existing experimental results. This comparison illustrates the higher accuracy of the results obtained by the indirect boundary element method by using only a small number of elements compared with the discrete element method (PFC2D code).

  11. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Beauchamp

    2014-07-01

    There are two general approaches to reducing dietary sodium. First, there is considerable interest in developing salt substitutes and salt enhancers. Potassium chloride is widely used (usually in combination with NaCl as a substitute but it is not ideal since many find it has an unpleasant off-taste. There is considerable academic and industry research to identify new substitutes but to date there are none for salty as there are for sweet taste. A second approach to lowering sodium intake on a population-wide level in the United States, where more than 80% of the average person’s salt intake comes from food purchased and not from being added during cooking or at the table, is for food manufacturers and restaurants to gradually reduce the amount of salt in prepared foods. Experimental studies have demonstrated that if one reduces salt intake preferences for salt are similarly reduced. Based on this, the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommended that the Food and Drug Administration require gradual reduction by food manufacturers and large restaurant chains (IOM. The FDA has not acted on this recommendation. Conclusion. As illustrated by the difficulties in reducing salt in spite of the health benefits (a similar set of arguments for reducing excess consumption of carbohydrate sugars could be made, the sense of taste is a powerful driver of food intake. A deeper understanding of this important but neglected sensory system is required if we are to adequately address critical health problems in modern society that are often driven by excess consumption of tasty nutrients.

  12. Failure of Serial Taste-Taste Compound Presentations to Produce Overshadowing of Extinction of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineno, Oskar

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study overshadowing of extinction in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. In both experiments, aversive conditioning with sucrose was followed by extinction treatment with either sucrose alone or in compound with another taste, citric acid. Experiment 1 employed a simultaneous compound extinction treatment…

  13. Adenosine enhances sweet taste through A2B receptors in the taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Pereira, Elizabeth; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian taste buds use ATP as a neurotransmitter. Taste Receptor (type II) cells secrete ATP via gap junction hemichannels into the narrow extracellular spaces within a taste bud. This ATP excites primary sensory afferent fibers and also stimulates neighboring taste bud cells. Here we show that extracellular ATP is enzymatically degraded to adenosine within mouse vallate taste buds and that this nucleoside acts as an autocrine neuromodulator to selectively enhance sweet taste. In Receptor cells in a lingual slice preparation, Ca(2+) mobilization evoked by focally applied artificial sweeteners was significantly enhanced by adenosine (50 μM). Adenosine had no effect on bitter or umami taste responses, and the nucleoside did not affect Presynaptic (type III) taste cells. We also used biosensor cells to measure transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Adenosine (5 μM) enhanced ATP release evoked by sweet but not bitter taste stimuli. Using single-cell reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR on isolated vallate taste cells, we show that many Receptor cells express the adenosine receptor, Adora2b, while Presynaptic (type III) and Glial-like (type I) cells seldom do. Furthermore, Adora2b receptors are significantly associated with expression of the sweet taste receptor subunit, Tas1r2. Adenosine is generated during taste stimulation mainly by the action of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, NT5E, and to a lesser extent, prostatic acid phosphatase. Both these ecto-nucleotidases are expressed by Presynaptic cells, as shown by single-cell RT-PCR, enzyme histochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Our findings suggest that ATP released during taste reception is degraded to adenosine to exert positive modulation particularly on sweet taste.

  14. Crack layer theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.

    1984-01-01

    A damage parameter is introduced in addition to conventional parameters of continuum mechanics and consider a crack surrounded by an array of microdefects within the continuum mechanics framework. A system consisting of the main crack and surrounding damage is called crack layer (CL). Crack layer propagation is an irreversible process. The general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are employed to identify the driving forces (causes) and to derive the constitutive equation of CL propagation, that is, the relationship between the rates of the crack growth and damage dissemination from one side and the conjugated thermodynamic forces from another. The proposed law of CL propagation is in good agreement with the experimental data on fatigue CL propagation in various materials. The theory also elaborates material toughness characterization.

  15. Effect of crack propagation on crack tip fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.V. Antunes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Crack closure influences fatigue crack growth rate and must be included in the design of components. Plasticity induced crack closure is intimately linked with the crack tip plastic deformation, which becomes residual as the crack propagates. The objective here is to study numerically the effect of crack propagation on crack tip fields. The transient effect observed at the beginning of crack propagation is linked to the hardening behavior of material. The effect of mesh refinement is studied, and a singular behavior is evident, which is explained by the sharp crack associated with mesh topology, composed of a regular pattern of square elements. The plastic zone size measured perpendicularly to crack flank in the residual plastic wake is quantified and compared with literature models. Finally, the removal of material at the first node behind crack tip with load cycling was observed for plane strain state and some hardening models in plane stress state.

  16. Taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract III. Salty and sour taste: sensing of sodium and protons by the tongue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeSimone, John A; Lyall, Vijay

    2006-01-01

    .... The sodium-specific salt taste receptor is the epithelial sodium channel whereas a nonspecific salt taste receptor is a taste variant of the vanilloid receptor-1 nonselective cation channel, TRPV1...

  17. Small-crack test methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, James M.; Allison, John E.

    This book contains chapters on fracture mechanics parameters for small fatigue cracks, monitoring small-crack growth by the replication method, measurement of small cracks by photomicroscopy (experiments and analysis), and experimental mechanics of microcracks. Other topics discussed are the real-time measurement of small-crack-opening behavior using an interferometric strain/displacement gage; direct current electrical potential measurement of the growth of small cracks; an ultrasonic method for the measurement of the size and opening behavior of small fatigue cracks; and the simulation of short crack and other low closure loading conditions, utilizing constant K(max) Delta-K-decreasing fatigue crack growth procedures.

  18. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ke Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  19. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-ke Li; Juan-mei Yang; Yi-bo Huang; Dong-dong Ren; Fang-lu Chi

    2015-01-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well under-stood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection+lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of re-covery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantiifed and compared among groups. No signiifcant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection+lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, vol-umes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased signiifcantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  20. Incentives through Consumer Learning about Tastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    no equilibrium in which the firm always exerts high effort. However, when consumers learn about their own tastes, such an equilibrium can exist. Consumer learning about tastes therefore is an alternative to reputational concerns that produces stable incentives. We discuss the implications of this mechanism...

  1. TActical Sensor network TEst bed (TASTE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, P. van; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Sandbrink, R.D.J.

    2008-01-01

    TASTE is a software tool for specifying and deploying unattended ground sensors (UGS) in a composition which the commander assumes will suit his needs the best. With TASTE different sensor types such as acoustic, magnetic, seismic, radar and IR imaging sensors can be deployed virtually and their

  2. TActical Sensor network TEst bed (TASTE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, P. van; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Sandbrink, R.D.J.

    2008-01-01

    TASTE is a software tool for specifying and deploying unattended ground sensors (UGS) in a composition which the commander assumes will suit his needs the best. With TASTE different sensor types such as acoustic, magnetic, seismic, radar and IR imaging sensors can be deployed virtually and their ind

  3. Water Treatment Technology - Taste, Odor & Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on taste, odor, and color provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: taste and odor determination, control of…

  4. Do Natural Pictures Mean Natural Tastes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Sørensen, Henrik Selsøe

    2015-01-01

    A widespread assumption in Danish consumer law is that if the package of a food product carries a picture of a potentially taste-giving ingredient (say, a strawberry), then consumers will expect the corresponding taste to stem primarily from that ingredient rather than from artificial flavouring...

  5. Effect of crack surface geometry on fatigue crack closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, W.J. [P and L Technologies, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Gokhale, A.M. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Antolovich, S.D. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    1995-10-01

    The geometry of crack faces often plays a critical role in reducing crack extension forces when crack closure occurs during fatigue crack growth. Most previous studies of fatigue crack closure are concerned with mechanical measure of closure as related to the crack growth rate; very little attention has been given to the geometry of the crack surfaces. The objective is to identify those aspects of crack surface geometry that are important in the closure process, to develop quantitative fractographic techniques to estimate such attributes in a statistically significant and robust manner, and to correlate them to the physical process of crack closure. For this purpose, fatigue crack propagation experiments were performed on a Ni-base superalloy and crack growth rates and crack closure loads were measured. Digital image profilometry and software-based analysis techniques were used for statistically reliable and detailed quantitative characterization of fatigue crack profiles. It is shown that the dimensionless, scale-independent attributes, such a height-to-width ratio of asperities, fractal dimensions, dimensionless roughness parameters, etc., do not represent the aspects of crack geometry that are of primary importance in the crack closure phenomena. Furthermore, it is shown that the scale-dependent characteristics, such as average asperity height, do represent the aspects of crack geometry that play an interactive role in the closure process. These observations have implications concerning the validity of geometry-dependent, closure-based models for fatigue crack growth.

  6. The Effect of Water on Crack Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaede, O.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2009-04-01

    While the mechanical coupling between pore fluid and solid phase is relatively well understood, quantitative studies dealing with chemical-mechanical weakening in geological materials are rare. Many classical poroelastic problems can be addressed with the simple law of effective stress. Experimental studies show that the presence of a chemically active fluid can have effects that exceed the predictions of the law of effective stress. These chemical fluid-rock interactions alter the mechanical properties of the solid phase. Especially chemical-mechanical weakening has important ramifications for many areas of applied geosciences ranging from nuclear waste disposal over reservoir enhancement to fault stability. In this study, we model chemically induced changes of the size of the process zone around a crack tip. The knowledge of the process zone size is used to extend existing effective medium approximations of cracked solids. The stress distribution around a crack leads to a chemical potential gradient. This gradient will be a driver for mass diffusion through the solid phase. As an example, mass diffusion is towards the crack tip for a mode I crack. In this case a chemical reaction, that weakens the solid phase, will increase the size of the process zone around the crack tip. We apply our model to the prominent hydrolytic weakening effect observed in the quartz-water system (Griggs and Blacic, 1965). Hydrolytic weakening is generally attributed to water hydrolyzing the strong Si-O bonds of the quartz crystal. The hydrolysis replaces a Si-O-Si bridge with a relatively weak hydrogen bridge between two silanol groups. This enhances dislocation mobility and hence the yield stress is reduced. The plastic process zone around a crack tip is therefore larger in a wet crystal than in a dry crystal. We calculate the size of the process zone by solving this coupled mechanical-chemical problem with the Finite Element code ABAQUS. We consider single crack, collinear crack and

  7. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Sight is undoubtedly not only important for food identification and selection but also for the modulation of gustatory sensitivity. We can, therefore, assume that taste sensitivity and eating habits are affected by visual deprivation from birth. We measured taste detection and identification...... behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data...... further indicate that blind subjects more strongly rely on internal hunger and satiety cues, instead of external contextual or emotional cues, to decide when and what to eat. We suggest that the lower taste sensitivity observed in congenitally blind individuals is due to various blindness...

  8. Haplotypes at the Tas2r locus on distal chromosome 6 vary with quinine taste sensitivity in inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munger Steven D

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of bitter-tasting compounds by the gustatory system is thought to alert animals to the presence of potentially toxic food. Some, if not all, bitter stimuli activate specific taste receptors, the T2Rs, which are expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells on the tongue and palate. However, there is evidence for both receptor-dependent and -independent transduction mechanisms for a number of bitter stimuli, including quinine hydrochloride (QHCl and denatonium benzoate (DB. Results We used brief-access behavioral taste testing of BXD/Ty recombinant inbred (RI mouse strains to map the major quantitative trait locus (QTL for taste sensitivity to QHCl. This QTL is restricted to a ~5 Mb interval on chromosome 6 that includes 24 genes encoding T2Rs (Tas2rs. Tas2rs at this locus display in total 307 coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between the two BXD/Ty RI parental strains, C57BL/6J (quinine-sensitive and DBA/2J (quinine insensitive; approximately 50% of these mutations are silent. Individual RI lines contain exclusively either C57BL/6J or DBA/2J Tas2r alleles at this locus, and RI lines containing C57BL/6J Tas2r alleles are more sensitive to QHCl than are lines containing DBA/2J alleles. Thus, the entire Tas2r cluster comprises a large haplotype that correlates with quinine taster status. Conclusion These studies, the first using a taste-salient assay to map the major QTL for quinine taste, indicate that a T2R-dependent transduction cascade is responsible for the majority of strain variance in quinine taste sensitivity. Furthermore, the large number of polymorphisms within coding exons of the Tas2r cluster, coupled with evidence that inbred strains exhibit largely similar bitter taste phenotypes, suggest that T2R receptors are quite tolerant to variation.

  9. Water as an Independent Taste Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Rosen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To qualify as a basic taste quality or modality, defined as a group of chemicals that taste alike, three empirical benchmarks have commonly been used. The first is that a candidate group of tastants must have a dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system. The second is that the tastants evoke physiological responses in dedicated afferent taste nerves innervating the oropharyngeal cavity. Last, the taste stimuli evoke activity in central gustatory neurons, some of which may respond only to that group of tastants. Here we argue that water may also be an independent taste modality. This argument is based on the identification of a water dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system, water responsive fibers of the peripheral taste nerves and the observation of water responsive neurons in all gustatory regions within the central nervous system. We have described electrophysiological responses from single neurons in nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS and parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN, respectively the first two central relay nuclei in the rodent brainstem, to water presented as a taste stimulus in anesthetized rats. Responses to water were in some cases as robust as responses to other taste qualities and sometimes occurred in the absence of responses to other tastants. Both excitatory and inhibitory responses were observed. Also, the temporal features of the water response resembled those of other taste responses. We argue that water may constitute an independent taste modality that is processed by dedicated neural channels at all levels of the gustatory neuraxis. Water-dedicated neurons in the brainstem may constitute key elements in the regulatory system for fluid in the body, i.e. thirst, and as part of the swallowing reflex circuitry.

  10. Crack propagation modeling using Peridynamic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezi, M. H.; Alebrahim, R.; Kundu, T.

    2016-04-01

    Crack propagation and branching are modeled using nonlocal peridynamic theory. One major advantage of this nonlocal theory based analysis tool is the unifying approach towards material behavior modeling - irrespective of whether the crack is formed in the material or not. No separate damage law is needed for crack initiation and propagation. This theory overcomes the weaknesses of existing continuum mechanics based numerical tools (e.g. FEM, XFEM etc.) for identifying fracture modes and does not require any simplifying assumptions. Cracks grow autonomously and not necessarily along a prescribed path. However, in some special situations such as in case of ductile fracture, the damage evolution and failure depend on parameters characterizing the local stress state instead of peridynamic damage modeling technique developed for brittle fracture. For brittle fracture modeling the bond is simply broken when the failure criterion is satisfied. This simulation helps us to design more reliable modeling tool for crack propagation and branching in both brittle and ductile materials. Peridynamic analysis has been found to be very demanding computationally, particularly for real-world structures (e.g. vehicles, aircrafts, etc.). It also requires a very expensive visualization process. The goal of this paper is to bring awareness to researchers the impact of this cutting-edge simulation tool for a better understanding of the cracked material response. A computer code has been developed to implement the peridynamic theory based modeling tool for two-dimensional analysis. A good agreement between our predictions and previously published results is observed. Some interesting new results that have not been reported earlier by others are also obtained and presented in this paper. The final objective of this investigation is to increase the mechanics knowledge of self-similar and self-affine cracks.

  11. Determination of crack morphology parameters from service failures for leak-rate analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Ghadiali, N.; Paul, D. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    In leak-rate analyses described in the literature, the crack morphology parameters are typically not well agreed upon by different investigators. This paper presents results on a review of crack morphology parameters determined from examination of service induced cracks. Service induced cracks were found to have a much more tortuous flow path than laboratory induced cracks due to crack branching associated with the service induced cracks. Several new parameters such as local and global surface roughnesses, as well as local and global number of turns were identified. The effect of each of these parameters are dependent on the crack-opening displacement. Additionally, the crack path is typically assumed to be straight through the pipe thickness, but the service data show that the flow path can be longer due to the crack following a fusion line, and/or the number of turns, where the number of turns in the past were included as a pressure drop term due to the turns, but not the longer flow path length. These parameters were statistically evaluated for fatigue cracks in air, corrosion-fatigue, IGSCC, and thermal fatigue cracks. A refined version of the SQUIRT leak-rate code was developed to account for these variables. Sample calculations are provided in this paper that show how the crack size can vary for a given leak rate and the statistical variation of the crack morphology parameters.

  12. Two-dimensional Numerical Estimation of Stress Intensity Factors and Crack Propagation in Linear Elastic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boulenouar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available When the loading or the geometry of a structure is not symmetrical about the crack axis, rupture occurs in mixed mode loading and the crack does not propagate in a straight line. It is then necessary to use kinking criteria to determine the new direction of crack propagation. The aim of this work is to present a numerical modeling of crack propagation under mixed mode loading conditions. This work is based on the implementation of the displacement extrapolation method in a FE code and the strain energy density theory in a finite element code. At each crack increment length, the kinking angle is evaluated as a function of stress intensity factors. In this paper, we analyzed the mechanical behavior of inclined cracks by evaluating the stress intensity factors. Then, we presented the examples of crack propagation in structures containing inclusions and cavities.

  13. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Clark, R. W.; Gruber, E. E.; Shack, W. J.; Soppet, W. K.; Strain, R. V.

    2007-11-06

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from January to December 2002. Topics that have been investigated include: (a) environmental effects on fatigue crack initiation in carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels (SSs), (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic SSs in BWRs, (c) evaluation of causes and mechanisms of irradiation-assisted cracking of austenitic SS in PWRs, and (d) cracking in Ni-alloys and welds. A critical review of the ASME Code fatigue design margins and an assessment of the conservation in the current choice of design margins are presented. The existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data have been evaluated to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic SSs. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on fatigue crack initiation in these materials in air and LWR environments. Crack growth tests were performed in BWR environments on SSs irradiated to 0.9 and 2.0 x 10{sup 21} n x cm{sup -2}. The crack growth rates (CGRs) of the irradiated steels are a factor of {approx}5 higher than the disposition curve proposed in NUREG-0313 for thermally sensitized materials. The CGRs decreased by an order of magnitude in low-dissolved oxygen (DO) environments. Slow-strain-rate tensile (SSRT) tests were conducted in high-purity 289 C water on steels irradiated to {approx}3 dpa. The bulk S content correlated well with the susceptibility to intergranular SCC in 289 C water. The IASCC susceptibility of SSs that contain >0.003 wt. % S increased drastically. bend tests in inert environments at 23 C were conducted on broken pieces of SSRT specimens and on unirradiated specimens of the same materials after hydrogen charging. The results of the tests and a review of other data in the literature

  14. BitterX: a tool for understanding bitter taste in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenkang; Shen, Qiancheng; Su, Xubo; Ji, Mingfei; Liu, Xinyi; Chen, Yingyi; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhuang, Hanyi; Zhang, Jian

    2016-04-04

    BitterX is an open-access tool aimed at providing a platform for identifying human bitter taste receptors, TAS2Rs, for small molecules. It predicts TAS2Rs from the molecular structures of arbitrary chemicals by integrating two individual functionalities: bitterant verification and TAS2R recognition. Using BitterX, several novel bitterants and their receptors were predicted and experimentally validated in the study. Therefore, BitterX may be an effective method for deciphering bitter taste coding and could be a useful tool for both basic bitter research in academia and new bitterant discoveries in the industry.

  15. Quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior and the crack morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Chen

    Full Text Available In this letter, the quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior as well as the circular crack generation on the impacted glass plate within the sandwiched glass sheets are experimentally investigated via high-speed photography system. Results show that the radial crack velocity on the backing glass layer decreases with the crack number under the same impact conditions during large quantities of repeated experiments. Thus, the "energy conversion factor" is suggested to elucidate the physical relation between the cracking number and the crack propagation speed. Besides, the number of radial crack also takes the determinative effect in the crack morphology of the impacted glass plate. This study may shed lights on understanding the cracking and propagation mechanism in laminated glass structures and provide useful tool to explore the impact information on the cracking debris.

  16. Taste of milk from inflamed breasts of breastfeeding mothers with mastitis evaluated using a taste sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Michiko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Kumagai, Masanori; Muto, Hajime; Kodama, Hideya

    2014-03-01

    The refusal of infants to suckle from a breast that is inflamed with mastitis suggests that the taste of the milk has changed. However, the taste of milk from a breast with mastitis has never been empirically determined. The present study compares the taste of milk from breastfeeding mothers with or without mastitis and identifies specific changes in the taste of milk from mothers with mastitis. The intensity of four basic tastes (sourness, saltiness, bitterness, and umami) of breastmilk from 24 healthy mothers at 3-5 days and at 2-3, 4-5, and 8-10 weeks postpartum and from 14 mothers with mastitis was determined objectively using a taste sensor. The intensity of each basic taste and the concentrations of main taste substances in milk were compared between the inflamed breasts and the normal breasts of control mothers or the contralateral asymptomatic breast of mothers with unilateral mastitis. The transition from colostrum to mature milk was accompanied by changes in the taste of the milk, such as decreased saltiness and umami and increased bitterness and sourness. Umami and saltiness increased in milk from inflamed breasts. Contents of sodium, glutamate, and guanosine monophosphate increased in milk from inflamed breasts. Tastes that were specifically associated with inflamed breasts appeared to include an increase in umami and saltiness, which might have resulted from an increased content in factors associated with umami and sodium.

  17. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-Na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M

    2015-02-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three types of taste sensing cells. Thus, we investigated if vismodegib has an inhibitory effect on taste cell turnover because of its known effects on Hh signaling. We gavaged C57BL/6J male mice daily with either vehicle or 30 mg/kg vismodegib for 15 weeks. The gustatory behavior and immunohistochemical profile of taste cells were examined. Vismodegib-treated mice showed decreased growth rate and behavioral responsivity to sweet and bitter stimuli, compared to vehicle-treated mice. We found that vismodegib-treated mice had significant reductions in taste bud size and numbers of taste cells per taste bud. Additionally, vismodegib treatment resulted in decreased numbers of Ki67- and Shh-expressing cells in taste buds. The numbers of phospholipase Cβ2- and α-gustducin-expressing cells, which contain biochemical machinery for sweet and bitter sensing, were reduced in vismodegib-treated mice. Furthermore, vismodegib treatment resulted in reduction in numbers of T1R3, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-expressing cells, which are known to modulate sweet taste sensitivity. These results suggest that inhibition of Shh signaling by vismodegib treatment directly results in alteration of taste due to local effects in taste buds.

  18. Double noding technique for mixed mode crack propagation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, B. M.; Kobayashi, A. S.; Emergy, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    A simple dynamic finite element algorithm for analyzing a propagating mixed mode crack tip is presented. A double noding technique, which can be easily incorporated into existing dynamic finite element codes, is used together with a corrected J integral to extract modes I and II dynamic stress intensity factors of a propagating crack. The utility of the procedure is demonstrated by analyzing test problems involving a mode I central crack propagating in a plate subjected to uniaxial tension, a mixed mode I and II stationary, slanted central crack in a plate subjected to uniaxial impact loading, and a mixed mode I and II extending, slanted single edge crack in a plate subjected to uniaxial tension.

  19. Fabrication of taste sensor for education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Tahara, Yusuke; Toko, Kiyoshi; Kuriyaki, Hisao

    2017-03-01

    In order to solve the unconcern to usefulness of learning science among high school students in Japan, we developed a simple fabricated taste sensor with sensitivity and selectivity to each taste quality, which can be applied in science class. A commercialized Teflon membrane was used as the polymer membrane holding lipids. In addition, a non-adhesive method is considered to combine the membrane and the sensor electrode using a plastic cap which is easily accessible. The taste sensor for education fabricated in this way showed a good selectivity and sensitivity. By adjusting the composition of trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMA) and phosphoric acid di(2-ethylhexyl) ester (PAEE) included in lipid solution, we improved the selectivity of this simple taste sensor to saltiness and sourness. To verify this taste sensor as a useful science teaching material for science class, we applied this taste sensor into a science class for university students. By comparing the results between the sensory test and the sensor response, humans taste showed the same tendency just as the sensor response, which proved the sensor as a useful teaching material for science class.

  20. Exploring Ethnic Differences in Taste Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Johnny A; Bartoshuk, Linda M; Fillingim, Roger B; Dotson, Cedrick D

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that nutritional intake can vary substantially as a function of demographic variables such as ethnicity and/or sex. Although a variety of factors are known to underlie the relationship between these demographic variables and nutritional intake, it is interesting to speculate that variation in food intake associated with ethnicity or sex may result, in part, from differences in the perceived taste of foods in these different populations. Thus, we initiated a study to evaluate taste responsiveness in different ethnic groups. Moreover, because of the known differences in taste responsiveness between males and females, analyses were stratified by sex. The ethnic groups tested differed significantly from one another in reported perceived taste intensity. Our results showed that Hispanics and African Americans rated taste sensations higher than non-Hispanic Whites and that these differences were more pronounced in males. Understanding the nature of these differences in taste perception is important, because taste perception may contribute to dietary health risk. When attempting to modify diet, individuals of different ethnicities may require personalized interventions that take into account the different sensory experience that these individuals may have when consuming foods.

  1. A Statistics-Based Cracking Criterion of Resin-Bonded Silica Sand for Casting Process Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin; Lu, Yan; Ripplinger, Keith; Detwiler, Duane; Luo, Alan A.

    2017-02-01

    Cracking of sand molds/cores can result in many casting defects such as veining. A robust cracking criterion is needed in casting process simulation for predicting/controlling such defects. A cracking probability map, relating to fracture stress and effective volume, was proposed for resin-bonded silica sand based on Weibull statistics. Three-point bending test results of sand samples were used to generate the cracking map and set up a safety line for cracking criterion. Tensile test results confirmed the accuracy of the safety line for cracking prediction. A laboratory casting experiment was designed and carried out to predict cracking of a cup mold during aluminum casting. The stress-strain behavior and the effective volume of the cup molds were calculated using a finite element analysis code ProCAST®. Furthermore, an energy dispersive spectroscopy fractographic examination of the sand samples confirmed the binder cracking in resin-bonded silica sand.

  2. Modelling of Corrosion Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed.......Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed....

  3. Corrosion-Fatigue Cracking in Al 7075 Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-09

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6355--14-9582 Corrosion -Fatigue Cracking in Al 7075 Alloys December 9, 2014 P.S. Pao...PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Corrosion -Fatigue Cracking in Al...Memorandum Report Corrosion -fatigue Aluminum alloys Environmental effect October 2011 – September 2014 63-2634-A4 Unclassified Unlimited Unclassified

  4. Influence of Crack Morphology on Leak Before Break Margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weilin Zang (Inspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of the project is to evaluate the deterministic LBB-margins for different pipe systems in a Swedish PWR-plant and using different crack morphology parameters. Results: - The influence of crack morphology on Leak Before Break (LBB) margins is studied. The subject of the report is a number of LBB-submittals to SKI where deterministic LBB-margins are reported. These submittals typically uses a surface roughness of 0.0762 mm (300 microinch) and number of turns equal to zero and an in-house code for the leak rate evaluations. The present report has shown that these conditions give the largest LBB-margins both in terms of the quotient between the critical crack length and the leakage crack size and for the leak rate margin. - Crack morphology parameters have a strong influence on the leak rate evaluations. Using the SQUIRT code and more recent recommendations for crack morphology parameters, it is shown that in many cases the evaluated margins, using 1 gpm as the reference leak rate detection limit, are below the safety factor of 2 on crack size and 10 on leak rate, which is generally required for LBB approval. - The effect of including weld residual stresses on the LBB margins is also investigated. It is shown that for the two examples studied, weld residual stresses were important for the small diameter thin wall pipe whereas it was negligible for the large diameter thick wall pipe which had a self-balanced weld residual stress distribution

  5. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M.

    2012-01-01

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from “local epithelium”, in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, ...

  6. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-Na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M.

    2014-01-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three ...

  7. Molecular mechanism for the umami taste synergism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Klebansky, Boris; Fine, Richard M; Xu, Hong; Pronin, Alexey; Liu, Haitian; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong

    2008-12-30

    Umami is one of the 5 basic taste qualities. The umami taste of L-glutamate can be drastically enhanced by 5' ribonucleotides and the synergy is a hallmark of this taste quality. The umami taste receptor is a heteromeric complex of 2 class C G-protein-coupled receptors, T1R1 and T1R3. Here we elucidate the molecular mechanism of the synergy using chimeric T1R receptors, site-directed mutagenesis, and molecular modeling. We propose a cooperative ligand-binding model involving the Venus flytrap domain of T1R1, where L-glutamate binds close to the hinge region, and 5' ribonucleotides bind to an adjacent site close to the opening of the flytrap to further stabilize the closed conformation. This unique mechanism may apply to other class C G-protein-coupled receptors.

  8. Molecular mechanism of the sweet taste enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Klebansky, Boris; Fine, Richard M; Liu, Haitian; Xu, Hong; Servant, Guy; Zoller, Mark; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong

    2010-03-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor have been developed as a new way of reducing dietary sugar intake. Besides their potential health benefit, the sweet taste enhancers are also valuable tool molecules to study the general mechanism of positive allosteric modulations of T1R taste receptors. Using chimeric receptors, mutagenesis, and molecular modeling, we reveal how these sweet enhancers work at the molecular level. Our data argue that the sweet enhancers follow a similar mechanism as the natural umami taste enhancer molecules. Whereas the sweeteners bind to the hinge region and induce the closure of the Venus flytrap domain of T1R2, the enhancers bind close to the opening and further stabilize the closed and active conformation of the receptor.

  9. Musical taste, employment, education, and global region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Adrian C; Davidson, Jane W

    2013-10-01

    Sociologists have argued that musical taste should vary between social groups, but have not considered whether the effect extends beyond taste into uses of music and also emotional reactions to music. Moreover, previous research has ignored the culture in which participants are located. The present research employed a large sample from five post-industrial global regions and showed that musical taste differed between regions but not according to education and employment; and that there were three-way interactions between education, employment, and region in the uses to which participants put music and also their typical emotional reactions. In addition to providing partial support for existing sociological theory, the findings highlight the potential of culture as a variable in future quantitative research on taste.

  10. Phenylthiocarbamide produces conditioned taste aversions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; Pour, Lindsay; Boughter, John D

    2005-06-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that SWR/J (SW) mice avoid phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) to a greater degree than C3HeB/FeJ mice in 48 h, two-bottle preference tests given in ascending series. The authors hypothesized, based also on previous work, that SW mice might form a conditioned taste aversion over time due to the toxic properties of PTC. We directly tested this hypothesis by attempting to condition a taste aversion to sucrose by injections of PTC. In experiment 1, PTC was nearly as effective as a strong dose of LiCl in reducing sucrose drinking. In experiment 2, the sucrose aversions were parametrically modified by both sucrose concentration and PTC dose, a hallmark of conditioned taste aversion. We conclude that PTC can cause a conditioned taste aversion and discuss the importance of considering toxic effects of aversive tastants when analyzing behavioral strain differences.

  11. The anatomy of mammalian sweet taste receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéron, Jean-Baptiste; Golebiowski, Jérôme; Antonczak, Serge; Fiorucci, Sébastien

    2017-02-01

    All sweet-tasting compounds are detected by a single G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), the heterodimer T1R2-T1R3, for which no experimental structure is available. The sweet taste receptor is a class C GPCR, and the recently published crystallographic structures of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1 and 5 provide a significant step forward for understanding structure-function relationships within this family. In this article, we recapitulate more than 600 single point site-directed mutations and available structural data to obtain a critical alignment of the sweet taste receptor sequences with respect to other class C GPCRs. Using this alignment, a homology 3D-model of the human sweet taste receptor is built and analyzed to dissect out the role of key residues involved in ligand binding and those responsible for receptor activation. Proteins 2017; 85:332-341. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Crack identification for rotating machines based on a nonlinear approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalini, A. A., Jr.; Sanches, L.; Bachschmid, N.; Steffen, V., Jr.

    2016-10-01

    In a previous contribution, a crack identification methodology based on a nonlinear approach was proposed. The technique uses external applied diagnostic forces at certain frequencies attaining combinational resonances, together with a pseudo-random optimization code, known as Differential Evolution, in order to characterize the signatures of the crack in the spectral responses of the flexible rotor. The conditions under which combinational resonances appear were determined by using the method of multiple scales. In real conditions, the breathing phenomenon arises from the stress and strain distribution on the cross-sectional area of the crack. This mechanism behavior follows the static and dynamic loads acting on the rotor. Therefore, the breathing crack can be simulated according to the Mayes' model, in which the crack transition from fully opened to fully closed is described by a cosine function. However, many contributions try to represent the crack behavior by machining a small notch on the shaft instead of the fatigue process. In this paper, the open and breathing crack models are compared regarding their dynamic behavior and the efficiency of the proposed identification technique. The additional flexibility introduced by the crack is calculated by using the linear fracture mechanics theory (LFM). The open crack model is based on LFM and the breathing crack model corresponds to the Mayes' model, which combines LFM with a given breathing mechanism. For illustration purposes, a rotor composed by a horizontal flexible shaft, two rigid discs, and two self-aligning ball bearings is used to compose a finite element model of the system. Then, numerical simulation is performed to determine the dynamic behavior of the rotor. Finally, the results of the inverse problem conveyed show that the methodology is a reliable tool that is able to estimate satisfactorily the location and depth of the crack.

  13. Wine Tasting Discourse: Traditional Knowledge, and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    STENGEL, Kilien; Marinescu, Angelica-Helena

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Traditions, brotherhoods, wines of terroir, vintage wines…so many expressions that, beyond the numerical value, compose the wine tasting speech, in France as well as in Romania, among others. The rising of awareness concerning traditions and heritage notions has largely evolved during the XXth century, spanning from the vineyard as a field for the theatricality of the brotherhoods to the considerations given to rites and customs, as well as to wine-tasting, till the la...

  14. Change of Taste Sensitivity of Clove Cigarette Smokers in Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Simamora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue has taste buds that contain taste receptor which affected by many factors, including smoking habit. Objective: To analyze the differences of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity in the pedicab driver clove cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers in Medan Padang Bulan. Methods: This study was conducted by placing the sweet taste strips and bitter taste strips on four taste receptors of the tongue, with increasing solution concentration in 74 subjects. This was a cross sectional study on pedicab driver population in Medan Padang Bulan. Results: There were differences between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on sweet taste examination (p<0.005. There was a difference between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on examination bitter taste receptors (p<0.005. On the clove cigarette smokers, there was no significant difference between sweet taste and bitter taste on the receptors itself. Conclusion: Non-smokers are more sensitive to sweet taste than the clove cigarette smokers. Bitter taste sensitivity is greater in cigarettes smokers than in non-smokers. Taste receptors on all location of the tongue could taste sweet and bitter substances, but a certain location of taste receptors were more sensitive compared to others.

  15. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-07-01

    Sight is undoubtedly not only important for food identification and selection but also for the modulation of gustatory sensitivity. We can, therefore, assume that taste sensitivity and eating habits are affected by visual deprivation from birth. We measured taste detection and identification thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data further indicate that blind subjects more strongly rely on internal hunger and satiety cues, instead of external contextual or emotional cues, to decide when and what to eat. We suggest that the lower taste sensitivity observed in congenitally blind individuals is due to various blindness-related obstacles when shopping for food, cooking and eating out, all of which contribute to underexpose the gustatory system to a larger variety of taste stimuli.

  16. Smell and taste in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Silke; Reindl, Wolfgang; Dempfle, Astrid; Schuster, Anna; Wolf, Petra; Hundt, Walter; Huber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the olfactory/gustatory functions of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by smell/taste tests, and to determine if disease activity or medication might influence the olfactory/gustatory functions of patients. In total, 59 IBD patients (37 Crohn's disease (CD) and 22 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients) were studied using "Sniffin' sticks" and "taste strips" for olfactory and gustatory tests, respectively, and compared to healthy controls and published normative data. Among IBD (CD and UC) patients, the values for odor threshold, but not for odor identification or discrimination, were significantly lower than that of the normative data. Further, these patients showed lower values than the normative taste values and the control group for all tastes, except sour; 57.6% of the IBD patients were hyposmic, while 30.5% were hypogeusic. Subjective self-assessments showed that the patients were not aware of their reduced olfactory/gustatory functions. There were no relevant differences in taste and smell abilities between the CD and UC patients. Disease activity and treatment did not influence the olfactory/gustatory functions. IBD (CD and UC) patients exhibited significant reductions in the olfactory and gustatory functions. Therefore, patients should be tested by smell/taste tests, in order to be adequately informed of their olfactory/gustatory functions and provided an understanding of how to overcome their limitations, and thus improve their quality of life.

  17. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Cedrick D; Zhang, Lan; Xu, Hong; Shin, Yu-Kyong; Vigues, Stephan; Ott, Sandra H; Elson, Amanda E T; Choi, Hyun Jin; Shaw, Hillary; Egan, Josephine M; Mitchell, Braxton D; Li, Xiaodong; Steinle, Nanette I; Munger, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease.

  18. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedrick D Dotson

    Full Text Available TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease.

  19. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-08-15

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from "local epithelium", in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, well-characterized mouse lines, Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre that express Cre recombinase in a NC-specific manner, in combination with two Cre reporter mouse lines, R26R and ZEG, and demonstrate a contribution of NC-derived cells to both tongue mesenchyme and epithelium including taste papillae and taste buds. In tongue mesenchyme, distribution of NC-derived cells is in close association with taste papillae. In tongue epithelium, labeled cells are observed in an initial scattered distribution and progress to a clustered pattern between papillae, and within papillae and early taste buds. This provides evidence for a contribution of NC to lingual epithelium. Together with previous reports for the origin of taste bud cells from local epithelium in postnatal mouse, we propose that NC cells migrate into and reside in the epithelium of the tongue primordium at an early embryonic stage, acquire epithelial cell phenotypes, and undergo cell proliferation and differentiation that is involved in the development of taste papillae and taste buds. Our findings lead to a new concept about derivation of taste bud cells that include a NC origin.

  20. Taste preferences and taste thresholds to classical taste substances in the carnivorous fish, kutum Rutilus frisii kutum (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Sheyda; Jafari, Valiollah; Ghorbani, Rassol; Kasumyan, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the taste preferences in the closely related sympatric fish species with different feeding patterns. For this purpose, palatability for four classical taste substances was evaluated for carnivorous kutum Rutilus frisii kutum and the results were compared with the taste preferences of the omnivorous roach Rutilus rutilus which had been studied earlier. In addition, the threshold concentration and the dose-response relationship of the most palatable tastants were evaluated and the ability of kutum to differentiate food with tastants in different concentrations was estimated. It was found that citric acid significantly increases the agar gel pellet consumption within the range of concentrations from 0.01M to 0.52M; the pellets with a concentration of 0.026M were the most palatable. The pellet consumption is significantly different if the concentration of citric acid in the pellets differs more than two times. The absolute threshold concentration is 0.01M, or 2.74μg of citric acid per pellet. Sucrose and NaCl have deterrent taste at the highest concentrations tested (0.29 and 1.73M, respectively). Both substances are palatable at 10 times lower concentrations and become indifferent after further gradual decrease in their concentration. CaCl2 decreases the pellets consumption at 0.9M but is an indifferent tastant at lower concentrations (0.45, 0.09 and 0.045M). The number of rejections and repeated grasps of a food pellet is fewness and is not related to the pellet's palatability, while the retention time of pellet in the oral cavity positively and highly correlates with the pellet's palatability. Kutum have opposite taste preferences for most substances tested in comparison with the roach. It indicates that the taste preferences mediated by the oral taste receptors are different in closely related sympatric fish displayed diet divergences.

  1. Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery and Renewal of Flavor Preferences Based on Taste-Taste Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estrella; De la Casa, L. G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal in a conditioned preferences paradigm based on taste-taste associations. More specifically, in three experiments rats exposed to a simultaneous compound of citric acid-saccharin solution showed a preference for the citric solution when the preference was measured with a…

  2. Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery and Renewal of Flavor Preferences Based on Taste-Taste Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estrella; De la Casa, L. G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal in a conditioned preferences paradigm based on taste-taste associations. More specifically, in three experiments rats exposed to a simultaneous compound of citric acid-saccharin solution showed a preference for the citric solution when the preference was measured with a…

  3. Effect of concentration on taste-taste interactions with foods for elderly and young subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Heidema, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.

    2004-01-01

    An increase in concentration of one of the tastants in a 'real food' might affect not only the perception of the taste quality of that manipulated tastant but also the other perceivable taste qualities. The influence of concentration increase of sodium or potassium chloride in tomato soup, sucrose o

  4. Interactions between Flavor and Taste: Using Dashi Soup as a Taste Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many researches showing interactions between olfaction and taste. Many of them supported that the interactions are not innate, but are learned through our daily eating experiences. Stevenson (2009 called this phenomenon as “learned synesthesia”. The authors also showed the interactions between flavor and taste are learned and processed by higher cognitive systems in rats and humans (Sakai et al., 2001; Sakai and Imada, 2003. Here the interactions between umami taste and dashi flavors are developed by the daily eating experience of Japanese traditional cuisine. Twenty flavors (such as sea weed, bonito, onion, garlic, ginger etc. by courtesy of YAMAHO CO. Ltd. were used as flavor stimuli. Taste stimuli are monosodium glutamate (umami substance, MSG, miso soup, and Katsuo Dashi (bonito soup stock. Participants tasted these stimuli, 12∼20 stimuli in a day, and evaluated the strength of umami taste, the palatability, congruity between taste and flavor with 100 mm visual analogue scales. The results of evaluations analyzed with the participants' daily eating experience showed the interactions between taste and flavor are developed by their own daily intake of traditional Japanese cuisine, especially dashi soup.

  5. Facilitation of Taste Memory Acquisition by Experiencing Previous Novel Taste Is Protein-Synthesis Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhav, Maayan; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2008-01-01

    Very little is known about the biological and molecular mechanisms that determine the effect of previous experience on implicit learning tasks. In the present study, we first defined weak and strong taste inputs according to measurements in the behavioral paradigm known as latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion. We then demonstrated that…

  6. Exploring taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Mari; Shinada, Kayoko; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Wright, Fredrick Allan Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of taste hyposensitivity and the relationships between sex, oral health status, and eating habits with taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Oral examinations, sweet and salt whole-mouth taste tests, and a questionnaire about eating habits were conducted on 234 senior high school students. Factors affecting taste hyposensitivity were investigated using a multivariate analysis. Sweet-taste hyposensitivity was observed in 7.3% of the students, and salt-taste hyposensitivity in 22.2%. Approximately 3% of the students had both sweet- and salt-taste hyposensitivity, and 22.6% had either sweet- or salt-taste hyposensitivity. In total, 26% had a taste hyposensitivity. There were significant relationships between the intake of instant noodles with sweet-taste hyposensitivity, and the intake of vegetables or isotonic drinks with salt-taste hyposensitivity. There was a significant association between eating habits and taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Taste tests would be a helpful adjunct for students to recognize variations in taste sensitivity, and a questionnaire about their eating habits might provide an effective self-review of their eating habits, and therefore, provide motivation to change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Using sound-taste correspondences to enhance the subjective value of tasting experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Van Ee, Raymond; Rychtarikova, Monika; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris; Persoone, Dominique; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate’s taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop’s own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food’s identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations. PMID:26388813

  8. Maintenance of Mouse Gustatory Terminal Field Organization Is Disrupted following Selective Removal of Peripheral Sodium Salt Taste Activity at Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyberg, Rolf; Sun, Chengsan; Hill, David L

    2017-08-09

    Neural activity plays a critical role in the development of central circuits in sensory systems. However, the maintenance of these circuits at adulthood is usually not dependent on sensory-elicited neural activity. Recent work in the mouse gustatory system showed that selectively deleting the primary transduction channel for sodium taste, the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), throughout development dramatically impacted the organization of the central terminal fields of three nerves that carry taste information to the nucleus of the solitary tract. More specifically, deleting ENaCs during development prevented the normal maturation of the fields. The present study was designed to extend these findings by testing the hypothesis that the loss of sodium taste activity impacts the maintenance of the normal adult terminal field organization in male and female mice. To do this, we used an inducible Cre-dependent genetic recombination strategy to delete ENaC function after terminal field maturation occurred. We found that removal of sodium taste neural activity at adulthood resulted in significant reorganization of mature gustatory afferent terminal fields in the nucleus of the solitary tract. Specifically, the chorda tympani and greater superficial petrosal nerve terminal fields were 1.4× and 1.6× larger than age-matched controls, respectively. By contrast, the glossopharyngeal nerve, which is not highly sensitive to sodium taste stimulation, did not undergo terminal field reorganization. These surprising results suggest that gustatory nerve terminal fields remain plastic well into adulthood, which likely impacts central coding of taste information and taste-related behaviors with altered taste experience.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural activity plays a major role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. However, the importance of sensory-driven activity in maintaining these circuits at adulthood, especially in subcortical structures, appears to be

  9. Time-dependent corrosion fatique crack propagation in 7000 series aluminum alloys. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mark E.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this research is to characterize environmentally assisted subcritical crack growth for the susceptible short-longitudinal orientation of aluminum alloy 7075-T651, immersed in acidified and inhibited NaCl solution. This work is necessary in order to provide a basis for incorporating environmental effects into fatigue crack propagation life prediction codes such as NASA-FLAGRO (NASGRO). This effort concentrates on determining relevant inputs to a superposition model in order to more accurately model environmental fatigue crack propagation.

  10. Expectations influence sensory experience in a wine tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Cousin, Marie-Eve

    2009-06-01

    Information about a product may shape consumers' taste experience. In a wine tasting experiment, participants received (positive or negative) information about the wine prior to or after the tasting. When the information was given prior to the tasting, negative information about the wine resulted in lower ratings compared to the group that received positive information. No such effect was observed when participants received the information after the tasting but before they evaluated the wine. Results suggest that the information about the wine affected the experience itself and not only participants' overall assessment of the wine after the tasting.

  11. Food Science of Dashi and Umami Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

     Umami is a basic tastes, along with sweet, salty, bitter and sour, which is imparted by glutamate, one of the free amino acids in foods. Since its discovery of umami by a Japanese scientist in 1908, umami is now perceived globally a basic taste. Recent collaboration among chefs and researchers on traditional soup stocks showed a difference in taste profiles of Japanese soup stock 'dashi' and Western style soup stock. The free amino acids profile's in dashi and soup stock showed how Japanese have traditionally adopted a simple umami taste. The exchange of knowledge on cooking methods and diverse types of umami rich foods in different countries displays the blending of the culinary arts, food science and technology for healthy and tasty solutions. Since Japanese cuisine 'WASHOKU' was listed in the 'Intangible Heritage of UNESCO' in 2013, many people in the world now have great interest in Japanese cuisine. One of the unique characteristics of this cuisine is that 'dashi' is an indispensable material for cooking a variety of Japanese dishes. Many chefs from Europe, US and South America have come to Japan to learn Japanese cuisine in the last 10 years, and umami has become recognized as a common taste worldwide. Researchers and culinary professionals have begun to pay attention to the traditional seasonings and condiments rich in glutamate available throughout the world.

  12. Subcooled choked flow through steam generator tube cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Brian J.

    The work presented here describes an experimental investigation into the choked flow of initially subcooled water through simulated steam generator tube cracks at pressures up to 6.9 MPa. The study of such flow is relevant to the prediction of leak flow rates from a nuclear reactor primary side to secondary side through cracks in steam generator tubes. An experimental approach to measuring such flow is de- scribed. Experimental results from data found in literature as well as the data collected in this work are compared with predictions from presented models as well as predictions from the thermal-hydraulic system code RELAP5. It is found that the homogeneous equilibrium model underpredicts choked flow rates of subcooled water through slits and artificial steam generator tube cracks. Additional modeling of thermal non-equilibrium improves the predictibility of choking mass flux for homogeneous models, however they fail to account for the characteristics of the two-phase pressure drop. An integral modeling approach is enhanced using a correlation developed from the data herein. Also, an assessment of the thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5 is performed and it’s applicability to predict choking flow rates through steam generator tube cracks is addressed. This assessment determined that the Henry & Fauske model, as coded in RELAP5, is best suited for modeling choked flow through steam generator tube cracks. Finally, an approach to applying choked flow data that is not at the same thermo-dynamic conditions as a prototype is developed.

  13. Effect of fracture surface roughness on shear crack growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, T.S.; Watt, D.W. (New Hampshire Univ., Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Mendelsohn, D.A. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Engineering Mechanics)

    1992-12-01

    A model of fracture surface interference for Mode I fatigue crack profiles was developed and evaluated. Force required to open the crack faces is estimated from point contact expressions for Mode I stress intensity factor. Force transfer across contacting asperities is estimated and used to calculate Mode II resistance stress intensity factor (applied factor is sum of effective and resistance factors). Electro-optic holographic interferometry was used to measure 3-D displacement field around a Mode I fatigue pre-crack in Al loaded in Mode II shear. Induced Mode I crack face displacements were greater than Mode II displacements. Plane stress shear lip caused displacement normal to surface as the crack faces are displaced. Algorithms are being developed to track the displacements associated with the original coordinate system in the camera. A 2-D boundary element method code for mixed mode I and II loading of a rough crack (sawtooth asperity model) has been completed. Addition of small-scale crack tip yielding and a wear model are completed and underway, respectively.

  14. Gradient plasticity crack tip characterization by means of the extended finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Natarajan, S.; Bordas, S.

    2017-01-01

    Strain gradient plasticity theories are being widelyused for fracture assessment, as they provide a richerdescription of crack tip fields by incorporating the influenceof geometrically necessary dislocations. Characterizingthe behavior at the small scales involved in crack tip deformationrequires...... applications. The non-linear X-FEMcode developed in MATLAB can be downloaded fromwww.empaneda.com/codes....

  15. Analysis of Dynamic Fracture Parameters in Functionally Graded Material Plates with Cracks by Graded Finite Element Method and Virtual Crack Closure Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the finite element software ABAQUS and graded element method, we developed a dummy node fracture element, wrote the user subroutines UMAT and UEL, and solved the energy release rate component of functionally graded material (FGM plates with cracks. An interface element tailored for the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT was applied. Fixed cracks and moving cracks under dynamic loads were simulated. The results were compared to other VCCT-based analyses. With the implementation of a crack speed function within the element, it can be easily expanded to the cases of varying crack velocities, without convergence difficulty for all cases. Neither singular element nor collapsed element was required. Therefore, due to its simplicity, the VCCT interface element is a potential tool for engineers to conduct dynamic fracture analysis in conjunction with commercial finite element analysis codes.

  16. Effects of haemodialysis on taste and thirst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R; Farleigh, C A; Atkinson, C; Pryor, J S

    1987-10-01

    Fifteen patients undergoing haemodialysis tasted soup varying in salt concentration and apple puree varying in sucrose concentration, immediately before and after dialysis. Matched controls tasted the same foods with a similar interval between tastings. The samples were rated for intensity, and on a relative-to-ideal scale. For the salt, the slopes of the functions plotted against log (concentration) were higher after dialysis than before, whilst the most preferred concentration was lower. There were no effects found for the sweetness ratings or for the controls. Likewise there were no overall differences in the ratings between the patients and controls. Thirst was found to increase on dialysis, and there was a trend of this being higher for the patients than for the controls. The reduction in preferences for salt by dialysis would make compliance with a reduced salt diet easier, but the increase in thirst would make compliance with reduced fluid intake more difficult.

  17. Taste-immunosuppression engram: reinforcement and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Maj-Britt; Härting, Margarete; Kou, Wei; Del Rey, Adriana; Besedovsky, Hugo O; Schedlowski, Manfred; Pacheco-López, Gustavo

    2007-08-01

    Several Pavlovian conditioning paradigms have documented the brain's abilities to sense immune-derived signals or immune status, associate them with concurrently relevant extereoceptive stimuli, and reinstate such immune responses on demand. Specifically, the naturalistic relation of food ingestion with its possible immune consequences facilitates taste-immune associations. Here we demonstrate that the saccharin taste can be associated with the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A, and that such taste-immune associative learning is subject to reinforcement. Furthermore, once consolidated, this saccharin-immunosuppression engram is resistant to extinction when avoidance behavior is assessed. More importantly, the more this engram is activated, either at association or extinction phases, the more pronounced is the conditioned immunosuppression.

  18. Is fat taste ready for primetime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPatrizio, Nicholas V

    2014-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that gustation is important for the orosensory detection of dietary fats, and might contribute to preferences that humans, rodents, and possibly other mammals exhibit for fat-rich foods. In contrast to sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami, fat is not widely recognized as a primary taste quality. Recent investigations, however, provide a wealth of information that is helping to elucidate the specific molecular, cellular, and neural mechanisms required for fat detection in mammals. The latest evidence supporting a fat taste will be explored in this review, with a particular focus on recent studies that suggest a surprising role for gut-brain endocannabinoid signaling in controlling intake and preference for fats based on their proposed taste properties.

  19. Sensing via intestinal sweet taste pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Young

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract is of fundamental significance to the control of motility, glycaemia and energy intake, and yet we barely know the most fundamental aspects of this process. This is in stark contrast to the mechanisms underlying the detection of lingual taste, which have been increasingly well characterised in recent years, and which provide an excellent starting point for characterising nutrient detection in the intestine. This review focuses on the form and function of sweet taste transduction mechanisms identified in the intestinal tract; it does not focus on sensors for fatty acids or proteins. It examines the intestinal cell types equipped with sweet taste transduction molecules in animals and humans, their location, and potential signals that transduce the presence of nutrients to neural pathways involved in reflex control of gastrointestinal motility.

  20. Fatigue crack growth under remote and local compression – a state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chahardehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ever increasing need for accurate understanding of the fatigue crack growth behaviour in major engineering materials and components. With the move towards more complex, probabilistic assessments, the traditional ‘safe’ or conservative approach for prediction of fatigue crack growth rate may no longer be attractive. Current codes and standards tend to be ambiguous about the treatment of compressive stress cycles: on the one hand code guidance on fatigue crack initiation may be non-conservative, while assessment of crack propagation may be inconsistently conservative. Where codes are non-conservative they could lead to dangerous assessments. The current paper provides a critical review of state-of-the-art in literature and a study of current code implications.

  1. UK: Organic foods win the taste test

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2013-01-01

    Nine categories of organic versus non-organic products were scored for taste on a scale of 1 to 5. The organic products were from the Duchy Originals range produced by Prince Charles’s organic food company and sold at Waitrose, a UK supermarket chain. The comparable alternatives were sourced from Tesco, Sainsbury, Morrisons, Marks & Spencer, ASDA, Lidl, and Aldi. In these taste tests conducted by UK journalist/chef Anne Shooter the organic products lead in seven of the nine product categories...

  2. Contribution of different taste cells and signaling pathways to the discrimination of "bitter" taste stimuli by an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, John I; Davis, Adrienne; Ramaswamy, Sudha

    2002-08-15

    Animals can discriminate among many different types of foods. This discrimination process involves multiple sensory systems, but the sense of taste is known to play a central role. We asked how the taste system contributes to the discrimination of different "bitter" taste stimuli in Manduca sexta caterpillars. This insect has approximately eight bilateral pairs of taste cells that respond selectively to bitter taste stimuli. Each bilateral pair of bitter-sensitive taste cells has a different molecular receptive range (MRR); some of these taste cells also contain two signaling pathways with distinctive MRRs and temporal patterns of spiking. To test for discrimination, we habituated the caterpillar's taste-mediated aversive response to one bitter taste stimulus (salicin) and then asked whether this habituation phenomenon generalized to four other bitter taste stimuli (caffeine, aristolochic acid, Grindelia extract, and Canna extract). We inferred that the two compounds were discriminable if the habituation phenomenon failed to generalize (e.g., from salicin to aristolochic acid). We found that M. sexta could discriminate between salicin and those bitter taste stimuli that activate (1) different populations of bitter-sensitive taste cells (Grindelia extract and Canna extract) or (2) different signaling pathways within the same bitter-sensitive taste cell (aristolochic acid). M. sexta could not discriminate between salicin and a bitter taste stimulus that activates the same signaling pathway within the same bitter-sensitive taste cell (caffeine). We propose that the heterogeneous population of bitter-sensitive taste cells and signaling pathways within this insect facilitates the discrimination of bitter taste stimuli.

  3. Metallic taste in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpma, I.; Renken, R. J.; ter Horst, G. J.; Reyners, A. K. L.

    Background: Metallic taste is a taste alteration frequently reported by cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Attention to this side effect of chemotherapy is limited. This review addresses the definition, assessment methods, prevalence, duration, etiology, and management strategies of metallic

  4. Metallic taste in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpma, I.; Renken, R. J.; ter Horst, G. J.; Reyners, A. K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metallic taste is a taste alteration frequently reported by cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Attention to this side effect of chemotherapy is limited. This review addresses the definition, assessment methods, prevalence, duration, etiology, and management strategies of metallic

  5. Fatigue Crack Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    evaluating ciack initiation time and crack propagation, prgram I was used for performing the major fatigue test with the aircraft structure. In...advantage to begin with the end of the fracture, this is especially so in the case of the quantitative evaluation of striations. The overload fracture...Select the Measuring Line for Quantitative Evaluation Actually, the fatigue fracture should be inspected completely from the point of origin to the

  6. Cracking in desiccating soils

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Soil shrinkage is produced typically under desiccating conditions. Eventually shrinkage may generate cracks in the soil mass, a phenomenon that is being studied by several researchers, because its prediction is far from being a routine in Soil Mechanics. Within this context, Unsaturated Soil Mechanics provides a promising framework to understand the mechanisms involved. In addition to that, physical modelling of desiccating soils constitutes a good tool to explore the nature of this problem. ...

  7. Utopia Cracks and Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-339, 23 April 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a pattern of polygonal cracks and aligned, elliptical pits in western Utopia Planitia. The picture covers an area about 3 km (about 1.9 mi) wide near 44.9oN, 274.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  8. Gustology As A Science About The Aesthetical Taste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NataliaG.Kalashnik

    2003-01-01

    The new problem to be solved together; Last decade's changes of the world; The aesthetical taste as a part of day-by-day life; Gustology - the new science; Definitions and the double nature of the aesthetical taste; History of the aesthetical taste studying.

  9. Representation of Sweet and Salty Taste Intensity in the Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The intensity of the taste of a food is affected mostly by the amount of sugars (mono- and disaccharides) or salt it contains. To season savory-tasting foods mainly table salt (NaCl) is used and to sweeten foods, sugars like sucrose are used. Foods with highly intense tastes are consumed in smaller

  10. Representation of Sweet and Salty Taste Intensity in the Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The intensity of the taste of a food is affected mostly by the amount of sugars (mono- and disaccharides) or salt it contains. To season savory-tasting foods mainly table salt (NaCl) is used and to sweeten foods, sugars like sucrose are used. Foods with highly intense tastes are consumed in smaller

  11. Sweet Taste Signaling and the Formation of Memories of Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan E De Araujo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The last decade witnessed remarkable advances in our knowledge of the gustatory system. Application of molecular biology techniques not only determined the identity of the membrane receptors and downstream effectors that mediate sweetness, but also uncovered the overall logic of gustatory coding in the periphery. However, while the ability to taste sweet may offer the obvious advantage of eliciting rapid and robust intake of sugars, a number of recent studies demonstrate that sweetness is neither necessary nor sufficient for the formation of long-lasting preferences for stimuli associated with sugar intake. Furthermore, uncoupling sweet taste from ensuing energy utilization may disrupt body weight control. This minireview examines recent experiments performed in both rodents and Drosophila revealing the taste-independent rewarding properties of metabolizable sugars. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate the reinforcing actions of sugars in the absence of sweet taste signaling and point to a critical role played by dopamine systems in translating metabolic sensing into behavioral action. From a mechanistic viewpoint, current evidence favors the concept that gastrointestinal and post-absorptive signals contribute in parallel to sweet-independent sugar acceptance and dopamine release.

  12. Association of schizophrenia with the phenylthiocarbamide taste receptor haplotype on chromosome 7q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, Paul J; Li, Mingyao; Kanes, Stephen J; Gur, Raquel E; Kamath, Vidyulata; Turetsky, Bruce I

    2012-12-01

    Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste sensitivity is an inherited trait determined primarily by allelic variation of the taste-receptor gene TAS2R38 on chromosome 7q. Results of prior studies examining the ability to taste PTC in patients with schizophrenia have been mixed because of the difficulties in measuring PTC taste sensitivity behaviorally. In the current study, we examined the TAS2R38 genotypes of schizophrenia patients to determine whether the increased prevalence of nontasters in this patient population was indicative of a specific genetic association. Our a-priori hypothesis was that schizophrenia patients would show an increased prevalence of the nontaster phenotype compared with controls. The genotypes of two nonsynonymous coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms in TAS2R38 were assayed for 176 schizophrenia patients and 229 healthy control individuals, and the two-allele haplotypes were estimated. There was an over-representation of the major PTC nontaster haplotype among patients of European descent, relative to control individuals of similar ancestry. Patients and controls of African ancestry did not differ. The PTC nontaster haplotype is a genetic marker that may be used to identify subsets of schizophrenia patients who potentially harbor vulnerability genes in this region of chromosome 7q.

  13. Optimization and validation of a taste dilution analysis to characterize wine taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, R; Mateo-Vivaracho, L; Cacho, J; Ferreira, V

    2007-08-01

    A procedure for the general taste dilution analysis (TDA) of wine has been optimized and applied to characterize the tastants of 5 different wines. Samples are concentrated first by vacuum distillation at 20 degrees C to obtain a dearomatized concentrate. Such concentrate is redissolved in water and injected in a semipreparative C18-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column. The effluent is separated in fractions that are collected and concentrated by vacuum distillation. Sequential dilutions of the fractions are further evaluated by a sensory panel to assess the intensity of the basic tastes and in-mouth sensations. Fractions were also submitted to HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to screen for known tastants of wines. The Taste Dilution chromatograms showed that taste differences between wines are mainly located in fractions 1, 2, and 6, and are mainly related to bitterness and astringency. Different aspects of the method setup and of its reliability are evaluated and discussed.

  14. The sweet taste of true synergy: positive allosteric modulation of the human sweet taste receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2011-11-01

    A diet low in carbohydrates helps to reduce the amount of ingested calories and to maintain a healthy weight. With this in mind, food and beverage companies have reformulated a large number of their products, replacing sugar or high fructose corn syrup with several different types of zero-calorie sweeteners to decrease or even totally eliminate their caloric content. A challenge remains, however, with the level of acceptance of some of these products in the market-place. Many consumers believe that zero-calorie sweeteners simply do not taste like sugar. A recent breakthrough reveals that positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor, small molecules that enhance the receptor activity and sweetness perception, could be more effective than other reported taste enhancers at reducing calories in consumer products without compromising on the true taste of sugar. A unique mechanism of action at the receptor level could explain the robust synergy achieved with these new modulators.

  15. Tasteful Brands: Products of Brands Perceived to be Warm and Competent Taste Subjectively Better

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyka Bratanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using survey and experimental data, the present research examines the effect of brand perception on experienced taste. The content of brand perception can be organized along the two social perception dimensions of warmth and competence. We use these two dimensions to systematically investigate the influence of brand perception on experienced taste and consumer behavior toward food products. The brand’s perceived warmth and competence independently influenced taste, both when it was measured as a belief and as an embodied experience following consumption. Taste mediated the link between brand’s warmth and competence perceptions and three consumer behavioral tendencies crucial for the marketing success of brands: buying intentions, brand loyalty, and support for the brand.

  16. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David

    2004-01-01

    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  17. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David

    2004-01-01

    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  18. Music Taste Groups and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Juul; ter Bogt, Tom; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Cluster analysis on their music…

  19. Subjective intensity and pleasantness in taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis contains studies on intensity and pleasantness in taste perception. There is a formal relationship between intensity and hedonic value of stimuli, which can be expressed in an inverted U. The fact that pleasantness depends partially on stimulus intensity poses a problem when one wants to

  20. Music taste groups and problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Juul; Bogt, Tom ter; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-

  1. Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

  2. Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Tasting and Reported Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Paul B.

    1986-01-01

    The phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste test was investigated for its potential as a genetically based biological marker for depression. Results indicated PTC tasters reported significantly higher levels of depression on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) than nontasters and they scored higher on 5 of the 21 items. (Author/BL)

  3. Crack Tip Parameters for Growing Cracks in Linear Viscoelastic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune

    intensity factors. In the special case of a constant Poisson ratio only 2 deformation intensity factors are needed. Closed form solutions are given both for a slowly growing crack and for a crack that is suddenly arrested at a point at the crack extension path. Two examples are studied; a stress boundary...... value problem, and a displacement boundary value problem. The results show that the stress intensity factors and the displacement intensity factors do not depend explicitly upon the velocity of the crack tip....

  4. TASTE MASKING METHODS AND AGENTS IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirajkar Reshma Nilesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a critical factor during development of any dosage form and it is important parameter in administering drugs orally. Undesirable and particularly bitter taste is one of the important formulation problems that are encountered with many drugs. Proven methods for bitterness reduction and inhibition have resulted in improved palatability of oral pharmaceuticals. The present review explains in detail the various methods and agents used for taste-masking like, Inclusion complexation, Ion exchange resin, Coating, Granulation, Microencapsulation, Flavors, and Sweeteners, Pro-drug etc.The review also highlights factors affecting the selection of technology for taste masking and methods for evaluation of taste.

  5. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Graphite Materials with Cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestchanyi, S.E.; Landman, I.S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology

    2004-08-01

    The dependence of effective thermal diffusivity on temperature caused by volumetric cracks is modelled for macroscopic graphite samples using the three-dimensional thermomechanics code Pegasus-3D. At high off-normal heat loads typical of the divertor armour, thermostress due to the anisotropy of graphite grains is much larger than that due to the temperature gradient. Numerical simulation demonstrated that the volumetric crack density both in fine grain graphites and in the CFC matrix depends mainly on the local sample temperature, not on the temperature gradient. This allows to define an effective thermal diffusivity for graphite with cracks. The results obtained are used to explain intense cracking and particle release from carbon based materials under electron beam heat load. Decrease of graphite thermal diffusivity with increase of the crack density explains particle release mechanism in the experiments with CFC where a clear energy threshold for the onset of particle release has been observed. Surface temperature measurement is necessary to calibrate the Pegasus-3D code for simulation of ITER divertor armour brittle destruction.

  6. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Graphite Materials with Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestchaanyi, S. E.; Landman, I. S.

    The dependence of effective thermal diffusivity on temperature caused by volumetric cracks is modelled for macroscopic graphite samples using the three-dimensional thermomechanics code Pegasus-3D. At high off-normal heat loads typical of the divertor armour, thermostress due to the anisotropy of graphite grains is much larger than that due to the temperature gradient. Numerical simulation demonstrated that the volumetric crack density both in fine grain graphites and in the CFC matrix depends mainly on the local sample temperature, not on the temperature gradient. This allows to define an effective thermal diffusivity for graphite with cracks. The results obtained are used to explain intense cracking and particle release from carbon based materials under electron beam heat load. Decrease of graphite thermal diffusivity with increase of the crack density explains particle release mechanism in the experiments with CFC where a clear energy threshold for the onset of particle release has been observed in J. Linke et al. Fusion Eng. Design, in press, Bazyler et al., these proceedings. Surface temperature measurement is necessary to calibrate the Pegasus-3D code for simulation of ITER divertor armour brittle destruction.

  7. Study on stress intensity factors for crack on involute spur gear tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the stress intensity factors has a great importance to predict the fatigue damage for the involute spur gears. The aim of this article is to reveal the variation laws of stress intensity factors for crack on the involute spur gear tooth. For this purpose, a three-dimensional finite element model for calculating the stress intensity factors of the involute spur gear containing a surface crack is established using the finite element code ABAQUS. Based on the established three-dimensional finite element model, the influences of several parameters, such as torque, friction coefficient, crack depth, crack initial location, and crack size, on mode I, mode II, and mode III stress intensity factors are investigated numerically. The results of the study provide valuable guidelines for enhanced understanding of stress intensity factors for the crack on the involute spur gear tooth.

  8. A Study on Crack Detection with Modal Parameters of A Jacket Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兆德; 王德禹

    2004-01-01

    Crack detection procedures by different modal parameters are analyzed for identifying a crack and its location and magnitude in a jacket platform. The first ten natural frequencies and modal shapes of the jacket models are obtained by numerical experiments based on NASTRAN Code. A crack at different locations and of different magnitudes is imposed in the model at the underwater beams. Then, the modal evaluation parameters are calculated numerically, to illustrate the evaluation of modal parameter criteria used in jacket crack detection. The sensitivities of different modal parameters to different cracks are analyzed. A new technique is presented for predicting the approximate location of a breakage in the absence of the data of an intact model. This method can be used to detect a crack in underwater members by use of in complete mode shapes of the top members of the jacket.

  9. Leptin Suppresses Mouse Taste Cell Responses to Sweet Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Kenshi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is known to selectively suppress neural and behavioral responses to sweet-tasting compounds. However, the molecular basis for the effect of leptin on sweet taste is not known. Here, we report that leptin suppresses sweet taste via leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) and KATP channels expressed selectively in sweet-sensitive taste cells. Ob-Rb was more often expressed in taste cells that expressed T1R3 (a sweet receptor component) than in those that expressed glutamate-aspartate transporter (a marker for Type I taste cells) or GAD67 (a marker for Type III taste cells). Systemically administered leptin suppressed taste cell responses to sweet but not to bitter or sour compounds. This effect was blocked by a leptin antagonist and was absent in leptin receptor–deficient db/db mice and mice with diet-induced obesity. Blocking the KATP channel subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1, which was frequently coexpressed with Ob-Rb in T1R3-expressing taste cells, eliminated the effect of leptin on sweet taste. In contrast, activating the KATP channel with diazoxide mimicked the sweet-suppressing effect of leptin. These results indicate that leptin acts via Ob-Rb and KATP channels that are present in T1R3-expressing taste cells to selectively suppress their responses to sweet compounds. PMID:26116698

  10. GUSTATORY SYSTEM AND MASKING THE TASTE OF BITTER HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Kale, Chetan Tapre and Abhay Ittadwar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The oral route is the most easy and favorable route of drug administration. The development of oral formulations containing bitter herbs has widely been required in pharmaceutical and herbal industry. The human gustatory system is capable of identifying five major taste qualities: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (savory. Different receptors and transduction mechanisms are involved in the detection of each taste quality. Many efforts have been focused to improve the palatability in these products that has prompted in the development of numerous techniques of taste masking. Once a method for taste masking is adopted, it becomes apparent to evaluate the effectiveness of the taste masked product. The major hurdle in evaluation of measuring the effectiveness of taste masking is that the taste is a highly subjective property and it varies demographically and with the age and gender. This communication gives a brief account of gustatory system, the receptor and transduction mechanism of bitter taste and various techniques used in taste masking of the bitters. The review also reveals the in-vitro and in-vivo methods for evaluating taste masked efficiency of developed product. Finally, the review concludes that proper choice of method for taste masking method is essential and it might depend on the properties of the herbs.

  11. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  12. The discovery and mechanism of sweet taste enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine

    2011-08-01

    Excess sugar intake posts several health problems. Artificial sweeteners have been used for years to reduce dietary sugar content, but they are not ideal substitutes for sugar owing to their off-taste. A new strategy focused on allosteric modulation of the sweet taste receptor led to identification of sweet taste 'enhancers' for the first time. The enhancer molecules do not taste sweet, but greatly potentiate the sweet taste of sucrose and sucralose selectively. Following a similar mechanism as the natural umami taste enhancers, the sweet enhancer molecules cooperatively bind with the sweeteners to the Venus flytrap domain of the human sweet taste receptor and stabilize the active conformation. Now that the approach has proven successful, enhancers for other sweeteners and details of the molecular mechanism for the enhancement are being actively pursued.

  13. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  14. Targeted taste cell-specific overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adult taste buds elevates phosphorylated TrkB protein levels in taste cells, increases taste bud size, and promotes gustatory innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Irina V; Margolskee, Robert F; Nosrat, Christopher A

    2012-05-11

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most potent neurotrophic factor in the peripheral taste system during embryonic development. It is also expressed in adult taste buds. There is a lack of understanding of the role of BDNF in the adult taste system. To address this, we generated novel transgenic mice in which transgene expression was driven by an α-gustducin promoter coupling BDNF expression to the postnatal expression of gustducin in taste cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly stronger BDNF labeling in taste cells of high BDNF-expressing mouse lines compared with controls. We show that taste buds in these mice are significantly larger and have a larger number of taste cells compared with controls. To examine whether innervation was affected in Gust-BDNF mice, we used antibodies to neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and ATP receptor P2X3. The total density of general innervation and specifically the gustatory innervation was markedly increased in high BDNF-expressing mice compared with controls. TrkB and NCAM gene expression in laser capture microdissected taste epithelia were significantly up-regulated in these mice. Up-regulation of TrkB transcripts in taste buds and elevated taste cell-specific TrkB phosphorylation in response to increased BDNF levels indicate that BDNF controls the expression and activation of its high affinity receptor in taste cells. This demonstrates a direct taste cell function for BDNF. BDNF also orchestrates and maintains taste bud innervation. We propose that the Gust-BDNF transgenic mouse models can be employed to further dissect the specific roles of BDNF in the adult taste system.

  15. Numerical analysis of confinement effect on crack propagation mechanism from a flaw in a pre-cracked rock under compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amin Manouchehrian; Mohammad Fatehi Marji

    2012-01-01

    In many situations rocks are subjected to biaxial loading and the failure process is controlled by the lateral confinement stresses.The importance of confinement stresses has been recognized in the literature by many researchers,in particular,its influence on strength and on the angle of fracture,but still there is not a clear description for the influence of confining stress on the crack propagation mechanism of rocks.This paper presents a numerical procedure for the analysis of crack propagation in rock-like materials under compressive biaxial loads.Several numerical simulations of biaxial tests on the rock specimen have been carried out by a bonded particle model (BPM) and the influence of confinement on the mechanism of crack propagation from a single flaw in rock specimens is studied.For this purpose,several biaxial compressive tests on rectangular specimens under different confinement stresses were modeled in (2 dimensional particle flow code) PFC2D.The results show that wing cracks initiate perpendicular to the flaw and trend toward the direction of major stress,however,when the lateral stresses increase,this initiation angle gets wider.Also it is concluded that in addition to the material type,the initiation direction of the secondary cracks depends on confinement stresses,too.Besides,it is understood that secondary cracks may be produced from both tensile and shear mechanisms.

  16. A comprehensive theoretical, numerical and experimental approach for crack detection in power plant rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoisser, C. M.; Audebert, S.

    2008-05-01

    In order to describe the state-of-the-art on cracked rotor related problems, the current work presents the comprehensive theoretical, numerical and experimental approach adopted by EDF for crack detection in power plant rotating machinery. The work mainly focuses on the theoretical cracked beam model developed in the past years by S. Andrieux and C. Varé and associates both numerical and experimental aspects related to the crack detection problem in either turboset or turbo pump units. The theoretical part consists of the derivation of a lumped cracked beam model from the three-dimensional formulation of the general problem of elasticity with unilateral contact conditions on the crack lips, valid for any shape and number of cracks in the beam section and extended to cracks not located in a cross-section. This leads to the assessment of the cracked beam rigidity as a function of the rotation angle, in case of pure bending load or bending plus shear load. In this way the function can be implemented in a 1D rotordynamics code. An extension of the cracked beam model taking into account the torsion behaviour is also proposed. It is based on the assumption of full adherence between crack lips, when the crack closes, and on an incremental formulation of deformation energy. An experimental validation has been carried out using different cracked samples, both in static and dynamic configurations, considering one or three elliptic cracks in the same cross-section and helix-shaped cracks. Concerning the static configuration, a good agreement between numerical and experimental results is found. It is shown to be equal to 1% maximal gap of the beam deflection. Concerning the dynamical analysis, the main well-known indicator 2× rev. bending vibration component at half critical speed is approximated at maximum by 18% near the crack position. Our experiments also allowed for the observation of the bending and torsion resonance frequency shifts determined by the extra

  17. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of taste qualities and ingredients of beer by taste sensing system; Mikaku sensor ni yoru beer no ajishitsu to seibun no bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezaki, S.; Yuki, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan); Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuda, Y.; Nakatani, K. [Suntory Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    The taste of beer was measured using a taste sensing system with eight kinds of lipid membrane. The output from the sensor has high discriminating power and high correlation with taste substances in beer and sensory test by human. The estimation of the concentration of taste substances by multiple regression analysis was fairly well. The taste sensor also well estimated the result of sensory test of many keywords concerning beer taste. 16 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Multiplex minisequencing screening for PTC genotype associated with bitter taste perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagong, Borum; Bae, Jae Woong; Rhyu, Mee Ra; Kim, Un-Kyung; Ye, Mi-Kyung

    2014-03-01

    Sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) has a bimodal distribution pattern and the genotype of the TAS2R38 gene, which is composed of combinations of three coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), p.A49P (c.145G>C), p.V262A (c.785T>C) and p.I296 V (c.886A>G), determines the ability or inability to taste PTC. In this study, we developed a tool for genotyping of these SNPs in the TAS2R38 gene using SNaPshot minisequencing and investigated the accuracy of the tool in 100 subjects who were genotyped by Sanger sequencing. The minor allele frequencies of the three SNPs were 0.39, and these genotypes corresponded to those determined by direct sequencing. In conclusion, we successfully developed a precise and rapid genetic tool for analysis of PTC genotype associated with bitter taste perception.

  20. Sociocultural theory and blind taste-tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Paul Gee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.

  1. Experiences on IGSCC crack manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veron, P. [Equipos Nucleares, S.A., Maliano (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    The author presents his experience in manufacturing IGSCC realistic defects, mainly in INCONEL 600 MA Steam Generator Tubes. From that experience he extracts some knowledge about this cracking (influence of chemistry in the environment, stress state, crack growth rate, and occurrence in laboratory condition of break before leak).

  2. HYDROGEN TRANSFER IN CATALYTIC CRACKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen transfer is an important secondary reaction of catalytic cracking reactions, which affects product yield distribution and product quality. It is an exothermic reaction with low activation energy around 43.3 kJ/mol. Catalyst properties and operation parameters in catalytic cracking greatly influence the hydrogen transfer reaction. Satisfactory results are expected through careful selection of proper catalysts and operation conditions.

  3. Using Sound-Taste Correspondences to Enhance the Subjective Value of Tasting Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eReinoso Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate’s taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented to four different groups in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop’s own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food’s identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations.

  4. Abnormality of taste and smell in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mussadiq; Deeb, Jacquie; Fernando, Marina; Noyce, Alastair; Visentin, Elisa; Findley, Leslie J; Hawkes, Christopher H

    2009-03-01

    Smell sense is impaired in classic Parkinson's disease (PD). An initial study found no change in taste threshold in non-demented PD subjects and pathological studies suggest that the first relay for taste, the nucleus of the solitary tract, is spared. We wished to determine if taste is abnormal in PD and whether it is associated with smell dysfunction. Taste threshold was estimated using the Rion electrogustometer and olfaction by the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) in 75 non-demented PD patients and 74 controls. There was a significant impairment of taste threshold and severe disorder of smell identification in the PD group. Age, duration of symptoms, disability, and smoking had no important effect on threshold measurement and there was no correlation between taste and smell dysfunction. Sensitivity analysis suggested that a provisional diagnosis of PD would be confirmed if smell or taste were abnormal; conversely, the diagnosis would merit review if both modalities were normal. Impaired taste appreciation was found in about 27% of patients with clinically defined PD. There were no important effects from age, disease severity or smell sense. Given the sparing of the first and second order taste neurones in PD, disorder of taste in PD most likely signifies involvement of the frontal operculum or orbitofrontal cortex, in keeping with advanced disease, although confounding by drug effects and changes in salivary constitution could not be excluded completely.

  5. Taste effects of lingual application of cardiovascular medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervakis, J; Graham, B G; Schiffman, S S

    2000-01-01

    Medications used to treat cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, high blood pressure, and arrhythmia, are prescribed extensively in Western countries. However, taste complaints are common side effects of many of these cardiovascular medications. Although clinical observations are helpful in determining potential taste problems from a medication, experimental studies are necessary to obtain quantitative data on taste. In the studies performed here, nine cardiovascular medications (labetalol HCl, captopril, diltiazem HCl, enalapril maleate, hydrochlorothiazide, propranolol HCl, mexiletine HCl, procainamide HCl, and propafenone HCl) were applied to the tongue in human volunteers to measure the direct effect of these drugs on taste receptors. The medications were applied topically to the tongue surface of both young and elderly subjects to mimic the situation in which the drug is secreted into the saliva. Detection thresholds ranged from 0.048 mM (propafenone) to 0.438 mM (procainamide). The detection thresholds of healthy elderly subjects did not significantly differ from young controls. The compounds tested had a predominantly bitter taste with other qualities as well. In addition, topical application of the medications to the tongue affected the taste of one or more taste stimuli, with medications differing in the pattern of taste effects exhibited. The mechanism of taste effects is not fully known, but the results of this study suggest one route may be due to medications' effect on peripheral taste receptors.

  6. [Changes in taste ability in patients with vestibular schwannoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessert, P; Grüttner, C; van Ewijk, R; Haxel, B

    2014-07-01

    Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are rare tumors that can cause different symptoms due to their anatomical relationship to the cranial nerves in the inner auditory canal. So far little data is known to the effect of VS on the somatosensory function of the intermediate nerve. This study aimed to investigate the taste function of patients suffering from single sided VS. Therefore the well validated psychophysical test "Taste Strips" has been used. 26 patients who consulted our outpatient clinic at a university hospital could be included in the study. All patients were asked carefully for their medical history. A full ENT examination was done. Each side of the anterior two thirds of the tongue was tested separately using the Taste Strips. The average age was 52 years with both gender equally represented. Throughout all age groups the taste score was lower on the tumor vs. the non affected side. Testing for significance just failed the level of 0.05. No correlation between tumor size and location of the tumor with the taste score could be detected. Only 2 patients complained of taste dysfunction. They had a taste score below the 10. percentile of their age group on tumor while normal scores on the non affected side. To sum up a decreased taste score on the tumor side vs. the non affected side could be confirmed. Only 8% of the patients complained of taste disturbance as a symptom. That supports the observation that taste is a whole mouth experience and dysfunction can be compensated.

  7. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  8. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Chung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2 for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  9. Bitter taste receptor polymorphisms and human aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Campa

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that genetic factors account for 25% of the variation in human life span. On the basis of published molecular, genetic and epidemiological data, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms of taste receptors, which modulate food preferences but are also expressed in a number of organs and regulate food absorption processing and metabolism, could modulate the aging process. Using a tagging approach, we investigated the possible associations between longevity and the common genetic variation at the three bitter taste receptor gene clusters on chromosomes 5, 7 and 12 in a population of 941 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 106 years from the South of Italy. We found that one polymorphism, rs978739, situated 212 bp upstream of the TAS2R16 gene, shows a statistically significant association (p = 0.001 with longevity. In particular, the frequency of A/A homozygotes increases gradually from 35% in subjects aged 20 to 70 up to 55% in centenarians. These data provide suggestive evidence on the possible correlation between human longevity and taste genetics.

  10. What do love and jealousy taste like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai Qin; Tong, Eddie M W; Tan, Deborah H; Koh, Alethea H Q

    2013-12-01

    Metaphorical expressions linking love and jealousy to sweet, sour, and bitter tastes are common in normal language use and suggest that these emotions may influence perceptual taste judgments. Hence, we investigated whether the phenomenological experiences of love and jealousy are embodied in the taste sensations of sweetness, sourness, and bitterness. Studies 1A and 1B validated that these metaphors are widely endorsed. In three subsequent studies, participants induced to feel love rated a variety of tastants (sweet-sour candy, bitter-sweet chocolates, and distilled water) as sweeter than those who were induced to feel jealous, neutral, or happy. However, those induced to feel jealous did not differ from those induced to feel happy or neutral on bitter and sour ratings. These findings imply that emotions can influence basic perceptual judgments, but metaphors that refer to the body do not necessarily influence perceptual judgments the way they imply. We further suggest that future research in metaphoric social cognition and metaphor theory may benefit from investigating how such metaphors could have originated.

  11. Secondary taste neurons that convey sweet taste and starvation in the Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Pinky; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2015-02-18

    The gustatory system provides vital sensory information to determine feeding and appetitive learning behaviors. Very little is known, however, about higher-order gustatory circuits in the highly tractable model for neurobiology, Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report second-order sweet gustatory projection neurons (sGPNs) in the Drosophila brain using a powerful behavioral screen. Silencing neuronal activity reduces appetitive behaviors, whereas inducible activation results in food acceptance via proboscis extensions. sGPNs show functional connectivity with Gr5a(+) sweet taste neurons and are activated upon sucrose application to the labellum. By tracing sGPN axons, we identify the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC) as an immediate higher-order processing center for sweet taste. Interestingly, starvation increases sucrose sensitivity of the sGPNs in the AMMC, suggesting that hunger modulates the responsiveness of the secondary sweet taste relay. Together, our results provide a foundation for studying gustatory processing and its modulation by the internal nutrient state.

  12. Effectiveness of Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on children's willingness to taste vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battjes-Fries, Marieke C E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Zeinstra, Gertrude G; van Dongen, Ellen J I; Meester, Hante J; van den Top-Pullen, Rinelle; Van't Veer, Pieter; de Graaf, Kees

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of the Dutch school programme Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on children's willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables. Thirty-three primary schools (877 children in grades 6-7 with a mean age of 10.3 years) participated in Taste Lessons Vegetable Menu (TLVM, lessons and extra activities), Taste Lessons (TL, lessons), or a control group. A baseline and follow-up measurement was used to assess for each child: number of four familiar and four unfamiliar vegetables tasted, quantity tasted, choice of vegetable of which to eat more, and number of vegetables willing to taste again later. Furthermore, children filled out a questionnaire on daily vegetable intake and food neophobia. Multilevel and Cox regression analyses were conducted to compare changes in the outcome measures between the three study groups. No significant intervention effects were found on willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables. Neither were effects found on familiar vegetables, except for number of familiar vegetables tasted (p < 0.05). Furthermore, no significant intervention effects were found on daily vegetable consumption and food neophobia. These results indicate that more intensive school-based nutrition education activities are needed to increase children's willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables and increase their vegetable intake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. [Oral medicine 3. Anatomy, physiology and diagnostic considerations of taste and smell disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, A; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, A; Spijkervet, F K L; van Weissenbruch, R; van Nieuw Amerongen, A

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. The taste perception is performed by taste buds which can distinguish salt, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. Moreover, 2,000-4,000 smells can be recognized. Many taste disorders are in fact smell disorders. Saliva affects taste perception because it serves as a solvent for taste substances and as a protecting agent for the taste receptors. Therefore, hyposalivation leads to a reduction in taste perception, in which the concentration of zinc ions and specific proteins in saliva play an important role. In addition, zinc and iron deficiencies may cause diminished taste and smell perception.

  14. Finite Element Analysis of the Crack Propagation for Solid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloud Souiyah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The use of fracture mechanics techniques in the assessment of performance and reliability of structure is on increase and the prediction of crack propagation in structure play important part. The finite element method is widely used for the evaluation of SIF for various types of crack configurations. Source code program of two-dimensional finite element model had been developed, to demonstrate the capability and its limitations, in predicting the crack propagation trajectory and the SIF values under linear elastic fracture analysis. Approach: Two different geometries were used on this finite element model in order, to analyze the reliability of this program on the crack propagation in linear and nonlinear elastic fracture mechanics. These geometries were namely; a rectangular plate with crack emanating from square-hole and Double Edge Notched Plate (DENT. Where, both geometries are in tensile loading and under mode I conditions. In addition, the source code program of this model was written by FORTRAN language. Therefore, a Displacement Extrapolation Technique (DET was employed particularly, to predict the crack propagations directions and to, calculate the Stress Intensity Factors (SIFs. Furthermore, the mesh for the finite elements was the unstructured type; generated using the advancing front method. And, the global h-type adaptive mesh was adopted based on the norm stress error estimator. While, the quarter-point singular elements were uniformly generated around the crack tip in the form of a rosette. Moreover, make a comparison between this current study with other relevant and published research study. Results: The application of the source code program of 2-D finite element model showed a significant result on linear elastic fracture mechanics. Based on the findings of the two different geometries from the current study, the result showed a good agreement. And, it seems like very close compare to the other published

  15. Crowdsourcing taste research: genetic and phenotypic predictors of bitter taste perception as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Garneau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of taste perception on food choice has captured the interest of academics, industry, and the general public. The latter as evidenced by the extent of popular media coverage and use of the term supertaster. Supertasters are highly sensitive to the bitter tastant propylthiouracil (PROP and its chemical relative phenylthiocarbamide. The well-researched differences in taste sensitivity to these bitter chemicals are partially controlled by variation in the TAS2R38 gene; however this variation alone does not explain the supertaster phenomenon. It has been suggested that density of papillae, which house taste buds, may explain supertasting. To address the unresolved role of papillae, we used crowdsourcing in the museum-based Genetics of Taste Lab. This community lab is uniquely situated to attract both a large population of human subjects and host a team of citizen scientists to research population-based questions about human genetics, taste, and health. Using this model, we find that PROP bitterness is not in any way predicted by papillae density. This result holds within the whole sample, when divided into major diplotypes, and when correcting for age, sex, and genotype. Furthermore, it holds when dividing participants into oft-used taster status groups. These data argue against the use of papillae density in predicting taste sensitivity and caution against imprecise use of the term supertaster. Furthermore, it supports a growing volume of evidence that sets the stage for hyperguesia, a reconceptualization of heightened oral sensitivity that is not based solely on PROP or papillae density. Finally, our model demonstrates how community-based research can serve as a unique venue for both study participation and citizen science that makes scientific research accessible and relevant to people’s everyday lives.

  16. A consistent partly cracked XFEM element for cohesive crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Jesper L.; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Nielsen, Leif Otto

    2007-01-01

    capable of modelling variations in the discontinuous displacement field on both sides of the crack and hence also capable of modelling the case where equal stresses are present on each side of the crack. The enrichment was implemented for the 3-node constant strain triangle (CST) and a standard algorithm...... was used to solve the non-linear equations. The performance of the element is illustrated by modelling fracture mechanical benchmark tests. Investigations were carried out on the performance of the element for different crack lengths within one element. The results are compared with previously obtained...

  17. Extraoral Taste Receptor Discovery: New Light on Ayurvedic Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilca, Marilena; Dragos, Dorin

    2017-01-01

    More and more research studies are revealing unexpectedly important roles of taste for health and pathogenesis of various diseases. Only recently it has been shown that taste receptors have many extraoral locations (e.g., stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, respiratory system, heart, brain, kidney, urinary bladder, pancreas, adipose tissue, testis, and ovary), being part of a large diffuse chemosensory system. The functional implications of these taste receptors widely dispersed in various organs or tissues shed a new light on several concepts used in ayurvedic pharmacology (dravyaguna vijnana), such as taste (rasa), postdigestive effect (vipaka), qualities (guna), and energetic nature (virya). This review summarizes the significance of extraoral taste receptors and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels for ayurvedic pharmacology, as well as the biological activities of various types of phytochemical tastants from an ayurvedic perspective. The relative importance of taste (rasa), postdigestive effect (vipaka), and energetic nature (virya) as ethnopharmacological descriptors within Ayurveda boundaries will also be discussed.

  18. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  19. Improve Your Wine Sales:Host a Wine Tasting Evening

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2011-01-01

    Wine sales have grown in Ireland, wine distributors have improved their portfolios in response to heightened competition in the marketplace. For publicans the increased interest in wine has created new opportunities for bars to form small wine clubs or host regular wine tasting evenings for customers. This article highlights the points to remember when hosting regular wine tasting events. Remember wine tasting is intelligent drinking for customers it is an exercise in verbalising what they ar...

  20. Dynamic evolution of bitter taste receptor genes in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Jones Gareth; Dong Dong; Zhang Shuyi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Sensing bitter tastes is crucial for many animals because it can prevent them from ingesting harmful foods. This process is mainly mediated by the bitter taste receptors (T2R), which are largely expressed in the taste buds. Previous studies have identified some T2R gene repertoires, and marked variation in repertoire size has been noted among species. However, the mechanisms underlying the evolution of vertebrate T2R genes remain poorly understood. Results To better unders...

  1. Crack path predictions and experiments in plane structures considering anisotropic properties and material interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.O. Judt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In many engineering applications special requirements are directed to a material's fracture behavior and the prediction of crack paths. Especially if the material exhibits anisotropic elastic properties or fracture toughnesses, e.g. in textured or composite materials, the simulation of crack paths is challenging. Here, the application of path independent interaction integrals (I-integrals, J-, L- and M-integrals is beneficial for an accurate crack tip loading analysis. Numerical tools for the calculation of loading quantities using these path-invariant integrals are implemented into the commercial finite element (FE-code ABAQUS. Global approaches of the integrals are convenient considering crack tips approaching other crack faces, internal boundaries or material interfaces. Curved crack faces require special treatment with respect to integration contours. Numerical crack paths are predicted based on FE calculations of the boundary value problem in connection with an intelligent adaptive re-meshing algorithm. Considering fracture toughness anisotropy and accounting for inelastic effects due to small plastic zones in the crack tip region, the numerically predicted crack paths of different types of specimens with material interfaces and internal boundaries are compared to subcritically grown paths obtained from experiments.

  2. Taste and pheromone perception in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Michelle L; Amrein, Hubert

    2007-08-01

    Taste is an essential sense for detection of nutrient-rich food and avoidance of toxic substances. The Drosophila melanogaster gustatory system provides an excellent model to study taste perception and taste-elicited behaviors. "The fly" is unique in the animal kingdom with regard to available experimental tools, which include a wide repertoire of molecular-genetic analyses (i.e., efficient production of transgenics and gene knockouts), elegant behavioral assays, and the possibility to conduct electrophysiological investigations. In addition, fruit flies, like humans, recognize sugars as a food source, but avoid bitter tasting substances that are often toxic to insects and mammals alike. This paper will present recent research progress in the field of taste and contact pheromone perception in the fruit fly. First, we shall describe the anatomical properties of the Drosophila gustatory system and survey the family of taste receptors to provide an appropriate background. We shall then review taste and pheromone perception mainly from a molecular genetic perspective that includes behavioral, electrophysiological and imaging analyses of wild type flies and flies with genetically manipulated taste cells. Finally, we shall provide an outlook of taste research in this elegant model system for the next few years.

  3. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience. PMID:27199862

  4. Dye-coupling among frog (Rana catesbeiana) taste disk cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, O; Okada, Y; Miyamoto, T; Sato, T

    1992-09-01

    1. Dye-coupling among taste disk cells in the bullfrog fungiform papillae was examined histologically by injecting a fluorescent dye (Lucifer yellow) into the cell, and the effects of the dye-coupling on depolarizing responses induced by taste stimuli were studied electrophysiologically. 2. With dye injection into a taste cell, dye-coupling was found between taste cells (23%) or between taste cell and supporting cell (28%). With dye injection into a supporting cell, dye-coupling was found between supporting cells (34%) or between supporting cell and taste cell (27%). 3. Depolarizing responses recorded from either a taste cell or a supporting cell to stimulation with 0.5 M NaCl or 10 mM quinine-HCl were the same in amplitude whether the dye-coupling to another cell was present or not. On the other hand, depolarizing responses recorded from a taste cell for 0.5 mM acetic acid became significantly larger when dye-coupled to a supporting cell. 4. It is concluded that gustatory transduction for acid stimuli is influenced by supporting cells coupled to taste cells.

  5. Recent patents and patented technology platforms for pharmaceutical taste masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak; Dureja, Harish

    2014-04-01

    Taste masking is an important factor in the development of oral dosage forms containing bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients. Currently numerous techniques are being applied to overcome this problem. Realizing this, several researchers and pharmaceutical companies are now engaged in developing novel techniques to address the problem of taste masking evident by numerous patents filed in this area in recent times. In this review the most recent patents for taste masking are discussed and how these patents overcome the limitations of conventional approaches of taste masking is also highlighted. Novel techniques based on some recent patents such as nanohybrid, melt extrusion, non-complex cyclodextrin compositions and off taste masking are providing new realms to taste masking of bitter drugs. The present article also provides an overview of various patented platform technologies based on different techniques/mechanisms employed for taste masking. The unique features and principles of taste-masking approaches used in various patented technologies are also discussed. A better understanding of these new patents and patented technologies will help researchers and pharmaceutical industries to select the appropriate platform, or to develop innovative products with improved taste masking properties.

  6. Relaxation cracking in the process industry, an underestimated problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, J.C. van [TNO Institute of Industrial Technology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    Austenitic components, operating between 500 and 750 deg C, can fail within 1 year service while the ordinary mechanical properties after failure are still within the code requirements. The intergranular brittle failures are situated in the welded or cold deformed areas. This type of cracking has many names, showing the uncertainty concerning the mechanism for the (catastrophical) failures. A just finished investigation showed that it is a relaxation crack problem, introduced by manufacturing processes, especially welding and cold rolling. Cracking/failures can be expected after only 0.1- 0.2 % relaxation strain. These low strain values can already be generated during relaxation of the welding stresses. Especially coarse grained `age hardening` materials are susceptible. Stabilising and Postweld Heat Treatments are very effective to avoid relaxation crack problems during operation. After these heat treatments the components can withstand more than 2 % relaxation strain. At temperatures between 500 and 750 deg C relaxation cracking is the predominant factor for the safety and lifetime of welded austenitic components. (orig.) 12 refs.

  7. Effects of microscale inertia on dynamic ductile crack growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, N.; Mercier, S.; Molinari, A.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of microscale inertia in dynamic ductile crack growth. A constitutive model for porous solids that accounts for dynamic effects due to void growth is proposed. The model has been implemented in a finite element code and simulations of crack growth in a notched bar and in an edge cracked specimen have been performed. Results are compared to predictions obtained via the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model where micro-inertia effects are not accounted for. It is found that microscale inertia has a significant influence on the crack growth. In particular, it is shown that micro-inertia plays an important role during the strain localisation process by impeding void growth. Therefore, the resulting damage accumulation occurs in a more progressive manner. For this reason, simulations based on the proposed modelling exhibit much less mesh sensitivity than those based on the viscoplastic GTN model. Microscale inertia is also found to lead to lower crack speeds. Effects of micro-inertia on fracture toughness are evaluated.

  8. Analysis of Crack Arrest Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-15

    vload(m) vp tn(m) Vertical Source Load (kN) on wedge HY80 Finite Element 0.0122 0.0099 3.81x10 -4 144 Steel Calculations Experiment 0.0122 --- 3.74x10-4...curve, are bona fide measures of the fracture arrest capability of tough ductile steels . The second is that the J-values represent the crack driving...fibrous mode of crack extension. (b) A new test method for studying fast fracture and arrest in tough steels . (c) Measurements of fast fracture and crack

  9. A computational algorithm for crack determination: The multiple crack case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Kurt; Vogelius, Michael

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm for recovering a collection of linear cracks in a homogeneous electrical conductor from boundary measurements of voltages induced by specified current fluxes is developed. The technique is a variation of Newton's method and is based on taking weighted averages of the boundary data. The method also adaptively changes the applied current flux at each iteration to maintain maximum sensitivity to the estimated locations of the cracks.

  10. NIH Scientists Try to Crack the Brain's Memory Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Translational Research Research at NINDS Focus on Research Alzheimer's & Related Dementias Bioengineering Epilepsy Health Disparities Neural Interfaces Parkinson's Disease Spinal Cord Injury Stem Cells Traumatic Brain Injury Trans-Agency Activities Interagency Research ...

  11. Michael Lewis: Flash Boys. Cracking the Money Code

    OpenAIRE

    Gylfi Magnússon

    2014-01-01

    Í umsögn gagnrýnanda kemur meðal annars eftirfarandi fram: Þegar á heildina er litið er þetta ágæt bók þótt hún sé ekki gallalaus. Lewis er ónákvæmur á köflum og dregur stundum upp helst til svart-hvíta mynd með því að viðra einungis hluta þeirra sjónarmiða sem máli skipta. Bókin vekur verðskuldaða athygli á ákveðnum skuggahliðum fjármálamarkaða sem full ástæða er til að gefa frekari gaum. Lewis tekst jafnframt að gæða söguna lífi með því að draga fram áhugaverðar persónur sem tengjast henni ...

  12. Michael Lewis: Flash Boys. Cracking the Money Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gylfi Magnússon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Í umsögn gagnrýnanda kemur meðal annars eftirfarandi fram: Þegar á heildina er litið er þetta ágæt bók þótt hún sé ekki gallalaus. Lewis er ónákvæmur á köflum og dregur stundum upp helst til svart-hvíta mynd með því að viðra einungis hluta þeirra sjónarmiða sem máli skipta. Bókin vekur verðskuldaða athygli á ákveðnum skuggahliðum fjármálamarkaða sem full ástæða er til að gefa frekari gaum. Lewis tekst jafnframt að gæða söguna lífi með því að draga fram áhugaverðar persónur sem tengjast henni með ýmsum hætti.

  13. Development of Efficient Finite Element Software of Crack Propagation Simulation using Adaptive Mesh Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulnaser M. Alshoaibi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is on the determination of 2D crack paths and surfaces as well as on the evaluation of the stress intensity factors as a part of the damage tolerant assessment. Problem statement: The evaluation of SIFs and crack tip singular stresses for arbitrary fracture structure are a challenging problem, involving the calculation of the crack path and the crack propagation rates at each step especially under mixed mode loading. Approach: This study was provided a finite element code which produces results comparable to the current available commercial software. Throughout the simulation of crack propagation an automatic adaptive mesh was carried out in the vicinity of the crack front nodes and in the elements which represent the higher stresses distribution. The finite element mesh was generated using the advancing front method. The adaptive remising process carried out based on the posteriori stress error norm scheme to obtain an optimal mesh. The onset criterion of crack propagation was based on the stress intensity factors which provide as the most important parameter that must be accurately estimated. Facilitated by the singular elements, the displacement extrapolation technique is employed to calculate the stress intensity factor. Crack direction is predicted using the maximum circumferential stress theory. The fracture was modeled by the splitting node approach and the trajectory follows the successive linear extensions of each crack increment. The propagation process is driven by Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM approach with minimum user interaction. Results: In evaluating the accuracy of the estimated stress intensity factors and the crack path predictions, the results were compared with sets of experimental data, benchmark analytical solutions as well as numerical results of other researchers. Conclusion/Recommendations: The assessment indicated that the program was highly reliable to evaluate the stress intensity

  14. Prediction of air leakage and aerosol transport through concrete cracks with a fractal based crack morphology model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishnoi, L.R., E-mail: lrbishnoi@aerb.gov.in [Siting and Structural Engineering Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Vedula, R.P., E-mail: rpv@iitb.ac.in [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A fractal based numerical concrete crack morphology model is presented. • Computational studies conducted for airflow and aerosol transport through cracks. • Results are compared with experimental data and other empirical relations. • Comparative studies demonstrate model effectiveness and versatility of application. - Abstract: Cracks may appear in pressurized concrete containment of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident and provide leak paths for release of radioactive aerosols dispersed in the contained air. In this paper, a fractal based crack morphology model is presented for prediction of air leakage and aerosol transport through cracks in concrete. Airflow field generated in air leakage studies is used for aerosol transport studies with the Lagrangian discrete phase model using CFD code FLUENT. Computational studies conducted with the fractal based model are compared with the experimental data as well as the predictions from empirical relations available in open literature. The comparative studies demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed fractal based model and its versatility for practical applications.

  15. Texture-taste interactions: Enhancement of taste intensity by structural modifications of the food matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of salt and sugar in food products remains a challenge due to the importance of those ingredients in providing a highly desired taste quality, enhancing flavor, determining the behavior of structuring ingredients, and ensuring microbiological safety. Several technologies have been used

  16. Texture-taste interactions: Enhancement of taste intensity by structural modifications of the food matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of salt and sugar in food products remains a challenge due to the importance of those ingredients in providing a highly desired taste quality, enhancing flavor, determining the behavior of structuring ingredients, and ensuring microbiological safety. Several technologies have been used

  17. Exploring the Musical Taste of Expert Listeners: Musicology Students reveal Tendency towards Omnivorous Taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eElvers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the musical taste of musicology students as compared to a control student group. Participants (n=1003 completed an online survey regarding the frequency with which they listened to 22 musical styles. A factor analysis revealed six underlying dimensions of musical taste. A hierarchical cluster analysis then grouped all participants, regardless of their status, according to their similarity on these dimensions. The employed exploratory approach was expected to reveal potential differences between musicology students and controls. A three-cluster solution was obtained. Comparisons of the clusters in terms of musical taste revealed differences in the listening frequency and variety of appreciated music styles: The first cluster (51% musicology students / 27% controls showed the greatest musical engagement across all dimensions although with a tendency towards »sophisticated« musical styles. The second cluster (36% musicology students / 46% controls exhibited an interest in »conventional« music, while the third cluster (13% musicology students / 27% controls showed a strong liking of rock music. The results provide some support for the notion of specific tendencies in the musical taste of musicology students and the contribution of familiarity and knowledge towards musical omnivorousness.

  18. Taste quality and intensity of 100 stimuli as reported by rats: the taste-location association task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Hari eGautam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of neural activity related to sensory stimulation requires an understanding of the subject's perception of the stimulation. Previous methods used to evaluate the perception of chemosensory stimuli by rodents have distinct limitations. We developed a novel behavioral paradigm, the taste-location association task, to complement these methods. First we tested if rats are able to learn associations between five basic taste stimuli and their spatial locations. This spatial task was based on 4 prototypical tastants and water. All four rats trained to perform the task reached levels of performance well above chance. Control trials demonstrated that the rats used only taste cues. Further, the learned stimulus set was resistant to interference, allowing for generalization experiments performed subsequently. We tested the rats' gustatory generalizations of 100 tastants to the five trained stimuli, both regarding their taste qualities as well as intensity ratings. The taste profiles generated by these experiments contribute to the understanding of how perception of the specific taste stimuli relate to the perception of the five basic taste qualities in intact behaving rats. In this large taste space we found that intensity plays a major role. Furthermore, umami stimuli were not reported as being similar to other basic tastants. Our new paradigm enables neurophysiological studies of taste-based learning and memory in awake, freely moving animals.

  19. Cracks in Utopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Many of the craters found on the northern plains of Mars have been partly filled or buried by some material (possibly sediment). The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image presented here (MOC2-136b, above left) shows a high-resolution view of a tiny portion of the floor of one of these northern plains craters. The crater, located in Utopia Planitia at 44oN, 258oW, is shown on the right (MOC2-136a)with a small white box to indicate the location of the MOC image. The MOC image reveals that the material covering the floor of this crater is cracked and pitted. The origin and source of material that has been deposited in this crater is unknown.The MOC image was acquired in June 1999 and covers an area only 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles) wide at a resolution of 1.8 meters (6 feet) per pixel. The context picture is a mosaic of Viking 2 orbiter images 010B53 and 010B55, taken in 1976. Both images are illuminated from the left. Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  20. Peridynamic model for fatigue cracking.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silling, Stewart Andrew; Abe Askari (Boeing)

    2014-10-01

    The peridynamic theory is an extension of traditional solid mechanics in which the field equations can be applied on discontinuities, such as growing cracks. This paper proposes a bond damage model within peridynamics to treat the nucleation and growth of cracks due to cyclic loading. Bond damage occurs according to the evolution of a variable called the "remaining life" of each bond that changes over time according to the cyclic strain in the bond. It is shown that the model reproduces the main features of S-N data for typical materials and also reproduces the Paris law for fatigue crack growth. Extensions of the model account for the effects of loading spectrum, fatigue limit, and variable load ratio. A three-dimensional example illustrates the nucleation and growth of a helical fatigue crack in the torsion of an aluminum alloy rod.

  1. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by...

  2. The crack growth mechanism in asphaltic mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, .M.M.J.; Hopman, P.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The crack growth mechanism in asphalt concrete (Ac) mixes is studied. In cyclic tests on several asphaltic mixes crack growth is measured, both with crack foils and with cOD-gauges. It is found that crack growth in asphaltic mixes is described by three processes which are parallel in time: cohesive

  3. Fundamental understanding and life prediction of stress corrosion cracking in BWRs and energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, P.L.; Ford, F.P. [General Electric, Schenectady, NY (United States). Corporate Research and Development Center

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an approach for design and lifetime evaluation of environmental cracking based on experimental and fundamental modeling of the underlying processes operative in crack advance. In detailed this approach and its development and quantification for energy (hot water) systems, the requirements for a life prediction methodology will be highlighted and the shortcomings of the existing design and lifetime evaluation codes reviewed. Examples are identified of its use in a variety of cracking systems, such as stainless steels, low alloy steels, nickel base alloys, and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking in boiling water reactor (BWR) water, as well as preliminary use for low alloy steel and Alloy 600 in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and turbine steels in steam turbines. Identification of the common aspects with environmental cracking in other hot water systems provides a secure basis for its extension to related energy systems. 166 refs., 49 figs.

  4. Not Just Gustation: the Cognitive Effects of Multi-Sensory Advertising on Taste Perceptions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan Elder; Aradhna Krishna

    2010-01-01

    .... Bringing together research in physiology and consumer behavior, we propose that advertisements focusing on multi-sensory components of taste result in higher taste perceptions than ads focusing on taste alone...

  5. Taste and smell dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jennifer; Laing, David G; Wilkes, Fiona J; Chan, Ada; Gabriel, Melissa; Cohn, Richard J

    2014-04-01

    Reduced or altered taste and smell function may occur as a side-effect of cancer therapy. This can lead to altered nutrient and energy intake. Some studies have suggested that taste and smell dysfunction can persist many years after treatment completion but this has not been previously assessed in survivors of childhood cancer. The aim of this study is to determine if taste and smell dysfunction is present in childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Food preference and Quality of Life was also assessed. Fifty-one child cancer survivors (mean age: 19.69±7.09years), more than five years since treatment completion, (mean: 12.4years) were recruited from the long term follow-up clinics at two Sydney-based children's hospitals. Taste function was assessed using a 25 sample taste identification test comprising five concentrations each of sweet, salty, sour and bitter tastes and water. Smell function was assessed by determining the ability of participants to identify 16 common odorants. The participants' Quality of Life was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Anorexia Cachexia scale and food preferences were assessed using a 94-item food liking tool. Taste dysfunction was found in 27.5% of participants (n=14), and smell dysfunction in 3.9% (n=2) of participants. The prevalence of taste dysfunction was higher than that seen in the non-cancer population. The child cancer survivors' appeared to "like" the less healthy food groups such as flavoured beverages, takeaway and snacks over healthier food groups such as vegetables and salad. No correlation was found between those with a taste dysfunction and their food "likes". A high level of taste dysfunction was found in CCS though there did not appear to be an issue with smell dysfunction. Further work is also needed to assess whether a taste dysfunction do play a role in the dietary habits of CCS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fiber Sensing of Micro -Crack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Optical fiber sensors are used for sensing micro-cracking in composite and metal materials in aerospace applications. The sensing mechanism is based on the detection of acoustic emission signals, which are known to emanate from micro-cracks when they grow under further loading. The sensor head consists of a fiber Bragg grating that is capable of detecting acoustic emission signals generated by pencil lead breaking, of frequencies up to 200 kHz.

  7. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor enhance sweet taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Tang, Xiao-Qing; Werner, Sara; Zhang, Feng; Li, Xiaodong; Kamdar, Poonit; Petrovic, Goran; Ditschun, Tanya; Java, Antoniette; Brust, Paul; Brune, Nicole; DuBois, Grant E; Zoller, Mark; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2010-03-01

    To identify molecules that could enhance sweetness perception, we undertook the screening of a compound library using a cell-based assay for the human sweet taste receptor and a panel of selected sweeteners. In one of these screens we found a hit, SE-1, which significantly enhanced the activity of sucralose in the assay. At 50 microM, SE-1 increased the sucralose potency by >20-fold. On the other hand, SE-1 exhibited little or no agonist activity on its own. SE-1 effects were strikingly selective for sucralose. Other popular sweeteners such as aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were not enhanced by SE-1 whereas sucrose and neotame potency were increased only by 1.3- to 2.5-fold at 50 microM. Further assay-guided chemical optimization of the initial hit SE-1 led to the discovery of SE-2 and SE-3, selective enhancers of sucralose and sucrose, respectively. SE-2 (50 microM) and SE-3 (200 microM) increased sucralose and sucrose potencies in the assay by 24- and 4.7-fold, respectively. In human taste tests, 100 microM of SE-1 and SE-2 allowed for a reduction of 50% to >80% in the concentration of sucralose, respectively, while maintaining the sweetness intensity, and 100 microM SE-3 allowed for a reduction of 33% in the concentration of sucrose while maintaining the sweetness intensity. These enhancers did not exhibit any sweetness when tasted on their own. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor could help reduce the caloric content in food and beverages while maintaining the desired taste.

  8. Exploring the musical taste of expert listeners: musicology students reveal tendency toward omnivorous taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvers, Paul; Omigie, Diana; Fuhrmann, Wolfgang; Fischinger, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Musicology students are engaged with music on an academic level and usually have an extensive musical background. They have a considerable knowledge of music history and theory and listening to music may be regarded as one of their primary occupations. Taken together, these factors qualify them as ≫expert listeners≪, who may be expected to exhibit a specific profile of musical taste: interest in a broad range of musical styles combined with a greater appreciation of ≫sophisticated≪ styles. The current study examined the musical taste of musicology students as compared to a control student group. Participants (n = 1003) completed an online survey regarding the frequency with which they listened to 22 musical styles. A factor analysis revealed six underlying dimensions of musical taste. A hierarchical cluster analysis then grouped all participants, regardless of their status, according to their similarity on these dimensions. The employed exploratory approach was expected to reveal potential differences between musicology students and controls. A three-cluster solution was obtained. Comparisons of the clusters in terms of musical taste revealed differences in the listening frequency and variety of appreciated music styles: the first cluster (51% musicology students/27% controls) showed the greatest musical engagement across all dimensions although with a tendency toward ≫sophisticated≪ musical styles. The second cluster (36% musicology students/46% controls) exhibited an interest in ≫conventional≪ music, while the third cluster (13% musicology students/27% controls) showed a strong liking of rock music. The results provide some support for the notion of specific tendencies in the musical taste of musicology students and the contribution of familiarity and knowledge toward musical omnivorousness. Further differences between the clusters in terms of social, personality, and sociodemographic factors are discussed.

  9. The Effects of Rotary Motion on Taste and Odor Ratings: Implications for Space Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Tereskova, in Vostok VI (1963), reported a reduced appetite for sweets and a desire for pungent food tastes. In Soyuz 26, Cosmonaut Gretchko found that...odorants used in the odor test Code Odo~r Source 1 BANANA Pentyl Butyrate 2362, lot 691-1d, Eastman, Rochester, N.Y. 2 BACON Imitation Bacon Flavor f-62 30...Givaudan Corp., 321 44th St., New York, N.Y., ESROLKO Div. 3 BEEF Imitation Beef Flavor 4452, McCormick & Co., Cockeysville,-Hd-., Industrial Div. 4

  10. Simulations of Failure via Three-Dimensional Cracking in Fuel Cladding for Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongbing [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Bukkapatnam, Satish; Harimkar, Sandip; Singh, Raman; Bardenhagen, Scott

    2014-01-09

    Enhancing performance of fuel cladding and duct alloys is a key means of increasing fuel burnup. This project will address the failure of fuel cladding via three-dimensional cracking models. Researchers will develop a simulation code for the failure of the fuel cladding and validate the code through experiments. The objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the failure of fuel cladding in the form of three-dimensional cracking due to prolonged exposure under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, chemical environment, and irradiation. This project encompasses the following tasks: 1. Simulate 3D crack initiation and growth under instantaneous and/or fatigue loads using a new variant of the material point method (MPM); 2. Simulate debonding of the materials in the crack path using cohesive elements, considering normal and shear traction separation laws; 3. Determine the crack propagation path, considering damage of the materials incorporated in the cohesive elements to allow the energy release rate to be minimized; 4. Simulate the three-dimensional fatigue crack growth as a function of loading histories; 5. Verify the simulation code by comparing results to theoretical and numerical studies available in the literature; 6. Conduct experiments to observe the crack path and surface profile in unused fuel cladding and validate against simulation results; and 7. Expand the adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure parallel processing environment to allow adaptive mesh refinement at the 3D crack fronts and adaptive mesh merging in the wake of cracks. Fuel cladding is made of materials such as stainless steels and ferritic steels with added alloying elements, which increase stability and durability under irradiation. As fuel cladding is subjected to water, chemicals, fission gas, pressure, high temperatures, and irradiation while in service, understanding performance is essential. In the fast fuel used in advanced burner reactors, simulations of the nuclear

  11. Simulation of Be armour cracking under ITER-like transient heat loads [in press

    OpenAIRE

    Pestchanyi, S.; Spilker, B.; Bazylev, B.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation of beryllium cracking under action of multiple severe surface heatings has been performed using the PEGASUS-3D code and verified by experiments in the JUDITH 1 facility. Analysis of the results has revealed beryllium thermo conductivity degradation under action of repetitive pulsed heat load due to accumulation of the cracks in the surface layer. Thermo conductivity degradation is found to be at least 4 times after 100 pulses in JUDITH 1 facility. An analytical model for the Be cra...

  12. Simulation of Be armour cracking under ITER-like transient heat loads

    OpenAIRE

    Pestchanyi, S.; Spilker, B.; Bazylev, B

    2016-01-01

    Simulation of beryllium cracking under action of multiple severe surface heatings has been performed using the PEGASUS-3D code and verified by experiments in the JUDITH 1 facility. Analysis of the results has revealed beryllium thermo conductivity degradation under action of repetitive pulsed heat load due to accumulation of the cracks in the surface layer. Thermo conductivity degradation is found to be at least 4 times after 100 pulses in JUDITH 1 facility. An analytical model for the Be cra...

  13. The complex network of musical tastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldú, Javier M.; Cano, P.; Koppenberger, M.; Almendral, Juan A.; Boccaletti, S.

    2007-06-01

    We present an empirical study of the evolution of a social network constructed under the influence of musical tastes. The network is obtained thanks to the selfless effort of a broad community of users who share playlists of their favourite songs with other users. When two songs co-occur in a playlist a link is created between them, leading to a complex network where songs are the fundamental nodes. In this representation, songs in the same playlist could belong to different musical genres, but they are prone to be linked by a certain musical taste (e.g. if songs A and B co-occur in several playlists, an user who likes A will probably like also B). Indeed, playlist collections such as the one under study are the basic material that feeds some commercial music recommendation engines. Since playlists have an input date, we are able to evaluate the topology of this particular complex network from scratch, observing how its characteristic parameters evolve in time. We compare our results with those obtained from an artificial network defined by means of a null model. This comparison yields some insight on the evolution and structure of such a network, which could be used as ground data for the development of proper models. Finally, we gather information that can be useful for the development of music recommendation engines and give some hints about how top-hits appear.

  14. Simulation of Be armour cracking under ITER-like transient heat loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pestchanyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of beryllium cracking under action of multiple severe surface heatings has been performed using the PEGASUS-3D code and verified by experiments in the JUDITH 1 facility. Analysis of the results has revealed beryllium thermo conductivity degradation under action of repetitive pulsed heat load due to accumulation of the cracks in the surface layer. Thermo conductivity degradation is found to be at least 4 times after 100 pulses in JUDITH 1 facility. An analytical model for the Be cracking threshold under action of arbitrary heat pulses has been developed.

  15. Tasting in mundane practices: Ethnographic interventions in social science theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents an ethnographic investigation into practices of tasting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in various Western Europe settings in which people sensually engaged with food and drinks, the chapters show how tasting is done by research subjects in sensory science laboratories; guests

  16. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  17. The effect of emotional state on taste perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Corinna; Dando, Robin

    2015-12-01

    Taste perception can be modulated by a variety of extraneously applied influences, such as the manipulation of emotion or the application of acute stress. To evaluate the effect of more commonplace day-to-day emotional variation on taste function, taste intensity ratings and hedonic evaluations were collected from approximately 550 attendees following men's hockey games spanning the 2013-2014 season, a period encompassing 4 wins, 3 losses, and 1 tie. Since different outcomes at competitive sporting events are shown to induce varying affective response, this field study presented a unique environment to evaluate the effect of real-life emotional manipulations on our perception of taste, where previous research focused more on extraneous manipulation within a laboratory environment. Analysis revealed that positive emotions correlated with enhanced sweet and diminished sour intensities while negative emotions associated with heightened sour and decreased sweet tastes. Theoretically, both an increase in sweet and a decrease in sour taste intensity would drive acceptance of a great number of foods. Indeed, hedonic ratings for samples that were less liked (and parenthetically mostly sweet and sour in nature), selectively increased as positive affect grew, possibly due to the perceived decrease in sourness and increase in sweetness. The results of this field study indicate that emotional manipulations in the form of pleasantly or unpleasantly perceived real-life events can influence the intensity perception of taste, driving hedonics for less acceptable foods. These results suggest that such modulation of taste perception could play a role in emotional eating.

  18. What role does taste play in school meal interventions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Kayla; Olsen, Anne Marie; Wistoft, Karen

    2017-01-01

    dialogue around taste on factors such as physical and psychological well-being, empowerment, school enjoyment, and academic outcomes. By taking steps to accurately evaluate and improve the taste of school food and by creating avenues for students to express their opinions and develop a meaningful sense...

  19. Clinical aspects and treatment of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissink, A.; Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Visser, A.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Weissenbruch, R.; Nieuw Amerongen, A. van

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. Many chemosensory disorders which result in faulty taste are in fact smell disorders. Causes of chemosensory disorders which call for attention are ageing, medication, natural proteins, burning mouth syndrome, nerve injuries, aerate disorders in the ne

  20. Clinical aspects and treatment of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Visser; F.K.L. Spijkervet; R. Weissenbruch; A. van Nieuw Amerongen; A. Vissink; Dr Harriët Jager-Wittenaar

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. Many chemosensory disorders which result in faulty taste are in fact smell disorders. Causes of chemosensory disorders which call for attention are ageing, medication, natural proteins, burning mouth syndrome, nerve injuries, aerate disorders in the

  1. Private and Shared Taste in Art and Face Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Rigotti, Tanya; Forster, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Whether beauty is in the eye of the beholder or shared among individuals is a longstanding question in empirical aesthetics. By decomposing the variance structure of data for facial attractiveness, it has been previously shown that beauty evaluations comprise a similar amount of private and shared taste (Hönekopp, 2006). Employing the same methods, we found that, for abstract artworks, components that vary between individuals and relate to personal taste are particularly strong. Moreover, we instructed half of our participants to disregard their own taste and judge stimuli according to the taste of others instead. Ninety-five women rated 100 abstract artworks for liking and 100 faces for attractiveness. We found that the private taste proportion was much higher in abstract artworks, accounting for 75% of taste compared to 40% in the face condition. Abstract artworks were also less affected than faces by the instruction to rate according to others' taste and therefore less susceptible to incorporation of external beauty standards. Together, our findings support the notion that art-and especially abstract art-crystallizes private taste.

  2. The differential role of smell and taste for eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, Sanne; Graaf, de Kees

    2017-01-01

    Food choice and food intake are guided by both sensory and metabolic processes. The senses of taste and smell play a key role in the sensory effects on choice and intake. This article provides a comprehensive overview of, and will argue for, the differential role of smell and taste for eating

  3. Private and Shared Taste in Art and Face Appreciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut eLeder

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Whether beauty is in the eye of the beholder or shared among individuals is a longstanding question in empirical aesthetics. By decomposing the variance structure of data for facial attractiveness, it has been previously shown that beauty evaluations comprise a similar amount of private and shared taste (Hönekopp, 2006. Employing the same methods, we found that, for abstract artworks, components that vary between individuals and relate to personal taste are particularly strong. Moreover, we instructed half of our participants to disregard their own taste and judge stimuli according to the taste of others instead. Ninety-five women rated 100 abstract artworks for liking and 100 faces for attractiveness. We found that the private taste proportion was much higher in abstract artworks, accounting for 75% of taste compared to 40% in the face condition. Abstract artworks were also less affected than faces by the instruction to rate according to others’ taste and therefore less susceptible to incorporation of external beauty standards. Together, our findings support the notion that art—and especially abstract art—crystallizes private taste.

  4. Biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Liping; Zou, Ling; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping; Wu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Biological olfactory and taste systems are natural chemical sensing systems with unique performances for the detection of environmental chemical signals. With the advances in olfactory and taste transduction mechanisms, biomimetic chemical sensors have achieved significant progress due to their promising prospects and potential applications. Biomimetic chemical sensors exploit the unique capability of biological functional components for chemical sensing, which are often sourced from sensing ...

  5. Dissolution methodology for taste masked oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittings, Sally; Turnbull, Neil; Roberts, Clive J; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2014-01-10

    Conventional adult dosage forms are often not suitable for the paediatric and geriatric populations due to either swallowing difficulties or patient repulsion and a requirement for tailored dosing to individual compliance or physiological needs. Alternative formulations are available; however these often require the incorporation of more complex taste masking techniques. One approach to taste masking is to reduce contact between the bitter Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and oral cavity taste bud regions. This is achieved by hindering release in the oral cavity, or including competitive inhibition of bitter sensation for example by using flavours or sweeteners. There may also be other sensational complications from the API such as residual burning, reflux or metallic taste sensations to deal with. In vitro dissolution testing is employed to elucidate taste masking capability by quantifying release of the drug in simulated oral cavity conditions. Dissolution testing approaches may also be used to potentially predict or quantify the effect of the taste masking technique on the resultant pharmacokinetic profile. The present review investigates the anatomy and physiology of the oral cavity and current approaches to taste masking. In vitro dissolution methodologies adopted in the evaluation of taste masked formulations are discussed for their relative merits and drawbacks. A vast array of methodologies has been employed, with little agreement between approaches, and a lack of biorelevance. Future directions in dissolution methodology such as TNO Intestinal Model (TIM) and the Artificial Stomach and Duodenum model (ASD) are also discussed.

  6. The taste sensory evaluation of medicinal plants and Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Masumi; Tokuyama, Emi; Miyanaga, Yohko; Uchida, Takahiro

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of the artificial taste sensor in the evaluation of 11 medicinal plants and 10 Chinese medicines with bitter and/or astringent tastes, and to assess the possible application of the sensor in the evaluation of taste and quality control of medicinal products. Aqueous extracts of the six bitter medicinal plants could be classified into three types, and those of the five astringent medicinal plants into two types, on the basis of sensor output pattern profiles. These differences seem to derive from the different structures of the main components. In the principal component analysis of the taste sensor output of 10 Chinese medicines, a new measure developed, the 'Euclidean distance', defined as the distance between a control and the targeted substance on the principal component map. This measure offers a possibility for indicating the different tastes of Chinese medicines. Lastly, we confirmed that berberine adsorption on the surface of the artificial membrane of the taste sensor was of the Langmuir type. The berberine content in extracts of medicinal plants could be evaluated by the taste sensor, and it was shown to be possible to use the taste sensor for the quality control of medicinal plants.

  7. Functional specialization of the male insula during taste perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Hoogeveen, Heleen R.; Renken, Remco J.; Langers, Dave R. M.; ter Horst, Gert J.

    2015-01-01

    The primary gustatory area is located in the insular cortex. Although the insular cortex has been the topic of multiple parcellation studies, its functional specialization regarding taste processing received relatively little attention. Studies investigating the brain response to taste suggested tha

  8. Mechanism of fracture in macro- and micro-scales in hollow centre cracked disc specimen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Eftekhari; A. Baghbanan; H. Hashemolhosseini; H. Amrollahi

    2015-01-01

    The hollow centre cracked disc (HCCD) specimen is one of the suggested alternative methods for determining the fracture toughness of rock. This work aims to investigate the fracture mechanism in HCCD in macro- and micro-scales using numerical methods, extended finite element method (X-FEM) and particle flow code (PFC) modeling, respectively. In the X-FEM, heaviside and near-tip enrichment functions are employed to consider the presence of the crack in the model. In PFC modeling the movement and interaction of stressed assemblies of rigid spherical particles are modeled using the distinct element method (DEM). A numerical code called MEX-FEM based on XFEM has been developed to simulate the problems involving crack. The models of pure modes I and II in macro-scale are simulated in micro-scale. The results show that dimensionless stress intensity factors (YI,YI) for pure modes I and II increase by increasing the crack length ratio. The angle at which the pure mode II occurs decreases by increasing the crack length ratio. In mixed mode I-II, The value ofYI decreases by increasing the crack angle, while the value ofYI increases to a given crack angle and then it decreases. Moreover, the fracture in micro-scale, unlike the macro-scale, includes a combination of different modes of fracturing.

  9. Mechanism of fracture in macro- and micro-scales in hollow centre cracked disc specimen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Eftekhari; A.Baghbanan; H.Hashemolhosseini; H.Amrollahi

    2015-01-01

    The hollow centre cracked disc(HCCD) specimen is one of the suggested alternative methods for determining the fracture toughness of rock. This work aims to investigate the fracture mechanism in HCCD in macro- and micro-scales using numerical methods, extended finite element method(X-FEM) and particle flow code(PFC) modeling, respectively. In the X-FEM, heaviside and near-tip enrichment functions are employed to consider the presence of the crack in the model. In PFC modeling the movement and interaction of stressed assemblies of rigid spherical particles are modeled using the distinct element method(DEM). A numerical code called MEX-FEM based on XFEM has been developed to simulate the problems involving crack. The models of pure modes I and Ⅱ in macro-scale are simulated in micro-scale. The results show that dimensionless stress intensity factors(YI, YⅡ) for pure modes I and Ⅱ increase by increasing the crack length ratio. The angle at which the pure mode Ⅱ occurs decreases by increasing the crack length ratio. In mixed mode I-Ⅱ, The value of YI decreases by increasing the crack angle, while the value of YⅡ increases to a given crack angle and then it decreases. Moreover, the fracture in micro-scale, unlike the macro-scale, includes a combination of different modes of fracturing.

  10. Holographic codes

    CERN Document Server

    Latorre, Jose I

    2015-01-01

    There exists a remarkable four-qutrit state that carries absolute maximal entanglement in all its partitions. Employing this state, we construct a tensor network that delivers a holographic many body state, the H-code, where the physical properties of the boundary determine those of the bulk. This H-code is made of an even superposition of states whose relative Hamming distances are exponentially large with the size of the boundary. This property makes H-codes natural states for a quantum memory. H-codes exist on tori of definite sizes and get classified in three different sectors characterized by the sum of their qutrits on cycles wrapped through the boundaries of the system. We construct a parent Hamiltonian for the H-code which is highly non local and finally we compute the topological entanglement entropy of the H-code.

  11. β-Catenin signaling regulates temporally discrete phases of anterior taste bud development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumangalathu, Shoba; Barlow, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste is mediated by multicellular taste buds located within taste papillae on the tongue. In mice, individual taste buds reside in fungiform papillae, which develop at mid-gestation as epithelial placodes in the anterior tongue. Taste placodes comprise taste bud precursor cells, which express the secreted factor sonic hedgehog (Shh) and give rise to taste bud cells that differentiate around birth. We showed previously that epithelial activation of β-catenin is the primary inductive signal for taste placode formation, followed by taste papilla morphogenesis and taste bud differentiation, but the degree to which these later elements were direct or indirect consequences of β-catenin signaling was not explored. Here, we define discrete spatiotemporal functions of β-catenin in fungiform taste bud development. Specifically, we show that early epithelial activation of β-catenin, before taste placodes form, diverts lingual epithelial cells from a taste bud fate. By contrast, β-catenin activation a day later within Shh+ placodes, expands taste bud precursors directly, but enlarges papillae indirectly. Further, placodal activation of β-catenin drives precocious differentiation of Type I glial-like taste cells, but not other taste cell types. Later activation of β-catenin within Shh+ precursors during papilla morphogenesis also expands taste bud precursors and accelerates Type I cell differentiation, but papilla size is no longer enhanced. Finally, although Shh regulates taste placode patterning, we find that it is dispensable for the accelerated Type I cell differentiation induced by β-catenin. PMID:26525674

  12. Sharing code

    OpenAIRE

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  13. Functional cell types in taste buds have distinct longevities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Perea-Martinez

    Full Text Available Taste buds are clusters of polarized sensory cells embedded in stratified oral epithelium. In adult mammals, taste buds turn over continuously and are replenished through the birth of new cells in the basal layer of the surrounding non-sensory epithelium. The half-life of cells in mammalian taste buds has been estimated as 8-12 days on average. Yet, earlier studies did not address whether the now well-defined functional taste bud cell types all exhibit the same lifetime. We employed a recently developed thymidine analog, 5-ethynil-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU to re-evaluate the incorporation of newly born cells into circumvallate taste buds of adult mice. By combining EdU-labeling with immunostaining for selected markers, we tracked the differentiation and lifespan of the constituent cell types of taste buds. EdU was primarily incorporated into basal extragemmal cells, the principal source for replenishing taste bud cells. Undifferentiated EdU-labeled cells began migrating into circumvallate taste buds within 1 day of their birth. Type II (Receptor taste cells began to differentiate from EdU-labeled precursors beginning 2 days after birth and then were eliminated with a half-life of 8 days. Type III (Presynaptic taste cells began differentiating after a delay of 3 days after EdU-labeling, and they survived much longer, with a half-life of 22 days. We also scored taste bud cells that belong to neither Type II nor Type III, a heterogeneous group that includes mostly Type I cells, and also undifferentiated or immature cells. A non-linear decay fit described these cells as two sub-populations with half-lives of 8 and 24 days respectively. Our data suggest that many post-mitotic cells may remain quiescent within taste buds before differentiating into mature taste cells. A small number of slow-cycling cells may also exist within the perimeter of the taste bud. Based on their incidence, we hypothesize that these may be progenitors for Type III cells.

  14. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menizibeya O. Welcome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning.

  15. Conditioned taste aversion, drugs of abuse and palatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2014-01-01

    LIN, J.-Y., J. Arthurs and S. Reilly. Conditioned taste aversion: Palatability and drugs of abuse. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(x) XXX-XXX, 2014. – We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning. PMID:24813806

  16. A PKD Channel-based Biosensor for Taste Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunsheng; Du, Liping; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    This study describes a micro electrode array (MEA)-based biosensor for taste transduction using heterologous expressed taste polycystic kidney disease-like (PKD) channels as molecular sensors. Taste PKD1L3/2L1 channels were expressed on the plasma membrane of human embryo kidney (HEK)-293 cells [1]. Then the cells were cultured on the surface of MEA chip [2] to record the responses of PKD channels to sour stimulations by monitoring membrane potential. The results indicate this MEA-based biosensor can record the special off-responses of PKD channels to sour stimulation in a non-invasive manner for a long term. It may provide an alternative tool for the research of taste transduction, especially for the characterization of taste ion channels.

  17. Neural correlates of taste perception in congenital olfactory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Léa; Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kristoffer; Karstensen, Helena G; Siebner, Hartwig; Tommerup, Niels; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-09-01

    Olfaction and gustation contribute both to the appreciation of food flavours. Although acquired loss of smell has profound consequences on the pleasure of eating, food habits and body weight, less is known about the impact of congenital olfactory impairment on gustatory processing. Here we examined taste identification accuracy and its neural correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 12 congenitally olfactory impaired individuals and 8 normosmic controls. Results showed that taste identification was worse in congenitally olfactory impaired compared to control subjects. The fMRI results demonstrated that olfactory impaired individuals had reduced activation in medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) relative to normosmic subjects while tasting. In addition, olfactory performance as measured with the Sniffin' Sticks correlated positively with taste-induced blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal increases in bilateral mOFC and anterior insula. Our data provide a neurological underpinning for the reduced taste perception in congenitally olfactory impaired individuals.

  18. Monitoring of Milk Quality With Disposable Taste Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Suzuri Hitam

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A disposable screen-printed multi channel taste sensor composed of several types of lipid as transducers and a computer as data analyzer could detect taste in a manner similar to human gustatory sensation. The disposable taste sensor was used to measure the electrical potential resulted from the interaction between lipid membranes and taste substances. In the present study, two types of packaged commercial milk, the ultra high temperature (UHT and the pasteurized milk were tested. It was found that the disposable taste sensor is capable to discriminate reliably between fresh and spoiled milk and to follow the deterioration of the milk quality when it is stored at room temperature based on a pattern recognition principle namely Principle Component Analysis (PCA. This research could provide a new monitoring method ideally for simple and cheap decentralized testing for controlling the quality of milk, which may be of great use in the dairy industries.

  19. Food branding and young children's taste preferences: a reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Charlene D; Carruthers Den Hoed, Rebecca; Conlon, Martin J

    2013-08-20

    This study examines the effects of branding and packaging on young children's taste preferences. Preschool children aged 3 to 5 (n=65) tasted five pairs of identical foods in packaging from McDonald's and in matched packaging that was either plain, Starbucks-branded, or colourful (but unbranded). Children were asked if the foods tasted the same or if one tasted better. Children preferred the taste of foods wrapped in decorative wrappings, relying more on aesthetics than on familiar branding when making their choices. The findings suggest the need to explore questions beyond commercial advertising (and brand promotion) on television and other media platforms. More attention should be directed at the important role of packaging in directing children's food preferences.

  20. A map of taste neuron projections in the Drosophila CNS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jae Young Kwon; Anupama Dahanukar; Linnea A Weiss; John R Carlson

    2014-09-01

    We provide a map of the projections of taste neurons in the CNS of Drosophila. Using a collection of 67 GAL4 drivers representing the entire repertoire of Gr taste receptors, we systematically map the projections of neurons expressing these drivers in the thoracico-abdominal ganglion and the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG). We define 9 categories of projections in the thoracico-abdominal ganglia and 10 categories in the SOG. The projection patterns are modular, and can be interpreted as combinations of discrete pattern elements. The elements can be interpreted in terms of the taste organ from which the projections originate, the structures from which they originate, and the quality of taste information that they represent. The extensive diversity in projection patterns provides an anatomical basis for functional diversity in responses elicited by different taste stimuli.

  1. Development of eddy current testing probe for thick-walled metal plate and quantitative evaluation of cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, K; Uchimoto, T; Takagi, T

    2003-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the crack detection of thick-walled non-magnetic metal plates by eddy current testing, which is difficult because of Kelvin skin effect generally. The purpose of this research is the development of an new eddy current testing probe for cracks in thick-walled plates and crack shapes quantitative evaluation. The probe was designed, based on the numerical computation using 3D fast eddy current code. The advantages of this new probe are strong eddy current on the back of specimens and gentle decrement of eddy current in the thickness direction. Through experiments, we confirmed that this probe can detect the back artificial defect with 0.5 mm thickness on IN-CONEL 718 specimen with 7.0 mm thickness. Reconstruction of crack shapes was performed based on the experimental results with the inverse problem code developed by authors. The length and depth of reconstructed defects approximately agree with those of real crack. (author)

  2. Fatigue reliability of cracked engineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, David Bruce, Jr.

    1997-12-01

    This study investigates the reliability of engineering structures containing fatigue cracks. Stress concentrations and welded joints are probable locations for the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. Due to the many unknowns of loading, materials properties, crack sizes and crack shapes present at these locations, a statistics-based reliability analysis is valuable in the careful consideration of these many different random factors involved in a fatigue life analysis, several of which are expanded upon in this study. The basic problem of a crack near a stress concentration is first considered. A formulation for the aspect ratio (a/c) of a propagating semi-elliptical fatigue crack located at the toe of a welded T-joint is developed using Newman and Raju's stress intensity factor for a cracked flat plate with a weld magnification factor and compared to that of a cracked flat plate, and the reliability in terms of fatigue lifetime is calculated with the aid of Paris' crack propagation equation for membrane and bending loadings. Crack closure effects are then introduced in the consideration of short crack effects, where crack growth rates typically may exceed those found using traditional linear elastic fracture mechanics solutions for long cracks. The probability of a very small, microstructurally influenced crack growing to a size influenced by local plastic conditions is calculated utilizing the probability of a crack continuing to grow past an obstacle, such as a grain boundary. The result is then combined with the probability for failure defined using the crack closure-modified Paris equation to find an overall reliability for the structure. Last, the probability of fracture is determined when a crack front encounters regions of non-uniform toughness, such as typical in the heat affected zone of a welded joint. An expression for the effective crack lengths of the dissimilar regions is derived, and used in a weakest-link fracture model in the evaluation

  3. Tachykinins stimulate a subset of mouse taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Grant

    Full Text Available The tachykinins substance P (SP and neurokinin A (NKA are present in nociceptive sensory fibers expressing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1. These fibers are found extensively in and around the taste buds of several species. Tachykinins are released from nociceptive fibers by irritants such as capsaicin, the active compound found in chili peppers commonly associated with the sensation of spiciness. Using real-time Ca(2+-imaging on isolated taste cells, it was observed that SP induces Ca(2+ -responses in a subset of taste cells at concentrations in the low nanomolar range. These responses were reversibly inhibited by blocking the SP receptor NK-1R. NKA also induced Ca(2+-responses in a subset of taste cells, but only at concentrations in the high nanomolar range. These responses were only partially inhibited by blocking the NKA receptor NK-2R, and were also inhibited by blocking NK-1R indicating that NKA is only active in taste cells at concentrations that activate both receptors. In addition, it was determined that tachykinin signaling in taste cells requires Ca(2+-release from endoplasmic reticulum stores. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed that mouse taste buds express NK-1R and NK-2R. Using Ca(2+-imaging and single cell RT-PCR, it was determined that the majority of tachykinin-responsive taste cells were Type I (Glial-like and umami-responsive Type II (Receptor cells. Importantly, stimulating NK-1R had an additive effect on Ca(2+ responses evoked by umami stimuli in Type II (Receptor cells. This data indicates that tachykinin release from nociceptive sensory fibers in and around taste buds may enhance umami and other taste modalities, providing a possible mechanism for the increased palatability of spicy foods.

  4. Effectiveness of Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on children's willingness to taste vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes-Fries, Marieke C.E.; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Zeinstra, Gertrude G.; Dongen, van Ellen J.I.; Meester, Hante J.; Top, van den Rinelle; Veer, van 't Pieter; Graaf, de Kees

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of the Dutch school programme Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on children's willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables. Thirty-three primary schools (877 children in grades 6-7 with a mean age of 10.3 years) particip

  5. Key results for the NRC`s Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Brust, F. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The overall objective of the Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Program is to verify and improve engineering analyses to predict the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe under quasi-static loading with particular attention to crack lengths typically used in LBB or flaw evaluation criteria. The USNCRC program at Battelle was initiated in March 1990 and is scheduled to be completed in December 1994. This paper discusses key results from the overall program with particular emphasis on the efforts since the last WRSIM meeting. The program consists of eight technical tasks as listed below: task 1 short through-wall-cracked (TWC) pipe evaluations; task 2 short surface-cracked (SC) pipe evaluations; task 3 bi-metallic weld crack evaluations; task 4 dynamic strain aging and crack instabilities; task 5 fracture evaluations of anisotropic pipe; task 6 crack-opening-area evaluations; task 7 NRCPIPE code improvements; task 8 additional efforts. Task 8 is a collection of new efforts initiated during the coarse of the program. A list of the full-scale pipe experiments in this program is given in Table 1. All of the experiments have been completed. The most recent accomplishments in each of the tasks listed above are discussed below. The details of all the results in the eight tasks are published in the semiannual reports as well as topical reports from the program.

  6. Dynamic crack initiation toughness : experiments and peridynamic modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, John T.

    2009-10-01

    This is a dissertation on research conducted studying the dynamic crack initiation toughness of a 4340 steel. Researchers have been conducting experimental testing of dynamic crack initiation toughness, K{sub Ic}, for many years, using many experimental techniques with vastly different trends in the results when reporting K{sub Ic} as a function of loading rate. The dissertation describes a novel experimental technique for measuring K{sub Ic} in metals using the Kolsky bar. The method borrows from improvements made in recent years in traditional Kolsky bar testing by using pulse shaping techniques to ensure a constant loading rate applied to the sample before crack initiation. Dynamic crack initiation measurements were reported on a 4340 steel at two different loading rates. The steel was shown to exhibit a rate dependence, with the recorded values of K{sub Ic} being much higher at the higher loading rate. Using the knowledge of this rate dependence as a motivation in attempting to model the fracture events, a viscoplastic constitutive model was implemented into a peridynamic computational mechanics code. Peridynamics is a newly developed theory in solid mechanics that replaces the classical partial differential equations of motion with integral-differential equations which do not require the existence of spatial derivatives in the displacement field. This allows for the straightforward modeling of unguided crack initiation and growth. To date, peridynamic implementations have used severely restricted constitutive models. This research represents the first implementation of a complex material model and its validation. After showing results comparing deformations to experimental Taylor anvil impact for the viscoplastic material model, a novel failure criterion is introduced to model the dynamic crack initiation toughness experiments. The failure model is based on an energy criterion and uses the K{sub Ic} values recorded experimentally as an input. The failure model

  7. Insulin-Like Growth Factors Are Expressed in the Taste System, but Do Not Maintain Adult Taste Buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley T Biggs

    Full Text Available Growth factors regulate cell growth and differentiation in many tissues. In the taste system, as yet unknown growth factors are produced by neurons to maintain taste buds. A number of growth factor receptors are expressed at greater levels in taste buds than in the surrounding epithelium and may be receptors for candidate factors involved in taste bud maintenance. We determined that the ligands of eight of these receptors were expressed in the E14.5 geniculate ganglion and that four of these ligands were expressed in the adult geniculate ganglion. Of these, the insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2 were expressed in the ganglion and their receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R, were expressed at the highest levels in taste buds. To determine whether IGF1R regulates taste bud number or structure, we conditionally eliminated IGF1R from the lingual epithelium of mice using the keratin 14 (K14 promoter (K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox. While K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice had significantly fewer taste buds at P30 compared with control mice (Igf1rlox/lox, this difference was not observed by P80. IGF1R removal did not affect taste bud size or cell number, and the number of phospholipase C β2- (PLCβ2 and carbonic anhydrase 4- (Car4 positive taste receptor cells did not differ between genotypes. Taste buds at the back of the tongue fungiform taste field were larger and contained more cells than those at the tongue tip, and these differences were diminished in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. The epithelium was thicker at the back versus the tip of the tongue, and this difference was also attenuated in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. We conclude that, although IGFs are expressed at high levels in the taste system, they likely play little or no role in maintaining adult taste bud structure. IGFs have a potential role in establishing the initial number of taste buds, and there may be limits on epithelial thickness in the absence of IGF1R signaling.

  8. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Kobayashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets.

  9. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  10. Polar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    QPSK Gaussian channels . .......................................................................... 39 vi 1. INTRODUCTION Forward error correction (FEC...Capacity of BSC. 7 Figure 5. Capacity of AWGN channel . 8 4. INTRODUCTION TO POLAR CODES Polar codes were introduced by E. Arikan in [1]. This paper...Under authority of C. A. Wilgenbusch, Head ISR Division EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report describes the results of the project “More reliable wireless

  11. SHORT FATIGUE CRACK PARAMETER BASED ON THE TOTAL CRACK AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.X.Wu; X.C.Wu

    2001-01-01

    The progressive fatigue damage of a material is closely related to the whole populationof cracks on the surface of an un-notched specimen.In order to understand whichparameter is a more useful indicator of fatigue damage,rotatory bending fatigue testswere carried out using smooth specimens of medium-carbon steel.The behavior ofshort crack propagation during fatigue was examined and a new parameter "totalcrack area" was suggested.The aim of this paper is to extend the research on fatiguedamage in the already studied steel and to study how these damage parameters arecorrelated with the process of fatigue damage in order to evaluate the effectiveness ofdamage detection methods.

  12. Hierarchies of television tastes and class distinctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jontes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on data from the empirical research project Media consumption, social class and cultural stratification carried out with the help of a questionnaire administered to 820 residents of Ljubljana and Maribor, the paper examines the relationship between social class, education and television tastes. Contrary to some of the recent literature which emphasises a weak or non-existent connection between class positions and patterns of television consumption, the author uses the Slovenian sample to show that class and education differentiate television preferences significantly although only in some segments of the television repertoire. In the conclusion of the paper, the importance of studying television preferences in connection with other fields of cultural consumption is stressed.

  13. Socioeconomic Distinction, Cultural Tastes, and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampel, Fred C

    2006-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: The inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking is typically seen in terms of the greater economic and social resources of advantaged groups, but it may also relate to cultural resources. This study aims to test theories of symbolic distinction by examining relationships between smoking and ostensibly unrelated cultural preferences. METHODS: Using the 1993 General Social Survey, ordinal logistic regression models, and a three-category dependent variable (never, former, and current smoker), the analysis estimates relationships of musical likes and dislikes with smoking while controlling for SES and social strain. RESULTS: Preferences for classical music are associated with lower smoking, while preferences for bluegrass, jazz, and heavy metal music are associated with higher smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that SES groups may use smoking, like other cultural tastes, to distinguish their lifestyles from those of others.

  14. Acquiring a taste for the Higgs boson

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc

    2012-01-01

    Before CERN's scientists had even announced the discovery of the Higgs boson, others were already attributing some interesting characteristics to it: flavoursome, sparkling and liquid...   The artisan brewery Hopfenstark in Quebec launched its new "Higgs boson" beer in November 2010. Ever since, it has been intriguing enthusiasts with its unique taste explosion. The boson was a source of inspiration for brewer Frédéric Cormier, the Hopfenstark brewery's owner, who is a big fan of science programmes. "I returned from a trip to Europe in 2010 with the idea for a new beer that would be unlike any other," he explains. "I was always reading and hearing about CERN's particle accelerator in the media, so I did some research on the famous Higgs boson and decided to give my new creation the same name." For Frédéric Cormier, it's important that the names of his beers refle...

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF CRACKED ROTOR BY WAVELET TRANSFORM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹剑; 陈进; 蒲亚鹏

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic equation of cracked rotor in rotational frame was modelled, the numerical simulation solutions of the cracked rotor and the uncracked rotor were obtained. By the wavelet transform, the time-frequency properties of the cracked rotor and the uncracked rotor were discussed, the difference of the time-frequency properties between the cracked rotor and the uncracked rotor was compared. A new detection algorithm using wavelet transform to identify crack was proposed. The experiments verify the availability and validity of the wavelet transform in identification of crack.

  16. Sweet taste receptor gene variation and aspartame taste in primates and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G; Beauchamp, Gary K; Reed, Danielle R; Thai, Chloe; Floriano, Wely B

    2011-06-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche.

  17. Tasting fees and the youth market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Treloar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Many wineries in Australia and New Zealand are seeking strategies to continue to develop in a highly competitive marketplace. One such strategy is via the development of wine tourism. Although there is a significant amount of literature of the relative advantages and disadvantages of wine tourism for small wineries, particularly with respect to its educational and market development function, there is very little research available on how wine tourism is perceived by the next generation of wine drinkers – the youth market. The purpose of this study is therefore to gain a better understanding of how the youth market perceives tasting fees at wineries and influences on purchasing and other wine behaviours. In late 2003, 599 surveys were distributed to ten universities throughout Australia and New Zealand, of which 448 were returned, representing a valid response rate of 74.8 percent. The results of the survey indicated that the majority of respondents who thought of wine tourism as an appealing activity, who had visited wineries previously, who normally consumed and purchased wine and who had some knowledge of wine all thought that a fee at the cellar door would impact on their decision to visit. Wineries need to maximise the return on their wine, however there also needs to be recognition of the potential trade-off between immediate returns from charging for tastings and cellar-door sales versus longer-term returns from direct and indirect sales. In some markets, and particularly the ‘Generation Y’ market, seeking short-term returns through charging may affect longer-term custom and loyalty. However, regardless of the strategy, it is important that it is effectively communicated to the market, particularly if individual wineries are interested in growing the market for the future.

  18. A crossmodal role for audition in taste perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kimberly S; Dando, Robin

    2015-06-01

    Our sense of taste can be influenced by our other senses, with several groups having explored the effects of olfactory, visual, or tactile stimulation on what we perceive as taste. Research into multisensory, or crossmodal perception has rarely linked our sense of taste with that of audition. In our study, 48 participants in a crossover experiment sampled multiple concentrations of solutions of 5 prototypic tastants, during conditions with or without broad spectrum auditory stimulation, simulating that of airline cabin noise. Airline cabins are an unusual environment, in which food is consumed routinely under extreme noise conditions, often over 85 dB, and in which the perceived quality of food is often criticized. Participants rated the intensity of solutions representing varying concentrations of the 5 basic tastes on the general Labeled Magnitude Scale. No difference in intensity ratings was evident between the control and sound condition for salty, sour, or bitter tastes. Likewise, panelists did not perform differently during sound conditions when rating tactile, visual, or auditory stimulation, or in reaction time tests. Interestingly, sweet taste intensity was rated progressively lower, whereas the perception of umami taste was augmented during the experimental sound condition, to a progressively greater degree with increasing concentration. We postulate that this effect arises from mechanostimulation of the chorda tympani nerve, which transits directly across the tympanic membrane of the middle ear.

  19. Aspects of taste and compliance in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasco, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Taste alterations are common in patients with cancer, and can be the result of the disease itself and/or its treatment(s). Specifically, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to the head and neck area have been shown to induce significant taste changes. Alterations in taste are distressing for patients and can lead to food aversions, a reduction in food intake and nutritional deficits. Ultimately, this can lead to weight loss and, in severe cases, malnutrition, which has been associated with poor patient outcomes, including a negative effect on survival. Dietary counselling and advice tailored to the individual can improve nutritional status, and several effective strategies are available to accommodate taste changes and increase nutritional intake. Oral supplements may provide additional nutritional support when dietary intake is insufficient. The success of supplementation depends, however, on the product acceptability and on patient compliance over the long term. Patient compliance is linked to perceived supplement taste, which may be affected by a variety of taste changes reported by patients both before and after therapy, or as a consequence of disease progression. Supplements which offer a variety of flavours are likely to prove beneficial by helping to prevent taste fatigue. In addition, individuals appear to exhibit distinct preferences for particular flavours at different time points during treatment.

  20. Failure in Anticipation and Plasticity in Perception of Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Tohru; Yokokawa, Sari; Tsukahara, Yasuo

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were designed to illustrate the plasticity of gustatory processing in human. In the matching experiment, forty-two subjects were respectively given twenty-four samples, each of which consisted of a usual pair of taste and visual stimuli (ex; a cup of apple juice covered with a lid having an apple painted on it). They were required to drink the taste stimulus while looking at the visual one. Subsequently, they were required to drink a cup of water covered with a lid with an Escher's impossible-figure painted on it and asked whether the taste was the same as that of usual one or not. In the mismatching experiment, the same subjects were respectively given twenty samples each of which consisted of an unusual pair of taste and visual stimuli (ex; a cup of soup covered with a lid having an apple painted on it). They were required to drink the taste stimulus while looking at the visual one. Subsequently, they were required to drink a cup of water covered with a lid with an Escher's impossible-figure painted on it and asked whether the taste was the same as that of usual one or not. Eight subjects sensed taste to water (p 0.05) after the matching one.

  1. Association between Salivary Leptin Levels and Taste Perception in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénia Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The satiety inducing hormone leptin acts not only at central nervous system but also at peripheral level. Leptin receptors are found in several sense related organs, including the mouth. A role of leptin in sweet taste response has been suggested but, until now, studies have been based on in vitro experiments, or in assessing the levels of the hormone in circulation. The present study investigated whether the levels of leptin in saliva are related to taste perception in children and whether Body Mass Index (BMI affects such relationship. Sweet and bitter taste sensitivity was assessed for 121 children aged 9-10 years and unstimulated whole saliva was collected for leptin quantification, using ELISA technique. Children females with lower sweet taste sensitivity presented higher salivary leptin levels, but this is only in the normal weight ones. For bitter taste, association between salivary leptin and caffeine threshold detection was observed only in preobese boys, with higher levels of salivary hormone in low sensitive individuals. This study is the first presenting evidences of a relationship between salivary leptin levels and taste perception, which is sex and BMI dependent. The mode of action of salivary leptin at taste receptor level should be elucidated in future studies.

  2. Cross-modal tactile-taste interactions in food evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, B. G.; Carmichael, D.A.; Simner, J.

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the taste components within a flavoured substance relies on exposing chemoreceptors within the mouth to the chemical components of ingested food. In our paper, we show that the evaluation of taste components can also be influenced by the tactile quality of the food. We first discuss how multisensory factors might influence taste, flavour and smell for both typical and atypical (synaesthetic) populations and we then present two empirical studies showing tactile-taste interactions in the general population. We asked a group of average adults to evaluate the taste components of flavoured food substances, whilst we presented simultaneous cross-sensory visuo-tactile cues within the eating environment. Specifically, we presented foodstuffs between subjects that were otherwise identical but had a rough versus smooth surface, or were served on a rough versus smooth serving-plate. We found no effect of the serving-plate, but we found the rough/smoothness of the foodstuff itself significantly influenced perception: food was rated as significantly more sour if it had a rough (vs. smooth) surface. In modifying taste perception via ostensibly unrelated dimensions, we demonstrate that the detection of tastes within flavours may be influenced by higher level cross-sensory cues. Finally, we suggest that the direction of our cross-sensory associations may speak to the types of hedonic mapping found both in normal multisensory integration, and in the unusual condition of synaesthesia. PMID:26169315

  3. Temporal signatures of taste quality driven by active sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Dustin M; Sun, Chengsan; Hill, David L

    2014-05-28

    Animals actively acquire sensory information from the outside world, with rodents sniffing to smell and whisking to feel. Licking, a rapid motor sequence used for gustation, serves as the primary means of controlling stimulus access to taste receptors in the mouth. Using a novel taste-quality discrimination task in head-restrained mice, we measured and compared reaction times to four basic taste qualities (salt, sour, sweet, and bitter) and found that certain taste qualities are perceived inherently faster than others, driven by the precise biomechanics of licking and functional organization of the peripheral gustatory system. The minimum time required for accurate perception was strongly dependent on taste quality, ranging from the sensory-motor limits of a single lick (salt, ∼100 ms) to several sampling cycles (bitter, >500 ms). Further, disruption of sensory input from the anterior tongue significantly impaired the speed of perception of some taste qualities, with little effect on others. Overall, our results show that active sensing may play an important role in shaping the timing of taste-quality representations and perception in the gustatory system.

  4. The anterior insular cortex represents breaches of taste identity expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Maria G; Douglas, Danielle; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Gitelman, Darren R; Small, Dana M

    2011-10-12

    Despite the importance of breaches of taste identity expectation for survival, its neural correlate is unknown. We used fMRI in 16 women to examine brain response to expected and unexpected receipt of sweet taste and tasteless/odorless solutions. During expected trials (70%), subjects heard "sweet" or "tasteless" and received the liquid indicated by the cue. During unexpected trials (30%), subjects heard sweet but received tasteless or they heard tasteless but received sweet. After delivery, subjects indicated stimulus identity by pressing a button. Reaction time was faster and more accurate after valid cuing, indicating that the cues altered expectancy as intended. Tasting unexpected versus expected stimuli resulted in greater deactivation in fusiform gyri, possibly reflecting greater suppression of visual object regions when orienting to, and identifying, an unexpected taste. Significantly greater activation to unexpected versus expected stimuli occurred in areas related to taste (thalamus, anterior insula), reward [ventral striatum (VS), orbitofrontal cortex], and attention [anterior cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, intraparietal sulcus (IPS)]. We also observed an interaction between stimulus and expectation in the anterior insula (primary taste cortex). Here response was greater for unexpected versus expected sweet compared with unexpected versus expected tasteless, indicating that this region is preferentially sensitive to breaches of taste expectation. Connectivity analyses confirmed that expectation enhanced network interactions, with IPS and VS influencing insular responses. We conclude that unexpected oral stimulation results in suppression of visual cortex and upregulation of sensory, attention, and reward regions to support orientation, identification, and learning about salient stimuli.

  5. Human psychometric and taste receptor responses to steviol glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellfritsch, Caroline; Brockhoff, Anne; Stähler, Frauke; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-07-11

    Steviol glycosides, the sweet principle of Stevia Rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni, have recently been approved as a food additive in the EU. The herbal non-nutritive high-potency sweeteners perfectly meet the rising consumer demand for natural food ingredients in Europe. We have characterized the organoleptic properties of the most common steviol glycosides by an experimental approach combining human sensory studies and cell-based functional taste receptor expression assays. On the basis of their potency to elicit sweet and bitter taste sensations, we identified glycone chain length, pyranose substitution, and the C16 double bond as the structural features giving distinction to the gustatory profile of steviol glycosides. A comprehensive screening of 25 human bitter taste receptors revealed that two receptors, hTAS2R4 and hTAS2R14, mediate the bitter off-taste of steviol glycosides. For some test substances, e.g., stevioside, we observed a decline in sweet intensity at supra-maximum concentrations. This effect did not arise from allosteric modulation of the hTAS1R2/R3 sweet taste receptor but might be explained by intramolecular cross-modal suppression between the sweet and bitter taste component of steviol glycosides. These results might contribute to the production of preferentially sweet and least bitter tasting Stevia extracts by an optimization of breeding and postharvest downstream processing.

  6. Effects of fast food branding on young children's taste preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Thomas N; Borzekowski, Dina L G; Matheson, Donna M; Kraemer, Helena C

    2007-08-01

    To examine the effects of cumulative, real-world marketing and brand exposures on young children by testing the influence of branding from a heavily marketed source on taste preferences. Experimental study. Children tasted 5 pairs of identical foods and beverages in packaging from McDonald's and matched but unbranded packaging and were asked to indicate if they tasted the same or if one tasted better. Preschools for low-income children. Sixty-three children (mean +/- SD age, 4.6 +/- 0.5 years; range, 3.5-5.4 years). Branding of fast foods. A summary total taste preference score (ranging from -1 for the unbranded samples to 0 for no preference and +1 for McDonald's branded samples) was used to test the null hypothesis that children would express no preference. The mean +/- SD total taste preference score across all food comparisons was 0.37 +/- 0.45 (median, 0.20; interquartile range, 0.00-0.80) and significantly greater than zero (Pbranding among children with more television sets in their homes and children who ate food from McDonald's more often. Branding of foods and beverages influences young children's taste perceptions. The findings are consistent with recommendations to regulate marketing to young children and also suggest that branding may be a useful strategy for improving young children's eating behaviors.

  7. Review of Environmentally Assisted Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadananda, K.; Vasudevan, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    Many efforts have been made in the past by several researchers to arrive at some unifying principles governing the embrittlement phenomena. An inescapable conclusion reached by all these efforts was that the behavior is very complex. Hence, recognizing the complexity of material/environment behavior, we focus our attention here only in extracting some similarities in the experimental trends to arrive at some generic principles of behavior. Crack nucleation and growth are examined under static load in the presence of internal and external environments. Stress concentration, either pre-existing or in-situ generated, appears to be a requirement for embrittlement. A chemical stress concentration factor is defined for a given material/environment system as the ratio of failure stress with and without the damaging chemical environment. All factors that affect the buildup of the required stress concentration, such as planarity of slip, stacking fault energy, etc., also affect the stress-corrosion behavior. The chemical stress concentration factor is coupled with the mechanical stress concentration factor. In addition, generic features for all systems appear to be (a) an existence of a threshold stress as a function of concentration of the damaging environment and flow properties of the material, and (b) an existence of a limiting threshold as a function of concentration, indicative of a damage saturation for that environment. Kinetics of crack growth also depends on concentration and the mode of crack growth. In general, environment appears to enhance crack tip ductility on one side by the reduction of energy for dislocation nucleation and glide, and to reduce cohesive energy for cleavage, on the other. These two opposing factors are coupled to provide environmentally induced crack nucleation and growth. The relative ratio of these two opposing factors depends on concentration and flow properties, thereby affecting limiting thresholds. The limiting concentration or

  8. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H. [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  9. Smell and taste function in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jessica E; Laing, David G; Wilkes, Fiona J; Kainer, Gad

    2010-08-01

    Loss of appetite and poor growth are common in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and changes in smell and/or taste function may be responsible, but the hypothesis has not been proven. This aims of this prospective age- and gender-controlled study were to determine whether: (1) changes in smell and taste function occur in children with CKD; (2) smell or taste dysfunction are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); (3) there is an association between smell or taste loss and body mass index (BMI). The study cohort consisted of 72 children of whom 20 were CKD stage 3-5 patients, 12 were CKD stage 2 patients, 20 were clinical controls (CC) and 20 were healthy children (HC). The CKD patients and clinical controls were recruited from Sydney Children's Hospital and The Children's Hospital, Westmead, and healthy controls were recruited from a local school. Scores for each group from taste and smell chemosensory function tests were compared, and their relationship with renal function and BMI investigated. The CKD stage 3-5 group had a significantly lower taste identification score (85.6%, P children in the CKD stage 3-5 group exhibiting taste loss. Decreased taste function was associated with decreased eGFR (r = 0.43, P 0.9). Odour identification scores were not different; however, there was a positive relationship with BMI (r = 0.427, P = 0.006). We conclude that a loss of taste can occur in children with CKD and that when it occurs, it worsens as eGFR declines and is found early in kidney disease.

  10. Modified Dugdale crack models - some easy crack relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1997-01-01

    are assumed to be self created by local materials flow. The strength sigma_CR predictid by the Dugdale model is sigma_CR =(E Gamma_CR/phi1)^½ where E and 1 are Young’s modulus and crack half-length respectively of the material considered. The so-called critical strain energy rate is Gamma_CR = sigma......_Ldelta_CR where sigma_L is strength, and at the same time constant flow stress, of the uncracked material while delta_CR is flow limit (displacement).Obviously predictions by the Dugdale model are most reliable for materials with stress-strain relations where flow can actually be described (or well approximated......) by a constant flow stress (sigma_L). A number of materials, however, do not at all exhibit this kind of flow. Such materials are considered in this paper by Modified Dugdale crack models which apply for any cohesive stress distribution in crack front areas. Formally modified Dugdale crack models exhibit...

  11. Bringing the immigrant back into the sociology of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Krishnendu

    2017-12-01

    The sociology of food consumption has emerged as a robust field with rich empirical material and engaged theorization about taste, omnivorousness, distinction, and practice theory. Nevertheless, there are continuing empirical and conceptual lacunae. Although transnational and rural-to-urban migrants play a crucial role in food businesses in many global cities, they are mostly unaccounted for in the sociology of taste. Taking the American case, in particular based on data from New York City, this article provides reasons for that gap and shows what might be gained if migrants were accounted for in the urban sociology of taste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of tasting in the purchasing process

    OpenAIRE

    Oomen Roos

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, it is forbidden by law to taste and sell wine in the same room, even if the buyer only places an order for delivery and no actual exchange of money and wine takes place, with the exception of licensed liquor stores. Wine traders, tastings and events are disadvantaged by this law. Wine tastings where consumers can buy or order wine are officially forbidden, even in a licensed liquor shop. The law makes no distinction between the act of “tasting” and the act of “drinking” wi...

  13. Can taste and nudging impact healthy meal consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    Previous research shows that taste is one of the most important factors in determining food choices, and that food choices may be affected by ”nudging”. We analyze how taste, as determined by meal attributes, and nudging affects consumption of a healthy labeled meal. Our analysis is based...... on a field experiment in a lunch restaurant and our results imply that sales of the healthy labelled meal, and its market share, is greatly impacted by its taste. Nudging, as in order of display on the menu, does not impact sales of the healthy labelled meal in our experiment. We conclude that supplying...

  14. Can taste and nudging impact healthy meal consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    Previous research shows that taste is one of the most important factors in determining food choices, and that food choices may be affected by ”nudging”. We analyze how taste, as determined by meal attributes, and nudging affects consumption of a healthy labeled meal. Our analysis is based...... on a field experiment in a lunch restaurant and our results imply that sales of the healthy labelled meal, and its market share, is greatly impacted by its taste. Nudging, as in order of display on the menu, does not impact sales of the healthy labelled meal in our experiment. We conclude that supplying...

  15. Vertebrate Bitter Taste Receptors: Keys for Survival in Changing Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2017-01-05

    Research on bitter taste receptors has made enormous progress during recent years. Although in the early period after the discovery of this highly interesting receptor family special emphasis was placed on the deorphanization of mainly human bitter taste receptors, the research focus has shifted to sophisticated structure-function analyses, the discovery of small-molecule interactors, and the pharmacological profiling of nonhuman bitter taste receptors. These findings allowed novel perspectives on, for example, evolutionary and ecological questions that have arisen and that are discussed.

  16. Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Mice Lacking the Tas1r3 Taste Receptor Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir O Murovets

    Full Text Available The G-protein-coupled sweet taste receptor dimer T1R2/T1R3 is expressed in taste bud cells in the oral cavity. In recent years, its involvement in membrane glucose sensing was discovered in endocrine cells regulating glucose homeostasis. We investigated importance of extraorally expressed T1R3 taste receptor protein in age-dependent control of blood glucose homeostasis in vivo, using nonfasted mice with a targeted mutation of the Tas1r3 gene that encodes the T1R3 protein. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests, as well as behavioral tests measuring taste responses to sucrose solutions, were performed with C57BL/6ByJ (Tas1r3+/+ inbred mice bearing the wild-type allele and C57BL/6J-Tas1r3tm1Rfm mice lacking the entire Tas1r3 coding region and devoid of the T1R3 protein (Tas1r3-/-. Compared with Tas1r3+/+ mice, Tas1r3-/- mice lacked attraction to sucrose in brief-access licking tests, had diminished taste preferences for sucrose solutions in the two-bottle tests, and had reduced insulin sensitivity and tolerance to glucose administered intraperitoneally or intragastrically, which suggests that these effects are due to absence of T1R3. Impairment of glucose clearance in Tas1r3-/- mice was exacerbated with age after intraperitoneal but not intragastric administration of glucose, pointing to a compensatory role of extraoral T1R3-dependent mechanisms in offsetting age-dependent decline in regulation of glucose homeostasis. Incretin effects were similar in Tas1r3+/+ and Tas1r3-/- mice, which suggests that control of blood glucose clearance is associated with effects of extraoral T1R3 in tissues other than the gastrointestinal tract. Collectively, the obtained data demonstrate that the T1R3 receptor protein plays an important role in control of glucose homeostasis not only by regulating sugar intake but also via its extraoral function, probably in the pancreas and brain.

  17. Activation of nucleus accumbens NMDA receptors differentially affects appetitive or aversive taste learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eNuñez-Jaramillo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste memory depends on motivational and post-ingestional consequences; thus, it can be aversive (e.g., conditioned taste aversion, CTA if a novel, palatable taste is paired with visceral malaise, or it can be appetitive if no intoxication appears after novel taste consumption, and a taste preference is developed. The nucleus accumbens (NAc plays a role in hedonic reactivity to taste stimuli, and recent findings suggest that reward and aversion are differentially encoded by the activity of NAc neurons. The present study examined whether the requirement for NMDA receptors in the NAc core during rewarding appetitive taste learning differs from that during aversive taste conditioning, as well as during retrieval of appetitive versus aversive taste memory, using the taste preference or CTA model, respectively. Bilateral infusions of NMDA (1 μg/μl, 0.5 μl into the NAc core were performed before acquisition or before retrieval of taste preference or CTA. Activation of NMDA receptors before taste preference training or CTA acquisition did not alter memory formation. Furthermore, NMDA injections before aversive taste retrieval had no effect on taste memory; however, 24 h later, CTA extinction was significantly delayed. Also, NMDA injections, made before familiar appetitive memory retrieval, interrupted the development of taste preference and produced a preference delay 24 h later. These results suggest that memory formation for a novel taste produces neurochemical changes in the NAc core that have differential requirements for NMDA receptors during retrieval of appetitive or aversive memory.

  18. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation.

  19. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Klein, Ophir D.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  20. Development of a test for evaluation of taste perception after tongue reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.A.M. van der Horst; M.J.C. Smeulders; R.M.S. Polsbroek; J.H. Ravesloot

    2010-01-01

    When performing a tongue reduction a frequently asked question is how operation will influence taste of the patient. Different kinds of taste tests are designed, most of these being non-specific ways to determine taste sensation in which high concentration of taste solutions are used to detect if a

  1. Genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes and phylogenetic analysis of bitter taste receptor genes in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huaming; Shang, Shuai; Wu, Xiaoyang; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Wanchao; Yan, Jiakuo; Li, Haotian; Zhang, Honghai

    2017-01-01

    As nontraditional model organisms with extreme physiological and morphological phenotypes, snakes are believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste sensation is essential to distinguish the nutritious and poisonous food resources and the genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes is largely scarce. To explore the genetic basis of the bitter taste of snakes and characterize the evolution of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) in reptiles, we identified Tas2r genes in 19 genomes (species) corresponding to three orders of non-avian reptiles. Our results indicated contractions of Tas2r gene repertoires in snakes, however dramatic gene expansions have occurred in lizards. Phylogenetic analysis of the Tas2rs with NJ and BI methods revealed that Tas2r genes of snake species formed two clades, whereas in lizards the Tas2r genes clustered into two monophyletic clades and four large clades. Evolutionary changes (birth and death) of intact Tas2r genes in reptiles were determined by reconciliation analysis. Additionally, the taste signaling pathway calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (Calhm1) gene of snakes was putatively functional, suggesting that snakes still possess bitter taste sensation. Furthermore, Phylogenetically Independent Contrasts (PIC) analyses reviewed a significant correlation between the number of Tas2r genes and the amount of potential toxins in reptilian diets, suggesting that insectivores such as some lizards may require more Tas2rs genes than omnivorous and carnivorous reptiles.

  2. FRACTAL KINEMATICS OF CRACK PROPAGATION IN GEOMATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢和平

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results indicate that propagation paths of cracks in geomaterials are often irregular, producing rough fracture surfaces which are fractal. A formula is derived for the fractal kinematics of crack propagation in geomaterials. The formula correlates the dynamic and static fracture toughnesses with crack velocity, crack length and a microstructural parameter, and allows the fractal dimension to be obtained. From the equations for estimating crack velocity and fractal dimension it can be shown that the measured crack velocity, Vo , should be much smaller than the fractal crack velocity, V. It can also be shown that the fractal dimension of the crack propagation path can be calculated directly from Vo and from the fracture toughness.

  3. Interacting Cracks in an Environmentally Assisted Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandovsky, Artem; Balazs, Anna

    2006-03-01

    We perform the study of environmentally assisted fracture within the framework of a lattice model. Formation of an ensemble of environmentally assisted microcracks, their coalescence and formation of crack ``avalanches'' lead to a very rich dynamical picture. Under specific condition crack healing can occur due to cohesive forces, which hold material together and tend to pull atoms together even if they are separated by a crack over several lattice units. We investigate the dynamical interplay between crack formation, arrest, healing and re-cracking. The goal here is to provide an understanding of the conditions leading to the phenomena of crack healing that happens along with the crack formation. We study the morphology of crack patterns with the intentions to establish a way to enhance the healing property of a material sample.

  4. On multiple crack detection in beam structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Shapour; Kargozarfard, Mohammad [Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    This study presents an inverse procedure to identify multiple cracks in beams using an evolutionary algorithm. By considering the crack detection procedure as an optimization problem, an objective function can be constructed based on the change of the eigenfrequencies and some strain energy parameters. Each crack is modeled by a rotational spring. The changes in natural frequencies due to the presence of the cracks are related to a damage index vector. Then, the bees algorithm, a swarm-based evolutionary optimization technique, is used to optimize the objective function and find the damage index vector, whose positive components show the number and position of the cracks. A second objective function is also optimized to find the crack depths. Several experimental studies on cracked cantilever beams are conducted to ensure the integrity of the proposed method. The results show that the number of cracks as well as their sizes and locations can be predicted well through this method.

  5. Crack and flip phacoemulsification technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, I H; Maloney, W F; Dillman, D M

    1993-11-01

    The crack and flip phacoemulsification technique combines the advantages of circumferential division of the nucleus and nucleofactis techniques. As such, it adds safety and control to the procedure. We describe each of the surgical maneuvers, including machine settings, and explain the rationale for maneuvers and machine settings.

  6. China Cracks Down Internet Piracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      National Copyright Administration of China carried out a special operation to crack down on behaviors involving network infringement and piracy from September to December in 2005 ,according to the speech of Yan Xiaohong,Deputy Commissioner of National Copyright Administration on the Press Conference of the State Council.Now the relevant conditions are as follows:……

  7. China Cracks Down Internet Piracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ National Copyright Administration of China carried out a special operation to crack down on behaviors involving network infringement and piracy from September to December in 2005 ,according to the speech of Yan Xiaohong,Deputy Commissioner of National Copyright Administration on the Press Conference of the State Council.Now the relevant conditions are as follows:

  8. HYDROTHERMAL CRACKING OF RESIDUAL OILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The hydrothermal cracking of heavy oils, such as Canadian oil sand bitumen and Arabian heavy vacuum residue, as well as their model compound were performed over sulfided Ni/Al2O3 and NiMo/Al2O3 catalysts under 663~703 K and 6.0~8.0 MPa of hydrogen pressure in a batch autoclave reactor. According to the reaction mechanism of hydrothermal cracking, a small amount of free redical initiators, such as di-tert-peroxide, sulfur, etc., was added into the feed to generate free redicals at lower temperature, and obviously showed promotional effect on the conversion of hydrocarbons. The reaction mechanisms of hydrothermal cracking as well as the enhancing effect of initiators were studied by a probe reaction with 1-phenyldodecane as a model compound. The hydrothermal cracking of hydrocarbon proceeded via free redical mechanism and hydrogenating quench. The initiators might easily generate free redicals under reaction temperature, these redicals might abstract H from hydrocarbon molecule and reasonably initiate the chain reactions, therefore, promote the conversion of hydrocarbon even at lower reaction temperature.

  9. Confining crack propagation in defective graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Polín, Guillermo; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Gómez-Navarro, Cristina

    2015-03-11

    Crack propagation in graphene is essential to understand mechanical failure in 2D materials. We report a systematic study of crack propagation in graphene as a function of defect content. Nanoindentations and subsequent images of graphene membranes with controlled induced defects show that while tears in pristine graphene span microns length, crack propagation is strongly reduced in the presence of defects. Accordingly, graphene oxide exhibits minor crack propagation. Our work suggests controlled defect creation as an approach to avoid catastrophic failure in graphene.

  10. Mouse taste cells with G protein-coupled taste receptors lack voltage-gated calcium channels and SNAP-25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medler Kathryn F

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste receptor cells are responsible for transducing chemical stimuli from the environment and relaying information to the nervous system. Bitter, sweet and umami stimuli utilize G-protein coupled receptors which activate the phospholipase C (PLC signaling pathway in Type II taste cells. However, it is not known how these cells communicate with the nervous system. Previous studies have shown that the subset of taste cells that expresses the T2R bitter receptors lack voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, which are normally required for synaptic transmission at conventional synapses. Here we use two lines of transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP from two taste-specific promoters to examine Ca2+ signaling in subsets of Type II cells: T1R3-GFP mice were used to identify sweet- and umami-sensitive taste cells, while TRPM5-GFP mice were used to identify all cells that utilize the PLC signaling pathway for transduction. Voltage-gated Ca2+ currents were assessed with Ca2+ imaging and whole cell recording, while immunocytochemistry was used to detect expression of SNAP-25, a presynaptic SNARE protein that is associated with conventional synapses in taste cells. Results Depolarization with high K+ resulted in an increase in intracellular Ca2+ in a small subset of non-GFP labeled cells of both transgenic mouse lines. In contrast, no depolarization-evoked Ca2+ responses were observed in GFP-expressing taste cells of either genotype, but GFP-labeled cells responded to the PLC activator m-3M3FBS, suggesting that these cells were viable. Whole cell recording indicated that the GFP-labeled cells of both genotypes had small voltage-dependent Na+ and K+ currents, but no evidence of Ca2+ currents. A subset of non-GFP labeled taste cells exhibited large voltage-dependent Na+ and K+ currents and a high threshold voltage-gated Ca2+ current. Immunocytochemistry indicated that SNAP-25 was expressed in a separate population of taste cells

  11. Crack initiation in smooth fatigue specimens of austenitic stainless steel in light water reactor environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O. K.; Smith, J. L.

    1999-04-08

    The fatigue design curves for structural materials specified in Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code are based on tests of smooth polished specimens at room temperature in air. The effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves; however, recent test data illustrate the detrimental effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of austenitic stainless steels (SSs). Certain loading and environmental conditions have led to test specimen fatigue lives that are significantly shorter than those obtained in air. Results of fatigue tests that examine the influence of reactor environments on crack initiation and crack growth of austenitic SSs are presented. Block loading was used to mark the fracture surface to determine crack length as a function of fatigue cycles in water environments, Crack lengths were measured by scanning electron microscopy. The mechanism for decreased fatigue life in LWR environments is discussed, and crack growth rates in the smooth fatigue specimens are compared with existing data from studies of crack growth rates.

  12. Correction to the crack extension direction in numerical modelling of mixed mode crack paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucht, Tore; Aliabadi, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    In order to avoid introduction of an error when a local crack-growth criterion is used in an incremental crack growth formulation, each straight crack extension would have to be infinitesimal or have its direction corrected. In this paper a new procedure to correct the crack extension direction i...

  13. Mesh sensitivity effects on fatigue crack growth by crack-tip blunting and re-sharpening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2007-01-01

    Crack-tip blunting under tensile loads and re-sharpening of the crack-tip during unloading is one of the basic mechanisms for fatigue crack growth in ductile metals. Based on an elastic–perfectly plastic material model, crack growth computations have been continued up to 700 full cycles by using...

  14. Fatigue crack growth from a cracked elastic particle into a ductile matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groh, S.; Olarnrithinun, S.; Curtin, W. A.; Needleman, A.; Deshpande, V. S.; Van der Giessen, E.

    2008-01-01

    The monotonic and cyclic crack growth rate of cracks is strongly influenced by the microstructure. Here, the growth of cracks emanating from pre-cracked micron-scale elastic particles and growing into single crystals is investigated, with a focus on the effects of (i) plastic confinement due to the

  15. Landeskunde durch Weinkunde: A Taste of German Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Dennis E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a cultural unit centered on German wines. After a series of preparatory lessons showing how the topic touches on geography, history, and social customs, the unit culminated in a wine tasting. (EJS)

  16. Amygdala-gustatory insular cortex connections and taste neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-You; Reilly, Steve

    2012-12-01

    To examine whether communication between the amygdala and gustatory insular cortex (GC) is required for normal performance of taste neophobia, three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, rats with asymmetric unilateral lesions of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the GC displayed elevated intake of a novel saccharin solution relative to control subjects. However, an attenuation of neophobia was not found following asymmetric unilateral lesions of the GC and medial amygdala (MeA; Experiment 2) or of the MeA and BLA (Experiment 3). This pattern of results indicates that the BLA and GC functionally interact during expression of taste neophobia and that the MeA functionally interacts with neither the BLA nor the GC. Research is needed to further characterize the nature of the involvement of the MeA in taste neophobia and to determine the function of the BLA-GC interaction during exposure to a new taste.

  17. Dimensions of Taste Qualifying Didactic Reflections on Home Economics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    review on children, learning, food and taste followed by analyses in a value reflective pedagogy perspective as well as quantitative and qualitative research in home economic education. This has been combined with systems theory developed by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann providing concepts......Aim: Traditionally and worldwide home economics education has been concerned with taste and flavorings based training associated with students cooking in the school kitchen. In contrast new educational research on food knowledge in the Danish public school shows that taste is used as a didactic......? Method: The proposal features theoretical work. It aims to push the boundaries of theory and research in order to seek out a new paradigm including a model of four basic taste dimensions. Based on this model it suggests new ways of framing home economic education. The starting point has been a literature...

  18. Twisting cracks in Bouligand structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksangpanya, Nobphadon; Yaraghi, Nicholas A; Kisailus, David; Zavattieri, Pablo

    2017-06-10

    The Bouligand structure, which is found in many biological materials, is a hierarchical architecture that features uniaxial fiber layers assembled periodically into a helicoidal pattern. Many studies have highlighted the high damage-resistant performance of natural and biomimetic Bouligand structures. One particular species that utilizes the Bouligand structure to achieve outstanding mechanical performance is the smashing Mantis Shrimp, Odontodactylus Scyllarus (or stomatopod). The mantis shrimp generates high speed, high acceleration blows using its raptorial appendage to defeat highly armored preys. The load-bearing part of this appendage, the dactyl club, contains an interior region [16] that consists of a Bouligand structure. This region is capable of developing a significant amount of nested twisting microcracks without exhibiting catastrophic failure. The development and propagation of these microcracks are a source of energy dissipation and stress relaxation that ultimately contributes to the remarkable damage tolerance properties of the dactyl club. We develop a theoretical model to provide additional insights into the local stress intensity factors at the crack front of twisting cracks formed within the Bouligand structure. Our results reveal that changes in the local fracture mode at the crack front leads to a reduction of the local strain energy release rate, hence, increasing the necessary applied energy release rate to propagate the crack, which is quantified by the local toughening factor. Ancillary 3D simulations of the asymptotic crack front field were carried out using a J-integral to validate the theoretical values of the energy release rate and the local stress intensity factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatigue crack growth simulations of 3-D linear elastic cracks under thermal load by XFEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Himanshu PATHAK[1; Akhilendra SINGH[2; I.V. SINGH[3; S. K. YADAV[3

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the fatigue crack growth simulations of three-dimensional linear elastic cracks by XFEM under cyclic thermal load. Both temperature and displacement approximations are extrinsically enriched by Heaviside and crack front enrichment functions. Crack growth is modelled by successive linear extensions, and the end points of these linear extensions are joined by cubic spline segments to obtain a modified crack front. Different crack geometries such as planer, non-planer and arbitrary spline shape cracks are simulated under thermal shock, adiabatic and isothermal loads to reveal the sturdiness and versatility of the XFEM approach.

  20. Functional expression of ionotropic purinergic receptors on mouse taste bud cells

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Neurotransmitter receptors on taste bud cells (TBCs) and taste nerve fibres are likely to contribute to taste transduction by mediating the interaction among TBCs and that between TBCs and taste nerve fibres. We investigated the functional expression of P2 receptor subtypes on TBCs of mouse fungiform papillae. Electrophysiological studies showed that 100 [mu m ATP applied to their basolateral membranes either depolarized or hyperpolarized a few cells per taste bud. Ca2+ imaging showed that si...

  1. GENETIC VARIATION IN TASTE PERCEPTION AND ITS ROLE IN FOOD LIKING AND HEALTH STATUS

    OpenAIRE

    Robino, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Taste has been described as the body's “nutritional gatekeeper”, affecting the identification of nutrients and toxins and guiding food choices. Genetic variation in taste receptor genes can influence perception of sweet, umami and bitter tastes, whereas less is known about the genetics of sour and salty taste. Differences in taste perception, influencing food selection and dietary behavior, have also shown important long-term health implications, especially for food-related diseases such as o...

  2. CFD SIMULATION OF FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING IN DOWNER REACTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Liu; Fei Wei; Yu Zheng; Yong Jin

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed for the simulation of gas-particle flow and fluid catalytic cracking in downer reactors. The model takes into account both cracking reaction and flow behavior through a four-lump reaction kinetics coupled with two-phase turbulent flow. The prediction results show that the relatively large change of gas velocity affects directly the axial distribution of solids velocity and void fraction, which significantly interact with the chemical reaction. Furthermore, model simulations are carried out to determine the effects of such parameters on product yields, as bed diameter, reaction temperature and the ratio of catalyst to oil, which are helpful for optimizing the yields of desired products. The model equations are coded and solved on CFX4.4.

  3. Taste preference changes throughout different life stages in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Ueda, Katsura; Nakatsuka, Michiko; Kumabe, Shunji; Inui, Tadashi; Iwai, Yasutomo

    2017-01-01

    Taste preference, a key component of food choice, changes with aging. However, it remains unclear how this occurs. To determine differences in taste preference between rats in different life stages, we examined the consumption of taste solutions and water using a two-bottle test. Male Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages were used: juvenile (3–6 weeks), young adult (8–11 weeks), adult (17–20 weeks), middle-aged (34–37 weeks), and old-aged (69–72 weeks). The intakes of the high and low concentration solutions presented simultaneously were measured. We observed that the old-aged group had lower preference ratios for 0.3 M sucrose and 0.1 M MSG in comparison with other groups. The preference ratio for 0.03 mM QHCl was higher in the middle-aged group than in the three younger groups and higher in the old-aged group than the juvenile group. The taste preferences for HCl and NaCl did not significantly differ among the age groups. The old-aged group tended to prefer high concentrations of sucrose, QHCl, NaCl, and MSG to low concentrations, indicating age-related decline in taste sensitivity. We also aimed to investigate differences between life stages in the electrophysiological responses of the chorda tympani nerve, one of the peripheral gustatory nerves, to taste stimuli. The electrophysiological recordings showed that aging did not alter the function of the chorda tympani nerve. This study showed that aging induced alterations in taste preference. It is likely that these alterations are a result of functional changes in other peripheral taste nerves, the gastrointestinal system, or the central nervous system. PMID:28742813

  4. Endogenous peripheral neuromodulators of the mammalian taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin

    2010-10-01

    The sensitivity of the mammalian taste system displays a degree of plasticity based on short-term nutritional requirements. Deficiency in a particular substance may lead to a perceived increase in palatability of this substance, providing an additional drive to redress this nutritional imbalance through modification of intake. This alteration occurs not only in the brain but also, before any higher level processing has occurred, in the taste buds themselves. A brief review of recent advances is offered.

  5. Aroma and taste perceptions with Alzheimer disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliani, Michel; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Girgih, Abraham T; Pownall, Trisha L; Bugera, Jacqeline L; Eskin, Michael N A

    2013-01-01

    Chemosensory disorders of smell or taste in humans have been attributed to various physiological and environmental factors including aging and disease conditions. Aroma and taste greatly condition our food preference, selection and, consumption; the decreased appetite in patients with known neurodegenerative diseases may lead to dietary restrictions that could negatively impact nutritional and health status. The decline in olfactory and gustatory systems in patients with Alzheimer disease and various types of stroke are described.

  6. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  7. Effect of crack size on gas leakage characteristics in a confined space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Kun Hyuk; Ryou, Hong Sun; Yoon, Kee Bong; Lee, Hy Uk; Bang, Joo Won [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Li, Longnan; Choi, Jin Wook; Kim, Dae Joong [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    We numerically investigated the influence of crack size on gas leakage characteristics in a confined space. The real scale model of underground Combined cycle power plant (CCPP) was taken for simulating gas leakage characteristics for different crack sizes such as 10 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm. The commercial code of Fluent (v.16.1) was used for three-dimensional simulation. In particular, a risk region showing such a probability of ignition was newly suggested with the concept of Lower flammable limit (LFL) of methane gas used in the present study to characterize the gas propagation and the damage area in space. From the results, the longitudinal and transverse leakage distances were estimated and analyzed for quantitative evaluation of risk area. The crack size was found to have a great impact on the longitudinal leakage distance, showing an increasing tendency with the crack size. In case of a crack size of 20 mm, the longitudinal leakage distance suddenly increased after 180 s, whereas it remained constant after 2 s in the other cases. This is because a confinement effect, which is caused by circulation flows in the whole space, increased the gas concentration near the gas flow released from the crack. The confinement effect is thus closely associated with the released mass flow rate changing with the crack size. This result would be useful in designing the gas detector system for preventing accidents in the confined space as like CCPP.

  8. Taste loss in the elderly: Possible implications for dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergi, Giuseppe; Bano, Giulia; Pizzato, Simona; Veronese, Nicola; Manzato, Enzo

    2017-11-22

    Aging may coincide with a declining gustatory function that can affect dietary intake and ultimately have negative health consequences. Taste loss is caused by physiological changes and worsened by events often associated with aging, such as polypharmacy and chronic disease. The most pronounced increase in elderly people's detection threshold has been observed for sour and bitter tastes, but their perception of salty, sweet, and umami tastes also seems to decline with age. It has often been suggested that elderly people who lose their sense of taste may eat less food or choose stronger flavors, but the literature has revealed a more complicated picture: taste loss does not appear to make elderly people prefer stronger flavors, but nutrition surveys have pointed to a greater consumption of sweet and salty foods. Real-life eating habits thus seem to be more influenced by other, social and psychological factors. Elderly gustatory function is worth investigating to identify dietary strategies that can prevent the consequences of unhealthy eating habits in the elderly. This paper discusses age-related changes in taste perception, focusing on their consequences on food preferences, and pointing to some strategies for preserving appropriate dietary habits in elderly people.

  9. A composition algorithm based on crossmodal taste-music correspondences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eMesz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available While there is broad consensus about the structural similarities between language and music, comparably less attention has been devoted to semantic correspondences between these two ubiquitous manifestations of human culture. We have investigated the relations between music and a narrow and bounded domain of semantics: the words and concepts referring to taste sensations. In a recent work, we found that taste words were consistently mapped to musical parameters. Bitter is associated with low-pitched and continuous music (legato, salty is characterized by silences between notes (staccato, sour is high pitched, dissonant and fast and sweet is consonant, slow and soft (Mesz2011. Here we extended these ideas, in a synergistic dialog between music and science, investigating whether music can be algorithmically generated from taste-words. We developed and implemented an algorithm that exploits a large corpus of classic and popular songs. New musical pieces were produced by choosing fragments from the corpus and modifying them to minimize their distance to the region in musical space that characterizes each taste. In order to test the capability of the produced music to elicit significant associations with the different tastes, musical pieces were produced and judged by a group of non musicians. Results showed that participants could decode well above chance the taste-word of the composition. We also discuss how our findings can be expressed in a performance bridging music and cognitive science.

  10. Taste-active compounds in a traditional Italian food: 'lampascioni'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Gigliola; Caimi, Sara; Morini, Gabriella; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2008-06-01

    Nature is a rich source of taste-active compounds, in particular of plant origin, many of which have unusual tastes. Many of these are found in traditional food, where spontaneous plants are used as ingredients. Some taste-active compounds were identified in the bulbs of Muscari comosum, a spontaneous plant belonging to the family of the Liliaceae, very common in the Mediterranean area, and used in traditional gastronomy (called 'lampascioni' in South Italy). The bulbs were extracted with a series of solvents of different polarity. The different fractions were submitted to a preliminary sensory evaluation, and the most interesting ones, characterized by a strong bitter taste and some chemestetic properties, were submitted to further purification and structural analysis. From the ethereal extract, several 3-benzyl-4-chromanones and one stilbene derivative were isolated. Pure compounds were examined for their taste activity by means of sensory evaluation, and proved to be responsible for the characteristic taste of this food. Some of these compounds have been synthesized de novo to confirm their structure.

  11. Alteration in salivary properties and taste perception in OSMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Dyasanoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess and compare the salivary flow rate (SFR, pH and taste perception among oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF and apparently healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects (45 OSMF + 45 controls were enrolled in the study for estimating and analogizing the SFR, pH, and taste perception executing modified Schirmer, pH, and taste strips. The SFR, pH, and taste perception were evaluated and compared between 14 Stage I and 31 Stage II OSMF subjects. The entered data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 software. Results: A statistically significant decrease in SFR among OSMF group (23.4 mm at 3rd min and hypogeusia to salty (62.2%, and dysgeusia to sour taste (40% when compared to apparently healthy subjects (30.7 mm at 3rd min was noted. Statistical significance (P < 0.05% inferring hyposalivation in Stage II OSMF (24.1 mm at 3rd min juxtaposing with Stage I OSMF (31.4 mm at 3rd min. Statistically significant hypogeusia to salty (n = 23 and sweet (n = 16 and dysgeusia (n = 14 to sour among Stage II OSMF when differentiated with Stage I OSMF. The mean pH among the OSMF and control groups demonstrated no statistical significance. Conclusion: The findings from the study demonstrated marked decrease of SFR and taste perception to salty and sour among Stage II OSMF when compared to Stage I OSMF subjects.

  12. Qualitative differences in polysaccharide and sugar tastes in the rat: a two-carbohydrate taste model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, J W; Sclafani, A

    1987-01-01

    A conditioned taste aversion paradigm was used to assess the qualitative similarities between the tastes of a polysaccharide (Polycose) solution and sugar solutions (sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose). In Experiment I, three groups of female rats were water deprived and conditioned to avoid a 0.025 M Polycose, a 0.1 M sucrose, or a 0.1 M maltose solution by pairing solution consumption with a lithium chloride (LiCl) injection; in a control group water consumption was paired with the LiCl injection. The extent to which the experimental groups generalized their conditioned aversion to the other three solutions was then assessed. The Polycose-conditioned group avoided the maltose solution more than the sucrose solution, and the maltose-conditioned group avoided the Polycose solution more than the sucrose solution. The sucrose-conditioned group avoided the maltose and Polycose solutions to the same relatively low degree. In additional tests the three experimental groups showed similar aversions to a glucose solution, but only the sucrose-conditioned rats avoided a fructose solution. Rats in a second experiment also displayed relatively little cross-generalization between Polycose and sucrose aversions even though they were tested with different solution concentrations. Additional tests confirmed the results obtained in Experiment 1 with maltose, glucose, and fructose solutions, and also revealed that the sucrose-conditioned group, but not the Polycose-conditioned group avoided saccharin solutions. Neither Polycose- nor sucrose-conditioned groups avoided quinine, sodium chloride, or hydrochloric acid solutions. These results, along with other recent findings, suggest that rats have two types of "carbohydrate" taste receptors, one for polysaccharides and one for sucrose, which produce qualitatively distinct gustatory sensations.

  13. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    ; alternatives to mainstream development, from performances of the live-coding scene to the organizational forms of commons-based peer production; the democratic promise of social media and their paradoxical role in suppressing political expression; and the market’s emptying out of possibilities for free...... development, Speaking Code unfolds an argument to undermine the distinctions between criticism and practice, and to emphasize the aesthetic and political aspects of software studies. Not reducible to its functional aspects, program code mirrors the instability inherent in the relationship of speech...... expression in the public realm. The book’s line of argument defends language against its invasion by economics, arguing that speech continues to underscore the human condition, however paradoxical this may seem in an era of pervasive computing....

  14. Inhibiting Corrosion Cracking: Crack Tip Chemistry and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-14

    5 5. Swuzary 113 Rferences 114 wl NO 4L iv . List of Figuring 1. Microipette pulling machine . 29 2. Anodic polarization of 7075-T6 Al alloy in dilute...environment has a strong effect on microplastic behavior at the tip of a fatigue crack. Stolz and Pelloux suggest that nitrate ion competes with chloride...Crystalline Na2 N 20 29H20 precipitates when the filtrate is placed in a vacunm desiccator over sulfuric acid. The filtered precipitate is washed

  15. Hydrocolloid sour taste control in pasteurized rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V

    2014-12-01

    The effects of kappa (κ)-carrageenan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in controlling the sourness intensity perception of added acetic, citric, and tartaric acids in solutions for steeping and cooking of rice intended for pasteurization were determined. The rank order of added acids (0.10 and 0.20 % w/v, pH 4.00) in the initial development of acidified hydrocolloid solutions was: acetic > citric > tartaric. The final rice acidification protocols included steeping and cooking of Japonica rice cultivar Kanto in tartaric-acidified hydrocolloid solutions of κ-carrageenan and CMC (0.30 % w/v, 50 ± 2 °C for 1 h) at pH 2.75 and 2.90, respectively. The acidified cooked rice in pouches were pasteurized in boiling water (100 °C) to reach 95 °C for 5 min. The pasteurized products were categorized under acidified foods with final Aw < 0.85 and pH < 4.00. No perceivable sour tastes from 1 to 12 week storage at 28 ± 2 °C were noted in the pasteurized rice products. The shelf-stable pasteurized products were described as white, translucent, with distinct natural rice aroma and flavor, firm, and slightly elastic mouth and hand feel.

  16. Crack branching in carbon steel. Fracture mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syromyatnikova, A. S.; Alekseev, A. A.; Levin, A. I.; Lyglaev, A. V.

    2010-04-01

    The fracture surfaces of pressure vessels made of carbon steel that form during crack branching propagation are examined by fractography. Crack branching is found to occur at a crack velocity higher than a certain critical value V > V c . In this case, the material volume that is involved in fracture and depends on the elastoplastic properties of the material and the sample width has no time to dissipate the energy released upon crack motion via the damage mechanisms intrinsic in the material under given deformation conditions (in our case, via cracking according to intragranular cleavage).

  17. Strength of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with models, based on the theory of plasticity, to be used in strength assessments of reinforced concrete disks suffering from different kinds of cracking. Based on the assumption that the sliding strength of concrete is reduced in sections where cracks are located, solutions...... for the shear strength of disks with initial cracks and disks suffering from isotropic cracking are presented. Furthermore, in the case of isotropicly cracked disks subjected to arbitrary in-plane loading, a general yield condition is derived....

  18. CRACK REASON ANALYSIS OF DAMAGED CARBONITRIDED PART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kocúrová

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of a damaged part, which was designed for use in a mechanical clutch of a car. The crack in the part was found during the production inspection. The aim of metallographic and fractography analyses of the fracture surfaces was to discover the reasons for the crack. The reason for creating the crack was the formation of smaller cracks in the production during pressing process of the semiproduct. These cracks even grew after the following thermochemical treatment. The fracture was initiated during the straightening process of quenched part.

  19. Modulation of sweet taste by umami compounds via sweet taste receptor subunit hT1R2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Shim

    Full Text Available Although the five basic taste qualities-sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami-can be recognized by the respective gustatory system, interactions between these taste qualities are often experienced when food is consumed. Specifically, the umami taste has been investigated in terms of whether it enhances or reduces the other taste modalities. These studies, however, are based on individual perception and not on a molecular level. In this study we investigated umami-sweet taste interactions using umami compounds including monosodium glutamate (MSG, 5'-mononucleotides and glutamyl-dipeptides, glutamate-glutamate (Glu-Glu and glutamate-aspartic acid (Glu-Asp, in human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3-expressing cells. The sensitivity of sucrose to hT1R2/hT1R3 was significantly attenuated by MSG and umami active peptides but not by umami active nucleotides. Inhibition of sweet receptor activation by MSG and glutamyl peptides is obvious when sweet receptors are activated by sweeteners that target the extracellular domain (ECD of T1R2, such as sucrose and acesulfame K, but not by cyclamate, which interact with the T1R3 transmembrane domain (TMD. Application of umami compounds with lactisole, inhibitory drugs that target T1R3, exerted a more severe inhibitory effect. The inhibition was also observed with F778A sweet receptor mutant, which have the defect in function of T1R3 TMD. These results suggest that umami peptides affect sweet taste receptors and this interaction prevents sweet receptor agonists from binding to the T1R2 ECD in an allosteric manner, not to the T1R3. This is the first report to define the interaction between umami and sweet taste receptors.

  20. Gradient plasticity crack tip characterization by means of the extended finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pañeda, E.; Natarajan, S.; Bordas, S.

    2017-01-01

    Strain gradient plasticity theories are being widely used for fracture assessment, as they provide a richer description of crack tip fields by incorporating the influence of geometrically necessary dislocations. Characterizing the behavior at the small scales involved in crack tip deformation requires, however, the use of a very refined mesh within microns to the crack. In this work a novel and efficient gradient-enhanced numerical framework is developed by means of the extended finite element method (X-FEM). A mechanism-based gradient plasticity model is employed and the approximation of the displacement field is enriched with the stress singularity of the gradient-dominated solution. Results reveal that the proposed numerical methodology largely outperforms the standard finite element approach. The present work could have important implications on the use of microstructurally-motivated models in large scale applications. The non-linear X-FEM code developed in MATLAB can be downloaded from http://www.empaneda.com/codes.

  1. Alternating grain orientation and weld solidification cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, S.; Le, Y.

    1985-10-01

    A new mechanism for reducing weld solidification cracking was proposed, based on the concept of the crack path and resistance to crack propagation, and its effectiveness was verified in magnetically oscillated GTA welds of a rather crack susceptible material 2014 aluminum alloy. This mechanism, i.e., alternating grain orientation, was most pronounced in welds made with transverse arc oscillation of low frequency and high amplitude, and solidification cracking was dramatically reduced in these welds. The effect of the arc oscillation pattern, amplitude, and frequency on the formation of alternating columnar grains and the reduction of solidification cracking in GTA welds of 2014 aluminum alloy was examined and explained. The present study demonstrated for the first time that columnar grains can, in fact, be very effective in reducing solidification cracking, provided that they are oriented favorably.

  2. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  3. Application of 2D-HPLC/taste dilution analysis on taste compounds in aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrahn, Stephen; Sebald, Karin; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-09-24

    This is the first application of fully automated, preparative, two-dimensional HPLC combined with sensory analysis for taste compound discovery using a sweet and licorice-like bitter-tasting aniseed extract as an example. Compared to the traditional iterative fractionation of food extracts by sensory-guided sequential application of separation techniques, the fully automated 2D-HPLC allowed the comprehensive separation of the aniseed extract into 256 subfractions and reduced the fractionation time from about 1 week to <1day. Using a smart sensory strategy to locate high-impact fractions, e.g., by evaluating first-dimension fractions by reconstituting them from second-dimension subfractions, followed by straightforward application of the taste dilution analysis on the individual second-dimension subfractions revealed the sweet-tasting trans-anethole and the bitter-tasting trans-pseudoisoeugenol 2-methylbutyrate, showing recognition thresholds of 70 and 68 μmol/L, respectively, as the primary orosensory active compounds in aniseed. 2D-HPLC combined with smart sensory analysis seems to be a promising strategy to speed the discovery of the key players imparting the attractive taste of foods.

  4. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe...... the codes succinctly using Gröbner bases....

  5. A kinetic study of bitter taste receptor sensing using immobilized porcine taste bud tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lihui; Qiao, Lixin; Pang, Guangchang; Xie, Junbo

    2017-06-15

    At present, developing an efficient assay method for truly reflecting the real feelings of gustatory tissues is of great importance. In this study, a novel biosensor was fabricated to investigate the kinetic characteristics of the receptors in taste bud tissues sensing bitter substances for the first time. Porcine taste bud tissues were used as the sensing elements, and the sandwich-type sensing membrane was fixed onto a glassy carbon electrode for assembling the biosensor. With the developed sensor, the response currents induced by sucrose octaacetate, denatonium benzoate, and quercetin stimulating corresponding receptors were determined. The results demonstrated that the interaction between the analyst with their receptors were fitting to hyperbola (R(2)=0.9776, 0.9980 and 0.9601), and the activation constants were 8.748×10(-15)mol/L, 1.429×10(-12)mol/L, 6.613×10(-14)mol/L, respectively. The average number of receptors per cell was calculated as 1.75, 28.58, and 13.23, while the signal amplification factors were 1.08×10(4), 2.89×10(3) and 9.76×10(4). These suggest that the sensor can be used to quantitatively describe the interaction characteristics of cells or tissue receptors with their ligands, the role of cellular signaling cascade, the number of receptors, and the signal transmission pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Coupled FEM-DBEM method to assess crack growth in magnet system of Wendelstein 7-X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Citarella

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The fivefold symmetric modular stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X is currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. The superconducting coils of the magnet system are bolted onto a central support ring and interconnected with five so-called lateral support elements (LSEs per half module. After welding of the LSE hollow boxes to the coil cases, cracks were found in the vicinity of the welds that could potentially limit the allowed number N of electromagnetic (EM load cycles of the machine. In response to the appearance of first cracks during assembly, the Stress Intensity Factors (SIFs were calculated and corresponding crack growth rates of theoretical semi-circular cracks of measured sizes in potentially critical position and orientation were predicted using Paris’ law, whose parameters were calibrated in fatigue tests at cryogenic temperature. In this paper the Dual Boundary Element Method (DBEM is applied in a coupled FEM-DBEM approach to analyze the propagation of multiple cracks with different shapes. For this purpose, the crack path is assessed with the Minimum Strain Energy density criterion and SIFs are calculated by the J-integral approach. The Finite Element Method (FEM is adopted to model, using the commercial codes Ansys or Abaqus;, the overall component whereas the submodel analysis, in the volume surrounding the cracked area, is performed by FEM (“FEM-FEM approach” or alternatively by DBEM (“FEM-DBEM approach”. The “FEM-FEM approach” considers a FEM submodel, that is extracted from the FEM global model; the latter provide the boundary conditions for the submodel. Such approach is affected by some restrictions in the crack propagation phase, whereas, with the “FEM-DBEM approach”, the crack propagation simulation is straightforward. In this case the submodel is created in a DBEM environment with boundary conditions provided by the global FEM analysis; then the crack is introduced and a crack propagation analysis

  7. Biaxial Fatigue Cracking from Notch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    Leevers (reference 11) noticed that the variation in  from 0 to 2 has little effect on the da/dN in PVC ( polyvinyl - chloride ), but reduces the da/dN...under biaxial rotating and bending. Ahmad (reference 2) formulated a model for the biaxial fatigue crack growth in aggressive environment, outlined by...1962, Vol. 90, pp. 238-239. 20. ASM Handbook , Vol. 12 Fractography: 1992, p. 430, 438. 21. Metals Handbook , Vol. 9 Fractography and Atlas of

  8. The Growth of Small Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in Alloy 7075

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small (greater than 35 micrometers) surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 7075 is established. The early stage of crack growth is studied by performing in situ long focal length microscope (500×) crack length measurements in laboratory air and 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) environments. To quantify the "small crack effect" in the corrosive environment, the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of small cracks is compared to long through-the-thickness cracks grown under identical experimental conditions. In salt water, long crack constant K(sub max) growth rates are similar to small crack da/dN.

  9. Fatigue cracks in Eurofer 97 steel: Part II. Comparison of small and long fatigue crack growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruml, T.; Hutař, P.; Náhlík, L.; Seitl, S.; Polák, J.

    2011-05-01

    The fatigue crack growth rate in the Eurofer 97 steel at room temperature was measured by two different methodologies. Small crack growth data were obtained using cylindrical specimens with a shallow notch and no artificial crack starters. The growth of semicircular cracks of length between 10-2000 μm was followed in symmetrical cycling with constant strain amplitude ( R ɛ = -1). Long crack data were measured using standard CT specimen and ASTM methodology, i.e. R = 0.1. The growth of cracks having the length in the range of 10-30 mm was measured. It is shown that the crack growth rates of both types of cracks are in a very good agreement if J-integral representation is used and usual assumptions of the crack closure effects are taken into account.

  10. Fatigue cracks in Eurofer 97 steel: Part II. Comparison of small and long fatigue crack growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruml, T., E-mail: kruml@ipm.cz [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, CZ 61662 Brno (Czech Republic); Hutar, P.; Nahlik, L.; Seitl, S.; Polak, J. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, CZ 61662 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-05-01

    The fatigue crack growth rate in the Eurofer 97 steel at room temperature was measured by two different methodologies. Small crack growth data were obtained using cylindrical specimens with a shallow notch and no artificial crack starters. The growth of semicircular cracks of length between 10-2000 {mu}m was followed in symmetrical cycling with constant strain amplitude (R{sub {epsilon}} = -1). Long crack data were measured using standard CT specimen and ASTM methodology, i.e. R = 0.1. The growth of cracks having the length in the range of 10-30 mm was measured. It is shown that the crack growth rates of both types of cracks are in a very good agreement if J-integral representation is used and usual assumptions of the crack closure effects are taken into account.

  11. Creep and Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth at Structural Discontinuities and Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. F. W. Brust; Dr. G. M. Wilkowski; Dr. P. Krishnaswamy; Mr. Keith Wichman

    2010-01-27

    The subsection ASME NH high temperature design procedure does not admit crack-like defects into the structural components. The US NRC identified the lack of treatment of crack growth within NH as a limitation of the code and thus this effort was undertaken. This effort is broken into two parts. Part 1, summarized here, involved examining all high temperature creep-fatigue crack growth codes being used today and from these, the task objective was to choose a methodology that is appropriate for possible implementation within NH. The second part of this task, which has just started, is to develop design rules for possible implementation within NH. This second part is a challenge since all codes require step-by-step analysis procedures to be undertaken in order to assess the crack growth and life of the component. Simple rules for design do not exist in any code at present. The codes examined in this effort included R5, RCC-MR (A16), BS 7910, API 579, and ATK (and some lesser known codes). There are several reasons that the capability for assessing cracks in high temperature nuclear components is desirable. These include: (1) Some components that are part of GEN IV reactors may have geometries that have sharp corners - which are essentially cracks. Design of these components within the traditional ASME NH procedure is quite challenging. It is natural to ensure adequate life design by modeling these features as cracks within a creep-fatigue crack growth procedure. (2) Workmanship flaws in welds sometimes occur and are accepted in some ASME code sections. It can be convenient to consider these as flaws when making a design life assessment. (3) Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) and inspection methods after fabrication are limited in the size of the crack or flaw that can be detected. It is often convenient to perform a life assessment using a flaw of a size that represents the maximum size that can elude detection. (4) Flaws that are observed using in-service detection

  12. Chemostimulatory protein: a new type of taste stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, R H

    1973-07-06

    Three taste-active proteins have recently been discovered. It is proposed that two of these (monellin and thaumatin) should be classified as chemostimulatory proteins because of their sensory effect; these two proteins taste intensely sweet. The third protein (miraculin), a taste-modifier protein, changes the normal sour taste of acids to sweet. The taste-modifier protein, miraculin, occurs in the fruit of the tropical plant Synsepalum dulcificum. Though itself not sweet, it is able to change the taste of acids from sour to sweet after the tongue has been treated with the protein. Miraculin is a basic glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 44,000. Monellin, a chemostimulatory protein, is found in the fruit of a different tropical plant, Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii. It has been characterized as a basic protein with a molecular weight of 10,700 that contains no carbohydrate. Thaumatin, another chemostimulatory protein, occurs in the fruit of a third tropical plant, Thaumatococcus daniellii. Like monellin, it is a basic protein that contains no carbohydrate. Its molecular weight is around 21,000. Certain gross similarities among the three proteins have been noted. Their basic ionic character and some features of the amino acid compositions are similar. Little is known of the structural features of the chemostimulatory proteins that are required for eliciting their intense sweetness; they are of the order of 10(5) times more effective than sucrose. The precise role of the tertiary structure in their biological activity is not known but appears to be an important area for further study. The relatively large size (11,000 to 21,000 molecular weight) of the chemostimulatory proteins provides indirect evidence that the initial interaction of these stimuli with taste receptor cells occurs at the plasma membrane.

  13. Role of the insular cortex in taste familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; Cortés-Rojas, Andrés; Simon, Felipe; Stehberg, Jimmy

    2014-03-01

    Determining the role of the main gustatory cortical area within the insular cortex (IC), in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) has been elusive due to effective compensatory mechanisms that allow animals to learn in spite of lacking IC. IC lesions performed before CTA training induces mild if any memory impairments, while IC lesions done weeks after CTA produce amnesia. IC lesions before taste presentation have also been shown not to affect taste familiarity learning (attenuation of neophobia). This lack of effect could be either explained by compensation from other brain areas or by a lack of involvement of the IC in taste familiarity. To assess this issue, rats were bilaterally IC lesioned with ibotenic acid (200-300 nl.; 15 mg/ml) one week before or after taste familiarity, using either a preferred (0.1%) or a non-preferred (0.5%) saccharin solution. Rats lesioned before familiarity showed a decrease in neophobia to both solutions but no difference in their familiarity curve or their slope. When animals were familiarized and then IC lesioned, both IC lesioned groups treated the solutions as familiar, showing no differences from sham animals in their retention of familiarity. However, both lesioned groups showed increased latent inhibition (or impaired CTA) when CTA trained after repeated pre-exposures. The role of the IC in familiarity was also assessed using temporary inactivation of the IC, using bilateral micro-infusions of sodium channel blocker bupivacaine before each of 3 saccharin daily presentations. Intra-insular bupivacaine had no effects on familiarity acquisition, but did impair CTA learning in a different group of rats micro-infused before saccharin presentation in a CTA training protocol. Our data indicate that the IC is not essentially involved in acquisition or retention of taste familiarity, suggesting regional dissociation of areas involved in CTA and taste familiarity.

  14. Polyvinyl alcohol–cellulose composite: a taste sensing material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarmishtha Majumdar; Basudam Adhikari

    2005-12-01

    There are reports of fabrication of taste sensor by adsorbing lipids into Millipore filter paper. With this lipid based sensor, it has been found that the taste sensing efficiency of membrane can be remarkably improved. We have made an attempt to prepare taste sensor material by using functionalized polymer without any lipid. PVA–cellulose composite has been modified to use as the sensor material. The research work covers polymer membrane preparation, morphology study and structural characterization of the membrane and study of the taste sensing characteristics of this membrane for five different taste substances. PVA–cellulose composite membrane was modified by phosphorylation with POCl3. FTIR spectroscopic analysis, XRD analysis and SEM were done to get an idea about the structure and morphology of the prepared phosphorylated PVA–cellulose composite membrane. The sensor characteristics like temporal stability, response stability, response to different taste substances, and reproducibility of sensing performance were studied using phosphorylated PVA–cellulose composite membrane. Sensor device prepared with this membrane has shown distinct response patterns for different taste substances in terms of membrane potential. Threshold concentrations of phosphorylated PVA–cellulose composite membrane for HCl, NaCl, Q-HCl, sucrose and MSG are 0.001 mM, 0.001 mM, 0.001 mM, 0.001 mM and 0.009 mM, respectively. The threshold concentrations are below human threshold concentrations. Membranes also showed characteristic response patterns for organic acids like acetic acid, citric acid, formic acid etc, mineral acids like HCl, H2SO4 and HNO3 salts, bitter substances, sweet substances and umami substances. Sensor device prepared with this membrane has excellent shelf life.

  15. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  16. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in primate taste buds reveals links to diverse processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hevezi

    Full Text Available Efforts to unravel the mechanisms underlying taste sensation (gustation have largely focused on rodents. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of gene expression in primate taste buds. Our findings reveal unique new insights into the biology of taste buds. We generated a taste bud gene expression database using laser capture microdissection (LCM procured fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds from primates. We also used LCM to collect the top and bottom portions of CV taste buds. Affymetrix genome wide arrays were used to analyze gene expression in all samples. Known taste receptors are preferentially expressed in the top portion of taste buds. Genes associated with the cell cycle and stem cells are preferentially expressed in the bottom portion of taste buds, suggesting that precursor cells are located there. Several chemokines including CXCL14 and CXCL8 are among the highest expressed genes in taste buds, indicating that immune system related processes are active in taste buds. Several genes expressed specifically in endocrine glands including growth hormone releasing hormone and its receptor are also strongly expressed in taste buds, suggesting a link between metabolism and taste. Cell type-specific expression of transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in cell fate, including KIT, reveals the taste bud as an active site of cell regeneration, differentiation, and development. IKBKAP, a gene mutated in familial dysautonomia, a disease that results in loss of taste buds, is expressed in taste cells that communicate with afferent nerve fibers via synaptic transmission. This database highlights the power of LCM coupled with transcriptional profiling to dissect the molecular composition of normal tissues, represents the most comprehensive molecular analysis of primate taste buds to date, and provides a foundation for further studies in diverse aspects of taste biology.

  17. Subsidence crack closure: rate, magnitude and sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graff, J.V.; Romesburg, H.C.

    1981-06-01

    Tension cracks are a major surface disturbance resulting from subsidence and differential settlement above underground coal mines. Recent engineering studies of subsidence indicate that cracks may close where tensile stresses causing the cracks are reduced or relaxed. This stress reduction occurs as mining in the area is completed. Crack closure was confirmed by a study in the Wasatch Plateau coal field of central Utah. Cracks occurred in both exposed bedrock and regolith in an area with maximum subsidence of 3 m. Mean closure rate was 0.3 cm per week with individual crack closure rates between 0.2 cm and 1.0 cm per week. The mean crack closure magnitude was 80% with closure magnitudes varying between 31% and 100%. Actual magnitude values ranged from 0.6 cm to 6.5 cm with a mean value of 3.8 cm. Statistical analysis compared width change status among cracks over time. It was found that: 1) a 41% probability existed that a crack would exhibit decreasing width per weekly measurement, 2) closure state sequences seem random over time, and 3) real differences in closure state sequence existed among different cracks. (6 refs.) (In English)

  18. Crack propagation in fracture mechanical graded structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schramm

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of manufacturing is more and more on innovative and application-oriented products considering lightweight construction. Hence, especially functional graded materials come to the fore. Due to the application-matched functional material gradation different local demands such as absorbability, abrasion and fatigue of structures are met. However, the material gradation can also have a remarkable influence on the crack propagation behavior. Therefore, this paper examines how the crack propagation behavior changes when a crack grows through regions which are characterized by different fracture mechanical material properties (e.g. different threshold values KI,th, different fracture toughness KIC. In particular, the emphasis of this paper is on the beginning of stable crack propagation, the crack velocity, the crack propagation direction as well as on the occurrence of unstable crack growth under static as well as cyclic loading. In this context, the developed TSSR-concept is presented which allows the prediction of crack propagation in fracture mechanical graded structures considering the loading situation (Mode I, Mode II and plane Mixed Mode and the material gradation. In addition, results of experimental investigations for a mode I loading situation and numerical simulations of crack growth in such graded structures confirm the theoretical findings and clarify the influence of the material gradation on the crack propagation behavior.

  19. Effects of pulsation rate and viscosity on pulsation-induced taste enhancement: new insights into texture-taste interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burseg, Kerstin Martha Mensien; Camacho, Sara; Bult, Johannes Hendrikus Franciscus

    2011-05-25

    Oral stimulation with high-tastant concentrations that are alternared with low-tastant concentrations or water rinses (pulsatile stimulation) results in taste intensity ratings that are higher than continuous stimulation with the same average tastant concentration. This study tested the combined effects of taste pulsation rate and viscosity on pulsation-induced taste enhancement in apple juice. According to a tastant-kinetics hypothesis, less pulsation-induced taste enhancement is expected at enhanced pulsation rates in the high-viscous proximal stimulus compared to lower viscous stimuli. High-concentration sucrose apple juice pulses and low-concentration sucrose apple juice intervals were alternated at different pulsation periods (pulse + interval in seconds) every 2.5 s (period length = 5 s) or every 1.25 s (period length = 2.5 s). Pulsed stimuli were presented at two viscosity levels by the addition of pectin (0 and 10 g/L). Sweetness intensities of pulsed stimuli were compared to a continuous reference of the same net but nonalternating sucrose concentration. Sweetness ratings were higher for pulsatile stimuli than for continuous stimuli. In low-viscous stimuli, enhancement depended on the pulsation period and peaked at 5 s periods. In high-viscous stimuli, the same enhancement was observed for both pulsation periods. These results contradict a tastant-kinetics hypothesis of viscosity-induced taste suppression because impaired tastant kinetics by viscosity would predict the opposite: lower pulsation-induced taste enhancement for viscous stimuli, especially at higher pulsation rates. Instead, these observations favor an explanation based on perceptual texture-taste interactions, which predict the observed independence between viscosity and pulsation rate.

  20. The role of sodium in the salty taste of permeate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, K M; Miracle, R E; Drake, M A

    2014-09-01

    Many food companies are trying to limit the amount of sodium in their products. Permeate, the liquid remaining after whey or milk is ultrafiltered, has been suggested as a salt substitute. The objective of this study was to determine the sensory and compositional properties of permeates and to determine if elements other than sodium contribute to the salty taste of permeate. Eighteen whey (n=14) and reduced-lactose (n=4) permeates were obtained in duplicate from commercial facilities. Proximate analyses, specific mineral content, and nonprotein nitrogen were determined. Organic acids and nucleotides were extracted followed by HPLC. Aromatic volatiles were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Descriptive analysis of permeates and model solutions was conducted using a trained sensory panel. Whey permeates were characterized by cooked/milky and brothy flavors, sweet taste, and low salty taste. Permeates with lactose removed were distinctly salty. The organic acids with the highest concentration in permeates were lactic and citric acids. Volatiles included aldehydes, sulfur-containing compounds, and diacetyl. Sensory tests with sodium chloride solutions confirmed that the salty taste of reduced-lactose permeates was not solely due to the sodium present. Permeate models were created with NaCl, KCl, lactic acid, citric acid, hippuric acid, uric acid, orotic acid, and urea; in addition to NaCl, KCl, lactic acid, and orotic acid were contributors to the salty taste. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liping; Zou, Ling; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping; Wu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Biological olfactory and taste systems are natural chemical sensing systems with unique performances for the detection of environmental chemical signals. With the advances in olfactory and taste transduction mechanisms, biomimetic chemical sensors have achieved significant progress due to their promising prospects and potential applications. Biomimetic chemical sensors exploit the unique capability of biological functional components for chemical sensing, which are often sourced from sensing units of biological olfactory or taste systems at the tissue level, cellular level, or molecular level. Specifically, at the cellular level, there are mainly two categories of cells have been employed for the development of biomimetic chemical sensors, which are natural cells and bioengineered cells, respectively. Natural cells are directly isolated from biological olfactory and taste systems, which are convenient to achieve. However, natural cells often suffer from the undefined sensing properties and limited amount of identical cells. On the other hand, bioengineered cells have shown decisive advantages to be applied in the development of biomimetic chemical sensors due to the powerful biotechnology for the reconstruction of the cell sensing properties. Here, we briefly summarized the most recent advances of biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells. The development challenges and future trends are discussed as well. PMID:25482234

  2. A matter of taste: evaluating the quality of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-06-01

    Driven by an impetus to standardize, numerous checklists have been devised to address quality in qualitative research, but these standards and the mindset driving them offer no language with which to speak about taste, or the aesthetic sensibilities that play such a key role in evaluating the goodness of any object. In this article, quality appraisal in qualitative research is considered in the context of taste, that is, in the discernment involved in judging the value of research and in the recognition of the key role reviewer preferences, sensibilities and membership in one or more taste communities play in these judgements. The evaluation of a study is accomplished by evaluating one or more reports from that study, and such reports may be conceived as art forms amenable to the same criteria for appraisal as poems or paintings. Taste implies judgements about the quality of objects and a person's ability to sift through and select from a store of knowledge that knowledge appropriate to judge its value. What binds a community of practitioners (here reviewers of qualitative studies) together is taste-making, or the constant refinements of judgements concerning what constitutes good and bad practice.

  3. Lean production of taste improved lipidic sodium benzoate formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, C; Pein, M; Breitkreutz, J

    2014-10-01

    Sodium benzoate is a highly soluble orphan drug with unpleasant taste and high daily dose. The aim of this study was to develop a child appropriate, individually dosable, and taste masked dosage form utilizing lipids in melt granulation process and tableting. A saliva resistant coated lipid granule produced by extrusion served as reference product. Low melting hard fat was found to be appropriate as lipid binder in high-shear granulation. The resulting granules were compressed to minitablets without addition of other excipients. Compression to 2mm minitablets decreased the dissolved API amount within the first 2 min of dissolution from 33% to 23%. The Euclidean distances, calculated from electronic tongue measurements, were reduced, indicating an improved taste. The reference product showed a lag time in dissolution, which is desirable for taste masking. Although a lag time was not achieved for the lipidic minitablets, drug release in various food materials was reduced to 2%, assuming a suitable taste masking for oral sodium benzoate administration.

  4. Exercise intensity differentially impacts sensitivity thresholds to specific tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakanishi Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of exercise intensity on sensitivity to four major tastes of sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. Ten subjects completed two separate 30-min cycling exercise bouts, one at low intensity (50% V •O2max and the other at high intensity (70% V •O2max. Sensitivity to the four tastes was assessed before and after each exercise bout, using taste discs. Comparative data were analyzed using paired t-tests and the relationships between work-related physiologic measures and taste sensitivities were calculated using Pearson correlation. Significance was established at the 0.05 level of probability. Post-exercise sourness threshold was higher (p≤0.05 following the high intensity exercise compared to the low intensity exercise, sweetness threshold decreased following the higher intensity exercise (p≤0.05, while no differences were observed in threshold sensitivities for the other two tastes at either workload. The increased sensitivity to sweetness (decreased threshold was strongly related to changes in blood glucose following both low (r2=0.62; p<0.01 and high (r2=0.50; p≤0.05 intensity exercises. As well, changes observed in sourness threshold were directly related to the changes in core temperature (r2=0.49; p≤0.05 but only for the low intensity exercise bout.

  5. Neural correlates of taste perception in congenital blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, L; Kupers, R; Ptito, M

    2015-04-01

    Sight is undoubtedly important for the perception and the assessment of the palatability of tastants. Although many studies have addressed the consequences of visual impairment on food selection, feeding behavior, eating habits and taste perception, nothing is known about the neural correlates of gustation in blindness. In the current study we examined brain responses during gustation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We scanned nine congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched blindfolded sighted control subjects, matched in age, gender and body mass index (BMI), while they made judgments of either the intensity or the (un)pleasantness of different tastes (sweet, bitter) or artificial saliva that were delivered intra-orally. The fMRI data indicated that during gustation, congenitally blind individuals activate less strongly the primary taste cortex (right posterior insula and overlying Rolandic operculum) and the hypothalamus. In sharp contrast with results of multiple other sensory processing studies in congenitally blind subjects, including touch, audition and smell, the occipital cortex was not recruited during taste processing, suggesting the absence of taste-related compensatory crossmodal responses in the occipital cortex. These results underscore our earlier behavioral demonstration that congenitally blind subjects have a lower gustatory sensitivity compared to normal sighted individuals. We hypothesize that due to an underexposure to a variety of tastants, training-induced crossmodal sensory plasticity to gustatory stimulation does not occur in blind subjects.

  6. The role of sweet taste in satiation and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Yu Qing; Lacy, Kathleen; Keast, Russell

    2014-09-02

    Increased energy consumption, especially increased consumption of sweet energy-dense food, is thought to be one of the main contributors to the escalating rates in overweight individuals and obesity globally. The individual's ability to detect or sense sweetness in the oral cavity is thought to be one of many factors influencing food acceptance, and therefore, taste may play an essential role in modulating food acceptance and/or energy intake. Emerging evidence now suggests that the sweet taste signaling mechanisms identified in the oral cavity also operate in the gastrointestinal system and may influence the development of satiety. Understanding the individual differences in detecting sweetness in both the oral and gastrointestinal system towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and the functional role of the sweet taste system may be important in understanding the reasons for excess energy intake. This review will summarize evidence of possible associations between the sweet taste mechanisms within the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and the brain systems towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and sweet taste function, which may influence satiation, satiety and, perhaps, predisposition to being overweight and obesity.

  7. Development of a Taste-Masked Orodispersible Film Containing Dimenhydrinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Breitkreutz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Orodispersible dosage forms are promising new approaches for drug delivery. They enable an easy application, as there is no need to drink high amounts of liquids or swallow large solid dosage forms. The aim of the study was to develop an orodispersible film (ODF as an alternative to tablets, syrups or suppositories for the treatment of vomiting and nausea, especially for the pediatric population. Formulations were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and polarized light microscopy. Additionally, two commercially available electronic taste sensing systems were used to investigate the applied taste-masking strategies. Results obtained from X-ray-diffraction and polarized light microscopy showed no recrystallization of dimenhydrinate in the formulation when cyclodextrin or maltodextrin were used as solubilizing and complexing agent. All ODFs showed fast disintegration depending on the characterization method. In order to get taste information, the dimenhydrinate formulations were analytically compared to pure drug and drug-free formulations by electronic tongues. Results obtained from both systems are comparable and were used together for the first time. It was possible to develop an ODF of dimenhydrinate that is fast disintegrating even in small volumes of liquid. Furthermore, in vitro taste assessment by two electronic tongues revealed taste-masking effects by the excipients.

  8. Taste characteristics based quantitative and qualitative evaluation of ginseng adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shaoqing; Yang, Liangcheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xinlei

    2015-05-01

    Adulteration of American ginseng with Asian ginseng is common and has caused much damage to customers. Panel evaluation is commonly used to determine their differences, but it is subjective. Chemical instruments are used to identify critical compounds but they are time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, a fast, accurate and convenient method is required. A taste sensing system, combining both advantages of the above two technologies, provides a novel potential technology for determining ginseng adulteration. The aim is to build appropriate models to distinguish and predict ginseng adulteration by using taste characteristics. It was found that ginsenoside contents decreased linearly (R(2) = 0.92) with mixed ratios. A bioplot of principal component analysis showed a good performance in classing samples with the first two principal components reaching 89.7%, and it was noted that it was the bitterness, astringency, aftertaste of bitterness and astringency, and saltiness leading the successful determination. After factor screening, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste of bitterness and saltiness were employed to build latent models. Tastes of bitterness, astringency and aftertaste bitterness were demonstrated to be most effective in predicting adulteration ratio, mean while, bitterness and aftertaste bitterness turned out to be most effective in ginsenoside content prediction. Taste characteristics of adulterated ginsengs, considered as taste fingerprint, can provide novel guidance for determining the adulteration of American and Asian ginseng. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effects of Visual Food Texture on Taste Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Okajima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Food color affects taste perception. However, the possible effects of the visual texture of a foodstuff on taste and flavor, without associated changes to color, are currently unknown. We conducted a series of experiments designed to investigate how the visual texture and appearance of food influences its perceived taste and flavor by developing an Augmented Reality system. Participants observed a video of tomato ketchup as a food stimulus on a white dish placed behind a flat LC-display on which was mounted a video camera. The luminance distribution of the ketchup in the dynamic video was continuously and quantitatively modified by tracking specified colors in real-time. We changed the skewness of the luminance histogram of each frame in the video keeping the xy-chromaticity values intact. Participants watched themselves dip a spoon into the ketchup from the video feed (which could be altered, but then ate it with their eyes closed. They reported before and after tasting the ketchup on the perceived consistency (a liquid to solid continuum the food looked and felt and how tasty it looked or felt. The experimental results suggest that visual texture, independent of color, affects the taste and flavor as well as the appearance of foods.

  10. The relationship between taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide and anhedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; Al-Mesaabi, Wahda; Bahusain, Eman; Mutawa, Meera

    2014-02-28

    It has been proposed that taste sensitivity to bitter compounds such as, phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), represents a genetic marker for an increased vulnerability to depressive illness. Previous explorations of this idea have proven equivocal. This study refines and further explores this idea by focusing specifically on anhedonia (diminished hedonic capacity), a key symptom in some depressive illness, linked also with sensory pleasure. It is hypothesized that diminished PTC taste sensitivity will be associated with more general decrements in hedonic capacity (anhedonia). An opportunity sample of 198 university students were assessed using paper strips impregnated with PTC, the same participants also completed a widely used assessment of hedonic capacity, the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS). Hedonic capacity scores positively correlated with PTC taste sensitivity; specifically, heightened hedonic capacity was associated with heightened sensitivity to the bitter taste of PTC. Furthermore, modest differences were observed between those least (non-tasters) and most (supertasters) sensitive to PTC, with non-tasters reporting significantly lower hedonic capacity scores than supertasters. PTC taste sensitivity may represent a peripheral risk factor for anhedonia.

  11. Development of Frequency Based Taste Receptors Using Bioinspired Glucose Nanobiosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TermehYousefi, Amin; Tateno, Katsumi; Bagheri, Samira; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2017-05-09

    A method to fabricate a bioinspired nanobiosensor using electronic-based artificial taste receptors for glucose diagnosis is presented. Fabricated bioinspired glucose nanobiosensor designated based on an artificial taste bud including an amperometric glucose biosensor and taste bud-inspired circuits. In fact, the design of the taste bud-inspired circuits was inspired by the signal-processing mechanism of taste nerves which involves two layers. The first, known as a type II cell, detects the glucose by glucose oxidase and transduces the current signal obtained for the pulse pattern is conducted to the second layer, called type III cell, to induce synchronisation of the neural spiking activity. The oscillation results of fabricated bioinspired glucose nanobiosensor confirmed an increase in the frequency of the output pulse as a function of the glucose concentration. At high glucose concentrations, the bioinspired glucose nanobiosensor showed a pulse train of alternating short and long interpulse intervals. A computational analysis performed to validate the hypothesis, which was successfully reproduced the alternating behaviour of bioinspired glucose our nanobiosensor by increasing the output frequency and alternation of pulse intervals according to the reduction in the resistivity of the biosensor.

  12. Controlling fatigue crack paths for crack surface marking and growth investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While it is well known that fatigue crack growth in metals that display confined slip, such as high strength aluminium alloys, develop crack paths that are responsive to the loading direction and the local microstructural orientation, it is less well known that such paths are also responsive to the loading history. In these materials, certain loading sequences can produce highly directional slip bands ahead of the crack tip and by adjusting the sequence of loads, distinct fracture surface features or progression marks, even at very small crack depths can result. Investigating the path a crack selects in fatigue testing when particular combinations of constant and variable amplitude load sequences are applied is providing insight into crack growth. Further, it is possible to design load sequences that allow very small amounts of crack growth to be measured, at very small crack sizes, well below the conventional crack growth threshold in the aluminium alloy discussed here. This paper reports on observations of the crack path phenomenon and a novel test loading method for measuring crack growth rates for very small crack depths in aluminium alloy 7050-T7451 (an important aircraft primary structural material. The aim of this work was to firstly generate short- crack constant amplitude growth data and secondly, through the careful manipulation of the applied loading, to achieve a greater understanding of the mechanisms of fatigue crack growth in the material being investigated. A particular focus of this work is the identification of the possible sources of crack growth retardation and closure in these small cracks. Interpreting these results suggests a possible mechanism for why small fatigue crack growth through this material under variable amplitude loading is faster than predicted from models based on constant amplitude data alone.

  13. Online Bridge Crack Monitoring with Smart Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benniu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart film crack monitoring method, which can be used for detecting initiation, length, width, shape, location, and propagation of cracks on real bridges, is proposed. Firstly, the fabrication of the smart film is developed. Then the feasibility of the method is analyzed and verified by the mechanical sensing character of the smart film under the two conditions of normal strain and crack initiation. Meanwhile, the coupling interference between parallel enameled wires of the smart film is discussed, and then low-frequency detecting signal and the custom communication protocol are used to decrease interference. On this basis, crack monitoring system with smart film is designed, where the collected crack data is sent to the remote monitoring center and the cracks are simulated and recurred. Finally, the monitoring system is applied to six bridges, and the effects are discussed.

  14. Crack Propagation in Bamboo's Hierarchical Cellular Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Meisam K.; Lu, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Bamboo, as a natural hierarchical cellular material, exhibits remarkable mechanical properties including excellent flexibility and fracture toughness. As far as bamboo as a functionally graded bio-composite is concerned, the interactions of different constituents (bamboo fibers; parenchyma cells; and vessels.) alongside their corresponding interfacial areas with a developed crack should be of high significance. Here, by using multi-scale mechanical characterizations coupled with advanced environmental electron microscopy (ESEM), we unambiguously show that fibers' interfacial areas along with parenchyma cells' boundaries were preferred routes for crack growth in both radial and longitudinal directions. Irrespective of the honeycomb structure of fibers along with cellular configuration of parenchyma ground, the hollow vessels within bamboo culm affected the crack propagation too, by crack deflection or crack-tip energy dissipation. It is expected that the tortuous crack propagation mode exhibited in the present study could be applicable to other cellular natural materials as well.

  15. Air flow through smooth and rough cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, H.-G.; Sharples, S. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Building Science

    1994-12-31

    A series of laboratory experiments are described which investigated the effect of surface roughness on the air flow characteristics of simple, straight-through, no-bend cracks with smooth and rough internal surfaces. The crack thicknesses used in the study were 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0mm. The crack lengths, in the direction of flow, were 50.8mm and 76.2mm. For the rough cracks the roughness was simulated with two different grades of commercially available energy-cloth (grade 60 and 100). The experimental results were satisfactorily fitted to a quadratic relationship between {Delta}p and Q of the form {Delta}p = AQ + BQ{sup 2} for both the smooth and rough crack data. The effect of roughness on the reduction of air flowing through a crack is also discussed. (author)

  16. Crack problem in a long cylindrical superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He; Zeng, Jun

    2008-12-01

    In this work, the general problem of a center crack in a long cylindrical superconductor is studied. The dependence of the stress intensity factor on the parameters, including the crack length and the applied field, is investigated. We presented a simple model in which the effect of the crack on the critical current is taken into account. It is assumed that the crack forms a perfect barrier to the flow of current. The Bean model and the Kim model are considered for the critical state. Based on the complex potential and boundary collocation methods, the stress intensity factor under the magnetic field is obtained for a long cylindrical superconductor containing a central crack. The results show that the crack length and the applied field have significant effects on the fracture behavior of the superconductor.

  17. Numerical Study of Corrosion Crack Opening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Svensson, Staffan

    2008-01-01

    for the corrosion crack opening. Experiments and theoretical analysis by a numerical method, FEM, support that the relation between the reduction of the reinforcement bar diameter due to corrosion and the corresponding increase in crack width for a given time interval, measured on the surface of a concrete specimen...... is proportional. More recently, the constant of proportionality, the so-called crack-corrosion index, has been studied further with respect to its dependence on the diameter of the reinforcement and the concrete cover. In the present paper the above-mentioned work is presented and extended with more realistic 3D......-models of the cracked concrete beam. The crack-corrosion index is evaluated for a variation of different parameters, i.e. bar diameter, concrete cover, crack length and type of corrosion product. This paper is an extended version of a paper by Thoft-Christensen et al. (2005) presented at the IFIP WG 7.5 Conference...

  18. Glutamate may be an efferent transmitter that elicits inhibition in mouse taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijen A Huang

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that l-glutamate may be an efferent transmitter released from axons innervating taste buds. In this report, we determined the types of ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors present on taste cells and that underlie this postulated efferent transmission. We also studied what effect glutamate exerts on taste bud function. We isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells, conducted functional imaging using Fura 2, and used cellular biosensors to monitor taste-evoked transmitter release. The findings show that a large fraction of Presynaptic (Type III taste bud cells (∼50% respond to 100 µM glutamate, NMDA, or kainic acid (KA with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+. In contrast, Receptor (Type II taste cells rarely (4% responded to 100 µM glutamate. At this concentration and with these compounds, these agonists activate glutamatergic synaptic receptors, not glutamate taste (umami receptors. Moreover, applying glutamate, NMDA, or KA caused taste buds to secrete 5-HT, a Presynaptic taste cell transmitter, but not ATP, a Receptor cell transmitter. Indeed, glutamate-evoked 5-HT release inhibited taste-evoked ATP secretion. The findings are consistent with a role for glutamate in taste buds as an inhibitory efferent transmitter that acts via ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative differences between taste buds of the rat and mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Huazhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous electrophysiological, ultrastructural, and immunocytochemical studies on rodent taste buds have been carried out on rat taste buds. In recent years, however, the mouse has become the species of choice for molecular and other studies on sensory transduction in taste buds. Do rat and mouse taste buds have the same cell types, sensory transduction markers and synaptic proteins? In the present study we have used antisera directed against PLCβ2, α-gustducin, serotonin (5-HT, PGP 9.5 and synaptobrevin-2 to determine the percentages of taste cells expressing these markers in taste buds in both rodent species. We also determined the numbers of taste cells in the taste buds as well as taste bud volume. Results There are significant differences (p 3 is smaller than a rat taste bud (64,200 μm3. The numerical density of taste cells in mouse circumvallate taste buds (2.1 cells/1000 μm3 is significantly higher than that in the rat (1.2 cells/1000 μm3. Conclusion These results suggest that rats and mice differ significantly in the percentages of taste cells expressing signaling molecules. We speculate that these observed dissimilarities may reflect differences in their gustatory processing.

  20. TASTE MASKING TECHNOLOGIES: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTY OF PHARMACEUTICAL ACTIVE SUBSTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Deepak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Acceptability of any dosage form are mainly depends over its taste i.e. mouth feel. Drug molecule interacts with taste receptor on the tongue to give bitter, sweet or salty taste sensation, when they dissolve in saliva. This sensation of the taste is the result of signal transduction from the receptor organs for taste, commonly known as taste buds. In market, there are numbers of pharmaceutical preparations available in which actives are bitter in taste. The improved palatability in these products has prompted the development of numerous formulations, which improved performance and acceptability. The bitterness of preparation also leads to patient incompliance. So masking of bitterness becomes essential. To overcome this problem, many techniques have been developed to mask the bitter taste of drugs. These techniques are not only mask the bitter taste of drug but also enhance the bioavailability and performance of drug dosage form. It includes adding sugars, flavors, sweeteners, use of lipoproteins, numbing taste buds, granulation, use of adsorbates ,coating drug, microencapsulation, multiple emulsion, viscosity modifier, vesicles and liposomes, prodrug and salt formation, inclusion and molecular complexes, solid dispersion and Ion Exchange Resins (IERs which have been tried by the formulators to mask the unpleasant taste of the bitter drugs. The present review article highlights different technologies of taste masking with respect to dosage form and novel methods of evaluation of taste masking effect.

  1. Integrity analysis of cracked welded components; Analyse de l`integrite des composants soudes fissures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornet, P.; Eripret, C.; Gilles, P.; Franco, C.; Ignaccolo, S. [Service Reacteurs Nucleaire et Echangeurs, Departement Mecanique et Technologies des Composants, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France)

    1998-04-01

    In the frame of the integrity analysis of pressure vessel and piping, welded joints can be very sensitive regions since the neighbouring zones of welded joints can be subjected to crack problems. Moreover, the mechanical analysis of a cracked welded component can be difficult because of the presence around the crack of at least three regions (base metal, weld metal and heat affected zone) having very different mechanical properties and metallurgical structures. In fact, common defect assessment procedures have been developed for homogeneous structures and there have to be modified to take into account the heterogeneity. In order to solve this problem a large research program has been conducted since 1992 in the frame of a collaboration between CEA, Framatome and EDF as well as other laboratories in France or around the world. This paper puts forward the work done during the last years and presents the important advantage for the integrity analysis of cracked welded structures. It is a kind of synthesis of the knowledge acquired during this project. Four aspects are pointed out: 1. the important parameters which govern the mechanical behaviour of welded component and more precisely the plasticity development in such structures; 2. some recommendations for the experimental determination of fracture hardness of weld; 3. a defect assessment procedure for cracked welded components, developed in collaboration with Framatome; 4. the ability of finite element codes of modelling the mechanical behaviour of cracked welded structures 15 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Degradation mechanism of rock under impact loadings by integrated investigation on crack and damage development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周子龙; 江益辉; 邹洋; 翁磊

    2014-01-01

    Failure of rock under impact loadings involves complex micro-fracturing and progressive damage. Strength increase and splitting failure have been observed during dynamic tests of rock materials. However, the failure mechanism still remains unclear. In this work, based on laboratory tests, numerical simulations with the particle flow code (PFC) were carried out to reproduce the micro-fracturing process of granite specimens. Shear and tensile cracks were both recorded to investigate the failure mode of rocks under different loading conditions. At the same time, a dynamic damage model based on the Weibull distribution was established to predict the deformation and degradation behavior of specimens. It is found that micro-cracks play important roles in controlling the dynamic deformation and failure process of rock under impact loadings. The sharp increase in the number of cracks may be the reason for the strength increase of rock under high strain rates. Tensile cracks tend to be the key reason for splitting failure of specimens. Numerical simulation of crack propagation by PFC can give vivid description of the failure process. However, it is not enough for evaluation of material degradation. The dynamic damage model is able to predict the stress−strain relationship of specimens reasonably well, and can be used to explain the degradation of specimens under impact loadings at macro-scale. Crack and damage can describe material degradation at different scales and can be used together to reveal the failure mechanism of rocks.

  3. Comparison of Taste Components between Triploid and Diploid Oyster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Hong; WANG Xiaoxue; ZHANG Bin; TANG Haiqing; XUE Changhu; XU Jiachao

    2002-01-01

    The main taste components of triploid and diploid oyster (Crassostrea gigas) were compared. Free amino acids,inosine monophosphate, succinate, trimethylamine oxide and betaine in fresh and boiled extractives were analyzed. The protein, lipids, glycogen, moisture and ash, which may affect the flavour, were evaluated. In boiled extractives, the amino acids were 394.1 mg(100 g)-1 in diploid and 183.5 mg(100 g)-1 in triploid. However, in fresh oyster extractives, they were 320.0 mg(100 g)-1 and 147.3 mg(100 g)-1 respectively. The inosine monophosphate in triploid was 44% more than that in diploid, and a little difference existed in the content of trimethylamine oxide between them. The contents of these taste components were the basis for taste flavour pattern determination.

  4. Food reward in the absence of taste receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Ivan E; Oliveira-Maia, Albino J; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Caron, Marc G; Nicolelis, Miguel A L; Simon, Sidney A

    2008-03-27

    Food palatability and hedonic value play central roles in nutrient intake. However, postingestive effects can influence food preferences independently of palatability, although the neurobiological bases of such mechanisms remain poorly understood. Of central interest is whether the same brain reward circuitry that is responsive to palatable rewards also encodes metabolic value independently of taste signaling. Here we show that trpm5-/- mice, which lack the cellular machinery required for sweet taste transduction, can develop a robust preference for sucrose solutions based solely on caloric content. Sucrose intake induced dopamine release in the ventral striatum of these sweet-blind mice, a pattern usually associated with receipt of palatable rewards. Furthermore, single neurons in this same ventral striatal region showed increased sensitivity to caloric intake even in the absence of gustatory inputs. Our findings suggest that calorie-rich nutrients can directly influence brain reward circuits that control food intake independently of palatability or functional taste transduction.

  5. Sample selection and taste correlation in discrete choice transport modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2008-01-01

    the question for a broader class of models. It is shown that the original result may be somewhat generalised. Another question investigated is whether mode choice operates as a self-selection mechanism in the estimation of the value of travel time. The results show that self-selection can at least partly...... explain counterintuitive results in value of travel time estimation. However, the results also point at the difficulty of finding suitable instruments for the selection mechanism. Taste heterogeneity is another important aspect of discrete choice modelling. Mixed logit models are designed to capture...... of taste correlation in willingness-to-pay estimation are presented. The first contribution addresses how to incorporate taste correlation in the estimation of the value of travel time for public transport. Given a limited dataset the approach taken is to use theory on the value of travel time as guidance...

  6. Study on Taste Quality of Post-drying Paddy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xian-zhe; XIA Ji-qing

    2003-01-01

    The degradation mechanism of post-paddy was studied.The higher is the paddy drying temperature,the faster is the drying rate.If the drying temperature exceed 45 ℃,the rice taste ratio is quickly decrease.When drying temperature exceeds 45 ℃,chaos arrangement starch and hard to dissolved cell wall and starch granular will appear inside rice.With drying temperature increasing,the fat acid content of rice increases,results in a higher degree of rice aging and restrains starch gelatinizing.Those are essence factor which lead to post-drying rice taste decrease.In order to protect post-drying rice taste quality,drying temperature for paddy should below 45 ℃.

  7. [Influence of spiced feed additives on taste of hen's eggs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Th; Braun, P; Fehlhaber, K

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the spices garlic (Allium sativum), extract from garlic, sage (Salvia officinalis), caraway (Carum carvi), peppermint (Mentha piperita), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), paprika (Capsicum annuum), marjoram (Majorana hortensis), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) and sausage-mix fed to white hybrides on the quality of eggs (n = 705) was tested by 10 qualified persons. Changes in smell or taste were partly significant; a direct improvement is hard to induce. A well seasoned taste was obtained by feeding of garlic, fennel, peppermint and marjoram. They produce an aromatic flavor. A practical application is possible but limited by higher production prices. Further, it is uncertain if there is a need for "taste-manipulated" eggs.

  8. Extraoral bitter taste receptors in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Zhang, Cheng-Hai; Lifshitz, Lawrence M; ZhuGe, Ronghua

    2017-02-01

    Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs or T2Rs) belong to the superfamily of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors, which are the targets of >50% of drugs currently on the market. Canonically, T2Rs are located in taste buds of the tongue, where they initiate bitter taste perception. However, accumulating evidence indicates that T2Rs are widely expressed throughout the body and mediate diverse nontasting roles through various specialized mechanisms. It has also become apparent that T2Rs and their polymorphisms are associated with human disorders. In this review, we summarize the physiological and pathophysiological roles that extraoral T2Rs play in processes as diverse as innate immunity and reproduction, and the major challenges in this emerging field. © 2017 Lu et al.

  9. On enlightenment and taste: Outline of a research topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The author puts forward a set of assumptions and possible context for examining the connection between the concepts of enlightenment and taste. Kant’s definition of enlightenment is accepted, with special emphasis on the sphere of religion. Applying this criterion, we may discern a powerful and influential religious current stemming from strictly speaking Church circles that denies the systematic and historical significance of the opus of Dositej Obradović, who in his time was a protagonist of the European enlightenment. Such a revaluation has been accepted by the greater portion of the younger generation, which relies predominantly on the St. Sava Myth. With a change of worldview, undoubtedly, tastes change as well. The next section of the paper discusses the approach to taste of the Scottish philosopher David Hume representative of dispositional aesthetic. Finally it is argued that music as one of the arts, might be exemplary for appraising the condition of enlightenment in a society.

  10. Sweet and bitter taste perception of women during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanou, Evangelia; Brandt, Sarah Østergaard; Weenen, Hugo;

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Changes in sweet and bitter taste perception during pregnancy have been reported in a limited number of studies leading, however, to inconclusive results. The current study aimed to investigate possible differences in perceived intensity and liking of sweetness and bitterness between...... and bitterness, respectively. Pregnant women completed also a self-administered questionnaire on changes in sweet and bitter taste perception due to pregnancy. Results: Perceived intensity of sweetness and bitterness was not different between pregnant and nonpregnant women for any of the products. However......, the liking of the least sweet apple + berry juice was significantly higher, and the optimal preferred sugar content was significantly lower in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women. With regards to self-report, pregnant women who reported higher sensitivity in sweet or bitter taste did not have...

  11. Transition from Multiple Macro-Cracking to Multiple Micro-Cracking in Cementitious Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; LENG Bing

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the possibility of transition from multiple macro-cracking to multiple micro-cracking in cementitious composites.Conventional polyvinyl alcohol fiber reinforced cementitious composites normally exhibit macroscopic strain-hardening and multiple cracking after the first cracks appear.However,the individual crack width at the saturated stage is normally 60 to 80 μm.In the current study,the effect of fine aggregate size on the cracking performance,especially the individual crack width in the strain-hardening stage was studied by bending tests.The results show that the individual crack widths can be reduced from 60-80 μm to 10-30 μm by modifying the particle size of the fine aggregates used in the composites.

  12. Fatigue Crack Closure Analysis Using Digital Image Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, William P.; Newman, John A.; Johnston, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue crack closure during crack growth testing is analyzed in order to evaluate the critieria of ASTM Standard E647 for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates. Of specific concern is remote closure, which occurs away from the crack tip and is a product of the load history during crack-driving-force-reduction fatigue crack growth testing. Crack closure behavior is characterized using relative displacements determined from a series of high-magnification digital images acquired as the crack is loaded. Changes in the relative displacements of features on opposite sides of the crack are used to generate crack closure data as a function of crack wake position. For the results presented in this paper, remote closure did not affect fatigue crack growth rate measurements when ASTM Standard E647 was strictly followed and only became a problem when testing parameters (e.g., load shed rate, initial crack driving force, etc.) greatly exceeded the guidelines of the accepted standard.

  13. NOVEL BIPHASE CODE -INTEGRATED SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION CODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feixue; Ou Gang; Zhuang Zhaowen

    2004-01-01

    A kind of novel binary phase code named sidelobe suppression code is proposed in this paper. It is defined to be the code whose corresponding optimal sidelobe suppression filter outputs the minimum sidelobes. It is shown that there do exist sidelobe suppression codes better than the conventional optimal codes-Barker codes. For example, the sidelobe suppression code of length 11 with filter of length 39 has better sidelobe level up to 17dB than that of Barker code with the same code length and filter length.

  14. Crack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rate, breathing rate, blood pressure , and body temperature decreased appetite and less need for sleep feelings of restlessness, ... effects include: gangrene in the bowels resulting from decreased blood ... chest pain reduced appetite, plus health problems associated with not eating a ...

  15. SPIRALING CRACKS IN THIN SHEETS

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo de tesis presentamos dos experimentos en que trayectorias de fracturas sumamente reproducibles son obtenidas en láminas delgadas frágiles. En ambos casos, a partir de configuraciones iniciales sumamente simples y pequeñas, las trayectorias obtenidas son espirales logarítmicas de gran tamao. Nuestro primer experimento consiste en un crack que se inicia desde un corte recto hecho en una lámina delgada y que es forzado a propagarse por medio de empujar con un objeto sólido....

  16. Fatigue Crack Closure - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    gauge along the crack line. They used CCT speci- mens of high tensile strength steel ( HY80 ). The measured value of U was found to be a minimum at the...ultrasonic surface wave technique on 12.5mm thick specimens of 2024-T851, 2024-T351, Al 2219, Ti-6AI-4V and 17-4 PH steel . Most of the results were...medium and high strength steels . Exami- nation of the fracture surfaces suggested that raising the mean stress in low fracture toughness steels could

  17. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-xiao Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil.

  18. Nonlinear modal method of crack localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Lev; Sutin, Alexander; Lebedev, Andrey

    2004-05-01

    A simple scheme for crack localization is discussed that is relevant to nonlinear modal tomography based on the cross-modulation of two signals at different frequencies. The scheme is illustrated by a theoretical model, in which a thin plate or bar with a single crack is excited by a strong low-frequency wave and a high-frequency probing wave (ultrasound). The crack is assumed to be small relative to all wavelengths. Nonlinear scattering from the crack is studied using a general matrix approach as well as simplified models allowing one to find the nonlinear part of crack volume variations under the given stress and then the combinational wave components in the tested material. The nonlinear response strongly depends on the crack position with respect to the peaks or nodes of the corresponding interacting signals which can be used for determination of the crack position. Juxtaposing various resonant modes interacting at the crack it is possible to retrieve both crack location and orientation. Some aspects of inverse problem solutions are also discussed, and preliminary experimental results are presented.

  19. Wettability Induced Crack Dynamics and Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Udita Uday; Bhandari, Aditya Bikram; Chakraborty, Suman; DasGupta, Sunando

    2014-01-01

    Substrate wettability alteration induced control over crack formation process in thin colloidal films has been addressed in the present study. Colloidal nanosuspension (53nm, mean particle diameter) droplets have been subjected to natural drying to outline the effects of substrate surface energies over the dry-out characteristics with emphasis on crack dynamics, crack morphology and underlying particle arrangements. Experimental findings indicate that number of cracks formed decreases with increase in substrate hydrophobicity. These physical phenomena have been explained based on the magnitude of stress dissipation incurred by the substrate. DLVO predictions are also found to be in tune with the reported experimental investigations.

  20. Crack depth determination with inductive thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald-Tranta, B.; Schmidt, R.

    2015-05-01

    Castings, forgings and other steel products are nowadays usually tested with magnetic particle inspection, in order to detect surface cracks. An alternative method is active thermography with inductive heating, which is quicker, it can be well automated and as in this paper presented, even the depth of a crack can be estimated. The induced eddy current, due to its very small penetration depth in ferro-magnetic materials, flows around a surface crack, heating this selectively. The surface temperature is recorded during and after the short inductive heating pulse with an infrared camera. Using Fourier transformation the whole IR image sequence is evaluated and the phase image is processed to detect surface cracks. The level and the local distribution of the phase around a crack correspond to its depth. Analytical calculations were used to model the signal distribution around cracks with different depth and a relationship has been derived between the depth of a crack and its phase value. Additionally, also the influence of the heating pulse duration has been investigated. Samples with artificial and with natural cracks have been tested. Results are presented comparing the calculated and measured phase values depending on the crack depth. Keywords: inductive heating, eddy current, infrared

  1. Fatigue crack growth detect, assess, avoid

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Hans Albert

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a concise introduction to fatigue crack growth, based on practical examples. It discusses the essential concepts of fracture mechanics, fatigue crack growth under constant and variable amplitude loading and the determination of the fracture-mechanical material parameters. The book also introduces the analytical and numerical simulation of fatigue crack growth as well as crack initiation. It concludes with a detailed description of several practical case studies and some exercises. The target group includes graduate students, researchers at universities and practicing engineers.

  2. Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.

  3. Cracking of open traffic rigid pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Chatarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is done by observing the growth of real structure cracking in Natar, Lampung, Indonesia compared to C. Niken’s et al research and literature study. The rigid pavement was done with open traffic system. There are two main crack types on Natar rigid pavement: cracks cross the road, and cracks spreads on rigid pavement surface. The observation of cracks was analyzed by analyzing material, casting, curing, loading and shrinkage mechanism. The relationship between these analysis and shrinkage mechanism was studied in concrete micro structure. Open traffic make hydration process occur under vibration; therefore, fresh concrete was compressed and tensioned alternately since beginning. High temperature together with compression, cement dissociation, the growth of Ca2+ at very early age leads abnormal swelling. No prevention from outside water movement leads hydration process occur with limited water which caused spreads fine cracks. Limited water improves shrinkage and plastic phase becomes shorter; therefore, rigid pavement can’t accommodate the abnormal swelling and shrinking alternately and creates the spread of cracks. Discontinuing casting the concrete makes both mix under different condition, the first is shrink and the second is swell and creates weak line on the border; so, the cracks appear as cracks across the road.

  4. Crack spacing of unsaturated soils in the critical state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN JiChao; WANG GuangQian; SUN QiCheng

    2009-01-01

    The cracking mechanism of unsaturated soils due to evaporation is poorly understood, and the magnitude of crack spacing is usually hard to estimate. In this work, cracks were postulated to occur suc-cedently rather than simultaneously, that is, secondary cracks appear after primary cracks as evaporation continues. Formulae of the secondary crack spacing and secondary trend crack spacing were then derived after stress analysis. The calculated spacing values were consistent with the published experimental data. Meanwhile, the effect of the Poisson ratio on the crack spacing was analyzed, which showed that the magnitude of crack spacing was proportional to the Poisson ratio in the range of [0.30,0.35].

  5. On the application of cohesive crack modeling in cementitious materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes; Poulsen, Peter Noe;

    2007-01-01

    Cohesive crack models-in particular the Fictitious Crack Model - are applied routinely in the analysis of crack propagation in concrete and mortar. Bridged crack models-where cohesive stresses are assumed to exist together with a stress singularity at the crack tip-on the other hand, are used....... Further, a quantitative condition is established indicating when a bridged crack model can be approximated with a cohesive crack model with smooth crack closure in terms of the ratio between the energy dissipation associated with the crack tip and the process zone....

  6. Amylase expression in taste receptor cells of rat circumvallate papillae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merigo, Flavia; Benati, Donatella; Cecchini, Maria Paola; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Osculati, Francesco; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    The chemical composition of the luminal content is now accepted to have a profound influence on the performance of chemosensory receptors. Gustatory and intestinal chemoreceptors have in common their expression of molecules involved in taste sensing and signal transduction pathways. The recent finding that enterocytes of the duodenal epithelium are capable of expressing luminal pancreatic amylase suggests that taste cells of the gustatory epithelium might, in the same way, express salivary amylase in the oral cavity. Therefore, we investigated amylase expression in rat circumvallate papillae by using analyses involving immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction. In addition, we used double-labeling confocal laser microscopy to compare amylase immunolabeling with that of the following markers: protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and chromogranin A (CgA) for endocrine cells, alpha-gustducin and phospholipase C beta 2 (PLC beta 2) as taste-signaling molecules, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and Clara-cell-specific secretory protein of 10-kDa (CC10) as secretory markers. The results showed that amylase was present in some taste bud cells; its immunoreactivity was observed in subsets of cells that expressed CgA, alpha-gustducin, PLC beta 2, CFTR, or CC10. PGP 9.5 immunoreactivity was never colocalized with amylase. The data suggest that amylase-positive cells constitute an additional subset of taste receptor cells also associated with chemoreceptorial and/or secretory molecules, confirming the occurrence of various pathways in taste buds.

  7. Damage 90: A post processor for crack initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Jean; Doghri, Issam

    1994-05-01

    A post processor is fully described which allows the calculation of the crack initiation conditions from the history of strain components taken as the output of a finite element calculation. It is based upon damage mechanics using coupled strain damage constitutive equations for linear isotropic elasticity, perfect plasticity and a unified kinetic law of damage evolution. The localization of damage allows this coupling to be considered only for the damaging point for which the input strain history is taken from a classical structure calculation in elasticity or elastoplasticity. The listing of the code, a `friendly' code, with less than 600 FORTRAN instructions is given and some examples show its ability to model ductile failure in one or multi dimensions, brittle failure, low and high cycle fatigue with the non-linear accumulation, and multi-axial fatigue.

  8. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  9. Effect of Crack Closure on Ultrasonic Detection of Fatigue Cracks at Fastener Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, S. J.; Harding, C. A.; Hugo, G. R.

    2009-03-01

    The ultrasonic response from closed fatigue cracks grown in aluminium alloy specimens using a representative aircraft spectrum loading has been characterised as a function of tensile applied load using pulse-echo 45° shear-wave ultrasonic C-scans with focused immersion transducers. Observed trends with crack size and applied load are described and compared to results for artificial machined defects. The results demonstrate that crack closure significantly reduces the ultrasonic response compared to open cracks or machined defects.

  10. Mode Ⅰ Plane Crack Interacting with an Interfacial Crack Along a Circular Inhomogeneity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; MA Jian-jun; LIU Zheng-guang

    2006-01-01

    The elastic interaction of the mode Ⅰ plane crack with an interfacial crack along a circular inhomogeneity is dealt with. The dislocation density and the stress intensity factors (SIFs) of the mode I plane crack are obtained numerically. A new kind of dislocation equilibrium equation about the plane crack is applied. The influence of some material parameters on the dislocation density and SIFs are analyzed.

  11. Extended propagation model for interfacial crack in composite material structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫相桥; 冯希金

    2002-01-01

    An interfacial crack is a common damage in a composite material structure . An extended propaga-tion model has been established for an interfacial crack to study the dependence of crack growth on the relativesizes of energy release rates at left and right crack tips and the properties of interfacial material characterize thegrowth of interfacial crack better.

  12. 3D Taste the custom of male perfume bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亮

    2016-01-01

    3 d printing as today’s advanced manufacturing technology, its application is quite widespread, and is gradually used for direct manufacturing of some products, which means that the technology is widespread. The smell of perfume is not only let people send out an attractive aromatic body, more can apply colours to a drawing of a person’s taste. Nowadays, women is not the only customer base of perfume brand, the proportion of men is more and more heavy, men pay more attention to their life taste and life status, therefore, can send out charming fragrance, as well as a way of individual grade and life status of perfume bottles is indispensable.

  13. Effect of environmental pollutants on taste and smell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, S.S.; Nagle, H.T. (Department of Psychology, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States))

    1992-06-01

    Various man-made and naturally occurring chemicals and substances can modify the chemosensory systems of animals and man. This article provides an overview of research studies that investigate the impact of pollution on taste and smell perception. Acute and chronic alterations in taste and olfaction are discussed for solvents, herbicides, fungicides, pesticides, disinfectants, germicides, soil fumigants, dyes, pharmaceuticals, textile wastes, smog, tobacco smoke, perfumes, flavors, plastics, synthetic rubber, and other industrial substances. The mechanisms by which pollutants may cause physiologic and biologic changes are highlighted. Natural detoxification systems are discussed, as well as treatments for chemosensory deficits.89 references.

  14. Bottled vs. Canned Beer: Do They Really Taste Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask how reliable this perceived difference is across consumers. And, if reliable, one can further ask whether it is a purely psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception, or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process and the contents. Two experiments were conducted in order to address these questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a special ‘craft beer’ in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (a between-participants experimental design was used. The participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and estimated the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (specifically a Session IPA from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh. None of the participants were familiar with this particular craft brew. Nevertheless, those who evaluated the beer from the bottle rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer served from the can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference (in terms of taste, we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served blind to a new group of participants (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material. The participants in this control study (n = 29 were asked which beer they preferred. Alternatively, they could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of a consistent preference was obtained under such blind tasting conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of

  15. Oral health, taste and nutrition in hospitalized older people

    OpenAIRE

    Solemdal, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    List of papers. Papers I, III and IV are removed from the thesis due to copyright restrictions. Paper I: Solemdal K, Sandvik L, Willumsen T, Mowe M. Taste ability in hospitalised older people compared with healthy, age-matched controls. Gerodontology 2012; Early view 11 SEP 2012 doi:10.1111/ger.12001 Paper II: Solemdal K, Sandvik L, Willumsen T, Mowe M, Hummel T. The Impact of Oral health on Taste Ability in Acutely Hospitalized Elderly. PloS One. 2012; 7(5)...

  16. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day. Sweeteners range from 180 to 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. In summer 2014, 20 people from Kaiser Permanente California facilities cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks: 95% of participants found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants stopped craving sugar after 6 days.

  17. Anisomycin infusions in the parabrachial nucleus and taste neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-You; Amodeo, Leslie Renee; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2012-11-01

    To investigate whether de novo protein synthesis in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) is required for recovery from taste neophobia, anisomycin (a protein synthesis inhibitor) was infused immediately after consumption of a novel saccharin solution (Experiment 1). Unexpectedly, this PBN treatment caused a reduction in saccharin intake. In addition, we found that the anisomycin-induced suppression of tastant intake was attenuated by prior intra-PBN infusions of lidocaine (Experiment 2). This pattern of results raises concerns about using anisomycin to investigate memory consolidation processes in the PBN. Thus, a different manipulation may be needed to examine the nature of the neuroplastic changes that occur in the PBN during taste memory formation.

  18. The psychophysical relationship between bitter taste and burning sensation: evidence of qualitative similarity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lim, Juyun; Green, Barry G

    2007-01-01

    Although it has long been studied as a pure sensory irritant, the ability of capsaicin to evoke, mask, and desensitize bitter taste suggests that burning sensations and bitter taste might be closely related perceptually...

  19. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  20. Lgr5 Identifies Progenitor Cells Capable of Taste Bud Regeneration after Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norifumi Takeda

    Full Text Available Taste buds are composed of a variety of taste receptor cell types that develop from tongue epithelium and are regularly replenished under normal homeostatic conditions as well as after injury. The characteristics of cells that give rise to regenerating taste buds are poorly understood. Recent studies have suggested that Lgr5 (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 identifies taste bud stem cells that contribute to homeostatic regeneration in adult circumvallate and foliate taste papillae, which are located in the posterior region of the tongue. Taste papillae in the adult anterior region of the tongue do not express Lgr5. Here, we confirm and extend these studies by demonstrating that Lgr5 cells give rise to both anterior and posterior taste buds during development, and are capable of regenerating posterior taste buds after injury induced by glossopharyngeal nerve transection.

  1. Progress and renewal in gustation: new insights into taste bud development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Linda A

    2015-11-01

    The sense of taste, or gustation, is mediated by taste buds, which are housed in specialized taste papillae found in a stereotyped pattern on the surface of the tongue. Each bud, regardless of its location, is a collection of ∼100 cells that belong to at least five different functional classes, which transduce sweet, bitter, salt, sour and umami (the taste of glutamate) signals. Taste receptor cells harbor functional similarities to neurons but, like epithelial cells, are rapidly and continuously renewed throughout adult life. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of how the pattern of taste buds is established in embryos and discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing taste cell turnover. I also highlight how these findings aid our understanding of how and why many cancer therapies result in taste dysfunction.

  2. Alteration in Taste Perception in Cancer: Causes and Strategies of Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Babar; Hichami, Aziz; Khan, Amira S.; Ghiringhelli, François; Khan, Naim A.

    2017-01-01

    The sense of taste is responsible for the detection and ingestion of food to cover energetic requirements in health and disease. The change in taste perception might lead to malnutrition that is usually one of the frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of taste perception and how they are altered in cancer. We also address the question of the implication of inflammation, responsible for the alterations in taste modalities. We highlight the role of radio- and chemotherapy in the modulation of taste physiology. Other several factors like damage to taste progenitor cells and disruption of gut microbiota are also dealt with relation to taste perception in cancer. We further shed light on how to restore taste acuity, by using different preventive methods, dietary modifications and pharmacotherapy in subjects with advanced cancer state. PMID:28337150

  3. Taste bud development and patterning in sighted and blind morphs of Astyanax mexicanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharasan, Nirupa; Croll, Roger P; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara

    2009-12-01

    In the blind cave-dwelling morph of A. mexicanus, the eye degenerates while other sensory systems, such as gustation, are expanded compared to their sighted (surface-dwelling) ancestor. This study compares the development of taste buds along the jaws of each morph. To determine whether cavefish have an altered onset or rate of taste bud development, we fluorescently labeled basal and receptor cells within taste buds over a developmental series. Our results show that taste bud number increases during development in both morphs. The rate of development is, however, accelerated in cavefish; a small difference in taste bud number exists at 5 dpf reaching threefold by 22 dpf. The expansion of taste buds in cavefish is, therefore, detectable after the onset of eye degeneration. This study provides important insights into the timing of taste bud expansion in cavefish as well as enhances our understanding of taste bud development in teleosts in general. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Chloride Penetration through Cracks in High-Performance Concrete and Surface Treatment System for Crack Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Seok Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For enhancing the service life of concrete structures, it is very important to minimize crack at surface. Even if these cracks are very small, the problem is to which extend these cracks may jeopardize the durability of these decks. It was proposed that crack depth corresponding with critical crack width from the surface is a crucial factor in view of durability design of concrete structures. It was necessary to deal with chloride penetration through microcracks characterized with the mixing features of concrete. This study is devoted to examine the effect of high strength concrete and reinforcement of steel fiber on chloride penetration through cracks. High strength concrete is regarded as an excellent barrier to resist chloride penetration. However, durability performance of cracked high strength concrete was reduced seriously up to that of ordinary cracked concrete. Steel fiber reinforcement is effective to reduce chloride penetration through cracks because steel fiber reinforcement can lead to reduce crack depth significantly. Meanwhile, surface treatment systems are put on the surface of the concrete in order to seal the concrete. The key-issue is to which extend a sealing is able to ensure that chloride-induced corrosion can be prevented. As a result, penetrant cannot cure cracks, however, coating and combined treatment can prevent chloride from flowing in concrete with maximum crack width of 0.06 mm and 0.08 mm, respectively.

  5. On fatigue crack growth in ductile materials by crack-tip blunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2004-01-01

    One of the basic mechanisms for fatigue crack growth in ductile metals is that depending on crack-tip blunting under tensile loads and re-sharpening of the crack-tip during unloading. In a standard numerical analysis accounting for finite strains it is not possible to follow this process during...

  6. J-Integral Estimate for Circumferential Cracked Pipes Under Primary and Secondary Stress in R, RBC-MR A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun Suk; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    This paper provides a comparison of the J-integral estimation method under combined primary and secondary stress in the R, RBC-MR A code. The comparisons of each code are based on finite element analysis using Abacus with regard to the crack shape, crack depth, and magnitude of secondary load. The estimate of the R code is conservative near L{sub r} = 1, and that of the RBC-MR A code is conservative near L{sub r} = 0. As a result, this paper proposes a modified method of J-integral estimation in the R, RCC{sub M}R A code. The J-integral using the modified method corresponds to the finite element analysis result.

  7. Modeling time-dependent corrosion fatigue crack propagation in 7000 series aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mark E.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue experiments were conducted with the susceptible S-L orientation of AA7075-T651, immersed in acidified and inhibited NaCl solution, to provide a basis for incorporating environmental effects into fatigue crack propagation life prediction codes such as NASA FLAGRO. This environment enhances da/dN by five to ten-fold compared to fatigue in moist air. Time-based crack growth rates from quasi-static load experiments are an order of magnitude too small for accurate linear superposition prediction of da/dN for loading frequencies above 0.001 Hz. Alternate methods of establishing da/dt, based on rising-load or ripple-load-enhanced crack tip strain rate, do not increase da/dt and do not improve linear superposition. Corrosion fatigue is characterized by two regimes of frequency dependence; da/dN is proportional to f(exp -1) below 0.001 Hz and to F(exp 0) to F(exp -0.1) for higher frequencies. Da/dN increases mildly both with increasing hold-time at K(sub max) and with increasing rise-time for a range of loading waveforms. The mild time-dependence is due to cycle-time-dependent corrosion fatigue growth. This behavior is identical for S-L nd L-T crack orientations. The frequency response of environmental fatigue in several 7000 series alloys is variable and depends on undefined compositional or microstructural variables. Speculative explanations are based on the effect of Mg on occluded crack chemistry and embritting hydrogen uptake, or on variable hydrogen diffusion in the crack tip process zone. Cracking in the 7075/NaCl system is adequately described for life prediction by linear superposition for prolonged load-cycle periods, and by a time-dependent upper bound relationship between da/dN and delta K for moderate loading times.

  8. A Creaking and Cracking Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurschou Hviid, Stubbe; Hüttig, Christian; Groussin, Olivier; Mottola, Stefano; Keller, Horst Uwe; OSIRIS Team

    2016-10-01

    Since the middle of 2014 the OSIRIS cameras on the ESA Rosetta mission have been monitoring the evolution of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as it passed through perihelion. During the perihelion passage several change events have been observed on the nucleus surface. For example existing large scale cracks have expanded and new large scale cracks have been created. Also several large scale "wave pattern" like change events have been observed in the Imhotep and Hapi regions. These are events not directly correlated with any normal visible cometary activity. One interpretation is that these are events likely caused by "seismic" activity. The seismic activity is created by the self-gravity stress of the non-spherical comet nucleus and stress created by the non-gravitational forces acting on the comet. The non-gravitational forces are changing the rotation period of the comet (~20min/perihelion passage) which induces a changing mechanical stress pattern through the perihelion passage. Also the diurnal cycle with its changing activity pattern is causing a periodic wobble in the stress pattern that can act as a trigger for a comet quake. The stress pattern has been modeled using a finite element model that includes self-gravity, the comet spin and the non-gravitational forces based on a cometary activity model. This paper will discuss what can be learned about the comet nucleus structure and about the cometary material properties from these events and from the FEM model.

  9. What can cracked polymer do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kexin; Zhou, Chuanhong; Kohli, Punit; Poudel, Anish; Chu, Tsuchin

    2015-03-01

    Buckling, delamination, and cracking are very well known phenomenon observed in most thin films. They were theoretically explained by the existence of mechanical instability due to the residue stress generated when a thin film is deposited on substrates or undergoing environmental stimulus. Buckled structures at micro- or nano-scale have been of great interests and have been used extensively in many applications including particles self-assembling, surface wettability modification, and micro-electronic device fabrication. However, peeling of a layer from a substrate due to delamination or fractures on a thin film due to cracking is mostly taken as an undesirable result. Therefore, strategies are inspired for preventing or removing these often undesired structures. We found that after being heated above its decomposition temperature and then cooled to room temperature, a PDMS thin film showed micro-fibers of 100 μm width and up to 1.5 cm in length. By studying the formation mechanism, control of the dimensions and of the growth pattern on a substrate for PDMS micro-fibers were realized. Giving credit to their high flexibility and optical transparency, a PDMS micro-fiber were utilized in high resolution near field imaging achieved by attaching a micro-lens on the fiber. Interestingly, a surface covered by PDMS micro-fibers will turn from superhydrophobic into superhydrophilic by further heating providing potential applications in surface wettability modification. In future, we will investigate and simulate the growth of PDMS micro-fiber and look for more possible applications.

  10. A New Wine Tasting Approach Based on Emotional Responses to Rapidly Recognize Classic European Wine Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Virgílio Loureiro; Renato Brasil; Manuel Malfeito-Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Conventional tasting sheets are widely used to evaluate wine quality in wine tasting competitions. However, the higher scores are mostly obtained by international commercial wines, resulting in lower scores being awarded to the classic European wines. We hypothesize that this is due to the tasting methodology that fails to recognize this wine style. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to show the implementation of a new wine tasting approach to overcome this drawback. The proposed trainin...

  11. The relationships between phenylthiocarbamide taste perception and smoking, work out habits and susceptibility to depression

    OpenAIRE

    Sevgi Durna Daştan; Yusuf Muhammed Durna; Taner Daştan

    2015-01-01

    Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) is known as phenylthiourea and it is an organic compound that has the phenyl ring. Ability to perceive the tastes of PTC chemical is related to the dominance of taste genes. There are a large number of population studies regarding the PTC taste perception and different personal characteristics or disease conditions. The purpose of this study is to reveal and compare the relation between the PTC taste perception and work-out habits, smoking, alcohol consumption and te...

  12. Diet-induced obesity reduces the responsiveness of the peripheral taste receptor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda B Maliphol

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing epidemic that causes many serious health related complications. While the causes of obesity are complex, there is conclusive evidence that overconsumption coupled with a sedentary lifestyle is the primary cause of this medical condition. Dietary consumption is controlled by appetite which is in turn regulated by multiple neuronal systems, including the taste system. However, the relationship between taste and obesity has not been well defined. Growing evidence suggests that taste perception in the brain is altered in obese animals and humans, however no studies have determined if there are altered taste responses in the peripheral taste receptor cells, which is the initiation site for the detection and perception of taste stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we used C57Bl/6 mice which readily become obese when placed on a high fat diet. After ten weeks on the high fat diet, we used calcium imaging to measure how taste-evoked calcium signals were affected in the obese mice. We found that significantly fewer taste receptor cells were responsive to some appetitive taste stimuli while the numbers of taste cells that were sensitive to aversive taste stimuli did not change. Properties of the taste-evoked calcium signals were also significantly altered in the obese mice. Behavioral analyses found that mice on the high fat diet had reduced ability to detect some taste stimuli compared to their littermate controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate that diet-induced obesity significantly influences peripheral taste receptor cell signals which likely leads to changes in the central taste system and may cause altered taste perception.

  13. Creep and Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth at Structural Discontinuities and Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. F. W. Brust; Dr. G. M. Wilkowski; Dr. P. Krishnaswamy; Mr. Keith Wichman

    2010-01-27

    The subsection ASME NH high temperature design procedure does not admit crack-like defects into the structural components. The US NRC identified the lack of treatment of crack growth within NH as a limitation of the code and thus this effort was undertaken. This effort is broken into two parts. Part 1, summarized here, involved examining all high temperature creep-fatigue crack growth codes being used today and from these, the task objective was to choose a methodology that is appropriate for possible implementation within NH. The second part of this task, which has just started, is to develop design rules for possible implementation within NH. This second part is a challenge since all codes require step-by-step analysis procedures to be undertaken in order to assess the crack growth and life of the component. Simple rules for design do not exist in any code at present. The codes examined in this effort included R5, RCC-MR (A16), BS 7910, API 579, and ATK (and some lesser known codes). There are several reasons that the capability for assessing cracks in high temperature nuclear components is desirable. These include: (1) Some components that are part of GEN IV reactors may have geometries that have sharp corners - which are essentially cracks. Design of these components within the traditional ASME NH procedure is quite challenging. It is natural to ensure adequate life design by modeling these features as cracks within a creep-fatigue crack growth procedure. (2) Workmanship flaws in welds sometimes occur and are accepted in some ASME code sections. It can be convenient to consider these as flaws when making a design life assessment. (3) Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) and inspection methods after fabrication are limited in the size of the crack or flaw that can be detected. It is often convenient to perform a life assessment using a flaw of a size that represents the maximum size that can elude detection. (4) Flaws that are observed using in-service detection

  14. Good Codes From Generalised Algebraic Geometry Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Jibril, Mubarak; Ahmed, Mohammed Zaki; Tjhai, Cen

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic geometry codes or Goppa codes are defined with places of degree one. In constructing generalised algebraic geometry codes places of higher degree are used. In this paper we present 41 new codes over GF(16) which improve on the best known codes of the same length and rate. The construction method uses places of small degree with a technique originally published over 10 years ago for the construction of generalised algebraic geometry codes.

  15. Nutritional Health of Elderly Women: Evidence of a Relationship between Dietary Intake and Taste Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Margaret I.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between dietary intake and taste perception for elderly women living independently in the community. It is unclear whether they have diminished taste perception, but it has been established that they are at high risk for nutrient deficiencies that may indirectly affect the taste process. (JOW)

  16. Development of crack shape: LBB methodology for cracked pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulin, D.; Chapuliot, S.; Drubay, B. [Commissariat a l Energie Atomique, Gif sur Yvette (France)

    1997-04-01

    For structures like vessels or pipes containing a fluid, the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) assessment requires to demonstrate that it is possible, during the lifetime of the component, to detect a rate of leakage due to a possible defect, the growth of which would result in a leak before-break of the component. This LBB assessment could be an important contribution to the overall structural integrity argument for many components. The aim of this paper is to review some practices used for LBB assessment and to describe how some new R & D results have been used to provide a simplified approach of fracture mechanics analysis and especially the evaluation of crack shape and size during the lifetime of the component.

  17. Characterization of crack growth under combined loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, A.; Smith, F. W.; Holston, A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Room-temperature static and cyclic tests were made on 21 aluminum plates in the shape of a 91.4x91.4-cm Maltese cross with 45 deg flaws to develop crack growth and fracture toughness data under mixed-mode conditions. During cyclic testing, it was impossible to maintain a high proportion of shear-mode deformation on the crack tips. Cracks either branched or turned. Under static loading, cracks remained straight if shear stress intensity exceeded normal stress intensity. Mixed-mode crack growth rate data compared reasonably well with published single-mode data, and measured crack displacements agreed with the straight and branched crack analyses. Values of critical strain energy release rate at fracture for pure shear were approximately 50% higher than for pure normal opening, and there was a large reduction in normal stress intensity at fracture in the presence of high shear stress intensity. Net section stresses were well into the inelastic range when fracture occurred under high shear on the cracks.

  18. Locating a leaking crack by safe stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, C.E.; Sagat, S. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.); Shek, G.K.; Graham, D.B.; Durand, M.A. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    A few Zr-2.5 Nb alloy pressure tubes in CANDU nuclear reactors have leaked through cracks that have grown by delayed hydride cracking (DHC). In some instances, tubes contained confirmed leaks that were leaking at a rate too low for precise identification of the leaking channel. Controlled stimulation of DHC can be used to help locate these leaks by extending the crack and increasing the leak rate without approaching crack instability. In the event of a leak being detected, a plant operator can gain time for leak location by a heating and unloading manoeuvre that will arrest crack growth and increase the critical crack length. This manoeuvre increases the safety margin against tube rupture. If required, the operator can then stimulate cracking in a controlled manner to aid in leak identification. Sequences of temperature and load manoeuvres for safe crack stimulation have been found by laboratory tests on dry specimens and the efficacy of the process has been demonstrated, partly in a power reactor, and partly in a full-scale simulation of a leaking pressure tube. (author).

  19. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  20. Crack propagation directions in unfilled resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, G; Sadeghipour, K; Jayaraman, S; Silage, D; Paul, D; Boberick, K

    1998-11-01

    Posterior composite restorative materials undergo accelerated wear in the occlusal contact area, primarily through a fatigue mechanism. To facilitate the timely development of new and improved materials, a predictive wear model is desirable. The objective of this study was to develop a finite element model enabling investigators to predict crack propagation directions in resins used as the matrix material in composites, and to verify these predictions by observing cracks formed during the pin-on-disc wear of a 60:40 BISGMA:TEGDMA resin and an EBPADMA resin. Laser confocal scanning microscopy was used to measure crack locations. Finite element studies were done by means of ABAQUS software, modeling a cylinder sliding on a material with pre-existing surface-breaking cracks. Variables included modulus, cylinder/material friction coefficient, crack face friction, and yield behavior. Experimental results were surprising, since most crack directions were opposite previously published observations. The majority of surface cracks, though initially orthogonal to the surface, changed direction to run 20 to 30 degrees from the horizontal in the direction of indenter movement. Finite element modeling established the importance of subsurface shear stresses, since calculations provided evidence that cracks propagate in the direction of maximum K(II)(theta), in the same direction as the motion of the indenter, and at an angle of approximately 20 degrees. These findings provide the foundation for a predictive model of sliding wear in unfilled glassy resins.

  1. Uncertainty Quantification in Fatigue Crack Growth Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Sankararaman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to quantify the uncertainty in fatigue crack growth prognosis, applied to structures with complicated geometry and subjected to variable amplitude multi-axial loading. Finite element analysis is used to address the complicated geometry and calculate the stress intensity factors. Multi-modal stress intensity factors due to multi-axial loading are combined to calculate an equivalent stress intensity factor using a characteristic plane approach. Crack growth under variable amplitude loading is modeled using a modified Paris law that includes retardation effects. During cycle-by-cycle integration of the crack growth law, a Gaussian process surrogate model is used to replace the expensive finite element analysis. The effect of different types of uncertainty – physical variability, data uncertainty and modeling errors – on crack growth prediction is investigated. The various sources of uncertainty include, but not limited to, variability in loading conditions, material parameters, experimental data, model uncertainty, etc. Three different types of modeling errors – crack growth model error, discretization error and surrogate model error – are included in analysis. The different types of uncertainty are incorporated into the crack growth prediction methodology to predict the probability distribution of crack size as a function of number of load cycles. The proposed method is illustrated using an application problem, surface cracking in a cylindrical structure.

  2. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  3. Investigation of Cracked Lithium Hydride Reactor Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    bird, e.l.; mustaleski, t.m.

    1999-06-01

    Visual examination of lithium hydride reactor vessels revealed cracks that were adjacent to welds, most of which were circumferentially located in the bottom portion of the vessels. Sections were cut from the vessels containing these cracks and examined by use of the metallograph, scanning electron microscope, and microprobe to determine the cause of cracking. Most of the cracks originated on the outer surface just outside the weld fusion line in the base material and propagated along grain boundaries. Crack depths of those examined sections ranged from {approximately}300 to 500 {micro}m. Other cracks were reported to have reached a maximum depth of 1/8 in. The primary cause of cracking was the creation of high tensile stresses associated with the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the filler metal and the base metal during operation of the vessel in a thermally cyclic environment. This failure mechanism could be described as creep-type fatigue, whereby crack propagation may have been aided by the presence of brittle chromium carbides along the grain boundaries, which indicates a slightly sensitized microstructure.

  4. Fracture Mechanical Markov Chain Crack Growth Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gansted, L.; Brincker, Rune; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the B-model developed in [J. L. Bogdanoff and F. Kozin, Probabilistic Models of Cumulative Damage. John Wiley, New York (1985)] a new numerical model incorporating the physical knowledge of fatigue crack propagation is developed. The model is based on the assumption that the crack...

  5. Solute transport in cracking clay soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, J.J.B.; Ritsema, C.J.; Oostindie, K.; Hamminga, P.

    1996-01-01

    A bromide tracer applied to a cracked clay soil was adsorbed in the soil matrix close to the soil surface. Upon subsequent precipitation, a small part of the bromide dissolved and flowed rapidly through cracks to the subsoil and the groundwater. As a result, the groundwater and the drain discharge

  6. Strength of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with models, based on the theory of plasticity, to be used in strength assessments of reinforced concrete disks suffering from different kinds of cracking. Based on the assumption that the sliding strength of concrete is reduced in sections where cracks are located, solutions...

  7. Corrosion and Cracking of Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Modelling of the deterioration of reinforced concrete has in recent years changed from being a deterministic modelling based on experience to be stochastic modelling based on sound and consistent physical, chemical and mechanical principles. In this paper is presented a brief review of modern mod...... for time to initial corrosion, time to initial cracking, and time to a given crack width may be obtained....

  8. Food Color and Its Impact on Taste/Flavor Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spence, Charles; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina

    2016-01-01

    Color is perhaps the single most important product-intrinsic sensory cue when it comes to setting our expectations regarding the likely taste and flavor of food and drink. To date, a large body of research has demonstrated that changing the hue or intensity/saturation of the color of a variety of

  9. Amino acids as taste stimuli for tsetse flies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goes van Naters, W.M; den Otter, C.J

    This paper reports the responses of taste cells on the legs of the blood-feeding tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Newstead 1910 (Diptera: Glossinidae) to twenty protein amino acids and to their mixture as it is present in human;sweat. It is investigated whether the mixture is sensed differently

  10. Patterns of Sweet Taste Liking: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Keiko; Miller, Jason; Arcori, Leann; Lumeng, Julie C.; Han-Markey, Theresa; Herman, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct patterns of sweet taste liking have been described: one showing a peak liking response in the mid-range of sucrose concentrations and the other showing a monotonic liking response at progressively higher sucrose concentrations. Classification of these patterns has been somewhat arbitrary. In this report, we analyzed patterns of sweet taste liking in a pilot study with 26 adults including 14 women and 12 men, 32.6 ± 14.5 years of age with body mass index 26.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2 (mean ± SD). Sweet taste liking was measured for 10 levels of sucrose solutions (0.035 M to 1.346 M). Participants rated their liking of each solution using a visual analog scale with 0 indicating strongly disliking and 100 strongly liking. The cluster analysis demonstrated two distinct groups: 13 liked relatively low sucrose concentrations and liked high sucrose concentrations less, and 13 liked high sucrose concentrations greatly. If we use the 0.598 M sucrose solution alone and a cutoff liking score of 50, we can distinguish the two clusters with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%). If validated in additional studies, this simple tool may help us to better understand eating behaviors and the impact of sweet taste liking on nutrition-related disorders. PMID:26404363

  11. Patterns of Sweet Taste Liking: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Asao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two distinct patterns of sweet taste liking have been described: one showing a peak liking response in the mid-range of sucrose concentrations and the other showing a monotonic liking response at progressively higher sucrose concentrations. Classification of these patterns has been somewhat arbitrary. In this report, we analyzed patterns of sweet taste liking in a pilot study with 26 adults including 14 women and 12 men, 32.6 ± 14.5 years of age with body mass index 26.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2 (mean ± SD. Sweet taste liking was measured for 10 levels of sucrose solutions (0.035 M to 1.346 M. Participants rated their liking of each solution using a visual analog scale with 0 indicating strongly disliking and 100 strongly liking. The cluster analysis demonstrated two distinct groups: 13 liked relatively low sucrose concentrations and liked high sucrose concentrations less, and 13 liked high sucrose concentrations greatly. If we use the 0.598 M sucrose solution alone and a cutoff liking score of 50, we can distinguish the two clusters with high sensitivity (100% and specificity (100%. If validated in additional studies, this simple tool may help us to better understand eating behaviors and the impact of sweet taste liking on nutrition-related disorders.

  12. The Elements of Taste: How Many Are There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    What is the number of tastes or flavors we have? Is it five, as most Chinese believe? None, as the ancient Taoists asserted? Four, as Western science traditionally claims? Recently, "umami" has been added to the traditional four: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter (the Chinese added another: spicy or pungent). Aristotle and Raghavan Iyer (of India)…

  13. The French Academy: Arbitrator of Taste, Order, Genius--Immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzash, Michael D.

    The French Academy is the oldest of the scholarly societies of France. Its ideals and preferences of order, genius, and immortality have influenced the schools, conservatories, universities, and archives and the intellectual and artistic tastes of the time. Its foundation was laid by nine lettered, well-educated laymen and ecclesiastics around…

  14. The Differential Role of Smell and Taste For Eating Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesveldt, Sanne; de Graaf, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Food choice and food intake are guided by both sensory and metabolic processes. The senses of taste and smell play a key role in the sensory effects on choice and intake. This article provides a comprehensive overview of, and will argue for, the differential role of smell and taste for eating behavior by focusing on appetite, choice, intake, and satiation. The sense of smell mainly plays a priming role in eating behavior. It has been demonstrated that (orthonasal) odor exposure induces appetite specifically for the cued food. However, the influence of odors on food choice and intake is less clear, and may also depend on awareness or intensity of the odors, or personality traits of the participants. Taste on the other hand, has a clear role as a (macro)nutrient sensing system, during consumption. Together with texture, taste is responsible for eating rate, and thus in determining the oral exposure duration of food in the mouth, thereby contributing to satiation. Results from these experimental studies should be taken to real-life situations, to assess longer-term effects on energy intake. With this knowledge, it will be possible to steer people's eating behavior, as well as food product development, toward a less obesogenic society.

  15. The role of tasting in the purchasing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oomen Roos

    2015-01-01

    Value – This study is of value to the Dutch government and the wine lobby, because it demonstrates the difference between wine tasting and drinking. It also has value for restaurant owners, the wine industry, and the academic world, because it highlights an important aspect of consumer behaviour with regard to wine purchases.

  16. Oral Dryness, Dietary Intake, and Alterations in Taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe

    2015-01-01

    Xerostomia and decreased salivary secretion may give rise to a number of oral complications. These include dry, atrophic and tender oral mucosa; impaired mastication, food bolus formation, and swallowing; altered sensation of taste; as well as increased risk of developing dental caries and erosio...

  17. Intergenerational Continuity of Taste: Parental and Adolescent Music Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Delsing, M.J.M.H.; Zalk, M. van; Christensen, P.G.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the continuity in music taste from parents to their children is discussed via a multi-actor design. In our models music preferences of 325 adolescents and both their parents were linked, with parental and adolescent educational level as covariates. Parents' preferences for different

  18. Intergenerational Continuity of Taste: Parental and Adolescent Music Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; van Zalk, Maarten; Christenson, Peter G.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the continuity in music taste from parents to their children is discussed via a multi-actor design. In our models music preferences of 325 adolescents and both their parents were linked, with parental and adolescent educational level as covariates. Parents' preferences for different types of music that had been popular when they…

  19. Differences in taste in button mushroom strains (Agaricus bisporus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Stijger, I.; Kersten, M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the results of a screening of genetically diverse strains of mushroom Agaricus bisporus for differences in taste. Eight different strains were grown on regular commercial compost and casing soil. Two of these strains were also grown on a casing with calcium chloride added to

  20. Extending methods: using Bourdieu's field analysis to further investigate taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindel Dimick, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In this commentary on Per Anderhag, Per-Olof Wickman and Karim Hamza's article Signs of taste for science, I consider how their study is situated within the concern for the role of science education in the social and cultural production of inequality. Their article provides a finely detailed methodology for analyzing the constitution of taste within science education classrooms. Nevertheless, because the authors' socially situated methodology draws upon Bourdieu's theories, it seems equally important to extend these methods to consider how and why students make particular distinctions within a relational context—a key aspect of Bourdieu's theory of cultural production. By situating the constitution of taste within Bourdieu's field analysis, researchers can explore the ways in which students' tastes and social positionings are established and transformed through time, space, place, and their ability to navigate the field. I describe the process of field analysis in relation to the authors' paper and suggest that combining the authors' methods with a field analysis can provide a strong methodological and analytical framework in which theory and methods combine to create a detailed understanding of students' interest in relation to their context.