WorldWideScience

Sample records for crack tip processes

  1. On fatigue crack growth in ductile materials by crack-tip blunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2004-01-01

    One of the basic mechanisms for fatigue crack growth in ductile metals is that depending on crack-tip blunting under tensile loads and re-sharpening of the crack-tip during unloading. In a standard numerical analysis accounting for finite strains it is not possible to follow this process during...

  2. Ductile crack growth simulation from near crack tip dissipated energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, S.; Chapuliot, S.

    2000-01-01

    A method to calculate ductile tearing in both small scale fracture mechanics specimens and cracked components is presented. This method is based on an estimation of the dissipated energy calculated near the crack tip. Firstly, the method is presented. It is shown that a characteristic parameter G fr can be obtained, relevant to the dissipated energy in the fracture process. The application of the method to the calculation of side grooved crack tip (CT) specimens of different sizes is examined. The value of G fr is identified by comparing the calculated and experimental load line displacement versus crack extension curve for the smallest CT specimen. With this identified value, it is possible to calculate the global behaviour of the largest specimen. The method is then applied to the calculation of a pipe containing a through-wall thickness crack subjected to a bending moment. This pipe is made of the same material as the CT specimens. It is shown that it is possible to simulate the global behaviour of the structure including the prediction of up to 90-mm crack extension. Local terms such as the equivalent stress or the crack tip opening angle are found to be constant during the crack extension process. This supports the view that G fr controls the fields in the vicinity near the crack tip. (orig.)

  3. Continuum damage mechanics analysis of crack tip zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yinchu, L.; Jianping, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The crack tip field and its intensity factor play an important role in fracture mechanics. Generally, the damage such as microcracks, microvoids etc. will initiate and grow in materials as the cracked body is subjected to external loadings, especially in the crack tip zone. The damage evolution will load to the crack tip damage field and the change of the stress, strain and displacement fields of cracks tip zone. In this paper, on the basis of continuum damage mechanics, the authors have derived the equations which the crack tip field and its intensity factor must satisfy in a loading process, calculated the angle distribution curves of stress, strain and displacement fields in a crack tip zone and have compared them with the corresponding curves of HRR field and linear elastic field in undamaged materials. The equations of crack tip field intensity factors have been solved and its solutions give the variation of the field intensity factors with the loading parameter

  4. Characterization of SCC crack tip and hydrogen distribution in alloy 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Nakajima, Nobuo; Fukuya, Koji [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Hatano, Yuji [Toyama Univ. (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    In order to identify the mechanism of primary water stress corrosion cracking (SCC), direct observations of SCC crack tip microstructure and hydrogen distribution in alloy 600 were carried out. A new technique has been developed to prepare electron transparent foils including the crack tip using focused-ion beam (FIB) micro-processing technique. Cr-rich oxide and metal-Ni phase were identified in the crack tip and grain boundary ahead of the crack. >From the fact that similar microstructure was observed in the surface oxide layer, it is suggested that the oxidation mechanism is identical at the crack tip region and the surface. It became clear that the crack tip region and the oxidized grain boundary don't work as strong trapping sites of solute hydrogen under unloaded condition, because a homogeneous hydrogen distribution around the crack tip region was detected by tritium microautoradiography. (author)

  5. Crack tip stress and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, D.

    1975-01-01

    The study of potential energy variations in a loaded elastic solid containing a crack leads to determination of the crack driving force G. Generalization of this concept to cases other than linear elasticity leads to definition of the integral J. In a linear solid, the crack tip stress field is characterized by a single parameter: the stress-intensity factor K. When the crack tip plastic zone size is confined to the elastic singularity J=G, it is possible to establish relationship between these parameters and plastic strain (and in particular the crack tip opening displacement delta). The stress increases because of the triaxiality effect. This overload rises with increasing strain hardening. When the plastic zone size expands, using certain hypotheses, delta can be calculated. The plastic strain intensity is exclusively dependent on parameter J [fr

  6. Effects of plastic anisotropy on crack-tip behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Tvergaard, Viggo; Kuroda, Mitsutoshi

    2002-01-01

    For a crack in a homogeneous material the effect of plastic anisotropy on crack-tip blunting and on the near-tip stress and strain fields is analyzed numerically. The full finite strain analyses are carried out for plane strain under small scale yielding conditions, with purely symmetric mode I...... loading remote from the crack-tip. In cases where the principal axes of the anisotropy are inclined to the plane of the crack it is found that the plastic zones as well as the stress and strain fields just around the blunted tip of the crack become non-symmetric. In these cases the peak strain...... on the blunted tip occurs off the center line of the crack, thus indicating that the crack may want to grow in a different direction. When the anisotropic axes are parallel to the crack symmetry is retained, but the plastic zones and the near-tip fields still differ from those predicted by standard isotropic...

  7. Characterization of SCC crack tips and surface oxide layers in alloy 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Fukuya, Koji [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of primary water stress corrosion cracking (SCC), direct observation of microstructures of SCC crack tips and surface oxide layers in alloy 600 were carried out. A focused-ion beam (FIB) micro-processing technique was applied to prepare electron transparent foils including the crack tip and the surface oxide layer without any damage to those microstructures. Transmission electron microscopy and analysis were used to characterize the crack tips and surface oxide layers. Cr-rich oxides and a metal-Ni phase were identified in the crack tips and grain boundaries ahead of the crack tips independent of dissolved hydrogen concentrations. >From the fact that the Cr-rich oxides and metal-Ni phase were observed in the inner surface oxide layer, the same oxidation mechanism as the surface is proposed for the crack tip region and internal oxidation accompanying selective Cr oxidation is suggested as the mechanism. (author)

  8. A numerical study of non-linear crack tip parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.V. Antunes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Crack closure concept has been widely used to explain different issues of fatigue crack propagation. However, different authors have questioned the relevance of crack closure and have proposed alternative concepts. The main objective here is to check the effectiveness of crack closure concept by linking the contact of crack flanks with non-linear crack tip parameters. Accordingly, 3D-FE numerical models with and without contact were developed for a wide range of loading scenarios and the crack tip parameters usually linked to fatigue crack growth, namely range of cyclic plastic strain, crack tip opening displacement, size of reversed plastic zone and total plastic dissipation per cycle, were investigated. It was demonstrated that: i LEFM concepts are applicable to the problem under study; ii the crack closure phenomenon has a great influence on crack tip parameters decreasing their values; iii the Keff concept is able to explain the variations of crack tip parameters produced by the contact of crack flanks; iv the analysis of remote compliance is the best numerical parameter to quantify the crack opening level; v without contact there is no effect of stress ratio on crack tip parameters. Therefore it is proved that the crack closure concept is valid.

  9. TEM observations of crack tip: cavity interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.A.; Ohr, S.M.; Jesser, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Crack tip-cavity interactions have been studied by performing room temperature deformation experiments in a transmission electron microscope on ion-irradiated type 316 stainless steel with small helium containing cavities. Slip dislocations emitted from a crack tip cut, sheared, and thereby elongated cavities without a volume enlargement. As the crack tip approached, a cavity volume enlargement occurred. Instead of the cavities continuing to enlarge until they touch, the walls between the cavities fractured. Fracture surface dimples do not correlate in size or density with these enlarged cavities

  10. Stress corrosion crack tip microstructure in nickel-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shei, S.A.; Yang, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking behavior of several nickel-base alloys in high temperature caustic environments has been evaluated. The crack tip and fracture surfaces were examined using Auger/ESCA and Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) to determine the near crack tip microstructure and microchemistry. Results showed formation of chromium-rich oxides at or near the crack tip and nickel-rich de-alloying layers away from the crack tip. The stress corrosion resistance of different nickel-base alloys in caustic may be explained by the preferential oxidation and dissolution of different alloying elements at the crack tip. Alloy 600 (UNS N06600) shows good general corrosion and intergranular attack resistance in caustic because of its high nickel content. Thermally treated Alloy 690 (UNS N06690) and Alloy 600 provide good stress corrosion cracking resistance because of high chromium contents along grain boundaries. Alloy 625 (UNS N06625) does not show as good stress corrosion cracking resistance as Alloy 690 or Alloy 600 because of its high molybdenum content

  11. Crack Tip Mechanics in Distortion Gradient Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuentes-Alonso, Sandra; Martínez Pañeda, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Gradient Plasticity (DGP), the influence on crack tip mechanics of DGP's distinguishing features that entail superior modelling capabilities has not been investigated yet. In this work crack tip fields are thoroughly examined by implementing the higher order theory of DGP in an implicit finite element...

  12. Fracture mechanics by three-dimensional crack-tip synchrotron X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, P J

    2015-03-06

    To better understand the relationship between the nucleation and growth of defects and the local stresses and phase changes that cause them, we need both imaging and stress mapping. Here, we explore how this can be achieved by bringing together synchrotron X-ray diffraction and tomographic imaging. Conventionally, these are undertaken on separate synchrotron beamlines; however, instruments capable of both imaging and diffraction are beginning to emerge, such as ID15 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and JEEP at the Diamond Light Source. This review explores the concept of three-dimensional crack-tip X-ray microscopy, bringing them together to probe the crack-tip behaviour under realistic environmental and loading conditions and to extract quantitative fracture mechanics information about the local crack-tip environment. X-ray diffraction provides information about the crack-tip stress field, phase transformations, plastic zone and crack-face tractions and forces. Time-lapse CT, besides providing information about the three-dimensional nature of the crack and its local growth rate, can also provide information as to the activation of extrinsic toughening mechanisms such as crack deflection, crack-tip zone shielding, crack bridging and crack closure. It is shown how crack-tip microscopy allows a quantitative measure of the crack-tip driving force via the stress intensity factor or the crack-tip opening displacement. Finally, further opportunities for synchrotron X-ray microscopy are explored.

  13. On short cracks that depart from elastoplastic notch tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Miquelin Machado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of short cracks that depart from elastoplastic notch tips is modeled to estimate the stresses required to initiate and to propagate cracks in notched structural components, and to evaluate the size of tolerable crack-like defects under general loading conditions. This analysis can model both fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking problems; can evaluate notch sensitivity in both cases; and can as well be used to establish design or acceptance criteria for tolerable non-propagating crack-like defects in such cases. The growth of short cracks is assumed driven by the applied stresses and by the stress gradient ahead the notch tip, and supported by the material resistances to crack initiation and to long crack propagation by fatigue or EAC. In the elastoplastic case, the stress gradient ahead of the notch tip is quantified by a J-field to consider the short crack behavior. The tolerable short crack predictions made by this model are evaluated by suitable fatigue and EAC tests of notched specimens specially designed to start nonpropagating cracks from the notch tips, both under elastic and elastoplastic conditions.

  14. Sub-10-micrometer toughening and crack tip toughness of dental enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, Siang Fung; Schulz, Anja; Pacher Fernandes, Rodrigo; Schneider, Gerold A.

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, enamel showed indications to occlude small cracks in-vivo and exhibited R-curve behaviors for bigger cracks ex-vivo. This study quantifies the crack tip toughness (KI0, KIII0), the crack closure stress and the cohesive zone size at the crack tip of enamel and investigates the toughening mechanisms near the crack tip down to the length scale of a single enamel crystallite. The crack-opening-displacement (COD) profile of cracks induced by Vickers indents on mature bovine en...

  15. Effects of δ-hydride precipitation at a crack tip on crack propagation in delayed hydride cracking of Zircaloy-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, T., E-mail: kubo@nfd.co.jp [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., 2163 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [M.O.X. Co., Ltd., 1828-520 Hirasu-cho, Mito, Ibaraki 311-0853 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Steady state crack velocity of delayed hydride cracking in Zircaloy-2 was analyzed. • A large stress peak is induced at an end of hydride by volume expansion of hydride. • Hydrogen diffuses to the stress peak, thereby accelerating steady hydride growth. • Crack velocity was estimated from the calculated hydrogen flux into the stress peak. • There was good agreement between calculation results and experimental data. -- Abstract: Delayed hydride cracking (DHC) of Zircaloy-2 is one possible mechanism for the failure of boiling water reactor fuel rods in ramp tests at high burnup. Analyses were made for hydrogen diffusion around a crack tip to estimate the crack velocity of DHC in zirconium alloys, placing importance on effects of precipitation of δ-hydride. The stress distribution around the crack tip is significantly altered by precipitation of hydride, which was strictly analyzed using a finite element computer code. Then, stress-driven hydrogen diffusion under the altered stress distribution was analyzed by a differential method. Overlapping of external stress and hydride precipitation at a crack tip induces two stress peaks; one at a crack tip and the other at the front end of the hydride precipitate. Since the latter is larger than the former, more hydrogen diffuses to the front end of the hydride precipitate, thereby accelerating hydride growth compared with that in the absence of the hydride. These results indicated that, after hydride was formed in front of the crack tip, it grew almost steadily accompanying the interaction of hydrogen diffusion, hydride growth and the stress alteration by hydride precipitation. Finally, crack velocity was estimated from the calculated hydrogen flux into the crack tip as a function of temperature, stress intensity factor and material strength. There was qualitatively good agreement between calculation results and experimental data.

  16. Observations on Hydride Structures at the Tip of Arrested Cracks Grown under Conditions of Delayed Hydride Cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Kjell; Oskarsson, Magnus; Bergqvist, Hans

    2003-04-01

    One sample of Zr2.5%Nb and one sample of cold worked and stress relieved Zircaloy-4 which have been tested for hydrogen induced crack growth have been examined in the crack tip region with the aim of determining the mechanism behind the growth of cracks. The proposed mechanisms are brittle failure of a crack tip hydride and hydrogen enhanced localized shear. The examinations were done by TEM and SEM. However attempts to produce a TEM specimen with a thinned region at the tip of the crack were unsuccessful in both samples. One feature observed in the Zr2.5%Nb material may however be an indication of intense shear deformation at the tip of the crack. On the other hand all observations on the Zircaloy-4 sample indicate precipitation of hydrides ahead of the crack tip and the presence of hydrides on the crack flanks

  17. Semi-empirical crack tip analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Ben Ouezdon, M.

    1988-01-01

    Experimentally observed crack opening displacements are employed as the solution of the multiple crack interaction problem. Then the near and far fields are reconstructed analytically by means of the double layer potential technqiue. Evaluation of the effective stress intensity factor resulting from the interaction of the main crack and its surrounding crazes in addition to the remotely applied load is presented as an illustrative example. It is shown that crazing (as well as microcracking) may constitute an alternative mechanism to Dugdale-Berenblatt models responsible for the cancellation of the singularity at the crack tip.

  18. Crack tip fracture toughness of base glasses for dental restoration glass-ceramics using crack opening displacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deubener, J; Höland, M; Höland, W; Janakiraman, N; Rheinberger, V M

    2011-10-01

    The critical stress intensity factor, also known as the crack tip toughness K(tip), was determined for three base glasses, which are used in the manufacture of glass-ceramics. The glasses included the base glass for a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, the base glass for a fluoroapatite glass-ceramic and the base glass for a leucite glass-ceramic. These glass-ceramic are extensively used in the form of biomaterials in restorative dental medicine. The crack tip toughness was established by using crack opening displacement profiles under experimental conditions. The crack was produced by Vickers indentation. The crack tip toughness parameters determined for the three glass-ceramics differed quite significantly. The crack tip parameters of the lithium disilicate base glass and the leucite base glass were higher than that of the fluoroapatite base glass. This last material showed glass-in-glass phase separation. The discussion of the results clearly shows that the droplet glass phase is softer than the glass matrix. Therefore, the authors conclude that a direct relationship exists between the chemical nature of the glasses and the crack tip parameter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavior of Fatigue Crack Tip Opening in Air and Corrosive Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Morihito; Toeda, Kazunori

    In the study, a formula for predicting fatigue crack tip opening displacement is deduced firstly. And then, due to comparing actual crack growth rate with the deduced formula, the crack tip configuration factor is defined to figure out the crack tip opening configuration that is useful to clarify the behavior of fatigue crack tip formation apparently. Applying the concept, the crack growth of 7/3 brass and 6/4 brass is predicted from the formula, by replacing material properties such as plastic flow resistance, Young modulus, the Poisson ratio, and fatigue toughness, and fatigue test conditions such as the stress intensity factor range, the load ratio, and cycle frequency. Furthermore, the theoretically expected results are verified with the fatigue tests which were carried out on CT specimens under different load conditions of load ratio, cycle frequency, and cyclic peak load, in different environments of air or corrosive ammonia atmosphere, for various brasses. And by comparing and discussing the calculated crack growth rate with attained experimental results, the apparent configuration factor at the crack tip is determined. And through the attained factor which changes along with crack growth, the behaviors of fatigue crack tip formation under different test conditions have been found out.

  20. Sub-10-micrometer toughening and crack tip toughness of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Siang Fung; Schulz, Anja; Pacher Fernandes, Rodrigo; Schneider, Gerold A

    2011-04-01

    In previous studies, enamel showed indications to occlude small cracks in-vivo and exhibited R-curve behaviors for bigger cracks ex-vivo. This study quantifies the crack tip's toughness (K(I0),K(III0)), the crack's closure stress and the cohesive zone size at the crack tip of enamel and investigates the toughening mechanisms near the crack tip down to the length scale of a single enamel crystallite. The crack-opening-displacement (COD) profile of cracks induced by Vickers indents on mature bovine enamel was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The mode I crack tip toughness K(I0) of cracks along enamel rod boundaries and across enamel rods exhibit a similar range of values: K(I0,Ir)=0.5-1.6MPa m(0.5) (based on Irwin's 'near-field' solution) and K(I0,cz)=0.8-1.5MPa m(0.5) (based on the cohesive zone solution of the Dugdale-Muskhelishvili (DM) crack model). The mode III crack tip toughness K(III0,Ir) was computed as 0.02-0.15MPa m(0.5). The crack-closure stress at the crack tip was computed as 163-770 MPa with a cohesive zone length and width 1.6-10.1μm and 24-44 nm utilizing the cohesive zone solution. Toughening elements were observed under AFM and SEM: crack bridging due to protein ligament and hydroxyapatite fibres (micro- and nanometer scale) as well as microcracks were identified. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of plastic prestrain on the crack tip constraint of pipeline steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikrem, P.A.; Zhang, Z.L.; Nyhus, B.

    2007-01-01

    Before and during operation, pipelines may suffer from plastic pre-deformation due to accidental loading, cold bending and ground movement. Plastic prestrain not only modifies steel's yield and flow properties but also influences its fracture performance. This paper focuses on the effect of prestrain history on crack driving force and crack tip constraint. A single-edge notched tension specimen has been selected for the study and the crack is assumed to exist before a prestrain history was applied. The results show that prestrain history has a strong effect on the crack tip stress field. A new parameter has been proposed to characterize the prestrain-induced crack tip constraint. For the same crack tip opening displacement level, prestrain history will elevate the crack tip stress field. The prestrain-induced constraint decreases with the increase of loading

  2. 2D mapping of plane stress crack-tip fields following an overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Withers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of crack-tip strain fields in a thin (plane stress compact tension sample following an overload (OL event has been studied using two different experimental techniques. Surface behaviour has been characterised by Digital Image Correlation (DIC, while the bulk behaviour has been characterised by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD. The combination of both surface and bulk information allowed us to visualise the through-thickness evolution of the strain fields before the OL event, during the overload event, just after OL and at various stages after it. Unlike previous work, complete 2D maps of strains around the crack-tip were acquired at 60m spatial resolution by XRD. The DIC shows less crack opening after overload and the XRD a lower crack-tip peak stress after OL until the crack has grown past the compressive crack-tip residual stress introduced by the overload after which the behaviour returned to that for the baseline fatigue response. While the peak crack-tip stress is supressed by the compressive residual stress, the crack-tip stress field changes over each cycle are nevertheless the same for all Kmax cycles except at OL.

  3. Effect of CT Specimen Thickness on the Mechanical Characteristics at the Crack Tip of Stress Corrosion Cracking in Ni-based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinghao, Cui; He, Xue; Lingyan, Zhao

    2017-12-01

    It’s important to obtain accurate stress corrosion crack(SCC) growth rate for quantitative life prediction of components in nuclear power plants. However, the engineering practice shows that the crack tip constraint effect has a great influence on the mechanical properties and crack growth rate of SCC at crack tip. To study the influence of the specimen thickness on the crack tip mechanical properties of SCC, the stress, strain and C integral at creep crack tip are analyzed under different specimens thickness. Results show that the cracked specimen is less likely to crack due to effect of crack tip constraint. When the thickness ratio B/W is larger than 0.1, the crack tip constraint is almost ineffective. Value of C integral is the largest when B/W is 0.25. Then specimen thickness has little effect on the value of C integral. The effect of specimen thickness on the value of C integral is less significant at higher thickness ratio.

  4. Numerical investigation of J-characterization of growing crack tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, F.

    1992-01-01

    Two different geometries, a centrally cracked panel and a three-point bend bar, are modelled with aid of the finite element program ABAQUS. Elastic-plastic behaviour with a realistic linear hardening modulus is assumed. By simulation of the growth with the aid of nodal relaxation, the J-value for a remote path around the growing tip is obtained for some different local-crack growth histories. The J F -value is compared to the J D -value that results if the crack tip is assumed to be stationary at the current length. It is found that the J C - and J F -values agree well for crack growth histories satisfying the criteria for J-characterization. However, after examination of the crack surface displacements it was found that the results for the bend geometry and the tension geometry, respectively, did not coincide for corresponding J-values, except at low load levels. This raises doubt about the abilities of J to characterize the state at a growing tip. (orig.)

  5. New theory for crack-tip twinning in fcc metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andric, Predrag; Curtin, W. A.

    2018-04-01

    Dislocation emission from a crack tip is a necessary mechanism for crack tip blunting and toughening. In fcc metals under Mode I loading, a first partial dislocation is emitted, followed either by a trailing partial dislocation ("ductile" behaviour) or a twinning partial dislocation ("quasi-brittle"). The twinning tendency is usually estimated using the Tadmor and Hai extension of the Rice theory. Extensive molecular statics simulations reveal that the predictions of the critical stress intensity factor for crack tip twinning are always systematically lower (20-35%) than observed. Analyses of the energy change during nucleation reveal that twin partial emission is not accompanied by creation of a surface step while emission of the trailing partial creates a step. The absence of the step during twinning motivates a modified model for twinning nucleation that accounts for the fact that nucleation does not occur directly at the crack tip. Predictions of the modified theory are in excellent agreement with all simulations that show twinning. Emission of the trailing partial dislocation, including the step creation, is predicted using a model recently introduced to accurately predict the first partial emission and shows why twinning is preferred. A second mode of twinning is found wherein the crack first advances by cleavage and then emits the twinning partial at the new crack tip; this mode dominates for emission beyond the first twinning partial. These new theories resolve all the discrepancies between the Tadmor twinning analysis and simulations, and have various implications for fracture behaviour and transitions.

  6. A numerical study of crack tip constraint in ductile single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Swapnil D.; Narasimhan, R.; Mishra, R. K.

    In this work, the effect of crack tip constraint on near-tip stress and deformation fields in a ductile FCC single crystal is studied under mode I, plane strain conditions. To this end, modified boundary layer simulations within crystal plasticity framework are performed, neglecting elastic anisotropy. The first and second terms of the isotropic elastic crack tip field, which are governed by the stress intensity factor K and T-stress, are prescribed as remote boundary conditions and solutions pertaining to different levels of T-stress are generated. It is found that the near-tip deformation field, especially, the development of kink or slip shear bands, is sensitive to the constraint level. The stress distribution and the size and shape of the plastic zone near the crack tip are also strongly influenced by the level of T-stress, with progressive loss of crack tip constraint occurring as T-stress becomes more negative. A family of near-tip fields is obtained which are characterized by two terms (such as K and T or J and a constraint parameter Q) as in isotropic plastic solids.

  7. Crack Tip Creep Deformation Behavior in Transversely Isotropic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Young Wha; Yoon, Kee Bong

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical mechanics analysis and finite element simulation were performed to investigate creep deformation behavior at the crack tip of transversely isotropic materials under small scale creep (SCC) conditions. Mechanical behavior of material was assumed as an elastic-2 nd creep, which elastic modulus ( E ), Poisson's ratio (v ) and creep stress exponent ( n ) were isotropic and creep coefficient was only transversely isotropic. Based on the mechanics analysis for material behavior, a constitutive equation for transversely isotropic creep behavior was formulated and an equivalent creep coefficient was proposed under plain strain conditions. Creep deformation behavior at the crack tip was investigated through the finite element analysis. The results of the finite element analysis showed that creep deformation in transversely isotropic materials is dominant at the rear of the crack-tip. This result was more obvious when a load was applied to principal axis of anisotropy. Based on the results of the mechanics analysis and the finite element simulation, a corrected estimation scheme of the creep zone size was proposed in order to evaluate the creep deformation behavior at the crack tip of transversely isotropic creeping materials

  8. Assisted crack tip flipping under Mode I thin sheet tearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felter, Christian Lotz; Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2017-01-01

    Crack tip flipping, where the fracture surface alternates from side to side in roughly 45° shear bands, seems to be an overlooked propagation mode in Mode I thin sheet tearing. In fact, observations of crack tip flipping is rarely found in the literature. Unlike the already established modes...

  9. Crack Tip Parameters for Growing Cracks in Linear Viscoelastic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune

    In this paper the problem of describing the asymptotic fields around a slowly growing crack in a linearly viscoelastic material is considered. It is shown that for plane mixed mode problems the asymptotic fields must be described by 6 parameters: 2 stress intensity factors and 4 deformation...... intensity factors. In the special case of a constant Poisson ratio only 2 deformation intensity factors are needed. Closed form solutions are given both for a slowly growing crack and for a crack that is suddenly arrested at a point at the crack extension path. Two examples are studied; a stress boundary...... value problem, and a displacement boundary value problem. The results show that the stress intensity factors and the displacement intensity factors do not depend explicitly upon the velocity of the crack tip....

  10. Cleavage crack growth resistance due to plastic flow around a near-tip dislocation-free region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    1997-01-01

    ; but plastic yielding far from the tip still adds to the fracture toughness. The model employed makes use of a dislocation-free strip of elastic material, inside which the crack propagates, while the material outside the strip is described by continuum plasticity. The approximation involved in assuming......Crack growth resistance curves are computed numerically for cases where fracture occurs by atomic separation, so that the length scale of the fracture process is typically much smaller than the dislocation spacing. Here, continuum plasticity would not give realistic stress levels near the crack tip...

  11. Improved method for determining the stress relaxation at the crack tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinevich, A. V.; Erasov, V. S.; Avtaev, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    A technique is suggested to determine the stress relaxation at the crack tip during tests of a specimen of a new type at a constant crack opening fixed by a stay bolt. The shape and geometry of the specimen make it possible to set the load and to determine the crack closure force after long-term exposure using the force transducer of a tensile-testing machine. The stress relaxation at the crack tip is determined in a V95pchT2 alloy specimen at elevated temperatures.

  12. Biaxial loading and shallow-flaw effects on crack-tip constraint and fracture toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; Theiss, T.J.; Rao, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    A program to develop and evaluate fracture methodologies for the assessment of crack-tip constraint effects on fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels has been initiated in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program. Crack-tip constraint is an issue that significantly impacts fracture mechanics technologies employed in safety assessment procedures for commercially licensed nuclear RPVs. The focus of studies described herein is on the evaluation of two stressed-based methodologies for quantifying crack-tip constraint (i.e., J-Q theory and a micromechanical scaling model based on critical stressed volumes) through applications to experimental and fractographic data. Data were utilized from single-edge notch bend (SENB) specimens and HSST-developed cruciform beam specimens that were tested in HSST shallow-crack and biaxial testing programs. Results from applications indicate that both the J-Q methodology and the micromechanical scaling model can be used successfully to interpret experimental data from the shallow- and deep-crack SENB specimen tests. When applied to the uniaxially and biaxially loaded cruciform specimens, the two methodologies showed some promising features, but also raised several questions concerning the interpretation of constraint conditions in the specimen based on near-tip stress fields. Fractographic data taken from the fracture surfaces of the SENB and cruciform specimens are used to assess the relevance of stress-based fracture characterizations to conditions at cleavage initiation sites. Unresolved issues identified from these analyses require resolution as part of a validation process for biaxial loading applications. This report is designated as HSST Report No. 142

  13. High-voltage electron-microscopical observation of crack-tip dislocations in silicon crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Masaki; Higashida, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    Crack-tip dislocations in silicon single crystals were observed by high-voltage electron microscopy. Cracks were introduced into silicon wafers at room temperature by a Vickers indenter. The indented specimens were annealed at 823 K in order to activate dislocation emission from the crack tip under the residual stress due to the indentation. In the specimen without annealing, no dislocations were observed around the crack. On the other hand, in the specimen after the annealing, the aspect of the early stage of dislocation emission was observed, where dislocations were emitted not as a perfect dislocation but as a partial dislocation in the hinge-type plastic zone. Prominent dislocation arrays that were emitted from a crack tip were also observed, and they were found to be of shielding type, which increases the fracture toughness of those crystals

  14. Strain gradient plasticity modeling of hydrogen diffusion to the crack tip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; del Busto, S.; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    to characterize the gradient-enhanced stress elevation and subsequent diffusion of hydrogen towards the crack tip. Results reveal that GNDs, absent in conventional plasticity predictions, play a fundamental role on hydrogen transport ahead of a crack. SGP estimations provide a good agreement with experimental......In this work hydrogen diffusion towards the fracture process zone is examined accounting for local hardening due to geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) by means of strain gradient plasticity (SGP). Finite element computations are performed within the finite deformation theory...

  15. Role of hydrogen on the incipient crack tip deformation behavior in α-Fe: An atomistic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlakha, I.; Solanki, K. N.

    2018-01-01

    A crack tip in α-Fe presents a preferential trap site for hydrogen, and sufficient concentration of hydrogen can change the incipient crack tip deformation response, causing a transition from a ductile to a brittle failure mechanism for inherently ductile alloys. In this work, the effect of hydrogen segregation around the crack tip on deformation in α-Fe was examined using atomistic simulations and the continuum based Rice-Thompson criterion for various modes of fracture (I, II, and III). The presence of a hydrogen rich region ahead of the crack tip was found to cause a decrease in the critical stress intensity factor required for incipient deformation for various crack orientations and modes of fracture examined here. Furthermore, the triaxial stress state ahead of the crack tip was found to play a crucial role in determining the effect of hydrogen on the deformation behavior. Overall, the segregation of hydrogen atoms around the crack tip enhanced both dislocation emission and cleavage behavior suggesting that hydrogen has a dual role during the deformation in α-Fe.

  16. Mode I and mixed mode crack-tip fields in strain gradient plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios

    2011-01-01

    Strain gradients develop near the crack-tip of Mode I or mixed mode cracks. A finite strain version of the phenomenological strain gradient plasticity theory of Fleck–Hutchinson (2001) is used here to quantify the effect of the material length scales on the crack-tip stress field for a sharp...... stationary crack under Mode I and mixed mode loading. It is found that for material length scales much smaller than the scale of the deformation gradients, the predictions converge to conventional elastic–plastic solutions. For length scales sufficiently large, the predictions converge to elastic solutions....... Thus, the range of length scales over which a strain gradient plasticity model is necessary is identified. The role of each of the three material length scales, incorporated in the multiple length scale theory, in altering the near-tip stress field is systematically studied in order to quantify...

  17. Multi-parameter crack tip stress state description for estimation of fracture process zone extent in silicate composite WST specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, V.; Sobek, J.; Šestáková, L.; Frantík, P.; Seitl, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 25 (2013), s. 69-78 ISSN 1971-8993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/11/0833; GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/11/1551 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Near-crack tip fields * Williams series * higher-order terms * stress field approximation * wedge splitting test * fracture process zone Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  18. Direct observation of microtwin formation at crack tips in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderschaeve, G.; Caillard, D.; Peyrade, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in brittle materials which contain cracks, stress concentrations arise at crack tips. At low temperatures, when the load is increased, brittle fracture happens for a critical stress intensity factor, which is an intrinsic material property, depending on the loading mode and on the cleavage plane. At higher temperatures dislocations may be emitted at the crack tip: a plastic zone is formed, which releases the stresses and increases the critical load for crack propagation. It is generally accepted that the brittle-to ductile transition is controlled directly or indirectly by dislocation mobility. During the course of an in situ transmission electron microscopy, study of dislocation mobility in the III-V compound InP, we have observed the nucleation at a crack tip and the propagation of partial dislocations of same Burgers vectors, resulting in a microtwinning of the crystal. Such an observation provides information on both the way stress relaxation occurs and the relative mobilities of the partial dislocations in this material. In spite of the importance of twin formation on the quality of the material used as substrate in semiconducting devices, this last point is rather poorly documented

  19. Crack-tip constraint analyses and constraint-dependent LBB curves for circumferential through-wall cracked pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.L.; Wang, G.Z., E-mail: gzwang@ecust.edu.cn; Xuan, F.Z.; Tu, S.T.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Solution of constraint parameter τ* for through-wall cracked pipes has been obtained. • Constraint increases with increasing crack length and radius–thickness ratio of pipes. • Constraint-dependent LBB curve for through-wall cracked pipes has been constructed. • For increasing accuracy of LBB assessments, constraint effect should be considered. - Abstract: The leak-before-break (LBB) concept has been widely applied in the structural integrity assessments of pressured pipes in nuclear power plants. However, the crack-tip constraint effects in LBB analyses and designs cannot be incorporated. In this paper, by using three-dimensional finite element calculations, the modified load-independent T-stress constraint parameter τ* for circumferential through-wall cracked pipes with different geometries and crack sizes has been analyzed under different loading conditions, and the solutions of the crack-tip constraint parameter τ* have been obtained. Based on the τ* solutions and constraint-dependent J–R curves of a steel, the constraint-dependent LBB (leak-before-break) curves have been constructed. The results show that the constraint τ* increases with increasing crack length θ, mean radius R{sub m} and radius–thickness ratio R{sub m}/t of the pipes. In LBB analyses, the critical crack length calculated by the J–R curve of the standard high constraint specimen for pipes with shorter cracks is over-conservative, and the degree of conservatism increases with decreasing crack length θ, R{sub m} and R{sub m}/t. Therefore, the constraint-dependent LBB curves should be constructed to modify the over-conservatism and increase accuracy of LBB assessments.

  20. The dislocation distribution function near a crack tip generated by external sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, C.W.; Deng, K.M.

    1988-06-01

    The dislocation distribution function near a crack tip generated by external sources is calculated. It is similar to the shape of curves calculated for the crack tip emission case but the quantative difference is quite large. The image forces enlarges the negative dislocation zone but does not change the form of the curve. (author). 10 refs, 3 figs

  1. Mixed-mode crack tip loading and crack deflection in 1D quasicrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibin; Scheel, Johannes; Ricoeur, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    Quasicrystals (QC) are a new class of materials besides crystals and amorphous solids and have aroused much attention of researchers since they were discovered. This paper presents a generalized fracture theory including the J-integral and crack closure integrals, relations between J1, J2 and the stress intensity factors as well as the implementation of the near-tip stress and displacement solutions of 1D QC. Different crack deflection criteria, i.e. the J-integral and maximum circumferential stress criteria, are investigated for mixed-mode loading conditions accounting for phonon-phason coupling. One focus is on the influence of phason stress intensity factors on crack deflection angles.

  2. Effects of External Hydrogen on Hydrogen Transportation and Distribution Around the Fatigue Crack Tip in Type 304 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingyang; Zhou, Chengshuang; Cai, Xiao; Zheng, Jinyang; Zhang, Lin

    2017-10-01

    The effects of external hydrogen on hydrogen transportation and distribution around the fatigue crack tip in type 304 stainless steel were investigated by using hydrogen microprint technique (HMT) and thermal desorption spectrometry. HMT results show that some silver particles induced by hydrogen release are located near the fatigue crack and more silver particles are concentrated around the crack tip, which indicates that hydrogen accumulates in the vicinity of the crack tip during the crack growth in hydrogen gas environment. Along with the crack propagation, strain-induced α' martensite forms around the crack tip and promotes hydrogen invasion into the matrix, which will cause the crack initiation and propagation at the austenite/ α' martensite interface. In addition, the hydrogen content in the vicinity of the crack tip is higher than that at the crack edge far away from the crack tip, which is related to the stress state and strain-induced α' martensite.

  3. Size-effects at a crack-tip interacting with a number of voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2008-01-01

    A strain gradient plasticity theory is used to analyse the growth of discretely represented voids in front of a blunting crack tip, in order to study the influence of size effects on two competing mechanisms of crack growth. For a very small void volume fraction the crack tip tends to interact...... of the characteristic material length relative to the initial void radius. For a case showing the multiple void mechanism, it is found that the effect of the material length can change the behaviour towards the void by void mechanism. A material model with three characteristic length scales is compared with a one...

  4. Water radiolysis in a crack tip under gamma ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Tomonori; Uchida, Shunsuke; Satoh, Yoshiyuki

    2002-01-01

    Under a non-irradiation condition, oxidant, e.g., O 2 and H 2 O 2 , in a crack tip is supplied from the bulk water. But under irradiation conditions, even if the diffusion of radiolytic species is not sufficient, direct radiolysis in the crack tip causes high concentrations of radiolytic species. As a result of measurements and Monte Carlo calculation of gamma ray energy deposition, it has been confirmed that the energy deposition rate in the gap water is larger than that in the bulk water. The energy absorption rate increases as the gap width decreases and reaches 1.3 times that in the bulk water. In order to evaluate crack propagation rate for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of stainless steel, a water radiolysis model in a crevice is proposed. A larger energy deposition rate in the crevice water produces many more radiolytic species, which causes high oxidant concentrations in spite of enhanced recombination of the species at the crevice inner surface. So, for IASCC evaluation, crevice water chemistry plays an important role to determine the crack propagation rate under irradiation. (authors)

  5. Multi-parameter approximation of the stress field in a cracked body in the more distant surroundings of the crack tip

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, V.; Sobek, J.; Frantík, P.; Seitl, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 89, AUG (2016), s. 20-35 ISSN 0142-1123. [International Conference on Characterisation of Crack Tip Fields /3./. Urbino, 20.04.2015-22.04.2015] Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Crack-tip fields * Williams power series * Higher order terms * Stress field reconstruction * Multi-parameter approximation accuracy Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.899, year: 2016

  6. Some aspects of forces and fields in atomic models of crack tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoagland, R.G.; Daw, M.S.; Hirth, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the stresses and displacement gradients in atomistic models of cracks based on an EAM potential devised for aluminum. Methods for computing these quantities are described. Results are presented for two models differing in terms of the orientations of the crack relative to the crystal, a [100](010) orientation that behaves in a brittle fashion and a [111](110) orientation which emits partial dislocations prior to extending. Both models display lattice trapping. The stresses in the brittle crack model are compared with the linear elastic prediction and found to be in remarkably good agreement to within distances of about one lattice parameter of the crack tip and at the free surface where contributions from sources other than strain energy (e.g., surface tension) influence the results. Similar results are observed for the ductile model until dislocation emission occurs. The largest stresses that develop just prior to crack extension or dislocation emission are used to estimate the ratio of theoretical tensile strength to shear strength in this material. Eshelby's conservation integrals, F and M, are also computed. F is found to be essentially contour independent and in agreement with the linear elastic prediction in both models until dislocation emission occurs, at which point a large screening contribution arises from the emitted partials. The contour size dependence of M reveals some interesting features of the crack tip including a slight wobble of the crack tip inside its potential well with changing applied K and the existence of forces acting to move the crack faces apart as blunting occurs

  7. Effect of Crack Tip Stresses on Delayed Hydride Cracking in Zr-2.5Nb Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Suk; Cheong, Yong Moo

    2007-01-01

    Delayed hydride cracking (DHC) tests have shown that the DHC velocity becomes faster in zirconium alloys with a higher yield stress. To account for this yield stress effect on the DHC velocity, they suggested a simple hypothesis that increased crack tip stresses due to a higher yield stress would raise the difference in hydrogen concentration between the crack tip and the bulk region and accordingly the DHC velocity. This hypothesis is also applied to account for a big leap in the DHC velocity of zirconium alloys after neutron irradiation. It should be noted that this is based on the old DHC models that the driving force for DHC is the stress gradient. Puls predicted that an increase in the yield stress of a cold worked Zr-2.5Nb tube due to neutron irradiation by about 300 MPa causes an increase of its DHC velocity by an order of magnitude or 2 to 3 times depending on the accommodation energy values. Recently, we proposed a new DHC model that a driving force for DHC is not the stress gradient but the concentration gradient arising from the stress-induced precipitation of hydrides at the crack tip. Our new DHC model and the supporting experimental results have demonstrated that the DHC velocity is governed primarily by hydrogen diffusion at below 300 .deg. C. Since hydrogen diffusion in Zr-2.5Nb tubes is dictated primarily by the distribution of the β-phase, the DHC velocity of the irradiated Zr-2.5Nb tube must be determined mainly by the distribution of the β-phase, not by the increased yield stress, which is in contrast with the hypothesis of the previous DHC models. In short, a controversy exists as to the effect on the DHC velocity of zirconium alloys of a change in the crack tip stresses by irradiation hardening or cold working or annealing. The aim of this study is to resolve this controversy and furthermore to prove the validity of our DHC model. To this end, we cited Pan et al.'s experiment where the delayed hydride cracking velocity, the tensile strengths

  8. Transport of lead to crack tips in steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, G.D.; Marks, C.R.; Fruzzetti, K.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms by which lead is transported from its ultimate source to steam generator tubes and into cracks are not well understood and, to date, a comprehensive evaluation of possible mechanisms has not previously been performed. Specifically, local lead concentrations up to 20 wt. percent have been measured at crack tips, and it is not fully understood how lead concentrations of this magnitude occur, since lead concentrations in SG feedwater are typically quite low (on the order of a few parts per trillion). Additionally, there is evidence that at secondary side conditions, lead is essentially entirely adsorbed onto solid surfaces. Furthermore, if lead were present in the liquid phase, it would not be expected to be in a form that would facilitate concentration in a crevice (crack) by electrochemical means. There has previously been some speculation that lead transport to crack tips may occur through surface diffusion of adsorbed species. It has also been postulated that lead transport may occur via diffusion through the oxide layer along crack walls or via diffusion of lead out of the bulk Alloy 600 to grain boundaries exposed to secondary water by advancing cracks. However, there have been no critical evaluations of these hypotheses. With the current state of knowledge, it is difficult for utilities to determine whether additional efforts to further reduce the inventory of lead in the secondary system are justified. Furthermore, specific sources of lead that are especially likely to accelerate SCC cannot be identified (e.g., significant masses of lead are present in SG deposits, but it is not known if this lead can be transported to crack tips). The work presented in this paper quantitatively evaluates (based on the published literature, not new experimental work) a number of hypothesized lead transport mechanisms, including: Liquid phase diffusion; Electrochemically influenced diffusion of cations and anions; Bulk alloy diffusion; Surface diffusion; Solid

  9. Extended timescale atomistic modeling of crack tip behavior in aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K L; Warner, D H

    2012-01-01

    Traditional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are limited not only by their spatial domain, but also by the time domain that they can examine. Considering that many of the events associated with plasticity are thermally activated, and thus rare at atomic timescales, the limited time domain of traditional MD simulations can present a significant challenge when trying to realistically model the mechanical behavior of materials. A wide variety of approaches have been developed to address the timescale challenge, each having their own strengths and weaknesses dependent upon the specific application. Here, we have simultaneously applied three distinct approaches to model crack tip behavior in aluminum at timescales well beyond those accessible to traditional MD simulation. Specifically, we combine concurrent multiscale modeling (to reduce the degrees of freedom in the system), parallel replica dynamics (to parallelize the simulations in time) and hyperdynamics (to accelerate the exploration of phase space). Overall, the simulations (1) provide new insight into atomic-scale crack tip behavior at more typical timescales and (2) illuminate the potential of common extended timescale techniques to enable atomic-scale modeling of fracture processes at typical experimental timescales. (paper)

  10. Numerical Analysis of Joule Heating Behavior and Residual Compressive Stress around Crack Tip under High Electric Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jin-Chee Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Joule heating effect and residual compressive stress near the crack tip under the electro-thermo-structural coupling state. For the crack tip field, the compressive condition is important for retarding or stopping the crack growth.

  11. Dislocation structures around crack tips of fatigued polycrystalline copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yoshihisa; Ishikawa, Masao; Hashimoto, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Dislocation structures near fatigue cracks of polycrystalline copper specimens were analyzed using the electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI) technique. Prior to the ECCI observations, optical microscopy was conducted to classify the fatigue crack morphologies into several kinds. It was found that the dislocation structures were correlated with the slip morphologies observed using the optical microscope. The cell structure almost corresponded to the severely deformed plastic zone where the individual slip bands could not be identified. The labyrinth dislocation structure was detected at the double-slip region. Ladder-like dislocation structure was detected ahead of the Stage I type fatigue crack. Hence, it can be said that the persistent slip band (PSB) was a favorable crack path. However, the microscopic route of the crack growth was not along the PSB but along the cell structure, which was developed locally in the vicinity of the crack tip

  12. Analytical description of brittle-to-ductile transition in bcc metals. Nucleation of dislocation loop at the crack tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskoboinikov, R.E.

    2002-03-01

    Nucleation of dislocation loop at the crack tip in a material subjected to uniaxial loading is investigated. Analytical expression for the total energy of rectangular dislocation loop at the crack tip is found. Dependence of the nucleation energy barrier on dislocation loop shape and stress intensity factor at the crack tip is determined. It is established that the energetic barrier for nucleation of dislocation loop strongly depends on the stress intensity factor. Nucleation of dislocation loop is very sensitive to stress field modifiers (forest dislocations, precipitates, clusters of point defects, etc) in the crack tip vicinity. (orig.)

  13. The evolution of crack-tip stresses during a fatigue overload event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuwer, A.; Rahman, M.; Shterenlikht, A.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.; Edwards, L.; Withers, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the transient retardation or acceleration of fatigue crack growth subsequent to overloading are a matter of intense debate. Plasticity-induced closure and residual stresses have often been invoked to explain these phenomena, but closure mechanisms are disputed, especially under conditions approximating to generalised plane strain. In this paper we exploit synchrotron radiation to report very high spatial resolution two-dimensional elastic strain and stress maps at maximum and minimum loading measured under plane strain during a normal fatigue cycle, as well as during and after a 100% overload event, in ultra-fine grained AA5091 aluminium alloy. These observations provide direct evidence of the material stress state in the vicinity of the crack-tip in thick samples. Significant compressive residual stresses were found both in front of and behind the crack-tip immediately following the overload event. The effective stress intensity at the crack-tip was determined directly from the local stress field measured deep within the bulk (plane strain) by comparison with linear elastic fracture mechanical theory. This agrees well with that nominally applied at maximum load and 100% overload. After overload, however, the stress fields were not well described by classical K fields due to closure-related residual stresses. Little evidence of overload closure was observed sometime after the overload event, in our case possibly because the overload plastic zone was very small.

  14. Crack Tip Flipping Under Mode I/III Tearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felter, Christian Lotz; Specht Jensen, Lasse; Nielsen, Kim Lau

    Crack tip flipping, where the fracture surface alternates from side to side in 45° shear bands, seems to be an overlooked propagation mode in Mode I sheet tearing often disregarded as  “transitional” or tied to randomness in the material. In fact, such observations rarely make it to the literature...

  15. Mechano-electrochemical study of stress corrosion crack tip area: Case of Zircaloy-4 in halide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durif, E.

    2012-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a damage phenomenon which results from the synergy between corrosion process (dissolution, adsorption) and mechanical fracture (crack propagation). Although this phenomenon is well known, its modelling is still a challenging issue, especially concerning mechano-electrochemical coupling mechanisms at crack tip, because it depends on model system (metal/aggressive media) and large number of mechanical and electrochemical factors. In this thesis, mutual interactions between dissolution and the stress state around the crack tip (stress intensity factor) are studied in the case of Zircaloy-4 in aqueous halide solution. Samples are first pre-cracked in air by using fatigue load-shedding procedure to control the stress intensity factor. Then, pre-oxidation is used to produce a thin protective passive layer on their surface. The electro-chemical reactions are thus concentrated at the crack tip which also induces a concentration of the mechanical effect. During the test, digital images of the sample surface are acquired. Digital Image Correlation is performed a posteriori in order to obtain the evolution of the crack length and the stress intensity factors. Further, a specific procedure is developed in order to perform the DIC analysis while the test is running. This allows to control the load so that a given value of the stress intensity factor is prescribed. With this innovative experimental technique, we perform experimental tests that allow to discriminate the effects between different stress corrosion cracking mechanisms. It is suggested that once a critical anodic polarization is exceeded, the crack growth rate depends on the stress intensity factor but also on its time derivative. Indeed, a threshold effect is obtained on the stress intensity factor, meaning that plasticity must increase for the dissolution reaction to occur, but also on its rate meaning that time for plasticity to produce new dislocations must not exceed the

  16. Neutron diffraction studies on lattice strain evolution around a crack-tip during tensile loading and unloading cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Yinan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)]. E-mail: ysun1@utk.edu; Choo, Hahn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Metals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Liaw, Peter K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Lu Yulin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Yang Bing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Brown, Donald W. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bourke, Mark A.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Elastic lattice-strain profiles ahead of a fatigue-crack-tip were measured during tensile loading and unloading cycles using neutron diffraction. The crack-closure phenomenon after an overload was observed. Furthermore, the plastic-zone size in front of the crack-tip was estimated from the diffraction-peak broadening, which showed good agreement with the calculated result.

  17. Investigation on the Crack Initiation of V-Shaped Notch Tip in Precision Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack initiation of V-shaped notch tip has a very important influence on the cross-section quality and the cropping time for every segment of metal bar in course of low stress precision cropping. By the finite element method, the influence of machining precision of V-shaped notch bottom corner on the crack initiation location is analyzed and it is pointed out that the crack initiation point locates in the place at the maximal equivalent stress change rate on V-shaped notch surface. The judgment criterion of the crack initiation direction is presented and the corresponding crack initiation angle can be calculated by means of the displacement extrapolation method. The factual crack initiation angle of the metal bar has been measured by using the microscopic measurement system. The formula of the crack initiation life of V-shaped notch tip is built, which mainly includes the stress concentration factor of V-shaped notch, the tensile properties of metal material, and the cyclic loading conditions. The experimental results show that the obtained theoretical analyses about the crack initiation location, the crack initiation direction, and the crack initiation time in this paper are correct. It is also shown that the crack initiation time accounts for about 80% of the cropping time for every segment of the metal bar.

  18. Linear least squares approach for evaluating crack tip fracture parameters using isochromatic and isoclinic data from digital photoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prataprao; Vyasarayani, C. P.; Ramji, M.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, digital photoelasticity technique is used to estimate the crack tip fracture parameters for different crack configurations. Conventionally, only isochromatic data surrounding the crack tip is used for SIF estimation, but with the advent of digital photoelasticity, pixel-wise availability of both isoclinic and isochromatic data could be exploited for SIF estimation in a novel way. A linear least square approach is proposed to estimate the mixed-mode crack tip fracture parameters by solving the multi-parameter stress field equation. The stress intensity factor (SIF) is extracted from those estimated fracture parameters. The isochromatic and isoclinic data around the crack tip is estimated using the ten-step phase shifting technique. To get the unwrapped data, the adaptive quality guided phase unwrapping algorithm (AQGPU) has been used. The mixed mode fracture parameters, especially SIF are estimated for specimen configurations like single edge notch (SEN), center crack and straight crack ahead of inclusion using the proposed algorithm. The experimental SIF values estimated using the proposed method are compared with analytical/finite element analysis (FEA) results, and are found to be in good agreement.

  19. Biaxial loading and shallow-flaw effects on crack-tip constraint and fracture-toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; McAfee, W.J.; Theiss, T.J.; Rao, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Uniaxial tests of single-edged notched bend (SENB) specimens with both deep- and shallow-flaws have shown elevated fracture-toughness for the shallow flaws. The elevation in fracture-toughness for shallow flaws has been shown to be the result of reduced constraint at the crack-tip. Biaxial loading has the potential to increase constraint at the crack-tip and thereby reduce some of the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation. Biaxial fracture-toughness tests have shown that the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation is reduced but not eliminated by biaxial loading. Dual-parameter, fracture-toughness correlations have been proposed to reflect the effect of crack-tip constraint on fracture-toughness. Test results from the uniaxial and biaxial tests were analyzed using the dual-parameter technology. Discrepancies between analysis results and cleavage initiation site data from fractographic examinations indicate that the analysis models are in need of further refinement. Addition of a precleavage, ductile-tearing element to the analysis model has the potential to resolve the noted discrepancies

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of mode-I-crack propagation and dislocation generation processes in α-Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianwei; Lu Guocai; Shang Xinchun

    2011-01-01

    The process of I-mode crack propagations in α-Fe for uniaxial tension experiments are simulated by molecular dynamics (MD) methods. The formation process of dislocation and fracture mechanisms in the crack growing under various temperatures were studied. The results show that the crack propagation is a process of successive emission of dislocation. The dislocation-free zone and the stacking faults were initially formed at crack tip. When the stress K I increased into 0. 566 MPam 1/2 , one layer of atoms near crack tip would be separated into two layers which produced a dislocation. The first dislocation was emitted when stress K I reached 0.669 MPam 1/2 . With the temperature increasing, the critical stress intensity factor decreased gradually and the dislocation emission correspondingly became faster as well. (authors)

  1. Multi-scale analysis of deformation behavior at SCC crack tip (2). (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Miwa, Yukio; Tsukada, Takashi; Hayakawa, Masao; Nagashima, Nobuo

    2007-03-01

    This report describes a result of the research conducted by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the National Institute for Materials Science under contract with Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) that was concerned with a multi-scale analysis of plastic deformation behavior at the crack tip of stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The research was carried out to evaluate the validity of the SCC growth data acquired in the intergranular SCC (IGSCC) project based on a mechanistic understanding of SCC. For the purpose, in this research, analyses of the plastic deformation behavior and microstructure around the crack tip were performed in a nano-order scale. The hardness measured in nano, meso and macro scales was employed as a common index of the strength, and the essential data necessary to understand the SCC propagation behavior were acquired and analyzed that are mainly a size of plastic deformation region and a microstructural information in the region, e.g. data of crystallografy, microscopic deformation and dislocations at the inside of grains and grain boundaries. In this year, we analyzed the state of plastic deformation region at the crack tip of IGSCC under various conditions and investigated relationship between crack growth behavior and stress intensity factor. Especially, we investigated in detail about two different hardened specimens used in the SCC growth tests in the IGSCC project. (J.P.N.)

  2. Influence of tip mass on dynamic behavior of cracked cantilever pipe conveying fluid with moving mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Han Ik; Son, In Soo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we studied about the effect of the open crack and a tip mass on the dynamic behavior of a cantilever pipe conveying fluid with a moving mass. The equation of motion is derived by using Lagrange's equation and analyzed by numerical method. The cantilever pipe is modelled by the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The crack section is represented by a local flexibility matrix connecting two undamaged pipe segments. The influences of the crack, the moving mass, the tip mass and its moment of inertia, the velocity of fluid, and the coupling of these factors on the vibration mode, the frequency, and the tip-displacement of the cantilever pipe are analytically clarified

  3. Stress induced martensite at the crack tip in NiTi alloys during fatigue loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sgambitterra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crack tip stress-induced phase transformation mechanisms in nickel-titanium alloys (NiTi were analyzed by Digital Image Correlation (DIC, under fatigue loads. In particular, Single Edge Crack (SEC specimens, obtained from a commercial pseudoelastic NiTi sheet, and an ad-hoc experimental setup were used, for direct measurements of the near crack tip displacement field by the DIC technique. Furthermore, a fitting procedure was developed to calculate the mode I Stress Intensity Factor (SIF, starting from the measured displacement field. Finally, cyclic tensile tests were performed at different operating temperature, in the range 298-338 K, and the evolution of the SIF was studied, which revealed a marked temperature dependence.

  4. The generalized fracture criteria based on the multi-parameter representation of the crack tip stress field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, L. V.

    2017-12-01

    The paper is devoted to the multi-parameter asymptotic description of the stress field near the crack tip of a finite crack in an infinite isotropic elastic plane medium subject to 1) tensile stress; 2) in-plane shear; 3) mixed mode loading for a wide range of mode-mixity situations (Mode I and Mode II). The multi-parameter series expansion of stress tensor components containing higher-order terms is obtained. All the coefficients of the multiparameter series expansion of the stress field are given. The main focus is on the discussion of the influence of considering the higher-order terms of the Williams expansion. The analysis of the higher-order terms in the stress field is performed. It is shown that the larger the distance from the crack tip, the more terms it is necessary to keep in the asymptotic series expansion. Therefore, it can be concluded that several more higher-order terms of the Williams expansion should be used for the stress field description when the distance from the crack tip is not small enough. The crack propagation direction angle is calculated. Two fracture criteria, the maximum tangential stress criterion and the strain energy density criterion, are used. The multi-parameter form of the two commonly used fracture criteria is introduced and tested. Thirty and more terms of the Williams series expansion for the near-crack-tip stress field enable the angle to be calculated more precisely.

  5. Multi-scale analysis of deformation behavior at SCC crack tip (3) (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Miwa, Yukio; Tsukada, Takashi; Hayakawa, Masao; Nagashima, Nobuo

    2008-08-01

    In recent years, incidents of the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) were frequently reported that occurred to the various components of domestic boiling water reactors (BWR), and the cause investigation and measure become the present important issue. By the Japan nuclear energy safety organization (JNES), a research project on the intergranular SCC (IGSCC) in nuclear grade stainless steels (henceforth, IGSCC project) is under enforcement from a point of view to secure safety and reliability of BWR, and SCC growth data of low carbon stainless steels are being accumulated for the weld part or the work-hardened region adjacent to the weld metal. In the project, it has been an important subject to guarantee the validity of accumulated SCC data. At a crack tip of SCC in compact tension (CT) type specimen used for the SCC propagation test, a macroscopic plastic region is formed where heterogeneity of microstructure developed by microscopic sliding and dislocations is observed. However, there is little quantitative information on the plastic region, and therefore, to assess the data of macroscopic SCC growth rate and the validity of propagation test method, it is essentially required to investigate the plastic region at the crack tip in detail from a microscopic viewpoint. This report describes a result of the research conducted by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the National Institute for Materials Science under contract with JNES that was concerned with a multi-scale analysis of plastic deformation behavior at the crack tip of SCC. The research was carried out to evaluate the validity of the SCC growth data acquired in the IGSCC project based on a mechanistic understanding of SCC. For the purpose, in this research, analyses of the plastic deformation behavior and microstructure around the crack tip were performed in a nano-order scale. The hardness measured in nano, meso and macro scales was employed as a common index of the strength, and the essential data necessary

  6. Dynamical observations on the crack tip zone and stress corrosion of two-dimensional MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Ly, Thuc Hue

    2017-01-18

    Whether and how fracture mechanics needs to be modified for small length scales and in systems of reduced dimensionality remains an open debate. Here, employing in situ transmission electron microscopy, atomic structures and dislocation dynamics in the crack tip zone of a propagating crack in two-dimensional (2D) monolayer MoS2 membrane are observed, and atom-to-atom displacement mapping is obtained. The electron beam is used to initiate the crack; during in situ observation of crack propagation the electron beam effect is minimized. The observed high-frequency emission of dislocations is beyond previous understanding of the fracture of brittle MoS2. Strain analysis reveals dislocation emission to be closely associated with the crack propagation path in nanoscale. The critical crack tip plastic zone size of nearly perfect 2D MoS2 is between 2 and 5 nm, although it can grow to 10 nm under corrosive conditions such as ultraviolet light exposure, showing enhanced dislocation activity via defect generation.

  7. On the influence of the environment on modeling the fatigue crack growth process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Evily, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the environment at room and elevated temperature were considered with respect to the influence exerted on the basic mechanical aspects of the fatigue crack growth process. An experimental assessment of this influence was obtained by conducting fatigue crack growth tests both in air and vacuum and the results of such experiments are given. Topics considered include crack closure, short crack growth in notched and unnotched specimens, Mode II crack growth, and the effects of oxidation at elevated temperatures. It is shown that the basic mechanisms of fatigue crack growth can be greatly altered by the presence of oxide films at the fatigue crack tip. Modeling the mechanical aspects of the crack growth process is by itself a challenging task. In addition, the environmental considerations adds to the complexity of the modeling process. (Author)

  8. A quantitative prediction model of SCC rate for nuclear structure materials in high temperature water based on crack tip creep strain rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F.Q.; Xue, H.; Zhao, L.Y.; Fang, X.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Creep is considered to be the primary mechanical factor of crack tip film degradation. • The prediction model of SCC rate is based on crack tip creep strain rate. • The SCC rate calculated at the secondary stage of creep is recommended. • The effect of stress intensity factor on SCC growth rate is discussed. - Abstract: The quantitative prediction of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of structure materials is essential in safety assessment of nuclear power plants. A new quantitative prediction model is proposed by combining the Ford–Andresen model, a crack tip creep model and an elastic–plastic finite element method. The creep at the crack tip is considered to be the primary mechanical factor of protective film degradation, and the creep strain rate at the crack tip is suggested as primary mechanical factor in predicting the SCC rate. The SCC rates at secondary stage of creep are recommended when using the approach introduced in this study to predict the SCC rates of materials in high temperature water. The proposed approach can be used to understand the SCC crack growth in structural materials of light water reactors

  9. A small angle X-ray scattering method to investigate the crack tip in metals. Final report of the Marie Curie individual fellowship project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouytsel, K. van; Boehmert, J.; Mueller, G.

    2003-08-01

    Structural materials, such as ferritic and austenitic steels or aluminium alloys used in the nuclear and aircraft industry, are subjected to external operational loads in different environments. Adopting a damage tolerant design principle, understanding the growth of preexisting or newly formed cracks under these conditions is of prime relevance to prevent extensive crack propagation and failure of the component. Within this framework, the characterization of early stages of the damage processes, as nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids and the evolution of the spatial dislocation distribution (dislocation patterning) is a particularly challenging aspect. It was the objective of the work performed to investigate the damage structure near a crack tip by means of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Pre-cracked fracture mechanics standard specimens from different aluminium alloys and steels were loaded up to different amounts of crack growth. From the crack tip range samples of 100 to 200 μm thickness were prepared and a small region around the crack tip was scanned using a microfocused Synchrotron beam. The SAXS experiments were performed at different Synchrotron sources and equipments with different beam cross section, scan step width and X-ray energy. Additionally, the investigation was completed by other methods like X-ray diffraction, X-ray imaging diffraction technique (MAXIM), transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and positron annihilation spectroscopy. The SAXS intensity pattern shows location-related effects. Potential SAXS parameters to characterize the damage are the integral intensity, a fractal dimension parameter and a value determined from the ratio of the intensity vertical and horizontal to the direction of crack growth. Above all, the last parameter is suitable to depict the damage zone around the crack tip. It is robust and applicable even for a material which exhibits an anisotropic SAXS pattern in the

  10. Crack-tips enriched platinum-copper superlattice nanoflakes as highly efficient anode electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijun; Yang, Dachi; Chang, Rong; Wang, Chengwen; Zhang, Gaixia; Sun, Shuhui

    2017-07-06

    We have developed "crack-tips" and "superlattice" enriched Pt-Cu nanoflakes (NFs), benefiting from the synergetic effects of "crack-tips" and "superlattice crystals"; the Pt-Cu NFs exhibit 4 times higher mass activity, 6 times higher specific activity and 6 times higher stability than those of the commercial Pt/C catalyst, respectively. Meanwhile, the Pt-Cu NFs show more enhanced CO tolerance than the commercial Pt/C catalyst.

  11. Stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel under deaerated high-temperature water. Influence of cold work and processing orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terachi, Takumi; Yamada, Takuyo; Chiba, Goro; Arioka, Koji

    2006-01-01

    The influence of cold work and processing orientation on the propagation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of stainless steel under hydrogenated high-temperature water was examined. It was shown that (1) the crack growth rates increased with heaviness of cold work, and (2) processing orientation affected crack growth rate with cracking direction. Crack growth rates showed anisotropy of T-L>>T-S>L-S, with T-S and L-S branches representing high shear stress direction. Geometric deformation of crystal grains due to cold work caused the anisotropy and shear stress also assisted the SCC propagation. (3) The step intervals of slip like patterns observed on intergranular facets increased cold work. (4) Nano-indentation hardness of the crack tip together with EBSD measurement indicated that the change of hardness due to crack propagation was less than 5% cold-work, even though the distance from the crack tip was 10μm. (author)

  12. A linear least squares approach for evaluation of crack tip stress field parameters using DIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harilal, R.; Vyasarayani, C. P.; Ramji, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, an experimental study is carried out to estimate the mixed-mode stress intensity factors (SIF) for different cracked specimen configurations using digital image correlation (DIC) technique. For the estimation of mixed-mode SIF's using DIC, a new algorithm is proposed for the extraction of crack tip location and coefficients in the multi-parameter displacement field equations. From those estimated coefficients, SIF could be extracted. The required displacement data surrounding the crack tip has been obtained using 2D-DIC technique. An open source 2D DIC software Ncorr is used for the displacement field extraction. The presented methodology has been used to extract mixed-mode SIF's for specimen configurations like single edge notch (SEN) specimen and centre slant crack (CSC) specimens made out of Al 2014-T6 alloy. The experimental results have been compared with the analytical values and they are found to be in good agreement, thereby confirming the accuracy of the algorithm being proposed.

  13. Microstructural modelling of creep crack growth from a blunted crack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, P.R.; Giessen, E. van der

    1998-01-01

    The effect of crack tip blunting on the initial stages of creep crack growth is investigated by means of a planar microstructural model in which grains are represented discretely. The actual linking-up process of discrete microcracks with the macroscopic crack is simulated, with full account of the

  14. Quasi-static crack tip fields in rate-sensitive FCC single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, the effects of loading rate, material rate sensitivity and constraint level on quasi-static crack tip fields in a FCC single crystal are studied. ... Global General Motors R&D, India Science Lab, GM Technical Centre (India), Bangalore 560 066, India; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, ...

  15. Role of hydrogen in stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Electrochemical basis for differentiation between hydrogen embrittlement and active path corrosion or anodic dissolution crack growth mechanisms is examined. The consequences of recently demonstrated acidification in crack tip region irrespective of electrochemical conditions at the bulk surface of the sample are that the hydrogen can evolve within the crack and may be involved in the cracking process. There are basically three aspects of hydrogen involvement in stress corrosion cracking. In dissolution models crack propagation is assumed to be caused by anodic dissolution on the crack tip sustained by cathodic reduction of hydrogen from electrolyte within the crack. In hydrogen induced structural transformation models it is postulated that hydrogen is absorbed locally at the crack tip producing structural changes which facilitate crack propagation. In hydrogen embrittlement models hydrogen is absorbed by stressed metal from proton reduction from the electrolyte within the crack and there is interaction between lattice and hydrogen resulting in embrittlement of material at crack tip facilitating crack propagation. In the present paper, the role of hydrogen in stress corrosion crack growth in high strength steels, austenitic stainless steels, titanium alloys and high strength aluminium alloys is discussed. (author)

  16. Crack Tip Flipping under Mode I Tearing: Investigated by X-Ray Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Gundlach, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    The fracture surface morphology that results from mode I tearing of ductile plate metals depends heavily on both the elastic-plastic material properties and the microstructure. Severe tunneling of the advancing crack tip (resulting in cup-cup, or bath-tub like fracture surfaces) can take place...... in a range of materials, often of low strength, while tearing of high strength metals typically progress by the shear band failure mechanism (slanting). In reality, however, most fracture surfaces display a mixture of morphologies. For example, slant crack propagation can be accompanied by large shear lips...... near the outer free plate surface or a complete shear band switch - seemingly distributed randomly on the fracture surface. The occasionally observed shear band switch of mode I slant cracks, related to ductile plate tearing, is far from random as the crack can flip systematically from one side...

  17. Transient hydrogen diffusion analyses coupled with crack-tip plasticity under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotake, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Ryosuke; Taketomi, Shinya; Miyazaki, Noriyuki

    2008-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen on the material strengths of metals is known as the hydrogen embrittlement, which affects the structural integrity of a hydrogen energy system. In the present paper, we developed a computer program for a transient hydrogen diffusion-elastoplastic coupling analysis by combining an in-house finite element program with a general purpose finite element computer program to analyze hydrogen diffusion. In this program, we use a hypothesis that the hydrogen absorbed in the metal affects the yield stress of the metal. In the present paper, we discuss the effects of the cyclic loading on the hydrogen concentration near the crack tip. An important finding we obtained here is the fact that the hydrogen concentration near the crack tip greatly depends on the loading frequency. This result indicates that the fatigue lives of the components in a hydrogen system depend not only on the number of loading cycles but also on the loading frequency

  18. Actual light deflections in regions of crack tips and their influence on measurements in photomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Friedrich W.; Pindera, Jerzy T.; Wen, Baicheng

    Crack-tip photomechanics procedures are based on certain simplifying assumptions that are seldom discussed. In a recent paper the theoretical bases of the shadow optical methods of caustics have been analysed and tested using the results obtained by three analytical-experimental procedures, namely classical strain gage techniques, isodynes, and strain-gradient index method. It has been concluded that the straing-radient index method appears to be a suitable tool for analysis of stress states near crack tips and notches and, in particular, for testing the predictive power of the pertinent singular solutions of the linear elastic fracture mechanics and the ranges of their applicability. In the present paper, a more detailed analysis of all results obtained in light deflection experiments allows to quantify the contribution of both involved effects and to determine the distortion of the faces of the investigated plates along their crack planes. The ability of the strain-gradient light bending method to analyse some features of the three-dimensional stress-state is reported. Finally, the presented experimental evidence allows to draw conclusions related to limits of applicability of certain photomechanical measurements near crack tips. An extensive summary of this paper is published in the Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Photomechanics and Speckle Metrology, Vol. 1554A, part of SPIE's 1991 International Symposium on Optical Applied Science and Engineering, 22-26 July 1991, San Diego, CA, USA. 1

  19. On the dynamic fracture toughness and crack tip strain behavior of nuclear pressure vessel steel: Application of electromagnetic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagawa, G.; Yoshimura, S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the application of the electromagnetic force to the determination of the dynamic fracture toughness of materials. Taken is an edge-cracked specimen which carries a transient electric current and is simply supported in a steady magnetic field. As a result of their interaction, the dynamic electromagnetic force occurs in the whole body of the specimen, which is then deformed to fracture in the opening mode of cracking. Using the electric potential and the J-R curve methods to determine the dynamic crack initiation point in the experiment, together with the finite element method to calculate the extended J-integral with the effects of the electromagnetic force and inertia, the dynamic fracture toughness values of nuclear pressure vessel steel A508 class 3 are evaluated over a wide temperature range from lower to upper shelves. The strain distribution near the crack tip in the dynamic process of fracture is also obtained by applying a computer picture processing. (orig.)

  20. Experimental estimation of the heat energy dissipated in a volume surrounding the tip of a fatigue crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Meneghetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue crack initiation and propagation involve plastic strains that require some work to be done on the material. Most of this irreversible energy is dissipated as heat and consequently the material temperature increases. The heat being an indicator of the intense plastic strains occurring at the tip of a propagating fatigue crack, when combined with the Neuber’s structural volume concept, it might be used as an experimentally measurable parameter to assess the fatigue damage accumulation rate of cracked components. On the basis of a theoretical model published previously, in this work the heat energy dissipated in a volume surrounding the crack tip is estimated experimentally on the basis of the radial temperature profiles measured by means of an infrared camera. The definition of the structural volume in a fatigue sense is beyond the scope of the present paper. The experimental crack propagation tests were carried out on hot-rolled, 6-mm-thick AISI 304L stainless steel specimens subject to completely reversed axial fatigue loading.

  1. Standard test method for crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) fracture toughness measurement

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of critical crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) values at one or more of several crack extension events, and may be used to measure cleavage crack initiation toughness for materials that exhibit a change from ductile to brittle behavior with decreasing temperature, such as ferritic steels. This test method applies specifically to notched specimens sharpened by fatigue cracking. The recommended specimens are three-point bend [SE(B)], compact [C(T)], or arc-shaped bend [A(B)] specimens. The loading rate is slow and influences of environment (other than temperature) are not covered. The specimens are tested under crosshead or clip gage displacement controlled loading. 1.1.1 The recommended specimen thickness, B, for the SE(B) and C(T) specimens is that of the material in thicknesses intended for an application. For the A(B) specimen, the recommended depth, W, is the wall thickness of the tube or pipe from which the specimen is obtained. Superficial surface machini...

  2. A Continuum-Atomistic Analysis of Transgranular Crack Propagation in Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakov, V.; Saether, E.; Glaessgen, E.

    2009-01-01

    A concurrent multiscale modeling methodology that embeds a molecular dynamics (MD) region within a finite element (FEM) domain is used to study plastic processes at a crack tip in a single crystal of aluminum. The case of mode I loading is studied. A transition from deformation twinning to full dislocation emission from the crack tip is found when the crack plane is rotated around the [111] crystallographic axis. When the crack plane normal coincides with the [112] twinning direction, the crack propagates through a twinning mechanism. When the crack plane normal coincides with the [011] slip direction, the crack propagates through the emission of full dislocations. In intermediate orientations, a transition from full dislocation emission to twinning is found to occur with an increase in the stress intensity at the crack tip. This finding confirms the suggestion that the very high strain rates, inherently present in MD simulations, which produce higher stress intensities at the crack tip, over-predict the tendency for deformation twinning compared to experiments. The present study, therefore, aims to develop a more realistic and accurate predictive modeling of fracture processes.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations of quasi-brittle crack development in iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodin, V.A., E-mail: borodin@dni.polin.kiae.su [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq. 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Vladimirov, P.V., E-mail: Pavel.Vladimirov@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-08-31

    The paper presents the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of three-dimensional kinetics of micro-crack propagation in alpha-iron and the accompanying lattice transformations at the crack tips. We show that crack initiation on {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace} planes in iron is preceded with the emission of compact slip bands from the pre-crack tips, in agreement with the predictions of the earlier quasi-two-dimensional simulations. The application of Voronoi decomposition technique for atomic short-range order processing has allowed us to clarify the kinetics of structural transformations at the tips of nucleating and propagating cracks for three most common systems of crack propagation in iron. It is demonstrated that the compact slip bands emanating from the crack tips not only accompany crack nucleation, but remain an essential feature of the crack propagation on {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace} planes. Due to the strong coupling between the crack tip and slip band propagation, the crack propagation can be limited by slip band interaction with microstructural obstacles, abundantly created in ferritic-martensitic steels in radiation environment of nuclear facilities.

  4. Tensile cracks in creeping solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, H.; Rice, J.R.

    1979-02-01

    The loading parameter determining the stress and strain fields near a crack tip, and thereby the growth of the crack, under creep conditions is discussed. Relevant loading parameters considered are the stress intensity factor K/sub I/, the path-independent integral C*, and the net section stress sigma/sub net/. The material behavior is modelled as elastic-nonlinear viscous where the nonlinear term describes power law creep. At the time t = 0 load is applied to the cracked specimen, and in the first instant the stress distribution is elastic. Subsequently, creep deformation relaxes the initial stress concentration at the crack tip, and creep strains develop rapidly near the crack tip. These processes may be analytically described by self-similar solutions for short times t. Small scale yielding may be defined. In creep problems, this means that elastic strains dominate almost everywhere except in a small creep zone which grows around the crack tip. If crack growth ensues while the creep zone is still small compared with the crack length and the specimen size, the stress intensity factor governs crack growth behavior. If the calculated creep zone becomes larger than the specimen size, the stresses become finally time-independent and the elastic strain rates can be neglected. In this case, the stress field is the same as in the fully-plastic limit of power law hardening plasticity. The loading parameter which determines the near tip fields uniquely is then the path-independent integral C*.K/sub I/ and C* characterize opposite limiting cases. The case applied in a given situation is decided by comparing the creep zone size with the specimen size and the crack length. Besides several methods of estimating the creep zone size, a convenient expression for a characteristic time is derived, which characterizes the transition from small scale yielding to extensive creep of the whole specimen

  5. Facts and views on the role of anionic impurities, crack tip chemistry and oxide films in environmentally assisted cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.; Bojinov, M.; Helin, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this literature study has been to evaluate the level of understanding of the role of anionic impurities in environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of iron- and nickel-based alloys in the coolant conditions of a boiling water reactor (BWR) - type nuclear power plant, mainly under normal water chemistry (NWC). The study has been motivated by a need to find the most relevant experimental approaches that can be applied when looking for correlations between crack growth rate and measurable electrochemical and chemical parameters. Special crack tip chemistry conditions are established, when trace amounts are present in the BWR coolant and become enriched within a crack. Anions may influence both the conductivity and the pH of the coolant within the crack. In addition, they may influence the composition, structure and properties of the oxide films formed on crack walls either directly via adsorption or incorporation or indirectly via the effect of changes in pH within the crack. Based on the proposed mechanisms for EAC, oxide films formed on crack wall surfaces are likely to play a key role in determing the crack growth rate of structural materials. The prediction of the influence of anionic impurities is thus likely to be facilitated by means of understanding their effect on the films on crack walls. One of the most promising approaches to experimentally clarify this influence is based on investigating the electrochemical behaviour of oxide films Fe- and Ni-based materials in high-temperature conditions simulating the special chemistry within a stress corrosion crack. Results from such studies should be compared and combined with ex situ analytical results obtained using modern electron microscopic techniques. In addition to crack growth, currently available electro-chemical techniques should also be applied to find out whether crack initiation can be explained and modelled on the basis of the electrochemical behaviour of oxide films. (orig.)

  6. A study on fatigue crack growth behavior subjected to a single tensile overload: Part II. Transfer of stress concentration and its role in overload-induced transient crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Choo, H.; Liaw, P.K.; An, K.; Hubbard, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    The combined effects of overload-induced enlarged compressive residual stresses and crack tip blunting with secondary cracks are suggested to be responsible for the observed changes in the crack opening load and resultant post-overload transient crack growth behavior [Lee SY, Liaw PK, Choo H, Rogge RB, Acta Mater 2010;59:485-94]. In this article, in situ neutron diffraction experiments were performed to quantify the influence of the combined effects by investigating the internal-stress evolution at various locations away from the crack tip. In the overload-retardation period, stress concentration occurs in the crack blunting region (an overload point) until a maximum crack arrest load is reached. The stress concentration is then transferred from the blunting region to the propagating crack tip (following the overload), requiring a higher applied load, as the closed crack is gradually opened. The transfer phenomena of the stress concentration associated with a crack opening process account for the nonlinearity of strain response in the vicinity of the crack tip. The delaying action of stress concentration at the crack tip is understood in conjunction with the concept of a critical stress (i.e. the stress required to open the closed crack behind the crack tip). A linear relationship between Δε eff and ΔK eff provides experimental support for the hypothesis that ΔK eff can be considered as the fatigue crack tip driving force.

  7. Crack Tip Flipping: A New Phenomenon yet to be Resolved in Ductile Plate Tearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2017-01-01

    Conclusive insight to the mechanics that govern so-called “crack tip flipping”remains to be revealed, but details continue to fall into place as researcher dig deeper. The work presents an overview of the latest findings and the next steps to be made....

  8. The role of crack tip opening in corrosion fatigue for the ductile ferritic steel-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, B.

    1977-01-01

    Water vapour or a water environment can dramatically reduce the fatigue strength of structural alloys, including aluminium and steel, and this reduction can be often related to the effect of the environment on crack initiation. More recently, however, under certain circumstances, it has become clear that fatigue crack growth rates can also be increased. A limited examination of crack tip openings in ductile steels under corrosion fatigue conditions, indicates that it may be possible to develop more physically based design rules for components which operate in some aqueous environments (author)

  9. Modelling probabilistic fatigue crack propagation rates for a mild structural steel

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, J.A.F.O.; de Jesus, A.M.P.; Fernández-Canteli, A.

    2014-01-01

    A class of fatigue crack growth models based on elastic–plastic stress–strain histories at the crack tip region and local strain-life damage models have been proposed in literature. The fatigue crack growth is regarded as a process of continuous crack initializations over successive elementary material blocks, which may be governed by smooth strain-life damage data. Some approaches account for the residual stresses developing at the crack tip in the actual crack driving force asse...

  10. Effects of absorbed hydrogen on crack-tip ductility in the welded A516 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, M.A.; Haslan, M.H.; Tamin, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of absorbed hydrogen on structure and properties of welded A516 Grade-70 steel are investigated. Emphasis is placed on ductility measure of the crack-tip plastic zone under Mode I loading. Specimens are cathodically charged in a cell with dilute sulphuric acid and corrosion inhibitor with uniform charging current density of 20 mA/ cm 2 and at different exposure time. Results indicate a change from coarse- to fine-grained microstructures in the weld region and heat affected zone (HAZ) of hydrogen-charged specimen. Well-defined ferrite-pearlite bands in the base metal are transformed into coarse-grain structure. Hardness variation along radial distance indicates higher values towards the center of the bar, possibly due to faster diffusion rate but limited solubility of hydrogen. Load-COD responses indicate that slow, stable crack propagation occurred in both base metal and HAZ. The measured provisional fracture toughness, K Q is higher for HAZ than that for the base metal. The toughness values decreases significantly for the initial three hours of hydrogen charging. The tensile fracture region in the immediate fatigue pre-crack tip forms a triangular (rough) zone due to limited constraint to free surface deformation in the thin specimen. Fracture surface of HAZ is dominated by intergranular fracture with localized cleavage facets. (author)

  11. Attractive and repulsive cracks in a heterogeneous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Huillard, Guillaume; Vanel, Loïc; Ciliberto, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    We study experimentally the paths of an assembly of cracks growing in interaction in a heterogeneous two-dimensional elastic brittle material submitted to uniaxial stress. For a given initial crack assembly geometry, we observe two types of crack path. The first one corresponds to a repulsion followed by an attraction on one end of the crack and a tip-to-tip attraction on the other end. The second one corresponds to a pure attraction. Only one of the crack path types is observed in a given sample. Thus, selection between the two types appears as a statistical collective process

  12. Application of computer assisted moire to the study of a crack tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Albertazzi, A., Jr.; Mourikes, J.

    The basic principles of computer assisted moire are discussed. The influence of the image sensor and its finite dimensions on the sampling theorem requirements is discussed. Criteria for the selection of grating pitch on the basis of the spatial bandwidth of the pattern to be observed and the requirements arising from sensitivity considerations are given. The method is used to analyze the strain field in the neighborhood of the crack tip of a standard ASTM compact tension specimen. From the displacements the strains are computed, and from the strains the stresses are obtained using the generalized Ramberg-Osgood stress strain relationship. The stresses are used to compute the values for the J-integral in several circuits surrounding the crack. Good agreement is obtained between the values of the stress intensity factors obtained by different methods. The plastic region surrounding the crack does not show a HRR field and thus the usual rationale to justify the J-integral methods must be re-evaluated.

  13. Role of plasticity-induced crack closure in fatigue crack growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Toribio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The premature contact of crack surfaces attributable to the near-tip plastic deformations under cyclic loading, which is commonly referred to as plasticity induced crack closure (PICC, has long been focused as supposedly controlling factor of fatigue crack growth (FCG. Nevertheless, when the plane-strain near-tip constraint is approached, PICC lacks of straightforward evidence, so that its significance in FCG, and even the very existence, remain debatable. To add insights into this matter, large-deformation elastoplastic simulations of plane-strain crack under constant amplitude load cycling at different load ranges and ratios, as well as with an overload, have been performed. Modeling visualizes the Laird-Smith conceptual mechanism of FCG by plastic blunting and re-sharpening. Simulation reproduces the experimental trends of FCG concerning the roles of stress intensity factor range and overload, but PICC has never been detected. Near-tip deformation patterns discard the filling-in a crack with material stretched out of the crack plane in the wake behind the tip as supposed PICC origin. Despite the absence of closure, load-deformation curves appear bent, which raises doubts about the trustworthiness of closure assessment from the compliance variation. This demonstrates ambiguities of PICC as a supposedly intrinsic factor of FCG and, by implication, favors the stresses and strains in front of the crack tip as genuine fatigue drivers.

  14. Creep, Fatigue and Environmental Interactions and Their Effect on Crack Growth in Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Ghosn, L. J.; Smith, T.

    2017-01-01

    Complex interactions of creep/fatigue/environment control dwell fatigue crack growth (DFCG) in superalloys. Crack tip stress relaxation during dwells significantly changes the crack driving force and influence DFCG. Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics, Kmax, parameter unsuitable for correlating DFCG behavior due to extensive visco-plastic deformation. Magnitude of remaining crack tip axial stresses controls DFCG resistance due to the brittle-intergranular nature of the crack growth process. Proposed a new empirical parameter, Ksrf, which incorporates visco-plastic evolution of the magnitude of remaining crack tip stresses. Previous work performed at 704C, extend the work to 760C.

  15. Mechanisms of hydrogen induced delayed cracking in hydride forming materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.; Nuttall, K.; Puls, M.P.; Simpson, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    Mechanisms which have been formulated to describe delayed hydrogen cracking in hydride-forming metals are reviewed and discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the commercial alloy Zr--2.5% Nb (Cb) which is extensively used in nuclear reactor core components. A quantitative model for hydrogen cracking in this material is presented and compared with available experimental data. The kinetics of crack propagation are controlled by the growth of hydrides at the stressed crack tip by the diffusive ingress of hydrogen into this region. The driving force for the diffusion flux is provided by the local stress gradient which interacts with both hydrogen atoms in solution and hydrogen atoms being dissolved and reprecipitated at the crack tip. The model is developed using concepts of elastoplastic fracture mechanics. Stage I crack growth is controlled by hydrides growing in the elastic stress gradient, while Stage II is controlled by hydride growth in the plastic zone at the crack tip. Recent experimental observations are presented which indicate that the process occurs in an intermittent fashion; hydride clusters accumulate at the crack tip followed by unstable crack advance and subsequent crack arrest in repeated cycles

  16. Mechanisms of hydrogen induced delayed cracking in hydride forming materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.; Nuttall, K.; Puls, M.P.; Simpson, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    Mechanisms which have been formulated to describe delayed hydrogen cracking in hydride-forming metals are reviewed and discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the commercial alloy Zr-2.5 pct Nb which is extensively used in nuclear reactor core components. A quantitative model for hydrogen cracking in this material is presented and compared with available experimental data. The kinetics of crack propagation are controlled by the growth of hydrides at the stressed crack tip by the diffusive ingress of hydrogen into this region. The driving force for the diffusion flux is provided by the local stress gradient which interacts with both hydrogen atoms in solution and hydrogen atoms being dissolved and reprecipitated at the crack tip. The model is developed using concepts of elastoplastic fracture mechanics. Stage I crack growth is controlled by hydrides growing in the elastic stress gradient, while Stage II is controlled by hydride growth in the plastic zone at the crack tip. Recent experimental observations are presented which indicate that the process occurs in an intermittent fashion; hydride clusters accumulate at the crack tip followed by unstable crack advance and subsequent crack arrest in repeated cycles. 55 refs., 6 figs

  17. Infrared thermography study of the fatigue crack propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Plekhov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the experimental study of heat dissipation process caused by fatigue crack propagation. To investigate a spatial and time temperature evolution at the crack tip set of experiments was carried out using specimens with pre-grown centered fatigue crack. An original mathematical algorithm for experimental data treatment was developed to obtain a power of heat source caused by plastic deformation at crack tip. The algorithm includes spatial-time filtration and relative motion compensation procedures. Based on the results of mathematical data treatment, we proposed a way to estimate the values of J-integral and stress intensity factor for cracks with pronounced the plastic zone.

  18. Deformation localization at the tips of shear fractures: An analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Santanu

    2011-04-01

    Mechanical heterogeneities are important features in rocks which trigger deformation localization in brittle, ductile or brittle-ductile modes during deformation. In a recent study Misra et al. (2009) have investigated these different processes of deformation localization at the tips of pre-existing planar shear fractures. The authors identified four mechanisms of deformation, ranging from brittle to ductile, operating at the crack tips. Mechanism A: brittle deformation is the dominant process that forms a pair of long tensile fractures at the two crack tips. Mechanism B: nature of deformation is mixed where the tensile fractures grow to a finite length with incipient plastic deformation at the tips. Mechanism C: mixed mode deformation characterized by dominating macro-scale shear bands, and short, opened-out tensile fissures. Mechanism D: localization of plastic bands in the form of a pair of shear bands at each tip without any discernible brittle fracturing. The transition of the mechanisms is a function of orientation ( α) of the crack with respect to the bulk compression direction and the finite length ( l) of the crack. The aim of this study is to present a theoretical analysis to account for the variability of deformation localization in the vicinity of pre-existing shear cracks considering an elastic-plastic rheological model. The analysis calculates the principal tensile stress ( σ1) and the second stress invariant ( I2) of the stress field at the fracture tip to explain the transition from Mechanism A (tensile fracturing) to Mechanism D (ductile strain). The results show that σ1 at the fracture tip increases non-linearly with increasing α and Ar (aspect ratio of the shear crack), and assumes a large value when α > 50 o, promoting tensile fractures. On the other hand, I2 is a maximum at α < 45°, resulting in nucleation of ductile shear bands.

  19. The reinitiation of fracture at the tip of an arrested crack in a reactor pressure vessel: The effect of ligaments on the reinitiation K value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1986-01-01

    During a hypothetical thermal shock event involving a water-cooled nuclear reactor steel pressure vessel, it is possible for a crack to propagate deep into the reactor vessel thickness by a series of run-arrest-reinitiation events. Furthermore, within the transition temperature regime, crack propagation and arrest are associated with a combination of cleavage and ductile rupture processes, the latter being manifested by ligaments that are normal to the crack plane and parallel to the direction of crack propagation. Earlier work by the author has modelled the effect of ligaments on the reinitiation of fracture at the tip of an arrested crack. Proceeding from the basis that the ligaments fail by a ductile rupture process, reinitiation K values were calculated. These values were appreciably higher than the experimental reinitiation K values for cracks in model vessels subject to thermal shock; it was therefore argued that the ligaments, which are present at arrest, are unlikely to fail entirely by ductile rupture prior to the reinitiation of fracture at an arrested crack tip. Instead it was suggested that the ligaments fail by cleavage, and consequently do not markedly affect the reinitiation K value, which therefore correlates with Ksub(IC). This paper's theoretical analysis extends the earlier work by relaxing a key assumption in the earlier work that, when calculating the reinitiation K value on the basis that the ligaments fail by ductile rupture, they should disappear completely prior to reinitiation. The new results, however, show that the predicted reinitiation K values are still so much greater than the model test reinitiation K values, that it is unlikely that the ligaments fail solely by ductile rupture prior to reinitiation. The view that the ligaments can fail by cleavage is therefore reinforced. (orig.)

  20. The pipeline fracture behavior and pressure assessment under HIC (Hydrogen induced cracking) environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaohua, Dong [China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Beijing (China); Lianwei, Wang [University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    As Hydrogen's transmit and diffuse, after gestating for a while, the density of hydrogen around crack tip of pipeline will get to the critical density, and the pipeline material will descend, make critical stress factor, the reason of pipeline Hydrogen Induced Cracking is Hydrogen's transmit and diffuse. The stress factor of Hydrogen Induced Cracking under surroundings-condition of stress is the key that estimate material's rupture behavior. The paper study the relationship among hydrogen concentrate, crack tip stress, stain field, hydrogen diffusion and inner pressure for crack tip process zone, then determined the length of HIC (hydrogen induced cracking) process zone. Based on the theory of propagation which reason micro-crack making core, dislocation model is produced for fracture criteria of HIC, the influence between material and environments under the HIC is analyzed, step by step pipeline maximum load pressure and threshold of J-integrity ( J{sub ISCC} ) is calculated, which is very significant for pipeline safety operation. (author)

  1. Estimation of Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Cracked Specimen Under Mixed-mode Loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeong Woo; Woo, Eun Taek; Han, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the fatigue crack propagation behavior of compact tension shear (CTS) specimen under mixed-mode loads, crack path prediction theories and Tanaka’s equation were applied. The stress intensity factor at a newly created crack tip was calculated using a finite element method via ANSYS, and the crack path and crack increment were then obtained from the crack path prediction theories, Tanaka’s equation, and the Paris’ equation, which were preprogrammed in Microsoft Excel. A new method called the finite element crack tip updating method (FECTUM) was developed. In this method, the finite element method and Microsoft Excel are used to calculate the stress intensity factors and the crack path, respectively, at the crack tip per each crack increment. The developed FECTUM was applied to simulate the fatigue crack propagation of a single-edge notched bending (SENB) specimen under eccentric three-point bending loads. The results showed that the number of cycles to failure of the specimen obtained experimentally and numerically were in good agreement within an error range of less than 3%

  2. Estimation of Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Cracked Specimen Under Mixed-mode Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong Woo [KIMM, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Eun Taek; Han, Seung Ho [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    To estimate the fatigue crack propagation behavior of compact tension shear (CTS) specimen under mixed-mode loads, crack path prediction theories and Tanaka’s equation were applied. The stress intensity factor at a newly created crack tip was calculated using a finite element method via ANSYS, and the crack path and crack increment were then obtained from the crack path prediction theories, Tanaka’s equation, and the Paris’ equation, which were preprogrammed in Microsoft Excel. A new method called the finite element crack tip updating method (FECTUM) was developed. In this method, the finite element method and Microsoft Excel are used to calculate the stress intensity factors and the crack path, respectively, at the crack tip per each crack increment. The developed FECTUM was applied to simulate the fatigue crack propagation of a single-edge notched bending (SENB) specimen under eccentric three-point bending loads. The results showed that the number of cycles to failure of the specimen obtained experimentally and numerically were in good agreement within an error range of less than 3%.

  3. Subsurface metals fatigue cracking without and with crack tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shanyavskiy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue regime for metals was considered and mechanisms of the subsurface crack origination were introduced. In many metals first step of crack origination takes place with specific area formation because of material pressing and rotation that directed to transition in any volume to material ultra-high-plasticity with nano-structure appearing. Then by the border of the nano-structure takes place volume rotation and fracture surface creates with spherical particles which usually named Fine-Granular-Area. In another case there takes place First-Smooth-Facet occurring in area of origin due to whirls appearing by the one of the slip systems under discussed the same stress-state conditions. Around Fine-Granular-Area or First-Smooth-Facet there plastic zone appeared and, then, subsurface cracking develops by the same manner as for through cracks. In was discussed quantum-mechanical nature of fatigue crack growth in accordance with Yang’s modulus quantization for low level of deformations. New simply equation was considered for describing subsurface cracking in metals out of Fine-Granular-Area or Fist-Smooth-Facet.

  4. The concept of the average stress in the fracture process zone for the search of the crack path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.G. Matvienko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the average stress has been employed to propose the maximum average tangential stress (MATS criterion for predicting the direction of fracture angle. This criterion states that a crack grows when the maximum average tangential stress in the fracture process zone ahead of the crack tip reaches its critical value and the crack growth direction coincides with the direction of the maximum average tangential stress along a constant radius around the crack tip. The tangential stress is described by the singular and nonsingular (T-stress terms in the Williams series solution. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed MATS criterion, this criterion is directly applied to experiments reported in the literature for the mixed mode I/II crack growth behavior of Guiting limestone. The predicted directions of fracture angle are consistent with the experimental data. The concept of the average stress has been also employed to predict the surface crack path under rolling-sliding contact loading. The proposed model considers the size and orientation of the initial crack, normal and tangential loading due to rolling–sliding contact as well as the influence of fluid trapped inside the crack by a hydraulic pressure mechanism. The MATS criterion is directly applied to equivalent contact model for surface crack growth on a gear tooth flank.

  5. Effect of micromorphology at the fatigue crack tip on the crack growth in electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Junhui; Hu, Shubing; Ji, Longbo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe experiments on welded joints of Ti-6Al-4V alloy specimens exhibiting fatigue characteristics in the base metal (BM), hot affected zone (HAZ) and fuse zone (FZ). The effect of micromorphology on crack propagation at the tip of the fatigue crack in joints formed by electron beam welding was investigated using an optical microscope, transmission electron microscope and other methodologies. The results demonstrated that the fatigue crack originated in and propagated along α/β boundaries in the BM. In the HAZ, the fatigue crack occurred at the boundary between martensite laths, and propagated through most irregular-equiaxed α phases and a few martensite laths. In the FZ, the fatigue crack originated at the boundaries between the fine crushing phases among martensite laths, and propagated along a majority of α/β boundaries and several narrow martensite laths. The electron beam welded joint of Ti-6Al-4V alloy showed instances of zigzag fatigue cracks that increased in degree from lowest in the HAZ, moderate in the FZ to greatest in the BM. Conversely, fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) was greatest in the HAZ, less in the FZ and slowest in the BM. - Highlights: •Ti-6Al-4V welded joint exhibits different fatigue characteristics. •The fatigue crack propagates along α/β boundaries in the BM. •The fatigue crack propagates through α phases and martensite laths in the HAZ. •The fatigue crack propagates along α/β boundaries and martensite laths in the FZ. •Fatigue crack growth rate is fastest in the HAZ, less in the FZ, slowest in the BM.

  6. Specific features of corrosion processes in a crack tip in chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurov, O.V.; Vasilenko, I.I.

    1981-01-01

    Electrode potentials of metal and pH solution are measured by means of microelectrodes on structural materials-45 and 12Kh18N10T steels, AT3 titanium alloy and D16 aluminium alloy in the vertex of corrosion crack formed during corrosion cracking in 3% NaCl solution. Metal corrosion is shown to be followed by hydrogen liberation on all the investigated materials at corrosion potentials. The effects of chemical composition of alloys as well as external polarization on the solution pH in the crack vertex are determined

  7. On the measurement of the crack tip stress field as a means of determining Delta K(sub eff) under conditions of fatigue crack closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallhead, Ian R.; Edwards, Lyndon; Poole, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The optical method of caustics has been successfully extended to enable stress intensity factors as low as 1MPa square root of m to be determined accurately for central fatigue cracks in 2024-T3 aluminium alloy test panels. The feasibility of using this technique to study crack closure, and to determine the effective stress intensity factor range, Delta K(sub eff), has been investigated. Comparisons have been made between the measured values of stress intensity factor, K(sub caus), and corresponding theoretical values, K(sub theo), for a range of fatigue cracks grown under different loading conditions. The values of K(sub caus) and K(sub theo) were in good agreement at maximum stress, where the cracks are fully open, while K(sub caus) exceeded K(sub theo) at minimum stress, due to crack closure. However, the levels of crack closure and values of Delta K(sub eff) obtained could not account for the variations of crack growth rate with loading conditions. It is concluded that the values of Delta K(sub eff), based on caustic measurements in a 1/square root of r stress field well outside the plastic zone, do not fully reflect local conditions which control crack tip behavior.

  8. A consistent partly cracked XFEM element for cohesive crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Jesper L.; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Nielsen, Leif Otto

    2007-01-01

    Present extended finite element method (XFEM) elements for cohesive crack growth may often not be able to model equal stresses on both sides of the discontinuity when acting as a crack-tip element. The authors have developed a new partly cracked XFEM element for cohesive crack growth with extra...... enrichments to the cracked elements. The extra enrichments are element side local and were developed by superposition of the standard nodal shape functions for the element and standard nodal shape functions for a sub-triangle of the cracked element. With the extra enrichments, the crack-tip element becomes...... capable of modelling variations in the discontinuous displacement field on both sides of the crack and hence also capable of modelling the case where equal stresses are present on each side of the crack. The enrichment was implemented for the 3-node constant strain triangle (CST) and a standard algorithm...

  9. Analysis of crack opening stresses for center- and edge-crack tension specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Di-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate determination of crack opening stress is of central importance to fatigue crack growth analysis and life prediction based on the crack-closure model. This paper studies the crack opening behavior for center- and edge-crack tension specimens. It is found that the crack opening stress is affected by the crack tip element. By taking the crack tip element into account, a modified crack opening stress equation is given for the center-crack tension specimen. Crack surface displacement equations for an edge crack in a semi-infinite plate under remote uniform tension and partially distributed pressure are derived by using the weight function method. Based on these displacements, a crack opening stress equation for an edge crack in a semi-infinite plate under uniform tension has been developed. The study shows that the crack opening stress is geometry-dependent, and the weight function method provides an effective and reliable tool to deal with such geometry dependence.

  10. The determination of the local conditions for void initiation in front of a crack tip for materials with second-phase particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabirov, I. [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstrasse 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)]. E-mail: sabirov@unileoben.ac.at; Duschlbauer, D. [Institute of Lightweight Design and Structural Biomechanics, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstrasse 27-29, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Pettermann, H.E. [Institute of Lightweight Design and Structural Biomechanics, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstrasse 27-29, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Kolednik, O. [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstrasse 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2005-02-25

    A procedure is proposed to determine, for second-phase particles near a crack tip, the maximum particle stresses at the moment of void initiation by either particle fracture or particle/matrix interface separation. A digital image analysis system is applied to perform a quantitative analysis of corresponding fracture surface regions from stereo image pairs taken in the scanning electron microscope. The fracture surface analysis is used to measure, for individual particles, the crack tip opening displacement at the moment of void initiation and the particle location with respect to the crack tip. From these data, the stress tensor at the moment of void initiation is calculated from the Hutchinson-Rice-Rosengren (HRR) field theory. The corresponding average local stresses within the particle are evaluated by a non-linear Mori-Tanaka-type approach. These stresses are compared to estimates according to the models by Argon et al. [A.S. Argon, J. Im, R. Safoglu, Metall. Trans. 6 (1975) 825] and Beremin [F.M. Beremin, Metall. Trans. 12 (1981) 723]. The procedure is demonstrated on an Al6061-10% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} metal matrix composite.

  11. Analysis of accuracy of Williams series approximation of stress field in cracked body – influence of area of interest around crack-tip on multi-parameter regression performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sobek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the accuracy of an approximation of the stress field in a cracked body is presented. Crack-tip stress tensor is expressed using the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM theory in this work, more precisely via its multi-parameter formulation, i.e. by Williams power series (WPS. Determination of coefficients of terms of this series is performed using a least squares-based regression technique known as over-deterministic method (ODM for which results from finite element (FE method computation are usually taken as inputs. Main attention is paid to a detailed analysis of a suitable selection of FE nodes whose results serve as the inputs to the employed method. Two different ways of FE nodal selection are compared – nodes selected from the crack tip vicinity lying at a ring of a certain radius versus nodes selected more or less uniformly from a specified part of the test specimen body. Comparison of these approaches is made with the help of procedures developed by the authors which enable both the determination of the coefficients of terms of the analytical WPS approximation of the stress field based on the FE results and the backward reconstruction of the field (again using WPS from those determined terms’ coefficients/functions. The wedge-splitting test (WST specimen with a crack is taken as example for the study.

  12. Crack-tip chemistry modeling of stage I stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

    1991-10-01

    Stage I stress corrosion cracking usually exhibits a very strong K dependence with Paris law exponents of up to 30. 2 Model calculations indicate that the crack velocity in this regime is controlled by transport through a salt film and that the K dependence results from crack opening controlled salt film dissolution. An ionic transport model that accounts for both electromigration through the resistive salt film and Fickian diffusion through the aqueous solution was used for these predictions. Predicted crack growth rates are in excellent agreement with measured values for Ni with P segregated to the grain boundaries and tested in IN H 2 SO 4 at +900 mV. This salt film dissolution may be applicable to stage I cracking of other materials

  13. Ultrasonic sizing of fatigue cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.J.

    1983-12-01

    Surface and buried fatigue cracks in steel plates have been sized using immersion probes as transmitters-receivers, angled to produce shear waves in the steel. Sizes have been estimated by identifying the ultrasonic waves diffracted from the crack tip and by measuring the time taken for a signal to travel to and from the crack tip. The effects of compression normal to a fatigue crack and of crack front curvature are discussed. Another diffraction technique, developed by UKAEA, Harwell, is reviewed

  14. Fatigue crack tip damaging micromechanisms in a ferritic-pearlitic ductile cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Iacoviello

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the peculiar graphite elements shape, obtained by means of a chemical composition control (mainly small addition of elements like Mg, Ca or Ce, Ductile Cast Irons (DCIs are able to offer the good castability of gray irons with the high mechanical properties of irons (first of all, toughness. This interesting properties combination can be improved both by means of the chemical composition control and by means of different heat treatments(e.g. annealing, normalizing, quenching, austempering etc. In this work, fatigue crack tip damaging micromechanisms in a ferritic-pearlitic DCI were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope observations performed on a lateral surface of Compact Type (CT specimens during the fatigue crack propagation test (step by step procedure, performed according to the “load shedding procedure”. On the basis of the experimental results, different fatigue damaging micromechanisms were identified, both in the graphite nodules and in the ferritic – pearlitic matrix.

  15. Innovative Approach to Establish Root Causes for Cracking in Aggressive Reactor Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Thomas, Larry E.; Vetrano, John S.; Simonen, Edward P.

    2003-01-01

    The research focuses on the high-resolution characterization of degradation microstructures and microchemistries in specimens tested under controlled conditions for the environment and for the material where in-service complexities can be minimized. Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of crack-tip processes is employed to analyze corrosion-induced structures and gain insights into degradation mechanisms. Novel mechanistic ''fingerprinting'' of crack-tip structures is used to isolate causes of environmental cracking in tandem with quantitative measurements of crack growth. Sample preparation methods and advanced analytical techniques are used to characterize corrosion/oxidation reactions and crack-tip structures at near atomic dimensions in order to gain insight into fundamental environmental cracking mechanisms. Reactions at buried interfaces, not accessible by conventional approaches, are being systematically interrogated. Crack-growth experiments in high-temperature water environments are evaluating and isolating the effects of material condition (matrix strength, grain boundary composition and precipitation) on stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The fundamental understanding of crack advance mechanisms will establish the basis to design new corrosion-resistant alloys for current light-water reactors and advanced reactor systems

  16. Compressive failure with interacting cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guoping; Liu Xila

    1993-01-01

    The failure processes in concrete and other brittle materials are just the results of the propagation, coalescence and interaction of many preexisting microcracks or voids. To understand the real behaviour of the brittle materials, it is necessary to bridge the gap from the relatively matured one crack behaviour to the stochastically distributed imperfections, that is, to concern the crack propagation and interaction of microscopic mechanism with macroscopic parameters of brittle materials. Brittle failure in compression has been studied theoretically by Horii and Nemat-Nasser (1986), in which a closed solution was obtained for a preexisting flaw or some special regular flaws. Zaitsev and Wittmann (1981) published a paper on crack propagation in compression, which is so-called numerical concrete, but they did not take account of the interaction among the microcracks. As for the modelling of the influence of crack interaction on fracture parameters, many studies have also been reported. Up till now, some researcher are working on crack interaction considering the ratios of SIFs with and without consideration of the interaction influences, there exist amplifying or shielding effects of crack interaction which are depending on the relative positions of these microcracks. The present paper attempts to simulate the whole failure process of brittle specimen in compression, which includes the complicated coupling effects between the interaction and propagation of randomly distributed or other typical microcrack configurations step by step. The lengths, orientations and positions of microcracks are all taken as random variables. The crack interaction among many preexisting random microcracks is evaluated with the help of a simple interaction matrix (Yang and Liu, 1991). For the subcritically stable propagation of microcracks in mixed mode fracture, fairly known maximum hoop stress criterion is adopted to compute branching lengths and directions at each tip of the crack

  17. Variation of the energy release rate as a crack approaches and passes through an elastic inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongshun; Chudnovsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    The variation of the energy release rate (ERP) at the tip of a crack penetrating an elastic inclusion is analyzed using an approach involving modeling the random array of microcracks or other defects by an elastic inclusion with effective elastic properties. Computations are carried out using a finite element procedure. The eight-noded isoparametric serendipity element with the shift of the midpoint to the quarter-point is used to simulate the singularity at the crack tip, and the crack growth is accommodated by implementing a mesh regeneration technique. The ERP values were calculated for various crack tip positions which simulate the process of the crack approaching and penetrating the inclusion.

  18. Modelling probabilistic fatigue crack propagation rates for a mild structural steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.F.O. Correia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A class of fatigue crack growth models based on elastic–plastic stress–strain histories at the crack tip region and local strain-life damage models have been proposed in literature. The fatigue crack growth is regarded as a process of continuous crack initializations over successive elementary material blocks, which may be governed by smooth strain-life damage data. Some approaches account for the residual stresses developing at the crack tip in the actual crack driving force assessment, allowing mean stresses and loading sequential effects to be modelled. An extension of the fatigue crack propagation model originally proposed by Noroozi et al. (2005 to derive probabilistic fatigue crack propagation data is proposed, in particular concerning the derivation of probabilistic da/dN-ΔK-R fields. The elastic-plastic stresses at the vicinity of the crack tip, computed using simplified formulae, are compared with the stresses computed using an elasticplastic finite element analyses for specimens considered in the experimental program proposed to derive the fatigue crack propagation data. Using probabilistic strain-life data available for the S355 structural mild steel, probabilistic crack propagation fields are generated, for several stress ratios, and compared with experimental fatigue crack propagation data. A satisfactory agreement between the predicted probabilistic fields and experimental data is observed.

  19. A phenomenological model for iodine stress corrosion cracking of zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.K.; Tasooji, A.

    1981-01-01

    To predict the response of Zircaloy tubing in iodine environments under conditions where either crack initiation or crack propagation predominates, a unified model of the SCC process has been developed based on the local conditions (the local stress, local strain, and local iodine concentration) within a small volume of material at the cladding inner surface or the crack tip. The methodology used permits computation of these values from simple equations. A nonuniform distribution of local stress and strain results once a crack has initiated. The local stress can be increased due to plastic constraint and triaxiality at the crack tip. Iodine penetration is assumed to be a surface diffusion-controlled process. Experimental data are used to derive criteria for intergranular failure, transgranular failure, and ductile rupture in terms of the local conditions. The same failure criteria are used for both crack initiation and crack propagation. Irradiation effects are included in the model by changing the value of constants in the equation governing iodine penetration and by changing the values used to represent the mechanical properties of the Zircaloy. (orig./HP)

  20. Creep crack extension by grain-boundary cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassani, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Recent work by Riedel and coworkers has led to various descriptions of stationary and moving crack tip fields under creep conditions. For stationary and growing cracks, several flow mechanisms (e.g., elastic, time-independent plastic, primary creep, and secondary creep) can dictate the analytical form of the crack tip field. In this paper, relationship between overall loading and crack velocities are modelled based upon grain-boundary cavity growth and coalescence within the zone of concentrated strain in the crack tip field. Coupled diffusion and creep growth of the cavities is considered. Overall crack extension is taken to be intermittent on a size scale equivalent to the size of a grain. Numerical results are presented for a center-cracked panel of 304 stainless steel. (author)

  1. Mechanism of crack healing at room temperature revealed by atomistic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Fang, Q.H.; Liu, B.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.W.; Wen, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are systematically carried out to reveal the mechanism of the crack healing at room temperature, in terms of the dislocation shielding and the atomic diffusion to control the crack closure, in a copper (Cu) plate suffering from a shear loading. The results show that the process of the crack healing is actualized through the dislocation emission at a crack tip accompanied with intrinsic stacking faults ribbon forming in the crack tip wake, the dislocation slipping in the matrix and the dislocation annihilation in the free surface. Dislocation included stress compressing the crack tip is examined from the MD simulations and the analytical models, and then the crack closes rapidly due to the assistance of the atomic diffusion induced by the thermal activation when the crack opening displacement is less than a threshold value. This phenomenon is very different from the previous results for the crack propagation under the external load applied because of the crack healing (advancing) largely dependent on the crystallographic orientations of crack and the directions of external loading. Furthermore, based on the energy characteristic and considering the crack size effect, a theoretical model is established to predict the relationships between the crack size and the shear stress which qualitatively agree well with that obtained in the MD simulations

  2. Recent advances in modelling creep crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, H.

    1988-08-01

    At the time of the previous International Conference on Fracture, the C* integral had long been recognized as a promising load parameter for correlating crack growth rates in creep-ductile materials. The measured crack growth rates as a function of C* and of the temperature could be understood on the basis of micromechanical models. The distinction between C*-controlled and K I -controlled creep crack growth had been clarified and first attempts had been made to describe creep crack growth in the transient regime between elastic behavior and steady-state creep. This paper describes the progress in describing transient crack growth including the effect of primary creep. The effect of crack-tip geometry changes by blunting and by crack growth on the crack-tip fields and on the validity of C* is analyzed by idealizing the growing-crack geometry by a sharp notch and using recent solutions for the notch-tip fields. A few new three-dimensional calculations of C* are cited and important theoretical points are emphasized regarding the three-dimensional fields at crack tips. Finally, creep crack growth is described by continuum-damage models for which similarity solutions can be obtained. Crack growth under small-scale creep conditions turns out to be difficult to understand. Slightly different models yield very different crack growth rates. (orig.) With 4 figs

  3. Cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking in a low-alloy steel: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The presence of dissolved metallurgical sulfides in pressure vessel and piping steels has been linked to Environmentally-Assisted Cracking (EAC), a phenomenon observed in laboratory tests that results in fatigue crack growth rates as high as 100 times that in air. Previous experimental and analytical work based on diffusion as the mass transport process has shown that surface cracks that are initially clean of sulfides will not initiate EAC in most applications. This is because the average crack tip velocity would not be sufficiently high to expose enough metallurgical sulfides per unit time and produce the sulfide concentration required for EAC. However, there is a potential concern for the case of a relatively large embedded crack breaking through to the wetted surface. Such a crack would not be initially clean of sulfides, and EAC could initiate. This paper presents the results of a series of experiments conducted on two heats of an EAC susceptible, high-sulfur, low-alloy steel in 243 degrees C low-oxygen water to further study the phenomenon of EAC persistence at low crack tip velocities. A load cycle profile that incorporated a significant load dwell period at minimum load was used. In one experiment, the fatigue cycling history was such that relatively high crack tip velocities at the start of the experiment produced a persistent case of EAC even when crack tip velocities were later reduced to levels below the EAC initiation velocity. The other series of experiments used initial crack tip velocities that were much lower and probably more realistic. Air precracking of the compact tension specimens produced an initial inventory of undissolved sulfides on the crack flanks that directly simulates the array of sulfides expected from the breakthrough of an embedded crack. In all cases, results showed EAC ceased after several hundred hours of cycling

  4. A study on fatigue crack growth behavior subjected to a single tensile overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Liaw, P.K.; Choo, H.; Rogge, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron diffraction and electric potential experiments were carried out to investigate the growth behavior of a fatigue crack subjected to a single tensile overload. The specific objectives were to (i) probe the crack tip deformation and fracture behaviors under applied loads; (ii) examine the overload-induced transient crack growth micromechanism; (iii) validate the effective stress intensity factor range based on the crack closure approach as the fatigue crack tip driving force; and (iv) establish a quantitative relationship between the crack tip driving force and crack growth behavior. Immediately after a single tensile overload was introduced and then unloaded, the crack tip became blunt and enlarged compressive residual stresses in both magnitude and zone size were observed around the crack tip. The results show that the combined contributions of the overload-induced enlarged compressive residual stresses and crack tip blunting with secondary cracks are responsible for the observed changes in the crack opening load and the resultant post-overload transient crack growth behavior.

  5. [Mechanism of the dentino-enamel junction on the resist-crack propagation of human teeth by the finite element method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing, Zheng; Tiezhou, Hou; Hong, Tao; Xueyan, Guo; Cui, Wu

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to identify the crack tip stress intensity factor of the propagation process, crack propagation path, and the changes in the shape of the crack tip by the finite element method. The finite element model of dentino-enamel junction was established with ANSYS software, and the length of the initial crack in the single edge was set to 0.1 mm. The lower end of the sample was fixed. The tensile load of 1 MPa with frequency of 5 Hz was applied to the upper end. The stress intensity factor, deflection angle, and changes in the shape of the crack tip in the crack propagation were calculated by ANSYS. The stress intensity factor suddenly and continuously decreased in dentino-enamel junction as the crack extended. A large skewed angle appeared, and the stress on crack tip was reduced. The dentino-enamel junction on human teeth may resist crack propagation through stress reduction.

  6. Observation and simulation of crack growth in Zry-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolino, Graciela; Meyer, Gabriel; Perez Ipina, J

    2003-01-01

    Security and life extension of components of nuclear reactors are the most motivating aspects that encourage to study embrittlement processes of zirconium alloys by reaction with hydrogen.Here, the use of fracture mechanics tests are suitable to monitor the material resistance of components under service.Because many times is difficult to obtain normalized probes from real size components, researchers look for alternative experimental techniques or crack growth simulation from the knowledge of particular material properties.In this work we present the results obtained after experimental observation and computer simulation of crack growth in Zry-4 probes.Experimental observation were obtained by performing flexion tests in three point probes SSEN(B) of 3 x 7 x 32 mm 3 located in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope, measuring in situ the crack length and opening when an external load is applied.Using the information obtained from stress-displacement measurements after tensile tests and the empiric relationship between crack opening and crack length, the crack growth process was simulated.Displacement field in the zone close to the crack tip was obtained by finite elements technique (Castem, DMT, CEA) assuming plain stress, a plastic bilinear homogeneous material and neglecting texture or directional anisotropy.To compare experimental observation and simulation, a grid (10 x 10 μm 2 each square) was drawn in the zone close to the crack tip by selective sputtering.Following the movement of two (three) points of the surface allows to compare uni (bi) dimensional deformation.A good agreement between observation and simulation was observed: after the crack opening grew 28 times (from 1.5 to 42 μm) the base-height relationship of a triangle involving the crack tip change 40% (35%) in the experimental observation (simulation)

  7. The effect of crack branching on the residual lifetime of machine components containing stress corrosion cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdowski, R.M.; Uggowitzer, P.J.; Speidel, M.O.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison is presented of theoretical, numerical and experimental investigations concerning the effect of crack branching on the reduction of stress intensity at the tip of single cracks. The results indicate that the division of a single crack into n branches reduces the stress intensity at the branch tips by a factor of about 1/√n. This permits branched cracks to grow to larger depths before becoming critical. The implication is that longer residual lifetimes and longer operating times between inspections can be calculated for machine components with growing branched stress corrosion cracks. (author)

  8. Identifying and Understanding Environment-Induced Crack propagation Behavior in Ni-based Superalloy INCONEL 617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Longzhou

    2012-11-30

    The nickel-based superalloy INCONEL 617 is a candidate material for heat exchanger applications in the next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) system. This project will study the crack propagation process of alloy 617 at temperatures of 650°C-950°C in air under static/cyclic loading conditions. The goal is to identify the environmental and mechanical damage components and to understand in-depth the failure mechanism. Researchers will measure the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rate (da/dn) under cyclic and hold-time fatigue conditions, and sustained crack growth rates (da/dt) at elevated temperatures. The independent FCP process will be identified and the rate-controlled sustained loading crack process will be correlated with the thermal activation equation to estimate the oxygen thermal activation energy. The FCP-dependent model indicates that if the sustained loading crack growth rate, da/dt, can be correlated with the FCP rate, da/dn, at the full time dependent stage, researchers can confirm stress-accelerated grain-boundary oxygen embrittlement (SAGBOE) as a predominate effect. Following the crack propagation tests, the research team will examine the fracture surface of materials in various cracking stages using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an optical microscope. In particular, the microstructure of the crack tip region will be analyzed in depth using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) mapping techniques to identify oxygen penetration along the grain boundary and to examine the diffused oxygen distribution profile around the crack tip. The cracked sample will be prepared by focused ion beam nanofabrication technology, allowing researchers to accurately fabricate the TEM samples from the crack tip while minimizing artifacts. Researchers will use these microscopic and spectroscopic results to interpret the crack propagation process, as well as distinguish and understand the environment or

  9. A comparison of conventional local approach and the short crack approach to fatigue crack initiation at a notch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, Narayanaswami; Leroy, Rene; Tougui, Abdellah [Laboratoire de Mecanique et Rheologie, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Polytech Tours, Departement Mecanique et Conception de Systemes, Tours (France)

    2009-09-15

    Methods to estimate fatigue crack initiation life at a notch tip are compared. The methods used determine the strain amplitudes at the notch tip using Neuber's or Glinka's approximation. In conventional approaches, equivalent-damage levels are determined, using appropriate strain-life relationships coupled with damage-summation models. In the short-crack approach, a crack-like defect is assumed to exist at the notch tip. It is shown that the short-crack concept can be successfully applied to predict crack-initiation behavior at a notch. Model predictions are compared with carefully designed experiments. It is shown that model predictions are very close to experimentally measured lives under an aircraft-wing loading spectrum. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. On the role of weak interface in crack blunting process in nanoscale layered composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhou, Qing; Zhang, Shuang; Huang, Ping; Xu, Kewei; Wang, Fei; Lu, Tianjian

    2018-03-01

    Heterointerface in a nanoscale metallic layered composite could improve its crack resistance. However, the influence of metallic interface structures on crack propagation has not been well understood at atomic scale. By using the method of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, the crack propagation behavior in Cu-Nb bilayer is compared with that in Cu-Ni bilayer. We find that the weak Cu-Nb interface plays an important role in hindering crack propagation in two ways: (i) dislocation nucleation at the interface releases stress concentration for the crack to propagate; (ii) the easily sheared weak incoherent interface blunts the crack tip. The results are helpful for understanding the interface structure dependent crack resistance of nanoscale bicrystal interfaces.

  11. Prediction of pure water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in nickel base alloys using crack growth rate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.D.; Krasodomski, H.T.; Lewis, N.; Makar, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Ford/Andresen slip dissolution SCC model, originally developed for stainless steel components in BWR environments, has been applied to Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750 tested in deaerated pure water chemistry. A method is described whereby the crack growth rates measured in compact tension specimens can be used to estimate crack growth in a component. Good agreement was found between model prediction and measured SCC in X-750 threaded fasteners over a wide range of temperatures, stresses, and material condition. Most data support the basic assumption of this model that cracks initiate early in life. The evidence supporting a particular SCC mechanism is mixed. Electrochemical repassivation data and estimates of oxide fracture strain indicate that the slip dissolution model can account for the observed crack growth rates, provided primary rather than secondary creep rates are used. However, approximately 100 cross-sectional TEM foils of SCC cracks including crack tips reveal no evidence of enhanced plasticity or unique dislocation patterns at the crack tip or along the crack to support a classic slip dissolution mechanism. No voids, hydrides, or microcracks are found in the vicinity of the crack tips creating doubt about classic hydrogen related mechanisms. The bulk oxide films exhibit a surface oxide which is often different than the oxides found within a crack. Although bulk chromium concentration affects the rate of SCC, analytical data indicates the mechanism does not result from chromium depletion at the grain boundaries. The overall findings support a corrosion/dissolution mechanism but not one necessarily related to slip at the crack tip

  12. Strain gradient plasticity-based modeling of hydrogen environment assisted cracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; P. Gangloff, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Finite element analysis of stress about a blunt crack tip, emphasizing finite strain and phenomenologicaland mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity (SGP) formulations, is integrated with electrochemical assessment of occluded-crack tip hydrogen (H) solubility and two H-decohesion models...... to predict hydrogen environment assisted crack growth properties. SGP elevates crack tip geometrically necessary dislocation density and flow stress, with enhancement declining with increasing alloy strength. Elevated hydrostatic stress promotes high-trapped H concentration for crack tip damage......; it is imperative to account for SGP in H cracking models. Predictions of the threshold stress intensity factor and H-diffusion limited Stage II crack growth rate agree with experimental data for a high strength austenitic Ni-Cusuperalloy (Monel®K-500) and two modern ultra-high strength martensitic steels (Aer...

  13. Influence of surrounding environment on subcritical crack growth in marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Yoshitaka; Kashiwaya, Koki; Nishida, Yuki; , Toshinori, Ii

    2017-06-01

    Understanding subcritical crack growth in rock is essential for determining appropriate measures to ensure the long-term integrity of rock masses surrounding structures and for construction from rock material. In this study, subcritical crack growth in marble was investigated experimentally, focusing on the influence of the surrounding environment on the relationship between the crack velocity and stress intensity factor. The crack velocity increased with increasing temperature and/or relative humidity. In all cases, the crack velocity increased with increasing stress intensity factor. However, for Carrara marble (CM) in air, we observed a region in which the crack velocity still increased with temperature, but the increase in the crack velocity with increasing stress intensity factor was not significant. This is similar to Region II of subcritical crack growth observed in glass in air. Region II in glass is controlled by mass transport to the crack tip. In the case of rock, the transport of water to the crack tip is important. In general, Region II is not observed for subcritical crack growth in rock materials, because rocks contain water. Because the porosity of CM is very low, the amount of water contained in the marble is also very small. Therefore, our results imply that we observed Region II in CM. Because the crack velocity increased in both water and air with increasing temperature and humidity, we concluded that dry conditions at low temperature are desirable for the long-term integrity of a carbonate rock mass. Additionally, mass transport to the crack tip is an important process for subcritical crack growth in rock with low porosity.

  14. Modified Dugdale crack models - some easy crack relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1997-01-01

    the same strength as a plain Dugdale model. The critical energy release rates Gamma_CR, however, become different. Expressions (with easy computer algorithms) are presented in the paper which relate critical energy release rates and crack geometry to arbitrary cohesive stress distributions.For future...... lifetime analysis of viscoelastic materials strain energy release rates, crack geometries, and cohesive stress distributions are considered as related to sub-critical loads sigma stress-deformation tests......The Dugdale crack model is widely used in materials science to predict strength of defective (cracked) materials. A stable Dugdale crack in an elasto-plastic material is prevented from spreading by uniformly distributed cohesive stresses acting in narrow areas at the crack tips. These stresses...

  15. Unsaturated Seepage Analysis of Cracked Soil including Development Process of Cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cracks in soil provide preferential pathways for water flow and their morphological parameters significantly affect the hydraulic conductivity of the soil. To study the hydraulic properties of cracks, the dynamic development of cracks in the expansive soil during drying and wetting has been measured in the laboratory. The test results enable the development of the relationships between the cracks morphological parameters and the water content. In this study, the fractal model has been used to predict the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC of the cracked soil, including the developmental process of the cracks. The cracked expansive soil has been considered as a crack-pore medium. A dual media flow model has been developed to simulate the seepage characteristics of the cracked expansive soil. The variations in pore water pressure at different part of the model are quite different due to the impact of the cracks. This study proves that seepage characteristics can be better predicted if the impact of cracks is taken into account.

  16. Dynamic ductile fracture of a central crack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y. M.

    1976-01-01

    A central crack, symmetrically growing at a constant speed in a two dimensional ductile material subject to uniform tension at infinity, is investigated using the integral transform methods. The crack is assumed to be the Dugdale crack, and the finite stress condition at the crack tip is satisfied during the propagation of the crack. Exact expressions of solution are obtained for the finite stress condition at the crack tip, the crack shape, the crack opening displacement, and the energy release rate. All those expressions are written as the product of explicit dimensional quantities and a nondimensional dynamic correction function. The expressions reduce to the associated static results when the crack speed tends to zero, and the nondimensional dynamic correction functions were calculated for various values of the parameter involved.

  17. Method of measurement of near tip field of fast propagating cracks by means of interferometry; Hikari kansho ni yoru kosoku shinten kiretsu sentanbu no oryokuba keisokuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, s.; Miyazaki, F. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakane, K. [Nitto Denko Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-12-15

    The measurement by an interference method at the tip of fast propagating cracks was investigated. To clarify the direction-dependent problem of dynamic cracks in a higher-order term, a high-precision stress field must be measured in every direction. In this method, the propagated interference fringes near the crack tip are shot at a speed of some hundreds of m/sec, and the coefficient of dynamic stress extension is obtained from the expression given when the number of fringes (`m`) in the interferences fringes is differentiated partially. The information below was obtained. The stress field in every direction can be analyzed by the interference method. However, the interference fringes in an area of absolute {theta} < 120{degree} are radially spread from the crack tip, so the precision of the interference fringes in the {gamma} direction deteriorates. In this area, the above partial differential is higher in precision when {alpha}m/{alpha}{theta} is used instead of {alpha}m/{alpha}{gamma}. The stress extension coefficient obtained by a caustic method can be verified if a stress field of {theta} = {plus_minus}72{degree} is analyzed by the interference method. By shooting in this optical system, the COD measurement, the K-value measurement of caustic light, and the stress field measurement by an interference method can be done simultaneously. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  18. On the controlling parameters for fatigue-crack threshold at low homologous temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.; Gerberich, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation phenomena near the threshold stress intensity level ΔK /SUB TH/ , has been a vigorously studied topic in recent years. Near threshold the crack propagates rather slowly, thus giving enough time for various physical and chemical reactions to take place. Room air, which is the most commonly encountered environment, can still supply various ingredients such as oxygen, water vapor (and thus hydrogen) to support these reactions. Much effort had been directed toward the environmental aspects of near threshold fatigue crack growth. By conducting tests under vacuum, Suresh and coworkers found that the crack propagation rate in a 2-1/4 Cr-1Mo steel was higher in vacuum than in air. An oxide induced closure, which served to reduce the effective stress intensity at the crack tip, seems to furnish a good explanation. Neumann and coworkers proposed that during the fatigue process, extrusion-intrusion pairs can develop as a consequence of reversed slip around the crack tip when the crack was propagated near threshold stress intensity. Beevers demonstrated that fatigue fracture surfaces contact each other during unloading even under tension-tension cycling. Kanninen and Atkinson also reached the conclusion that the compressive stress acting at the crack tip due to residual plasticity can induce closure. Microstructural effects have also been cited as important factors in near threshold crack growth. It is generally accepted that coarser grains have a beneficial effect on the resistance to the near threshold crack propagation

  19. Influence of a gaseous atmosphere on fatigue crack propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henaff, G.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the current knowledge on the influence of gaseous atmospheres, and primarily ambient air, on fatigue crack propagation in metallic alloys. Experimental evidence of the effect of exposure to ambient air or any moist environment on fatigue crack propagation in steels is first proposed. The different interacting processes are analyzed so as to clearly uncouple the influence of the various factors on crack growth resistance. Two distinct mechanisms are identified: the adsorption of vapour molecules and hydrogen assisted fracture at crack tip. (author)

  20. Propagation of stress corrosion cracks in alpha-brasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beggs, Dennis Vinton [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Transgranular and intergranular stress corrosion cracks were investigated in alpha-brasses in a tarnishing ammoniacal solution. Surface observation indicated that the transgranular cracks propagated discontinuously by the sudden appearance of a fine crack extending several microns ahead of the previous crack tip, often associated with the detection of a discrete acoustic emission (AE). By periodically increasing the deflection, crack front markings were produced on the resulting fracture surfaces, showing that the discontinuous propagation of the crack trace was representative of the subsurface cracking. The intergranular crack trace appeared to propagate continuously at a relatively blunt crack tip and was not associated with discrete AE. Under load pulsing tests with a time between pulses, Δt greater than or equal to 3 s, the transgranular fracture surfaces always exhibited crack front markings which corresponded with the applied pulses. The spacing between crack front markings, Δx, decreased linearly with Δt. With Δt less than or equal to 1.5 s, the crack front markings were in a one-to-one correspondence with applied pulses only at relatively long crack lengths. In this case, Δx = Δx* which approached a limiting value of 1 μm. No crack front markings were observed on intergranular fracture surfaces produced during these tests. It is concluded that transgranular cracking occurs by discontinuous mechanical fracture of an embrittled region around the crack tip, while intergranular cracking results from a different mechanism with cracking occurring via the film-rupture mechanism.

  1. Effect of residual stresses on interface crack growth by void expansion mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2006-01-01

    Crack growth along an interface between two adjacent elastic-plastic materials in a layered solid is analysed, using special interface elements to represent the fracture process ahead of the crack-tip. These interface elements account for ductile failure by the nucleation and growth of voids to c....... The results show that the value of the T-stress component in the softer material adjacent to the interface crack plays the dominant role, such that a negative value of this stress component gives a significant increase of the interface fracture toughness.......Crack growth along an interface between two adjacent elastic-plastic materials in a layered solid is analysed, using special interface elements to represent the fracture process ahead of the crack-tip. These interface elements account for ductile failure by the nucleation and growth of voids...... to coalescence. In these elements the stress components normal to the interface and the shear stresses are given by equilibrium with the surrounding material, and the stress component tangential to the interface is determined by the requirement of compatibility with the surrounding material in the tangential...

  2. Crack turning in integrally stiffened aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Richard Glen

    Current emphasis in the aircraft industry toward reducing manufacturing cost has created a renewed interest in integrally stiffened structures. Crack turning has been identified as an approach to improve the damage tolerance and fail-safety of this class of structures. A desired behavior is for skin cracks to turn before reaching a stiffener, instead of growing straight through. A crack in a pressurized fuselage encounters high T-stress as it nears the stiffener---a condition favorable to crack turning. Also, the tear resistance of aluminum alloys typically varies with crack orientation, a form of anisotropy that can influence the crack path. The present work addresses these issues with a study of crack turning in two-dimensions, including the effects of both T-stress and fracture anisotropy. Both effects are shown to have relation to the process zone size, an interaction that is central to this study. Following an introduction to the problem, the T-stress effect is studied for a slightly curved semi-infinite crack with a cohesive process zone, yielding a closed form expression for the future crack path in an infinite medium. For a given initial crack tip curvature and tensile T-stress, the crack path instability is found to increase with process zone size. Fracture orthotropy is treated using a simple function to interpolate between the two principal fracture resistance values in two-dimensions. An extension to three-dimensions interpolates between the six principal values of fracture resistance. Also discussed is the transition between mode I and mode II fracture in metals. For isotropic materials, there is evidence that the crack seeks out a direction of either local symmetry (pure mode I) or local asymmetry (pure mode II) growth. For orthotropic materials the favored states are not pure modal, and have mode mixity that is a function of crack orientation. Drawing upon these principles, two crack turning prediction approaches are extended to include fracture

  3. Cross-validated detection of crack initiation in aerospace materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanniamparambil, Prashanth A.; Cuadra, Jefferson; Guclu, Utku; Bartoli, Ivan; Kontsos, Antonios

    2014-03-01

    A cross-validated nondestructive evaluation approach was employed to in situ detect the onset of damage in an Aluminum alloy compact tension specimen. The approach consisted of the coordinated use primarily the acoustic emission, combined with the infrared thermography and digital image correlation methods. Both tensile loads were applied and the specimen was continuously monitored using the nondestructive approach. Crack initiation was witnessed visually and was confirmed by the characteristic load drop accompanying the ductile fracture process. The full field deformation map provided by the nondestructive approach validated the formation of a pronounced plasticity zone near the crack tip. At the time of crack initiation, a burst in the temperature field ahead of the crack tip as well as a sudden increase of the acoustic recordings were observed. Although such experiments have been attempted and reported before in the literature, the presented approach provides for the first time a cross-validated nondestructive dataset that can be used for quantitative analyses of the crack initiation information content. It further allows future development of automated procedures for real-time identification of damage precursors including the rarely explored crack incubation stage in fatigue conditions.

  4. Investigation of fatigue crack growth rate of Al 5484 ultrafine grained alloy after ECAP process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynk, Tomasz; Rasinski, Marcin; Pakiela, Zbigniew; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Olejnik, Lech [Faculty of Production Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland)

    2010-05-15

    During the last decade equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) has emerged as a widely used fabrication route of ultrafine-grained (UFG) metals and alloys. Enhanced mechanical properties of UFG materials produced by severe plastic deformation, with a grain size smaller than 1 {mu}m, have been reported in a large number of publications. However, the higher strength does not imply higher resistance to fatigue both high- and low-cyclic. In fact, due to reduced plasticity, higher fatigue crack propagation rates are reported for UFG materials, particularly in low-amplitude range. The aim of this work was to investigate fatigue crack propagation in samples of Al 5483 alloy subjected to ECAP treatment. Because of small dimensions of the coupons processed by ECAP, non-standard, mini-samples were used in a crack propagation tests. Two test procedures were used to estimate stress intensity factor (K). The first was based on optical measurements of crack length from images recorded during the test. The second method was based on digital image correlation (DIC), which was used to determine K value directly from displacement field near the crack tip. Comparison of these two methods is made and the relationship between the intensity of ECAP process (measured in terms of the number of ECAP passes) and fatigue crack propagation rates proposed. In addition to fatigue resistance, the results of tensile tests carried out with mini-samples are presented. Applicability of such samples in the investigations of the mechanical properties of UFG materials is discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Effect of tensile overloads on fatigue crack growth of high strength steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, J.; Reguly, A.; Strohaecker, T.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A proof load process may be an option to increase the fatigue life of flexible pipelines. • There is possibility to produce plastic deformation at crack tip of tensile armor wires. • Controlled overloads provide effective crack growth retardation. • Crack growth retardation is also evident at higher stress ratios. - Abstract: Fatigue of the tensile armor wires is the main failure mode of flexible risers. Techniques to increase the life of these components are required to improve the processes safety on oil exploration. This work evaluates the crack growth retardation of high strength steel wires used in flexible pipelines. Fracture toughness tests were performed to establish the level of stress intensity factor wherein the wires present significant plastic deformation at the crack tip. The effect of tensile overload on fatigue behavior was assessed by fatigue crack growth testing under constant ΔK control and different overload ratios with two different load ratios. The outcomes show that the application of controlled overloads provides crack retardation and increases the fatigue life of the wires more than 31%. This behavior is also evident at stress ratio of 0.5, in spite of the crack closure effect being minimized by increasing the applied mean stress

  6. Resolved shear stress intensity coefficient and fatigue crack growth in large crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, QI; Liu, Hao-Wen

    1988-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth in large grain Al alloy was studied. Fatigue crack growth is caused primarily by shear decohesion due to dislocation motion in the crack tip region. The crack paths in the large crystals are very irregular and zigzag. The crack planes are often inclined to the loading axis both in the inplane direction and the thickness direction. The stress intensity factors of such inclined cracks are approximated from the two dimensional finite element calculations. The plastic deformation in a large crystal is highly anisotropic, and dislocation motion in such crystals are driven by the resolved shear stress. The resolved shear stress intensity coefficient in a crack solid, RSSIC, is defined, and the coefficients for the slip systems at a crack tip are evaluated from the calculated stress intensity factors. The orientations of the crack planes are closely related to the slip planes with the high RSSIC values. If a single slip system has a much higher RSSIC than all the others, the crack will follow the slip plane, and the slip plane becomes the crack plane. If two or more slip systems have a high RSSIC, the crack plane is the result of the decohesion processes on these active slip planes.

  7. Numerical modeling of hydrogen diffusion in structural steels under cathodic overprotection and its effects on fatigue crack propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Diniz, D.; Almeida Silva, A. [Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande-PB (Brazil); Andrade Barbosa, J.M. [Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife-PE (Brazil); Palma Carrasco, J.

    2012-05-15

    This paper presents a numerical simulation of the effect of hydrogen atomic diffusion on fatigue crack propagation on structural steels. The simulation was performed with a specimen type CT of API 5CT P110 steel, loaded in the tensile opening mode, in plane strain state and under the effects of a cyclic mechanical load and the hydrogen concentration at the crack tip. As hydrogen source, a cathodic protection system was considered, commonly used in subsea pipelines. The equations of evolution of variables at the crack tip form a non-linear system of ordinary differential equations that was solved by means of the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The solid-solid diffusion through the lattice ahead of the crack tip was simulated using the finite difference method. The simulations results show that under these conditions, the fatigue crack evolution process is enhanced by the hydrogen presence in the material, and that the start time of the crack propagation decreases as its concentration increases. These results show good correlation and consistency with macroscopic observations, providing a better understanding of hydrogen embrittlement in fatigue crack propagation processes in structural steels. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Threshold intensity factors as lower boundaries for crack propagation in ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Per-Ole

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow crack growth can be described in a v (crack velocity versus KI (stress intensity factor diagram. Slow crack growth in ceramics is attributed to corrosion assisted stress at the crack tip or at any pre-existing defect in the ceramic. The combined effect of high stresses at the crack tip and the presence of water or body fluid molecules (reducing surface energy at the crack tip induces crack propagation, which eventually may result in fatigue. The presence of a threshold in the stress intensity factor, below which no crack propagation occurs, has been the subject of important research in the last years. The higher this threshold, the higher the reliability of the ceramic, and consequently the longer its lifetime. Methods We utilize the Irwin K-field displacement relation to deduce crack tip stress intensity factors from the near crack tip profile. Cracks are initiated by indentation impressions. The threshold stress intensity factor is determined as the time limit of the tip stress intensity when the residual stresses have (nearly disappeared. Results We determined the threshold stress intensity factors for most of the all ceramic materials presently important for dental restorations in Europe. Of special significance is the finding that alumina ceramic has a threshold limit nearly identical with that of zirconia. Conclusion The intention of the present paper is to stress the point that the threshold stress intensity factor represents a more intrinsic property for a given ceramic material than the widely used toughness (bend strength or fracture toughness, which refers only to fast crack growth. Considering two ceramics with identical threshold limits, although with different critical stress intensity limits, means that both ceramics have identical starting points for slow crack growth. Fast catastrophic crack growth leading to spontaneous fatigue, however, is different. This growth starts later in those ceramic materials

  9. Fracture Mechanics Analyses for Interface Crack Problems - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Ronald; Shivakumar, Kunigal; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in fracture mechanics analyses of the interfacial crack problem are reviewed. The intent of the review is to renew the awareness of the oscillatory singularity at the crack tip of a bimaterial interface and the problems that occur when calculating mode mixity using numerical methods such as the finite element method in conjunction with the virtual crack closure technique. Established approaches to overcome the nonconvergence issue of the individual mode strain energy release rates are reviewed. In the recent literature many attempts to overcome the nonconvergence issue have been developed. Among the many approaches found only a few methods hold the promise of providing practical solutions. These are the resin interlayer method, the method that chooses the crack tip element size greater than the oscillation zone, the crack tip element method that is based on plate theory and the crack surface displacement extrapolation method. Each of the methods is validated on a very limited set of simple interface crack problems. However, their utility for a wide range of interfacial crack problems is yet to be established.

  10. The effect of crack blunting on the competition between dislocation nucleation and cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Lisa L.; Beltz, Glenn E.

    2001-03-01

    To better understand the ductile versus brittle fracture behavior of crystalline materials, attention should be directed towards physically realistic crack geometries. Currently, continuum models of ductile versus brittle behavior are typically based on the analysis of a pre-existing sharp crack in order to use analytical solutions for the stress fields around the crack tip. This paper examines the effects of crack blunting on the competition between dislocation nucleation and atomic decohesion using continuum methods. We accomplish this by assuming that the crack geometry is elliptical, which has the primary advantage that the stress fields are available in closed form. These stress field solutions are then used to calculate the thresholds for dislocation nucleation and atomic decohesion. A Peierls-type framework is used to obtain the thresholds for dislocation nucleation, in which the region of the slip plane ahead of the crack develops a distribution of slip discontinuity prior to nucleation. This slip distribution increases as the applied load is increased until an instability is reached and the governing integral equation can no longer be solved. These calculations are carried out for various crack tip geometries to ascertain the effects of crack tip blunting. The thresholds for atomic decohesion are calculated using a cohesive zone model, in which the region of the crack front develops a distribution of opening displacement prior to atomic decohesion. Again, loading of the elliptical crack tip eventually results in an instability, which marks the onset of crack advance. These calculations are carried out for various crack tip geometries. The results of these separate calculations are presented as the critical energy release rates versus the crack tip radius of curvature for a given crack length. The two threshold curves are compared simultaneously to determine which failure mode is energetically more likely at various crack tip curvatures. From these

  11. Creep crack growth in phosphorus alloyed oxygen free copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Rui; Seitisleam, Facredin (Swerea KIMAB (Sweden)); Sandstroem, Rolf; Jin, Lai-Zhe (Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Inst. of Technology (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    Using standard compact tension (CT) specimens taken from a pierce and draw cylinder, creep crack growth (CCG) has been studied in phosphorus-alloyed oxygen-free copper (Cu-OFP) parent metal at 22, 75, 175, and 215 deg C. Pre- and post-test metallography are performed. At higher temperatures the rupture time of CCG is shorter by a factor up of 65 than that of uniaxial at same stress/reference stress. At 175 and 215 deg C, crack does grow by creep about 10 mm before final instantaneous failure. In contrast, there is hardly any visible crack growth at 22 and 75 deg C. The tests were interrupted after 5000 to 13000 hours. For ruptured tests at 175 and 215 deg C, strongly elongated and deformed grains are observed adjacent to crack. Extensive and intergranular creep cavities and microcracks are found several mm around crack. For interrupted tests at 22 and 75 deg C, strongly elongated and deformed grains, creep cavities, as well as microcracks are observed close to crack tip. Surface cracks from both sides have initiated and grown about 45 deg to the load direction towards inside. For the interrupted tests, hardness adjacent to crack tip has more than doubled because of work hardening, or heavy deformation. This is consistent with large crack tip opening. The true strain at the crack tip is estimated to 10 and 4 for the tests at 22 and 75 deg C, respectively. The stress state behind the crack tip has been modelled with FEM. Stress relaxation after loading has also been taken into account. A model for the creep damage based on the creep strain rate has been formulated that can describe the uniaxial creep rupture data without fitting parameters. Based on the formulation for the creep damage, a model for the crack propagation has been set up. When the creep damage has reached the value unity in front of the crack tip, the crack is assumed to propagate. Taking multiaxial effects into account the observed life times of the CT specimens can be well described. The multiaxial

  12. Creep crack growth in phosphorus alloyed oxygen free copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Rui; Seitisleam, Facredin; Sandstroem, Rolf; Jin, Lai-Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Using standard compact tension (CT) specimens taken from a pierce and draw cylinder, creep crack growth (CCG) has been studied in phosphorus-alloyed oxygen-free copper (Cu-OFP) parent metal at 22, 75, 175, and 215 deg C. Pre- and post-test metallography are performed. At higher temperatures the rupture time of CCG is shorter by a factor up of 65 than that of uniaxial at same stress/reference stress. At 175 and 215 deg C, crack does grow by creep about 10 mm before final instantaneous failure. In contrast, there is hardly any visible crack growth at 22 and 75 deg C. The tests were interrupted after 5000 to 13000 hours. For ruptured tests at 175 and 215 deg C, strongly elongated and deformed grains are observed adjacent to crack. Extensive and intergranular creep cavities and microcracks are found several mm around crack. For interrupted tests at 22 and 75 deg C, strongly elongated and deformed grains, creep cavities, as well as microcracks are observed close to crack tip. Surface cracks from both sides have initiated and grown about 45 deg to the load direction towards inside. For the interrupted tests, hardness adjacent to crack tip has more than doubled because of work hardening, or heavy deformation. This is consistent with large crack tip opening. The true strain at the crack tip is estimated to 10 and 4 for the tests at 22 and 75 deg C, respectively. The stress state behind the crack tip has been modelled with FEM. Stress relaxation after loading has also been taken into account. A model for the creep damage based on the creep strain rate has been formulated that can describe the uniaxial creep rupture data without fitting parameters. Based on the formulation for the creep damage, a model for the crack propagation has been set up. When the creep damage has reached the value unity in front of the crack tip, the crack is assumed to propagate. Taking multiaxial effects into account the observed life times of the CT specimens can be well described. The multiaxial

  13. On the behavior of crack surface ligaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, P.; Staahle, P.; Sundin, K.G.

    1998-01-01

    Small ligaments connecting the fracture surfaces just behind a moving crack front are assumed to exist under certain conditions. The ligaments are rapidly torn as the crack advances. Inelastic straining of such ligaments influences the energy balance in the fracture process. The rapid tearing of a single ligament is studied both numerically and experimentally. An elastic visco-plastic material model is adopted for finite-element calculations. The results show that relatively large amounts of energy are dissipated during the tearing process. Further, the energy needed to tear a ligament increases rapidly with increasing tearing rate. The computed behavior is partly verified in a few preliminary experiments. The implications for slow stable crack tip speeds during dynamic fracture are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Fast fracture: an adiabatic restriction on thermally activated crack propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Slow, isothermal, crack propagation is widely suspected to be rate controlled by thermally activated plastic deformation in the crack tip region. Adiabatic conditions are generally established in the fracture modified material at the tip of a crack during fast fracture. The temperature of this material is not the temperature of the specimen and is generally not measured during fast fracture. Thus, a complete thermodynamic description of adiabatic crack propagation data can not be made. When the slow, isothermal, crack propagation mechanisms are assumed to be operative during adiabatic crack propagation then certain predictions can be made. For example: the changes in the driving force due to temperature and rate are always in the opposite sense; there is no minimum in the driving force versus crack velocity without a change in mechanism; the temperature rise in the crack tip fracture modified material is determined mainly by the activation enthalpy for crack propagation; the interpretation of fast fracture structural steel data from simple plastic models is suspect since these materials have dissimilar isothermal temperature dependencies.

  15. Dislocations, the elastic energy momentum tensor and crack propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, Chi-wei

    1979-07-01

    Based upon dislocation theory, some stress intensity factors can be calculated for practical cases. The results obtained by this method have been found to agree fairly well with the results obtained by the conventional fracture mechanics. The elastic energy momentum tensor has been used to calculate the force acting on the crack tip. A discussion on the kinetics of migration of impurities to the crack tip was given. It seems that the crack tip sometimes may be considered as a singularity in an elastic field and the fundamental law of classical field theory is applicable on the problem in fracture of materials. (author)

  16. The effect of potential on the high-temperature fatigue crack growth response of low alloy steels: Part II, electrochemical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshier, W.C.; James, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in low alloy steels was found to be dependent on externally applied potential in low sulfur steels in high temperature water. EAC could be turned on when the specimen was polarized anodically above a critical potential. However, hydrogen (H) additions inhibited the ability of potential to affect EAC. The behavior was related to formation of H ions during H oxidation at the crack mouth. A mechanism based on formation of H sulfide at the crack tip and H ions at the crack mouth is presented to describe the process by which sulfides and H ions affect the critical sulfide concentration at the crack tip

  17. Fracture mechanics of piezoelectric solids with interface cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Govorukha, Volodymyr; Loboda, Volodymyr; Lapusta, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive study of cracks situated at the interface of two piezoelectric materials. It discusses different electric boundary conditions along the crack faces, in particular the cases of electrically permeable, impermeable, partially permeable, and conducting cracks. The book also elaborates on a new technique for the determination of electromechanical fields at the tips of interface cracks in finite sized piezoceramic bodies of arbitrary shape under different load types. It solves scientific problems of solid mechanics in connection with the investigation of electromechanical fields in piezoceramic bodies with interface cracks, and develops calculation models and solution methods for plane fracture mechanical problems for piecewise homogeneous piezoceramic bodies with cracks at the interfaces. It discusses the “open” crack model, which leads to a physically unrealistic oscillating singularity at the crack tips, and the contact zone model for in-plane straight interface cracks betw...

  18. Ultrasonic signal processing for sizing under-clad flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, R.; Paradiso, T.J.; Lane, S.S.; Quinn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasonic digital data were collected from underclad cracks in sample pressure vessel specimen blocks. These blocks were weld cladded under different processes to simulate actual conditions in US Pressure Water Reactors. Each crack was represented by a flaw-echo dynamic curve which is a plot of the transducer motion on the surface as a function of the ultrasonic response into the material. Crack depth sizing was performed by identifying in the dynamic curve the crack tip diffraction signals from the upper and lower tips. This paper describes the experimental procedure, digital signal processing methods used and algorithms developed for crack depth sizing

  19. Development of fatigue crack propagation models for engineering applications at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkins, B.

    1975-05-01

    The value of modelling the fatigue crack propagation process is discussed and current models are examined in the light of increasing knowledge of crack tip deformation. Elevated temperature fatigue is examined in detail as an area in which models could contribute significantly to engineering design. A model is developed which examines the role of time-dependent creep cavitation on the failure process in an interactive creep-fatigue situation. (auth)

  20. Multiscale model of short cracks in a random polycrystalline aggregate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.; Petric, Z.

    2006-01-01

    A plane-strain finite element crystal plasticity model of microstructurally small stationary crack emanating at a surface grain in a 316L stainless steel is proposed. The model consisting of 212 randomly shaped, sized and oriented grains is loaded monotonically in uniaxial tension to a maximum load of 1.12Rp0.2 (280MPa). The influence that a random grain structure imposes on a Stage I crack is assessed by calculating the crack tip opening (CTOD) and sliding displacements (CTSD) for single crystal as well as for polycrystal models, considering also different crystallographic orientations. In the single crystal case the CTOD and CTSD may differ by more than one order of magnitude. Near the crack tip slip is activated on all the slip planes whereby only two are active in the rest of the model. The maximum CTOD is directly related to the maximal Schmid factors. For the more complex polycrystal cases it is shown that certain crystallographic orientations result in a cluster of soft grains around the crack-containing grain. In these cases the crack tip can become a part of the localized strain, resulting in a large CTOD value. This effect, resulting from the overall grain orientations and sizes, can have a greater impact on the CTOD than the local grain orientation. On the other hand, when a localized soft response is formed away from the crack, the localized strain does not affect the crack tip directly, resulting in a small CTOD value. The resulting difference in CTOD can be up to a factor of 4, depending upon the crystallographic set. Grains as far as 6 times the value of crack length significantly influence that crack tip parameters. It was also found that a larger crack containing grain tends to increase the CTOD. Finally, smaller than expected drop in the CTOD (12.7%) was obtained as the crack approached the grain boundary. This could be due to the assumption of the unchanged crack direction, only monotonic loading and simplified grain boundary modelling. (author)

  1. Analysis of steady-state ductile crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian

    1999-01-01

    The fracture strength under quasi-static steady-state crack growth in an elastic-plastic material joined by a laser weld is analyzed. Laser welding gives high mismatch between the yield stress within the weld and the yield stress in the base material. This is due to the fast termic cycle, which...... the finite element mesh remains fixed relative to the tip of the growing crack. Fracture is modelled using two different local crack growth criteria. One is a crack opening displacement criterion, while the other is a model in which a cohesive zone is imposed in front of the crack tip along the fracture zone....... Both models predict that in general a thinner laser weld gives higher interface strength. Furthermore, both fracture criteria show, that the preferred path of the crack is close outside the weld material; a phenomenon also observed in experiments....

  2. Towards a quantification of stress corrosion mechanisms: numerical simulations of hydrogen-dislocations at the very crack tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateau, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the respective roles played by anodic dissolution and hydrogen in SCC mechanisms of f.c.c. materials, by studying the fracture of copper in nitrite for which we compare the results with that previously obtained in 316L steel in hot chloride. It is surprising to note that even the crystallographies at the scale of the micron are different, the macroscopic inclination of the fracture surfaces are the same. In the case of 316L steel, the formation of strong pile-ups in the presence of hydrogen leads to a zigzag fracture along alternated slip planes in the most general case. In the absence of hydrogen, as in copper, this mechanism effectively disappears. Furthermore, numerical simulations of crack shielding by dislocations emitted on one plane predict the macroscopic inclination. It shows that it is due to the mere dissolution which confines slip activity at the very crack tip in f.c.c. materials. In order to quantify the mechanism involved in 316L steel, we developed simulations which numerically solve the coupled diffusion and elasticity equations for hydrogen in the presence of a crack and shielding dislocations. They reproduce the mechanisms of hydrogen segregation on edge dislocations and of a localised softening effect by decreasing pair interactions. These mechanisms lead to i) a localisation of hydrogen embrittlement along the activated slip planes, ii) an increase of the dislocation density in pile-ups, and iii) a decrease of the cross slip probability. These three factors enhance micro-fracture at the head of a pile-up, which is responsible of the zigzag fracture. Introducing the free surface effects for hydrogen, we point out a new mechanism: the inhibition of dislocation sources at the crack tip, which is relevant with the brittle fracture surfaces observed in some cases in 316L steel. The quantification of these different mechanisms allows to give a relation between the local fracture possibility and the macroscopic parameters. A general law for

  3. Stress intensity factor at the tip of cladding incipient crack in RIA-simulating experiments for high-burnup PWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udagawa, Yutaka; Suzuki, Motoe; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Fuketa, Toyoshi

    2009-01-01

    RIA-simulating experiments for high-burnup PWR fuels have been performed in the NSRR, and the stress intensity factor K 1 at the tip of cladding incipient crack has been evaluated in order to investigate its validity as a PCMI failure threshold under RIA conditions. An incipient crack depth was determined by observation of metallographs. The maximum hydride-rim thickness in the cladding of the test fuel rod was regarded as the incipient crack depth in each test case. Hoop stress in the cladding periphery during the pulse power transient was calculated by the RANNS code. K 1 was calculated based on crack depth and hoop stress. According to the RANNS calculation, PCMI failure cases can be divided into two groups: failure in the elastic phase and failure in the plastic phase. In the former case, elastic deformation was predominant around the incipient crack at failure time. K 1 is available only in this case. In the latter, plastic deformation was predominant around the incipient crack at failure time. Failure in the elastic phase never occurred when K 1 was less than 17 MPa m 1/2 . For failure in the plastic phase, the plastic hoop strain of the cladding periphery at failure time clearly showed a tendency to decrease with incipient crack depth. The combination of K 1 , for failure in the elastic phase, and plastic hoop strain at failure, for failure in the plastic phase, can be an effective index of PCMI failure under RIA conditions. (author)

  4. Cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking in a low-alloy steel: Theoretical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wire, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) can cause increases in fatigue crack growth rates of 40 to 100 times the rate in air for low alloy steels. The increased rates can lead to very large predicted crack growth. EAC is activated by a critical level of dissolved sulfides at the crack tip. Sulfide inclusions (MnS) in the steel produce corrosive sulfides in solution following exposure by a growing crack. In stagnant, low oxygen water conditions considered here, diffusion is the dominant mass transport mechanism acting to change the sulfide concentration within the crack. The average crack tip velocity is below the level required to produce the critical crack tip sulfide ion concentration required for EAC. Crack extension analyses also consider the breakthrough of large, hypothetical embedded defects with the attendant large freshly exposed sulfide inventory. Combrade et al. noted that a large inventory of undissolved metallurgical sulfides on crack flanks could trigger EAC, but did not quantify the effects. Diffusion analysis is extended herein to cover breakthrough of embedded defects with large sulfide inventories. The mass transport via diffusion is limited by the sulfide solubility. As a result, deep cracks in high sulfur steels are predicted to retain undissolved sulfides for extended but finite periods of time t diss which increase with the crack length and the metallurgical sulfide content in the steel. The analysis shows that the duration of EAC is limited to t diss providing V eac , the crack tip velocity associated with EAC is less than V In , the crack tip velocity below which EAC will not occur in an initially sulfide free crack. This condition on V eac need only be met for a short time following crack cleanup to turn off EAC. The predicted crack extension due to limited duration of EAC is a small fraction of the initial embedded defect size and would not greatly change calculated crack depths

  5. A theoretical model of semi-elliptic surface crack growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Kaikai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model of semi-elliptic surface crack growth based on the low cycle strain damage accumulation near the crack tip along the cracking direction and the Newman–Raju formula is developed. The crack is regarded as a sharp notch with a small curvature radius and the process zone is assumed to be the size of cyclic plastic zone. The modified Hutchinson, Rice and Rosengren (HRR formulations are used in the presented study. Assuming that the shape of surface crack front is controlled by two critical points: the deepest point and the surface point. The theoretical model is applied to semi-elliptic surface cracked Al 7075-T6 alloy plate under cyclic loading, and five different initial crack shapes are discussed in present study. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results is obtained.

  6. Sizing of cracks by ultrasonic testing - Diffraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, K.; Sattari-Far, I.; Pers-Anderson, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    The work has been concentrated on manual ultrasonic testing of plates in carbon and austenitic steel with thicknesses of 10-40 mm. Evaluation of data was performed by studying the amplitude, accuracy (crack depth) and visibility. The experience from the project showed that identification of the weak signals from the crack tips requires well-trained personnel. Besides that, the following can be recommended: Estimate if the crack has compressive stresses. Especially shallow cracks are exposed for compressive stresses. Chose a refraction angle ≥ 60 degrees if the crack is deep. Try both low (approx equivalent to 2MHz) and high (approx equivalent to 4-5MHz) frequency. Lower frequencies often increase amplitude response. Avoid the combination of refraction angle greater than 60 degrees and low frequency. Inspect with half as well as full skip. Sometimes a stronger signal is received for full skip, because the amplitude of the diffracted signal is higher from the cracked side. Use complementary measurements with mode conversion techniques. Focused probes can improve the results, especially for complicated geometries. Do not use reference reflectors of EDM-notch type for verification of signal amplitude. No correlation between amplitude from an EDM-notch tip and a crack tip exists. Reference reflectors of EDM-notch type can be used to verify the resolution of the system. A shallow EDM-notch can show if the probe can separate the tip and corner. It is our experience that general solutions does not exist, and each case needs an individual solution

  7. Prediction of Crack Growth Aqueous Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS SRI International 333 Ravenswood Avenue Menlo Park, CA 94025 II...34no crack" has at least a vestigial rupture, associated with cyclic loading of the oxide film at the crack tip. The curve labeled "crack" was obtained...be an effect of crack opening. For the data set labeled "crack", the vestigial crack, although short, is very tight and the impedance is large. Under

  8. Critique of the Ford-Andresen film rupture model for aqueous stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Ford-Andresen film rupture model for aqueous stress corrosion cracking has obtained a prominent position in the nuclear reactor industry. The model is said to have superior predictive capabilities because it is derived from a fundamental understanding of the film rupture-repassivation mechanism of crack advance. However, a critical review shows that there are conceptual and mathematical problems with the Ford-Andresen model development; there are inconsistencies among the stated and implied assumptions, the crack tip current density expression lacks the necessary dependence on crack tip strain rate and the fundamental proportionality that exists between crack tip strain rate and crack growth rate is overlooked and omitted from the model development. Consequently, the Ford-Andresen model must be considered neither phenomenologically nor fundamentally supported.

  9. FEM Modeling of Crack Propagation in a Model Multiphase Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihe QIAN; Seishi NISHIDO; Hiroyuki TODA; Tosliro KOBAYASHI

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, several widely applied fracture criteria were first numerically examined and the crack-tip-region Jintegral criterion was confirmed to be more applicable to predict fracture angle in an elastic-plastic multiphase material. Then, the crack propagation in an idealized dendritic two-phase Al-7%Si alloy was modeled using an elastic-plastic finite element method. The variation of crack growth driving force with crack extension was also demonstrated. It is found that the crack path is significantly influenced by the presence of α-phase near the crack tip, and the crack growth driving force varies drastically from place to place. Lastly, the simulated fracture path in the two-phase model alloy was compared with the experimentally observed fracture path.

  10. Process and apparatus for cracking petroleum, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-04-25

    Process for catalytic cracking of petroleum and similar material at normal pressure, characterized by the oil vaporized in a vaporizer being treated in a first catalyst-chamber and in a separator attached to it, light constituents being separated, and then its being run into a second apparatus-group (vaporizer, catalyst-chamber, and separator), further groups following in series, whereby the catalyst works in a separate catalyst apparatus with ever-increasing activity time on the always lesser but always more difficult to crack material, so that in the whole apparatus a methodical cracking process is effected.

  11. Short intergranular cracks in the piecewise anisotropic continuum model of the microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizelj, L.; Kovse, I.

    2001-01-01

    Computational algorithms aiming at modeling and visualization of the initiation and growth of intergranular stress corrosion cracks (e.g., in the steam generator tubes) on the grain-size scale have already been proposed [6]. The main focus of the paper is given to the influence of randomly oriented neighboring grains on the microscopic stress fields at crack tips. The incompatibility strains, which develop along the boundaries of randomly oriented anisotropic grains, are shown to influence the local stress fields at crack tips significantly. Special attention has been paid to the implementation and comparison of different numerical methods estimating the local stress fields at crack tips, aiming at optimizing the computational time and the numerical accuracy of the results. The limited number of calculations indicate that the anisotropic arrangement of grains with local incompatibility strains causes on average about 10% (plane strain) and 26% (plane stress) higher J-integral values at the crack tips than expected from the calculations in the isotropic case.(author)

  12. Curvilinear crack layer propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexander; Chaoui, Kamel; Moet, Abdelsamie

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of an experiment designed to allow observation of the effect of damage orientation on the direction of crack growth in the case of crack layer propagation, using polystyrene as the model material. The direction of crack advance under a given loading condition is noted to be determined by a competition between the tendency of the crack to maintain its current direction and the tendency to follow the orientation of the crazes at its tip. The orientation of the crazes is, on the other hand, determined by the stress field due to the interaction of the crack, the crazes, and the hole. The changes in craze rotation relative to the crack define the active zone rotation.

  13. A Crack Closure Model and Its Application to Vibrothermography Nondestructive Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefelbein, Bryan Edward

    Vibrothermography nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is in the early stages of research and development, and there exists uncertainty in the fundamental mechanisms and processes by which heat generation occurs. Holland et al. have developed a set of tools which simulate and predict the outcome of a vibrothermography inspection by breaking the inspection into three distinct processes: vibrational excitation, heat generation, and thermal imaging. The stage of vibrothermography which is not well understood is the process by which vibrations are converted to heat at the crack surface. It has been shown that crack closure and closure state impact the resulting heat generation. Despite this, research into the link between partial crack closure and vibrothermography is limited. This work seeks to rectify this gap in knowledge by modeling the behavior of a partially closed crack in response to static external loading and a dynamic vibration. The residual strains left by the plastic wake during fatigue crack growth manifest themselves as contact stresses acting at the crack surface interface. In response to an applied load below the crack opening stress, the crack closure state will evolve, but the crack will remain partially closed. The crack closure model developed in this work is based in linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and describes the behavior of a partially closed crack in response to a tensile external load and non-uniform closure stress distribution. The model builds on work by Fleck to describe the effective length, crack opening displacement, and crack tip stress field for a partially closed crack. These quantities are solved for by first establishing an equilibrium condition which governs the effective or apparent length of the partially closed crack. The equilibrium condition states that, under any external or crack surface loading, the effective crack tip will be located where the effective stress intensity factor is zero. In LEFM, this is equivalent to

  14. Evaluation of the presence of constraint in crack run/arrest events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, C.W.; Bass, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    Crack arrest studies currently being conducted by the Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program are designed to improve our understanding of the conditions contributing to the arrest of a propagating fracture in a pressure vessel. These studies are generating data spanning a wide temperature range for a variety of experimental configurations. Dynamic crack arrest parameters are back-figured from these experiments through 'generation mode' dynamic viscoplastic finite element calculations driven by the measured crack tip history input. A major approximation in these analyses, which is dictated by the practical limitations of current supercomputer hardware, is the assumption of two-dimensional plane stress conditions. Although this approximation is reasonable over most of the problem domain for many test specimen geometries, it deteriorates at locations near the crack tip due to triaxial constraint effects. This paper describes plans for a fine-grained three-dimensional computational study to investigate the importance of these near-tip triaxial constraint effects on crack tip yielding and to develop appropriate algorithms for incorporating these effects into conventional two-dimensional plane stress approximations. (author)

  15. Simulation of fatigue crack growth under large scale yielding conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Christoph; Seifert, Thomas; Riedel, Hermann

    2010-07-01

    A simple mechanism based model for fatigue crack growth assumes a linear correlation between the cyclic crack-tip opening displacement (ΔCTOD) and the crack growth increment (da/dN). The objective of this work is to compare analytical estimates of ΔCTOD with results of numerical calculations under large scale yielding conditions and to verify the physical basis of the model by comparing the predicted and the measured evolution of the crack length in a 10%-chromium-steel. The material is described by a rate independent cyclic plasticity model with power-law hardening and Masing behavior. During the tension-going part of the cycle, nodes at the crack-tip are released such that the crack growth increment corresponds approximately to the crack-tip opening. The finite element analysis performed in ABAQUS is continued for so many cycles until a stabilized value of ΔCTOD is reached. The analytical model contains an interpolation formula for the J-integral, which is generalized to account for cyclic loading and crack closure. Both simulated and estimated ΔCTOD are reasonably consistent. The predicted crack length evolution is found to be in good agreement with the behavior of microcracks observed in a 10%-chromium steel.

  16. Microstructural features of environmentally assisted cracking in pipeline steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, B.W.; Lambert, S.B.; Zhang, X.; Plumtree, A.; Sutherby, R.

    2003-01-01

    A number of small-scale pipeline specimens containing edge or surface cracks were tested in simulated groundwater (NS4 solution) in an anaerobic environment under cyclic loading conditions. Micrographs of the crack surface showed corrosion fatigue at high frequencies and low R-ratios. Following large amounts of growth (∼200 μm) for those specimens tested at low frequencies, evidence of transgranular quasi-cleavage was detected. Green rust was found to be present at the crack tips and along their flanks. Iron sulfide, resulting from anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria and iron carbonate were also present in the NS4 solution during testing. These corrosion products retarded crack growth in the depth direction of surface cracks. Under variable amplitude loadings conditions, the accompanying increased surface crack growth rate can be accounted for by rupture of the green rust film at the crack tip. (author)

  17. Separating the Influence of Environment from Stress Relaxation Effects on Dwell Fatigue Crack Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, Jack; Gabb, Tim; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2016-01-01

    Seven different microstructural variations of LSHR were produced by controlling the cooling rate and the subsequent aging and thermal exposure heat treatments. Through cyclic fatigue crack growth testing performed both in air and vacuum, it was established that four out of the seven LSHR heat treatments evaluated, possessed similar intrinsic environmental resistance to cyclic crack growth. For these four heat treatments, it was further shown that the large differences in dwell crack growth behavior which still persisted, were related to their measured stress relaxation behavior. The apparent differences in their dwell crack growth resistance were attributed to the inability of the standard linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) stress intensity parameter to account for visco-plastic behavior. Crack tip stress relaxation controls the magnitude of the remaining local tensile stresses which are directly related to the measured dwell crack growth rates. It was hypothesized that the environmentally weakened grain boundary crack tip regions fail during the dwells when their strength is exceeded by the remaining local crack tip tensile stresses. It was shown that the classical creep crack growth mechanisms such as grain boundary sliding did not contribute to crack growth, but the local visco-plastic behavior still plays a very significant role by determining the crack tip tensile stress field which controls the dwell crack growth behavior. To account for the influence of the visco-plastic behavior on the crack tip stress field, an empirical modification to the LEFM stress intensity parameter, Kmax, was developed by incorporating into the formulation the remaining stress level concept as measured by simple stress relaxation tests. The newly proposed parameter, Ksrf, did an excellent job in correlating the dwell crack growth rates for the four heat treatments which were shown to have similar intrinsic environmental cyclic fatigue crack growth resistance.

  18. Micromechanical Analyses of Debonding and Matrix Cracking in Dual-Phase Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Yang, Qingda

    2016-01-01

    Failure in elastic dual-phase materials under transverse tension is studied numerically. Cohesive zones represent failure along the interface and the augmented finite element method (A-FEM) is used for matrix cracking. Matrix cracks are formed at an angle of 55 deg - 60 deg relative to the loading...... direction, which is in good agreement with experiments. Matrix cracks initiate at the tip of the debond, and for equi-biaxial loading cracks are formed at both tips. For elliptical reinforcement the matrix cracks initiate at the narrow end of the ellipse. The load carrying capacity is highest for ligaments...

  19. Crack embryo formation before crack initiation and growth in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arioka, Koji; Yamada, Takuyo; Terachi, Takumi; Miyamoto, Tomoki

    2008-01-01

    Crack growth measurements were performed in high temperature water and in air to examine the role of creep on IGSCC growth using cold rolled non-sensitized Type316(UNS S31600), TT690 alloy, MA600 alloy, and Carbon steel (STPT42). In addition, crack initiation tests were performed also in high temperature water and in air using specially designed CT specimen. The obtained major results are as follows: (1) TT690 did crack in intergranularly in hydrogenated high temperature water if material is cold worked in heavily. (2) Cold worked carbon steel also cracked in intergranularly in dearated high temperature water. (3) Intergranular crack growth was recognized on cold worked 316, TT690, MA600, and carbon steel even in air which might be crack embryo of IGSCC. (4) Simple Arrhenius type temperature dependence was observed on IGSCC in high temperature water and creep crack growth in air. This suggested that intergranular crack growth rate was determined by some thermal activated reaction. (5) Vacancy condensation was recognized at just ahead of the crack tips of IGSCC and creep crack of cold worked steel. This showed that IGSCC and creep crack growth was controlled by same mechanism. (6) Clear evidence of vacancies condensation was recognized at just beneath the surface before crack initiation. This proved that crack did initiate as the result of diffusion of vacancies in the solid. And the incubation time seems to be controlled by the required time for the condensation of vacancies to the stress concentrated zone. (7) Diffusion of subsituational atoms was also driven by stress gradient. This is the important knowledge to evaluate the SCC initiation after long term operation in LWR's. Based on the observed results, IGSCC initiation and growth mechanism were proposed considering the diffusion process of cold worked induced vacancies. (author)

  20. Subcritical crack growth in a phosphate laser glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crichton, S.N.; Tomozawa, M.; Hayden, J.S.; Suratwala, T.I.; Campbell, J.H.

    1999-11-01

    The rate of subcritical crack growth in a metaphosphate Nd-doped laser glass was measured using the double-cleavage-drilled compression (DCDC) method. The crack velocity is reported as a function of stress intensity at temperatures ranging from 296 to 573 K and in nitrogen with water vapor pressures ranging from 40 Pa (0.3 mmHg) to 4.7 x 10{sup 4} Pa (355 mmHg). The measured crack velocities follow region I, II, and III behavior similar to that reported for silicate glasses. A chemical and mass-transport-limited reaction rate model explains the behavior of the data except at high temperatures and high water vapor pressures where crack tip blunting is observed. Blunting is characterized to reinitiate slow crack growth at higher stresses. A dynamic crack tip blunting mechanism is proposed to explain the deviation from the reaction rate model.

  1. Quarter elliptical crack growth using three dimensional finite element method and crack closure technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozin, Mohammad-Hosein; Aghaie-Khafri, Mehrdad [K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Shape evolution of a quarter-elliptical crack emanating from a hole is studied. Three dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the fatigue crack closure was considered and the stress intensity factor was calculated based on the duplicated elastic model at each crack tip node. The crack front node was advanced proportional to the imposed effective stress intensity factor. Remeshing was applied at each step of the crack growth and solution mapping algorithm was considered. Crack growth retardation at free surfaces was successfully observed. A MATLAB-ABAQUS interference code was developed for the first time to perform crack growth on the basis of crack closure. Simulation results indicated that crack shape is sensitive to the remeshing strategy. Predictions based on the proposed models were in good agreement with Carlson's experiments results.

  2. Investigation of plastic zones near SCC tips in a pipeline after hydrostatic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Elboujdaini, M.; Gao, M.; Revie, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is an important failure mechanism for oil and gas pipelines. In the past, hydrostatic testing has been frequently used to assess and mitigate stress corrosion cracking. It is commonly agreed that an effective hydrostatic test not only eliminates critical crack-like flaws, but also blunts the sub-critical crack tip thereby suppressing further SCC propagation. However, little study has been done on the plastic deformation that results from the high stress intensity at the crack tip due to hydrostatic testing pressure and its possible role in subsequent SCC propagation. In this study, microstructural details were examined of an API 5L X52 SCC-containing pipe removed from field service. Plastic deformation generated by the hydrostatic testing pressure was revealed by using high-resolution imaging of a focused ion beam (FIB) microscope. The existence of the microscopic plastic zones around some crack tips suggests that caution should be taken when setting up pipeline hydrostatic tests

  3. Investigation of plastic zones near SCC tips in a pipeline after hydrostatic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jian [Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources Canada, 568 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0G1 (Canada)], E-mail: jili@nrcan.gc.ca; Elboujdaini, M [Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources Canada, 568 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0G1 (Canada); Gao, M [Blade Energy Partners, 16225 Park Ten Place, Suite 450, Houston, TX 77084 (United States); Revie, R W [Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources Canada, 568 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0G1 (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is an important failure mechanism for oil and gas pipelines. In the past, hydrostatic testing has been frequently used to assess and mitigate stress corrosion cracking. It is commonly agreed that an effective hydrostatic test not only eliminates critical crack-like flaws, but also blunts the sub-critical crack tip thereby suppressing further SCC propagation. However, little study has been done on the plastic deformation that results from the high stress intensity at the crack tip due to hydrostatic testing pressure and its possible role in subsequent SCC propagation. In this study, microstructural details were examined of an API 5L X52 SCC-containing pipe removed from field service. Plastic deformation generated by the hydrostatic testing pressure was revealed by using high-resolution imaging of a focused ion beam (FIB) microscope. The existence of the microscopic plastic zones around some crack tips suggests that caution should be taken when setting up pipeline hydrostatic tests.

  4. Interface crack growth for anisotropic plasticity with non-normality effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Legarth, Brian Nyvang

    2007-01-01

    A plasticity model with a non-normality plastic flow rule is used to analyze crack growth along an interface between a solid with plastic anisotropy and an elastic substrate. The fracture process is represented in terms of a traction-separation law specified on the crack plane. A phenomenological...... an oscillating stress singularity, and with conditions of small scale yielding this solution is applied as boundary conditions on the outer edge of the region analyzed. Crack growth resistance curves are calculated numerically, and the effect of the near-tip mode mixity on the steady-state fracture toughness...

  5. Crack diffusion coefficient - A candidate fracture toughness parameter for short fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, M. A.; Chudnovsky, A.; Moet, A.

    1987-01-01

    In brittle matrix composites, crack propagation occurs along random trajectories reflecting the heterogeneous nature of the strength field. Considering the crack trajectory as a diffusive process, the 'crack diffusion coefficient' is introduced. From fatigue crack propagation experiments on a set of identical SEN polyester composite specimens, the variance of the crack tip position along the loading axis is found to be a linear function of the effective 'time'. The latter is taken as the effective crack length. The coefficient of proportionality between variance of the crack trajectory and the effective crack length defines the crack diffusion coefficient D which is found in the present study to be 0.165 mm. This parameter reflects the ability of the composite to deviate the crack from the energetically most efficient path and thus links fracture toughness to the microstructure.

  6. Crack growth threshold under hold time conditions in DA Inconel 718 – A transition in the crack growth mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fessler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeroengine manufacturers have to demonstrate that critical components such as turbine disks, made of DA Inconel 718, meet the certification requirements in term of fatigue crack growth. In order to be more representative of the in service loading conditions, crack growth under hold time conditions is studied. Modelling crack growth under these conditions is challenging due to the combined effect of fatigue, creep and environment. Under these conditions, established models are often conservative but the degree of conservatism can be reduced by introducing the crack growth threshold in models. Here, the emphasis is laid on the characterization of crack growth rates in the low ΔK regime under hold time conditions and in particular, on the involved crack growth mechanism. Crack growth tests were carried out at high temperature (550 °C to 650 °C under hold time conditions (up to 1200 s in the low ΔK regime using a K-decreasing procedure. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify the fracture mode involved in the low ΔK regime. EBSD analyses and BSE imaging were also carried out along the crack path for a more accurate identification of the fracture mode. A transition from intergranular to transgranular fracture was evidenced in the low ΔK regime and slip bands have also been observed at the tip of an arrested crack at low ΔK. Transgranular fracture and slip bands are usually observed under pure fatigue loading conditions. At low ΔK, hold time cycles are believed to act as equivalent pure fatigue cycles. This change in the crack growth mechanism under hold time conditions at low ΔK is discussed regarding results related to intergranular crack tip oxidation and its effect on the crack growth behaviour of Inconel 718 alloy. A concept based on an “effective oxygen partial pressure” at the crack tip is proposed to explain the transition from transgranular to intergranular fracture in the low ΔK regime.

  7. Effect of short-term overloads on crack propagation under creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushok, V.V.; Sobolev, N.D.; Zolotukhin, S.Yu.

    1986-01-01

    Kinetics of crack propagation after overload has been studied using plane samples of Kh18N10T steel. Tests of samples with a notch have been carried out in the air at 293 K. Observation of the crack growth has been carried out by the microscope and the method of electric potential difference. It is established that during overload besides crack tip blunting, decrease of creep rate of the material stregthened near it, that leads to crack retardation, decrease of plasticity and formation of microcracks in front of the tip of the main-line crack occurs. It is marked that, estimating serviceability of a member, it is necessary to take into account the decrease of crack propagation rate after short term overloads

  8. Development of nondestructive method for prediction of crack instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.L.; Eylon, D.; Shell, E.B.; Matikas, T.E.

    2000-01-01

    A method to characterize the deformation zone at a crack tip and predict upcoming fracture under load using white light interference microscopy was developed and studied. Cracks were initiated in notched Ti-6Al-4V specimens through fatigue loading. Following crack initiation, specimens were subjected to static loading during in-situ observation of the deformation area ahead of the crack. Nondestructive in-situ observations were performed using white light interference microscopy. Profilometer measurements quantified the area, volume, and shape of the deformation ahead of the crack front. Results showed an exponential relationship between the area and volume of deformation and the stress intensity factor of the cracked alloy. These findings also indicate that it is possible to determine a critical rate of change in deformation versus the stress intensity factor that can predict oncoming catastrophic failure. In addition, crack front deformation zones were measured as a function of time under sustained load, and crack tip deformation zone enlargement over time was observed

  9. Prediction of PWSCC in nickel base alloys using crack growth rate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Ford/Andresen slip dissolution SCC model, originally developed for stainless steel components in BWR environments, has been applied to Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750 tested in deaerated pure water chemistry. A method is described whereby the crack growth rates measured in compact tension specimens can be used to estimate crack growth in a component. Good agreement was found between model prediction and measured SCC in X-750 threaded fasteners over a wide range of temperatures, stresses, and material condition. Most data support the basic assumption of this model that cracks initiate early in life. The evidence supporting a particular SCC mechanism is mixed. Electrochemical repassivation data and estimates of oxide fracture strain indicate that the slip dissolution model can account for the observed crack growth rates, provided primary rather than secondary creep rates are used. However, approximately 100 cross-sectional TEM foils of SCC cracks including crack tips reveal no evidence of enhanced plasticity or unique dislocation patterns at the crack tip or along the crack to support a classic slip dissolution mechanism. No voids, hydrides,, or microcracks are found in the vicinity of the crack tips creating doubt about classic hydrogen related mechanisms. The bulk oxide films exhibit a surface oxide which is often different than the oxide found within a crack. Although bulk chromium concentration affects the rate of SCC, analytical data indicates the mechanism does not result from chromium depletion at the grain boundaries. The overall findings support a corrosion/dissolution mechanism but not one necessarily related to slip at the crack tip. (author). 12 refs, 27 figs

  10. Accelerated Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Effect-Powder Metallurgy Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, R. S.; Newman, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) research conducted in the near threshold regime has identified a room temperature creep crack growth damage mechanism for a fine grain powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloy (8009). At very low (Delta) K, an abrupt acceleration in room temperature FCG rate occurs at high stress ratio (R = K(sub min)/K(sub max)). The near threshold accelerated FCG rates are exacerbated by increased levels of K(sub max) (K(sub max) = 0.4 K(sub IC)). Detailed fractographic analysis correlates accelerated FCG with the formation of crack-tip process zone micro-void damage. Experimental results show that the near threshold and K(sub max) influenced accelerated crack growth is time and temperature dependent.

  11. Concrete Crack Identification Using a UAV Incorporating Hybrid Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjun; Lee, Junhwa; Ahn, Eunjong; Cho, Soojin; Shin, Myoungsu; Sim, Sung-Han

    2017-09-07

    Crack assessment is an essential process in the maintenance of concrete structures. In general, concrete cracks are inspected by manual visual observation of the surface, which is intrinsically subjective as it depends on the experience of inspectors. Further, it is time-consuming, expensive, and often unsafe when inaccessible structural members are to be assessed. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technologies combined with digital image processing have recently been applied to crack assessment to overcome the drawbacks of manual visual inspection. However, identification of crack information in terms of width and length has not been fully explored in the UAV-based applications, because of the absence of distance measurement and tailored image processing. This paper presents a crack identification strategy that combines hybrid image processing with UAV technology. Equipped with a camera, an ultrasonic displacement sensor, and a WiFi module, the system provides the image of cracks and the associated working distance from a target structure on demand. The obtained information is subsequently processed by hybrid image binarization to estimate the crack width accurately while minimizing the loss of the crack length information. The proposed system has shown to successfully measure cracks thicker than 0.1 mm with the maximum length estimation error of 7.3%.

  12. Fatigue crack growth behavior of RAFM steel in Paris and threshold regimes at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, M. Nani; Sasikala, G., E-mail: gsasi@igcar.gov.in; Dutt, B. Shashank; Venugopal, S.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2014-04-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of a reduced activation ferritic martensitic (indigenous RAFM) steel has been evaluated at 300, 653 and 823 K in Paris and threshold regimes. The effect of temperature on threshold stress intensity factor range and associated crack closure mechanisms is highlighted. The FCG results were compared with those for EUROFER 97. Further, crack tip effective stress intensity factor ranges (ΔK{sub tip,eff}) have been evaluated by taking crack tip shielding into account in order to examine the effect of temperature on true intrinsic FCG behavior.

  13. Standard test method for creep-fatigue crack growth testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep-fatigue crack growth properties of nominally homogeneous materials by use of pre-cracked compact type, C(T), test specimens subjected to uniaxial cyclic forces. It concerns fatigue cycling with sufficiently long loading/unloading rates or hold-times, or both, to cause creep deformation at the crack tip and the creep deformation be responsible for enhanced crack growth per loading cycle. It is intended as a guide for creep-fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. Therefore, this method requires testing of at least two specimens that yield overlapping crack growth rate data. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and enhanced crack growth vary with material and with temperature for a given material. The effects of environment such as time-dependent oxidation in enhancing the crack growth ra...

  14. Crack detection using image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, M.A.A

    2010-01-01

    This thesis contains five main subjects in eight chapters and two appendices. The first subject discus Wiener filter for filtering images. In the second subject, we examine using different methods, as Steepest Descent Algorithm (SDA) and the Wavelet Transformation, to detect and filling the cracks, and it's applications in different areas as Nano technology and Bio-technology. In third subject, we attempt to find 3-D images from 1-D or 2-D images using texture mapping with Open Gl under Visual C ++ language programming. The fourth subject consists of the process of using the image warping methods for finding the depth of 2-D images using affine transformation, bilinear transformation, projective mapping, Mosaic warping and similarity transformation. More details about this subject will be discussed below. The fifth subject, the Bezier curves and surface, will be discussed in details. The methods for creating Bezier curves and surface with unknown distribution, using only control points. At the end of our discussion we will obtain the solid form, using the so called NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline); which depends on: the degree of freedom, control points, knots, and an evaluation rule; and is defined as a mathematical representation of 3-D geometry that can accurately describe any shape from a simple 2-D line, circle, arc, or curve to the most complex 3-D organic free-form surface or (solid) which depends on finding the Bezier curve and creating family of curves (surface), then filling in between to obtain the solid form. Another representation for this subject is concerned with building 3D geometric models from physical objects using image-based techniques. The advantage of image techniques is that they require no expensive equipment; we use NURBS, subdivision surface and mesh for finding the depth of any image with one still view or 2D image. The quality of filtering depends on the way the data is incorporated into the model. The data should be treated with

  15. Numerical simulations of material mismatch and ductile crack growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestby, Erling

    2002-07-01

    Both the global geometry and inhomogeneities in material properties will influence the fracture behaviour of structures in presence of cracks. In this thesis numerical simulations have been used to investigate how some aspects of both these issues affect the conditions at the crack-tip. The thesis is organised in an introduction chapter, summarising the major findings and conclusions, a review chapter, presenting the main aspects of the developments in the field of fracture mechanics, and three research papers. Paper I considers the effect of mismatch in hardening exponent on the local near-tip stress field for stationary interface cracks in bi-materials under small scale yielding conditions. It is demonstrated that the stress level in the weaker material increases compared to what is found in the homogeneous material for the same globally applied load level, with the effect being of increasing importance as the crack-tip is approached. Although a coupling between the radial and angular dependence of the stress fields exists, the evolving stress field can still be normalised with the applied J. The effect on the increase in stress level can closely be characterised by the difference in hardening exponent, {delta}n, termed the hardening mismatch, and is more or less independent of the absolute level of hardening in the two materials. Paper II and Ill deal with the effects of geometry, specimen size, hardening level and yield stress mismatch in relation to ductile crack growth. The ductile crack growth is simulated through use of the Gurson model. In Paper H the effect of specimen size on the crack growth resistance is investigated for deep cracked bend and shallow cracked tensile specimens. At small amounts of crack growth the effect of specimen size on the crack growth resistance is small, but a more significant effect is found for larger amounts of crack growth. The crack growth resistance decreases in smaller specimens loaded in tension, whereas the opposite is

  16. The effect of a single tensile overload on stress corrosion cracking growth of stainless steel in a light water reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue He; Li Zhijun; Lu Zhanpeng; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The affect of a single tensile overload on SCC growth rate is investigated. → A single tensile overload would produce a residual plastic strain in the SCC tip. → The residual plastic strain would decrease the plastic strain rate in the SCC tip. → A single tensile overload would cause crack growth rate retardation in the SCC tip. → SCC growth rate in the quasi-stationary crack tip is relatively lower. - Abstract: It has been found that a single tensile overload applied during constant load amplitude might cause crack growth rate retardation in various crack propagating experiments which include fatigue test and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) test. To understand the affecting mechanism of a single tensile overload on SCC growth rate of stainless steel or nickel base alloy in light water reactor environment, based on elastic-plastic finite element method (EPFEM), the residual plastic strain in both tips of stationary and growing crack of contoured double cantilever beam (CDCB) specimen was simulated and analyzed in this study. The results of this investigation demonstrate that a residual plastic strain in the region immediately ahead of the crack tips will be produced when a single tensile overload is applied, and the residual plastic strain will decrease the plastic strain rate level in the growing crack tip, which will causes crack growth rate retardation in the tip of SCC.

  17. Chemically etched fiber tips for near-field optical microscopy: a process for smoother tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambelet, P; Sayah, A; Pfeffer, M; Philipona, C; Marquis-Weible, F

    1998-11-01

    An improved method for producing fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy is presented. The improvement consists of chemically etching quartz optical fibers through their acrylate jacket. This new method is compared with the previous one in which bare fibers were etched. With the new process the meniscus formed by the acid along the fiber does not move during etching, leading to a much smoother surface of the tip cone. Subsequent metallization is thus improved, resulting in better coverage of the tip with an aluminum opaque layer. Our results show that leakage can be avoided along the cone, and light transmission through the tip is spatially limited to an optical aperture of a 100-nm dimension.

  18. Effect of copper on crack propagation in beryllium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldinger, F.; Wilhelm, M.

    The effect of copper additives on the fracture energy and the development of cracks parallel to the basal plane was studied in zone-refined single crystalline beryllium. At 77 0 K the cleavage planes are very smooth, so the crack propagation energy, which is independent of copper content (less than 2 at. percent Cu) in the range of measurement accuracy, is only a little higher than the surface energy of the basal plane. At room temperature, due to intense plastic processes taking place in front of the crack tip, the fracture energy is an order of magnitude higher than at low temperatures. The effect of copper on the plastic processes can be divided into two regions. In region I (less than 1.2 at. percent Cu), in which the crack propagation energy increases sharply with increasing copper content, crack propagation is controlled by prism slips. The decrease in crack propagation energy in region II (greater than 1.2 at. percent Cu) can be attributed to a reduction of beryllium twinning energy with increasing copper content. (auth)

  19. Analysis of short and long crack behavior and single overload effect by crack opening stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sam Hong; Lee, Kyeong Ro

    1999-01-01

    The study analyzed the behaviors of short and long crack as well as the effect of single tensile overload on the crack behaviors by using fatigue crack opening behavior. Crack opening stress is measured by an elastic compliance method which may precisely and continuously provide many data using strain gages during experiment. The unusual growth behaviors of short crack and crack after the single tensile overload applied, was explained by the variations of crack opening stress. In addition, fatigue crack growth rate was expressed as a linear form for short crack as for long crack by using effective stress intensity factor range as fracture mechanical parameter, which is based on crack closure concept. And investigation is performed with respect to the relation between plastic zone size formed at the crack tip and crack retardation, crack length and the number of cycles promoted or retarded, and the overload effect on the fatigue life

  20. Stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, R. C.; Beck, F. H.; Fontana, M. G.

    1971-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study (1) the basic electrochemical behavior of titanium in acid chloride solutions and (2) the response of the metal to dynamic straining in the same evironment. The aim of this group of experiments was to simulate, as nearly as possible, the actual conditions which exist at the tip of a crack. One of the foremost theories proposed to explain the propagation of stress corrosion cracks is a hydrogen embrittlement theory involving the precipitation of embrittling titanium hydrides inside the metal near the crack tip. An initial survey of the basic electrochemical literature indicated that surface hydrides play a critical role in the electrochemistry of titanium in acid solutions. A comprehensive analysis of the effect of surface films, particularly hydrides, on the electrochemical behavior of titanium in these solution is presented.

  1. Fracture mechanical investigations about crack resistance behaviour in non-transforming ceramics in particular aluminum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, K.K.O.; Kleist, G.; Nickel, H.

    1991-03-01

    The aim of this work is the clearification of R-curve behaviour of non-transforming ceramics, in particular aluminum oxide exhibiting incrystalline fracture. Investigations of crack growth in controlled bending experiments were performed using 3-Pt- and 4-Pt-bending samples of differing sizes under inert conditions. The fracture experiments were realized using several loading techniques, for example constant and varying displacement rates, load rupture (P = 0) and relaxation tests (v = 0). In addition unloading and reloading experiments were performed to investigate hysteresis curves and residual displacements in accordance with R-curve behaviour. During the crack-growth experiments, the crack extension was measured in situ using a high resolution immersion microscope. With this technique, the fracture processes near the crack tip (crack activity zone) was observed as well. The crack resistance as a function of crack extension (R-curve) was determined using differing calculation methods. All of the methods used resulted in approximately identical R-curves, within the statistical error band. The crack resistance at initiation R 0 was 20 N/m. The crack resistance increased during approximately 3 mm of growth to a maximum of 90 N/m. A decrease in the crack resistance was determined for large a/W (crack length normalized with sample height) values, independant of the calculation methods. The R-curve behaviour was interpreted as due to a functional resistance behind the observed crack tip, which arises from a volume dilatation in the crack activity zone while the crack proceeds. (orig.) [de

  2. Multi-parameter crack tip stress state description for evaluation of nonlinear zone width in silicate composite specimens in component splitting/bending test geometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, V.; Frantík, P.; Sopek, J.; Malíková, L.; Seitl, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2015), s. 200-214 ISSN 8756-758X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/11/0833 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : near-crack tip fields * Williams series * higher-order terms * stress field * failure criterion * nonlinear zone * quasi-brittle fracture * splitting-bending geometry Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2015

  3. Crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, D.K.M.; Merkle, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A method for estimating the decrease in crack-initiation toughness, from a reference plane strain value, due to positive straining along the crack front of a circumferential flaw in a reactor pressure vessel is presented in this study. This method relates crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions with material failure at points within a distance of a few crack-tip-opening displacements ahead of a crack front, and involves the formulation of a micromechanical crack-initiation model. While this study is intended to address concerns regarding the effects of positive out-of- plane straining on ductile crack initiation, the approach adopted in this work can be extended in a straightforward fashion to examine conditions of macroscopic cleavage crack initiation. Provided single- parameter dominance of near-tip fields exists in the flawed structure, results from this study could be used to examine the appropriateness of applying plane strain fracture toughness to the evaluation of circumferential flaws, in particular to those in ring-forged vessels which have no longitudinal welds. In addition, results from this study could also be applied toward the analysis of the effects of thermal streaming on the fracture resistance of circumferentially oriented flaws in a pressure vessel. 37 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  4. Hot-crack test for aluminium alloys welds using TIG process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niel, A.; Deschaux-Beaume, F.; Bordreuil, C.; Fras, G.

    2010-06-01

    Hot cracking is a critical defect frequently observed during welding of aluminium alloys. In order to better understand the interaction between cracking phenomenon, process parameters, mechanical factors and microstructures resulting from solidification after welding, an original hot-cracking test during welding is developed. According to in-situ observations and post mortem analyses, hot cracking mechanisms are investigated, taking into account the interaction between microstructural parameters, depending on the thermal cycles, and mechanical parameters, depending on geometry and clamping conditions of the samples and on the thermal field on the sample. Finally, a process map indicating the limit between cracking and non-cracking zones according to welding parameters is presented.

  5. Creep crack growth behaviour of an AISI 316 steel plate for fast reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, D.; Regis, V.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents and analyses creep crack growth data obtained at 550, 600 and 650 0 C in air with SENT and CT specimens on type 316 stainless steel plate for LMFBR applications. Crack initiation and crack growth are tentatively correlated to K, sigmasub(net) and J* taking into account the constraint conditions due to specimen geometry. The validity of these parameters is discussed following the concept of transition time from small scale creep at the crack tip to extensive creep within the ligament. Post exposure microstructural and fractographic investigations do evidence that grain deformation processes are mainly responsible for cavity evolution. (orig.)

  6. Crack propagation direction in a mixed mode geometry estimated via multi-parameter fracture criteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíková, L.; Veselý, V.; Seitl, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 89, AUG (2016), s. 99-107 ISSN 0142-1123. [International Conference on Characterisation of Crack Tip Fields /3./. Urbino, 20.04.2015-22.04.2015] Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Near-crack-tip fields * Mixed mode * Crack propagation direction * Multi-parameter fracture criteria * Finite element analysis Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.899, year: 2016

  7. Hydride effect on crack instability of Zircaloy cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Che-Chung, E-mail: cctseng@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, No. 1000, Wunhua Road, Jiaan Village, Lungtan, Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Sun, Ming-Hung [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, No. 1000, Wunhua Road, Jiaan Village, Lungtan, Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Chao, Ching-Kong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43 Keelung Road, Section 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Radial hydrides near the crack tip had a significant effect on crack propagation. • For radial hydrides off the crack line vertically, the effect on crack propagation was notably reduced. • The longer hydride platelet resulted in a remarkable effect on crack propagation. • A long split in the radial hydride precipitate would enhance crack propagation. • The presence of circumferential hydride among radial hydrides may play an important role in crack propagation. - Abstract: A methodology was proposed to investigate the effect of hydride on the crack propagation in fuel cladding. The analysis was modeled based on an outside-in crack with radial hydrides located near its crack tip. The finite element method was used in the calculation; both stress intensity factor K{sub I} and J integral were applied to evaluate the crack stability. The parameters employed in the analysis included the location of radial hydride, hydride dimensions, number of hydrides, and the presence of circumferential hydride, etc. According to our study, the effective distance between a radial hydride and the assumed cladding surface crack for the enhancement of crack propagation proved to be no greater than 0.06 mm. For a hydride not on the crack line, it would induce a relatively minor effect on crack propagation if the vertical distance was beyond 0.05 mm. However, a longer hydride precipitate as well as double radial hydrides could have a remarkable effect on crack propagation. A combined effect of radial and circumferential hydrides was also discussed.

  8. Hot-crack test for aluminium alloys welds using TIG process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deschaux-beaume F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hot cracking is a critical defect frequently observed during welding of aluminium alloys. In order to better understand the interaction between cracking phenomenon, process parameters, mechanical factors and microstructures resulting from solidification after welding, an original hot-cracking test during welding is developed. According to in-situ observations and post mortem analyses, hot cracking mechanisms are investigated, taking into account the interaction between microstructural parameters, depending on the thermal cycles, and mechanical parameters, depending on geometry and clamping conditions of the samples and on the thermal field on the sample. Finally, a process map indicating the limit between cracking and non-cracking zones according to welding parameters is presented.

  9. Comparison of experiment and theory for elastic-plastic plane strain crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, L.; Rice, J.R.

    1980-02-01

    Recent theoretical results on elastic-plastic plane strain crack growth, and experimental results for crack growth in a 4140 steel in terms of the theoretical concepts are reviewed. The theory is based on a recent asymptotic analysis of crack surface opening and strain distributions at a quasi-statically advancing crack tip in an ideally-plastic solid. The analysis is incomplete in that some of the parameters which appear in it are known only approximately, especially at large scale yielding. Nevertheless, it suffices to derive a relation between the imposed loading and amount of crack growth, prior to general yielding, based on the assumption that a geometrically similar near-tip crack profile is maintained during growth. The resulting predictions for the variation of J with crack growth are found to fit well to the experimental results obtained on deeply cracked compact specimens

  10. Accelerated Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of an Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Newman, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) research conducted in the near threshold regime has identified a room temperature creep crack growth damage mechanism for a fine grain powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloy (8009). At very low DK, an abrupt acceleration in room temperature FCG rate occurs at high stress ratio (R = Kmin/Kmax). The near threshold accelerated FCG rates are exacerbated by increased levels of Kmax (Kmax less than 0.4 KIC). Detailed fractographic analysis correlates accelerated FCG with the formation of crack-tip process zone micro-void damage. Experimental results show that the near threshold and Kmax influenced accelerated crack growth is time and temperature dependent.

  11. EFAM GTP-CREEP 02 - the GKSS test procedure for determining the creep crack extension of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalbe, K.H.

    2002-01-01

    This document describes a fracture mechanics method in procedural form for determining the creep crack extension of materials. It is based on the unified fracture mechanics test method EFAM GTP 02, the ASTM standard E 1457-98, activities of VAMAS TWA 19, and GKSS experience in creep crack extension testing. It introduces novel features such as the rate of the δ 5 crack tip opening displacement, the crack tip opening angle, and the middle cracked tension specimen. (orig.) [de

  12. Non-self-similar cracking in unidirectional metal-matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, G.; Dharani, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental investigations on the fracture behavior of unidirectional Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) show the presence of extensive matrix damage and non-self-similar cracking of fibers near the notch tip. These failures are primarily observed in the interior layers of an MMC, presenting experimental difficulties in studying them. Hence an investigation of the matrix damage and fiber fracture near the notch tip is necessary to determine the stress concentration at the notch tip. The classical shear lag (CLSL) assumption has been used in the present study to investigate longitudinal matrix damage and nonself-similar cracking of fibers at the notch tip of an MMC. It is seen that non-self-similar cracking of fibers reduces the stress concentration at the notch tip considerably and the effect of matrix damage is negligible after a large number of fibers have broken beyond the notch tip in a non-self-similar manner. Finally, an effort has been made to include non-self-similar fiber fracture and matrix damage to model the fracture behavior of a unidirectional boron/aluminum composite for two different matrices viz. a 6061-0 fully annealed aluminum matrix and a heat treated 6061-T6 aluminum matrix. Results have been drawn for several characteristics pertaining to the shear stiffnesses and the shear yield stresses of the two matrices and compared with the available experimental results

  13. Factors controlling nitrate cracking of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Nitrite and hydroxide ions inhibit the growth of nitrate stress corrosion cracks in mild steel. Crack growth measurements showed that sufficient concentrations of nitrite and hydroxide ions can prevent crack growth; however, insufficient concentrations of these ions did not influence the Stage II growth rate or the threshold stress intensity, but extended the initiation time. Stage III growth was discontinuous. Oxide formed in the grain boundaries ahead of the crack tip and oxide dissolution (Stage II) and fracture (Stage III) are the proposed mechanisms of nitrate stress corrosion crack growth

  14. Growth behavior of fatigue cracks in ultrafine grained Cu smooth specimens with a small hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Goto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the growth mechanism of fatigue cracks in ultrafine grained copper, stresscontrolled fatigue tests of round-bar specimens with a small blind hole as a crack starter were conducted. The hole was drilled on the surface where an intersection between the shear plane of the final ECAP processing and the specimen surface makes an angle of 45° or 90° with respect to the loading axis. At a low stress (  a = 90 MPa, the direction of crack paths was nearly perpendicular to the loading direction regardless of the location of the hole. Profile of crack face was examined, showing the aspect ratio (b/a of b/a = 0.82. At a high stress (  a = 240 MPa, although the growth directions inclined 45° and 90° to the loading-axis were observed depending on the location of the drilling hole, crack faces in these cracks were extended along one set of maximum shear stress planes, corresponding to the final ECAP shear plane. The value of aspect ratios was b/a = 0.38 and 1.10 for the cracks with 45° and 90° inclined path directions, respectively. The role of deformation mode at the crack tip areas on crack growth behavior were discussed in terms of the mixed-mode stress intensity factor. The crack path formation at high stress amplitudes was affected by the in-plane shear-mode deformation at the crack tip.

  15. A partly and fully cracked triangular XFEM element for modeling cohesive fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, Jens Falkenskov; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Nielsen, Leif Otto

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the build‐up of a partly cracked cohesive crack tip element. The crack tip element is based on the principles of the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and is of Linear Strain Triangle (LST) type. The composition of the enrichment has been in focus to achieve as complete...... as a fully cracked element with a few restrictions in the displacement field. The performance of the developed element has been tested in three examples. One example is an infinite sheet with an initial flaw in pure tension, where a semianalytical solution exists. The two other examples are the two benchmark...

  16. Fracture and subcritical crack-growth behavior of Y-Si-Al-O-N glasses and Si3N4 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, A.; Hoffman, M.J.; Dauskardt, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Fracture and environmentally assisted subcritical crack-growth processes are examined in bulk Y-Si-Al-O-N oxynitride glasses with compositions typical of the grain boundary phase of silicon nitride ceramics. Both long-crack (in compact tension specimens) as well as short-crack behavior (using indentation techniques) were investigated to establish a reliable fracture toughness and to elucidate the anomalous densification behavior of the oxynitride glass. Environmentally assisted subcritical crack-growth processes were studied in inert, moist, and wet environments under both cyclic and static loading conditions. Behavior is discussed in terms of the interaction of the environment with the crack tip. Likely mechanisms for environmentally assisted crack growth are discussed and related to the subcritical crack-growth behavior of silicon nitride ceramics

  17. Crack path predictions and experiments in plane structures considering anisotropic properties and material interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.O. Judt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In many engineering applications special requirements are directed to a material's fracture behavior and the prediction of crack paths. Especially if the material exhibits anisotropic elastic properties or fracture toughnesses, e.g. in textured or composite materials, the simulation of crack paths is challenging. Here, the application of path independent interaction integrals (I-integrals, J-, L- and M-integrals is beneficial for an accurate crack tip loading analysis. Numerical tools for the calculation of loading quantities using these path-invariant integrals are implemented into the commercial finite element (FE-code ABAQUS. Global approaches of the integrals are convenient considering crack tips approaching other crack faces, internal boundaries or material interfaces. Curved crack faces require special treatment with respect to integration contours. Numerical crack paths are predicted based on FE calculations of the boundary value problem in connection with an intelligent adaptive re-meshing algorithm. Considering fracture toughness anisotropy and accounting for inelastic effects due to small plastic zones in the crack tip region, the numerically predicted crack paths of different types of specimens with material interfaces and internal boundaries are compared to subcritically grown paths obtained from experiments.

  18. The Reflective Cracking in Flexible Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais Jorge

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reflective cracking is a major concern for engineers facing the problem of road maintenance and rehabilitation. The problem appears due to the presence of cracks in the old pavement layers that propagate into the pavement overlay layer when traffic load passes over the cracks and due to the temperature variation. The stress concentration in the overlay just above the existing cracks is responsible for the appearance and crack propagation throughout the overlay. The analysis of the reflective cracking phenomenon is usually made by numerical modeling simulating the presence of cracks in the existing pavement and the stress concentration in the crack tip is assessed to predict either the cracking propagation rate or the expected fatigue life of the overlay. Numerical modeling to study reflective cracking is made by simulating one crack in the existing pavement and the loading is usually applied considering the shear mode of crack opening. Sometimes the simulation considers the mode I of crack opening, mainly when temperature effects are predominant.

  19. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack growth retardation ...

  20. On the mechanism of crack propagation resistance of fully lamellar TiAl alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, R.; Yao, H.J.; Chen, J.H.; Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01

    The study was done using notched two-colony thick tensile specimens of a directionally solidified cast fully lamellar TiAl alloy. In-situ observations of fracture processes in scanning electron microscope (SEM) were combined with section-to-section related observations of fracture surfaces to investigate the crack growth process. Finite element method (FEM) calculations are carried out to evaluate the stresses for propagating cracks. The results reveal that: (1) the reason why enhancement of applied load is required to propagate the main crack, was attributed to that the main crack observed at the surface did not extend all the way through the specimen's thickness thus the stress field was still controlled by the notch, in which a definite stress required for extending a crack tip should be kept by increasing the applied load. (2) Crack propagation resistance is enhanced at colony boundaries, only when a change occurs from an inter-lamellar propagation to a trans-lamellar propagation (3) Ligament bridging toughening phenomena can be integrated into aforementioned mechanism. As a whole the processes of new crack nucleation with bridging ligament formation decreases the crack propagation resistance rather than increasing it. (4) In case the majority of microcracks are surface cracks, the effect of microcrack shielding is not obvious

  1. A short summary on finite element modelling of fatigue crack closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Konjengbam Darunkumar [Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati (India); Parry, Matthew Roger [Airbus Operations Ltd, Bristol(United Kingdom); Sinclair, Ian [University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    This paper presents a short summary pertaining to the finite element modelling of fatigue crack closure. Several key issues related to finite element modelling of fatigue crack closure are highlighted: element type, mesh refinement, stabilization of crack closure, crack-tip node release scheme, constitutive model, specimen geometry, stress-states (i.e., plane stress, plane strain), crack closure monitoring. Reviews are presented for both straight and deflected cracks.

  2. Development of chloride-induced corrosion in pre-cracked RC beams under sustained loading: Effect of load-induced cracks, concrete cover, and exposure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Linwen [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, LMDC, Toulouse (France); Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); François, Raoul, E-mail: raoul.francois@insa-toulouse.fr [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, LMDC, Toulouse (France); Dang, Vu Hiep [Hanoi Architectural University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Hanoi (Viet Nam); L' Hostis, Valérie [CEA Saclay, CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Bétons et des Argiles, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gagné, Richard [Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    This paper deals with corrosion initiation and propagation in pre-cracked reinforced concrete beams under sustained loading during exposure to a chloride environment. Specimen beams that were cast in 2010 were compared to specimens cast in 1984. The only differences between the two sets of beams were the casting direction in relation to tensile reinforcement and the exposure conditions in the salt-fog chamber. The cracking maps, corrosion maps, chloride profiles, and cross-sectional loss of one group of two beams cast in 2010 were studied and their calculated corrosion rates were compared to that of beams cast in 1984 in order to investigate the factors influencing the natural corrosion process. Experimental results show that, after rapid initiation of corrosion at the crack tip, the corrosion process practically halted and the time elapsing before corrosion resumed depended on the exposure conditions and cover depth.

  3. Strain energy density-distance criterion for the initiation of stress corrosion cracking of alloy X-750

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, M.M. Jr.; Symons, D.M.

    1996-05-01

    A strain energy density-distance criterion was previously developed and used to correlate rising-load K{sub c} initiation data for notched and fatigue precracked specimens of hydrogen precharged Alloy X-750. This criterion, which was developed for hydrogen embrittlement (HE) cracking, is used here to correlate static-load stress corrosion cracking (SCC) initiation times obtained for smooth geometry, notched and fatigue precracked specimens. The onset of SCC crack growth is hypothesized to occur when a critical strain, which is due to environment-enhanced creep, is attained within the specimen interior. For notched and precracked specimens, initiation is shown by analysis to occur at a variable distance from notch and crack tips. The initiation site varies from very near the crack tip, for highly loaded sharp cracks, to a site that is one grain diameter from the notch, for lower loaded, blunt notches. The existence of hydrogen gradients, which are due to strain-induced hydrogen trapping in the strain fields of notch and crack tips, is argued to be controlling the site for initiation of cracking. By considering the sources of the hydrogen, these observations are shown to be consistent with those from the previous HE study, in which the characteristic distance for crack initiation was found to be one grain diameter from the notch tip, independent of notch radius, applied stress intensity factor and hydrogen level.

  4. Mesh sensitivity effects on fatigue crack growth by crack-tip blunting and re-sharpening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2007-01-01

    remeshing at several stages of the plastic deformation, with studies of the effect of overloads or compressive underloads. Recent published analyses for the first two cycles have shown folding of the crack surface in compression, leading to something that looks like striations. The influence of mesh...... refinement is used to study the possibility of this type of behaviour within the present method. Even with much refined meshes no indication of crack surface folding is found here....

  5. On the anomalous temperature dependency of fatigue crack growth of SS 316(N) weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, M. Nani; Dutt, B. Shashank; Venugopal, S. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Sasikala, G., E-mail: gsasi@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2010-07-25

    Fatigue crack growth behaviour of a nuclear grade SS 316(N) weld metal was examined in the Paris and threshold regimes in the as-welded condition, at 300, 573 and 823 K. The {Delta}K{sub th} values were 11.2, 7.5, and 9.5 MPa {radical}m, respectively. These values were corrected for closure effects and the corresponding {Delta}K{sub th,eff} were found to be 7.7, 5.8 and 3.5 MPa {radical}m, respectively. The anomalous behaviour, i.e., the high value of {Delta}K{sub th} at 823 K has been explained based on crack closure effect which is roughness induced at 300 K and oxide induced at 823 K, with both these insignificant at 573 K. The effect of temperature on crack growth mechanism and the associated closure mechanisms are discussed. The stress shielding at the crack tip due to closure is accounted for and the effective stress intensity factor experienced by the crack tip, {Delta}K{sub eff,tip} is determined. It is demonstrated that {Delta}K{sub eff,tip} qualifies as a more appropriate parameter as the driving force for the temperature-dependent crack growth in the near-threshold and Paris regimes.

  6. T-stresses for internally cracked components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fett, T.

    1997-12-01

    The failure of cracked components is governed by the stresses in the vicinity of the crack tip. The singular stress contribution is characterised by the stress intensity factor K, the first regular stress term is represented by the so-called T-stress. T-stress solutions for components containing an internal crack were computed by application of the Bundary Collocation Method (BCM). The results are compiled in form of tables or approximative relations. In addition a Green's function of T-stresses is proposed for internal cracks which enables to compute T-stress terms for any given stress distribution in the uncracked body. (orig.) [de

  7. The interaction of two collinear cracks in a rectangular superconductor slab under an electromagnetic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhiwen; Zhou Youhe; Lee, Kang Yong

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of two collinear cracks is obtained for a type-II superconducting under electromagnetic force. Fracture analysis is performed by means of finite element method and the magnetic behavior of superconductor is described by the critical-state Bean model. The stress intensity factors at the crack tips can be obtained and discussed for decreasing field after zero-field cooling. It is revealed that the stress intensity factor decreases as applied field increases. The crack-tip stress intensity factors decrease when the distance between the two collinear cracks increases and the superconductors with smaller crack has more remarkable shielding effect than those with larger cracks.

  8. Fractographic Observations on the Mechanism of Fatigue Crack Growth in Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderliesten, R. C.; Schijve, J.; Krkoska, M.

    Special load histories are adopted to obtain information about the behavior of the moving crack tip during the increasing and decreasing part of a load cycle. It is associated with the crack opening and closure of the crack tip. Secondly, modern SEM techniques are applied for observations on the morphology of the fractures surfaces of a fatigue crack. Information about the cross section profiles of striations are obtained. Corresponding locations of the upper and the lower fracture surface are also explored in view of the crack extension mechanism. Most experiments are carried out on sheet specimens of aluminum alloys 2024-T3, but 7050-T7451 specimens are also tested in view of a different ductility of the two alloys.

  9. Noncontact fatigue crack evaluation using thermoelastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Min; An, Yun Kyu; Sohn, Hoon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    This paper proposes a noncontact thermography technique for fatigue crack evaluation under a cyclic tensile loading. The proposed technique identifies and localizes an invisible fatigue crack without scanning, thus making it possible to instantaneously evaluate an incipient fatigue crack. Based on a thermoelastic theory, a new fatigue crack evaluation algorithm is proposed for the fatigue crack tip localization. The performance of the proposed algorithm is experimentally validated. To achieve this, the cyclic tensile loading is applied to a dog bone shape aluminum specimen using a universal testing machine, and the corresponding thermal responses induced by thermoelastic effects are captured by an infrared camera. The test results confirm that the fatigue crack is well identified and localized by comparing with its microscopic images.

  10. Developments in delayed hydride cracking in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puls, Manfred P.

    2008-01-01

    Delayed hydride cracking (DHC) is a process of diffusion assisted localized hydride embrittlement at flaws or regions of high stress. Models of DHC propagation and initiation have been developed that capture the essential elements of this phenomenon in terms of parameters describing processes occurring at the micro-scale. The models and their predictions of experimental results applied to Zr alloys are assessed. The propagation model allows rationalization of the effect of direction of approach to temperature and of the effect of the state and morphology of the beta phase in Zr-2.5Nb on DHC velocity. The K I dependence of the DHC velocity can only be approximately rationalized by the propagation models. This is thought to be because these models approximate the DHC velocity by a constant and shape-invariant rate of growth of the hydride at the flaw and have not incorporated a coupling between the applied stress field due to the flaw alone and the precipitated hydrides that would result in a variation of the shape and density of the hydrided region with K I . Separately, models have been developed for DHC initiation at cracks and blunt flaws. Expressions are obtained for the threshold stress intensity factor, K IH , for DHC initiation at a crack. A model for K IH has been used to rationalize the experimental result that DHC initiation is not possible above a certain temperature, even when hydrides can form at the crack tip. For blunt flaws with root radii in the μm range, and engineering process zone procedure has been derived to determine the initiation conditions requiring that both a critical stress and a critical flaw tip displacement must be achieved for hydride fracture. The engineering process zone procedure takes account of the dependence of DHC initiation on the flaw's root radius. Although all of the foregoing models are capable of describing the essential features of DHC, they are highly idealized and in need of further refinement. (author)

  11. Crack propagation rate modelling for 316SS exposed to PWR-relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankeerberghen, M.; Weyns, G.; Gavrilov, S.; Martens, B.; Deconinck, J.

    2009-01-01

    The crack propagation rate of Type 316 stainless steel in boric acid-lithium hydroxide solutions under PWR-relevant conditions was modelled. A film rupture/dissolution/repassivation mechanism is assumed and extended to cold worked materials by including a stress-dependent bare metal dissolution current density. The chemical and electrochemical conditions within the crack are calculated by finite element calculations, an analytical expression is used for the crack-tip strain rate and the crack-tip stress is assumed equal to 2.5 times the yield stress (plane-strain). First the model was calibrated against a literature published data set. Afterwards, the influence of various variables - dissolved hydrogen, boric acid and lithium hydroxide content, stress intensity, crack length, temperature, flow rate - was studied. Finally, other published crack growth rate tests were modelled and the calculated crack growth rates were found to be in reasonable agreement with the reported ones

  12. Effect of T-stress on the cleavage crack growth resistance resulting from plastic flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Crack growth is studied numerically for cases where fracture occurs by atomic separation, sc that the length scale of the fracture process is typically much smaller than the dislocation spacing. Thus, the crack growth mechanism is brittle, but due to plastic flow at some distance from the crack tip......, the materials show crack growth resistance. It is shown here that the resistance is strongly dependent on the value of the non-singular T-stress, acting parallel to the crack plane. The numerical technique employed makes use of a thin dislocation-free strip of elastic material inside which the crack propagates......, with the material outside described by continuum plasticity. Thus the width of the strip is a material length scale comparable to the dislocation spacing or the dislocation cell size....

  13. Mechanism of crack initiation and crack growth under thermal and mechanical fatigue loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utz, S.; Soppa, E.; Silcher, H.; Kohler, C. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Materials Testing Inst.

    2013-07-01

    measurements the deformation induced transformation of an fcc-austenite into a bcc α'-martensite was observed in different stages of the specimen lifetime. Plastic zones develop at the crack tips, in which stress and strain amplitudes are much higher than the nominal loading, and enable martensitic transformation in the surrounding of the crack tip. The consequence of this is that cracks grow in the ''martensitic tunnels''. The short and long crack growth behaviours of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under mechanical loading at room temperature and T = 288 C were studied for different loading parameters. Moreover, the R-ratio was modified in order to study the effect of crack closure at the crack tip for long cracks. Several FE models of specimens with different geometries and microstructures were created and cyclically loaded according to the experimental boundary conditions. A plastic constitutive law based on a Chaboche type model was implemented as a user subroutine in the FE software ABAQUS. The corresponding material parameters were identified using uniaxial LCF tests of X6CrNiNb18-10 with different strain amplitudes and at different temperatures. These calculations delivered the estimation of stress and strain distributions in the critical areas in which the crack initiation was expected.

  14. Mechanism of crack initiation and crack growth under thermal and mechanical fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, S.; Soppa, E.; Silcher, H.; Kohler, C.

    2013-01-01

    measurements the deformation induced transformation of an fcc-austenite into a bcc α'-martensite was observed in different stages of the specimen lifetime. Plastic zones develop at the crack tips, in which stress and strain amplitudes are much higher than the nominal loading, and enable martensitic transformation in the surrounding of the crack tip. The consequence of this is that cracks grow in the ''martensitic tunnels''. The short and long crack growth behaviours of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under mechanical loading at room temperature and T = 288 C were studied for different loading parameters. Moreover, the R-ratio was modified in order to study the effect of crack closure at the crack tip for long cracks. Several FE models of specimens with different geometries and microstructures were created and cyclically loaded according to the experimental boundary conditions. A plastic constitutive law based on a Chaboche type model was implemented as a user subroutine in the FE software ABAQUS. The corresponding material parameters were identified using uniaxial LCF tests of X6CrNiNb18-10 with different strain amplitudes and at different temperatures. These calculations delivered the estimation of stress and strain distributions in the critical areas in which the crack initiation was expected.

  15. Stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloy 7000 series after two-step aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdić Bore V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of one step-and a new (short two-step aging on the resistance to stress corrosion cracking of an aluminum alloy 7000 series was investigated, using slow strain rate test and fracture mechanics method. Aging level in the tested alloy was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy and measurements of electrical resistivity. It was shown that the alloy after the new two-step aging is significantly more resistant to stress corrosion cracking. Values of tensile properties and fracture toughness are similar for both thermal states. Processes that take place at the crack tip have been considered. The effect of the testing solution temperature on the crack growth rate on the plateau was determined. Two values of the apparent activation energy were obtained. These values correspond to different processes that control crack growth rate on the plateau at higher and lower temperatures. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34028 i br. TR 34016

  16. Dynamic steady-state analysis of crack propagation in rubber-like solids using an extended finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a computational framework for studying high-speed crack growth in rubber-like solids under conditions of plane stress and steady-state is proposed. Effects of inertia, viscoelasticity and finite strains are included. The main purpose of the study is to examine the contribution of viscoelastic dissipation to the total work of fracture required to propagate a crack in a rubber-like solid. The computational framework builds upon a previous work by the present author (Kroon in Int J Fract 169:49-60, 2011). The model was fully able to predict experimental results in terms of the local surface energy at the crack tip and the total energy release rate at different crack speeds. The predicted distributions of stress and dissipation around the propagating crack tip are presented. The predicted crack tip profiles also agree qualitatively with experimental findings.

  17. Modeling of a Curvilinear Planar Crack with a Curvature-Dependent Surface Tension

    KAUST Repository

    Zemlyanova, A. Y.; Walton, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    An approach to modeling fracture incorporating interfacial mechanics is applied to the example of a curvilinear plane strain crack. The classical Neumann boundary condition is augmented with curvature-dependent surface tension. It is shown that the considered model eliminates the integrable crack-tip stress and strain singularities of order 1/2 present in the classical linear fracture mechanics solutions, and also leads to the sharp crack opening that is consistent with empirical observations. Unlike for the case of a straight crack, for a general curvilinear crack some components of the stresses and the derivatives of the displacements may still possess weaker singularities of a logarithmic type. Generalizations of the present study that lead to complete removal of all crack-tip singularities, including logarithmic, are the subject of a future paper. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  18. Variable amplitude fatigue crack growth behavior - a short overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Konjengbam Darunkumar; Parry, Matthew Roger; Sinclair, Ian

    2011-01-01

    A short overview concerning variable amplitude (VA) fatigue crack growth behavior is presented in this paper. The topics covered in this review encompass important issues pertaining to both single and repeated overload transients. Reviews on transient post overload effects such as plasticity induced crack closure, crack tip blunting, residual stresses, crack deflection and branching, activation of near threshold mechanisms, strain hardening are highlighted. A brief summary on experimental trends and finite element modelling of overload induced crack closure is also presented

  19. Variable amplitude fatigue crack growth behavior - a short overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Konjengbam Darunkumar [Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati (India); Parry, Matthew Roger [Airbus Operations Ltd, Bristol (United Kingdom); Sinclair, Ian [University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    A short overview concerning variable amplitude (VA) fatigue crack growth behavior is presented in this paper. The topics covered in this review encompass important issues pertaining to both single and repeated overload transients. Reviews on transient post overload effects such as plasticity induced crack closure, crack tip blunting, residual stresses, crack deflection and branching, activation of near threshold mechanisms, strain hardening are highlighted. A brief summary on experimental trends and finite element modelling of overload induced crack closure is also presented.

  20. On the driving force for crack growth during thermal actuation of shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxevanis, T.; Parrinello, A. F.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of thermomechanically induced phase transformation on the driving force for crack growth in polycrystalline shape memory alloys is analyzed in an infinite center-cracked plate subjected to a thermal actuation cycle under mechanical load in plain strain. Finite element calculations are carried out to determine the mechanical fields near the static crack and the crack-tip energy release rate using the virtual crack closure technique. A substantial increase of the energy release rate - an order of magnitude for some material systems - is observed during the thermal cycle due to the stress redistribution induced by large scale phase transformation. Thus, phase transformation occurring due to thermal variations under mechanical load may result in crack growth if the crack-tip energy release rate reaches a material specific critical value.

  1. Numerical analysis of interacting cracks in biaxial stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, M.; Cizelj, L.

    1999-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracks as seen for example in PWR steam generator tubing made of Inconel 600 usually produce highly irregular kinked and branched crack patterns. Crack initialization and propagation depends on stress state underlying the crack pattern. Numerical analysis (such as finite element method) of interacting kinked and branched cracks can provide accurate solutions. This paper discusses the use of general-purpose finite element code ABAQUS for evaluating stress fields at crack tips of interacting complex cracks. The results obtained showed reasonable agreement with the reference solutions and confirmed use of finite elements in such class of problems.(author)

  2. Stress Intensity Factor for Interface Cracks in Bimaterials Using Complex Variable Meshless Manifold Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfen Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of the complex variable meshless manifold method (CVMMM to stress intensity factor analyses of structures containing interface cracks between dissimilar materials. A discontinuous function and the near-tip asymptotic displacement functions are added to the CVMMM approximation using the framework of complex variable moving least-squares (CVMLS approximation. This enables the domain to be modeled by CVMMM without explicitly meshing the crack surfaces. The enriched crack-tip functions are chosen as those that span the asymptotic displacement fields for an interfacial crack. The complex stress intensity factors for bimaterial interfacial cracks were numerically evaluated using the method. Good agreement between the numerical results and the reference solutions for benchmark interfacial crack problems is realized.

  3. Thermal Diffusion Processes in Metal-Tip-Surface Interactions: Contact Formation and Adatom Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Jonsson, Hannes

    1996-01-01

    and the surface can occur by a sequence of atomic hop and exchange processes which become active on a millisecond time scale when the tip is about 3-5 Angstrom from the surface. Adatoms on the surface are stabilized by the presence of the tip and energy barriers for diffusion processes in the region under the tip......We have carried out computer simulations to identify and characterize various thermally activated atomic scale processes that can play an important role in room temperature experiments where a metal tip is brought close to a metal surface. We find that contact formation between the tip...

  4. Evaluation of crack interaction effect for in-plane surface cracks using elastic finite element analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Nam Su; Choi, Suhn; Park, Keun Bae; Kim, Jong Min; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin

    2008-01-01

    The crack-tip stress fields and fracture mechanics assessment parameters, such as the elastic stress intensity factor and the elastic-plastic J-integral, for a surface crack can be significantly affected by adjacent cracks. Such a crack interaction effect due to multiple cracks can magnify the fracture mechanics assessment parameters. There are many factors to be considered, for instance the relative distance between adjacent cracks, crack shape and loading condition, to quantify a crack interaction effect on the fracture mechanics assessment parameters. Thus, the current guidance on a crack interaction effect (crack combination rule), including ASME Sec. XI, BS7910, British Energy R6 and API RP579, provide different rules for combining multiple surface cracks into a single surface crack. The present paper investigates a crack interaction effect by evaluating the elastic stress intensity factor of adjacent surface cracks in a plate along the crack front through detailed 3-dimensional elastic finite element analyses. The effects of the geometric parameters, the relative distance between cracks and the crack shape, on the stress intensity factor are systematically investigated. As for the loading condition, only axial tension is considered. Based on the elastic finite element results, the acceptability of the crack combination rules provided in the existing guidance was investigated, and the relevant recommendations on a crack interaction for in-plane surface cracks in a plate were discussed

  5. Separating the Influence of Environment from Stress Relaxation Effects on Dwell Fatigue Crack Growth in a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Ghosn, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental embrittlement and crack tip visco-plastic stress relaxation play a significant role in determining the dwell fatigue crack growth (DFCG) resistance of nickel-based disk superalloys. In the current study performed on the Low Solvus High Refractory (LSHR) disk alloy, the influence of these two mechanisms were separated so that the effects of each could be quantified and modeled. Seven different microstructural variations of LSHR were produced by controlling the cooling rate and the subsequent aging and thermal exposure heat treatments. Through cyclic fatigue crack growth testing performed both in air and vacuum, it was established that four out of the seven LSHR heat treatments evaluated, possessed similar intrinsic environmental resistance to cyclic crack growth. For these four heat treatments, it was further shown that the large differences in dwell crack growth behavior which still persisted, were related to their measured stress relaxation behavior. The apparent differences in their dwell crack growth resistance were attributed to the inability of the standard linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) stress intensity parameter to account for visco-plastic behavior. Crack tip stress relaxation controls the magnitude of the remaining local tensile stresses which are directly related to the measured dwell crack growth rates. It was hypothesized that the environmentally weakened grain boundary crack tip regions fail during the dwells when their strength is exceeded by the remaining local crack tip tensile stresses. It was shown that the classical creep crack growth mechanisms such as grain boundary sliding did not contribute to crack growth, but the local visco-plastic behavior still plays a very significant role by determining the crack tip tensile stress field which controls the dwell crack growth behavior. To account for the influence of the visco-plastic behavior on the crack tip stress field, an empirical modification to the LEFM stress

  6. Automatic crack detection method for loaded coal in vibration failure process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwu Li

    Full Text Available In the coal mining process, the destabilization of loaded coal mass is a prerequisite for coal and rock dynamic disaster, and surface cracks of the coal and rock mass are important indicators, reflecting the current state of the coal body. The detection of surface cracks in the coal body plays an important role in coal mine safety monitoring. In this paper, a method for detecting the surface cracks of loaded coal by a vibration failure process is proposed based on the characteristics of the surface cracks of coal and support vector machine (SVM. A large number of cracked images are obtained by establishing a vibration-induced failure test system and industrial camera. Histogram equalization and a hysteresis threshold algorithm were used to reduce the noise and emphasize the crack; then, 600 images and regions, including cracks and non-cracks, were manually labelled. In the crack feature extraction stage, eight features of the cracks are extracted to distinguish cracks from other objects. Finally, a crack identification model with an accuracy over 95% was trained by inputting the labelled sample images into the SVM classifier. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a higher accuracy than the conventional algorithm and can effectively identify cracks on the surface of the coal and rock mass automatically.

  7. A Fourth Order Formulation of DDM for Crack Analysis in Brittle Solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Abdollahipour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A fourth order formulation of the displacement discontinuity method (DDM is proposed for the crack analysis of brittle solids such as rocks, glasses, concretes and ceramics. A fourth order boundary collocation scheme is used for the discretization of each boundary element (the source element. In this approach, the source boundary element is divided into five sub-elements each recognized by a central node where the displacement discontinuity components are to be numerically evaluated. Three different formulating procedures are presented and their corresponding discretization schemes are discussed. A new discretization scheme is also proposed to use the fourth order formulation for the special crack tip elements which may be used to increase the accuracy of the stress and displacement fields near the crack ends. Therefore, these new crack tips discretizing schemes are also improved by using the proposed fourth order displacement discontinuity formulation and the corresponding shape functions for a bunch of five special crack tip elements. Some example problems in brittle fracture mechanics are solved for estimating the Mode I and Mode II stress intensity factors near the crack ends. These semi-analytical results are compared to those cited in the fracture mechanics literature whereby the high accuracy of the fourth order DDM formulation is demonstrated.

  8. The Numerical Simulation of the Crack Elastoplastic Extension Based on the Extended Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Xiaozhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the extended finite element method, the exponent disconnected function is introduced to reflect the discontinuous characteristic of crack and the crack tip enrichment function which is made of triangular basis function, and the linear polar radius function is adopted to describe the displacement field distribution of elastoplastic crack tip. Where, the linear polar radius function form is chosen to decrease the singularity characteristic induced by the plastic yield zone of crack tip, and the triangle basis function form is adopted to describe the displacement distribution character with the polar angle of crack tip. Based on the displacement model containing the above enrichment displacement function, the increment iterative form of elastoplastic extended finite element method is deduced by virtual work principle. For nonuniform hardening material such as concrete, in order to avoid the nonsymmetry characteristic of stiffness matrix induced by the non-associate flowing of plastic strain, the plastic flowing rule containing cross item based on the least energy dissipation principle is adopted. Finally, some numerical examples show that the elastoplastic X-FEM constructed in this paper is of validity.

  9. High temperature cracking of steels: effect of geometry on creep crack growth laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabiri, M.R.

    2003-12-01

    This study was performed at Centre des Materiaux de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris. It deals with identification and transferability of high temperature creep cracking laws of steels. A global approach, based on C * and J non-linear fracture mechanics parameters has been used to characterize creep crack initiation and propagation. The studied materials are: the ferritic steels 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V (hot and cold parts working at 540 and 250 C) used in the thermal power stations and the austenitic stainless steel 316 L(N) used in the nuclear power stations. During this thesis a data base was setting up, it regroups several tests of fatigue, creep, creep-fatigue, and relaxation. Its particularity is to contain several creep tests (27 tests), achieved at various temperatures (550 to 650 C) and using three different geometries. The relevance of the C * parameter to describe the creep crack propagation was analysed by a means of systematic study of elasto-viscoplastic stress singularities under several conditions (different stress triaxiality). It has been shown that, besides the C * parameter, a second non singular term, denoted here as Q * , is necessary to describe the local variables in the vicinity of the crack tip. Values of this constraint parameter are always negative. Consequently, application of typical creep crack growth laws linking the creep crack growth rate to the C * parameter (da/dt - C * ), will be conservative for industrial applications. Furthermore, we showed that for ferritic steels, crack incubation period is important, therefore a correlation of Ti - C * type has been kept to predict crack initiation time Ti. For the austenitic stainless steel, the relevant stage is the one of the crack propagation, so that a master curve (da/dt - C * ), using a new data analysis method, was established. Finally, the propagation of cracks has been simulated numerically using the node release technique, allowing to validate analytical expressions utilised for the experimental

  10. Fatigue Crack Propagation Under Variable Amplitude Loading Analyses Based on Plastic Energy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Maachou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity effects at the crack tip had been recognized as “motor” of crack propagation, the growth of cracks is related to the existence of a crack tip plastic zone, whose formation and intensification is accompanied by energy dissipation. In the actual state of knowledge fatigue crack propagation is modeled using crack closure concept. The fatigue crack growth behavior under constant amplitude and variable amplitude loading of the aluminum alloy 2024 T351 are analyzed using in terms energy parameters. In the case of VAL (variable amplitude loading tests, the evolution of the hysteretic energy dissipated per block is shown similar with that observed under constant amplitude loading. A linear relationship between the crack growth rate and the hysteretic energy dissipated per block is obtained at high growth rates. For lower growth rates values, the relationship between crack growth rate and hysteretic energy dissipated per block can represented by a power law. In this paper, an analysis of fatigue crack propagation under variable amplitude loading based on energetic approach is proposed.

  11. Elucidating the iodine stress corrosion cracking (SCC) process for zircaloy tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, M.; Shimada, S.; Nishimura, S.; Amano, K.

    1984-01-01

    Several experimental investigations were made to enhance understanding of the iodine stress corrosion cracking (SCC) process for Zircaloy: (1) oxide penetration process, (2) crack initiation process, and (3) crack propagation process. Concerning the effect of the oxide layer produced by conventional steam-autoclaving, no significant difference was found between results for autoclaved and as-pickled samples. Tests with 15 species of metal iodides revealed that only those metal iodides which react thermodynamically with zirconium to produce zirconium tetraiodide (ZrI 4 ) caused SCC of Zircaloy. Detailed SEM examinations were made on the SCC fracture surface of irradiated specimens. The crack propagation rate was expressed with a da/dt=C Ksup(n) type equation by combining results of tests and calculations with a finite element method. (author)

  12. Influence of the non-singular stress on the crack extension and fatigue life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Recho, N.; Niu, Z.R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► BEM is combined by characteristic analysis to calculate the singular stress field. ► A new method is proposed to evaluate the full stress field at crack tip region. ► Effect of non-singular stress on the propagation direction of the fatigue crack is analyzed. ► The influence of non-singular stress on the fatigue crack life is evaluated. - Abstract: The complete elasticity stress field at a crack tip region can be presented by the sum of the singular stress and several non-singular stress terms according to the Williams asymptotic expansion theory. The non-singular stress has a non-negligible influence on the prediction of the crack extension direction and crack growth rate under the fatigue loading. A novel method combining the boundary element method and the singularity characteristic analysis is proposed here to evaluate the complete stress field at a crack tip region. In this new method, any non-singular stress term in the Williams series expansion can be evaluated according to the computational accuracy requirement. Then, a modified Paris law is introduced to predict the crack propagation under the mixed-mode loading for exploring the influence of the non-singular stress on the fatigue life duration. By comparing with the existed experimental results, the predicted crack fatigue life when the non-singular stress is taken into consideration is more accurate than the predicted ones only considering the singular stress.

  13. Complete Tangent Stiffness for eXtended Finite Element Method by including crack growth parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, J.F.; Poulsen, P.N.; Nielsen, L.O.

    2013-01-01

    the crack geometry parameters, such as the crack length and the crack direction directly in the virtual work formulation. For efficiency, it is essential to obtain a complete tangent stiffness. A new method in this work is presented to include an incremental form the crack growth parameters on equal terms......The eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) is a useful tool for modeling the growth of discrete cracks in structures made of concrete and other quasi‐brittle and brittle materials. However, in a standard application of XFEM, the tangent stiffness is not complete. This is a result of not including...... with the degrees of freedom in the FEM‐equations. The complete tangential stiffness matrix is based on the virtual work together with the constitutive conditions at the crack tip. Introducing the crack growth parameters as direct unknowns, both equilibrium equations and the crack tip criterion can be handled...

  14. Crack growth resistance for anisotropic plasticity with non-normality effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Legarth, Brian Nyvang

    2006-01-01

    For a plastically anisotropic solid a plasticity model using a plastic flow rule with non-normality is applied to predict crack growth. The fracture process is modelled in terms of a traction–separation law specified on the crack plane. A phenomenological elastic–viscoplastic material model...... is applied, using one of two different anisotropic yield criteria to account for the plastic anisotropy, and in each case the effect of the normality flow rule is compared with the effect of non-normality. Conditions of small scale yielding are assumed, with mode I loading conditions far from the crack......-tip, and various directions of the crack plane relative to the principal axes of the anisotropy are considered. It is found that the steady-state fracture toughness is significantly reduced when the non-normality flow rule is used. Furthermore, it is shown that the predictions are quite sensitive to the value...

  15. Numerical investigation on the prefabricated crack propagation of FV520B stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juyi Pan

    Full Text Available FV520B is a common stainless steel for manufacturing centrifugal compressor impeller and shaft. The internal metal flaw destroys the continuity of the material matrix, resulting in the crack propagation fracture of the component, which seriously reduces the service life of the equipment. In this paper, Abaqus software was used to simulate the prefabricated crack propagation of FV520B specimen with unilateral gap. The results of static crack propagation simulation results show that the maximum value of stress–strain located at the tip of the crack and symmetrical distributed like a butterfly along the prefabricated crack direction, the maximum stress is 1990 MPa and the maximum strain is 9.489 × 10−3. The Mises stress and stress intensity factor KI increases with the increase of the expansion step, the critical value of crack initiation is reached at the 6th extension step. The dynamic crack propagation simulation shows that the crack propagation path is perpendicular to the load loading direction. Similarly, the maximum Mises stress located at the crack tip and is symmetrically distributed along the crack propagation direction. The critical stress range of the crack propagation is 23.3–43.4 MPa. The maximum value of stress–strain curve located at the 8th extension step, that is, the crack initiation point, the maximum stress is 55.22 MPa, and the maximum strain is 2.26 × 10−4. On the crack tip, the stress changed as 32.24–40.16 MPa, the strain is at 1.292 × 10−4–1.897 × 10−4. Keywords: FV520B, Crack propagation, Mises stress, Stress–strain, Numerical investigation

  16. Crack propagation in dynamic thermoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    We study the singular thermoelastic fields near the crack tip, in the linear strain assumption. The equations are coupled and non linear. The asymptotic expansions of the displacement and the temperature are given for the first and the second order. It is shown that the temperature is singular when the crack propagates. However, this field does not change the dominant singularity of the mechanical field which is the same as that obtained in the theory of isothermal elasticity [fr

  17. Crack initiation life analysis in notched pipe under cyclic bending loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Seong; Kwak, Sang Log; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Youn Won

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve leak-before-break methodology, more precisely the crack growth evaluation, a round robin analysis was proposed by the CEA Saclay. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the crack initiation life, penetration life and shape of through wall crack under cyclic bending loads. The proposed round robin analysis is composed of three main topic; fatigue crack initiation, crack propagation and crack penetration. This paper deals with the first topic, crack initiation in a notched pipe under four point bending. Both elastic-plastic finite element analysis and Neuber's rule were used to estimate the crack initiation life and the finite element models were verified by mesh-refinement, stress distribution and global deflection. In elastic-plastic finite element analysis, crack initiation life was determined by strain amplitude at the notch tip and strain-life curve of the material. In the analytical method, Neuber's rule with the consideration of load history and mean stress effect, was used for the life estimation. The effect of notch tip radius, strain range, cyclic hardening rule were examined in this study. When these results were compared with the experimental ones, the global deformation was a good agreement but crack initiation cycle was higher than the experimental result

  18. On the variation in crack-opening stresses at different locations in a three-dimensional body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermahini, R. G.; Blom, Anders F.

    1990-01-01

    Crack propagation and closure behavior of thin, and thick middle crack tension specimens under constant amplitude loading were investigated using a three dimensional elastic plastic finite element analysis of fatigue crack propagation and closure. In the thin specimens the crack front closed first on the exterior (free) surface and closed last in the interior during the unloading portion of cyclic loading; a load reduced displacement technique was used to determine crack opening stresses at specified locations in the plate from the displacements calculated after the seven cycle. All the locations were on the plate external surface and were located near the crack tip, behind the crack tip, at the centerline of the crack. With this technique, the opening stresses at the specified points were found to be 0.52, 0.42, and 0.39 times the maximum applied stress.

  19. Analysis of Crack Propagation Path on the Anisotropic Bi-Material Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Shi Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single-domain boundary element method (SDBEM for linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis in the 2D anisotropic bimaterial. In this formulation, the displacement integral equation is collocated on the uncracked boundary only, and the traction integral equation is collocated on one side of the crack surface only. The complete fundamental solution (Green's function for anisotropic bi-materials was also derived and implemented into the boundary integral formulation so the discretization along the interface can be avoided except for the interfacial crack part. A special crack-tip element was introduced to capture exactly the crack-tip behavior. A computer program with the FORTRAN code has been developed to effectively calculate the stress intensity factors, crack initiation angle, and propagation path of an anisotropic bi-material. This SDBEM program has been verified having a good accuracy with the previous researches. In addition, a rock of type (1/(2 disk specimen with a central crack was made to conduct the Brazilian test under diametrical loading. The result shows that the numerical analysis can predict relatively well the direction of crack initiation and the path of crack propagation.

  20. Friction stress effects on mode I crack growth predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Q.; Deshpande, V.S.; Giessen, E. van der; Needleman, A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a lattice friction stress on the monotonic growth of a plane strain mode I crack under small-scale yielding conditions is analyzed using discrete dislocation plasticity. When the friction stress is increased from zero to half the dislocation nucleation stress, the crack tip stress

  1. The effect of pre-stress cycles on fatigue crack growth - An analysis of crack growth mechanism. [in Al alloy plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, T. S.; Liu, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    Cyclic prestress increases subsequent fatigue crack growth rate in 2024-T351 aluminum alloy. This increase in growth rate, caused by the prestress, and the increased rate, caused by temper embrittlement as observed by Ritchie and Knott (1973), cannot be explained by the crack tip blunting model alone. Each fatigue crack increment consists of two components, a brittle and a ductile component. They are controlled by the ductility of the material and its cyclic yield strength, respectively.

  2. Effect of plasticity on cleavage crack growth resistance at an interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    1999-01-01

    The mixed mode toughness of an interface joining an elastic-plastic metal to a solid which does not yield plastically is studied numerically for cases where fracture occurs by atomic separation. Thus, the length scale of the fracture process is typically much smaller than the dislocation spacing...... of a thin elastic strip of material along the metal side of the crack tip, while the metal outside the strip is described by continuum plasticity. Most of the computations use an infinitely long elastic strip to represent the elastic core region around the tip, but the approximation of using a long strip...

  3. Crack tip field in circumferentially-cracked round bar (CCRB in tension affected by loss of axial symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Toribio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the stress intensity factor (SIF is computed in a circumferentially-cracked round bar (CCRB subjected to tensile loading, considering that the resistant ligament is circular and exhibits certain eccentricity in relation to the cylinder axis. The computation was performed by means of the finite element method (FEM using a three dimensional (3D model and the J-integral, the analyzed variable being the eccentricity of the circular ligament. Results show that the SIF is higher at the deepest point of the crack and that an increase of eccentricity (in relation to the bar axis raises the difference between the SIF values along the crack front. From a certain value of the misalignment a bending effect appears, so that the crack remains closed in the area near the point of lower depth.

  4. Influence of corrosion environment composition on crack propagation in high-strength martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaniv, O.N.; Nikiforchin, G.N.; Tsirul'nik, A.T.

    1984-01-01

    The 40 Kh steel is taken as an example to investigate the dependence of electrochemical parameters in the crack tip and characteristics of corrosion static cracking resistance of martensitic steel on the composition of environment. The tests are performed in acidic and alkaline solutions prepared by adding HC or NaOH in distilled water. It is established that growth of pH value of initial solutions trom 0 to 13 brings about linear increase of a threshold stress intensity factor. It is found that acidic medium in the crack tip preserves up to pH 13 of initial medium. The possibility of corrosion crack propagation in alkaline solutions according to the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is proved

  5. Steady-State Crack Growth in Rate-Sensitive Single Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the active plastic zone surrounding a crack growingin a single crystal (FCC, BCC, and HCP) at constant velocity is investigated for ModeI loading under plane strain assumptions. The framework builds upon a steady-state relation bringing the desired solution out in a frame...... translating with the crack tip. In the study, the shielding of the crack tip that follows from plastic slip is investigated by adopting the SSV-model. High resolution plots of the plastic zones are obtained and a detailed study confirms the existence of analytically determined velocity discontinuities from...... the literature. The plastic zone is found to be smallest for the FCC structure andlargest for the HCP structure, which is also reected in the shielding ratio, where FCC crystals show the smallest shielding and HCP the largest shielding....

  6. Theoretical Analysis of Heat Stress Prefabricating the Crack in Precision Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of the metal bar in course of heat treatment is built by regarding the convective heat transfer process of the metal bar as the heat conduction boundary condition. By the theory analysis and numerical simulation methods, the theoretical expression of unsteady multidimensional temperature field for the axisymmetric model of metal bar is obtained. Temperature field distribution of bar V-shaped notch equivalent tip is given by ANSYS software. The quantitative relationship between temperature of bar inner key points and the time is determined. Through the polynomial curve fitting, the relation between the ultimate strength and the temperature is also given. Based on it, the influences of the width of the adiabatic boundary and water velocity on the critical temperature gradient of germinating heat crack in the tip of V-shaped notch are analyzed. The experimental results in precision cropping show that the expression of unsteady multidimensional temperature field is feasible in the rapid calculation of crack generation.

  7. Thermal fatigue cracking in T-fittings of feed water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterberg, J.

    1983-03-01

    The existence of thermal fatigue cracks can be determined by ultrasonic methods. The depth of the cracks will be of importance for evaluation of the seriousness of the situation. Currently, no method is available for determining depth of cracks without cutting and grinding. Methods for gaining information of crack depth have been discussed with leading European materials testing institutes. More elaborate ultrasonic methods have been tested with negative results. On testing signals from crack corners flood possible signals from the crack tips. At present no reliable technique based on ultrasonics exist (in Europe, that will give information of crack depth.(P.Aa.)

  8. On the application of cohesive crack modeling in cementitious materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2007-01-01

    typically for multi scale problems such as crack propagation in fiber reinforced composites. Mortar and concrete, however, are multi-scale materials and the question naturally arises, if bridged crack models in fact are more suitable for concrete and mortar as well? In trying to answer this question a model......Cohesive crack models-in particular the Fictitious Crack Model - are applied routinely in the analysis of crack propagation in concrete and mortar. Bridged crack models-where cohesive stresses are assumed to exist together with a stress singularity at the crack tip-on the other hand, are used...

  9. Modeling time-dependent corrosion fatigue crack propagation in 7000 series aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mark E.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue experiments were conducted with the susceptible S-L orientation of AA7075-T651, immersed in acidified and inhibited NaCl solution, to provide a basis for incorporating environmental effects into fatigue crack propagation life prediction codes such as NASA FLAGRO. This environment enhances da/dN by five to ten-fold compared to fatigue in moist air. Time-based crack growth rates from quasi-static load experiments are an order of magnitude too small for accurate linear superposition prediction of da/dN for loading frequencies above 0.001 Hz. Alternate methods of establishing da/dt, based on rising-load or ripple-load-enhanced crack tip strain rate, do not increase da/dt and do not improve linear superposition. Corrosion fatigue is characterized by two regimes of frequency dependence; da/dN is proportional to f(exp -1) below 0.001 Hz and to F(exp 0) to F(exp -0.1) for higher frequencies. Da/dN increases mildly both with increasing hold-time at K(sub max) and with increasing rise-time for a range of loading waveforms. The mild time-dependence is due to cycle-time-dependent corrosion fatigue growth. This behavior is identical for S-L nd L-T crack orientations. The frequency response of environmental fatigue in several 7000 series alloys is variable and depends on undefined compositional or microstructural variables. Speculative explanations are based on the effect of Mg on occluded crack chemistry and embritting hydrogen uptake, or on variable hydrogen diffusion in the crack tip process zone. Cracking in the 7075/NaCl system is adequately described for life prediction by linear superposition for prolonged load-cycle periods, and by a time-dependent upper bound relationship between da/dN and delta K for moderate loading times.

  10. Crack initiation life analysis in notched pipe under cyclic bending loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goak, S. R.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, J. S.; Park, Y. W.

    2000-01-01

    In order to improve LBB(Leak-Before-Break) methodology, more precisely the crack growth evaluation, a benchmark problem was proposed by the CEA Saclay. The aim of this benchmark analysis was to evaluate the crack growth in a notched pipe under cyclic bending loads. The proposed benchmark analysis is composed of three main topic; fatigue crack initiation, crack propagation and crack penetration. This paper deals with the first topic, crack initiation in a notched pipe under four point bending. Both elastic-plastic finite element analysis and Neuber's rule were used to estimate the crack initiation life and the finite element models were verified by mesh-refinement, stress distribution and global deflection. In elastic-plastic finite element analysis, crack initiation life was determined by strain amplitude at the notch tip and strain-life curve of the material. In the analytical method, Neuber's rule with the consideration of load history and mean stress effect, was used for the life estimation. The effect of notch tip radius, strain range, cyclic hardening rule were examined in this study. When these results were compared with the experimental ones, the global deformation was a good agreement but the crack initiation cycle was higher than the experimental result

  11. The effect of aqueous environments upon the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in low-alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of elevated temperature aqueous environments upon the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in low-alloy steels is discussed in terms of the several parameters which influence such behavior. These parameters include water chemistry, impurities within the steels themselves, as well as factors such as the water flow rate, loading waveform and loading rates. Some of these parameters have similar effects upon both crack initiation and propagation, while others exhibit different effects in the two stages of cracking. In the case of environmentally-assisted crack (EAC) growth, the most important impurities within the steel are metallurgical sulfide inclusions which dissolve upon contact with the water. A ''critical'' concentration of sulfide ions at the crack tip can then induce environmentally-assisted cracking which proceeds at significantly increased crack growth rates over those observed in air. The occurrence, or non-occurrence, of EAC is governed by the mass-transport of sulfide ions to and from the crack-tip region, and the mass-transport is discussed in terms of diffusion, ion migration, and convection induced within the crack enclave. Examples are given of convective mass-transport within the crack enclave resulting from external free stream flow. The initiation of fatigue cracks in elevated temperature aqueous environments, as measured by the S-N fatigue lifetimes, is also strongly influenced by the parameters identified above. The influence of sulfide inclusions does not appear to be as strong on the crack initiation process as it is on crack propagation. The oxygen content of the environment appears to be the dominant factor, although loading frequency (strain rate) and temperature are also important factors

  12. Crack propagation under conditions of low cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmann, D.

    1988-01-01

    A literature review is given of convenient concepts describing the mechanical behaviour of a cracked body under cyclic loading. Only the range of high growth rates is considered. However, caused by large scale yielding in this range, the application of linear elastic fracture mechanics is no longer possible. Mechanical parameters which control fatigue crack growth are a modified stress intensity factor, the J-integral, the crack tip opening displacement and a suitable strain amplitude. (orig.) With 20 figs [de

  13. Comparison of theory and experiment for elastic-plastic plane-strain crack growth. [AISI 4140 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, L.; Rice, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    Recent theoretical results on elastic-plastic plane-strain crack growth are reviewed and experimental results for crack growth in a 4140 steel are discussed in terms of the theoretical concepts. The theory is based on a recent asymptotic analysis of crack surface opening and strain distributions at a quasistatically advancing crack tip in an ideally plastic solid. The analysis is incomplete in that some of the parameters which appear in it are known only approximately, especially at large-scale yielding. Nevertheless, it is sufficient for the derivation of a relation between the imposed loading and amount of crack growth prior to general yielding, based on the assumption that a geometrically similar near-tip crack profile is maintained during growth. The resulting predictions for the variation of J with crack growth are found to fit well to the experimental results obtained on deeply cracked compact specimens.

  14. On a separating method for mixed-modes crack growth in wood material using image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou Pitti, R.; Dubois, F.; Pop, O.

    2010-06-01

    Due to the complex wood anatomy and the loading orientation, the timber elements are subjected to a mixed-mode fracture. In these conditions, the crack tip advance is characterized by mixed-mode kinematics. In order to characterize the fracture process function versus the loading orientation, a new mixed-mode crack growth timber specimen is proposed. In the present paper, the design process and the experimental validation of this specimen are proposed. Using experimental results, the energy release rate is calculated for several modes. The calculi consist on the separation of each fracture mode. The design of the specimen is based on the analytical approach and numerical simulation by finite element method. The specimen particularity is the stability of the crack propagation under a force control.

  15. The influence of surface stress on dislocation emission from sharp and blunt cracks in f.c.c. metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    We use computer simulations to study the behaviour of atomically sharp and blunted cracks in various fee metals. The simulations use effective medium potentials which contain many-body interactions. We find that when using potentials representing platinum and gold a sharp crack is stable with res......We use computer simulations to study the behaviour of atomically sharp and blunted cracks in various fee metals. The simulations use effective medium potentials which contain many-body interactions. We find that when using potentials representing platinum and gold a sharp crack is stable...... with respect to the emission of a dislocation from the crack tip, whereas for all other metals studied the sharp crack is unstable. This result cannot be explained by existing criteria for the intrinsic ductile/brittle behaviour of crack tips, but is probably caused by surface stresses. When the crack...... is no longer atomically sharp dislocation emission becomes easier in all the studied metals. The effect is relatively strong; the critical stress intensity factor for emission to occur is reduced by up to 20%. This behaviour appears to be caused by the surface stress near the crack tip. The surface stress...

  16. The application of an atomistic J-integral to a ductile crack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A; Jones, Reese E

    2013-04-17

    In this work we apply a Lagrangian kernel-based estimator of continuum fields to atomic data to estimate the J-integral for the emission dislocations from a crack tip. Face-centered cubic (fcc) gold and body-centered cubic (bcc) iron modeled with embedded atom method (EAM) potentials are used as example systems. The results of a single crack with a K-loading compare well to an analytical solution from anisotropic linear elastic fracture mechanics. We also discovered that in the post-emission of dislocations from the crack tip there is a loop size-dependent contribution to the J-integral. For a system with a finite width crack loaded in simple tension, the finite size effects for the systems that were feasible to compute prevented precise agreement with theory. However, our results indicate that there is a trend towards convergence.

  17. ORMGEN3D, 3-D Crack Geometry FEM Mesh Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ORMGEN3D is a finite element mesh generator for computational fracture mechanics analysis. The program automatically generates a three-dimensional finite element model for six different crack geometries. These geometries include flat plates with straight or curved surface cracks and cylinders with part-through cracks on the outer or inner surface. Mathematical or user-defined crack shapes may be considered. The curved cracks may be semicircular, semi-elliptical, or user-defined. A cladding option is available that allows for either an embedded or penetrating crack in the clad material. 2 - Method of solution: In general, one eighth or one-quarter of the structure is modelled depending on the configuration or option selected. The program generates a core of special wedge or collapsed prism elements at the crack front to introduce the appropriate stress singularity at the crack tip. The remainder of the structure is modelled with conventional 20-node iso-parametric brick elements. Element group I of the finite element model consists of an inner core of special crack tip elements surrounding the crack front enclosed by a single layer of conventional brick elements. Eight element divisions are used in a plane orthogonal to the crack front, while the number of element divisions along the arc length of the crack front is user-specified. The remaining conventional brick elements of the model constitute element group II. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of 5,500 nodes, 4 layers of clad elements

  18. A unified model of hydride cracking based on elasto-plastic energy release rate over a finite crack extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X.J.; Metzger, D.R.; Sauve, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    A fracture criterion based on energy balance is proposed for elasto-plastic cracking at hydrides in zirconium, assuming a finite length of crack advance. The proposed elasto-plastic energy release rate is applied to the crack initiation at hydrides in smooth and notched surfaces, as well as the subsequent delayed hydride cracking (DHC) considering limited crack-tip plasticity. For a smooth or notched surface of an elastic body, the fracture parameter is related to the stress intensity factor for the initiated crack. For DHC, a unique curve relates the non-dimensionalized elasto-plastic energy release rate with the length of crack extension relative to the plastic zone size. This fracture criterion explains experimental observations concerning DHC in a qualitative manner. Quantitative comparison with experiments is made for fracture toughness and DHC tests on specimens containing certain hydride structures; very good agreement is obtained. ((orig.))

  19. On the strong crack-microcrack interaction problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, M.; Chudnovsky, A.

    1992-07-01

    The problem of the crack-microcrack interaction is examined with special attention given to the iterative procedure described by Chudnovsky and Kachanov (1983), Chudnovsky et al. (1984), and Horii and Nemat-Nasser (1983), which yields erroneous results as the crack tips become closer (i.e., for strong crack interaction). To understand the source of error, the traction distributions along the microcrack line on the n-th step of iteration representing the exact and asymptotic stress fields are compared. It is shown that the asymptotic solution gives a gross overestimation of the actual traction.

  20. The COD concept and its application to fracture mechanical evaluation of cracked components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kockelmann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive literature study, this report critically evaluates the current state of experiences with the COD concept in fracture mechanics. First the concept is explained and the procedure of materials testing with a view to fracture mechanics is discussed in detail with emphasis on: The definition of crack shape modification; the procedure to detect crack modification, with subsequent comparison; the determination of material characteristics; the impact on the characteristics of the crack tip opening and the dispersion of results. The correlation between crack tip opening characteristics and notch impact strength is explained, and the methods applied for analysis of the streses affecting the structural components are shown. The design-based and failure threshold curves and the treatment of real crack geometries are also discussed. Problems still to be solved are shown. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Static and free-vibration analyses of cracks in thin-shell structures based on an isogeometric-meshfree coupling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Thanh, Nhon; Li, Weidong; Zhou, Kun

    2018-03-01

    This paper develops a coupling approach which integrates the meshfree method and isogeometric analysis (IGA) for static and free-vibration analyses of cracks in thin-shell structures. In this approach, the domain surrounding the cracks is represented by the meshfree method while the rest domain is meshed by IGA. The present approach is capable of preserving geometry exactness and high continuity of IGA. The local refinement is achieved by adding the nodes along the background cells in the meshfree domain. Moreover, the equivalent domain integral technique for three-dimensional problems is derived from the additional Kirchhoff-Love theory to compute the J-integral for the thin-shell model. The proposed approach is able to address the problems involving through-the-thickness cracks without using additional rotational degrees of freedom, which facilitates the enrichment strategy for crack tips. The crack tip enrichment effects and the stress distribution and displacements around the crack tips are investigated. Free vibrations of cracks in thin shells are also analyzed. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and computational efficiency of the coupling approach.

  2. Delayed hydrogen cracking test design for pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Roberto; Loberse, Antonio N.; Yawny, Alejandro A.; Riquelme, Pablo

    1999-01-01

    CANDU nuclear power stations pressure tubes of alloy Zr-2,5 % Nb present a cracking phenomenon known as delayed hydrogen cracking (DHC). This is a brittle fracture of zirconium hydrides that are developed by hydrogen due to aqueous corrosion on the metal surface. This hydrogen diffuses to the crack tip where brittle zirconium hydrides develops and promotes the crack propagation. A direct current potential decay (DCPD) technique has been developed to measure crack propagation rates on compact test (CT) samples machined from a non irradiated pressure tube. Those test samples were hydrogen charged by cathodic polarization in an acid solution and then pre cracked in a fatigue machine. This technique proved to be useful to measure crack propagation rates with at least 1% accuracy for DHC in pressure tubes. (author)

  3. The diffusional growth of a grain boundary crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puls, M.P.; Dutton, R.

    1977-10-01

    This report considers the possibility of high temperature rupture occurring by a grain boundary diffusional mechanism. It is assumed that a pre-existing, intergranular crack grows by loss of atoms from the crack tip to the grain boundary. Rupture occurs when the crack has grown to a critical length. A theoretical treatment of the kinetics of crack growth is presented and equations are derived for the crack velocity and time to rupture. A comparison is made with a previous theoretical model developed by Charles, together with rupture data obtained experimentally for the nickel-based alloy, Nimonic 80A. We conclude that experimental verification of the theoretical models requires a comparison with crack velocity data rather than time to rupture data. (author)

  4. Thermal analysis of cracked bodies using finite element techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellen, T.K.; Price, R.H.; Harrison, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    The paper develops the potential energy equation in terms of finite element theory including thermal loads. Following this, the energy release rate and consequently the stress intensity factors are derived. Considerations of the classical near crack tip equations are made and deficiencies with the popular substitution methods are highlighted. A method of removing these deficiencies is described. Various energy methods are reconsidered in terms of the role of the thermal energy contribution to the potential energy. These methods include work of crack closure, energy compliance and virtual crack extensions with no other change in nodal geometry, and therefore only requires the recalculation of the stiffness matrices of the crack tip elements. An example of a quadratic temperature gradient parallel to the crack plane in an edge cracked plate is described. Comparisons of the various finite element methods are made and generally show good agreement. A second application compares the virtual crack extension method with an approximate analytical solution in determining stress intensity factors for a thick hollow cylinder with an axial crack for various depths through the wall thickness and for different times. Initially the cylinder is at a uniform high temperature and is then subjected to a sustained cooling shock. Analytical solutions are available for temperature and stress distributions in the uncracked pipe. The stress intensity for a shallow crack in the early stages of the transient has been determined using a superposition procedure. Comparison of the analytical and computed results shows good agreement between the methods

  5. Effect of inhomogeneous distribution of non-metallic inclusions on crack path deflection in G42CrMo4 steel at different loading rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henschel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An inhomogeneous distribution of non-metallic inclusions can result from the steel casting process. The aim of the present study was to investigate the damaging effect of an inhomogeneous distribution of nonmetallic inclusions on the crack extension behavior. To this end, the fracture toughness behavior in terms of quasi-static J-a curves was determined at room temperature. Additionally, dynamic fracture mechanics tests in an instrumented Charpy impact-testing machine were performed. The fracture surface of fracture mechanics specimens was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that an inhomogeneous distribution significantly affected the path and, therefore, the plane of crack growth. Especially clusters of non-metallic inclusions with a size of up to 200 μm exhibited a very low crack growth resistance. Due to the damaging effect of the clusters, the growing crack was strongly deflected towards the cluster. Furthermore, crack tip blunting was completely inhibited when inclusions were located at the fatigue precrack tip. Due to the large size of the non-metallic inclusion clusters, the height difference introduced by crack path deflection was significantly larger than the stretch zone height due to the crack tip blunting. However, the crack path deflection introduced by a cluster was not associated with a toughness increasing mechanism. The e dynamic loading ( 1 0.5 5 s MPam 10   K did not result in a transition from ductile fracture to brittle fracture. However, the crack growth resistance decreased with increased loading rate. This was attributed to the higher portion of relatively flat regions where the dimples were less distinct.

  6. Influence of crack depth on the fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theiss, T.J.; Bryson, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Heavy Section Steel Technology Program (HSST) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating the influence of flaw depth on the fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel. Recently, it has been shown that, in notched beam testing, shallow cracks tend to exhibit an elevated toughness as a result of a loss of constraint at the crack tip. The loss of constraint takes place when interaction occurs between the elastic-plastic crack-tip stress field and the specimen surface nearest the crack tip. An increased shallow-crack fracture toughness is of interest to the nuclear industry because probabilistic fracture-mechanics evaluations show that shallow flaws play a dominant role in the probability of vessel failure during postulated pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) events. Tests have been performed on beam specimens loaded in 3-point bending using unirradiated reactor pressure vessel material (A533 B). Testing has been conducted using specimens with a constant beam depth (W = 94 mm) and within the lower transition region of the toughness curve for A533 B. Test results indicate a significantly higher fracture toughness associated with the shallow flaw specimens compared to the fracture toughness determined using deep-crack (a/W = 0.5) specimens. Test data also show little influence of thickness on the fracture toughness for the current test temperature (-60 degree C). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Estimation of the crack growth mechanism in the coking process. ; Behavior of fracture mechanics parameter. Cokes sonai kiretsu shinten ni kansuru ichikosatsu. ; Hakai rikigaku parameter no kyodo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, H; Sato, H; Nogami, H; Miura, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-07-10

    Cracks generated in coke layers during a coking furnace operation are an important factor not only to decide quality of the product, but also govern the energy consumption affecting the heat transfer and material transfer. This paper describes estimations of thermal stress and observations to fracture mechanics parameters, applying the incremental theory to surface cracks seen in the initial stage of carbonization. As a result of calculations using the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) as a parameter to evaluate displacement in the vicinity of crack tips, the values increased with the increasing heating rate, and agreed qualitatively with the trend found in the experiments. The CTOD relates closely to the temperature dependence of the contraction coefficient, and varies largely at the transition point from the first maximum point to the second maximum point, from which the surface cracks are predicted to have been generated in this temperature region. Also, an estimation was made on the stress expansion coefficient from the stress distribution, and a result that can explain the experimental resultswas obtained. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Pearlitic ductile cast iron: damaging micromechanisms at crack tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Iacoviello

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ductile cast irons (DCIs are characterized by a wide range of mechanical properties, mainly depending on microstructural factors, as matrix microstructure (characterized by phases volume fraction, grains size and grain distribution, graphite nodules (characterized by size, shape, density and distribution and defects presence (e.g., porosity, inclusions, etc.. Versatility and higher performances at lower cost if compared to steels with analogous performances are the main DCIs advantages. In the last years, the role played by graphite nodules was deeply investigated by means of tensile and fatigue tests, performing scanning electron microscope (SEM observations of specimens lateral surfaces during the tests (“in situ” tests and identifying different damaging micromechanisms.In this work, a pearlitic DCIs fatigue resistance is investigated considering both fatigue crack propagation (by means of Compact Type specimens and according to ASTM E399 standard and overload effects, focusing the interaction between the crack and the investigated DCI microstructure (pearlitic matrix and graphite nodules. On the basis of experimental results, and considering loading conditions and damaging micromechanisms, the applicability of ASTM E399 standard on the characterization of fatigue crack propagation resistance in ferritic DCIs is critically analyzed, mainly focusing the stress intensity factor amplitude role.

  9. Measurements of delayed hydride cracking propagation rate in the radial direction of Zircaloy-2 cladding tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, T., E-mail: kubo@nfd.co.jp [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., 2163 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [M.O.X. Co., Ltd., 1828-520 Hirasu-cho, Mito, Ibaraki 311-0853 (Japan); Uchikoshi, H. [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., 2163 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The delayed hydride cracking (DHC) velocity of Zircaloy-2 was measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The velocity followed the Arrhenius law up to 270 Degree-Sign C. Activation energy was 49 kJ/mol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The threshold stress intensity factor for the DHC was from 4 to 6 MPa m{sup 1/2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increase in material strength accelerated the DHC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitation and fracture of hydrides at a crack tip is responsible for the DHC. - Abstract: Delayed hydride cracking (DHC) tests of Zircaloy-2 cladding tubes were performed in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to directly observe the crack propagation and measure the crack velocity in the radial direction of the tubes. Pre-cracks were produced at the outer surfaces of the tubes. Hydrogen contents of the tubes were from 90 ppm to 130 ppm and test temperatures were from 225 Degree-Sign C to 300 Degree-Sign C. The crack velocity followed the Arrhenius law at temperatures lower than about 270 Degree-Sign C with apparent activation energy of about 49 kJ/mol. The upper temperature limit for DHC, above which DHC did not occur, was about 280 Degree-Sign C. The threshold stress intensity factor for the initiation of the crack propagation, K{sub IH}, was from about 4 MPa m{sup 1/2} to 6 MPa m{sup 1/2}, almost independent of temperature. An increase in 0.2% offset yield stress of the material accelerated the crack velocity and slightly decreased K{sub IH}. Detailed observations of crack tip movement showed that cracks propagated in an intermittent fashion and the propagation gradually approached the steady state as the crack depth increased. The SEM observations also showed that hydrides were formed at a crack tip and a number of micro-cracks were found in the hydrides. It was presumed from these observations that the repetition of precipitation and fracture of hydrides at the crack tip would be

  10. Acoustic emission studies for characterization of fatigue crack growth behavior in HSLA steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jalaj; Ahmad, S.; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Jayakumar, T.; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    High strength low alloy (HSLA) steels are a group of low carbon steels and used in oil and gas pipelines, automotive components, offshore structures and shipbuilding. Fatigue crack growth (FCG) characteristics of a HSLA steel have been studied at two different stress ratios (R = 0.3 and 0.5). Acoustic emission (AE) signals generated during the FCG tests have been used to understand the FCG processes. The AE signals were captured by mounting two piezoelectric sensors on compact tension specimens in liner location configuration. The AE generated in stage II of the linear Paris region of FCG has been attributed to the presence of two sub-stages with two different slopes. The AE generated at higher values of stress intensity factor is found to be useful to identify the transition from stage II to stage III of the FCG. AE location analysis has provided support for increased damage at the crack tip for higher stress ratio. The peak stress intensity (Kmax) values at the crack tip have shown good correlation with the transitions from stage IIa to stage IIb and stage II to stage III of the FCG for the two stress ratios.

  11. Thermographic Inspection of Fatigue Crack by Using Contact Thermal Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Yong; Kim, No Hyu [Korean University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Fatigue crack was detected from a temperature change around surface crack using the thermographic technique. Thermal gradient across the crack decreased very much due to thermal resistance of contact surface in the crack. Heat diffusion flow passing through the discontinuity was visualized in temperature by infrared camera to find and locate the crack. A fatigue crack specimen(SM-45C), which was prepared according to KS specification and notched in its center to initiate fatigue crack from the notch tip, was heated by halogen lamp at the end of one side to generate a heat diffusion flow in lateral direction. A abrupt jump in temperature across the fatigue crack was observed in thermographic image, by which the crack could be located and sized from temperature distribution.

  12. Thermographic Inspection of Fatigue Crack by Using Contact Thermal Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Yong; Kim, No Hyu

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue crack was detected from a temperature change around surface crack using the thermographic technique. Thermal gradient across the crack decreased very much due to thermal resistance of contact surface in the crack. Heat diffusion flow passing through the discontinuity was visualized in temperature by infrared camera to find and locate the crack. A fatigue crack specimen(SM-45C), which was prepared according to KS specification and notched in its center to initiate fatigue crack from the notch tip, was heated by halogen lamp at the end of one side to generate a heat diffusion flow in lateral direction. A abrupt jump in temperature across the fatigue crack was observed in thermographic image, by which the crack could be located and sized from temperature distribution.

  13. Fatigue crack Behaviour in a High Strength Tool Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, Christian; Carstensen, Jesper V.; Brøndsted, Povl

    2002-01-01

    The influence of microstructure on fatigue crack initiation and crack growth of a hardened and tempered high speed steel was investigated. The evolution of fatigue cracks was followed in four point bending at room temperature. It was found that a carbide damage zone exists above a threshold load...... value of maximally 80% of the yield strength of the steel. The size of this carbide damage zone increases with increasing load amplitude, and the zone is apparently associated with crack nucleation. On fatigue crack propagation plastic deformation of the matrix occurs in a radius of approximately 4...... microns in front of the fatigue crack tip, which is comparable with the relevant mean free carbide spacing....

  14. A crack growth evaluation method for interacting multiple cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2003-01-01

    When stress corrosion cracking or corrosion fatigue occurs, multiple cracks are frequently initiated in the same area. According to section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, multiple cracks are considered as a single combined crack in crack growth analysis, if the specified conditions are satisfied. In crack growth processes, however, no prescription for the interference between multiple cracks is given in this code. The JSME Post-Construction Code, issued in May 2000, prescribes the conditions of crack coalescence in the crack growth process. This study aimed to extend this prescription to more general cases. A simulation model was applied, to simulate the crack growth process, taking into account the interference between two cracks. This model made it possible to analyze multiple crack growth behaviors for many cases (e.g. different relative position and length) that could not be studied by experiment only. Based on these analyses, a new crack growth analysis method was suggested for taking into account the interference between multiple cracks. (author)

  15. Examination of parameters affecting overload fracture behavior of flaw-tip hydrides in Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes in Candu reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, J.; Shek, G.K.; Wang, Z.R.

    2007-01-01

    Service-induced flaws in Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tubes in Candu (Canada Deuterium Uranium Reactors) nuclear reactors are susceptible to a crack initiation and growth mechanism known as Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC), which is a repetitive process that involves hydrogen diffusion, hydride precipitation, growth and fracture of a hydride region at the flaw-tip under a constant load. Crack initiation may also occur under another loading condition when the hydride region is subjected to an overload. An overload occurs when the hydride region at the flaw tip is loaded to a stress higher than that at which this region is formed such as when the reactor experiences a transient pressure higher than the normal operating pressure where the hydride region is formed. Flaw disposition requires justification that the hydride region overload will not fracture the hydride region, and initiate DHC. In this work, monotonically increasing load experiments were performed on unirradiated Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube specimens containing simulated debris frets (V-notch) and bearing pad frets (BPF, U-shape notch) to examine overload fracture behavior of flaw-tip hydrides formed under hydride ratcheting conditions. Hydride cracking in the overload tests was detected by the acoustic emission technique and confirmed by post-test metallurgical examination. Test results indicate that the resistance to overload fracture is affected by a number of parameters including hydride formation stress, flaw shape (V-notch vs. BPF) and flaw radius (0.015 mm vs. 0.1 mm). The notch-tip hydride morphologies were examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which show that they are affected by the hydride formation conditions, resulting in different overload fracture resistance. Finite element stress analyses were also performed to obtain flaw-tip stress distributions for interpretation of the test results. (authors)

  16. Soil desiccation cracks as a suction–contraction process

    KAUST Repository

    Cordero, J. A.; Useche, G.; Prat, P. C.; Ledesma, A.; Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Recent macro- and particle-scale advances in unsaturated soil behaviour have led to an enhanced understanding of the effects of moisture changes on soil response. This research examines desiccation cracks as a suction–contraction-coupled process using sand–clay mixtures. Suction–moisture measurements highlight the role of fines on suction potential even at low fines content; on the other hand, oedometer tests exhibit a marked transition from sand-controlled to clay-controlled compressibility. Time-lapse photography of desiccation tests in flat trays show the onset of crack initiation and the subsequent evolution in horizontal strains; concurrent gravimetric water content measurements relate crack nucleation to suction at air entry. Suction and compressibility increase with the soil-specific surface and have a compounded effect on desiccation-driven lateral contraction. Both layer thickness and its lateral extent affect the development of desiccation cracks. The recently proposed revised soil classification system properly anticipates the transitions in compressibility and capillary phenomena observed in this study (between 15 and 35% fines content).

  17. Soil desiccation cracks as a suction–contraction process

    KAUST Repository

    Cordero, J. A.

    2017-10-05

    Recent macro- and particle-scale advances in unsaturated soil behaviour have led to an enhanced understanding of the effects of moisture changes on soil response. This research examines desiccation cracks as a suction–contraction-coupled process using sand–clay mixtures. Suction–moisture measurements highlight the role of fines on suction potential even at low fines content; on the other hand, oedometer tests exhibit a marked transition from sand-controlled to clay-controlled compressibility. Time-lapse photography of desiccation tests in flat trays show the onset of crack initiation and the subsequent evolution in horizontal strains; concurrent gravimetric water content measurements relate crack nucleation to suction at air entry. Suction and compressibility increase with the soil-specific surface and have a compounded effect on desiccation-driven lateral contraction. Both layer thickness and its lateral extent affect the development of desiccation cracks. The recently proposed revised soil classification system properly anticipates the transitions in compressibility and capillary phenomena observed in this study (between 15 and 35% fines content).

  18. Crack growth of throughwall flaw in Alloy 600 tube during leak testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Chi Bum; Majumdar, Saurin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A series of leak testing was conducted at a constant pressure and room temperature. • The time-dependent increase in the leak rate was observed. • The fractography revealed slip offsets and crystallographic facets. • Time-dependent plasticity at the crack tip caused the slip offsets. • Fatigue by jet/structure interaction caused the crystallographic facets. - Abstract: We examined the issue of whether crack growth in a full thickness material can occur in a leaking crack. A series of leak tests was conducted at a room temperature and constant pressure (17.3 MPa) with Alloy 600 tube specimens containing a tight rectangular throughwall axial fatigue crack. To exclude a potential pulsation effect by a high pressure pump, the test water was pressurized by using high pressure nitrogen gas. Fractography showed that crack growth in the full thickness material can occur in the leaking crack by two mechanisms: time-dependent plasticity at the crack tip and fatigue induced by jet/structure interaction. The threshold leak rate at which the jet/structure interaction was triggered was between 1.3 and 3.3 L/min for the specific heat of the Alloy 600 tube tested

  19. Effect of interaction of embedded crack and free surface on remaining fatigue life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genshichiro Katsumata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Embedded crack located near free surface of a component interacts with the free surface. When the distance between the free surface and the embedded crack is short, stress at the crack tip ligament is higher than that at the other area of the cracked section. It can be easily expected that fatigue crack growth is fast, when the embedded crack locates near the free surface. To avoid catastrophic failures caused by fast fatigue crack growth at the crack tip ligament, fitness-for-service (FFS codes provide crack-to-surface proximity rules. The proximity rules are used to determine whether the cracks should be treated as embedded cracks as-is, or transformed to surface cracks. Although the concepts of the proximity rules are the same, the specific criteria and the rules to transform embedded cracks into surface cracks differ amongst FFS codes. This paper focuses on the interaction between an embedded crack and a free surface of a component as well as on its effects on the remaining fatigue lives of embedded cracks using the proximity rules provided by the FFS codes. It is shown that the remaining fatigue lives for the embedded cracks strongly depend on the crack aspect ratio and location from the component free surface. In addition, it can be said that the proximity criteria defined by the API and RSE-M codes give overly conservative remaining lives. On the contrary, the WES and AME codes always give long remaining lives and non-conservative estimations. When the crack aspect ratio is small, ASME code gives non-conservative estimation.

  20. An adaptively refined XFEM with virtual node polygonal elements for dynamic crack problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Z. H.; Sun, F.; Wu, S. C.; Zhang, Z. B.; Chen, T.; Liao, D. M.

    2018-02-01

    By introducing the shape functions of virtual node polygonal (VP) elements into the standard extended finite element method (XFEM), a conforming elemental mesh can be created for the cracking process. Moreover, an adaptively refined meshing with the quadtree structure only at a growing crack tip is proposed without inserting hanging nodes into the transition region. A novel dynamic crack growth method termed as VP-XFEM is thus formulated in the framework of fracture mechanics. To verify the newly proposed VP-XFEM, both quasi-static and dynamic cracked problems are investigated in terms of computational accuracy, convergence, and efficiency. The research results show that the present VP-XFEM can achieve good agreement in stress intensity factor and crack growth path with the exact solutions or experiments. Furthermore, better accuracy, convergence, and efficiency of different models can be acquired, in contrast to standard XFEM and mesh-free methods. Therefore, VP-XFEM provides a suitable alternative to XFEM for engineering applications.

  1. Chloride Ingress in Concrete Cracks under Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Olesen, John Forbes

    2005-01-01

    was similar for both sets and the maximum crack width was kept constant throughout the exposure period by means of precracking and an external prestressed reinforcement. Chloride profiles after 40 days revealed a considerable increase in ingress towards the crack tip in contrast to data from the literature....... Preliminary investigations have been undertaken to quantify the effect of dynamic load application on the chloride ingress into concrete cracks. Specimens were designed allowing ingress of a chloride solution into a single crack of a saturated unreinforced mortar beam. One set of specimens was subjected...... to a load frequency of ten applications per minute and a second set to one application per hour simulating static cracks, however limiting the ingress hampering effects of autogenous healing and a possible dense precipitation on the crack faces. The averaged chloride exposure interval of the crack faces...

  2. Development of a computer code 'CRACK' for elastic and elastoplastic fracture mechanics analysis of 2-D structures by finite element technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, B.K.; Kakodkar, A.; Maiti, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The fracture mechanics analysis of nuclear components is required to ensure prevention of sudden failure due to dynamic loadings. The linear elastic analysis near to a crack tip shows presence of stress singularity at the crack tip. The simulation of this singularity in numerical methods enhance covergence capability. In finite element technique this can be achieved by placing mid nodes of 8 noded or 6 noded isoparametric elements, at one fourth ditance from crack tip. Present report details this characteristic of finite element, implementation of this element in a code 'CRACK', implementation of J-integral to compute stress intensity factor and solution of number of cases for elastic and elastoplastic fracture mechanics analysis. 6 refs., 6 figures. (author)

  3. Hydride precipitation crack propagation in zircaloy cladding during a decreasing temperature history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    An assessment of safety, design, and cost tradeoff issues for short (ten to fifty years) and longer (fifty to hundreds of years) interim dry storage of spent nuclear fuel in Zircaloy rods shall address potential failures of the Zircaloy cladding caused by the precipitation response of zirconium hydride platelets. To perform such assessment analyses rigorously and conservatively will be necessarily complex and difficult. For Zircaloy cladding, a model for zirconium hydride induced crack propagation velocity was developed for a decreasing temperature field and for hydrogen, temperature, and stress dependent diffusive transport of hydrogen to a generic hydride platelet at a crack tip. The development of the quasi-steady model is based on extensions of existing models for hydride precipitation kinetics for an isolated hydride platelet at a crack tip. An instability analysis model of hydride-crack growth was developed using existing concepts in a kinematic equation for crack propagation at a constant thermodynamic crack potential subject to brittle fracture conditions. At the time an instability is initiated, the crack propagation is no longer limited by hydride growth rate kinetics, but is then limited by stress rates. The model for slow hydride-crack growth will be further evaluated using existing available data. (authors)

  4. Hydride precipitation crack propagation in zircaloy cladding during a decreasing temperature history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, R.B. [California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Lawrence Livermore National Lab

    2001-07-01

    An assessment of safety, design, and cost tradeoff issues for short (ten to fifty years) and longer (fifty to hundreds of years) interim dry storage of spent nuclear fuel in Zircaloy rods shall address potential failures of the Zircaloy cladding caused by the precipitation response of zirconium hydride platelets. To perform such assessment analyses rigorously and conservatively will be necessarily complex and difficult. For Zircaloy cladding, a model for zirconium hydride induced crack propagation velocity was developed for a decreasing temperature field and for hydrogen, temperature, and stress dependent diffusive transport of hydrogen to a generic hydride platelet at a crack tip. The development of the quasi-steady model is based on extensions of existing models for hydride precipitation kinetics for an isolated hydride platelet at a crack tip. An instability analysis model of hydride-crack growth was developed using existing concepts in a kinematic equation for crack propagation at a constant thermodynamic crack potential subject to brittle fracture conditions. At the time an instability is initiated, the crack propagation is no longer limited by hydride growth rate kinetics, but is then limited by stress rates. The model for slow hydride-crack growth will be further evaluated using existing available data. (authors)

  5. Modeling fracture in the context of a strain-limiting theory of elasticity: a single anti-plane shear crack

    KAUST Repository

    Rajagopal, K. R.

    2011-01-06

    This paper is the first part of an extended program to develop a theory of fracture in the context of strain-limiting theories of elasticity. This program exploits a novel approach to modeling the mechanical response of elastic, that is non-dissipative, materials through implicit constitutive relations. The particular class of models studied here can also be viewed as arising from an explicit theory in which the displacement gradient is specified to be a nonlinear function of stress. This modeling construct generalizes the classical Cauchy and Green theories of elasticity which are included as special cases. It was conjectured that special forms of these implicit theories that limit strains to physically realistic maximum levels even for arbitrarily large stresses would be ideal for modeling fracture by offering a modeling paradigm that avoids the crack-tip strain singularities characteristic of classical fracture theories. The simplest fracture setting in which to explore this conjecture is anti-plane shear. It is demonstrated herein that for a specific choice of strain-limiting elasticity theory, crack-tip strains do indeed remain bounded. Moreover, the theory predicts a bounded stress field in the neighborhood of a crack-tip and a cusp-shaped opening displacement. The results confirm the conjecture that use of a strain limiting explicit theory in which the displacement gradient is given as a function of stress for modeling the bulk constitutive behavior obviates the necessity of introducing ad hoc modeling constructs such as crack-tip cohesive or process zones in order to correct the unphysical stress and strain singularities predicted by classical linear elastic fracture mechanics. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  6. Detection of cracks on concrete surfaces by hyperspectral image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruno O.; Valença, Jonatas; Júlio, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    All large infrastructures worldwide must have a suitable monitoring and maintenance plan, aiming to evaluate their behaviour and predict timely interventions. In the particular case of concrete infrastructures, the detection and characterization of crack patterns is a major indicator of their structural response. In this scope, methods based on image processing have been applied and presented. Usually, methods focus on image binarization followed by applications of mathematical morphology to identify cracks on concrete surface. In most cases, publications are focused on restricted areas of concrete surfaces and in a single crack. On-site, the methods and algorithms have to deal with several factors that interfere with the results, namely dirt and biological colonization. Thus, the automation of a procedure for on-site characterization of crack patterns is of great interest. This advance may result in an effective tool to support maintenance strategies and interventions planning. This paper presents a research based on the analysis and processing of hyper-spectral images for detection and classification of cracks on concrete structures. The objective of the study is to evaluate the applicability of several wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum for classification of cracks in concrete surfaces. An image survey considering highly discretized wavelengths between 425 nm and 950 nm was performed on concrete specimens, with bandwidths of 25 nm. The concrete specimens were produced with a crack pattern induced by applying a load with displacement control. The tests were conducted to simulate usual on-site drawbacks. In this context, the surface of the specimen was subjected to biological colonization (leaves and moss). To evaluate the results and enhance crack patterns a clustering method, namely k-means algorithm, is being applied. The research conducted allows to define the suitability of using clustering k-means algorithm combined with hyper-spectral images highly

  7. Nonlinear crack mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoroshun, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristic features of the deformation and failure of actual materials in the vicinity of a crack tip are due to their physical nonlinearity in the stress-concentration zone, which is a result of plasticity, microfailure, or a nonlinear dependence of the interatomic forces on the distance. Therefore, adequate models of the failure mechanics must be nonlinear, in principle, although linear failure mechanics is applicable if the zone of nonlinear deformation is small in comparison with the crack length. Models of crack mechanics are based on analytical solutions of the problem of the stress-strain state in the vicinity of the crack. On account of the complexity of the problem, nonlinear models are bason on approximate schematic solutions. In the Leonov-Panasyuk-Dugdale nonlinear model, one of the best known, the actual two-dimensional plastic zone (the nonlinearity zone) is replaced by a narrow one-dimensional zone, which is then modeled by extending the crack with a specified normal load equal to the yield point. The condition of finite stress is applied here, and hence the length of the plastic zone is determined. As a result of this approximation, the displacement in the plastic zone at the abscissa is nonzero

  8. Interface fatigue crack propagation in sandwich X-joints – Part I: Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslemian, Ramin; Berggreen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Correlation technique was used to locate the crack tip and monitor the crack growth. For the specimens with H45 core, unstable crack growth took place initially. Following the unstable propagation, the crack propagated in the core underneath the resin-rich cell layer approaching the interface. However......, the crack did not kink into the interface. For the specimens with H100 core, the crack propagated initially in the core and then returned into the interface and continued to propagate in the interface. For the specimens with H250 core, the crack initially propagated in the core and then kinked...

  9. Mechanical weathering and rock erosion by climate-dependent subcritical cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppes, Martha-Cary; Keanini, Russell

    2017-06-01

    This work constructs a fracture mechanics framework for conceptualizing mechanical rock breakdown and consequent regolith production and erosion on the surface of Earth and other terrestrial bodies. Here our analysis of fracture mechanics literature explicitly establishes for the first time that all mechanical weathering in most rock types likely progresses by climate-dependent subcritical cracking under virtually all Earth surface and near-surface environmental conditions. We substantiate and quantify this finding through development of physically based subcritical cracking and rock erosion models founded in well-vetted fracture mechanics and mechanical weathering, theory, and observation. The models show that subcritical cracking can culminate in significant rock fracture and erosion under commonly experienced environmental stress magnitudes that are significantly lower than rock critical strength. Our calculations also indicate that climate strongly influences subcritical cracking—and thus rock weathering rates—irrespective of the source of the stress (e.g., freezing, thermal cycling, and unloading). The climate dependence of subcritical cracking rates is due to the chemophysical processes acting to break bonds at crack tips experiencing these low stresses. We find that for any stress or combination of stresses lower than a rock's critical strength, linear increases in humidity lead to exponential acceleration of subcritical cracking and associated rock erosion. Our modeling also shows that these rates are sensitive to numerous other environment, rock, and mineral properties that are currently not well characterized. We propose that confining pressure from overlying soil or rock may serve to suppress subcritical cracking in near-surface environments. These results are applicable to all weathering processes.

  10. Williams expansion-based approximation of the stress field in an al 2024 body with a crack from optical measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Malíková, Lucie; Sobek, J.; Frantík, P.; Lopez; Crespo, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 41 (2017), s. 323-331 ISSN 1971-8993 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Crack tip fields * Higher - order terms * Multi - parameter approximetion * Optical data processing Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis

  11. Determination of Fracture Parameters for Multiple Cracks of Laminated Composite Finite Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Arora, P. K.; Srivastava, Sharad Chandra; Kumar, Harish; Lohumi, M. K.

    2018-04-01

    A predictive method for estimation of stress state at zone of crack tip and assessment of remaining component lifetime depend on the stress intensity factor (SIF). This paper discusses the numerical approach for prediction of first ply failure load (FL), progressive failure load, SIF and critical SIF for multiple cracks configurations of laminated composite finite plate using finite element method (FEM). The Hashin and Chang failure criterion are incorporated in ABAQUS using subroutine approach user defined field variables (USDFLD) for prediction of progressive fracture response of laminated composite finite plate, which is not directly available in the software. A tensile experiment on laminated composite finite plate with stress concentration is performed to validate the numerically predicted subroutine results, shows excellent agreement. The typical results are presented to examine effect of changing the crack tip distance (S), crack offset distance (H), and stacking fiber angle (θ) on FL, and SIF .

  12. Main factors causing intergranular and quasi-cleavage fractures at hydrogen-induced cracking in tempered martensitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Ami; Doshida, Tomoki; Hagihara, Yukito; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Takai, Kenichi

    2018-05-01

    Though intergranular (IG) and quasi-cleavage (QC) fractures have been widely recognized as typical fracture modes of the hydrogen-induced cracking in high-strength steels, the main factor has been unclarified yet. In the present study, the hydrogen content dependence on the main factor causing hydrogen-induced cracking has been examined through the fracture mode transition from QC to IG at the crack initiation site in the tempered martensitic steels. Two kinds of tempered martensitic steels were prepared to change the cohesive force due to the different precipitation states of Fe3C on the prior γ grain boundaries. A high amount of Si (H-Si) steel has a small amount of Fe3C on the prior austenite grain boundaries. Whereas, a low amount of Si (L-Si) steel has a large amount of Fe3C sheets on the grain boundaries. The fracture modes and initiations were observed using FE-SEM (Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscope). The crack initiation sites of the H-Si steel were QC fracture at the notch tip under various hydrogen contents. While the crack initiation of the L-Si steel change from QC fracture at the notch tip to QC and IG fractures from approximately 10 µm ahead of the notch tip as increasing in hydrogen content. For L-Si steels, two possibilities are considered that the QC or IG fracture occurred firstly, or the QC and IG fractures occurred simultaneously. Furthermore, the principal stress and equivalent plastic strain distributions near the notch tip were calculated with FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis. The plastic strain was the maximum at the notch tip and the principle stress was the maximum at approximately 10 µm from the notch tip. The position of the initiation of QC and IG fracture observed using FE-SEM corresponds to the position of maximum strain and stress obtained with FEM, respectively. These findings indicate that the main factors causing hydrogen-induced cracking are different between QC and IG fractures.

  13. Prediction of crack propagation and arrest in X100 natural gas transmission pipelines with a strain rate dependent damage model (SRDD). Part 2: Large scale pipe models with gas depressurisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomidis, F.; Shterenlikht, A.; Truman, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper described a specimen for the measurement of high strain rate flow and fracture properties of pipe material and for tuning a strain rate dependent damage model (SRDD). In part 2 the tuned SRDD model is used for the simulation of axial crack propagation and arrest in X100 natural gas pipelines. Linear pressure drop model was adopted behind the crack tip, and an exponential gas depressurisation model was used ahead of the crack tip. The model correctly predicted the crack initiation (burst) pressure, the crack speed and the crack arrest length. Strain rates between 1000 s −1 and 3000 s −1 immediately ahead of the crack tip are predicted, giving a strong indication that a strain rate material model is required for the structural integrity assessment of the natural gas pipelines. The models predict the stress triaxiality of about 0.65 for at least 1 m ahead of the crack tip, gradually dropping to 0.5 at distances of about 5–7 m ahead of the crack tip. Finally, the models predicted a linear drop in crack tip opening angle (CTOA) from about 11−12° at the onset of crack propagation down to 7−8° at crack arrest. Only the lower of these values agree with those reported in the literature for quasi-static measurements. This discrepancy might indicate substantial strain rate dependence in CTOA. - Highlights: • Finite element simulations of 3 burst tests of X100 pipes are detailed. • Strain rate dependent damage model, tuned on small scale X100 samples, was used. • The models correctly predict burst pressure, crack speed and crack arrest length. • The model predicts a crack length dependent critical CTOA. • The strain rate dependent damage model is verified as mesh independent

  14. Evaluation method for ductile crack propagation in pre-strained plates; Yohizumizai no ensei kiretsu denpa hyokaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Y.; Murakawa, H. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Welding Research Inst.; Tanigawa, M. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to investigate an effect of the plastic deformation, which was generated on ship side outer platings subjected to collision load before crack initiation, on the crack propagation behavior, crack propagation experiments using pre-strained specimens and simulation analysis by means of FEM method were carried out, to discuss about the practical simulation analysis method. As a result of the crack propagation experiments using pre-strained center notched plate specimens, a phenomenon where the crack is apt to propagate due to the pre-strains was confirmed, and measured data of crack tip opening angles were obtained. A method was proposed, in which the critical crack tip opening angle values are corrected by considering the difference between the crack shapes obtained from the FEM analysis model and actually measured, and its effectiveness was confirmed. The finite element size effect was also examined. A method using an equivalent plastic strain as the crack propagation condition was shown to determine the relationship between the element size and the critical value of equivalent plastic strain. 5 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Evaluation method for ductile crack propagation in pre-strained plates; Yohizumizai no ensei kiretsu denpa hyokaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Y; Murakawa, H [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Welding Research Inst.; Tanigawa, M [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    In order to investigate an effect of the plastic deformation, which was generated on ship side outer platings subjected to collision load before crack initiation, on the crack propagation behavior, crack propagation experiments using pre-strained specimens and simulation analysis by means of FEM method were carried out, to discuss about the practical simulation analysis method. As a result of the crack propagation experiments using pre-strained center notched plate specimens, a phenomenon where the crack is apt to propagate due to the pre-strains was confirmed, and measured data of crack tip opening angles were obtained. A method was proposed, in which the critical crack tip opening angle values are corrected by considering the difference between the crack shapes obtained from the FEM analysis model and actually measured, and its effectiveness was confirmed. The finite element size effect was also examined. A method using an equivalent plastic strain as the crack propagation condition was shown to determine the relationship between the element size and the critical value of equivalent plastic strain. 5 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Modelling the tearing crack growth in a ductile ferritic steel using X-FEM elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simatos, A.; Prabel, B.; Marie, S.; Nedelec, M.; Combescure, A.

    2012-01-01

    Extended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) is used to model a cracked structure without meshing explicitly the crack. Indeed, the crack is represented by a discontinuity of the displacement field through additional degrees of freedom using Heaviside type function or derived from the Irwin's singular fields. Initially, the stress integration in the XFEM framework supposed to divide the cut elements into sub-triangles that are conform to the crack. This was motivated in order to integrate the behaviour accurately on both sides of the crack in particular at proximity of the crack tip where singular enrichments are present. This strategy induces field projections from the usual Gauss point configuration to a variable new one that depends on the crack position in the element. For ductile fracture modelization, this approach is not applicable, because in presence of large scale yield, the projection of internal variable fields is not conservative, in particular at proximity of the crack tip. In order to circumvent this problem, a new integration strategy was proposed by B. Prabel. It consists in using 64 Gauss points that are placed without regards to the crack position. This simple integration scheme permits to take implicitly into account the crack position and the fields in the element in an accurate and consistent way. This strategy was used in problem calculation for which the plastic radius remained small. It allowed introducing the over integrated elements in the probable propagation zone, just before plastification. In the case of ductile tearing, the plasticity is not confined near the crack tip and an improvement of the proposed strategy is made. This is then used to model large ductile crack growth in a ductile ferritic steel. To validate the predictions, the modelization is compared to a second F.E. calculation using the node release technique for the crack propagation. It is then shown that the two predictions are strictly equivalents. (authors)

  17. Photoelastic Analysis of Cracked Thick Walled Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastramă, Ştefan Dan

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the experimental determination of the stress intensity factor in thick walled cylinders subject to uniform internal pressure and having longitudinal non-penetrating cracks is presented. Photoelastic measurements were used together with the expressions of the stress field near the crack tip for Mode I crack extension and a specific methodology for stress intensity factor determination. Two types of longitudinal cracks - internal and external - were considered. Four plane models were manufactured and analyzed in a plane polariscope at different values of the applied internal pressure. The values of the normalized stress intensity factor were calculated and the results were compared to those reported by other authors. A good accuracy was noticed, showing the reliability of the experimental procedure.

  18. Application of acoustic emission to hydride cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagat, S.; Ambler, J.F.R.; Coleman, C.E.

    1986-07-01

    Acoustic emission has been used for over a decade to study delayed hydride cracking (DHC) in zirconium alloys. At first acoustic emission was used primarily to detect the onset of DHC. This was possible because DHC was accompanied by very little plastic deformation of the material and furthermore the amplitudes of the acoustic pulses produced during cracking of the brittle hydride phase were much larger than those from dislocation motion and twinning. Acoustic emission was also used for measuring crack growth when it was found that for a suitable amplitude threshold, the total number of acoustic emission counts was linearly related to the cracked area. Once the proportionality constant was established, the acoustic counts could be converted to the crack length. Now the proportionality between the count rate and the crack growth rate is used to provide feedback between the crack length and the applied load, using computer technology. In such a system, the stress at the crack tip can be maintained constant during the test by adjusting the applied load as the crack progresses, or it can be changed in a predetermined manner, for example, to measure the threshold stress for cracking

  19. On the path of a crack near a graded interface under large scale yielding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, M. M.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2003-01-01

    The trajectory of a crack lying parallel to a thin graded layer between two plastically dissimilar materials is studied using the exclusion region (ER) theory of fracture. The ER theory is a theoretical framework for surface separation within which a broad range of fracture phenomenologies can...... be represented. In the present study, the direction of crack advance is determined by maximizing the resolved normal-opening force on the near-tip region, whereas separation itself is governed by the intensity of plastic deformation near the tip. A computational study was undertaken using the ER theory....... The special-purpose finite element analysis platform accommodates arbitrary-and a priori unknown-crack trajectories. The model problem considered herein involves two plastically dissimilar, but elastically identical, materials joined by a thin, graded interface layer. The initial crack lies parallel...

  20. Elastic crack-tip stress field in a semi-strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Reut

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the plain elasticity problem for a semi-strip with a transverse crack is investigated in the different cases of the boundary conditions at the semi-strips end. Unlike many works dedicated to this subject, the fixed singularities in the singular integral equation�s kernel are considered. The integral transformations� method is applied by the generalized scheme to reduce the initial problem to a one-dimensional problem. The one-dimensional problem is formulated as the vector boundary value problem which is solved with the help of matrix differential calculations and Green�s matrix apparatus. The solution of the problem is reduced to the solving of the system of three singular integral equations. Depending on the conditions given on the short edge of the semi-strip, the constructed singular integral equation can have one, or two fixed singularities. A special method is applied to solve this equation in regard of the singularities existence. Hence the system of the singular integral equations (SSIE is solved with the help of the generalized method. The stress intensity factors (SIF are investigated for different lengths of crack. The novelty of this work is in the application of new approach allowing the consideration of the fixed singularities in the problem about a transverse crack in the elastic semi-strip. The comparison of the numerical results� accuracy during the usage of the different approaches to the solving of SSIE is worked out

  1. Relaxation cracking in the process industry, an underestimated problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, J.C. van [TNO Institute of Industrial Technology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    1999-12-31

    Austenitic components, operating between 500 and 750 deg C, can fail within 1 year service while the ordinary mechanical properties after failure are still within the code requirements. The intergranular brittle failures are situated in the welded or cold deformed areas. This type of cracking has many names, showing the uncertainty concerning the mechanism for the (catastrophical) failures. A just finished investigation showed that it is a relaxation crack problem, introduced by manufacturing processes, especially welding and cold rolling. Cracking/failures can be expected after only 0.1- 0.2 % relaxation strain. These low strain values can already be generated during relaxation of the welding stresses. Especially coarse grained `age hardening` materials are susceptible. Stabilising and Postweld Heat Treatments are very effective to avoid relaxation crack problems during operation. After these heat treatments the components can withstand more than 2 % relaxation strain. At temperatures between 500 and 750 deg C relaxation cracking is the predominant factor for the safety and lifetime of welded austenitic components. (orig.) 12 refs.

  2. Relaxation cracking in the process industry, an underestimated problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, J.C. van [TNO Institute of Industrial Technology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    Austenitic components, operating between 500 and 750 deg C, can fail within 1 year service while the ordinary mechanical properties after failure are still within the code requirements. The intergranular brittle failures are situated in the welded or cold deformed areas. This type of cracking has many names, showing the uncertainty concerning the mechanism for the (catastrophical) failures. A just finished investigation showed that it is a relaxation crack problem, introduced by manufacturing processes, especially welding and cold rolling. Cracking/failures can be expected after only 0.1- 0.2 % relaxation strain. These low strain values can already be generated during relaxation of the welding stresses. Especially coarse grained `age hardening` materials are susceptible. Stabilising and Postweld Heat Treatments are very effective to avoid relaxation crack problems during operation. After these heat treatments the components can withstand more than 2 % relaxation strain. At temperatures between 500 and 750 deg C relaxation cracking is the predominant factor for the safety and lifetime of welded austenitic components. (orig.) 12 refs.

  3. Detecting crack profile in concrete using digital image correlation and acoustic emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukili A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Failure process in concrete structures is usually accompanied by cracking of concrete. Understanding the cracking pattern is very important while studying the failure governing criteria of concrete. The cracking phenomenon in concrete structures is usually complex and involves many microscopic mechanisms caused by material heterogeneity. Since last many years, fracture or damage analysis by experimental examinations of the cement based composites has shown importance to evaluate the cracking and damage behavior of those heterogeneous materials with damage accumulation due to microcracks development ahead of the propagating crack tip; and energy dissipation resulted during the evolution of damage in the structure. The techniques used in those experiments may be the holographic interferometry, the dye penetration, the scanning electron microscopy, the acoustic emission etc. Those methods offer either the images of the material surface to observe micro-features of the concrete with qualitative analysis, or the black-white fringe patterns of the deformation on the specimen surface, from which it is difficult to observe profiles of the damaged materials.

  4. Mathematical modeling of the crack growth in linear elastic isotropic materials by conventional fracture mechanics approaches and by molecular dynamics method: crack propagation direction angle under mixed mode loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Larisa; Bronnikov, Sergej

    2018-03-01

    The crack growth directional angles in the isotropic linear elastic plane with the central crack under mixed-mode loading conditions for the full range of the mixity parameter are found. Two fracture criteria of traditional linear fracture mechanics (maximum tangential stress and minimum strain energy density criteria) are used. Atomistic simulations of the central crack growth process in an infinite plane medium under mixed-mode loading using Large-scale Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS), a classical molecular dynamics code, are performed. The inter-atomic potential used in this investigation is Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potential. The plane specimens with initial central crack were subjected to Mixed-Mode loadings. The simulation cell contains 400000 atoms. The crack propagation direction angles under different values of the mixity parameter in a wide range of values from pure tensile loading to pure shear loading in a wide diapason of temperatures (from 0.1 К to 800 К) are obtained and analyzed. It is shown that the crack propagation direction angles obtained by molecular dynamics method coincide with the crack propagation direction angles given by the multi-parameter fracture criteria based on the strain energy density and the multi-parameter description of the crack-tip fields.

  5. Automated processing of forensic casework samples using robotic workstations equipped with nondisposable tips: contamination prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frégeau, Chantal J; Lett, C Marc; Elliott, Jim; Yensen, Craig; Fourney, Ron M

    2008-05-01

    An automated process has been developed for the analysis of forensic casework samples using TECAN Genesis RSP 150/8 or Freedom EVO liquid handling workstations equipped exclusively with nondisposable tips. Robot tip cleaning routines have been incorporated strategically within the DNA extraction process as well as at the end of each session. Alternative options were examined for cleaning the tips and different strategies were employed to verify cross-contamination. A 2% sodium hypochlorite wash (1/5th dilution of the 10.8% commercial bleach stock) proved to be the best overall approach for preventing cross-contamination of samples processed using our automated protocol. The bleach wash steps do not adversely impact the short tandem repeat (STR) profiles developed from DNA extracted robotically and allow for major cost savings through the implementation of fixed tips. We have demonstrated that robotic workstations equipped with fixed pipette tips can be used with confidence with properly designed tip washing routines to process casework samples using an adapted magnetic bead extraction protocol.

  6. Stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy-4 in non-aqueous iodine solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Sanchez, Andrea V.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work the susceptibility to intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy-4 in different iodine alcoholic solutions was studied. The influence of different variables such as the molecular weight of the alcohols, the water content of the solutions, the alcohol type (primary, secondary or tertiary) and the temperature was evaluated. To determine the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking the slow strain rate technique was used. Specimens of Zircaloy-4 were also exposed between 0.5 and 300 hours to the solutions without applied stress to evaluate the susceptibility to intergranular attack. The electrochemical behavior of the material in the corrosive media was studied by potentiodynamic polarization tests. It was determined that the active species responsible for the stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy-4 in iodine alcoholic solutions is a molecular complex between the alcohol and iodine. The intergranular attack precedes the 'true' stress corrosion cracking phenomenon (which is associated to the transgranular propagation of the crack) and it is controlled by the diffusion of the active specie to the tip of the crack. Water acts as inhibitor to intergranular attack. Except for methanolic solutions, the minimum water content necessary to inhibit stress corrosion cracking was determined. This critical water content decreases when increasing the molecular weight of the alcohol. An explanation for this behavior is proposed. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking also depends on the type of the alcohol used as solvent. The temperature dependence of the crack propagation rate is in agreement with a thermal activated process, and the activation energy is consistent with a process controlled by the volume diffusion of the active species. (author) [es

  7. Thermomechanical Behavior of Amorphous Polymers During High-Speed Crack Propagation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bjerke, Todd

    2002-01-01

    .... Experiments were performed using two materials, nominally brittle polymethyl methacrylate and nominally ductile polycarbonate to quantify crack tip heating and identify dominant dissipative mechanisms...

  8. Automated numerical simulation of cracked plates, pipes and elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Babu; Sreehari Kumar, B.; Bhate, S.R.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2008-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, piping components are one of the key elements participating in its operation. Integrity of structural tubes and pipes plays a major role in nuclear power plants. The ideal procedure to ensure this aspect would be to conduct experimental studies on pilot/test specimens. However, it may not always be feasible to carry out the experimental investigation, as it requires pre-requisite infrastructure which may not be economically viable. This makes it imperative to conduct numerical simulations of the same particularly in the study of presence of cracks in the critical components. While performing the effect of cracks, the quality of the finite element mesh nearer to the crack tip plays a critical role while estimating J-integral value. The designer is often familiar with design methodology only and he obviously requires a convenient and reliable numerical tool to model and perform the analysis. In this context, an effort has been made in NISA, the general purpose finite element software, to automate the generation of FE meshes for a set of pre-defined components with different crack configurations. To simplify the procedure of FE mesh generation, analysis, and post processing, a graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed accordingly. This paper discusses the automated numerical simulation of plates and pipes with different crack configurations. This simulation software is also designed to help parametric study of cracked pipes. (author)

  9. On crack interaction effects of in-plane surface cracks using elastic and elastic-plastic finite element analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Nam Su

    2010-01-01

    The crack-tip stress fields and fracture mechanics assessment parameters for a surface crack, such as the elastic stress intensity factor or the elastic-plastic J-integral, can be affected significantly by the adjacent cracks. Such a crack interaction effect due to multiple cracks can alter the fracture mechanics assessment parameters significantly. There are many factors to be considered, for instance the relative distance between adjacent cracks, the crack shape, and the loading condition, to quantify the crack interaction effect on the fracture mechanics assessment parameters. Thus, the current assessment codes on crack interaction effects (crack combination rules), including ASME Sec. XI, BS7910, British Energy R6 and API 579-1/ASME FFS-1, provide different rules for combining multiple surface cracks into a single surface crack. The present paper investigates crack interaction effects by evaluating the elastic stress intensity factor and the elastic-plastic J-integral of adjacent in-plane surface cracks in a plate through detailed 3-dimensional elastic and elastic-plastic finite element analyses. The effects on the fracture mechanics assessment parameters of the geometric parameters, the relative distance between two cracks, and the crack shape are investigated systematically. As for the loading condition, an axial tension is considered. Based on the finite element results, the acceptability of the crack combination rules provided in the existing guidance was investigated, and the relevant recommendations on a crack interaction for in-plane surface cracks are discussed. The present results can be used to develop more concrete guidance on crack interaction effects for crack shape characterization to evaluate the integrity of defective components

  10. Effects of loading frequency on fatigue crack growth mechanisms in α/β Ti microstructure with large colony size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoz, F.; Ghonem, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with crack tip/microstructure interactions at 520 deg. C in lamellar Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si (Ti6242) alloy under different fatigue loading frequencies. A series of heat treatments were performed in order to produce large colony microstructures that vary in their lamellar and colony size. Fatigue crack growth (FCG) experiments were conducted on these microstructures at loading frequencies of 10 and 0.05 Hz. The lower frequency was explored with and without imposing a 5 min hold-time at the peak stress level during each loading cycle. Results show that the crack growth behavior is sensitive to the loading frequency. For the same microstructure, the crack growth rate is found to be lower at 10 than at 0.05 Hz. The addition of a hold-time, however, did not alter the FCG rate indicating that creep strain during one loading cycle does not contribute significantly in the crack growth process. It is also shown that variations in lamella and colony size have no effects on the FCG rate except for the early stage of crack propagation. Scanning Electron Microscope examinations are performed on the fracture surface in order to identify the relevant crack growth mechanisms with respect to the loading frequency and the microstructure details. Quasi-cleavage of the α/β colonies along strong planar shear bands is shown to be a major mode of failure under all test condition. At a loading frequency of 10 Hz, the crack path proceeds arbitrary along planes either perpendicular or parallel to the long axis of α lamellae, while at 0.05 Hz, parallel-to-lamellae crack paths become favored. Corresponding differences of crack growth behavior are examined in terms of slip emission at the crack tip and interactions with the microstructure details

  11. Bladed disc crack diagnostics using blade passage signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanachi, Houman; Liu, Jie; Banerjee, Avisekh; Koul, Ashok; Liang, Ming; Alavi, Elham

    2012-12-01

    One of the major potential faults in a turbo fan engine is the crack initiation and propagation in bladed discs under cyclic loads that could result in the breakdown of the engines if not detected at an early stage. Reliable fault detection techniques are therefore in demand to reduce maintenance cost and prevent catastrophic failures. Although a number of approaches have been reported in the literature, it remains very challenging to develop a reliable technique to accurately estimate the health condition of a rotating bladed disc. Correspondingly, this paper presents a novel technique for bladed disc crack detection through two sequential signal processing stages: (1) signal preprocessing that aims to eliminate the noises in the blade passage signals; (2) signal postprocessing that intends to identify the crack location. In the first stage, physics-based modeling and interpretation are established to help characterize the noises. The crack initiation can be determined based on the calculated health monitoring index derived from the sinusoidal effects. In the second stage, the crack is located through advanced detrended fluctuation analysis of the preprocessed data. The proposed technique is validated using a set of spin rig test data (i.e. tip clearance and time of arrival) that was acquired during a test conducted on a bladed military engine fan disc. The test results have demonstrated that the developed technique is an effective approach for identifying and locating the incipient crack that occurs at the root of a bladed disc.

  12. Transient subcritical crack-growth behavior in transformation-toughened ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauskardt, R.H.; Ritchie, R.O.; Carter, W.C.; Veirs, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Transient subcritical crack-growth behavior following abrupt changes in the applied load are studied in transformation-toughened ceramics. A mechanics analysis is developed to model the transient nature of transformation shielding of the crack tip, K s , with subcritical crack extension following the applied load change. conditions for continued crack growth, crack growth followed by arrest, and no crack growth after the load change, are considered and related to the magnitude and sign of the applied load change and to materials properties such as the critical transformation stress. The analysis is found to provide similar trends in K s compared to values calculated from experimentally measured transformation zones in a transformation-toughened Mg-PSZ. In addition, accurate prediction of the post load-change transient crack-growth behavior is obtained using experimentally derived steady-state subcritical crack-growth relationships for cyclic fatigue in the same material

  13. Fatigue crack growth from blunt notches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of methods have been proposed, by which the formation and early growth of fatigue cracks at blunt notches may be predicted. In this report, four methods are compared - i.e. analysis of the crack tip plastic deformation, the cyclic contour integral, δJ, the strain in a critical volume of material, and the notch root plastic strain range. It is shown that these approaches have fundamental elements in common, and that all are compatable with linear elastic fracture mechanics. Early results from a continuing experimental programme are reported. (orig.) [de

  14. Steady-state crack growth in single crystals under Mode I loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2017-01-01

    The active plastic zone that surrounds the tip of a sharp crack growing under plane strain Mode I loading conditions at a constant velocity in a single crystal is studied. Both the characteristics of the plastic zone and its effect on the macroscopic toughness is investigated in terms of crack tip...... that the largest shielding effect develops in HCP crystals, while the lowest shielding exists for FCC crystals. Rate-sensitivity is found to affect the plastic zone size, but the characteristics overall remain similar for each individual crystal structure. An increasing rate-sensitivity at low crack velocities...... shielding due to plasticity (quantified by employing the Suo, Shih, and Varias set-up). Three single crystals (FCC, BCC, HCP) are modelled in a steady-state elastic visco-plastic framework, with emphasis on the influence of rate-sensitivity and crystal structures. Distinct velocity discontinuities...

  15. Finite element simulation for creep crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Sasaki, Toru; Nakagaki, Michihiko; Brust, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    A finite element method was applied to a generation phase simulation of creep crack growth. Experimental data on creep crack growth in a 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V steel compact tension specimen were numerically simulated using a node-release technique and the variations of various fracture mechanics parameters such as CTOA, J, C * and T * during creep crack growth were calculated. The path-dependencies of the integral parameters J, C * and T * were also obtained to examine whether or not they could characterize the stress field near the tip of a crack propagating under creep condition. The following conclusions were obtained from the present analysis. (1) The J integral shows strong path-dependency during creep crack growth, so that it is does not characterize creep crack growth. (2) The C * integral shows path-dependency to some extent during creep crack growth even in the case of Norton type steady state creep law. Strictly speaking, we cannot use it as a fracture mechanics parameter characterizing creep crack growth. It is, however, useful from the practical viewpoint because it correlates well the rate of creep crack growth. (3) The T * integral shows good path-independency during creep crack growth. Therefore, it is a candidate for a fracture mechanics parameter characterizing creep crack growth. (author)

  16. Crack Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal, Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better than that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  17. Selective hydrogenation processes in steam cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.; Schroeter, M.K.; Hinrichs, M.; Makarczyk, P. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    Hydrogen is the key elixir used to trim the quality of olefinic and aromatic product slates from steam crackers. Being co-produced in excess amounts in the thermal cracking process a small part of the hydrogen is consumed in the ''cold part'' of a steam cracker to selectively hydrogenate unwanted, unsaturated hydrocarbons. The compositions of the various steam cracker product streams are adjusted by these processes to the outlet specifications. This presentation gives an overview over state-of-art selective hydrogenation technologies available from BASF for these processes. (Published in summary form only) (orig.)

  18. Numerical analysis of macro-crack formation behavior within the lump coke; Cokes sonai kiretsu shinten kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H; Sato, H; Miura, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-03-15

    The thermal stress analysis within lump coke was studied in order to investigate macro-crack formation and deformation behavior which strongly influence heat and mass transfer in a coke oven chamber. The dilatation of plastic layer, heating rate dependence of thermophysical and mechanical properties of coal/coke, creep in the plastic and semi-coke layers, macro-crack propagation and radiative heat transfer within the macro-crack were considered in an analytical model. The macro-crack propagation was determined from the estimated crack tip stress intensity factor, K{sub I}, at the macro-crack tip compared with the plane strain fracture toughness, K{sub IC}, through the unsteady-state calculation. Calculated results on crack formation and deformation behavior of lump coke were in good agreement with experimental observations in a laboratory-scale oven chamber. The analytical model could predict micro-crack formation within the lump coke normal to the heated wall and the coke surface close to the heated wall. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  19. Fatigue Crack Behavior of Stainless Steel 304 by the Addition of Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwanulhaque Syed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is the main source of almost half of whole mechanical failures. This research investigated the effect on cyclic fatigue behavior of stainless steel 304 (SS304 when including carbon nanotubes (CNTs at the crack tip. The cyclic fatigue tests were conducted on compact tension (CT specimens to establish the relationship between crack growth and the number of cycles (a-N. It is found that the incorporation of a small amount of CNTs increased the fatigue life of the SS304/metal. Micrographs showed that the enhancement in fatigue life is caused by CNTs dense arrangement around the crack tip, entangled with each other, and finer grain size. Smooth bonding at the interface of the CNTs and SS304 grains is also observed.

  20. Continuum damage mechanics method for fatigue growth of surface cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiqiao; He Shuyan

    1997-01-01

    With the background of leak-before-break (LBB) analysis of pressurized vessels and pipes in nuclear plants, the fatigue growth problem of either circumferential or longitudinal semi-elliptical surface cracks subjected to cyclic loading is studied by using a continuum damage mechanics method. The fatigue damage is described by a scalar damage variable. From the damage evolution equation at the crack tip, a crack growth equation similar to famous Paris' formula is derived, which shows the physical meaning of Paris' formula. Thereby, a continuum damage mechanics approach is developed to analyze the configuration evolution of surface cracks during fatigue growth

  1. A Method to Determine Energy and Power of a Fracture Process in Polycrystals by Means of HVTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alejandro Tamayo-Meza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Main crack propagation process in polycrystalline materials is very complex due to intercrystalline sliding mechanism effects. Multiple factors make it considerably difficult to analyze the state of stresses in the crack tip within the theoretical scope of linear fracture mechanics (LFM. As a basis for the suggested Bilby-Cottrell-Swinden model, we propose a method to determine the state of stresses in the tip of a propagating crack in microspecimens subjected to tension and measured inside a high voltage transmission electron microscope (HVTEM. Based on the electron microscopy observations of a main crack and the formation of microcracks in the plastic zone, the J-integral was determined.

  2. Effects of the Crack Tip Constraint on the Fracture Assessment of an Al 5083-O Weldment for Low Temperature Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Moon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The constraint effect is the key issue in structural integrity assessments based on two parameter fracture mechanics (TPFM to make a precise prediction of the load-bearing capacity of cracked structural components. In this study, a constraint-based failure assessment diagram (FAD was used to assess the fracture behavior of an Al 5083-O weldment with various flaws at cryogenic temperature. The results were compared with those of BS 7910 Option 1 FAD, in terms of the maximum allowable stress. A series of fracture toughness tests were conducted with compact tension (CT specimens at room and cryogenic temperatures. The Q parameter for the Al 5083-O weldment was evaluated to quantify the constraint level, which is the difference between the actual stress, and the Hutchinson-Rice-Rosengren (HRR stress field near the crack tip. Nonlinear 3D finite element analysis was carried out to calculate the Q parameter at cryogenic temperature. Based on the experimental and numerical results, the influence of the constraint level correction on the allowable applied stress was investigated using a FAD methodology. The results showed that the constraint-based FAD procedure is essential to avoid an overly conservative allowable stress prediction in an Al 5083-O weldment with flaws.

  3. Analytical Tem Comparisons of Stress-Corrosion-Crack Microstructures in Alloy 600 under Steam-Generator Service and Laboratory Test Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, L.E.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Scott, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) has been used to characterize stress-corrosion cracks (SCC) in Alloy 600 steam-generator (SG) tubing from tests with caustic and acid-sulfate solutions. The aim of this work was to identify the microstructural and microchemical signatures of intergranular attack and cracking produced under well-controlled test conditions in order to determine the local environments promoting degradation in service. Cross-sectioned cracks and crack tips were examined in samples of mill-annealed alloy 600 tested in concentrated caustic and acid-sulfate solutions at 320 C. Characteristic microstructures observed in the caustic (10% NaOH) test sample included deeply penetrative attack along crack-intersected grain boundaries, with Cr-rich spinel and NiO structure oxides ranging from random nanocrystalline to oriented epitaxial films filling cracks up to the tips. Sodium was readily detectable in the oxides (up to 5 wt.% in the spinel corrosion product) along with S and Cu enrichment at crack-wall metal/oxide interfaces and local attack of the metal matrix around IG carbide particles. In the sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 + FeSO 4 ) test sample, the grain boundaries were also deeply attacked/cracked. Epitaxial NiO-structure oxide formed on the crack walls and S, sometimes with Cu, was concentrated between the oriented oxide layers rather than along the metal/oxide interfaces. Carbides were attacked and partially converted to fine-grained oxide containing up to several percent S. Observations of crack tips in the acid sulfate sample also revealed nm-wide cracks preceding the oxide along grain boundaries. The SCC structures produced in the laboratory tests differed in most details from the secondary-side SCC structures observed in pulled SG tubes. Important differences included the oxide morphologies, the presence of easily detectable Na and absence of sulfides in the test samples, different types of attack on IG carbide particles

  4. Delayed Hydride Cracking in Zr-2.5Nb Tubes with the Direction of An Approach to Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Suk; Im, Kyung Soo; Kim, Kang Soo; Ahn, Sang Bok; Cheong, Yong Moo

    2006-01-01

    One of the unique features of delayed hydride cracking (DHC) of zirconium alloys is that the DHC velocity (DHCV) of zirconium alloys strongly depends on the path to the test temperature. Ambler reported that the DHCV of Zr-2.5Nb tubes at temperatures above 180 .deg. C depended upon the direction of an approach to the test temperatures, and reported on a presence of the DHC arrest temperature or TDAT above which the DHCV decreased upon an approach to the test temperature by a heating. Ambler proposed a hydrogen transfer from the bulk to the crack tip assuming that the hydrides formed at the crack tip and in the bulk region are fully constrained and partially constrained at the crack tip, respectively. In other words, the terminal solid solubility (TSS) of hydrogen would be governed by elastic strain energy induced by the precipitating hydrides, leading to a higher TSS in the bulk region than that at the crack tip. In a sense, his assumption that the hydrogen concentration is higher in the bulk region than that at the crack tip due to a higher TSS in the bulk region is, in a way, similar to Kim's DHC model. Even though Ambler assumed a different strain energy of the matrix hydrides with the direction of an approach to the test temperature, the peak temperature, hydrogen concentration and the hydride phase, a feasible rationale for this assumption is yet to be given. In this study, a path dependence of DHC velocity of Zr-2.5Nb tubes will be investigated using Kim's DHC model where a driving force for DHC is the supersaturated hydrogen concentration between the crack tip and the bulk region. To this ends, the furnace cooled and water-quenched Zr-2.5Nb specimens were subjected to DHC tests at different test temperatures that were approached by a heating or by a cooling. Kim's DHC model predicts that the water-quenched Zr- 2.5Nb will have DHC crack growth even at temperatures above 180 .deg. C where the furnace-cooled Zr-2.5Nb will not. This experiment will provide

  5. Delayed Hydride Cracking in Zr-2.5Nb Tubes with the Direction of An Approach to Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Im, Kyung Soo; Kim, Kang Soo; Ahn, Sang Bok; Cheong, Yong Moo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    One of the unique features of delayed hydride cracking (DHC) of zirconium alloys is that the DHC velocity (DHCV) of zirconium alloys strongly depends on the path to the test temperature. Ambler reported that the DHCV of Zr-2.5Nb tubes at temperatures above 180 .deg. C depended upon the direction of an approach to the test temperatures, and reported on a presence of the DHC arrest temperature or TDAT above which the DHCV decreased upon an approach to the test temperature by a heating. Ambler proposed a hydrogen transfer from the bulk to the crack tip assuming that the hydrides formed at the crack tip and in the bulk region are fully constrained and partially constrained at the crack tip, respectively. In other words, the terminal solid solubility (TSS) of hydrogen would be governed by elastic strain energy induced by the precipitating hydrides, leading to a higher TSS in the bulk region than that at the crack tip. In a sense, his assumption that the hydrogen concentration is higher in the bulk region than that at the crack tip due to a higher TSS in the bulk region is, in a way, similar to Kim's DHC model. Even though Ambler assumed a different strain energy of the matrix hydrides with the direction of an approach to the test temperature, the peak temperature, hydrogen concentration and the hydride phase, a feasible rationale for this assumption is yet to be given. In this study, a path dependence of DHC velocity of Zr-2.5Nb tubes will be investigated using Kim's DHC model where a driving force for DHC is the supersaturated hydrogen concentration between the crack tip and the bulk region. To this ends, the furnace cooled and water-quenched Zr-2.5Nb specimens were subjected to DHC tests at different test temperatures that were approached by a heating or by a cooling. Kim's DHC model predicts that the water-quenched Zr- 2.5Nb will have DHC crack growth even at temperatures above 180 .deg. C where the furnace-cooled Zr-2.5Nb will not. This experiment

  6. Contribution to the study of the mechanism of crack in amorphous silica: study by the molecular dynamics of crack in amorphous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to understand the mechanism which occurs during the crack at the atomic scale in amorphous silica. The difficulties of the experimental observations at this length scale lead us to use numerical studies by molecular dynamics to access to the dynamical and the thermodynamical informations. We have carried out large simulations with 500000 atoms and studied the structure of the amorphous silica before to studying their behaviours under an imposed strain. The structure of this simulated amorphous silica settled in three length scales. In small length scale between 0 and 5 angstrom glass is composed of tetrahedra, this is close to the crystalline structure. In intermediate length scale between 3 and 10 angstrom tetrahedra are connected together and build rings of different sizes composed in majority between 5 and 7 tetrahedra. In bigger length scale between 15 and 60 angstrom, areas with high density of rings are surrounded by areas with low density of rings. These structural considerations play an important role in initiation and propagation of a crack. Indeed. in this length scale. crack propagates by growth and coalescence of some small cavities which appear in area with low density of rings behind the crack tip. The cavities dissipate the stress with carries away a delay to propagation of the crack. This phenomenons seems ductile and leads to non linear elastic behaviour near the crack tip. We have also shown that the addition of alkali in the amorphous silica changes the structure by creation of nano-porosities and leads to enhance the ductility during the crack propagation. (author)

  7. Analysis of cracks in stainless steel TIG [tungsten inert gas] welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagaki, M.; Marschall, C.; Brust, F.

    1986-12-01

    This report contains the results of a combined experimental and analytical study of ductile crack growth in tungsten inert gas (TIG) weldments of austenitic stainless steel specimens. The substantially greater yield strength of the weld metal relative to the base metal causes more plastic deformation in the base metal adjacent to the weld than in the weld metal. Accordingly, the analytical studies focused on the stress-strain interaction between the crack tip and the weld/base-metal interface. Experimental work involved tests using compact (tension) specimens of three different sizes and pipe bend experiments. The compact specimens were machined from a TIG weldment in Type 304 stainless steel plate. The pipe specimens were also TIG welded using the same welding procedures. Elastic-plastic finite element methods were used to model the experiments. In addition to the J-integral, different crack-tip integral parameters such as ΔT/sub p/* and J were evaluated. Also, engineering J-estimation methods were employed to predict the load-carrying capacity of the welded pipe with a circumferential through-wall crack under bending

  8. A Rotor Tip Vortex Tracing Algorithm for Image Post-Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmeyer, Austin D.

    2015-01-01

    A neurite tracing algorithm, originally developed for medical image processing, was used to trace the location of the rotor tip vortex in density gradient flow visualization images. The tracing algorithm was applied to several representative test images to form case studies. The accuracy of the tracing algorithm was compared to two current methods including a manual point and click method and a cross-correlation template method. It is shown that the neurite tracing algorithm can reduce the post-processing time to trace the vortex by a factor of 10 to 15 without compromising the accuracy of the tip vortex location compared to other methods presented in literature.

  9. Process to minimize cracking of pyrolytic carbon coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Jr., Walter J.; Sease, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Carbon-coated microspheroids useful as fuels in nuclear reactors are produced with a low percentage of cracked coatings and are imparted increased strength and mechanical stability characteristics by annealing immediately after the carbon coating processes.

  10. Statistical analysis of process parameters to eliminate hot cracking of fiber laser welded aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Wang, Hui-Ping; Wang, Xiaojie; Cui, Haichao; Lu, Fenggui

    2015-03-01

    This paper investigates hot cracking rate in Al fiber laser welding under various process conditions and performs corresponding process optimization. First, effects of welding process parameters such as distance between welding center line and its closest trim edge, laser power and welding speed on hot cracking rate were investigated experimentally with response surface methodology (RSM). The hot cracking rate in the paper is defined as ratio of hot cracking length over the total weld seam length. Based on the experimental results following Box-Behnken design, a prediction model for the hot cracking rate was developed using a second order polynomial function considering only two factor interaction. The initial prediction result indicated that the established model could predict the hot cracking rate adequately within the range of welding parameters being used. The model was then used to optimize welding parameters to achieve cracking-free welds.

  11. Fatigue crack closure behavior at high stress ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, C. Christopher; Carman, C. Davis; Hillberry, Ben M.

    1988-01-01

    Fatigue crack delay behavior at high stress ratio caused by single peak overloads was investigated in two thicknesses of 7475-T731 aluminum alloy. Closure measurements indicated no closure occurred before or throughout the overload plastic zones following the overload. This was further substantiated by comparing the specimen compliance following the overload with the compliance of a low R ratio test when the crack was fully open. Scanning electron microscope studies revealed that crack tunneling and possibly reinitiation of the crack occurred, most likely a result of crack-tip blunting. The number of delay cycles was greater for the thinner mixed mode stress state specimen than for the thicker plane strain stress state specimen, which is similar to low R ratio test results and may be due to a larger plastic zone for the mixed mode cased.

  12. Catalytic and thermal cracking processes of waste cooking oil for bio-gasoline synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewanto, Muhammad Andry Rizki; Januartrika, Aulia Azka; Dewajani, Heny; Budiman, Arief

    2017-03-01

    Non-renewable energy resources such as fossil fuels, and coal were depleted as the increase of global energy demand. Moreover, environmental aspect becomes a major concern which recommends people to utilize bio-based resources. Waste cooking oil is one of the economical sources for biofuel production and become the most used raw material for biodiesel production. However, the products formed during frying, can affect the trans-esterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. Therefore, it needs to convert low-quality cooking oil directly into biofuel by both thermal and catalytic cracking processes. Thermal and catalytic cracking sometimes are regarded as prospective bio-energy conversion processes. This research was carried out in the packed bed reactor equipped with 2 stages preheater with temperature of reactor was variated in the range of 450-550°C. At the same temperature, catalytic cracking had been involved in this experiment, using activated ZSM-5 catalyst with 1 cm in length. The organic liquid product was recovered by three stages of double pipe condensers. The composition of cracking products were analyzed using GC-MS instrument and the caloric contents were analyzed using Bomb calorimeter. The results reveal that ZSM-5 was highly selective toward aromatic and long aliphatic compounds formation. The percentage recovery of organic liquid product from the cracking process varies start from 8.31% and the optimal results was 54.08%. The highest heating value of liquid product was resulted from catalytic cracking process at temperature of 450°C with value of 10880.48 cal/gr and the highest product yield with 54.08% recovery was achieved from thermal cracking process with temperature of 450°C.

  13. Stress-intensity factors for a thick-walled cylinder containing an annular imbedded or external or internal surface crack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdol, R.; Erdogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    The elastostatic axisymmetric problem for a long thick-walled cylinder containing a ring-shaped internal or edge crack is considered. Using the standard transform technique the problem is formulated in terms of an integral equation which has a simple Cauchy kernel for the internal crack and a generalized Cauchy kernel for the edge crack as the dominant part. As examples the uniform axial load and the steady-state thermal stress problems have been solved and the related stress intensity factors have been calculated. Among other findings the results show that in the cylinder under uniform axial stress containing an internal crack the stress intensity factor at the inner tip is always greater than that at the outer tip for equal net ligament thicknesses and in the cylinder with an edge crack which is under a state of thermal stress the stress intensity factor is a decreasing function of the crack depth, tending to zero as the crack depth approaches the wall thickness.

  14. Dependency of Delayed Hydride Crack Velocity on the Direction of an Approach to Test Temperatures in Zirconium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Kang Soo; Im, Kyung Soo; Ahn, Sang Bok; Cheong, Yong Moo

    2005-01-01

    Recently, Kim proposed a new DHC model where a driving force for the DHC is a supersaturated hydrogen concentration as a result of a hysteresis of the terminal solid solubility (TSS) of hydrogen in zirconium alloys upon a heating and a cooling. This model was demonstrated to be valid through a model experiment where the prior plastic deformation facilitated nucleation of the reoriented hydrides, thus reducing the supersaturated hydrogen concentration at the plastic zone ahead of the crack tip and causing hydrogen to move to the crack tip from the bulk region. Thus, an approach to the test temperature by a cooling is required to create a supersaturation of hydrogen, which is a driving force for the DHC of zirconium alloys. However, despite the absence of the supersaturation of hydrogen due to an approach to the test temperature by a heating, DHC is observed to occur in zirconium alloys at the test temperatures below 180 .deg. C. As to this DHC phenomenon, Kim proposed that stress-induced transformation from γ-hydrides to δ-hydrides is likely to be a cause of this, based on Root's observation that the γ-hydride is a stable phase at temperatures lower than 180 .deg. C. In other words, the hydrides formed at the crack tip would be δ-hydrides due to the stressinduced transformation while the bulk region still maintains the initial hydride phase or γ-hydrides. It should be noted that Ambler has also assumed the crack tip hydrides to be δ-hydrides. When the δ-hydrides or ZrH1.66 are precipitated at the crack tip due to the transformation of the γ-hydrides or ZrH, the crack tip will have a decreased concentration of dissolved hydrogen in zirconium, considering the atomic ratio of hydrogen and zirconium in the γ- and δ-hydrides. In contrast, due to no stress-induced transformation of hydrides, the bulk region maintains the initial concentration of dissolved hydrogen. Hence, there develops a difference in the hydrogen concentration or .C between the bulk and the

  15. Dependency of Delayed Hydride Crack Velocity on the Direction of an Approach to Test Temperatures in Zirconium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Kang Soo; Im, Kyung Soo; Ahn, Sang Bok; Cheong, Yong Moo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Recently, Kim proposed a new DHC model where a driving force for the DHC is a supersaturated hydrogen concentration as a result of a hysteresis of the terminal solid solubility (TSS) of hydrogen in zirconium alloys upon a heating and a cooling. This model was demonstrated to be valid through a model experiment where the prior plastic deformation facilitated nucleation of the reoriented hydrides, thus reducing the supersaturated hydrogen concentration at the plastic zone ahead of the crack tip and causing hydrogen to move to the crack tip from the bulk region. Thus, an approach to the test temperature by a cooling is required to create a supersaturation of hydrogen, which is a driving force for the DHC of zirconium alloys. However, despite the absence of the supersaturation of hydrogen due to an approach to the test temperature by a heating, DHC is observed to occur in zirconium alloys at the test temperatures below 180 .deg. C. As to this DHC phenomenon, Kim proposed that stress-induced transformation from {gamma}-hydrides to {delta}-hydrides is likely to be a cause of this, based on Root's observation that the {gamma}-hydride is a stable phase at temperatures lower than 180 .deg. C. In other words, the hydrides formed at the crack tip would be {delta}-hydrides due to the stressinduced transformation while the bulk region still maintains the initial hydride phase or {gamma}-hydrides. It should be noted that Ambler has also assumed the crack tip hydrides to be {delta}-hydrides. When the {delta}-hydrides or ZrH1.66 are precipitated at the crack tip due to the transformation of the {gamma}-hydrides or ZrH, the crack tip will have a decreased concentration of dissolved hydrogen in zirconium, considering the atomic ratio of hydrogen and zirconium in the {gamma}- and {delta}-hydrides. In contrast, due to no stress-induced transformation of hydrides, the bulk region maintains the initial concentration of dissolved hydrogen. Hence, there develops a difference in the

  16. Threshold velocity for environmentally-assisted cracking in low alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wire, G.L.; Kandra, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) in low alloy steels is generally believed to be activated by dissolution of MnS inclusions at the crack tip in high temperature LWR environments. EAC is the increase of fatigue crack growth rate of up to 40 to 100 times the rate in air that occurs in high temperature LWR environments. A steady state theory developed by Combrade, suggested that EAC will initiate only above a critical crack velocity and cease below this same velocity. A range of about twenty in critical crack tip velocities was invoked by Combrade, et al., to describe data available at that time. This range was attributed to exposure of additional sulfides above and below the crack plane. However, direct measurements of exposed sulfide densities on cracked specimens were performed herein and the results rule out significant additional sulfide exposure as a plausible explanation. Alternatively, it is proposed herein that localized EAC starting at large sulfide clusters reduces the calculated threshold velocity from the value predicted for a uniform distribution of sulfides. Calculations are compared with experimental results where the threshold velocity has been measured, and the predicted wide range of threshold values for steels of similar sulfur content but varying sulfide morphology is observed. The threshold velocity decreases with the increasing maximum sulfide particle size, qualitatively consistent with the theory. The calculation provides a basis for a conservative minimum velocity threshold tied directly to the steel sulfur level, in cases where no details of sulfide distribution are known

  17. Study of stress corrosion cracking initiation of high alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahetova, Marie; Cihal, Vladimir; Lasek, Stanislav [Department of Materials Engineering, VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, tr. 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava - Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2004-07-01

    The stainless steels and related alloys with sufficient resistance to a general corrosion can be susceptible to a localized corrosion (pitting, cracking, intergranular corrosion) in certain environment under specific conditions. The Drop Evaporation Test (DET) was developed for study of stainless materials resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) at elevated temperatures 100 - 300 deg. C under constant external load using a chloride containing water solution. In the contribution the initiation and propagation of short cracks as well as pits were observed during the test. The crack initiation and/or propagation can be influenced by the cyclic thermal stresses, when the diluted water solution drops cool down the hot sample. The coordinates measurement of microscopic pits and sharp corrosion crack tips by the travelling microscope method allowed to derive the crack growth lengths and rates of short cracks. (authors)

  18. Study of stress corrosion cracking initiation of high alloy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahetova, Marie; Cihal, Vladimir; Lasek, Stanislav

    2004-01-01

    The stainless steels and related alloys with sufficient resistance to a general corrosion can be susceptible to a localized corrosion (pitting, cracking, intergranular corrosion) in certain environment under specific conditions. The Drop Evaporation Test (DET) was developed for study of stainless materials resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) at elevated temperatures 100 - 300 deg. C under constant external load using a chloride containing water solution. In the contribution the initiation and propagation of short cracks as well as pits were observed during the test. The crack initiation and/or propagation can be influenced by the cyclic thermal stresses, when the diluted water solution drops cool down the hot sample. The coordinates measurement of microscopic pits and sharp corrosion crack tips by the travelling microscope method allowed to derive the crack growth lengths and rates of short cracks. (authors)

  19. Improved cracking characteristics of bitumen through advanced froth treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, S.H. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Dabros, T. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Advanced Separation Technologies Laboratory; Humphries, A. [Albemarle Catalysts Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the dominant refinery conversion process for producing transportation fuels. Feed to the FCC unit is heavy gas oil (HGO). Its quality depends on the crude used and the processes involved. Bitumen-derived crude (BDC), including synthetic crude oil (SCO) is less superior to produce FCC feed than stocks from conventional sources. As a result, North American refiners have limited the use of BDC in their conventional FCC-based operations. This paper examined the improved cracking characteristics of bitumen through an advanced froth treatment process. This involved processing of the bitumen with paraffinic solvent in froth treatment with removal of some asphaltenes, CCR precursors, and metals. The paper discussed the experimental and subsequent results and discussion, including cracking characteristics; product quality; synergetic effect; and economic benefits. It was concluded that the poisoning effect by some deleterious components such as nitrogen compounds in feeds on the catalyst could be reduced or compensated for by higher C/O ratios (more catalyst per unit weight of feed). In addition, as conversion increased, sulfur in gasoline decreased slightly and linearly with more or less the same magnitude for the two bitumens. 5 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  20. Crack identification and evolution law in the vibration failure process of loaded coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwu; Ai, Dihao; Sun, Xiaoyuan; Xie, Beijing

    2017-08-01

    To study the characteristics of coal cracks produced in the vibration failure process, we set up a static load and static and dynamic combination load failure test simulation system, prepared with different particle size, formation pressure, and firmness coefficient coal samples. Through static load damage testing of coal samples and then dynamic load (vibration exciter) and static (jack) combination destructive testing, the crack images of coal samples under the load condition were obtained. Combined with digital image processing technology, an algorithm of crack identification with high precision and in real-time is proposed. With the crack features of the coal samples under different load conditions as the research object, we analyzed the distribution of cracks on the surface of the coal samples and the factors influencing crack evolution using the proposed algorithm and a high-resolution industrial camera. Experimental results showed that the major portion of the crack after excitation is located in the rear of the coal sample where the vibration exciter cannot act. Under the same disturbance conditions, crack size and particle size exhibit a positive correlation, while crack size and formation pressure exhibit a negative correlation. Soft coal is more likely to lead to crack evolution than hard coal, and more easily causes instability failure. The experimental results and crack identification algorithm provide a solid basis for the prevention and control of instability and failure of coal and rock mass, and they are helpful in improving the monitoring method of coal and rock dynamic disasters.

  1. The effect of residual thermal stresses on the fatigue crack growth of laser-surface-annealed AISI 304 stainless steel Part I: computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiue, R.K.; Chang, C.T.; Young, M.C.; Tsay, L.W.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of residual thermal stresses on the fatigue crack growth of the laser-surface-annealed AISI 304 stainless steel, especially the effect of stress redistribution ahead of the crack tip was extensively evaluated in the study. Based on the finite element simulation, the longitudinal residual tensile stress field has a width of roughly 20 mm on the laser-irradiated surface and was symmetric with respect to the centerline of the laser-annealed zone (LAZ). Meanwhile, residual compressive stresses distributed over a wide region away from the LAZ. After introducing a notch perpendicular to the LAZ, the distribution of longitudinal residual stresses became unsymmetrical about the centerline of LAZ. High residual compressive stresses exist within a narrow range ahead of notch tip. The improved crack growth resistance of the laser-annealed specimen might be attributed to those induced compressive stresses. As the notch tip passed through the centerline of the LAZ, the residual stress ahead of the notch tip was completely reverted into residual tensile stresses. The existence of unanimous residual tensile stresses ahead of the notch tip was maintained, even if the notch tip extended deeply into the LAZ. Additionally, the presence of the residual tensile stress ahead of the notch tip did not accelerate the fatigue crack growth rate in the compact tension specimen

  2. Damage Tolerant Analysis of Cracked Al 2024-T3 Panels repaired with Single Boron/Epoxy Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Akshay D.; Murthy, A. Ramachandra; Nanda Kumar, M. R.; Gopinath, Smitha

    2018-06-01

    It is known that damage tolerant analysis has two objectives, namely, remaining life prediction and residual strength evaluation. To achieve the these objectives, determination of accurate and reliable fracture parameter is very important. XFEM methodologies for fatigue and fracture analysis of cracked aluminium panels repaired with different patch shapes made of single boron/epoxy have been developed. Heaviside and asymptotic crack tip enrichment functions are employed to model the crack. XFEM formulations such as displacement field formulation and element stiffness matrix formulation are presented. Domain form of interaction integral is employed to determine Stress Intensity Factor of repaired cracked panels. Computed SIFs are incorporated in Paris crack growth model to predict the remaining fatigue life. The residual strength has been computed by using the remaining life approach, which accounts for both crack growth constants and no. of cycles to failure. From the various studies conducted, it is observed that repaired panels have significant effect on reduction of the SIF at the crack tip and hence residual strength as well as remaining life of the patched cracked panels are improved significantly. The predicted remaining life and residual strength will be useful for design of structures/components under fatigue loading.

  3. Validity limits in J-resistance curve determination: A computational approach to ductile crack growth under large-scale yielding conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.F.; Xia, L.; Hutchinson, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    In this report, Volume 2, Mode I crack initiation and growth under plane strain conditions in tough metals are computed using an elastic/plastic continuum model which accounts for void growth and coalescence ahead of the crack tip. The material parameters include the stress-strain properties, along with the parameters characterizing the spacing and volume fraction of voids in material elements lying in the plane of the crack. For a given set of these parameters and a specific specimen, or component, subject to a specific loading, relationships among load, load-line displacement and crack advance can be computed with no restrictions on the extent of plastic deformation. Similarly, there is no limit on crack advance, except that it must take place on the symmetry plane ahead of the initial crack. Suitably defined measures of crack tip loading intensity, such as those based on the J-integral, can also be computed, thereby directly generating crack growth resistance curves. In this report, the model is applied to five specimen geometries which are known to give rise to significantly different crack tip constraints and crack growth resistance behaviors. Computed results are compared with sets of experimental data for two tough steels for four of the specimen types. Details of the load, displacement and crack growth histories are accurately reproduced, even when extensive crack growth takes place under conditions of fully plastic yielding. A description of material resistance to crack initiation and subsequent growth is essential for assessing structural integrity such as nuclear pressure vessels and piping

  4. Simulation and experiment for depth sizing of cracks in anchor bolts by ultrasonic phased array technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan

    2018-04-01

    There have been lots of reports about the occurrence of cracks in bolts in aging nuclear and thermal power plants. Sizing of such cracks is crucial for assessing the integrity of bolts. Currently, hammering and visual tests are used to detect cracks in bolts. However, they are not applicable for sizing cracks. Although the tip diffraction method is well known as a crack sizing technique, reflection echoes from threads make it difficult to apply this technique to bolts. This paper addresses a method for depth sizing of cracks in bolts by means of ultrasonic phased array technology. Numerical results of wave propagation in bolts by the finite element method (FEM) shows that a peak associated within the vicinity of a crack tip can be observed in the curve of echo intensity versus refraction angle for deep cracks. The refraction angle with respect to this peak decreases as crack depth increases. Such numerical results are verified by experiments on bolt specimens that have electrical discharge machining notches or fatigue cracks with different depths. In the experiment, a 10-MHz linear array probe is used. Depth of cracks in bolts using the refraction angle associated with the peak is determined and compared to actual depths. The comparison shows that accurately determining a crack depth from the inspection results is possible.

  5. Online study of cracks during laser cladding process based on acoustic emission technique and finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fujun; Mao Huaidong; Zhang Dawei; Zhao Xingyu; Shen Yu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method by using acoustic emission technique to online study of the crack generation and expansion during laser cladding process. The cracks during laser cladding processes with five different laser cladding powder materials were online tested, respectively, with this method. Through finite element analysis (FEA), the temperature ranges of crack generation and expansion were figured out. The main forms and extended forms of the cracks were investigated by using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experiment and analysis results show that the amount of cracks increases with the area and thickness of coating and the cooling rate increasing. A majority of cracks occur in the bonding zone and extend cross the whole cladding coating along the perpendicular direction of laser scanning during laser cladding, and few cracks generate in the cooling process. There are mainly four kinds of crack forms, and the forms of crack expansion are related to the stress states of coating and substrate. The method and conclusions in this paper provide important information for reducing the cracks during large area laser cladding process.

  6. Process of cracking in reinforced concrete beams (simulation and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Shardakov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the mechanisms of crack formation in reinforced concrete beams subjected to quasi-static bending. The boundary-value problem has been formulated in the framework of brittle fracture mechanics and solved using the finite-element method. Numerical simulation of the vibrations of an uncracked beam and a beam with cracks of different size serves to determine the pattern of changes in the spectrum of eigenfrequencies observed during crack evolution. A series of sequential quasi-static 4-point bend tests leading to the formation of cracks in a reinforced concrete beam were performed. At each loading step, the beam was subjected to an impulse load to induce vibrations. Two stages of cracking were detected. During the first stage the nonconservative process of deformation begins to develope, but has not visible signs. The second stage is an active cracking, which is marked by a sharp change in eingenfrequencies. The boundary of a transition from one stage to another is well registered. The vibration behavior was examined for the ordinary concrete beams and the beams strengthened with a carbon-fiber polymer. The obtained results show that the vibrodiagnostic approach is an effective tool for monitoring crack formation and assessing the quality of measures aimed at strengthening concrete structures

  7. Influence of sample geometry and microstructure on the hydrogen induced cracking characteristics under uniaxial load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laureys, A., E-mail: aurelie.laureys@ugent.be [Department of Materials, Textiles and Chemical Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Tech Lane Ghent Science Park - Campus A, Technologie park 903, B-9052 Gent (Belgium); Depover, T., E-mail: tom.depover@ugent.be [Department of Materials, Textiles and Chemical Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Tech Lane Ghent Science Park - Campus A, Technologie park 903, B-9052 Gent (Belgium); Petrov, R., E-mail: roumen.petrov@ugent.be [Department of Materials, Textiles and Chemical Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Tech Lane Ghent Science Park - Campus A, Technologie park 903, B-9052 Gent (Belgium); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Verbeken, K., E-mail: kim.verbeken@ugent.be [Department of Materials, Textiles and Chemical Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Tech Lane Ghent Science Park - Campus A, Technologie park 903, B-9052 Gent (Belgium)

    2017-04-06

    The present work evaluates hydrogen induced cracking in a TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) assisted steel and pure iron. The goal of this work is to understand the effect of the macroscopic stress distribution in the material on the hydrogen induced cracking phenomenon. Additionally, the effect of a complex multiphase microstructure on the characteristics of hydrogen induced cracking was investigated by comparing results for TRIP-assisted steel and pure iron as reference material. Tensile tests on notched and unnotched samples combined with in-situ electrochemical hydrogen charging were conducted. Tests were performed until the tensile strength was reached and until fracture. The resulting hydrogen induced cracks were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrogen induced cracks showed a typical S-shape and crack propagation was mainly transgranular, independently of the presence of a notch or the material's microstructure. This was also the case for the V-shaped secondary crack network and resulting stepped crack morphology characteristic for hydrogen induced damage. These observations indicate that the stress state surrounding the crack tip has a very large impact on the hydrogen induced cracking characteristics. The use of a notch or the presence of a different microstructure did not influence the overall hydrogen induced cracking features, but did change the kinetics of the hydrogen induced cracking process.

  8. Influence of sample geometry and microstructure on the hydrogen induced cracking characteristics under uniaxial load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureys, A.; Depover, T.; Petrov, R.; Verbeken, K.

    2017-01-01

    The present work evaluates hydrogen induced cracking in a TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) assisted steel and pure iron. The goal of this work is to understand the effect of the macroscopic stress distribution in the material on the hydrogen induced cracking phenomenon. Additionally, the effect of a complex multiphase microstructure on the characteristics of hydrogen induced cracking was investigated by comparing results for TRIP-assisted steel and pure iron as reference material. Tensile tests on notched and unnotched samples combined with in-situ electrochemical hydrogen charging were conducted. Tests were performed until the tensile strength was reached and until fracture. The resulting hydrogen induced cracks were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrogen induced cracks showed a typical S-shape and crack propagation was mainly transgranular, independently of the presence of a notch or the material's microstructure. This was also the case for the V-shaped secondary crack network and resulting stepped crack morphology characteristic for hydrogen induced damage. These observations indicate that the stress state surrounding the crack tip has a very large impact on the hydrogen induced cracking characteristics. The use of a notch or the presence of a different microstructure did not influence the overall hydrogen induced cracking features, but did change the kinetics of the hydrogen induced cracking process.

  9. 3D finite element analysis on crack-tip plastic zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... directed in this investigation to achieve a few numerical estimations of 3D plastic zone shape ..... crack front, using domain integral method the software (ABAQUS) automatically.

  10. Criterion of cleavage crack propagation and arrest in a nuclear PWR vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousquet, Amaury

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this PhD thesis is to understand physical mechanisms of cleavage crack propagation and arrest in the 16MND5 PWR vessel steel and to propose a robust predicting model based on a brittle fracture experimental campaign of finely instrumented laboratory specimens associated with numerical computations. First, experiments were carried out on thin CT25 specimens at five temperatures (-150 C, -125 C, -100 C, -7 C, -50 C). Two kinds of crack path, straight or branching path, have been observed. To characterize crack propagation and to measure crack speed, a high-speed framing camera system was used, combined with the development of an experimental protocol which allowed to observe CT surface without icing inside the thermal chamber and on the specimen. The framing camera (520 000 fps) has allowed to have a very accurate estimation of crack speed on the complete ligament of CT (∼ 25 mm). Besides, to analyse experiments and to study the impact of viscosity on the mechanical response around the crack tip, the elastic-viscoplastic behavior of the ferritic steel has been studied up to a strain rate of 104 s -1 for the tested temperatures.The extended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) was used in CAST3M FE software to model crack propagation. Numerical computations combine a local non linear dynamic approach with a RKR type fracture stress criterion to a characteristic distance. The work carried out has confirmed the form of the criterion proposed by Prabel at -125 C, and has identified the dependencies of the criterion on temperature and strain rate. From numerical analyzes in 2D and 3D, a multi-temperature fracture stress criterion, increasing function of the strain rate, was proposed. Predictive modeling were used to confirm the identified criterion on two specimen geometries (CT and compressive ring) in mode I at different temperatures. SEM observations and 3D analyzes made with optical microscope showed that the fracture mechanism was the cleavage associated

  11. Modelling of liquid sodium induced crack propagation in T91 martensitic steel: Competition with ductile fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemery, Samuel [Institut PPRIME, CNRS, Université de Poitiers, ISAE ENSMA, UPR 3346, Téléport 2, 1 Avenue Clément Ader, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Berdin, Clotilde, E-mail: clotilde.berdin@u-psud.fr [Univ Paris-Sud, SP2M-ICMMO, CNRS UMR 8182, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Auger, Thierry; Bourhi, Mariem [Ecole Centrale-Supelec, MSSMat CNRS UMR 8579, F-92295 Chatenay Malabry Cedex (France)

    2016-12-01

    Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) of T91 steel is numerically modeled by the finite element method to analyse experimental results in an axisymmetric notched geometry. The behavior of the material is identified from tensile tests then a crack with a constant crack velocity is introduced using the node release technique in order to simulate the brittle crack induced by LME. A good agreement between the simulated and the experimental macroscopic behavior is found: this suggests that the assumption of a constant crack velocity is correct. Mechanical fields during the embrittlement process are then extracted from the results of the finite element model. An analysis of the crack initiation and propagation stages: the ductile fracture probably breaks off the LME induced brittle fracture. - Highlights: • T91 martensitic steel is embrittled by liquid sodium depending on the loading rate at 573 K. • The mechanical behavior is modeled by a von Mises elastic-plastic law. • The LME induced crack propagates at a constant velocity. • The mechanical state at the crack tip does not explain a brittle crack arrest. • The occurrence of the ductile fracture breaks off the brittle fracture.

  12. An application of the J-integral to an incremental analysis of blunting crack behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical approach to estimating the elastic-plastic stresses and strains near the tip of a blunting crack with a finite root radius. Rice's original derivation of the path independent J-integral considered the possibility of a finite crack tip root radius. For this problem Creager's elastic analysis gives the relation between the stress intensity factor K I and the near tip stresses. It can be shown that the relation K I 2 = E'J holds when the root radius is finite. Recognizing that elastic-plastic behavior is incrementally linear then allows a derivation to be performed for a bielastic specimen having a crack tip region of reduced modulus, and the result differentiated to estimate elastic-plastic behavior. The result is the incremental form of Neuber's equation. This result does not require the assumption of any particular stress-strain relation. However by assuming a pure power law stress-strain relation and using Ilyushin's principle, the ordinary deformation theory form of Neuber's equation, K σ K var epsilon = K t 2 , is obtained. Applications of the incremental form of Neuber's equation have already been made to fatigue and fracture analysis. This paper helps to provide a theoretical basis for these methods previously considered semiempirical. 26 refs., 4 figs

  13. Fringe Analysis around an Inclined Crack Tip of Finite-Width Plate under Tensile Load by Photoelastic Phase-Shifting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weizheng; Baek, Tae Hyun; Lee, Byung Hee; Seo, Jin; Hong, Dong Pyo

    2012-01-01

    Photoelasticity is a technique of experimental methods and has been widely used in various domains of engineering to determine the stress distribution of structures. Without complicated mathematical formulation, this technique can conveniently provide a fairly accurate whole-field stress analysis for a mechanical structure. Here, stress distribution around an inclined crack tip of finite-width plate is studied by 8-step phase-shifting method. This method is a kind of photoelastic phase-shifting techniques and can be used for the determination of the phase values of isochromatics and isoclinics. According to stress-optic law, the stress distribution could be obtained from fringe patterns. The results obtained by polariscope arrangement combined with 8-step method and ABAQUS FEM simulations are compared with each other. Good agreement between them shows that 8-step phase-shifting method is reliable and can be used for determination of stress by experiment

  14. Micromechanical Analysis of Crack Closure Mechanism for Intelligent Material Containing TiNi Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Shigetoshi; Ono, Hiroyuki; Saito, Kenji

    In our previous study, the micromechanical modeling of an intelligent material containing TiNi fibers was performed and the stress intensity factor KI at the tip of the crack in the material was expressed in terms of the magnitude of the shape memory shrinkage of the fibers and the thermal expansion strain in the material. In this study, the value of KI at the tip of the crack in the TiNi/epoxy material is calculated numerically by using analytical expressions obtained in our first report. As a result, we find that the KI value decreases with increasing shrink strain of the fibers, and this tendency agrees with that of the experimental result obtained by Shimamoto etal.(Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng., Vol. 65, No. 634 (1999), pp. 1282-1286). Moreover, there exists an optimal value of the shrink strain of the fibers to make the KI value zero. The change in KI with temperature during the heating process from the reference temperature to the inverse austenitic finishing temperature of TiNi fiber is also consistent with the experimental result. These results can be explained by the changes in the shrink strain, the thermal expansion strain, and the elastic moduli of TiNi fiber with temperature. These results may be useful in designing intelligent materials containing TiNi fibers from the viewpoint of crack closure.

  15. Finite element analysis of crack growth from rectangular notch in mixed mode loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Rawi Mohd Zin

    2002-01-01

    The direction of crack growth from rectangular notch for ductile material is determined in this paper. The ductile material is assumed to exhibit the elastic-plastic behaviour. In the model, the crack is assumed to start when the J-integral fracture criterion exceeded the critical value during the application of load and the crack tip propagated to a priori. The direction of the crack is characterised by maximum principles stress criterion and the mechanism of crack propagation is simulated by deleted element technique. The model is validated with experimental results and it shows good agreement. (Author)

  16. The elastic T-stress for slightly curved or kinked cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dong-Feng; Li, Chen-Feng; Qing, Hai

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a solution for the elastic T-stress at the tip of a slightly curved or kinked crack based on a perturbation approach. Compared to other exact or numerical solutions the present solution is accurate for considerable deviations from straightness. The T-stress variation as crack...... extends along a curved trajectory is subsequently examined. It is predicted that T-stress always keeps negative during crack extension when the crack has an initial negative T-stress. In the case of a positive T-stress and non-zero first and second stress intensity factors initially accompanying the crack......, the T-stress is not positive with increasing the extension length until a threshold is exceeded. Based on directional stability criterion with respect to the sign of the T-stress, this result implies that for a straight crack with a positive T-stress, the crack extension path will not turn immediately...

  17. Rock fracture processes in chemically reactive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhubl, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rock fracture is traditionally viewed as a brittle process involving damage nucleation and growth in a zone ahead of a larger fracture, resulting in fracture propagation once a threshold loading stress is exceeded. It is now increasingly recognized that coupled chemical-mechanical processes influence fracture growth in wide range of subsurface conditions that include igneous, metamorphic, and geothermal systems, and diagenetically reactive sedimentary systems with possible applications to hydrocarbon extraction and CO2 sequestration. Fracture processes aided or driven by chemical change can affect the onset of fracture, fracture shape and branching characteristics, and fracture network geometry, thus influencing mechanical strength and flow properties of rock systems. We are investigating two fundamental modes of chemical-mechanical interactions associated with fracture growth: 1. Fracture propagation may be aided by chemical dissolution or hydration reactions at the fracture tip allowing fracture propagation under subcritical stress loading conditions. We are evaluating effects of environmental conditions on critical (fracture toughness KIc) and subcritical (subcritical index) fracture properties using double torsion fracture mechanics tests on shale and sandstone. Depending on rock composition, the presence of reactive aqueous fluids can increase or decrease KIc and/or subcritical index. 2. Fracture may be concurrent with distributed dissolution-precipitation reactions in the hostrock beyond the immediate vicinity of the fracture tip. Reconstructing the fracture opening history recorded in crack-seal fracture cement of deeply buried sandstone we find that fracture length growth and fracture opening can be decoupled, with a phase of initial length growth followed by a phase of dominant fracture opening. This suggests that mechanical crack-tip failure processes, possibly aided by chemical crack-tip weakening, and distributed solution-precipitation creep in the

  18. Multi-parameter approximation of stress field in a cracked specimen using purpose-built Java applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, V.; Sopek, J.; Tesař, D.; Frantík, P.; Pail, T.; Seitl, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 33 (2015), s. 120-133 ISSN 1971-8993 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Cracked specimen * Near-crack-tip fields * Williams expansion * Higher order terms * Stress field reconstruction * Finite element analysis * Java application Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  19. Revisiting dirt cracking as a physical weathering process in warm deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Ronald I.

    2011-12-01

    A half century ago C.D. Ollier proposed that insolation-driven temperature changes expand and contract fill in fissures enough to widen cracks, a process that would permit progressively deeper penetration of fissure fills, that would in turn generate a positive feedback of greater and greater strain until desert boulders and bedrock shatters. Although desert physical weathering by "dirt cracking" has occasionally been cited, this hypothesized process remains without support from subsequent research. Here, field observations, electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, particle-size analysis, and laboratory experiments shed new light on dirt cracking. Little clear evidence supports the original notion of expansive pressures from thermal fluctuations. However, mineralogical, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, back-scattered electron microscopy, and experimental evidence support two alternative processes of widening fractures: wetting and drying of fills inside fissures; and the precipitation and remobilization of calcium carbonate. A re-envisioned dirt-cracking wedging process starts with calcium carbonate precipitating in fissures less than 5 μm wide. First precipitation, and then ongoing dissolution of this laminar calcrete, opens enough space for dust to penetrate into these narrow fractures. Wetting of expansive clays in the fissure fill exerts enough pressure to widen and deepen the fissure, allowing the carbonate precipitation process to penetrate even deeper and allowing even more dust to move into a fracture. As the dust infiltrates, its texture changes from a chaotic mix of particles to an alignment of clays parallel to fissure sides. This parallel alignment could increase the efficiency of fill wedging. Ollier's concept of a positive feedback remains supported; each increment of fracture deepening and widening permits more, even deeper infiltration of laminar calcrete and dust. Field and electron microscope observations of rock spalling

  20. Effect of temperature on the rate of fatigue crack propagation in some steels during low cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, S.; Fujino, M.; Maruyama, S.

    Temperature dependence of the rate of fatigue crack propagation in steels was examined, and compared with the temperature dependence of tensile ductility. Microcracks initiate and affect the propagation behavior of the main crack at elevated temperatures. Factors found to be elucidated include initiation rate of microcracks, reduction of ductility of the material in the vicinity of the main crack tip, and relaxation of concentrated strain by multi-cracks. It was found that during a strain controlled low cycle fatigue test at 1 cpm, the rate of crack propagation is largest at the blue-brittleness temperature range (200 to 300 0 C) in a low carbon steel. On the other hand, it is largest at above 700 0 C in austenite stainless steels. The temperature dependence of the rate of fatigue crack propagation is opposite to that of tensile ductility. Microcracks formed in the vicinity of the main crack tip were calculated, by considering the strain concentration and strain cycles imposed. Then, the local fracture strain was evaluated. Good correlation was found between the rate of crack propagation and the local fracture strain. (U.S.)

  1. Crack Growth Behavior in the Threshold Region for High Cycle Fatigue Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, R. G.; Zanganeh, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a research program conducted to improve the understanding of fatigue crack growth rate behavior in the threshold growth rate region and to answer a question on the validity of threshold region test data. The validity question relates to the view held by some experimentalists that using the ASTM load shedding test method does not produce valid threshold test results and material properties. The question involves the fanning behavior observed in threshold region of da/dN plots for some materials in which the low R-ratio data fans out from the high R-ratio data. This fanning behavior or elevation of threshold values in the low R-ratio tests is generally assumed to be caused by an increase in crack closure in the low R-ratio tests. Also, the increase in crack closure is assumed by some experimentalists to result from using the ASTM load shedding test procedure. The belief is that this procedure induces load history effects which cause remote closure from plasticity and/or roughness changes in the surface morphology. However, experimental studies performed by the authors have shown that the increase in crack closure is a result of extensive crack tip bifurcations that can occur in some materials, particularly in aluminum alloys, when the crack tip cyclic yield zone size becomes less than the grain size of the alloy. This behavior is related to the high stacking fault energy (SFE) property of aluminum alloys which results in easier slip characteristics. Therefore, the fanning behavior which occurs in aluminum alloys is a function of intrinsic dislocation property of the alloy, and therefore, the fanned data does represent the true threshold properties of the material. However, for the corrosion sensitive steel alloys tested in laboratory air, the occurrence of fanning results from fretting corrosion at the crack tips, and these results should not be considered to be representative of valid threshold properties because the fanning is

  2. Crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics by the scratch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhongjun; Liu, Congcong; Wang, Haorong; Yang, Xue; Fang, Fengzhou; Tang, Junjie

    2016-12-01

    To eliminate the negative effects of surface flaws and subsurface damage of glass-ceramics on clinical effectiveness, crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics were studied by single and double scratch experiments conducted using an ultra-precision machine. A self-manufactured pyramid shaped single-grit tool with a small tip radius was used as the scratch tool. The surface and subsurface crack propagations and interactions, surface morphology and material removal mechanism were investigated. The experimental results showed that the propagation of lateral cracks to the surface and the interaction between the lateral cracks and radial cracks are the two main types of material peeling, and the increase of the scratch depth increases the propagation angle of the radial cracks and the interaction between the cracks. In the case of a double scratch, the propagation of lateral cracks and radial cracks between paired scratches results in material peeling. The interaction between adjacent scratches depends on the scratch depth and separation distance. There is a critical separation distance where the normalized material removal volume reaches its peak. These findings can help reduce surface flaws and subsurface damage induced by the grinding process and improve the clinical effectiveness of glass-ceramics used as biological substitute and repair materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Internal hydrogen-induced subcritical crack growth in austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J. H.; Altstetter, C. J.

    1991-11-01

    The effects of small amounts of dissolved hydrogen on crack propagation were determined for two austenitic stainless steel alloys, AISI 301 and 310S. In order to have a uniform distribution of hydrogen in the alloys, they were cathodically charged at high temperature in a molten salt electrolyte. Sustained load tests were performed on fatigue precracked specimens in air at 0 ‡C, 25 ‡C, and 50 ‡C with hydrogen contents up to 41 wt ppm. The electrical potential drop method with optical calibration was used to continuously monitor the crack position. Log crack velocity vs stress intensity curves had definite thresholds for subcritical crack growth (SCG), but stage II was not always clearly delineated. In the unstable austenitic steel, AISI 301, the threshold stress intensity decreased with increasing hydrogen content or increasing temperature, but beyond about 10 wt ppm, it became insensitive to hydrogen concentration. At higher concentrations, stage II became less distinct. In the stable stainless steel, subcritical crack growth was observed only for a specimen containing 41 wt ppm hydrogen. Fractographic features were correlated with stress intensity, hydrogen content, and temperature. The fracture mode changed with temperature and hydrogen content. For unstable austenitic steel, low temperature and high hydrogen content favored intergranular fracture while microvoid coalescence dominated at a low hydrogen content. The interpretation of these phenomena is based on the tendency for stress-induced phase transformation, the different hydrogen diffusivity and solubility in ferrite and austenite, and outgassing from the crack tip. After comparing the embrittlement due to internal hydrogen with that in external hydrogen, it is concluded that the critical hydrogen distribution for the onset of subcritical crack growth is reached at a location that is very near the crack tip.

  4. The role of local strains from prior cold work on stress corrosion cracking of α-brass in Mattsson's solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulaganathan, Jaganathan; Newman, Roger C.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic strain rate ahead of a crack tip formed during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) under a static load is assumed to arise from the crack propagation. The strain surrounding the crack tip would be redistributed as the crack grows, thereby having the effect of dynamic strain. Recently, several studies have shown cold work to cause accelerated crack growth rates during SCC, and the slip-dissolution mechanism has been widely applied to account for this via a supposedly increased crack-tip strain rate in cold worked material. While these interpretations consider cold work as a homogeneous effect, dislocations are generated inhomogeneously within the microstructure during cold work. The presence of grain boundaries results in dislocation pile-ups that cause local strain concentrations. The local strains generated from cold working α-brass by tensile elongation were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The role of these local strains in SCC was studied by measuring the strain distributions from the same regions of the sample before cold work, after cold work, and after SCC. Though, the cracks did not always initiate or propagate along boundaries with pre-existing local strains from the applied cold work, the local strains surrounding the cracked boundaries had contributions from both the crack propagation and the prior cold work. - Highlights: • Plastic strain localization has a complex relationship with SCC susceptibility. • Surface relief created by cold work creates its own granular strain localization. • Cold work promotes crack growth but several other factors are involved

  5. Mechanical behaviour of cracked welded structures including mismatch effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornet, P.

    2002-01-01

    The most important parameters for predicting more precisely the fracture behaviour of welded structures have been identified. In particular, the plasticity development at the crack tip in the ligament appeared as a major parameter to evaluate the yield load of such a complex structure. In this way defect assessments procedures have been developed or modified to take into account the mismatch effect that is to say the mechanical properties of the different material constituting the weld joint. This paper is a synthesis of the work done in the past at Electricite de France on this topic in regards with other work done in France or around the World. The most important parameters which control the plasticity development at the crack tip and so mainly influence the fracture behaviour of welded structures are underlined: the mismatch ratio (weld to base metal yield strength ratio), the mismatch ratio (weld to base metal yield strength ratio), the ligament size and the weld width. Moreover, commonly used fracture toughness testing procedures developed in case of homogeneous specimens cannot be used in a straight forward manner and so has to be modified to take into account the mismatch effect. Number or defect assessment procedures taking into account the mismatch effect by considering the yield load of the welded structure are shortly described. Then, the 'Equivalent Material Method' developed at EDF which allows a good prediction of the applied J-Integral at the crack tip is more detailed. This procedure includes not only both weld and base metal yield strength, the structure geometry, the crack size and the weld dimension using the yield load of the real structures but also includes the effect of both weld and base metal strain hardening exponents. Some validations of this method are proposed. Finally, the ability of finite element modelling to predict the behaviour of such welded structures is demonstrated by modelling real experiments: crack located in the middle of

  6. Delayed Hydride Cracking Mechanism in Zirconium Alloys and Technical Requirements for In-Service Evaluation of Zr-2.5Nb Tubes with Flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Suk

    2007-01-01

    In association with periodic inspection of CANDU nuclear power plant components, Canadian Standards Association issued CSA N285.8 in 2005 as technical requirements for in-service evaluation of zirconium alloy pressure tubes in CANDU reactors. This first version, CSA N285.8 involves procedures for, firstly, the evaluation of pressure tube flaws, secondly, the evaluation of pressure tube to calandria tube contact and, thirdly, the assessment of a reactor core, and material properties and derived quantities. The evaluation of pressure tube flaws includes delayed hydride cracking evaluation the procedures of which are stipulated based on the existing delayed hydride cracking models. For example, the evaluation of flaw-tip hydride precipitation during reactor cooldown involves a procedure to calculate the equilibrium hydrogen equivalent concentration in solution at the flaw tip, Htipas follows: Htip=Hfexp[- (VH delta no.)/RT], where Hf is the total bulk hydrogen equivalent concentration, VH partial molar volume of hydrogen in zirconium, δ a difference in hydrostatic stress between the bulk and the crack tip. When Htip ≥TSSP at temperature, then flaw-tip hydride is predicted to precipitate. Eq. (1) suggests that hydrogen concentration at the crack tip would increase due to an work energy given by the difference in the hydrostatic stress

  7. Crack fronts and damage in glass at the nanometre scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marliere, Christian; Prades, Silke; Celarie, Fabrice; Dalmas, Davy; Bonamy, Daniel; Guillot, Claude; Bouchaud, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the low-speed fracture regime for different glassy materials with variable but controlled length scales of heterogeneity in a carefully controlled surrounding atmosphere. By using optical and atomic force microscopy techniques, we tracked, in real-time, the crack tip propagation at the nanometre scale over a wide velocity range (10 -3 -10 -12 m s -1 and below). The influence of the heterogeneities on this velocity is presented and discussed. Our experiments reveal also - for the first time - that the crack progresses through nucleation, growth and coalescence of nanometric damage cavities within the amorphous phase. This may explain the large fluctuations observed in the crack tip velocities for the smallest values. This behaviour is very similar to that involved, at the micrometric scale, in ductile fracture. The only difference is very probably due to the related length scales (nanometric instead of micrometric). The consequences of such a nano-ductile fracture mode observed at a temperature far below the glass transition temperature, T g , in glass is also discussed

  8. Experimental studies of the crack behaviour during elastoplastic deformations of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollstein, R.

    1982-01-01

    In C-, SEN- and WOL X-samples of the materials StE 460 (Ni-V), 22NiCr37, and 30CrNiMo8 a transition from linear elasticity to elastoplastic behaviour is observed with increasing temperature. Before crack propagation can be observed, a stretching zone at the crack tip is formed, which depends on the material and the stress conditions. (DG) [de

  9. Estimation of the crack propagation direction in a mixed-mode geometry via multi-parameter fracture criteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíková, L.; Veselý, V.; Seitl, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 33 (2015), s. 25-32 ISSN 1971-8993 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Near-crack-tip fields * Williams expansion * Crack propagation direction * Multi-parameter fracture criteria * Finite element analysis Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  10. A New Method to Measure Crack Extension in Nuclear Graphite Based on Digital Image Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigang Lai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphite components, used as moderators, reflectors, and core-support structures in a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor, play an important role in the safety of the reactor. Specifically, they provide channels for the fuel elements, control rods, and coolant flow. Fracture is the main failure mode for graphite, and breaching of the above channels by crack extension will seriously threaten the safety of a reactor. In this paper, a new method based on digital image correlation (DIC is introduced for measuring crack extension in brittle materials. Cross-correlation of the displacements measured by DIC with a step function was employed to identify the advancing crack tip in a graphite beam specimen under three-point bending. The load-crack extension curve, which is required for analyzing the R-curve and tension softening behaviors, was obtained for this material. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis of the threshold value employed for the cross-correlation parameter in the crack identification process was conducted. Finally, the results were verified using the finite element method.

  11. Thresholds of time dependent intergranular crack growth in a nickel disc alloy Alloy 720Li

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hangyue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At high temperatures in air, introducing a dwell period at the peak stress of fatigue cycles promotes time dependent intergranular crack growth which can increase crack growth rates by upto a few orders of magnitude from the rates of transgranular fatigue crack growth in superalloys. It is expected that time dependent intergranular crack growth in nickel-based superalloys may not occur below a critical mechanical driving force, ΔKth−IG, analogous to a fatigue threshold (ΔKth and a critical temperature, Tth. In this study, dwell fatigue crack growth tests have been carefully designed and conducted on Alloy 720Li to examine such thresholds. Unlike a fatigue threshold, the threshold stress intensity factor range for intergranular crack growth is observed to be highly sensitive to microstructure, dwell time and test procedure. The near threshold crack growth behaviour is made complex by the interactions between grain boundary oxidation embrittlement and crack tip stress relaxation. In general, lower ΔKth−IG values are associated with finer grain size and/or shorter dwell times. Often a load increasing procedure promotes stress relaxation and tends to lead to higher ΔKth−IG. When there is limited stress relaxation at the crack tip, similar ΔKth−IG values are measured with load increasing and load shedding procedures. They are generally higher than the fatigue threshold (ΔKth despite faster crack growth rates (da/dN in the stable crack growth regime. Time dependent intergranular crack growth cannot be activated below a temperature of 500 ∘C.

  12. Local strain in front of cracks in the case of creep fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rie Kyongtschong; Olfe, J.

    1993-01-01

    In-situ measurements of strain fields in front of cracks were performed for high temperature Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) with different hold times by means of a grid method. The tests were carried out on the austenitic stainless steel 304 L and the ferritic steel X22 CrMoV 12 1. Simultaneous observation of crack growth leads to a correlation between crack growth and local strain. The interaction of creep and fatigue related to strain concentration at the crackk tip and crack growth was discussed. A model is proposed which is based on the formation of cavities on grain boundaries. (orig.) [de

  13. Crack Length Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    1990-01-01

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better then that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  14. Review of the models and mechanisms for environmentally-assisted crack growth of pressure vessel and piping steels in PWR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, W.; Gabetta, G.; Hanninen, H.

    1985-12-01

    The crack-tip micromechanisms and the computational models for environmentally-assisted cracking in pressure vessel and piping steels in high-temperature, low-oxygen (PWR), reactor-grade water are described and evaluated in this report. The report begins with a brief description of the critical variables which are known to affect environmentally-assisted subcritical cracking in these metal/environment systems. The micromechanistic models are discussed in some detail, with anodic dissolution and hydrogen assistance being the prime candidates for the successful explanation of the observed phenomena. The anodic dissolution model offers far better quantification of the environmentally-assisted crack growth rates, but tends to overpredict the rates for a large number of conditions. The hydrogen assistance models qualitatively could account for a wider range of effects, but quantification of the model is virtually nonexistent. A variety of calculational models are in various stages of development; all of them are far from use as a predictive tool. Crack-tip strain rate models have received the most attention, and the approach to their use has been to partition the environmentally-assisted growth rates into a mechanically-driven component, with the environmental enhancement superposed. The environment component is then correlated with a calculated crack-tip strain rate. 141 refs., 59 figs

  15. Motion of Defect Clusters and Dislocations at a Crack Tip of Irradiated Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Won Jin; Kwon, Sang Chul; Kim, Whung Whoe

    2007-01-01

    Effects of defect clusters on mechanical properties of irradiated materials have not been clarified until now. Two radiation hardening models have been proposed. One is a dispersed barrier hardening mechanism based on the Orowan hardening model. This explains defect clusters as barriers to a dislocation motion. Generally the dislocation would rather shear or remove the defect clusters than make so-called Orowan loops. And the other is a cascade induced source hardening mechanism, which explains defect clusters as a Cottrell atmosphere for dislocation motions. However, the above mechanisms can not explain the microstructure of deformed material after irradiation and the phenomenon of yield softening. These mechanisms are based on an immobility of clusters. But we observed defect clusters could move into a specific crystallographic direction easily. Through 3 times of High Voltage Electron Microscope analysis, defect clusters have been observed to make one dimensional motion without applied external stress. If very small defect clusters could move under a stress gradient due to interactions between clusters, we can suggest that the clusters will move more actively when a stress gradient is applied externally. In-situ tensile test at TEM, we confirmed that kind of motion. We suggest defect clusters can move into crack tip, a stress-concentrated area due to tensile stress gradient and dislocations move out from the area by shear stress. Therefore radiation hardening can be explained agglomeration of defect clusters at stress concentrated area prohibits a generation of dislocation and make an increase of yield point

  16. Textural Analysis of Fatique Crack Surfaces: Image Pre-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lauschmann

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For the fatique crack history reconstitution, new methods of quantitative microfractography are beeing developed based on the image processing and textural analysis. SEM magnifications between micro- and macrofractography are used. Two image pre-processing operatins were suggested and proved to prepare the crack surface images for analytical treatment: 1. Normalization is used to transform the image to a stationary form. Compared to the generally used equalization, it conserves the shape of brightness distribution and saves the character of the texture. 2. Binarization is used to transform the grayscale image to a system of thick fibres. An objective criterion for the threshold brightness value was found as that resulting into the maximum number of objects. Both methods were succesfully applied together with the following textural analysis.

  17. The interaction of fatigue cracks with a residual stress field using thermoelastic stress analysis and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Khurram; Asquith, David; Sebastian, Christopher M.; Wang, Wei-Chung

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an experimental study on the fatigue behaviour of cracks emanating from cold-expanded holes utilizing thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) techniques with the aim of resolving the long-standing ambiguity in the literature regarding potential relaxation, or modification, of beneficial compressive residual stresses as a result of fatigue crack propagation. The crack growth rates are found to be substantially lower as the crack tip moved through the residual stress zone induced by cold expansion. The TSA results demonstrated that the crack tip plastic zones were reduced in size by the presence of the residual compressive stresses induced by cold expansion. The crack tip plastic zones were found to be insignificant in size in comparison to the residual stress zone resulting from cold expansion, which implied that they were unlikely to have had a notable impact on the surrounding residual stresses induced by cold expansion. The residual stress distributions measured along the direction of crack growth, using SXRD, showed no signs of any significant stress relaxation or redistribution, which validates the conclusions drawn from the TSA data. Fractographic analysis qualitatively confirmed the influence on crack initiation of the residual stresses induced by the cold expansion. It was found that the application of single compressive overload caused a relaxation, or reduction in the residual stresses, which has wider implications for improving the fatigue life. PMID:29291095

  18. Hydrogen induced crack propagation in metal under plain-strain deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishgojt, A.V.; Kolachev, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    A model of subcritical crack propagation conditioned by the effect of dissolved hydrogen in the case of plane-strain deformation of high-strength materials, is suggested. It is supposed that diffusion takes place in the isotropic material and hydrogen diffuses in the region of tensile stress maximum before crack tip under the effect of the stress gradient. When hydrogen achieves the critical concentration, microcrack growth takes place. Values of crack growth rates experimentally obtained agree with values calculated according to the suggested formula. Calculation and experimental data on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, are presented [ru

  19. Numerical analysis for prediction of fatigue crack opening level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyeon Chang

    2004-01-01

    Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is the most popular numerical method to simulate plasticity-induced fatigue crack closure and can predict fatigue crack closure behavior. Finite element analysis under plane stress state using 4-node isoparametric elements is performed to investigate the detailed closure behavior of fatigue cracks and the numerical results are compared with experimental results. The mesh of constant size elements on the crack surface can not correctly predict the opening level for fatigue crack as shown in the previous works. The crack opening behavior for the size mesh with a linear change shows almost flat stress level after a crack tip has passed by the monotonic plastic zone. The prediction of crack opening level presents a good agreement with published experimental data regardless of stress ratios, which are using the mesh of the elements that are in proportion to the reversed plastic zone size considering the opening stress intensity factors. Numerical interpolation results of finite element analysis can precisely predict the crack opening level. This method shows a good agreement with the experimental data regardless of the stress ratios and kinds of materials

  20. Signal process and profile reconstruction of stress corrosion crack by eddy current test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Siquan; Chen Tiequn; Liu Guixiong

    2008-01-01

    The reconstruction of crack profiles is very important in the NDE (nondestructive evaluation) of critical structures, such as pressure vessel and tubes in heat exchangers. First a wavelet transform signal processing technique is used to reduce noise and other non-defect signals from the signals of crack, and then based on an artificial neural network method, the crack profiles are reconstructed. Although the results reveal that this method is with many advantages such as a short CPU time and precision for reconstruction,it does have some drawbacks, for example, the database generation and network training is a much time consuming work. Moreover, this approach does not expressly reconstruct the distribution of conductivity inside a crack, so the reliability of a reconstructed crack shape is unknown. But in practical application, if we do not consider the multiple cracks, this method can be used to reconstruct the natural crack. (authors)

  1. Predominantly elastic crack growth under combined creep-fatigue cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    A rationalization of the various observed effects of combined creep-fatigue cycling upon predominantly elastic fatigue-crack propagation in austenitic steel is presented. Existing and new evidence is used to show two main groups of behaviour: (i) material and cycling conditions which lead to modest increases (6-8 times) in the rate of crack growth are associated with relaxation-induced changes in the material deformation characteristics, and (ii) material and cycling conditions severe enough to generate internal fracture damage lead to significant (up to a factor of 30) increases in crack growth rate when compared with fast-cycling crack propagation rates at the same temperature. A working hypothesis is presented to show that the boundary between the two groups occurs when the scale of the nucleated creep damage is of the same magnitude as the crack tip opening displacement. This leads to the possibility of unstable crack advance. Creep crack growth rates are shown to provide an upper bound to creep-fatigue crack growth rates when crack advance is unstable. If the deformation properties only are affected by the creep-fatigue cycling then creep crack growth rates provide a lower bound. The role of intergranular oxygen corrosion in very low frequency crack growth tests is also briefly discussed. (author)

  2. Detection of ductile crack initiation by acoustic emission testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.; Boehmert, J.; Viehrig, H.W.

    1998-08-01

    A Charpy impact test equipment is described permitting simultaneous measurement of impact force, crack tip opening, acoustic emissions and magnetic emissions. The core of the equipment is an inverted pendulum ram impact testing machine and the tests have been performed with laterally notched, pre-fatigue ISO-V specimens made of steels of various strength and toughness properties. The tests are intended to ascertain whether the acoustic emission method is suitable for detecting steady crack initiation in highly ductile steels. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Stress Intensity Factors of Slanted Cracks in Bi-Material Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Al Emran; Azhar Kamarudin, Kamarul; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the stress intensity factors (SIF) of slanted cracks in bi-material plates subjected to mode I loading is numerically solved. Based on the literature survey, tremendous amount of research works are available studying the normal cracks in both similar and dissimilar plates. However, lack of SIF behavior for slanted cracks especially when it is embedded in bi-material plates. The slanted cracks are then modelled numerically using ANSYS finite element program. Two plates of different in mechanical properties are firmly bonded obliquely and then slanted edge cracks are introduced at the lower inclined edge. Isoparametric singular element is used to model the crack tip and the SIF is determined which is based on the domain integral method. Three mechanical mismatched and four slanted angles are used to model the cracks. According to the present results, the effects of mechanical mismatch on the SIF for normal cracks are not significant. However, it is played an important role when slanted angles are introduced. It is suggested that higher SIF can be obtained when the cracks are inclined comparing with the normal cracks. Consequently, accelerating the crack growth at the interface between two distinct materials.

  4. Effect of laser shock processing on fatigue crack growth of duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Felix-Martinez, C.; Gomez-Rosas, G.; Ocana, J.L.; Morales, M.; Porro, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → LSP is an effective surface treatment to improve fatigue properties of duplex stainless steel. → Increasing pulse density, fatigue crack growth rate is reduced. → Microstructure is not affected by LSP. → Compressive residual stresses increases increasing pulse density. - Abstract: Duplex stainless steels have wide application in different fields like the ship, petrochemical and chemical industries that is due to their high strength and excellent toughness properties as well as their high corrosion resistance. In this work an investigation is performed to evaluate the effect of laser shock processing on some mechanical properties of 2205 duplex stainless steel. Laser shock processing (LSP) or laser shock peening is a new technique for strengthening metals. This process induces a compressive residual stress field which increases fatigue crack initiation life and reduces fatigue crack growth rate. A convergent lens is used to deliver 2.5 J, 8 ns laser pulses by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, operating at 10 Hz with infrared (1064 nm) radiation. The pulses are focused to a diameter of 1.5 mm. Effect of pulse density in the residual stress field is evaluated. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth is determined by the contour method. It is observed that the higher the pulse density the greater the compressive residual stress. Pulse densities of 900, 1600 and 2500 pul/cm 2 are used. Pre-cracked compact tension specimens were subjected to LSP process and then tested under cyclic loading with R = 0.1. Fatigue crack growth rate is determined and the effect of LSP process parameters is evaluated. In addition fracture toughness is determined in specimens with and without LSP treatment. It is observed that LSP reduces fatigue crack growth and increases fracture toughness if this steel.

  5. Process and device for magnetic crack testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, D.; Meili, E.; Fuchs, E.

    1983-01-01

    There is a problem of sufficient crack depth discrimination to suppress fault signals or pictures due to unevenness not caused by cracks. To solve this, when magnetising in the preferred direction of adhesion, the effect depending on the direction of the crack, before magnetic powder detection, magnetic powder is blown on, showing the fault and for the comparison of the adhesion effect crack direction characteristics it is blown on parallel to the preferred direction, or if one wants to stress the directional characteristic, it is blown on transversely to the preferred direction. In both cases one blows with the same force, without removing the magnetic powder remnants relevant to faults in the intended crack areas. This strong blowing removes the magnetic powder remnants relevant to interference and not relevant to faults. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Olefins from conventional and heavy feedstocks: Energy use in steam cracking and alternative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Tao; Patel, Martin; Blok, Kornelis

    2006-01-01

    Steam cracking for the production of light olefins, such as ethylene and propylene, is the single most energy-consuming process in the chemical industry. This paper reviews conventional steam cracking and innovative olefin technologies in terms of energy efficiency. It is found that the pyrolysis section of a naphtha steam cracker alone consumes approximately 65% of the total process energy and approximately 75% of the total exergy loss. A family portrait of olefin technologies by feedstocks is drawn to search for alternatives. An overview of state-of-the-art naphtha cracking technologies shows that approximately 20% savings on the current average process energy use are possible. Advanced naphtha cracking technologies in the pyrolysis section, such as advanced coil and furnace materials, could together lead to up to approximately 20% savings on the process energy use by state-of-the-art technologies. Improvements in the compression and separation sections could together lead to up to approximately 15% savings. Alternative processes, i.e. catalytic olefin technologies, can save up to approximately 20%

  7. The Mechanics of a Cantilever Beam with an Embedded Horizontal Crack Subjected to an End Transverse Force, Part A: Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos G. Charalambides

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the mechanics of a cracked cantilever beam subjected to a transverse force applied at it’s free end. In this Part A of a two Part series of papers, emphasis is placed on the development of a four-beam model for a beam with a fully embedded horizontal sharp crack. The beam aspect ratio, crack length and crack centre location appear as general model parameters. Rotary springs are introduced at the crack tip cross sections as needed to account for the changes in the structural compliance due to the presence of the sharp crack and augmented load transfer through the near-tip transition regions. Guided by recent finite element findings reported elsewhere, the four-beam model is advanced by recognizing two key observations, (a the free surface and neutral axis curvatures of the cracked beam at the crack center location match the curvature of a healthy beam (an identical beam without a crack under the same loading conditions, (b the neutral axis rotations (slope of the cracked beam in the region between the applied load and the nearest crack tip matches the corresponding slope of the healthy beam. The above observations led to the development of close form solutions for the resultant forces (axial and shear and moment acting in the beams above and below the crack. Axial force and bending moment predictions are found to be in excellent agreement with 2D finite element results for all normalized crack depths considered. Shear force estimates dominating the beams above and below the crack as well as transition region length estimates are also obtained. The model developed in this study is then used along with 2D finite elements in conducting parametric studies aimed at both validating the model and establishing the mechanics of the cracked system under consideration. The latter studies are reported in the companion paper Part B-Results and Discussion.

  8. Characteristics of fracture during the approach process and wear mechanism of a silicon AFM tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Koo-Hyun; Lee, Yong-Ha; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2005-01-01

    The wear of an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip is one of the crucial issues in AFM as well as in other probe-based applications. In this work, wear tests under extremely low normal load using an AFM were conducted. Also, in order to understand the nature of silicon tip wear, the wear characteristics of crystal silicon and amorphous silicon oxide layer were investigated by a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). It was found that fracture of the tip readily occurred due to impact during the approach process. Experimental results showed that the impact should be below 0.1 nN s to avoid significant fracture of the tip. Also, it was observed that wear of the amorphous layer, formed at the end of the tip, occurred at the initial stage of the silicon tip damage process. Based on Archard's wear law, the wear coefficient of the amorphous layer was in the range of 0.009-0.014. As for the wear characteristics of the silicon tip, it was shown that wear occurred gradually under light normal load and the wear rate decreased with increase in the sliding distance. As for the wear mechanism of the silicon tip, oxidation wear was identified to be the most significant. It was shown that the degree of oxidation was higher under high normal load and in a nitrogen environment, oxidation of the silicon tip was reduced

  9. Analysis of anisotropic crack problems using coupled meshless and fractal finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B N; Rajesh, K N

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a coupling technique for integrating the element-free Galerkin method (EFGM) with fractal the finite element method (FFEM) for analyzing homogeneous, anisotropic, and two dimensional linear-elastic cracked structures subjected to mixed-mode (modes I and II) loading conditions. FFEM is adopted for discretization of domain close to the crack tip and EFGM is adopted in the rest of the domain. In the transition region interface elements are employed. The proposed method combines the best features of EFGM and FFEM, in the sense that no structured mesh or special enriched basis functions are necessary and no post-processing (employing any path independent integrals) is needed to determine fracture parameters such as stress intensity factors (SIFs) and T-stress. The numerical results based on all four orthotropic cases show that SIFs and T-stress obtained using the proposed method are in excellent agreement with the reference solutions for the structural and crack geometries considered in the present study.

  10. Analysis of stress corrosion cracking in alloy 718 following commercial reactor exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Keith J., E-mail: leonardk@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stevens, Jacqueline N. [AREVA Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Busby, Jeremy T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Alloy 718 is generally considered a highly corrosion-resistant material but can still be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The combination of factors leading to SCC susceptibility in the alloy is not always clear enough. In the present work, alloy 718 leaf spring (LS) materials that suffered stress corrosion damage during two 24-month cycles in pressurized water reactor service, operated to >45 MWd/mtU burn-up, was investigated. Compared to archival samples fabricated through the same processing conditions, little microstructural and property changes occurred in the material with in-service irradiation, contrary to high dose rate laboratory-based experiments reported in literature. Though the lack of delta phase formation along grain boundaries would suggest a more SCC resistant microstructure, grain boundary cracking in the material was extensive. Crack propagation routes were explored through focused ion beam milling of specimens near the crack tip for transmission electron microscopy as well as in polished plan view and cross-sectional samples for electron backscatter diffraction analysis. It has been shown in this study that cracks propagated mainly along random high-angle grain boundaries, with the material around cracks displaying a high local density of dislocations. The slip lines were produced through the local deformation of the leaf spring material above their yield strength. The cause for local SCC appears to be related to oxidation of both slip lines and grain boundaries, which under the high in-service stresses resulted in crack development in the material.

  11. Effect of Microstructure on Time Dependent Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior In a P/M Turbine Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, Ignacy J.; Gabb, T. P.; Bonacuse, P.; Gayda, J.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the processes which govern hold time crack growth behavior in the LSHR disk P/M superalloy. Nineteen different heat treatments of this alloy were evaluated by systematically controlling the cooling rate from the supersolvus solutioning step and applying various single and double step aging treatments. The resulting hold time crack growth rates varied by more than two orders of magnitude. It was shown that the associated stress relaxation behavior for these heat treatments was closely correlated with the crack growth behavior. As stress relaxation increased, the hold time crack growth resistance was also increased. The size of the tertiary gamma' in the general microstructure was found to be the key microstructural variable controlling both the hold time crack growth behavior and stress relaxation. No relationship between the presence of grain boundary M23C6 carbides and hold time crack growth was identified which further brings into question the importance of the grain boundary phases in determining hold time crack growth behavior. The linear elastic fracture mechanics parameter, Kmax, is unable to account for visco-plastic redistribution of the crack tip stress field during hold times and thus is inadequate for correlating time dependent crack growth data. A novel methodology was developed which captures the intrinsic crack driving force and was able to collapse hold time crack growth data onto a single curve.

  12. Cutting efficiency of apical preparation using ultrasonic tips with microprojections: confocal laser scanning microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Sang-Won; Moon, Young-Mi; Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Baek, Seung-Ho; Lee, WooCheol; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cutting efficiency of a newly developed microprojection tip and a diamond-coated tip under two different engine powers. The apical 3-mm of each root was resected, and root-end preparation was performed with upward and downward pressure using one of the ultrasonic tips, KIS-1D (Obtura Spartan) or JT-5B (B&L Biotech Ltd.). The ultrasonic engine was set to power-1 or -4. Forty teeth were randomly divided into four groups: K1 (KIS-1D / Power-1), J1 (JT-5B / Power-1), K4 (KIS-1D / Power-4), and J4 (JT-5B / Power-4). The total time required for root-end preparation was recorded. All teeth were resected and the apical parts were evaluated for the number and length of cracks using a confocal scanning micrscope. The size of the root-end cavity and the width of the remaining dentin were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and a Mann-Whitney test. There was no significant difference in the time required between the instrument groups, but the power-4 groups showed reduced preparation time for both instrument groups (p < 0.05). The K4 and J4 groups with a power-4 showed a significantly higher crack formation and a longer crack irrespective of the instruments. There was no significant difference in the remaining dentin thickness or any of the parameters after preparation. Ultrasonic tips with microprojections would be an option to substitute for the conventional ultrasonic tips with a diamond coating with the same clinical efficiency.

  13. An evaluation on the effect of reversed plastic zone on the fatigue crack opening behavior under 2-D plane stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyeon Chang

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between fatigue crack opening behavior and the reversed plastic zone sizes is studied. An elastic-plastic Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is performed to examine the opening behavior of fatigue crack, where the contact elements are used in the mesh of the crack tip area. The smaller element size than reversed plastic zone size is used for evaluating the distribution of reversed plastic zone. In the author's previous results the FEA could predict the crack opening level, which crack tip elements were in proportion to the theoretical reversed plastic zone size. It is found that the calculated reversed plastic zone size is related to the theoretical reversed plastic zone size and crack opening level. The calculated reversed plastic zone sizes are almost equal to the reversed plastic zone considering crack opening level obtained by experimental results. It can be possible to predict the crack opening level from the reversed plastic zone size calculated by finite element method. We find that the experimental crack opening levels correspond with the opening values of contact nodes on the calculated reversed plastic zone of finite element simulation

  14. Crack growth rate in the HAZ of alloy 690TT/152

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Garcia-Redondo, M.; Castro, L.; Perosanz, F.J.; Ahluwalia, K.; Hickling, J.

    2011-01-01

    Crack growth rate (CGR) experiments to obtain data for the HAZ of nickel base alloys using fracture mechanics specimens are a challenge, primarily due to the difficulties of positioning the tip of the notch (or pre-crack) in the desired location within the complex region adjacent to the fusion line that is altered in several ways by the welding process. This paper describes an experimental program carried out to determine the CGR in the HAZ of an Alloy 690 test weld made using Alloy 152. Compact tension (CT) specimens have been tested in simulated PWR primary water at temperatures of 340 and 360 C under cyclic and constant loading (both with and without periodic partial unloading). For the Alloy 690 HAZ tested here, transgranular crack propagation (primarily due to environmentally assisted fatigue) with isolated intergranular secondary cracks was observed and there was no increase of the crack growth rate in comparison with that for Alloy 690 base metal. In both cases, the CGR values at constant load were very low (4*10 -9 mm/s down to effectively zero) and generally comparable with the data found in the literature for intergranular cracking of thermally treated or solution annealed Alloy 690 in simulated primary water. The scarce CGR data for the HAZ of Alloy 690 available to date do not suggest a significant increase in the PWSCC susceptibility of this resistant alloy, but further testing is still required given the expected variability in actual production welds. (authors)

  15. Analysis of cracked pressure vessel nozzles by finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynen, J.

    1975-01-01

    In order to assess the safety of pressure vessel nozzles, the analysis should take into account cracks. The paper describes various algorithms, their computer implementations and relative merits to define in an effective way strain energy release rates along the tip front of arbitrary 3 D cracks under arbitary load including thermal strains. These techniques are basically equivalent to substructuring techniques and consequently they can be implemented to only FEM program able to deal with the data handling problems of the substructuring technique. Examples are given carried out with a substructure version of the BERSAFE system. These examples include a corner crack in a pressure vessel nozzle loaded by internal pressure and by thermal stresses. (Auth.)

  16. Signal processing for underclad crack sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, R.; Lane, S.S.; Paradiso, T.J.; Quinn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The techniques developed in this work provide a means of sizing underclad cracks and quality control methods for assessing the accuracy of the data. Data were collected with a minicomputer (LSI 11-02), a transient recorder (Biomaton 8100) and anti-aliasing filter. Three techniques were developed: the calibration curve, phase velocity and epicentral. The phase reversal characteristic in the data is a strong indication of the nature of the signal source. That is, cracks are clearly seperable from two isolated inclusions on the basis of observed phase reversal. These methods have been implemented on a computer and appear to provide an accurate rapid method to discriminate and size underclad cracks

  17. Nonlocal Effects of Crack Curving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    close vTcinity of the crack tip. Supported by the Office of Naval Research. 2 For brittle solids, a fracture criterion based on the maximum tensile...Reidel Pubi. Co. Dordrecht. Holland. pp. 271-318, 1978. [13] A.S. Jayatilaka, Fracture of Engineering Brittle Materials, Appl. Sci. Publishers, London...Crescent leach Road, Glen Cove * Long Island, New Tork 11542 Commanding Officer (2) U.s Amy Research Office PO, Sax 12211 Research Triangle Park. C 27709 8

  18. Analysis of Unsteady Propagation of Mode Ⅲ Crack in Arbitrary Direction in Functionally Graded Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Ho [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang Bong [Kyungnam University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Hawong, Jai Sug [Yeungnam University, Gyungsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The stress and displacement fields at the crack tip were studied during the unsteady propagation of a mode Ⅲ crack in a direction that was different from the property graduation direction in functionally graded materials (FGMs). The property graduation in FGMs was assumed based on the linearly varying shear modulus under a constant density and the exponentially varying shear modulus and density. To obtain the solution of the harmonic function, the general partial differential equation of the dynamic equilibrium equation was transformed into a Laplace equation. Based on the Laplace equation, the stress and displacement fields, which depended on the time rates of change in the crack tip speed and stress intensity factor, were obtained through an asymptotic analysis. Using the stress and displacement fields, the effects of the angled property variation on the stresses, displacements, and stress intensity factors are discussed.

  19. Effect of hybrid fiber reinforcement on the cracking process in fiber reinforced cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Eduardo B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, Joaquim A.O.

    2012-01-01

    The simultaneous use of different types of fibers as reinforcement in cementitious matrix composites is typically motivated by the underlying principle of a multi-scale nature of the cracking processes in fiber reinforced cementitious composites. It has been hypothesized that while undergoing...... tensile deformations in the composite, the fibers with different geometrical and mechanical properties restrain the propagation and further development of cracking at different scales from the micro- to the macro-scale. The optimized design of the fiber reinforcing systems requires the objective...... materials is carried out by assessing directly their tensile stress-crack opening behavior. The efficiency of hybrid fiber reinforcements and the multi-scale nature of cracking processes are discussed based on the experimental results obtained, as well as the micro-mechanisms underlying the contribution...

  20. Study on the fatigue crack initiation life under spherical contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Joo; Kim, Tae Wan [Busan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mun Ju [Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-01

    In case of contact fatigue, the accurate calculation of surface tractions and subsurface stress is essential to the prediction of crack initiation life. Surface tractions influencing shear stress amplitude have been obtained by contact analysis based on influence function. Subsurface stress has been obtained by using rectangular patch solutions. In this study, to simulate asperity contact under sliding condition, the tip of asperity was simulated by sphere and to calculate crack initiation life in the substrate, dislocation pileup theory was used.

  1. Study on the fatigue crack initiation life under spherical contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Joo; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Mun Ju

    2001-01-01

    In case of contact fatigue, the accurate calculation of surface tractions and subsurface stress is essential to the prediction of crack initiation life. Surface tractions influencing shear stress amplitude have been obtained by contact analysis based on influence function. Subsurface stress has been obtained by using rectangular patch solutions. In this study, to simulate asperity contact under sliding condition, the tip of asperity was simulated by sphere and to calculate crack initiation life in the substrate, dislocation pileup theory was used

  2. Stress corrosion cracking of X80 pipeline steel exposed to high pH solutions with different concentrations of bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lin; Du, Cui-wei; Liu, Zhi-yong; Li, Xiao-gang

    2013-07-01

    Susceptibilities to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of X80 pipeline steel in high pH solutions with various concentrations of HCO{3/-} at a passive potential of -0.2 V vs. SCE were investigated by slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test. The SCC mechanism and the effect of HCO{3/-} were discussed with the aid of electrochemical techniques. It is indicated that X80 steel shows enhanced susceptibility to SCC with the concentration of HCO{3/-} increasing from 0.15 to 1.00 mol/L, and the susceptibility can be evaluated in terms of current density at -0.2 V vs. SCE. The SCC behavior is controlled by the dissolution-based mechanism in these circumstances. Increasing the concentration of HCO{3/-} not only increases the risk of rupture of passive films but also promotes the anodic dissolution of crack tips. Besides, little susceptibility to SCC is found in dilute solution containing 0.05 mol/L HCO{3/-} for X80 steel. This can be attributed to the inhibited repassivation of passive films, manifesting as a more intensive dissolution in the non-crack tip areas than at the crack tips.

  3. Stress corrosion cracking of iron-nickel-chromium alloys in primary circuit environment of PWR-type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boursier, Jean-Marie

    1993-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 steam generator tubing is a great concern for pressurized water reactors. The mechanism that controls intergranular stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in primary water (lithiated-borated water) has yet to be clearly identified. A study of stress corrosion cracking behaviour, which can identify the main parameters that control the cracking phenomenon, was so necessary to understand the stress corrosion cracking process. Constant extension rate tests, and constant load tests have evidenced that Alloy 600 stress corrosion cracking involves firstly an initiation period, then a slow propagation stage with crack less than 50 to 80 micrometers, and finally a rapid propagation stage leading to failure. The influence of mechanical parameters have shown the next points: - superficial strain hardening and cold work have a strong effect of stress corrosion cracking resistance (decrease of initiation time and increase of crack growth rate), - strain rate was the most suitable parameter for describing the different stage of propagation. The creep behaviour of alloy 600 has shown an increase of creep rate in primary water compared to air, which implies a local interaction plasticity/corrosion. An assessment of the durations of the initiation and the propagation stages was attempted for the whole uniaxial tensile tests, using the macroscopic strain rate: - the initiation time is less than 100 hours and seems to be an electrochemical process, - the durations of the propagation stage are strongly dependent on the strain rate. The behaviour in high primary water temperature of Alloys 690 and 800, which replace Alloy 600, was studied to appraise their margin, and validate their choice. Then the last chapter has to objective to evaluate the crack tip strain rate, in order to better describe the evolution of the different stages of cracking. (author) [fr

  4. The relative stress-corrosion-cracking susceptibility of candidate aluminum-lithium alloys for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, P. P.

    1982-01-01

    Stress corrosion tests of Al-Li-Cu powder metallurgy alloys are described. Alloys investigated were Al-2.6% Li-1.4% and Al-2.6% Li-1.4% Cu-1.6% Mg. The base properties of the alloys were characterized. Process, heat treatment, and size/orientational effects on the tensile and fracture behavior were investigated. Metallurgical and electrochemical conditions are identified which provide reproducible and controlled parameters for stress corrosion evaluation. Preliminary stress corrosion test results are reported. Both Al-Li-Cu alloys appear more susceptible to stress corrosion crack initiation than 7075-T6 aluminum, with the magnesium bearing alloy being the most susceptible. Tests to determine the threshold stress intensity for the base and magnesium bearing alloys are underway. Twelve each, bolt loaded DCB type specimens are under test (120 days) and limited crack growth in these precracked specimens has been observed. General corrosion in the aqueous sodium chloride environment is thought to be obscuring results through crack tip blunting.

  5. Polystyrene Plastic Waste Conversion into Liquid Fuel with Catalytic Cracking Process Using Al2O3 as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Kholidah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in energy consumption and an increase in the plastic waste generation are two major problems that arise along with economic growth and the increase in population. Styrofoam is one type of polystyrene plastic waste that can be processed into liquid fuels by cracking process. In this study, the cracking process of polystyrene plastic waste into liquid fuel carried by the catalytic cracking process using Al2O3 as a catalyst. This study aimed to determine the effect of the catalyst weight, length of cracking time and range of temperature in the catalytic cracking process of polystyrene plastic waste into liquid fuel toward the mass and characteristics of liquid fuels produced and to determine the composition of liquid fuels produced. The catalytic cracking process of polystyrene plastic waste with catalyst was done in the fixed bed type reactor by heating the reactor with a heater, where the process took place at temperature of 150°C, 200°C, 250°C and 300°C and the length of the process was varied into 20, 40, and 60 minutes and the catalyst weight was also varied, which were 4%, 6% and 8%, while the styrofoam weight was 250 grams. From the research, the highest mass of liquid fuel derived from polystyrene catalytic cracking process was in the amount of 48.8 grams and liquid yield percentage of 19.5% at temperature of  250°C, cracking time of 60 minutes and weight of 8% catalyst, while the characteristics of liquid fuel that were approaching the characteristics of gasoline was at temperatures of 250°C, cracking time of 60 minutes and weight of 6% catalyst, in which each value of density of 0.763 g/ml, specific gravity of 0.778 and oAPI gravity of 50.2. While other liquid fuels obtained from the cracking of polystyrene were still within the tolerance range characteristic properties of gasoline. Liquid fuels produced from the catalytic cracking process was analyzed using a GC-MS, in which the analysis results indicated that liquid

  6. Sensitivity of using blunt and sharp crack models in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.C.; Kennedy, J.M.; Marchertas, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    J-integral values are calculated for both the blunt (smeared) crack and the sharp (discrete) crack models in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics problems involving metallic materials. A sensitivity study is performed to show the relative strengths and weaknesses of the two cracking models. It is concluded that the blunt crack model is less dependent on the orientation of the mesh. For the mesh which is in line with the crack direction, however, the sharp crack model is less sensitive to the mesh size. Both models yield reasonable results for a properly discretized finite-element mesh. A subcycling technique is used in this study in the explicit integration scheme so that large time steps can be used for the coarse elements away from the crack tip. The savings of computation time by this technique are reported. 6 refs., 9 figs

  7. Finite element analysis of fatigue crack closure under plane strain state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak Joo; Kang, Jae Youn; Song, Ji Ho

    2004-01-01

    An elastic-plastic finite element analysis of fatigue crack closure is performed for plane strain conditions. The stabilization behavior of crack opening level and the effect of mesh size on the crack opening stress are investigated. In order to obtain a stabilized crack opening level for plane strain conditions, the crack must be advanced through approximately four times the initial monotonic plastic zone. The crack opening load tends to increase with the decrease of mesh size. The mesh size nearly equal to the theoretical plane strain cyclic plastic zone size may provide reasonable numerical results comparable with experimental crack opening data. The crack opening behavior is influenced by the crack growth increment and discontinuous opening behavior is observed. A procedure to predict the most appropriate mesh size for different stress ratio is suggested. Crack opening loads predicted by the FE analysis based on the procedure suggested resulted in good agreement with experimental ones within the error of 5 %. Effect of the distance behind the crack tip on the crack opening load determined by the ASTM compliance offset method based on the load-displacement relation and by the rotational offset method based on the load-differential displacement relation is investigated. Optimal gage location and method to determine the crack opening load is suggested

  8. Effects of anomalies on fracture processes of graphite fiber reinforced aluminum composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, J.; Wu, G.H.; Li, Y.; Gou, H.S.; Chen, G.H.; Xiu, Z.Y.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effects of anomalies on fracture processes of graphite fiber reinforced aluminum composite (Gr f /Al), unidirectional Gr f /Al specimens embedded with inclusions and aluminum-rich areas (Al-rich) were chosen for bending test. Fracture processes and fracture surfaces of anomaly-embedded specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy in situ observation. The micromechanisms of fracture process are as following: interface layer between inclusions and composite is fractured by stress concentration in front of crack tip, and cracks connect voids in inclusions, resulting in failure of inclusion-embedded specimens immediately. However, Al-rich eases stress concentration in bending specimens and crack is blunted by Al-rich/composite interface debonding and friction during fracture process.

  9. Face/core debond fatigue crack growth characterization using the sandwich mixed mode bending specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manca, Marcello; Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Face/core fatigue crack growth in foam-cored sandwich composites is examined using the mixed mode bending (MMB) test method. The mixed mode loading at the debond crack tip is controlled by changing the load application point in the MMB test fixture. Sandwich specimens were manufactured using H45...... and H100 PVC foam cores and E-glass/polyester face sheets. All specimens were pre-cracked in order to define a sharp crack front. The static debond fracture toughness for each material configuration was measured at different mode-mixity phase angles. Fatigue tests were performed at 80% of the static...

  10. Modelling of stress corrosion cracking in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fandeur, O.; Rouillon, L.; Pilvin, P.; Jacques, P.; Rebeyrolle, V.

    2001-01-01

    During normal and incidental operating conditions, PWR power plants must comply with the first safety requirement, which is to ensure that the cladding wall is sound. Indeed some severe power transients potentially induce Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) of the zirconium alloy clad, due to strong Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI). Since, at present, the prevention of this risk has some consequences on the French reactors manoeuvrability, a better understanding and forecast of the clad damage related to SCC/PCI is needed. With this aim, power ramp tests are performed in experimental reactors to assess the fuel rod behaviour and evaluate PCI failure risks. To study in detail SCC mechanisms, additional laboratory experiments are carried out on non-irradiated and irradiated cladding tubes. Numerical simulations of these tests have been developed aiming, on the one hand, to evaluate mechanical state variables and, on the other hand, to study consistent mechanical parameters for describing stress corrosion clad failure. The main result of this simulation is the determination of the validity ranges of the stress intensity factor, which is frequently used to model SCC. This parameter appears to be valid only at the onset of crack growth, when crack length remains short. In addition, the role of plastic strain rate and plastic strain as controlling parameters of the SCC process has been analysed in detail using the above mechanical description of the crack tip mechanical fields. Finally, the numerical determination of the first-order parameter(s) in the crack propagation rate law is completed by the development of laboratory tests focused on these parameters. These tests aim to support experimentally the results of the FE simulation. (author)

  11. Modelling of crack chemistry in sensitized stainless steel in boiling water reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, A.

    1997-01-01

    An advanced model has been used to predict the chemistry and potential in a stress corrosion crack in sensitized stainless steel in a boiling water reactor (BWR) environment. The model assumes trapezoidal crack geometry, incorporates anodic reaction and cathodic reduction within the crack, and takes into account the limited solubility of cations in high temperature water. The results indicate that the crack tip potential is not independent of the external potential, and that the reactions on the walls of the crack must be included for reliable prediction. Accordingly, both the modelling assumptions of Ford and Andresen and of Macdonald and Urquidi-Macdonald, whilst having merit, are not fully satisfactory. Extended application of the model for improved prediction of stress corrosion crack growth rate is constrained by limitations in electrochemical data which are currently inadequate. (author)

  12. Fatigue crack growth in 2024-T3 aluminum under tensile and transverse shear stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viz, Mark J.; Zehnder, Alan T.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of transverse shear stresses on the fatigue crack growth rate in thin 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheets is investigated experimentally. The tests are performed on double-edge cracked sheets in cyclic tensile and torsional loading. This loading generates crack tip stress intensity factors in the same ratio as the values computed for a crack lying along a lap joint in a pressurized aircraft fuselage. The relevant fracture mechanics of cracks in thin plates along with the details of the geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses used for the test specimen calibration are developed and discussed. Preliminary fatigue crack growth data correlated using the fully coupled stress intensity factor calibration are presented and compared with fatigue crack growth data from pure delta K(sub I)fatigue tests.

  13. Unloading Effect on Delayed Hydride Cracking in Zirconium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Sung Soo

    2010-01-01

    It is well-known that a tensile overload retards not only the crack growth rate (CGR) in zirconium alloys during the delayed hydride cracking (DHC) tests but also the fatigue crack growth rate in metals, the cause of which is unclear to date. A considerable decrease in the fatigue crack growth rate due to overload is suggested to occur due either to the crack closure or to compressive stresses or strains arising from unloading of the overload. However, the role of the crack closure or the compressive stress in the crack growth rate remains yet to be understood because of incomplete understanding of crack growth kinetics. The aim of this study is to resolve the effect of unloading on the CGR of zirconium alloys, which comes in last among the unresolved issues as listed above. To this end, the CGRs of the Zr-2.5Nb tubes were determined at a constant temperature under the cyclic load with the load ratio, R changing from 0.13 to 0.66 where the extent of unloading became higher at the lower R. More direct evidence for the effect of unloading after an overload is provided using Simpson's experiment investigating the effect on the CGR of a Zr-2.5Nb tube of the stress states of the prefatigue crack tip by unloading or annealing after the formation of a pre-fatigue crack

  14. Crack coke in layer heat transfer analysis; Kiretsu no shinten wo tomonau kokusu sonai dennetsu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Hideyuki [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

    1999-03-05

    The research method heat transfer process by physical change of the coke by heat transfer from furnace wall in the retorting of coal seam filled in coke oven and flow of the gas is very complicated chamber oven style, and it does not become clear. For the purpose of the elucidation of in layer crack generation and progress mechanism, he is (1) The expansion of the softening cohesive layer. (2) Programming rate dependence of the heat. Mechanical property value on coal seam and semi- coke layer in the retorting. (3) The creep property of softening cohesive layer and semi- coke layer. (4) The setting of crack growth condition of stress intensity factor in crack tip and fracture property value of the coke by the comparison. (5) By considering the radiative heat transfer in the crack, coke in layer thermal stress analysis was carried out. The validity of these analytical result it was confirmed by the comparison with the experimental result of crack growth. Deformation behavior in the small dry distillation furnace, and crack growth mechanism in the coke layer became clear, and the prediction of the stress as micro-crack cause of generation of heating surface side coke surface and inside became possible. The numerical analysis method of the above crack growth mechanism greatly contributes to the prediction of dry distillation heating requirement and grain size of coke lump which is an index to the coke quality. Heat on material process which is accompanied by the solidification. Contraction from the softening and material migration phenomenon have been clarified by the creative research method, while this research is directly useful for energy saving of pig ironmaking process of becoming one of the ringleaders of the CO{sub 2} generation. (translated by NEDO)

  15. On the Crack Initiated From the Bi-material Notch Tip

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Profant, T.; Klusák, Jan; Kotoul, M.

    452-453, - (2011), s. 441-444 ISSN 1013-9826. [Fracture and Damage Mechanics. Nagasaki, 20.09.2010-22.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2049; GA ČR GA101/08/0994 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : orthotropic bi-material notch * crack initiation * Matched asymptotic procedure Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  16. Cutting efficiency of apical preparation using ultrasonic tips with microprojections: confocal laser scanning microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Won Kwak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the cutting efficiency of a newly developed microprojection tip and a diamond-coated tip under two different engine powers. Materials and Methods The apical 3-mm of each root was resected, and root-end preparation was performed with upward and downward pressure using one of the ultrasonic tips, KIS-1D (Obtura Spartan or JT-5B (B&L Biotech Ltd.. The ultrasonic engine was set to power-1 or -4. Forty teeth were randomly divided into four groups: K1 (KIS-1D / Power-1, J1 (JT-5B / Power-1, K4 (KIS-1D / Power-4, and J4 (JT-5B / Power-4. The total time required for root-end preparation was recorded. All teeth were resected and the apical parts were evaluated for the number and length of cracks using a confocal scanning micrscope. The size of the root-end cavity and the width of the remaining dentin were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and a Mann-Whitney test. Results There was no significant difference in the time required between the instrument groups, but the power-4 groups showed reduced preparation time for both instrument groups (p < 0.05. The K4 and J4 groups with a power-4 showed a significantly higher crack formation and a longer crack irrespective of the instruments. There was no significant difference in the remaining dentin thickness or any of the parameters after preparation. Conclusions Ultrasonic tips with microprojections would be an option to substitute for the conventional ultrasonic tips with a diamond coating with the same clinical efficiency.

  17. Determination of a cohesive law for delamination modelling - Accounting for variation in crack opening and stress state across the test specimen width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joki, R. K.; Grytten, F.; Hayman, Brian

    2016-01-01

    by differentiating the fracture resistance with respect to opening displacement at the initial location of the crack tip, measured at the specimen edge. 2) Extend the bridging law to a cohesive law by accounting for crack tip fracture energy. 3) Fine-tune the cohesive law through an iterative modelling approach so......The cohesive law for Mode I delamination in glass fibre Non-Crimped Fabric reinforced vinylester is determined for use in finite element models. The cohesive law is derived from a delamination test based on DCB specimens loaded with pure bending moments taking into account the presence of large...... that the changing state of stress and deformation across the width of the test specimen is taken into account. The changing state of stress and deformation across the specimen width is shown to be significant for small openings (small fracture process zone size). This will also be important for the initial part...

  18. The image force modified dislocation distribution in a cracked finite width material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.; Xiong, L.Y.; Lung, C.W.

    1986-05-01

    The equilibrium distribution of dislocations in the plastic zone at the crack tip of a finite width specimen is analyzed, where the image force of dislocations is involved. A comparison is made with the relative infinite medium case. It is found that there exists a maximum αsub(c) for the applied stress level α and the critical value asub(c) is for the plastic zone size a. As a asub(c), the yielding process across the ligament takes place. This result of calculation qualitatively agrees with the positron annihilation experiment published before. (author)

  19. Measurement of crack in rock using transmitted elastic wave; Toka danseiha ni yoru ganbannai kiretsu keisoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomishima, Y [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    With an objective to measure at high accuracy the positions and sizes of cracks existing in rocks, a theoretical study has been carried out on a method which utilizes initial movement characteristics of P-wave. The P-wave which diffracts and propagates at a crack tip has a characteristic that its phase may reverse according to the positional relationship between vibration transmitting and receiving points. This positional relationship is decided by the Poisson ratio of media alone. Therefore, when the P-wave is measured while the vibration transmitting and receiving points are moved sandwiching a crack, the polarity of received waveform is changed from negative to positive at a certain position as a boundary. In order to measure this change at high accuracy, an elastic wave of high frequency is required, but it is not easy to obtain the wave in situ. In contrast, utilizing the initial movement polarity can not only identify the change in the polarity, but also perform measurement at high accuracy. The present study discussed a case where cracks are parallel with a free surface and a case where the cracks have angles with the free surface, whereas it was shown that positions of the upper and lower tips of a crack, and length of the crack can be measured accurately. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen induced stress corrosion cracking of high alloyed austenitic materials; Wasserstoffversproedung und wasserstoffinduzierte Spannungsrisskorrosion hochlegierter austenitischer Werkstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mummert, K; Uhlemann, M; Engelmann, H J [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The susceptiblity of high alloyed austenitic steels and nickel base alloys to hydrogen-induced cracking is particularly determined by 1. the distribution of hydrogen in the material, and 2. the microstructural deformation behaviour, which last process is determined by the effects of hydrogen with respect to the formation of dislocations and the stacking fault energy. The hydrogen has an influence on the process of slip localization in slip bands, which in turn affects the microstructural deformation behaviour. Slip localization increases with growing Ni contents of the alloys and clearly reduces the ductility of the Ni-base alloy. Although there is a local hydrogen source involved in stress corrosion cracking, emanating from the corrosion process at the cathode, crack growth is observed only in those cases when the hydrogen concentration in a small zone ahead of the crack tip reaches a critical value with respect to the stress conditions. Probability of onset of this process gets lower with growing Ni content of the alloy, due to increasing diffusion velocity of the hydrogen in the austenitic lattice. This is why particularly austenitic steels with low Ni contents are susceptible to transcrystalline stress corrosion cracking. In this case, the microstructural deformation process at the crack tip is also influenced by analogous processes, as could be observed in hydrogen-loaded specimens. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Empfindlichkeit von hochlegierten austentischen Staehlen und Nickelbasislegierungen gegen wasserstoffinduziertes Risswachstum wird im wesentlichen bestimmt durch 1. die Verteilung von Wasserstoff im Werkstoff und 2. das mikrostrukturelle Verformungsverhalten. Das mikrostrukturelle Deformationsverhalten ist wiederum durch den Einfluss von Wasserstoff auf die Versetzungsbildung und die Stapelfehlerenergie charakterisiert. Das mikrostrukturelle Verformungsverhalten wird durch wasserstoffbeeinflusste Gleitlokalisierung in Gleitbaendern bestimmt. Diese nimmt mit

  1. Production of C(3)/C(4) Olefins from n-Hexane: Conceptual design of a catalytic oxidative cracking process and comparison to steam cracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyadjian, C.A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; van den Berg, Henderikus

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual design of the catalytic oxidative cracking (COC) of hexane as a model compound of naphtha is reported. The design is based on experimental data which are elaborated through a structural design method to a process flow sheet. The potential of COC as an alternative to steam cracking (SC)

  2. Prediction of cleavage crack propagation and arrest in a nuclear pressure vessel steel (16MND5) under thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this PhD study is to predict the propagation and arrest of cleavage cracks in a French PWR vessel steel (16MND5). This is accomplished through use of a local criterion based on the critical stress calculated ahead of crack tip. Previous work has shown that fracture mechanism was cleavage associated with the ductile shear zone between the different planes of cracking. Thus, the critical stress at crack tip depends on stain rate. This thesis consists of numerical optimization, identification and validation of a local criterion based on experiments which have complex thermomechanical loads. The criterion accounts for various crack paths, deepening the knowledge about micro mechanisms during crack propagation in order to justify the established criterion. Criterion identification was carried out by using numerical simulations of tension tests performed on CT (Compact Tension) specimens at four different temperatures (-150 C, -125 C, -100 C and -75 C). The eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) was used in CAST3M FE software to model dynamic crack propagation and arrest. The analysis results in 2D and 3D showed that the critical stress at crack tip increased with the inelastic strain rate. Therefore, a criterion based on the critical stress was established. An analytical model was developed to justify the identified criterion. The critical stress given by the local criterion was considered as the sum of the critical cleavage stress and the stress generated by the deformation of ligaments behind the crack tip. In order to quantify this phenomenon, measurements of ligaments' characteristics have been performed on fracture surfaces and on cross-sections of the specimens. The stress profile of the crack lips generated by ligaments was calculated by modeling of multi-cracks on specimen's cross-section. The contribution of stress generated by ligaments to the critical stress at crack tip was obtained with this method, and then the analytical model of

  3. An experimental and analytical study of ductile fracture and stable crack-growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousselier, G.

    1978-01-01

    A study is described, the objectives of which were to define a numerical model for stable crack growth, to calibrate the model by tensile tests, and to obtain agreement between corresponding numerical calculations and experiments on cracked specimens. The model was based on a finite element program with a critical state at the crack tip defined by a ductility curve: equivalent plastic strain versus stress triaxiality. The curve was determined by tests on notched tensile specimens of a low alloy rotor steel. The critical states corresponded to the initiation of a crack at the centre of the specimens. Three point bend tests were also performed and experimental and numerical load displacement curves and crack growth versus displacement curves were compared. Agreement with experiments on cracked specimens was obtained by simple fittings of the 'ductility' curve in the high triaxiality area. Results are discussed and it is indicated where future progress might be made in numerical modelling of cracked bodies. (author)

  4. Stress intensity factors for complete internal and external cracks in spherical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y.J.; Chen, H.

    1989-01-01

    Cracks or flows found in the nuclear structure must be fully evaluated to assure the safety of the plant. The weight function method has been widely used in the determination of stress intensity factors for cracks under stress gradient e.g. for thermal shock loading. The unique features of the weight function method is that once the weight function for a particular cracked geometry is determined the stress intensity factors at the crack tip for any loading applied to the flawed structure can be calculated by a simple integration. In this paper the stress intensity factors of the complete, part-through internal and external cracks in a spherical shell are determined. The finite element method was used to develop the weight functions for the flawed geometry. The approximate crack surface profile was used to derive the weight functions. The stress intensity factors associated with the cracks in spherical shells under internal pressure are determined by both the weight functions and the direct finite element method

  5. Uncertainty quantification methodologies development for stress corrosion cracking of canister welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This letter report presents a probabilistic performance assessment model to evaluate the probability of canister failure (through-wall penetration) by SCC. The model first assesses whether environmental conditions for SCC – the presence of an aqueous film – are present at canister weld locations (where tensile stresses are likely to occur) on the canister surface. Geometry-specific storage system thermal models and weather data sets representative of U.S. spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage sites are implemented to evaluate location-specific canister surface temperature and relative humidity (RH). As the canister cools and aqueous conditions become possible, the occurrence of corrosion is evaluated. Corrosion is modeled as a two-step process: first, pitting is initiated, and the extent and depth of pitting is a function of the chloride surface load and the environmental conditions (temperature and RH). Second, as corrosion penetration increases, the pit eventually transitions to a SCC crack, with crack initiation becoming more likely with increasing pit depth. Once pits convert to cracks, a crack growth model is implemented. The SCC growth model includes rate dependencies on both temperature and crack tip stress intensity factor, and crack growth only occurs in time steps when aqueous conditions are predicted. The model suggests that SCC is likely to occur over potential SNF interim storage intervals; however, this result is based on many modeling assumptions. Sensitivity analyses provide information on the model assumptions and parameter values that have the greatest impact on predicted storage canister performance, and provide guidance for further research to reduce uncertainties.

  6. Determination of Stress Coefficient Terms in Cracked Solids for Monoclinic Materials with Plane Symmetry at x3 = 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, F. G.

    1998-01-01

    Determination of all the coefficients in the crack tip field expansion for monoclinic materials under two-dimensional deformation is presented in this report. For monoclinic materials with a plane of material symmetry at x(sub 3) = 0, the in-plane deformation is decoupled from the anti-plane deformation. In the case of in-plane deformation, utilizing conservation laws of elasticity and Betti's reciprocal theorem, together with selected auxiliary fields, T-stress and third-order stress coefficients near the crack tip are evaluated first from path-independent line integrals. To determine the T-stress terms using the J-integral and Betti's reciprocal work theorem, auxiliary fields under a concentrated force and moment acting at the crack tip are used respectively. Through the use of Stroh formalism in anisotropic elasticity, analytical expressions for all the coefficients including the stress intensity factors are derived in a compact form that has surprisingly simple structure in terms of the Barnett-Lothe tensors, L. The solution forms for degenerated materials, orthotropic, and isotropic materials are presented.

  7. Applications of energy-release-rate techniques to part-through cracks in plates and cylinders. Volume 2. ORVIRT: a finite element program for energy release rate calculations for 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional crack models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.

    1983-02-01

    Certain studies of fracture phenomena, such as pressurized-thermal-shock of cracked structures, require that crack tip parameters be determined for combined thermal and mechanical loads. A method is proposed here that modifies the isothermal formulation of deLorenzi to account for thermal strains in cracked bodies. The formulation has been implemented in the virtual-crack-extension program ORVIRT (Oak Ridge VIRTual-Crack-Extension). Program ORVIRT performs energy release rate calculations for both 2- and 3-dimensional nonlinear models of crack configurations in engineering structures. Two applications of the ORVIRT program are described. In the first, semielliptical surface cracks in an experimental test vessel are analyzed under elastic-plastic conditions using the finite element method. The second application is a thick-walled test vessel subjected to combined pressure and thermal shock loading

  8. Stress intensity factors and constant stress terms for interface cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fett, T.; Rizzi, G.

    2004-01-01

    In bi-material joints cracks can propagate along the interface or kink into one of the two materials. Whereas the energy release rate can be applied for interface cracks in the same way as usual for homogeneous materials, the computation of stresses in the vicinity of the crack tip is significantly more complicated. In order to assess crack kinking, it is necessary to know the mixed-mode stress intensity factor contributions K I and K II as well as the constant stress terms in the two materials. Whereas the stress intensity factors are available for a large number of infinite and semi-infinite bodies, there is experimental interest in practically used test specimens. This especially holds for the constant x-stress terms. Finite element computations are performed for the special case of a disappearing second Dundurs parameter, i.e. β=0. The fracture mechanics parameters K I , K II , σ 0 for the interface crack are reported in the form of diagrams and approximate relations. (orig.)

  9. Automatic measurement for monitoring crack growth with electric potential technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Nobuya; Kikuchi, Masaaki; Shima, Seishi

    1981-10-01

    In the study of fracture mechanics, it is one of the most important problems to monitor the crack growth phenomena. Recently, many experimental methods have been developed. In this report, the Direct Current (DC) potential method is employed for measuring the crack growth length in the pressuried high temperature water. The objective of the current investigation is to develop an experimental method to quantify the sensitivity of this method in the air environment using the Compact Tension (CT) specimen. The main results obtained are as follows: 1) It is ignored that the electrical potential changes with plastic deformation at the crack tip of the specimen. 2) Using the Reversible Direct Current (RDC) Method, the measurement system gives no effect on the electrical stability for a long time. 3) For the fatigue and statical crack growth length, good relation is observed between the crack length-to-specimen width ratio (a/W) and potential ratio (Va/Vo). (author)

  10. Steady-state, elastic-plastic growth of slanted cracks in symmetrically loaded plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Hutchinson, J. W.

    2017-01-01

    parameter through the plate in the plastic zone at the crack tip. The distribution of the mode I and mode III stress intensity factors along the crack front are obtained for the elastic problem. The out-of-plane bending constraint imposed on the plate significantly influences the mixed mode behavior along......Elastic and elastic-plastic results are obtained for a semi-infinite slanted through-crack propagating in a symmetrically loaded plate strip with the aim of providing theoretical background to commonly observed plate tearing behavior. Were it is not for the slant of the crack through the thickness...... of the plate, the problem would be mode I, but due to the slant the local conditions along the crack front are a combination of mode I and mode III. A three-dimensional formulation for steady-state crack propagation is employed to generate distributions of effective stress, stress triaxiality and Lode...

  11. Interpretation of the deep cracking phenomenon of tungsten monoblock targets observed in high-heat-flux fatigue tests at 20 MW/m"2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Muyuan; You, Jeong-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A theoretical interpretation is presented for deep crack of W monoblocks at 20 MW/m"2. • A consecutive process of crack initiation and growth was modeled in two stages. • The lifetime to crack initiation and the driving force of fracture are assessed. • Numerical predictions in this study agree well with the experimental findings. - Abstract: The HHF qualification tests conducted on the ITER divertor target prototypes showed that the tungsten monoblock armor suffered from deep cracking due to fatigue, when the applied high-heat-flux load approaches 20 MW/m"2. In spite of the critical implication of the deep cracking of armor on the structural integrity of a whole target component, no rigorous interpretation has been given to date. In this paper, a theoretical interpretation of the observed deep cracking feature is presented. A two-stage modeling approach is employed where deep cracking is thought to be a consecutive process of crack initiation and crack growth, which is assumed to be caused by plastic fatigue and brittle facture, respectively. The fatigue lifetime to crack initiation on the armor surface and the crack tip load of brittle fracture are assessed as a function of crack length and heat flux loads. The potential mechanisms of deep cracking are discussed for a typical slow transient high-heat-flux load cycle. It is shown that the quantitative predictions delivered in this study agree well with the observed findings offering insight into the nature of tungsten armor failure.

  12. Application of ultrasonic inspection technique for crack depth sizing on nickel based alloy weld. Part 3. Establishment of UT procedure for crack depth sizing by phased array UT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Taiji; Okada, Hisao; Fukutomi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it is reported that the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) was occurred at the nickel based alloy weld components such as steam generator safe end weld, reactor vessel safe end weld, and so on, in PWR. Defect detection and sizing is important in order to ensure the reliable operation and life extension of nuclear power plants. In the reactor vessel safe end weld, it was impossible to measure crack depth of PWSCC. The crack was detected in the axial direction of the safe end weld. Furthermore, the crack had some features such as shallow, large aspect ratio (ratio of crack depth and length), sharp geometry of crack tip, and so on. Therefore, development and improvement of defect detection and sizing capabilities for ultrasonic testing (UT) is required. Phased array technique was applied to nickel based alloy weld specimen with SCC cracks. From the experimental results, good accuracy of crack depth sizing by phased array UT for the inside inspection was shown. From these results, UT procedure for crack depth sizing was verified. Therefore, effectiveness of phased array UT for crack depth sizing in the nickel based alloy welds was shown. (author)

  13. Fracture-mechanical assessment of electrically permeable interface cracks in piezoelectric bimaterials by consideration of various contact zone models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, KP; Loboda, VV

    An interface crack with an artificial contact zone at the right-hand side crack tip between two piezoelectric semi-infinite half-planes is considered under remote mixed-mode loading. Assuming the stresses, strains and displacements are independent of the coordinate x(2), the expression for the

  14. Crack tip fields and mixed mode fracture behaviour of progressively drawn pearlitic steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Toribio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of the cold drawing process on the fracture behaviour of pearlitic steels. To this end, fracture tests under axial loading were performed on steel wires with different drawing degree (from a hot rolled bar to a commercial prestressing steel wire, transversely pre-cracked by fatigue, analyzing in detail the changes in fracture micromechanisms. The deflection angles of the fracture path were measured by longitudinal metallographic sections and the characteristic parameters of the loaddisplacement plot were related to different fracture events. Results allowed a calculation of critical stress intensity factors for different fracture angles and drawing degrees, thus evaluating the strength anisotropy and obtaining a sort of directional toughness.

  15. Sub-critical cohesive crack propagation with hydro-mechanical coupling and friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Valente

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the long-time behaviour of a dam, it is necessary to assume that the water can penetrate a possible crack washing away some components of the concrete. This type of corrosion reduces the tensile strength and fracture energy of the concrete compared to the same parameters measured during a short-time laboratory test. This phenomenon causes the so called sub-critical crack propagation. That is the reason why the International Commission of Large Dams recommends to neglect the tensile strength of the joint between the dam and the foundation, which is the weakest point of a gravity dam. In these conditions a shear displacement discontinuity starts growing in a point, called Fictitious Crack Tip (shortened FCT, which is still subjected to a compression stress. In order to manage this problem, in this paper the cohesive crack model is re-formulated with the focus on the shear stress component. In this context, the classical Newton-Raphson method fails to converge to an equilibrium state. Therefore the approach used is based on two stages: (a a global one in which the FCT is moved ahead of one increment; (b a local one in which the non-linear conditions occurring in the Fracture Process Zone are taken into account. This two-stage approach, which is known in the literature as a Large Time Increment method, is able to model three different mechanical regimes occurring during the crack propagation between a dam and the foundation rock.

  16. Extending the XFEM approach for fast transient three-dimensional crack propagation in ductile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelee-De-Saint-Maurice, Romains

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis presents numerical methods is dedicated to three-dimensional crack propagation in the framework of fast explicit structural dynamics using EUROPLEXUS software (currently abbreviated EPX, co-owned by CEA and EC/JRC). An approach based on the well-known XFEM method is proposed, representing the crack through level set functions. Special care is given to the update of the level set functions from the propagation velocity expressed on the crack edge, since the most widely used method based on the solution of Hamilton-Jacobi equations lacks robustness for fast transient crack propagations, even when level-sets are computed on an auxiliary regular finite difference grid. It is therefore chosen instead to implement a 3D approximated geometric method to update both level-sets. As far as failure mechanics is concerned, a local stress criterion on the edge of the crack, first developed by Haboussa et al., gives characteristic parameters of the material fracture. Mechanical equivalent quantities (strain, deformation) around the crack front are weighted by a Gaussian function, which gives more importance to Gauss integration points located near the crack tip. The maximum of the equivalent stress tensor near the crack tip gives the direction of the crack, and the Kanninen equation gives the crack velocity. Besides, because of the discontinuous displacement field, the numerical integration for elements cut by the crack yields performance issues. Increasing the number of quadrature points is CPU time consuming and quite hard to handle if it is chosen to change the number of points only for elements in the vicinity of the crack. Another approach tested here consists in keeping constant the number and position of quadrature points and modifying their weights in cut elements to obtain an accurate integration of several reference discontinuous fields. The proposed methods are tested and validated on significant examples, both two-dimensional, to ensure the backward

  17. Effect of potential on the corrosion fatigue crack propagation of inconel 600 in 50% NaOH solution at 850C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, Toshihei; Sugawara, Hideo; Harada, Tadashi

    1979-01-01

    A study has been made of corrosion fatigue crack growth for Inconel 600 solution-annealed at 1100 0 C for 0.5 h in 85 0 C 50% NaOH solution with a frequency of 1.1 cycle per minute. The effect of potential on the corrosion fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) as a function of ΔK was examined and the fracture surfaces were observed. The results obtained are as follows: (1) The crack growth rate and the cracking mode were affected by the applied potentials in the anodic polarization curve. The value of da/dN was arranged in the following order of the observed potentials: secondary passive region > corrosion potential > primary active region > primary passive region. (2) Intergranular cracking took place at a secondary passive potential (-0.04 V vs SCE) which gave a maximum crack growth rate. Transgranular cracking with fatigue striations occurred at the other potentials. (3) The variation in current with the alternating loading was observed at the potentials where transgranular cracking occurred, whereas no appreciable correlation between current and cyclic loading was shown at a potential of -0.04 V where the intergranular mode cracking occurred. (4) It is pointed out to be helpful in studying the influence of applied potential on the accelerated rate of cracking at the crack tip by the ''crack-tip opening displacement'' estimated from the stress intensity, as the major mechanical condition. (author)

  18. A fracture mechanics analysis of bonded repaired skin/stiffener structures with inclined central crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Ki Hyun; Yang, Won Ho; Kim, Cheol; Heo, Sung Pil; Ko, Myung Hoon

    2001-01-01

    Composite patch repair of cracked aircraft structures has been accepted as one of improving fatigue life and attaining better structural integrity. Analysis for the stress intensity factor at the skin/stiffener structure with inclined central crack repaired by composite stiffened panels are developed. A numerical investigation was conducted to characterize the fracture behavior and crack growth behavior. In order to investigate the crack growth direction, Maximum Tangential Stress(MTS) criteria is used. The main objective of this research is the validation of the inclined crack patching design. In this paper, the reduction of stresses intensity factors at the crack-tip and prediction of crack growth direction are determined to evaluate the effects of various non-dimensional design parameter including; composite patch thickness and stiffener distance. The research on cracked structure subjected to mixed mode loading is accomplished and it is evident that more work using different approaches is necessary

  19. Enhancement of crack detection in stud bolts of nuclear reactor by ultrasonic signal processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Oh, W.D.; Choi, S.W.; Park, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    'Full-text:' The stud bolts is one of the most critical parts for safety of reactor vessels in the nuclear power plants. However, in the application of ultrasonic technique for crack detection in stud bolt, some difficulties encountered are classification of crack signal from the signals reflected from threads part in stud bolt. In this study, shadow effect technique combined with new signal processing method is Investigated to enhance the detectability of small crack initiated from root of thread in stud bolt. The key idea of signal processing is based on the fact that the shape of waveforms from the threads is uniform since the shape of the threads in a bolt is same. If some cracks exist in the thread, the flaw signals are different to the reference signals. It is demonstrated that the small flaws are efficiently detected by novel ultrasonic technique combined with this new signal processing concept. (author)

  20. In-situ investigation of crack propagation in {gamma}-TiAl alloys using atomic force, focus ion beam and scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Farasat; Goeken, Mathias [Lehrstuhl Allgemeine Werkstoffeigenschaften, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Pyczak, Florian [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The present study is focused on crack propagation mechanism in Ti-45Al-1Cr and Ti-45Al-5Nb alloys with lamellar microstructure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a versatile technique to study the crack propagation in-situ. AFM was employed to investigate the local deformations near the crack tip. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) supplements the in-situ observations and was used to get a basic understanding of the crack propagation path over larger distances.A focused ion beam (FIB) was used to investigate the structures and deformation traces underneath the surface. It is concluded that the {gamma}/{alpha}2 interfaces act as favorable sites for new interfacial crack nucleation and also for interlamellar crack propagation. Nucleation of new cracks was often preceded by the interaction of deformation twins with interfaces and also by strong shear band activity in the {gamma}-TiAl lamellae visible as significant surface topography in AFM.Mostly the underneath crack path follows the {gamma}/{alpha}2 interface similar to the situation observed at the surface. The local misorientation measured with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) shows {gamma}-lamellae as the region of high deformation as compare to neighboring {alpha}2 -lamellae around the crack tip and its surroundings.

  1. A Mesoscopic Simulation for the Early-Age Shrinkage Cracking Process of High Performance Concrete in Bridge Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On a mesoscopic level, high performance concrete (HPC was assumed to be a heterogeneous composite material consisting of aggregates, mortar, and pores. The concrete mesoscopic structure model had been established based on CT image reconstruction. By combining this model with continuum mechanics, damage mechanics, and fracture mechanics, a relatively complete system for concrete mesoscopic mechanics analysis was established to simulate the process of early-age shrinkage cracking in HPC. This process was based on the dispersion crack model. The results indicated that the interface between the aggregate and mortar was the crack point caused by shrinkage cracks in HPC. The locations of early-age shrinkage cracks in HPC were associated with the spacing and the size of the aggregate particle. However, the shrinkage deformation size of the mortar was related to the scope of concrete cracking and was independent of the crack position. Whereas lower water to cement ratios can improve the early strength of concrete, this ratio cannot control early-age shrinkage cracks in HPC.

  2. Delayed hydride cracking: alternative pre-cracking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieza, Juan I.; Ponzoni, Lucio M.E.; Vigna, Gustavo L.; Domizzi, Gladys

    2009-01-01

    The internal components of nuclear reactors built-in Zr alloys are prone to a failure mechanism known as Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC). This situation has triggered numerous scientific studies in order to measure the crack propagation velocity and the threshold stress intensity factor associated to DHC. Tests are carried out on fatigued pre-crack samples to ensure similar test conditions and comparable results. Due to difficulties in implementing the fatigue pre-crack method it would be desirable to replace it with a pre-crack produced by the same process of DHC, for which is necessary to demonstrate equivalence of this two methods. In this work tests on samples extracted from two Zr-2.5 Nb tubes were conducted. Some of the samples were heat treated to obtain a range in their metallurgical properties as well as different DHC velocities. A comparison between velocities measured in test samples pre-cracked by fatigue and RDIH is done, demonstrating that the pre-cracking method does not affect the measured velocity value. In addition, the incubation (t inc ), which is the time between the application of the load and the first signal of crack propagation, in samples pre-cracked by RDIH, was measured. It was found that these times are sufficiently short, even in the worst cases (lower speed) and similar to the ones of fatigued pre-cracked samples. (author)

  3. Development of measurement technique for crack depth in weld zone of thick stainless steel pipe with ultrasonic phased array TOFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    Phased array TOFD (time of flight diffraction) method which makes possible to detect tip diffraction echoes and measure crack depth in an austenitic stainless steel weld zone with a thickness of more than 25 mm to which region it was difficult to apply ultrasonic test due to scattering of ultrasonic waves has been developed. The developed method uses a single array transducer to have a short distance between incident points of transmitter and receiver in order to propagate waves in shorter pass in the weld region. Transmitting and receiving ultrasonic beams from a single array probe can be set a crossing point and a focal point at desired depth. This method makes possible to scan with 16 kinds of combination of crossing points and focal pints of ultrasonic beam at a time. We have examined fundamental characteristics of depth measurement with electric discharge machining slits on base metal of a stainless steel with a thickness of 35 mm. As the results: (1) We could measure the slit depth with 0.2mm error from the slit depth with a estimating method of a lateral wave propagation time with back wall echo. (2) The largest error of the depth measurement from the slit depth with the ultrasonic beam crossing point set at the 4mm different point from the tip of the slit was 0.3 mm. (3) The largest error of the depth measurements due to the difference of focal point depth of ultrasonic beam was 0.2 mm. (4) The highest tip diffraction echo could be observed with the ultrasonic beam cross point set at the tip of the slit. The difference of 4 mm between the cross point and the tip of the slit caused attenuation of tip diffraction echo height in -6.8 dB. Furthermore we have measured a depth of electric discharge machining slits, fatigue cracks and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on stainless steel welded pipe specimens with a thickness of 35 mm. As the results: (1) We could detect the tip diffraction echoes which have a signal noise ratio with more than 2.4 from the fatigue

  4. 3-D observations of short fatigue crack interaction with la2mellar and duplex microstructures in a two-phase titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birosca, S.; Buffiere, J.Y.; Karadge, M.; Preuss, M.

    2011-01-01

    In situ observations of short crack growth in powder-processed Ti-6246 have been undertaken using synchrotron X-ray microtomography to investigate crack tip interaction with microstructure. Together with post-mortem analysis using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), it was possible to identify a number of microstructural features that affect crack propagation rates by causing crack bifurcation, crack bridging and crack deflection. Three samples with different microstructures were tested in this way: lamellar, duplex and a heterogeneous microstructure that showed regions of lamellar and duplex microstructure. The in situ fatigue experiments were carried out with a maximum stress of 410 MPa and R = 0.1. The three microstructures showed significantly different short crack propagation rates, with the lamellar microstructure displaying the fastest and the duplex microstructure the slowest rate. It was found that the lamellar microstructure develops a deeper crack than the duplex microstructure that is related to significant crack bifurcation taking place near the surface region in the lamellar but not duplex microstructure. It was also found that a columnar lamellar microstructure creates a relatively smooth crack front while a basket-weave-type microstructure forces the crack tip to undulate on the lath width scale. Crack bridging of the fine lamellar region of the duplex microstructure was observed, which seems to hinder significant crack bifurcation to occur, but still provides improved crack growth resistance that explains the low crack propagation rate. In the third microstructure the crack tended to grow slightly asymmetrically due to the heterogeneous nature of the microstructure, resulting in the intermediate growth rate. EBSD grain orientation and Schmid factor analysis of regions including the crack revealed that the crack path is strongly influenced by the crystallographic orientation of the α lamellae and grains. While in the lamellar microstructure

  5. Temperature and environmentally assisted cracking in low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auten, T.A.; Monter, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) can be defined as the propagation of fatigue cracks in water at rates that are anywhere from 3 to over 40 times the growth rates expected in air. In the present work, five ASTM A 508 Class 2 forgings with ladle and check analyses that ranged from 0.010 to 0.019 wt% S were tested in high purity deaerated water in the temperature range of 93 to 260 C. At 260 C these forgings did not undergo EAC, reinforcing earlier results for two similar forgings. This broad sampling indicates a strong resistance to EAC for this class of forging at 260 C. On the other hand, EAC occurred consistently in the three of these forgings that were tested below 204 C, provided the test conditions were high enough to produce a high baseline fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR), where the baseline FCGR is that expected in air. At 149 C, EAC occurred at test conditions that combined to yield a baseline FCGR greater than ∼2E-6 mm/s. At 204, 121, and 93 C, this ''critical crack growth rate'' appeared to shift to lower baseline values. The EAC that occurred at lower temperatures was a factor of 3 to 12 times higher than baseline air rates, which was not as strong as the effect for higher sulfur steels at 240 to 290 C. Also, no plateau in the growth rates occurred as it does with the higher sulfur steels. In another approach, EAC was induced at 93 and at 260 C by raising the dissolved oxygen content of the water from 15 ppb. In this case, the EAC growth rates decreased to non-EAC levels when the oxygen supply was shut off. The oxygen-related EAC occurred over a broader range of baseline growth rates than found for the EAC driven by the baseline crack tip speed. Again, this can be rationalized by the buildup of sulfur in the crack tip water, which can be associated with the higher corrosion potential of the bulk water

  6. A fracture- mechanics calculation of crack growth rate for a gas turbine blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaei, M.; Karimi, R.

    2002-01-01

    The existence of thermo-mechanical stresses, due to the frequent start-ups and shutdowns of gas turbines. Combined with high working temperatures may cause creep and fatigue failure of the blades. This paper describes a fracture-mechanics life assessment of a gas turbine blade. Initially, the distributions of thermal and mechanical stresses were obtained by using the finite element method. Accordingly; the crack modeling was performed in a high stress region at the suction side surface of the blade. Several crack growth increments were observed and the related crack tip parameters were calculated. Finally; the creep-fatigue crack growth in each cycle was calculated and the total number of start-stop cycles was determined

  7. The importance of the strain rate and creep on the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Omar F.; Mattar Neto, Miguel; Schvartzman, Monica M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking is a nuclear, power, petrochemical, and other industries equipment and components (like pressure vessels, nozzles, tubes, accessories) life degradation mode, involving fragile fracture. The stress corrosion cracking failures can produce serious accidents, and incidents which can put on risk the safety, reliability, and efficiency of many plants. These failures are of very complex prediction. The stress corrosion cracking mechanisms are based on three kinds of factors: microstructural, mechanical and environmental. Concerning the mechanical factors, various authors prefer to consider the crack tip strain rate rather than stress, as a decisive factor which contributes to the process: this parameter is directly influenced by the creep strain rate of the material. Based on two KAPL-Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory experimental studies in SSRT (slow strain rate test) and CL (constant load) test, for prediction of primary water stress corrosion cracking in nickel based alloys, it has done a data compilation of the film rupture mechanism parameters, for modeling PWSCC of Alloy 600 and discussed the importance of the strain rate and the creep on the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms and models. As derived from this study, a simple theoretical model is proposed, and it is showed that the crack growth rate estimated with Brazilian tests results with Alloy 600 in SSRT, are according with the KAPL ones and other published literature. (author)

  8. Strain gradient effects on steady state crack growth in rate-sensitive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    , a characteristic velocity, at which the toughness becomes independent of the rate-sensitivity, has been observed. It is the aim to bring forward a similar characteristic velocity for the current strain gradient visco-plastic model, as-well as to signify its use in future visco-plastic material modeling.......Steady state crack propagation produce substantial plastic strain gradients near the tip, which are accompanied by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and additional local strain hardening. Here, the objective is to study these gradient effects on Mode I toughness...... of a homogeneous rate-sensitive metal, using a higher order plasticity theory. Throughout, emphasis is on the toughness rate-sensitivity, as a recent numerical study of a conventional material (no gradient effects) has indicated a significant influence of both strain rate hardening and crack tip velocity. Moreover...

  9. Crack Resistance of Welded Joints of Pipe Steels of Strength Class K60 of Different Alloying Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatchikova, T. I.; Tereshchenko, N. A.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Makovetskii, A. N.; Shander, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    The crack resistance of welded joints of pipe steels of strength class K60 and different alloying systems is studied. The parameter of the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) is shown to be dependent on the size of the austenite grains and on the morphology of bainite in the superheated region of the heat-affected zone of the weld. The crack resistance is shown to be controllable due to optimization of the alloying system.

  10. Experimental research on the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) characteristics of cracked rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyan; Li, Xuelong; Li, Zhonghui; Cheng, Fuqi; Zhang, Zhibo; Niu, Yue

    2018-03-01

    Coal rock would emit the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) while deformation and fracture, and there exists structural body in the coal rock because of mining and geological structure. In this paper, we conducted an experimental test the EMR characteristics of cracked rock under loading. Results show that crack appears firstly in the prefabricated crack tip then grows stably parallel to the maximum principal stress, and the coal rock buckling failure is caused by the wing crack tension. Besides, the compressive strength significantly decreases because of the precrack, and the compressive strength increases with the crack angle. Intact rock EMR increases with the loading, and the cracked rock EMR shows stage and fluctuant characteristics. The bigger the angle, the more obvious the stage and fluctuant characteristics, that is EMR becomes richer. While the cracked angle is little, EMR is mainly caused by the electric charge rapid separates because of friction sliding. While the cracked angle is big, there is another significant contribution to EMR, which is caused by the electric dipole transient of crack expansion. Through this, we can know more clear about the crack extends route and the corresponding influence on the EMR characteristic and mechanism, which has important theoretical and practical significance to monitor the coal rock dynamical disasters.

  11. Electrochemical investigation of crack initiation during corrosion fatigue of stainless steels in the passive state. Elektrochemische Untersuchung der Rissbildung bei Schwingungsrisskorrosion im stabil-passiven Werkstoffzustand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaehn, R. (Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-03-01

    The corrosion fatigue behaviour of three stainless steels - ferritic (12% Cr), austenitic (type 316 Ti) and austenitic-ferritic (type 31803; Duplex stainless steel) - was studied under rotating bending moments in aqueous sulphuric acid of 30deg C. An instrumental set-up for recording the transient currents of specimens during potentiostatically controlled corrosion fatigue is described. Based on this transient current signal technique, three stages on the corrosion fatigue process can be discerned. In the incubation period, small stochastic current transients are caused by the response of the passive layer to alternating stresses and environmental conditions. The appearance of sinusoidal current signals indicates crack initiation whereas the phase angle between a fixed marker - i.e. a light barrier signal -, and the anodic amplitude represents the site of initiating cracks. Finally, the crack growth period is characterized by an increasing cell current and steadily growing sinusoidal current signals caused by the interplay of microplastic and repassivation processes at the crack tip. (orig.).

  12. Analysis of cracked pressure vessel nozzles by finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynen, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes various algorithms, their computer implementations and relative merits to define in an effective way strain energy release rates along the tip front of arbitrary 3D cracks under arbitrary load including thermal strains. These techniques are basically equivalent to substructuring techniques and consequently they can be implemented to any FEM program able to deal with the data handling problems of the substructuring technique. Special finite elements with a built-in stress-singularity are not necessary although their use contributes to accuracy and the mesh can be coarser. Examples are given carried out with a substructure version of the BERSAFE system. These examples include a corner crack in a pressure vessel nozzle loaded by internal pressure and by thermal stresses. Although not of any fundamental importance, in practice the difficulties consist in generating an appropriate mesh to represent the crack front. For the example of the corner crack in a nozzle the problem has been solved by developing a special purpose mesh generation program (EURCRACK)

  13. Dual-memory processes in crack cocaine dependents: The effects of childhood neglect on recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tractenberg, Saulo G; Viola, Thiago W; Gomes, Carlos F A; Wearick-Silva, Luis Eduardo; Kristensen, Christian H; Stein, Lilian M; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to adversities during sensitive periods of neurodevelopment is associated with the subsequent development of substance dependence and exerts harmful, long-lasting effects upon memory functioning. In this study, we investigated the relationship between childhood neglect (CN) and memory using a dual-process model that quantifies recollective and non-recollective retrieval processes in crack cocaine dependents. Eighty-four female crack cocaine-dependent inpatients who did (N = 32) or did not (N = 52) report a history of CN received multiple opportunities to study and recall a short list composed of familiar and concrete words and then received a delayed-recall test. Crack cocaine dependents with a history of CN showed worse performance on free-recall tests than did dependents without a history of CN; this finding was associated with declines in recollective retrieval (direct access) rather than non-recollective retrieval. In addition, we found no evidence of group differences in forgetting rates between immediate- and delayed-recall tests. The results support developmental models of traumatology and suggest that neglect of crack cocaine dependents in early life disrupts the adult memory processes that support the retrieval of detailed representations of events from the past.

  14. Dynamic circumferential ductile crack motion in finite length pipes with various end loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, A.F.; Kobayashi, A.S.; Love, W.J.; Perl, M.; Kistler, B.

    1981-01-01

    The computed time history, crack opening shape and tip velocity are presented for the ductile crack extension of circumferential cracks in finite length pipes. The pipes are loaded by: a) constant axial tension, b) constant axial displacement, c) constant end moment, and d) constant end rotation to study the effects of these significantly different types of loads. The crack extension is based upon a critical crack opening angle criterion. The results indicate that the extent of the crack movement and the extension velocity is primarily dependent upon the inertia of the moving pipe segments. With sufficient linear momentum, complete severance is obtained, while if the movement is more rotation than translation the cracks either do not extend or do so only slightly. Thus in tougher material, once it begins to extend, the crack may easily encircle the pipe while in more brittle materials it may not, since the moving segments of the pipe have not had time to develop sufficient momentum to force the continued extension of the crack into regions which are initially in compression. (orig.)

  15. Intrinsic fatigue crack propagation in aluminum-lithium alloys - The effect of gaseous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    Gaseous environmental effects on intrinsic fatigue crack growth are significant for the Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090, peak aged. For both moderate Delta K-low R and low Delta K-high R regimes, crack growth rates decrease according to the environment order: purified water vapor, moist air, helium and oxygen. Gaseous environmental effects are pronounced near threshold and are not closure dominated. Here, embrittlement by low levels of H2O (ppm) supports hydrogen embrittlement and suggests that molecular transport controlled cracking, established for high Delta K-low R, is modified near threshold. Localized crack tip reaction sites or high R crack opening shape may enable the strong, environmental effect at low levels of Delta K. Similar crack growth in He and O2 eliminates the contribution of surface films to fatigue damage in alloy 2090. While 2090 and 7075 exhibit similar environmental trends, the Al-Li-Cu alloy is more resistant to intrinsic corrosion fatigue crack growth.

  16. Tips pentacene crystal alignment for improving performance of solution processed organic thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhengran

    A newly-developed p-type organic semiconductor 6,13-bis (triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS pentacene) demonstrates various advantages such as high mobility, air stability and solution processibility, but at the same time its application is restricted by major issues, such as crystal misorientation and performance variation of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). This dissertation demonstrates several different approaches to address these issues. As a result, both crystal orientation and areal coverage can be effectively improved, leading to an enhancement of average mobility and performance consistency of OTFTs. Chapter 1 presents an introduction and background of this dissertation. Chapter 2 explores the usage of inorganic silica nanoparticles to manipulate the morphology of TIPS pentacene thin films and the performance of solution-processed organic OTFTs. The resultant drop-cast films yield improved morphological uniformity at ~10% SiO2 loading, which also leads to a 3-fold increase in average mobility and nearly 4-times reduction in the ratio of standard deviation of mobility (μStdev) to average mobility (μAvg). The experimental results suggest that the SiO2 nanoparticles mostly aggregate at TIPS pentacene grain boundaries, and that 10% nanoparticle concentration effectively reduces the undesirable crystal misorientation without considerably compromising TIPS pentacene crystallinity. Chapter 3 discusses the utilization of air flow to effectively reduce the TIPS pentacene crystal anisotropy and enhance performance consistency in OTFTs. Under air-flow navigation (AFN), TIPS pentacene forms thin films with improved crystal orientation and increased areal coverage, which subsequently lead to a four-fold increase of average hole mobility and one order of magnitude enhancement in performance consistency. Chapter 4 investigates the critical roles of lateral and vertical phase separation in the performance of the next-generation organic and hybrid electronic

  17. Ultrasonic signal processing and B-SCAN imaging for nondestructive testing. Application to under - cladding - cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, G.

    1988-02-01

    Crack propagation under the stainless steel cladding of nuclear reactor vessels is monitored by ultrasonic testing. This work study signal processing to improve detection and sizing of defects. Two possibilities are examined: processing of each individual signal and simultaneous processing of all the signals giving a B-SCAN image. The bibliographic study of time-frequency methods shows that they are not suitable for pulses. Then decomposition in instantaneous frequency and envelope is used. Effect of interference of 2 close echoes on instantaneous frequency is studies. The deconvolution of B-SCAN images is obtained by the transducer field. A point-by-point deconvolution method, less noise sensitive, is developed. B-SCAN images are processed in 2 phases: interface signal processing and deconvolution. These calculations improve image accuracy and dynamics. Water-stell interface and ferritic-austenitic interface are separated. Echoes of crack top are visualized and crack-hole differentiation is improved [fr

  18. Prediction of crack growth direction by Strain Energy Sih's Theory on specimens SEN under tension-compression biaxial loading employing Genetic Algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-MartInez R; Lugo-Gonzalez E; Urriolagoitia-Calderon G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa G; Hernandez-Gomez L H; Romero-Angeles B; Torres-San Miguel Ch

    2011-01-01

    Crack growth direction has been studied in many ways. Particularly Sih's strain energy theory predicts that a fracture under a three-dimensional state of stress spreads in direction of the minimum strain energy density. In this work a study for angle of fracture growth was made, considering a biaxial stress state at the crack tip on SEN specimens. The stress state applied on a tension-compression SEN specimen is biaxial one on crack tip, as it can observed in figure 1. A solution method proposed to obtain a mathematical model considering genetic algorithms, which have demonstrated great capacity for the solution of many engineering problems. From the model given by Sih one can deduce the density of strain energy stored for unit of volume at the crack tip as dW = [1/2E(σ 2 x + σ 2 y ) - ν/E(σ x σy)]dV (1). From equation (1) a mathematical deduction to solve in terms of θ of this case was developed employing Genetic Algorithms, where θ is a crack propagation direction in plane x-y. Steel and aluminium mechanical properties to modelled specimens were employed, because they are two of materials but used in engineering design. Obtained results show stable zones of fracture propagation but only in a range of applied loading.

  19. Atomic-scale observation of hydrogen-induced crack growth by atom-probe FIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, Y.; Pickering, H.W.; Sakurai, T.

    1980-01-01

    Formation and propagation of a microcrack due to hydrogen in a Fe-0.29 wt.% Ti alloy was observed at the atomic scale by field ion microscopy. A microcrack (-20 nm in length) formed and became noticeably large when the tip was heated at 950 0 C in the presence of about 1 torr of Hg. Propagation was reported several times by reheating, until a portion of the tip ruptured and became detached from the tip. Compositional analysis, performed in situ using a high performance atom-probe, identified atomic hydrogen in quantity and some hydrogen molecules and FEH in the crack, but not elsewhere on the surface

  20. Electrical evaluation of crack generation in SiN_x and SiO_xN_y thin-film encapsulation layers for OLED displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun Kil; Kim, Sungmin; Heo, Jaeyeong; Kim, Hyeong Joon

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: •