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Sample records for crack initiation mechanism

  1. Subsurface crack initiation and propagation mechanisms in gigacycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhiyong; Wagner, Daniele; Bathias, Claude; Paris, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    In the very high cycle regime (N f > 10 7 cycles) cracks can nucleate on inclusions, 'supergrains' and pores, which leads to fish-eye propagation around the defect. The initiation from an inclusion or other defect is almost equal to the total crack growth lifetime, perhaps much more than 99% of this lifetime in many cases. Integration of the Paris law allows one to predict the number of cycles to crack initiation. A cyclic plastic zone around the crack exists, and recording the surface temperature of the sample during the test may allow one to follow crack propagation and determine the number of cycles to crack initiation. A thermo-mechanical model has been developed. In this study several fish-eyes from various materials have been observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the fractographic results analyzed as they related to the mechanical and thermo-mechanical models.

  2. Mechanisms for Solidification Crack Initiation and Growth in Aluminum Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniglio, N.; Cross, C. E.

    2009-11-01

    In the present work, mechanisms are proposed for solidification crack initiation and growth in aluminum alloy 6060 arc welds. Calculations for an interdendritic liquid pressure drop, made using the Rappaz-Drezet-Gremaud (RDG) model, demonstrate that cavitation as a liquid fracture mechanism is not likely to occur except at elevated levels of hydrogen content. Instead, a porosity-based crack initiation model has been developed based upon pore stability criteria, assuming that gas pores expand from pre-existing nuclei. Crack initiation is taken to occur when stable pores form within the coherent dendrite region, depending upon hydrogen content. Following initiation, crack growth is modeled using a mass balance approach, controlled by local strain rate conditions. The critical grain boundary liquid deformation rate needed for solidification crack growth has been determined for a weld made with a 16 pct 4043 filler addition, based upon the local strain rate measurement and a simplified strain rate partitioning model. Combined models show that hydrogen and strain rate control crack initiation and growth, respectively. A hypothetical hydrogen strain rate map is presented, defining conceptually the combined conditions needed for cracking and porosity.

  3. Mechanism of crack initiation and crack growth under thermal and mechanical fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, S.; Soppa, E.; Silcher, H.; Kohler, C.

    2013-01-01

    The present contribution is focused on the experimental investigations and numerical simulations of the deformation behaviour and crack development in the austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal and mechanical cyclic loading in HCF and LCF regimes. The main objective of this research is the understanding of the basic mechanisms of fatigue damage and the development of simulation methods, which can be applied further in safety evaluations of nuclear power plant components. In this context the modelling of crack initiation and crack growth inside the material structure induced by varying thermal or mechanical loads are of particular interest. The mechanisms of crack initiation depend among other things on the type of loading, microstructure, material properties and temperature. The Nb-stabilized austenitic stainless steel in the solution-annealed condition was chosen for the investigations. Experiments with two kinds of cyclic loading - pure thermal and pure mechanical - were carried out and simulated. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal loading was studied within the framework of the joint research project [4]. Interrupted thermal cyclic tests in the temperature range of 150 C to 300 C combined with non-destructive residual stress measurements (XRD) and various microscopic investigations, e.g. in SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were used to study the effects of thermal cyclic loading on the material. This thermal cyclic loading leads to thermal induced stresses and strains. As a result intrusions and extrusions appear inside the grains (at the surface), at which microcracks arise and evolve to a dominant crack. Finally, these microcracks cause a continuous and significant decrease of residual stresses. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under mechanical loading at room temperature was studied within the framework of the research project [5], [8]. With a combination of interrupted LCF tests and EBSD

  4. Mechanism of crack initiation and crack growth under thermal and mechanical fatigue loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utz, S.; Soppa, E.; Silcher, H.; Kohler, C. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Materials Testing Inst.

    2013-07-01

    The present contribution is focused on the experimental investigations and numerical simulations of the deformation behaviour and crack development in the austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal and mechanical cyclic loading in HCF and LCF regimes. The main objective of this research is the understanding of the basic mechanisms of fatigue damage and the development of simulation methods, which can be applied further in safety evaluations of nuclear power plant components. In this context the modelling of crack initiation and crack growth inside the material structure induced by varying thermal or mechanical loads are of particular interest. The mechanisms of crack initiation depend among other things on the type of loading, microstructure, material properties and temperature. The Nb-stabilized austenitic stainless steel in the solution-annealed condition was chosen for the investigations. Experiments with two kinds of cyclic loading - pure thermal and pure mechanical - were carried out and simulated. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal loading was studied within the framework of the joint research project [4]. Interrupted thermal cyclic tests in the temperature range of 150 C to 300 C combined with non-destructive residual stress measurements (XRD) and various microscopic investigations, e.g. in SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were used to study the effects of thermal cyclic loading on the material. This thermal cyclic loading leads to thermal induced stresses and strains. As a result intrusions and extrusions appear inside the grains (at the surface), at which microcracks arise and evolve to a dominant crack. Finally, these microcracks cause a continuous and significant decrease of residual stresses. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under mechanical loading at room temperature was studied within the framework of the research project [5], [8]. With a combination of interrupted LCF tests and EBSD

  5. Multiple-shock initiation via statistical crack mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dienes, J.K.; Kershner, J.D.

    1998-12-31

    Statistical Crack Mechanics (SCRAM) is a theoretical approach to the behavior of brittle materials that accounts for the behavior of an ensemble of microcracks, including their opening, shear, growth, and coalescence. Mechanical parameters are based on measured strain-softening behavior. In applications to explosive and propellant sensitivity it is assumed that closed cracks act as hot spots, and that the heating due to interfacial friction initiates reactions which are modeled as one-dimensional heat flow with an Arrhenius source term, and computed in a subscale grid. Post-ignition behavior of hot spots is treated with the burn model of Ward, Son and Brewster. Numerical calculations using SCRAM-HYDROX are compared with the multiple-shock experiments of Mulford et al. in which the particle velocity in PBX 9501 is measured with embedded wires, and reactions are initiated and quenched.

  6. Microstructural mechanisms of cyclic deformation, fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughrabi, Haël

    2015-03-28

    In this survey, the origin of fatigue crack initiation and damage evolution in different metallic materials is discussed with emphasis on the responsible microstructural mechanisms. After a historical introduction, the stages of cyclic deformation which precede the onset of fatigue damage are reviewed. Different types of cyclic slip irreversibilities in the bulk that eventually lead to the initiation of fatigue cracks are discussed. Examples of trans- and intercrystalline fatigue damage evolution in the low cycle, high cycle and ultrahigh cycle fatigue regimes in mono- and polycrystalline face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic metals and alloys and in different engineering materials are presented, and some microstructural models of fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth are discussed. The basic difficulties in defining the transition from the initiation to the growth of fatigue cracks are emphasized. In ultrahigh cycle fatigue at very low loading amplitudes, the initiation of fatigue cracks generally occupies a major fraction of fatigue life and is hence life controlling. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanism of fatigue crack initiation in austenitic stainless steels in light water reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the mechanism of fatigue crack initiation in austenitic stainless steels (SSs) in light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments. The effects of key material and loading variables on the fatigue lives of wrought and cast austenitic SSs in air and LWR environments have been evaluated. The influence of reactor coolant environments on the formation and growth of fatigue cracks in polished smooth SS specimens is discussed. The results indicate that the fatigue lives of these steels are decreased primarily by the effects of the environment on the growth of cracks <200 μm and, to a lesser extent, on enhanced growth rates of longer cracks. The fracture morphology in the specimens has been characterized. Exploratory fatigue tests were conducted to study the effects of surface micropits or minor differences in the surface oxide on fatigue crack initiation. (author)

  8. AFM and SEM-FEG study on fundamental mechanisms leading to fatigue crack initiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Jiří; Valtr, M.; Petrenec, Martin; Dluhoš, J.; Kuběna, Ivo; Obrtlík, Karel; Polák, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 76, JUL (2015), s. 11-18 ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/10/2371; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : fatigue crack initiation * 316L austenitic steel * atomic force microscopy * extrusion * intrusion Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.162, year: 2015

  9. On fatigue crack growth mechanisms of MMC: Reflection on analysis of 'multi surface initiations'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkaddem, A.; El Mansori, M.

    2009-01-01

    This work attempts to examine the mechanisms of fatigue when cracks synergetically initiate in more than one site at the specimen surface. The metal matrix composites (MMC) i.e. silicon carbide particles reinforced aluminium matrix composites (Al/SiC p -MMC), seem to be good candidates to accelerate fatigue failures following multi surface initiations (MSI). Closure effects of MSI mechanisms on the variation of fatigue behaviour are explored for various stress states. Experiments were carried out using non pre-treated and pre-treated specimens. Using an Equivalent Ellipse Method (EEM), it is shown that the aspect of surface finish of specimen plays an important role on crack growth. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) inspections have lead to distinguishing the initiation regions from propagation regions and final separation regions. It is also revealed that the total lifetime of specimens is sensitive to heat treatment. Moreover, it is found that the appearance of MSI in cycled materials is more probable at high level of fatigue loads.

  10. Very High Cycle Fatigue Crack Initiation Mechanism in Nugget Zone of AA 7075 Friction Stir Welded Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Very high cycle fatigue behavior of nugget zone in AA 7075 friction stir welded joint was experimentally investigated using ultrasonic fatigue testing system (20 kHz to clarify the crack initiation mechanism. It was found that the fatigue strength of nugget zone decreased continuously even beyond 107 cycles with no traditional fatigue limits. Fatigue cracks initiated from the welding defects located at the bottom side of the friction stir weld. Moreover, a special semicircular zone could be characterized around the crack initiation site, of which the stress intensity factor approximately equaled the threshold of fatigue crack propagation rate. Finally, a simplified model was proposed to estimate the fatigue life by correlating the welding defect size and applied stress. The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Transverse crack initiation under combined thermal and mechanical loading of Fibre Metal Laminates and Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Camp, W.; Dhallé, M. M.J.; Warnet, L.; Wessel, W. A.J.; Vos, G. S.; Akkerman, R.; Ter Brake, H. J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a temperature-dependent extension of the classical laminate theory (CLT) that may be used to predict the mechanical behaviour of Fibre Metal Laminates (FML) at cryogenic conditions, including crack initiation. FML are considered as a possible alternative class of structural

  12. Nonlinear crack mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoroshun, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristic features of the deformation and failure of actual materials in the vicinity of a crack tip are due to their physical nonlinearity in the stress-concentration zone, which is a result of plasticity, microfailure, or a nonlinear dependence of the interatomic forces on the distance. Therefore, adequate models of the failure mechanics must be nonlinear, in principle, although linear failure mechanics is applicable if the zone of nonlinear deformation is small in comparison with the crack length. Models of crack mechanics are based on analytical solutions of the problem of the stress-strain state in the vicinity of the crack. On account of the complexity of the problem, nonlinear models are bason on approximate schematic solutions. In the Leonov-Panasyuk-Dugdale nonlinear model, one of the best known, the actual two-dimensional plastic zone (the nonlinearity zone) is replaced by a narrow one-dimensional zone, which is then modeled by extending the crack with a specified normal load equal to the yield point. The condition of finite stress is applied here, and hence the length of the plastic zone is determined. As a result of this approximation, the displacement in the plastic zone at the abscissa is nonzero

  13. Nucleation of squat cracks in rail, calculation of crack initiation angles in three dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naeimi, M.; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    A numerical model of wheel-track system is developed for nucleation of squat-type fatigue cracks in rail material. The model is used for estimating the angles of squat cracks in three dimensions. Contact mechanics and multi-axial fatigue analysis are combined to study the crack initiation mechanism

  14. Crack initiation and growth in welded structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assire, A.

    2000-01-01

    This work concerns the remaining life assessment of a structure containing initial defects of manufacturing. High temperature crack initiation and growth are studied for austenitic stainless steels, and defect assessment methods are improved in order to take into account welded structures. For these one, the probability to have a defect is significant. Two kinds of approaches are commonly used for defect assessment analysis. Fracture mechanics global approach with an energetic criterion, and local approach with a model taking into account the physical damage mechanism. For both approaches mechanical fields (stress and strain) have to be computed everywhere within the structure. Then, Finite Element computation is needed. The first part of the thesis concerns the identification of non linear kinematic and isotropic constitutive models. A pseudo-analytical method is proposed for a 'Two Inelastic Strain' model. This method provides a strategy of identification with a mechanical meaning, and this enables to associate each parameter to a physical phenomenon. Existing identifications are improved for cyclic plasticity and creep on a large range of stress levels. The second part concerns high temperature crack initiation and growth in welded structures. Finite Element analysis on plate and tube experimental configuration enable to understand the phenomenons of interaction between base metal and weld metal under mechanical and thermal loading. Concerning global approach, criteria based on C* parameter (Rice integral for visco-plasticity) are used. Finite Element computations underline the fact that for a defect located in the weld metal, C* values strongly depend on the base metal creep strain rate, because widespread visco-plasticity is located in both metals. A simplified method, based on the reference stress approach, is proposed and validated with Finite Element results. Creep crack growth simplified assessment is a quite good validation of the experimental results

  15. Crack embryo formation before crack initiation and growth in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arioka, Koji; Yamada, Takuyo; Terachi, Takumi; Miyamoto, Tomoki

    2008-01-01

    Crack growth measurements were performed in high temperature water and in air to examine the role of creep on IGSCC growth using cold rolled non-sensitized Type316(UNS S31600), TT690 alloy, MA600 alloy, and Carbon steel (STPT42). In addition, crack initiation tests were performed also in high temperature water and in air using specially designed CT specimen. The obtained major results are as follows: (1) TT690 did crack in intergranularly in hydrogenated high temperature water if material is cold worked in heavily. (2) Cold worked carbon steel also cracked in intergranularly in dearated high temperature water. (3) Intergranular crack growth was recognized on cold worked 316, TT690, MA600, and carbon steel even in air which might be crack embryo of IGSCC. (4) Simple Arrhenius type temperature dependence was observed on IGSCC in high temperature water and creep crack growth in air. This suggested that intergranular crack growth rate was determined by some thermal activated reaction. (5) Vacancy condensation was recognized at just ahead of the crack tips of IGSCC and creep crack of cold worked steel. This showed that IGSCC and creep crack growth was controlled by same mechanism. (6) Clear evidence of vacancies condensation was recognized at just beneath the surface before crack initiation. This proved that crack did initiate as the result of diffusion of vacancies in the solid. And the incubation time seems to be controlled by the required time for the condensation of vacancies to the stress concentrated zone. (7) Diffusion of subsituational atoms was also driven by stress gradient. This is the important knowledge to evaluate the SCC initiation after long term operation in LWR's. Based on the observed results, IGSCC initiation and growth mechanism were proposed considering the diffusion process of cold worked induced vacancies. (author)

  16. Crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, D.K.M.; Merkle, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A method for estimating the decrease in crack-initiation toughness, from a reference plane strain value, due to positive straining along the crack front of a circumferential flaw in a reactor pressure vessel is presented in this study. This method relates crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions with material failure at points within a distance of a few crack-tip-opening displacements ahead of a crack front, and involves the formulation of a micromechanical crack-initiation model. While this study is intended to address concerns regarding the effects of positive out-of- plane straining on ductile crack initiation, the approach adopted in this work can be extended in a straightforward fashion to examine conditions of macroscopic cleavage crack initiation. Provided single- parameter dominance of near-tip fields exists in the flawed structure, results from this study could be used to examine the appropriateness of applying plane strain fracture toughness to the evaluation of circumferential flaws, in particular to those in ring-forged vessels which have no longitudinal welds. In addition, results from this study could also be applied toward the analysis of the effects of thermal streaming on the fracture resistance of circumferentially oriented flaws in a pressure vessel. 37 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  17. Initiation of delayed hydride cracking in zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalabi, A.F.; Meneley, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Delayed hydride cracking in zirconium alloys is caused by the repeated precipitation and cracking of brittle hydrides. The growth kinetic of the hydrides have been measured to evaluate the critical hydride length for crack initiation. Hydride growth leading to crack initiation follows an approximate (time) 1/3 law on the average; crack propagation proceeds in a stepwise fashion. The critical length of hydride for crack initiation increases with stress and temperature. The fracture criterion for crack initiation predicts the critical hydride length at a give stress level and temperature. The fracture initiation mechanism of the hydride confirms the temperature effects for heating and cooling cycles under services loads. (orig.)

  18. Fatigue Crack Initiation Properties of Rail Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Fatigue crack initiation properties of rail-steels were determined experimentally. One new and four used rail steels were investigated. The effects of the following parameters were studied: stress ratio (ratio of minimum to maximum stress in a cycle)...

  19. Nucleation of squat cracks in rail, calculation of crack initiation angles in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Meysam; Li, Zili; Dollevoet, Rolf

    2015-07-01

    A numerical model of wheel-track system is developed for nucleation of squat-type fatigue cracks in rail material. The model is used for estimating the angles of squat cracks in three dimensions. Contact mechanics and multi-axial fatigue analysis are combined to study the crack initiation mechanism in rails. Nonlinear material properties, actual wheel-rail geometries and realistic loading conditions are considered in the modelling process. Using a 3D explicit finite element analysis the transient rolling contact behaviour of wheel on rail is simulated. Employing the critical plane concept, the material points with the largest possibility of crack initiation are determined; based on which, the 3D orientations/angles of the possible squat cracks are estimated. Numerical estimations are compared with sample results of experimental observations on a rail specimen with squat from the site. The findings suggest a proper agreement between results of modelling and experiment. It is observed that squat cracks initiate at an in-plane angle around 13°-22° relative to the rail surface. The initiation angle seen on surface plane is calculated around 29°-48°, while the crack tend to initiate in angles around 25°-31° in the rail cross-section.

  20. The crack growth mechanism in asphaltic mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.M.J.; Hopman, P.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The crack growth mechanism in asphalt concrete (Ac) mixes is studied. In cyclic tests on several asphaltic mixes crack growth is measured, both with crack foils and with cOD-gauges. It is found that crack growth in asphaltic mixes is described by three processes which are parallel in time: cohesive

  1. Evaluation of the probability of crack initiation and crack instability for a pipe with a semi-elliptical crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Delliou, P.; Hornet, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some work conducted at EDF R and D Division to evaluate the probability that a semi-elliptical crack in a pipe not only initiates but also propagates when submitted to mechanical loading such as bending and pressure combined or not with a thermal shock. The first part is related to the description of the mechanical model: the simplified methods included in the French RSE-M Code used to evaluate the J-integral as well as the principle of the determination of the crack propagation. Then, the way this deterministic approach is combined to a reliability code is described. Finally, an example is shown: the initiation and the instability of a semi-elliptical crack in a pipe submitted to combined pressure and bending moment. (author)

  2. High temperature crack initiation in an austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laiarinandrasana, Lucien

    1994-01-01

    The study deals with crack initiation at 600 deg. C and 650 deg. C, on an austenitic stainless steel referenced by Z2 CND 17 12. The behaviour laws of the studied plate were updated in comparison with existing data. Forty tests were carried out on CT specimens, with continuous fatigue with load or displacement controlled, pure creep, pure relaxation, creep-fatigue and creep-relaxation loadings. The practical initiation definition corresponds to a small crack growth of about the grain size, monitored by electrical potential drop technique. The time necessary for the crack to initiate is predicted with fracture mechanics global and local approaches, with the help of microstructural observations and finite element results. An identification of a 'Paris' law' for continuous cyclic loading and of a unique correlation between the initiation time and C h * for creep tests was established. For the local approach, crack initiation by creep can be interpreted as the reaching of a critical damage level, by using a damage incremental rule. For creep-fatigue tests, crack growth rates at initiation are greater than those of Paris' law for continuous fatigue. A calculation of a transition time between elastic-plastic and creep domains shows that crack initiation can be interpreted whether by providing Paris' law with an acceleration term when the dwell period is less than the transition time, or by calculating a creep contribution which relies on C h * parameter when the dwell period and/or the initiation times are greater than the transition time. Creep relaxation tests present crack growth rates at initiation which are less than those for 'equivalent' creep-fatigue tests. These crack growth rates decrease when increasing hold time, but also when temperature decreases. Though, for hold times which are important enough and at lower temperature, there is no effect of the dwell period insofar as crack growth rate is equal to continuous fatigue

  3. Crack initiation at high temperature on an austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laiarinandrasana, L.

    1994-01-01

    The study deals with crack initiation at 600 degrees Celsius and 650 degrees Celsius, on an austenitic stainless steel referenced by Z2 CND 17 12. The behaviour laws of the studied plate were update in comparison with existing data. Forty tests were carried out on CT specimens, with continuous fatigue with load or displacement controlled, pure creep, pure relaxation, creep-fatigue and creep-relaxation loadings. The practical initiation definition corresponds to a small crack growth of about the grain size, monitored by electrical potential drop technique. The time necessary for the crack to initiate is predicted with fracture mechanics global and local approaches, with the helps of microstructural observations and finite elements results. An identification of a 'Paris'law' for continuous cyclic loading and of a unique correlation between the initiation time and C * k for creep tests was established. For the local approach, crack initiation by creep can be interpreted as the reaching of a critical damage level, by using a damage incremental rule. For creep-fatigue tests, crack growth rates at initiation are greater than those of Paris'law for continuous fatigue. A calculation of a transition time between elastic-plastic and creep domains shows that crack initiation can be interpreted whether by providing Paris'law with an acceleration term when the dwell period is less than the transition time, or by calculating a creep contribution which relies on C * k parameter when the dwell period and/or the initiation times are greater than the transition time. Creep relaxation tests present crack growth rates at initiation which are less than those for 'equivalent' creep-fatigue tests. These crack growth rates when increasing hold time, but also when temperature decreases. Though, for hold times which are important enough and at lower temperature, there is no effect of the dwell period insofar as crack growth rate is equal to continuous fatigue Paris law predicted ones

  4. Dynamic crack initiation toughness : experiments and peridynamic modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, John T.

    2009-10-01

    This is a dissertation on research conducted studying the dynamic crack initiation toughness of a 4340 steel. Researchers have been conducting experimental testing of dynamic crack initiation toughness, K{sub Ic}, for many years, using many experimental techniques with vastly different trends in the results when reporting K{sub Ic} as a function of loading rate. The dissertation describes a novel experimental technique for measuring K{sub Ic} in metals using the Kolsky bar. The method borrows from improvements made in recent years in traditional Kolsky bar testing by using pulse shaping techniques to ensure a constant loading rate applied to the sample before crack initiation. Dynamic crack initiation measurements were reported on a 4340 steel at two different loading rates. The steel was shown to exhibit a rate dependence, with the recorded values of K{sub Ic} being much higher at the higher loading rate. Using the knowledge of this rate dependence as a motivation in attempting to model the fracture events, a viscoplastic constitutive model was implemented into a peridynamic computational mechanics code. Peridynamics is a newly developed theory in solid mechanics that replaces the classical partial differential equations of motion with integral-differential equations which do not require the existence of spatial derivatives in the displacement field. This allows for the straightforward modeling of unguided crack initiation and growth. To date, peridynamic implementations have used severely restricted constitutive models. This research represents the first implementation of a complex material model and its validation. After showing results comparing deformations to experimental Taylor anvil impact for the viscoplastic material model, a novel failure criterion is introduced to model the dynamic crack initiation toughness experiments. The failure model is based on an energy criterion and uses the K{sub Ic} values recorded experimentally as an input. The failure model

  5. Mechanism of corrosion fatigue cracking of automotive coil spring steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Tae-Heum; Kwon, Min-Seok; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2015-11-01

    The AISI 300M ultra-high strength steel was applied for the automotive suspension coil spring. Recently, some premature failures were reported, which caused by synergistic effect of cyclic mechanical stress and corrosion, namely corrosion fatigue cracking. In this study, the accurate mechanism of corrosion fatigue cracking for coil spring steel was studied for the proper prevention method against the catastrophic failure. Fatigue life was evaluated in 5 wt% NaCl solution under the anodic dissolution and hydrogen embrittlement conditions, which is simulated by applying constant potentials. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis indicated that the corrosion fatigue cracking was initiated at the MnS inclusion of the pit initiation site. The calculation of hydrogen production corresponding to each corrosion fatigue test condition revealed the two operating mechanisms of the cracking process. The corrosion fatigue cracking failure of coil spring steel was mainly caused by the anodic dissolution combined with hydrogen embrittlement.

  6. Fatigue crack initiation in crystalline materials - experimental evidence and models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Man, Jiří; Vystavěl, T.; Zouhar, Lukáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 345-346, - (2007), s. 379-382 ISSN 1013-9826. [International Conference on The Mechanical Behavior of Materials /10./. Busan , 27.05.2007-31.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/1096; GA ČR GA101/07/1500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : fatigue * crack initiation * modeling Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.224, year: 2005

  7. Initiation of fatigue cracks in AZ91 Mg alloy processed by ECAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintová, S.; Kunz, L.

    2014-08-01

    Mechanism of fatigue crack initiation was investigated in ultrafine-grained (UFG) magnesium alloy AZ91 processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). Fatigue behaviour of UFG material was compared to the behaviour of material in an initial as-cast state. Focused ion beam technique (FIB) was applied to reveal the surface relief and early fatigue cracks. Two substantially different mechanisms of crack initiation were observed in UFG structure, which can be characterized as bimodal even after 6 ECAP passes by route Bc. The bimodality consists in a coexistence of very fine grained areas with higher content of Mg17Al12 particles and areas exhibiting somewhat larger grains and lower density of particles. The fatigue cracks which initiate in areas of larger grains are related to the cyclic slip bands; this initiation mechanism is similar to that observed in cast alloy. The second initiation mechanism is related to the grain boundary cracking which takes place predominantly in the fine grained areas.

  8. Probability of crack-initiation and application to NDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prantl, G.

    1988-01-01

    Fracture toughness is a property with a certain variability. When a statistical distribution is assumed, the probability of crack initiation may be calculated for a given problem defined by its geometry and the applied stress. Experiments have shown, that cracks which experience a certain small amount of ductile growth can reliably be detected by acoustic emission measurements. The probability of crack detection by AE-techniques may be estimated using this experimental finding and the calculated probability of crack initiation. (author)

  9. Experimental evidence and physical models of fatigue crack initiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Man, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 91, OCT (2016), s. 294-303 ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S; GA ČR GA13-32665S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Crack initiation * Persistent slip band * Point defects * Extrusions * Intrusions Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.899, year: 2016

  10. Fatigue crack initiation – The role of point defects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Man, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, AUG (2014), s. 18-27 ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/10/2371; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fatigue crack initiation * Point defects * Persistent slip band * Intrusion * Extrusion Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2014

  11. Dynamic Initiation and Propagation of Multiple Cracks in Brittle Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Ren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Brittle materials such as rock and ceramic usually exhibit apparent increases of strength and toughness when subjected to dynamic loading. The reasons for this phenomenon are not yet well understood, although a number of hypotheses have been proposed. Based on dynamic fracture mechanics, the present work offers an alternate insight into the dynamic behaviors of brittle materials. Firstly, a single crack subjected to stress wave excitations is investigated to obtain the dynamic crack-tip stress field and the dynamic stress intensity factor. Second, based on the analysis of dynamic stress intensity factor, the fracture initiation sizes and crack size distribution under different loading rates are obtained, and the power law with the exponent of −2/3 is derived to describe the fracture initiation size. Third, with the help of the energy balance concept, the dynamic increase of material strength is directly derived based on the proposed multiple crack evolving criterion. Finally, the model prediction is compared with the dynamic impact experiments, and the model results agree well with the experimentally measured dynamic increasing factor (DIF.

  12. The initiation of environmentally-assisted cracking in semi-elliptical surface cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    A criterion to predict under what conditions EAC would Initiate In cracks In a high-sulfur steel in contact with low-oxygen water was recently proposed by Wire and U. This EAC Initiation Criterion was developed using transient analyses for the diffusion of sulfides plus experimental test results. The experiments were conducted mainly on compact tension-type specimens with initial crack depths of about 2.54 mm. The present paper expands upon the work of Wire and U by presenting results for significantly deeper initial semi-elliptical surface cracks. In addition, in one specimen, the surface crack penetrated weld-deposited cladding into the high-sulfur steel. The results for the semi-elliptical surface cracks agreed quite well with the EAC Initiation Criterion, and provide confirmation of the applicability of the criterion to crack configurations with more restricted access to water

  13. Diffraction-based study of fatigue crack initiation and propagation in aerospace aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipul K.

    crystallographic {111} slip-plane cracking typical of the Stage I crack growth mode observed in single crystals and high purity polycrystals of face centered cubic metals, and which has presently been assumed for the present materials within fatigue crack initiation models. Rather, the facets tend to have near-Mode I spatial orientation, which is another indicator of the importance of environmentally affected fatigue damage. The results provide a physical basis to develop microstructurally-based next generation multi-stage fatigue (MSF) models that should include a new crack decohesion criteria based upon environmental fatigue cracking mechanisms. EBSD study of small-cracks in alloy 7050-T7451, stressed in warm-humid environment, showed that crack-path orientation changes and crack-branching occurred at both low/high-angle grain and subgrain boundaries. Single surface trace analysis suggests that the crack-path differs substantially from crystallographic slip-planes. EBSD-based observations of small-crack propagation through subgrain structure, either formed by cyclic plastic strain accumulation or pre-existing (typical of unrecrystallized grain structure in the present materials), suggest that subgrain structure plays a crucial role in small fatigue crack propagation. As mentioned earlier, local fluctuations in small-crack growth rates appear to be caused by frequent interaction with subgrain boundaries, and multiple occurrences of crack-branching and crack-path orientation changes at low/high-angle grain and subgrain boundaries. The aforementioned deviation from low-index {001}/{101}-planes and the occurrence of high-index cracking planes observed by EBSD/Stereology, in this study and others, are interpreted as trans-subgranular decohesion or inter-subgranular cracking, due to trapped hydrogen. In summary, the results provide a firmer experimental foundation for, and clearer understanding of, the mechanisms of environmental fatigue cracking of aluminum alloys, especially the

  14. Crack Tip Mechanics in Distortion Gradient Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuentes-Alonso, Sandra; Martínez Pañeda, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    The important role of geometrically necessary dislocations in structural integrity assessment has encouraged an extensive use of strain gradient plasticity theories to characterize the behavior at the small scales involved in crack tip deformation. However, despite the popularity of Distortion...... Gradient Plasticity (DGP), the influence on crack tip mechanics of DGP's distinguishing features that entail superior modelling capabilities has not been investigated yet. In this work crack tip fields are thoroughly examined by implementing the higher order theory of DGP in an implicit finite element...

  15. Accelerated Stress Corrosion Crack Initiation of Alloys 600 and 690 in Hydrogenated Supercritical Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Tyler; Was, Gary S.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether stress corrosion crack initiation of Alloys 600 and 690 occurs by the same mechanism in subcritical and supercritical water. Tensile bars of Alloys 690 and 600 were strained in constant extension rate tensile experiments in hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water from 593 K to 723 K (320 °C to 450 °C), and the crack initiation behavior was characterized by high-resolution electron microscopy. Intergranular cracking was observed across the entire temperature range, and the morphology, structure, composition, and temperature dependence of initiated cracks in Alloy 690 were consistent between hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water. Crack initiation of Alloy 600 followed an Arrhenius relationship and did not exhibit a discontinuity or change in slope after crossing the critical temperature. The measured activation energy was 121 ± 13 kJ/mol. Stress corrosion crack initiation in Alloy 690 was fit with a single activation energy of 92 ± 12 kJ/mol across the entire temperature range. Cracks were observed to propagate along grain boundaries adjacent to chromium-depleted metal, with Cr2O3 observed ahead of crack tips. All measures of the SCC behavior indicate that the mechanism for stress corrosion crack initiation of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 is consistent between hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water.

  16. Stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 in water at high temperature: contribution to a phenomenological approach to the understanding of mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Pascale

    1998-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the understanding of mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking of an alloy 600 in water at high temperature. More precisely, it aimed at determining, by using quantitative data characterizing cracking phenomenology, which mechanism(s) is (are) able to explain crack initiation and crack growth. These data concern quantitative characterization of crack initiation, of crack growth and of the influence of two cracking parameters (strain rate, medium hydrogen content). They have been obtained by quantifying cracking through the application of a morphological model. More precisely, these data are: evolution of crack density during a tensile test at slow rate, value of initial crack width with respect to grain boundary length, and relationship between crack density and medium hydrogen content. It appears that hydrogen absorption seems to be involved in the crack initiation mechanism. Crack growth mechanisms and crack growth rates are also discussed [fr

  17. Permeability and mechanical properties of cracked glass under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ougier-Simonin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Crack initiation and growth in brittle solids under tension have been extensively studied by various experimental, theoretical and numerical approaches. If has been established that dynamic brittle fracture is related to fundamental physical parameters and processes, such as crack speed, crack branching, surface roughening, and dynamic instabilities. On the other hand, less studies have been done in the area of compressive fracture despite its vital importance in geology, material science and engineering applications (such as the improvement and the insurance of the nuclear wastes storage). The present work aims to investigate thermo-mechanical cracking effects on elastic wave velocities, mechanical strength and permeability und r pressure to evaluate damage evolution, brittle failure and transport properties on a synthetic glass (SON 68), and to highlight the very different behavior of the glass amorphous structure compared to any rock structure. The original glass, produced in ideal conditions of slow cooling that prevent from any crack formation, exhibits a linear and reversible mechanical behavior and isotropic elastic velocities, as expected. It also presents a high strength as it fails at about 700 MPa of deviatoric stress for a confining pressure of 15 MPa. We choose to apply to some original glass samples a reproducible method (thermal treatment with a thermal shock of T=100,200 and 300 C) which creates cracks with a homogeneous distribution. The impact of the thermal treatment is clearly visible through the elastic wave velocity measurements as we observe crack closure under hydrostatic conditions (at about 30 MPa). For T ≥ 200 C, the glass mechanical behavior becomes non linear and records an irreversible damage. The total damage observed with the acoustic emissions in these samples underlines the combination of the thermal and the mechanical cracks which drive to the sample failure. The results obtained with pore fluid pressure show a very small

  18. The role of extrusions and intrusions in fatigue crack initiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Mazánová, Veronika; Heczko, Milan; Petráš, Roman; Kuběna, Ivo; Casalena, L.; Man, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 185, NOV (2017), s. 46-60 ISSN 0013-7944 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA MŠk LM2015069; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S; GA ČR GA15-08826S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Extrusion * Fatigue crack initiation * Intrusion * Persistent slip marking * Stainless steel Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis Impact factor: 2.151, year: 2016

  19. Research on anti crack mechanism of bionic coupling brake disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lifeng; Yang, Xiao; Zheng, Lingnan; Wu, Can; Ni, Jing

    2017-09-01

    According to the biological function of fatigue resistance possessed by biology, this study designed a Bionic Coupling Brake Disc (BCBD) which can inhibit crack propagation as the result of improving fatigue property. Thermal stress field of brake disc was calculated under emergency working condition, and circumferential and radial stress field which lead to fatigue failure of brake disc were investigated simultaneously. Results showed that the maximum temperature of surface reached 890°C and the maximum residual tensile stress was 207 Mpa when the initial velocity of vehicle was 200 km/h. Based on the theory of elastic plastic fracture mechanics, the crack opening displacement and the crack front J integrals of the BCBD and traditional brake disc (TBD) with pre-cracking were calculated, and the strength of crack front was compared. Results revealed the growth behavior of fatigue crack located on surface of brake disc, and proved the anti fatigue resistance of BCBD was better, and the strength of crack resistance of BCBD was much stronger than that of TBD. This simulation research provided significant references for optimization and manufacturing of BCBD.

  20. Cooperative tests on crack initiation and crack propagation in stress corrosion environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takao; Iwadate, Tadao; Ebara, Ryuichiro; Umeyama, Yoshio; Yokobori, Takeo.

    1992-01-01

    In order to ensure the safety of machinery and structures in corrosive environment, the development of corrosion resistant materials and the research on the techniques of evaluating materials in corrosive environment have been carried out. At present, the life due to crack development is discussed by fracture mechanics, and the evaluation of life in corrosive environment can be done with a certain degree of accuracy. In order to collect the unified data which become the base of life evaluation, the standardization of the testing method is desirable. This cooperative tests were carried out for the purpose of collecting the information on the life evaluation techniques in stress corrosion environment. As the object, the large LP turbine rotors for nuclear power generation were taken up, and the tests on the crack initiation and crack propagation were carried out. As the test environment, the accelerated test in 38% NaOH + 0.01% CuO aqueous solution on ASTM A470 3% Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel was carried out. The results are reported. (K.I.)

  1. Fatigue crack initiation of magnesium alloys under elastic stress amplitudes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B. J.; Xu, D. K.; Wang, S. D.; Han, E. H.

    2017-12-01

    The most advantageous property of magnesium (Mg) alloys is their density, which is lower compared with traditional metallic materials. Mg alloys, considered the lightest metallic structural material among others, have great potential for applications as secondary load components in the transportation and aerospace industries. The fatigue evaluation of Mg alloys under elastic stress amplitudes is very important in ensuring their service safety and reliability. Given their hexagonal close packed structure, the fatigue crack initiation of Mg and its alloys is closely related to the deformation mechanisms of twinning and basal slips. However, for Mg alloys with shrinkage porosities and inclusions, fatigue cracks will preferentially initiate at these defects, remarkably reducing the fatigue lifetime. In this paper, some fundamental aspects about the fatigue crack initiation mechanisms of Mg alloys are reviewed, including the 3 followings: 1) Fatigue crack initiation of as-cast Mg alloys, 2) influence of microstructure on fatigue crack initiation of wrought Mg alloys, and 3) the effect of heat treatment on fatigue initiation mechanisms. Moreover, some unresolved issues and future target on the fatigue crack initiation mechanism of Mg alloys are also described.

  2. Study of initiation and growth of stress corrosion cracks. Quantitative characterization and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrat, Christine

    1997-01-01

    A phenomenological study of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) cracks initiation and growth was carried out on a Z 2 CN 18.10 stainless steel in a boiling aqueous magnesium chloride solution at 153 deg. C. The characterization method exploits the morphological information (cracks shape and size distribution) available on a specimen after SCC test. This method, independent of any mechanistic hypothesis, led to the analytical representation of the growth rate of a given crack as a function of its depth and of the density of deeper cracks. The presence of this last parameter could be the expression of a 'shielding effect' of mechanical origin, exerted by the cracks of large size. A 'true initiation' rate was calculated by an extrapolation based on the analytical expression of the growth rate. This analytical representation of cracks initiation and growth accounts for the saturation observed in the experimental determination of the 'apparent initiation'. As time goes, the number of cracks deeper than a given threshold depth tends towards a limit which depends very strongly on the chosen threshold. This saturation effect can be interpreted as exclusively due to the way the small cracks propagate, as the 'true initiation' rate can be expressed versus time by a simple power law. In the case of slow strain rate tests, it is shown that the kinetic parameters characteristic of initiation and growth depend on the applied elongation rate. In particular, the initial crack growth rate increases with elongation rate. The validity domains of the proposed expressions have been specified by means of SCC tests carried out under different types of mechanical loading. (author) [fr

  3. Investigation into crack resistance of building steels during dynamic initiation and propagation of brittle cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basko, E.M.; Makhutov, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Possibilities to determine the characteristics of steel crack resistance at the stage of crack initiation and propagation are studied according to the results of the impact bend test of standard samples with a crack, when the P-f oscillograms (loading-deflection) have been recorded. The investigation has been carried out for low-carbon and low-alloyed steels widely applied for building structures. It is shown that during the impact bend testing of standard samples with a crack in brittle and quasibrittle states the time of sample strain before the initiation of unstable crack turns out to be similar to the time of crack propagation. This fact conditions the mode of strain diagram as approximately symmetric as to the maximum load and, consequently, is the reason for the levelling of specific energy of elastic strains and specific energy of crack propagation. During the transition from plastic to brittle fractures with the temperature decrease under conditions of the dynamic loading the rate of the crack propagation vsub(p) increases by two orders, constituting approximately 0.002 from the rate of the elastic waves movement at plastic state and up to 0.25 at brittle ones [ru

  4. Environmentally assisted cracking mechanisms in repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.

    1987-02-01

    This paper assesses how environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) mechanisms in candidate container materials can be identified to enhance the accuracy of long-term projections of performance in the repository. In low and intermediate strength steels, the role of the two principal mechanisms, slip dissolution/film rupture (SD/FR) and hydrogen embrittlement (HE), is a very complex and controversial issue. No unanimity exists concerning the operative cracking mechanisms, and there is no unique or rigorous approach that would be persuasive in selecting an appropriate model. Both of the proposed mechanisms have common rate controlling processes such as surface adsorption rate, passivation rate, and oxidation rupture rate, which makes it difficult to identify the operative mechanism. Development of a quantitative model for predicting environmental effects for low-carbon steels in repository environments would provide a theoretical basis for assuring the long-term structural integrity of waste-package containment. To date, only one quantitative model has been developed. The agreement between predicted and observed behavior suggests that SD/FR processes control the environmental acceleration in crack growth rates for this class of materials. Deviations from predicted behavior due to HE effects should be uncovered experimentally. 59 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Predicting fatigue crack initiation through image-based micromechanical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, K.-S.; Smillie, Matthew J.; Knowles, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of individual grain orientation on early fatigue crack initiation in a four-point bend fatigue test was investigated numerically and experimentally. The 99.99% aluminium test sample was subjected to high cycle fatigue (HCF) and the top surface microstructure within the inner span of the sample was characterized using electron-beam backscattering diffraction (EBSD). Applying a finite-element submodelling approach, the microstructure was digitally reconstructed and refined studies carried out in regions where fatigue damage was observed. The constitutive behaviour of aluminium was described by a crystal plasticity model which considers the evolution of dislocations and accumulation of edge dislocation dipoles. Using an energy-based approach to quantify fatigue damage, the model correctly predicts regions in grains where early fatigue crack initiation was observed. The tendency for fatigue cracks to initiate in these grains appears to be strongly linked to the orientations of the grains relative to the direction of loading - grains less favourably aligned with respect to the loading direction appear more susceptible to fatigue crack initiation. The limitations of this modelling approach are also highlighted and discussed, as some grains predicted to initiate cracks did not show any visible signs of fatigue cracking in the same locations during testing

  6. Quantitative characterization of initiation and propagation in stress corrosion cracking. An approach of a phenomenological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raquet, O.

    1994-01-01

    A purely phenomenological study of stress corrosion cracking was performed using the couple Z2CN 18.10 (304L) austenitic stainless steel/boiling MgCl 2 aqueous solution. The exploitation of the morphological information (shape of the cracks and size distribution) available after constant elongation rate tests led to the proposal of an analytical expression of the crack initiation and growth rates. This representation allowed to quantitatively characterize the influence of the applied strain rate as well as the effect of corrosion inhibitors on the crack initiation and propagation phases. It can be used in the search for the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms as a 'riddle' for the determination of the rate controlling steps. As a matter of fact, no mechanistic hypothesis has been used for its development. (author)

  7. Theoretical and numerical studies of crack initiation and propagation in rock masses under freezing pressure and far-field stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshui Kang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Water-bearing rocks exposed to freezing temperature can be subjected to freeze–thaw cycles leading to crack initiation and propagation, which are the main causes of frost damage to rocks. Based on the Griffith theory of brittle fracture mechanics, the crack initiation criterion, propagation direction, and crack length under freezing pressure and far-field stress are analyzed. Furthermore, a calculation method is proposed for the stress intensity factor (SIF of the crack tip under non-uniformly distributed freezing pressure. The formulae for the crack/fracture propagation direction and length of the wing crack under freezing pressure are obtained, and the mechanism for coalescence of adjacent cracks is investigated. In addition, the necessary conditions for different coalescence modes of cracks are studied. Using the topology theory, a new algorithm for frost crack propagation is proposed, which has the capability to define the crack growth path and identify and update the cracked elements. A model that incorporates multiple cracks is built by ANSYS and then imported into FLAC3D. The SIFs are then calculated using a FISH procedure, and the growth path of the freezing cracks after several calculation steps is demonstrated using the new algorithm. The proposed method can be applied to rocks containing fillings such as detritus and slurry.

  8. Radiation-initiated thermal cracking of n-octane vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Shingo; Tamura, Takaaki; Oshima, Keiichi; Oshima, Yunosuke.

    1975-01-01

    The radiation-initiated thermal cracking (RTC) of n-octane vapor was studied at temperatures from 184 to 551 0 C and at atmospheric pressure. Vapor-phase ionic chain reactions, which were completely suppressed by the addition of ammonia, were found to proceed simultaneously with radical chain reactions. The main ionic chain products were C 3 -- C 5 paraffins and olefins, containing large quantities of branched products and β-olefins which were not formed by the thermal cracking of n-octane. For example, the G-values of isobutane and isopentane reached 82 and 78, respectively, at 524 0 C. The proportion of the ionic chain products to the overall products was about 10 mol%. Isomerization of C 8 H 17 + ion, its thermal decomposition, and subsequent hydride ion transfer reaction from n-octane molecule to the fragment ion are proposed for the ionic chain mechanism. Carrier ions are carbonium ions of C 3 -- C 5 . Several similarities are pointed out between the ionic products from the RTC and those from catalytic reactions over acidic sites. (auth.)

  9. Analysis of WWER 1000 collector cracking mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matocha, K.; Wozniak, J. [Vitkovice J.S.C., Ostrava (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation reviews the large experimental program, started in 1993 in Vitkovice, where the main aim was: (1) a detailed study of strain and thermal ageing, dissolved oxygen content and temperature on subcritical crack growth in 10NiMo8.5 (10GN2MFA) steel, (2) a detailed study of the effect of high temperature water and tube expansion technology on fracture behaviour of ligaments between holes for heat exchange tubes, and (3) a detailed study of the effect of drilling, tube expansion technology and heat treatment on residual stresses on the surface of holes for heat exchange tubes. The aim of all these investigations was to find a dominant damage mechanism responsible for collector cracking to be able to judge the efficiency of implemented modifications and suggested countermeasures and to answer a very important question whether proper operation conditions (mainly water chemistry) make the operation of steam generators made in Vitcovice safe throughout the planned lifetime. 10 refs.

  10. Fracture mechanics of piezoelectric solids with interface cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Govorukha, Volodymyr; Loboda, Volodymyr; Lapusta, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive study of cracks situated at the interface of two piezoelectric materials. It discusses different electric boundary conditions along the crack faces, in particular the cases of electrically permeable, impermeable, partially permeable, and conducting cracks. The book also elaborates on a new technique for the determination of electromechanical fields at the tips of interface cracks in finite sized piezoceramic bodies of arbitrary shape under different load types. It solves scientific problems of solid mechanics in connection with the investigation of electromechanical fields in piezoceramic bodies with interface cracks, and develops calculation models and solution methods for plane fracture mechanical problems for piecewise homogeneous piezoceramic bodies with cracks at the interfaces. It discusses the “open” crack model, which leads to a physically unrealistic oscillating singularity at the crack tips, and the contact zone model for in-plane straight interface cracks betw...

  11. Description of the initiation and progress of cracks for hot cracks in temperature resistant 1% CrMoV castings under creep or fatigue stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareiss, J.; Maile, K.; Berger, C.; Mayer, K.H.; Weiss, M.

    1994-01-01

    The results available so far have shown that under vibration stress at room temperature and at 530 C, the simplified equations of fracture mechanics are sufficient (in spite of the complicated fault geometries), in order to conservatively describe the behaviour of fault positions (open or partly-healed hot cracks) with regard to their crack initiation behaviour if combined with the findings US test technique. Here the sample castings which in the initial state showed fault indications of US type EET near the surface, tend to earlier initiation of a crack compared to lower fault positions of the samples. Internal fault positions (partially healed hot cracks) often only showed local cracks (trans-crystalline deformation cracks) within the fault area with an order of magnitude of about 10-50 μm, in spite of exceeding the threshold value Δ Ko. The comparison of the crack propagation behaviour of the sample castings, determined via the potential sensor method on medium lengths of fault with the results of crack growth of fracture mechanics samples in the da/dN- Δ K diagram showed for the evaluated sample castings with a relatively great initial depth or length of fault that the upper scatter band limit of the Paris Law determined for the material can be used to estimate the fault position behaviour. (orig./RHM) [de

  12. Study of the initiation and the propagation of cracks under 3D thermal cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelet, O.

    2005-01-01

    The incident which has occurred on the Civaux power plant has shown the noxiousness of thermal loading and the difficulty to take it into account at design level. The objective of this report is to study the initiation and the propagation of crack under thermal loading. In this aim the CEA has developed a new experiment named FAT3D. The various experiments carried out showed the harmfulness of a thermal loading, which makes it possible to rapidly initiate a network of cracks and to propagate one (or some) cracks through the totally thickness of the component under certain conditions. These experimental results associated with a mechanical analysis put at fault the usual criteria of damage based on the variations of the equivalent strain. In addition, the study of the propagation stage shows the importance of the plasticity which, in the case of a thermal loading, slows down the propagation of the crack. (author)

  13. Evaluations of environmental effect on micro crack initiation and propagation by surface observations of fatigue specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Ryosuke; Abe, Shigeki; Nakamura, Takao; Kamaya, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue life of nuclear facilities tends to be decreased by the influence of reactor coolant, which is called environmental effect. The effect accelerates crack growth rate but the influence for crack initiation is not clarified. This study intends to discuss the environmental effect in crack initiation. The crack length and the number of cracks are measured from the investigation of fatigue test specimens in reactor coolant and air. The behavior of crack initiation is revealed from the measurement of number of cracks, crack sizes and fatigue life. From this study, environmental effect of reactor coolant is considered to influence crack initiation and increase the number of micro crack. It is also estimated that the coalescence of cracks influences the acceleration of crack growth. (author)

  14. Effect of flexural crack on plain concrete beam failure mechanism A numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoullah Namdar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The flexural failure of plain concrete beam occurs along with development of flexural crack on beam. In this paper by using ABAQUS, mechanism failure of plain concrete beam under three steps have been simulated. The cracking moment has been analytically calculated and applied on the both sides of the fixed beam, and flexural crack has been simulated on beam. Displacement, von Mises, load reaction, displacementcrack length, von Mises-crack length and von Mises-displacement of beams have been graphical depicted. Results indicated that, the flexural crack governs beam mechanism failure and its effects on beam resistance failure. It has been found that the flexural crack in initial stage it developed slowly and changes to be fast at the final stage of collapsing beam due to reduction of the flexural resistance of beam. Increasing mechanical properties of concrete, collapse displacement is reduced.

  15. AE signal characteristics of the initial Stress Corrosion Crack in the STS 304 pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Seong; Kang, Sung Sik; Lee, Bo Young

    2011-01-01

    The stress corrosion crack is one of the life-limiting mechanisms in nuclear power plant conditions. During the operation of a power plant stress corrosion cracks can initiate and grow in dissimilar metal weld pipe joints of primary loop components. In particular, stress corrosion cracking usually occurs when the following three factors exist at the same time; susceptible material, corrosive environment, and tensile stress (including residual stress). Thus, residual stress becomes very critical for stress-corrosion cracking when it is difficult to improve the material corrosivity of the components and their environment under operating conditions. Since the research conducted by Coriou et al., it is well known that Ni-based alloy and stainless steel are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in deaerated pure water at high temperature and the SCC is difficult to be reproduced in laboratory. In this study, stress corrosion crack was artificially produced on STS 304 pipe. And a characteristic of the AE (acoustic emission) signal, which is generated at crack initiation time, was investigated

  16. Effect of Initial Debond Crack Location on the Face/core Debond Fracture Toughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of initial crack location on the face/core debond fracture toughness under different mixed mode loading conditions. The mixed mode loading at the crack tip is defined in terms of the mode-mixity. In order to achieve the desired initial debond crack location, a pre...... as initial debond crack location. Lower fracture toughness values were measured for specimens with the initial crack location in the face laminate....

  17. Fracture mechanics study on stress corrosion cracking behavior under corrosive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tomoyuki; Tohgo, Keiichiro; Shimamura, Yoshinobu; Ishizuka, Naohiro; Takanashi, Masahiro; Itabashi, Yu; Nakayama, Gen; Sakakibara, Yohei; Hirano, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with applicability of non-linear fracture mechanics to crack growth by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) under large-scale yielding and in a plastically deformed area. Crack growth test by compact tension specimen is carried out to evaluate crack growth rate under small-scale and large-scale yielding conditions. To evaluate the crack growth behavior from a crack initiated in a plastically deformed area, crack growth test is also carried out for a very short pre-crack in a plastically deformed four-point bending specimen. Conventional stress intensity factor (K) and equivalent stress intensity factor (K J ) defined by J integral are used as fracture mechanics parameters which characterize the crack growth rate. On da/dt-K diagram, a data band shows wide scatter, especially the crack growth rate in a plastically deformed area is higher than that under small-scale yielding condition. On the other hand, da/dt-K J diagram exhibits narrower scatter on a data band than da/dt-K diagram. The equivalent stress intensity factor is appropriate for characterization of crack growth rate by SCC under small-scale yielding through large scale yielding conditions and in a plastically deformed area. (author)

  18. Fatigue crack initiation and growth life prediction with statistical consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.D.; Choi, S.H.; Kwak, S.G.; Chun, K.O.

    1991-01-01

    Life prediction or residual life prediction of structures or machines is one of the most strongly world wide needed problems as requirement in the stage of slowly developing economy which comes after rapidly and highly developing stage. For the purpose of statistical life prediction, fatigue test was conducted under the 3 stress levels, and for each stress level, 20 specimens are used. The statistical properties of the crack growth parameter m and C in the fatigue crack growth law of da/dN = C(ΔK) m , and the relationship between m and C, and the statistical distribution pattern of fatigue crack initiation, growth and fracture lives can be obtained by experimental results

  19. Corrosion initiation and propagation in cracked concrete - a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco, J.; Polder, R.

    2012-01-01

    The major degradation mechanism in civil engineering concrete structures is corrosion of reinforcement due to chloride penetration. Corrosion reduces serviceability and safety due to cracking and spalling of concrete and loss of steel cross section. Recently, service life design has moved from

  20. Counter-intuitive experimental evidence on the initiation of radical crack in ceramic thin films at the atomic scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunqiang Zhuang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic issue related to radial crack in ceramic thin films has received considerable attention due to the fact that the radial crack plays an important role in evaluating the toughness properties of ceramic materials. In this work, an atomic-scale new experimental evidence is clearly presented to reveal the counter-intuitive initiation, the nucleation and the propagation mechanism of the radial crack in Al-Cr-N ceramic thin films.

  1. Mechanical analysis of a shear-cracked RC beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Shahbazpanahi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shear crack analysis is essential for engineers to estimate repair work in concrete structures. So far, conventional theoretical and numerical analyses in fracture mechanics have been applied to study concrete flexural beams, but there is still little knowledge regarding the shear capacity for beams with a diagonal initial notch. In this study, a theoretical analysis is presented to obtain fracture resistance in a four-point RC beam with two inclined initial notch on supports. Here, a fictitious crack approach is adopted for estimating the equivalent effect of the fracture process zone of concrete in shear-cracked. Based on equilibrium equation in the beam notch cross section, shear force was expressed in terms of fracture process zone length. Then, in a double notch four-point beam, Mode II of the stress intensity factor due to the external load is determined. Finally, this process presents the relationship between the shear capacity and the fracture process zone length and expresses the fracture resistance as a function of fracture process zone length.The predicted results of loading capacities are then shown.

  2. Multiple cracks initiation and propagation behavior of stainless steel in high temperature water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki; Chiba, Goro; Nakajima, Nobuo; Totsuka, Nobuo

    2001-01-01

    Environmentally assisted crack initiation behavior is greatly affected by applied stress and environmental factors, such as water temperature, contained impurities and so on. On the other hand, crack initiation behavior also influences crack propagation. A typical example of this influence can be observed as the interference effects of multiple cracks, such as the coalescence of approaching crack tips or the arrest phenomena in the relaxation zone of an adjacent crack. To understand these effects of crack initiation on crack propagation behavior is very important to predict the lifetime of components, in which quite a few cracks tend to occur. This study aimed at revealing the crack initiation behavior and the influence of this behavior on propagation. At first, to evaluate the effect of applied stress on crack initiation behavior, sensitized stainless steel was subjected to a four-point bending test in a high temperature water environment at the constant potentials of ECP +50 mV and ECP +150 mV. Secondly, a crack initiation and growth simulation model was developed, in which the interference effect of multiple cracks is evaluated by the finite element method, based on the experimental results. Using this model, the relationship between crack initiation and propagation was studied. From the model, it was revealed that the increasing number of the cracks accelerates crack propagation and reduces life. (author)

  3. Study of cyclic strain localization and fatigue crack initiation using FIB technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Jiří; Vystavěl, T.; Weidner, A.; Kuběna, Ivo; Petrenec, Martin; Kruml, Tomáš; Polák, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, JUN (2012), s. 44-53 ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2371 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : fatigue crack initiation * persistent slip band * focused ion beam (FIB) Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.976, year: 2012

  4. Fracture Mechanical Markov Chain Crack Growth Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gansted, L.; Brincker, Rune; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the B-model developed in [J. L. Bogdanoff and F. Kozin, Probabilistic Models of Cumulative Damage. John Wiley, New York (1985)] a new numerical model incorporating the physical knowledge of fatigue crack propagation is developed. The model is based on the assumption that the crack...

  5. Mechanisms of hydrogen induced delayed cracking in hydride forming materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.; Nuttall, K.; Puls, M.P.; Simpson, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    Mechanisms which have been formulated to describe delayed hydrogen cracking in hydride-forming metals are reviewed and discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the commercial alloy Zr--2.5% Nb (Cb) which is extensively used in nuclear reactor core components. A quantitative model for hydrogen cracking in this material is presented and compared with available experimental data. The kinetics of crack propagation are controlled by the growth of hydrides at the stressed crack tip by the diffusive ingress of hydrogen into this region. The driving force for the diffusion flux is provided by the local stress gradient which interacts with both hydrogen atoms in solution and hydrogen atoms being dissolved and reprecipitated at the crack tip. The model is developed using concepts of elastoplastic fracture mechanics. Stage I crack growth is controlled by hydrides growing in the elastic stress gradient, while Stage II is controlled by hydride growth in the plastic zone at the crack tip. Recent experimental observations are presented which indicate that the process occurs in an intermittent fashion; hydride clusters accumulate at the crack tip followed by unstable crack advance and subsequent crack arrest in repeated cycles

  6. Study of crack initiation in low-cycle fatigue of an austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, P.

    2011-03-01

    The material studied is an austenitic stainless steel, that is widely used in nuclear equipment for its very high corrosion resistance combined to good mechanical properties. Although crack initiation is proved to play an important role in fatigue, its mechanisms have not been fully understood. Some crack initiation criteria based on physical mechanisms of plastic deformation have been defined. However, these criteria are not easy to use and valid, as they need local variables at the grain scale. The present study aims at establishing a crack initiation criterion in low-cycle fatigue, which should be usable under variable amplitude loading conditions. Tension-compression fatigue tests were first carried out to characterize the mechanical behavior of the stainless steel AISI 316L. The mechanical behavior was simulated using a self-consistent model using a crystalline plastic law based on dislocation densities. The evolution of surface damage was observed during a fatigue test using an in situ optical microscopic device. Cracks were analyzed after 2000 cycles and their crystallographic characteristics calculated. As surface grains exhibit larger strain because they are less constraint by neighbor grains, a specific numerical frame is necessary to determine stress state in surface grains. A localization law specific to surface grains under cyclic loading was identified from finite element simulations. The proposed form needs an intergranular accommodation variable, on the pattern of the localization law of Cailletaud-Pilvin. Stress-strain state in surface grains was simulated. Potential indicators for crack initiation were then compared on a same experimental data base. Indicators based on the equivalent plastic strain were found to be suitable indicators of fatigue damage. (author)

  7. Stress corrosion crack initiation of alloy 182 weld metal in primary coolant - Influence of chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calonne, O.; Foucault, M.; Steltzlen, F. [AREVA (France); Amzallag, C. [EDF SEPTEN (France)

    2011-07-01

    Nickel-base alloys 182 and 82 have been used extensively for dissimilar metal welds. Typical applications are the J-groove welds of alloy 600 vessel head penetrations, pressurizer penetrations, heater sleeves and bottom mounted instrumented nozzles as well as some safe end butt welds. While the overall performance of these weld metals has been good, during the last decade, an increasing number of cases of stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 182 weld metal have been reported in PWRs. In this context, the role of weld defects has to be examined. Their contribution in the crack initiation mechanism requires laboratory investigations with small scale characterizations. In this study, the influence of both alloy composition and weld defects on PWSCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking in Primary Water) initiation was investigated using U-bend specimens in simulated primary water at 320 C. The main results are the following: -) the chemical compositions of the weld deposits leading to a large propensity to hot cracking are not the most susceptible to PWSCC initiation, -) macroscopically, superficial defects did not evolve during successive exposures. They can be included in large corrosion cracks but their role as 'precursors' is not yet established. (authors)

  8. Cracks in Polymer Spherulites: Phenomenological Mechanisms in Correlation with Ring Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamor M. Woo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews possible mechanisms of various crack forms and their likely correlations with interior crystal lamellae and discontinuous interfaces in spherulites. Complex yet periodically repetitive patterns of cracks in spherulites are beyond attributions via differences in thermal expansion coefficients, which would cause random and irregular cracks in the contract direction only. Cracks in brittle polymers such as poly(l-lactic acid (PLLA, or poly(4-hydroxyl butyrate (PHB, or more ductile polymers such as poly(trimethylene terephthalate (PTT are examined and illustrated, although for focus and demonstration, more discussions are spent on PLLA. The cracks can take many shapes that bear extremely striking similarity to the ring-band or lamellar patterns in the same spherulites. Crack patterns may differ significantly between the ring-banded and ringless spherulites, suggesting that the cracks may be partially shaped and governed by interfaces of lamellae and how the lamellar crystals assemble themselves in spherulites. Similarly, with some exceptions, most of the cracks patterns in PHB or PTT are also highly guided by the lamellar assembly in either ring-banded spherulites or ringless spherulites. Some exceptions of cracks in spherulites deviating from the apparent crystal birefringence patterns do exist; nevertheless, discontinuous interfaces in the initial lamellae neat the nuclei center might be hidden by top crystal over-layers of the spherulites, which might govern crack propagation.

  9. Crack initiation characteristics and fatigue property of a high-strength steel in VHCF regime under different stress ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crack initiation characteristics and fatigue property of a high-strength steel in very-high-cycle fatigue (VHCF regime under different stress ratios were investigated in this paper. Fatigue tests were performed at stress ratios of -1, -0.5, 0.1 and 0.3 by using an ultrasonic fatigue testing machine. The difference of S-N data and the characteristics of crack initiation under different stress ratios were examined. It is shown that the magnitude of stress ratio has a substantial effect on the fatigue strength that decreases with the increase of stress ratio. However, the variation tendency of the S-N data from low-cycle fatigue to VHCF regime is similar for the four cases. SEM observations of the fracture surface indicate that fatigue crack initiates from the surface of specimen in low-cycle regime and initiates mostly from the inclusion in the interior of specimen in high-cycle and VHCF regimes, which is irrespective of the state of stress ratio. By means of Focused Ion Beam technique, the samples of crack initiation region were prepared then observed via TEM. The observations show the microscopic morphology of the crack initiation region, showing the different crack initiation characteristics and revealing the mechanism of crack initiation for different stress ratios. Moreover, the effect of inclusion size on fatigue life is discussed with the results showing that the effect of stress ratio and inclusion size on fatigue strength is well described by our proposed formula.

  10. Crack initiation modeling of a directionally-solidified nickel-base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ali Page

    Combustion gas turbine components designed for application in electric power generation equipment are subject to periodic replacement as a result of cracking, damage, and mechanical property degeneration that render them unsafe for continued operation. In view of the significant costs associated with inspecting, servicing, and replacing damaged components, there has been much interest in developing models that not only predict service life, but also estimate the evolved microstructural state of the material. This thesis explains manifestations of microstructural damage mechanisms that facilitate fatigue crack nucleation in a newly-developed directionally-solidified (DS) Ni-base superalloy components exposed to elevated temperatures and high stresses. In this study, models were developed and validated for damage and life prediction using DS GTD-111 as the subject material. This material, proprietary to General Electric Energy, has a chemical composition and grain structure designed to withstand creep damage occurring in the first and second stage blades of gas-powered turbines. The service conditions in these components, which generally exceed 600°C, facilitate the onset of one or more damage mechanisms related to fatigue, creep, or environment. The study was divided into an empirical phase, which consisted of experimentally simulating service conditions in fatigue specimens, and a modeling phase, which entailed numerically simulating the stress-strain response of the material. Experiments have been carried out to simulate a variety of thermal, mechanical, and environmental operating conditions endured by longitudinally (L) and transversely (T) oriented DS GTD-111. Both in-phase and out-of-phase thermo-mechanical fatigue tests were conducted. In some cases, tests in extreme environments/temperatures were needed to isolate one or at most two of the mechanisms causing damage. Microstructural examinations were carried out via SEM and optical microscopy. A continuum

  11. Initiation of stress corrosion cracking in pre-stained austenitic stainless steels exposed to primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguenin, P.

    2012-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in primary circuits of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) plants. However, a limited number of cases of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) has been detected in cold-worked (CW) areas of non-sensitized austenitic stainless steel components in French PWRs. A previous program launched in the early 2000's identified the required conditions for SCC of cold-worked stainless steels. It was found that a high strain hardening coupled with a cyclic loading favoured SCC. The present study aims at better understanding the role of pre-straining on crack initiation and at developing an engineering model for IGSCC initiation of 304L and 316L stainless steels in primary water. Such model will be based on SCC initiation tests on notched (not pre-cracked) specimens under 'trapezoidal' cyclic loading. The effects of pre-straining (tensile versus cold rolling), cold-work level and strain path on the SCC mechanisms are investigated. Experimental results demonstrate the dominating effect of strain path on SCC susceptibility for all pre-straining levels. Initiation can be understood as crack density and crack depth. A global criterion has been proposed to integrate both aspects of initiation. Maps of SCC initiation susceptibility have been proposed. A critical crack depth between 10 and 20 μm has been demonstrated to define transition between slow propagation and fast propagation for rolled materials. For tensile pre-straining, the critical crack depth is in the range 20 - 50 μm. Experimental evidences support the notion of a KISCC threshold, whose value depends on materials, pre-straining ant load applied. The initiation time has been found to depend on the applied loading as a function of (σ max max/YV) 11,5 . The effect of both strain path and surface hardening is indirectly taken into account via the yield stress. In this study, material differences rely on strain path effect on mechanical properties. As a result, a stress

  12. Mechanism of electric fatigue crack growth in lead zirconate titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westram, Ilona; Oates, William S.; Lupascu, Doru C.; Roedel, Juergen; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2007-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed with through-thickness cracks in ferroelectric double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens. Cyclic electric fields of different amplitudes were applied which resulted in cyclic crack propagation perpendicular to the electric field direction. Crack propagation was observed optically and three regimes were identified: a pop-in from a notch, steady-state crack growth and a decrease of the crack growth rate with increasing cycle number. Crack growth only occurred if the applied field exceeded the coercive field strength of the material. Furthermore, the crack extended during each field reversal and the crack growth rate increased with increasing field. Based on the experimental observations, a mechanistic understanding was developed and contrasted with a nonlinear finite element analysis which quantified the stress intensity in the DCB specimens. The driving forces for crack formation at the notch and subsequent fatigue crack growth were computed based on the distribution of residual stresses due to ferroelectric switching. The finite element results are in good agreement with the experimental observations and support the proposed mechanism

  13. A stochastic analysis of glass crack initiation under thermal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qingsong; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Haodong; Sun, Jinhua; He, Linghui

    2014-01-01

    Window glass breakage plays a key role in compartment fire development as it opens a new vent for fresh air that accelerates the fire. To explore the correlation between temperature change and crack initiation, a series of experiments were preformed for float and Low-E glasses under uniform radiation conditions in a well designed facility. At the time of crack, the critical temperature differences of float glass and Low-E glass are 95 °C and 108 °C, respectively, with a same central temperature of 152 °C. The critical breaking stress occurs at 51 MPa and 70 MPa for float and Low-E glass, respectively. Detailed Weibull distribution functions on temperature and stress are obtained by fitting the experimental data. Failure probability function, survival probability function, probability density function are obtained and used to predict the glass failure with the survival probability at 0.9 and failure probability at 0.1. These results may be used to predict the crack probability of a glass bearing certain temperature and stress distributions. - Highlights: •20 Float and 21 Low-E glass panes are heated to crack under uniform radiation conditions in a well-designed facility. •Central temperature, temperature difference, and breaking stress are analyzed to investigate the glass breaking behavior. •The experimental data agree well with both two-parameter and three-parameter Weibull distribution. •Failure probability, survival probability, and probability density functions are obtained to predict the glass failure

  14. Modelling of Debond and Crack Propagation in Sandwich Structures Using Fracture and Damage Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, C.; Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Toernqvist, Rikard

    2003-01-01

    Skin-core de-bonding or core crack propagation will often be dominating mechanisms in the collapse modes of sandwich structures. This paper presents two different methods for prediction of crack propagation in a sandwich structure: a fracture mechanics approach, where a new mode-mix method...... is presented, and a local damage mechanics approach. The paper presents a real-life application example, where the superstructure in a vessel pulls the skin off the sandwich deck. The calculations show almost unstable crack growth initially followed by a stabilization, and a nearly linear relation between...... lifting and crack length. A remarkably good agreement is found between the results of the fracture and damage mechanics approaches....

  15. Damage description with related crack initiation and propagation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroz, Z.; Seweryn, A.

    1996-01-01

    The damage accumulation condition expressed in terms of traction components on a physical plane is considered for both monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. The crack initiation is assumed to correspond to a critical value of damage parameter on a maximum damage plane. A non-local condition is formulated for singular stress or strain regimes. The model is applied to predict damage distribution within the element for cyclic loading condition; in particular for combined torsion and bending. The damage tensors are introduced to describe the predicted damage distribution. (orig.)

  16. Generation mechanism of nonlinear ultrasonic Lamb waves in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Youxuan; Li, Feilong; Cao, Peng; Liu, Yaolu; Zhang, Jianyu; Fu, Shaoyun; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Ning

    2017-08-01

    Since the identification of micro-cracks in engineering materials is very valuable in understanding the initial and slight changes in mechanical properties of materials under complex working environments, numerical simulations on the propagation of the low frequency S 0 Lamb wave in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks were performed to study the behavior of nonlinear Lamb waves. The results showed that while the influence of the randomly distributed micro-cracks on the phase velocity of the low frequency S 0 fundamental waves could be neglected, significant ultrasonic nonlinear effects caused by the randomly distributed micro-cracks was discovered, which mainly presented as a second harmonic generation. By using a Monte Carlo simulation method, we found that the acoustic nonlinear parameter increased linearly with the micro-crack density and the size of micro-crack zone, and it was also related to the excitation frequency and friction coefficient of the micro-crack surfaces. In addition, it was found that the nonlinear effect of waves reflected by the micro-cracks was more noticeable than that of the transmitted waves. This study theoretically reveals that the low frequency S 0 mode of Lamb waves can be used as the fundamental waves to quantitatively identify micro-cracks in thin plates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Crack Growth of RR1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Pretty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-isothermal conditions during flight cycles have long led to the requirement for thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF evaluation of aerospace materials. However, the increased temperatures within the gas turbine engine have meant that the requirements for TMF testing now extend to disc alloys along with blade materials. As such, fatigue crack growth rates are required to be evaluated under non-isothermal conditions along with the development of a detailed understanding of related failure mechanisms. In the current work, a TMF crack growth testing method has been developed utilising induction heating and direct current potential drop techniques for polycrystalline nickel-based superalloys, such as RR1000. Results have shown that in-phase (IP testing produces accelerated crack growth rates compared with out-of-phase (OOP due to increased temperature at peak stress and therefore increased time dependent crack growth. The ordering of the crack growth rates is supported by detailed fractographic analysis which shows intergranular crack growth in IP test specimens, and transgranular crack growth in 90° OOP and 180° OOP tests. Isothermal tests have also been carried out for comparison of crack growth rates at the point of peak stress in the TMF cycles.

  18. Initiation and propagation of rebar corrosion in carbonated and cracked concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghantous, Rita-Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to study the carbonation-induced corrosion initiation and propagation in cracked concrete under different conditions. It is performed in the framework of concrete ageing management of cooling towers of Electricity of France (EDF) nuclear power plants. Indeed some of them can be affected by cracks which may promote the carbonation of the concrete surrounding the cracks and induce a rapid reinforcement corrosion initiation in the carbonated area. Firstly, cracks representative of those encountered in the cooling towers concrete are reproduced on laboratory specimens using the three point bending test. Three crack openings are obtained (100 μm, 300 μm and 500 μm). Cracked specimens are thereafter exposed to accelerated carbonation for two aims. First for the acceleration of the concrete neutralization phase which ensure the suitable thermodynamic conditions for active corrosion initiation. Second, for the estimation of the length of the mechanically damaged steel/binder interface supposed to be comparable to the carbonated length along the rebar on both sides of the crack. It is found that carbonation at 50% CO 2 is not suitable here because it overestimated the damaged zone length, maybe due to enhanced carbonation shrinkage. The second part aims to investigate the corrosion initiation and propagation phases while varying several parameters. For this purpose, cracked and carbonated specimens are subjected to corrosion under different exposure conditions. Specimens showing different crack widths and different types of binder are corroded in a reference test in which 30 minutes of rain occurs each 3 days at 20 C. Additionally, some corrosion tests are realized under raining/drying cycles for 3 minutes rain, other at 40 C and other in natural environmental conditions. Moreover, some cracked specimens are exposed in different orientations with respect to rain. Furthermore, specimens with different bars locations are prepared in order to investigate

  19. Locating the site of diagonal tension crack initiation and path in reinforced concrete beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S.S. Abou El-Mal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The most favorable site of diagonal tension crack initiation has been attempted to be located. Due to the numerous interacted parameters affecting both site and angle of diagonal tension crack initiation, twelve possible sites were investigated, at midheight of the shear span and at the bottom surface near the support of the beam with vertical and diagonal orientations. The first diagonal tension crack initiated from the bottom tip of the diagonal pre-crack at midheight of the beam as a result of constraint release. To verify the previous finding, a single diagonal pre-crack has been created at midheight of only one side of the shear spans in both normal and fiber reinforced concrete (FRC beams. FRC beam showed different behavior, where couple of diagonal tension cracks initiated at both sides from the tip of flexural cracks regardless of the existence of pre-crack at one side of the beam.

  20. Estimating the Initial Crack Size in a Particulate Composite Material: An Analytical and Experimental Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, C

    2001-01-01

    The objectives in this report are to: determine the inherent critical initial crack size in a particulate composite material, determine the statistical distribution function of the inherent critical crack size, normal distribution, two...

  1. Fluid catalytic cracking : Feedstocks and reaction mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupain, X.

    2006-01-01

    The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is one of the key units in a modern refinery. Traditionally, its design is primarily aimed for the production of gasoline from heavy oil fractions, but as co-products also diesel blends and valuable gasses (e.g. propene and butenes) are formed in

  2. Life time estimation for irradiation assisted mechanical cracking of PWR RCCA rodlets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Youichirou [Nuclear Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Intergranular cracks of cladding tubes had been observed at the tips of the rodlets of PWR rod cluster control assemblies (RCCAs). Because RCCAs were important core components, an investigation was carried out to estimate their service lifetime. The reviews on their mechanism and the life time estimation are shown in this paper. The summaries are as follows. (1) The mechanism of the intergranular crack of the cladding tube was not IASCC but irradiation assisted mechanical cracking (IAMC) caused by an increase in hoop strain due to the swelling of the absorber and a decrease in elongation due to neutron irradiation. (2) The crack initiation limit of cylindrical shells made of low ductile material and subjected to internal pressure was determined in relation to the uniform strain of the material and was in accordance with that of the RCCA rodlets in an actual plant. (3) From the above investigation, the method of estimating the lifetime and countermeasures for its extension were obtained. (author)

  3. Stress corrosion cracking initiation of oxidized Incoloy 800 in caustic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, A.; Chicinas, I.; Abrudeanu, M.; Velciu, L.; Ionescu, D.; Stanciulescu, M.; Chicinas, I.; Abrudeanu, M.; Dinu, A.

    2013-01-01

    With the purpose to study the influence of the oxide layer in the first step of the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanism, some oxidized and non-oxidized C-rings cuts from Incoloy 800 tubes were tested in 10% sodium hydroxide solutions (ph=13) at 260 O C and 50 atm, for 57 days. We used in our experiments C-rings because this type of samples have small dimensions and may be stressed using simple methods and in this way they can be exposed in nearly any type of medium. To create some stress concentrations, a mechanical pre-crack of 100.m depth was executed on the external side of the C-rings. The value of the appeared stresses at mechanical crack tip was evaluated using ANSYS code. The oxidized C-rings were obtained by autoclaving for 20 days in demineralised water adjusted with hydrazine (ph=9.7), at 260 O C and 50 atm. By X-rays diffraction there are emphasized iron dichromium oxide, nickel dichromium oxide, magnetite and hematite. Using the scanning electron microscopy we distinguished the presence of a double layer: the inner layer compact and adherent, containing fine grains associated with iron dichromium oxide, nickel dichromium oxide and the outer layer composed of other greater and less uniform particles associated with magnetite and hematite. After the SCC test, it was observed that the presence of the oxide layer led to a transgranulary SCC initiation, direct from a fissure in the oxide layer; the length of the SCC cracks is about 80-100 microns. In the absence of the oxide layer, the SCC cracks start intergranulary, from a local corrosive attack zone and their depth is approximately 200 microns. In both cases the SCC cracks have transgranular propagation. (authors)

  4. The shape of extrusions and intrusions and initiation of stage I fatigue cracks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Man, Jiří; Vystavěl, T.; Petrenec, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 517, 1-2 (2009), s. 204-211 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/1096; GA ČR GA101/07/1500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Extrusion * Intrusion * Fatigue crack initiation * Stainless steel Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.901, year: 2009

  5. Surface profile evolution and fatigue crack initiation in Sanicro 25 steel at room temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Petráš, Roman; Chai, G.; Škorík, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 658, MAR (2016), s. 221-228 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Sanicro 25 steel * Fatigue crack initiation * Persistent slip markings * Extrusions * Intrusions Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 3.094, year: 2016

  6. Initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in cast IN713LC superalloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Konečná, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 11 (2010), s. 2008-2015 ISSN 0013-7944 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA4/023; GA AV ČR 1QS200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : IN 713LC * high temperature fatigue * crystallographic fatigue crack initiation * mean stress effect Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.571, year: 2010

  7. Fracture Mechanics Analyses for Interface Crack Problems - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Ronald; Shivakumar, Kunigal; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in fracture mechanics analyses of the interfacial crack problem are reviewed. The intent of the review is to renew the awareness of the oscillatory singularity at the crack tip of a bimaterial interface and the problems that occur when calculating mode mixity using numerical methods such as the finite element method in conjunction with the virtual crack closure technique. Established approaches to overcome the nonconvergence issue of the individual mode strain energy release rates are reviewed. In the recent literature many attempts to overcome the nonconvergence issue have been developed. Among the many approaches found only a few methods hold the promise of providing practical solutions. These are the resin interlayer method, the method that chooses the crack tip element size greater than the oscillation zone, the crack tip element method that is based on plate theory and the crack surface displacement extrapolation method. Each of the methods is validated on a very limited set of simple interface crack problems. However, their utility for a wide range of interfacial crack problems is yet to be established.

  8. Effect of Layering on Cracking Initiation and Propagation under Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiriasari, A.; Jiang, L.; Yoon, H.; Bobet, A.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Rock anisotropy can arise from textural and structural causes both of which contribute to anisotropic strength and moduli. Rock variability makes it difficult to determine which properties dominate failure. Here, laboratory experiments were performed on 3D printed samples to examine the effect of layering on crack formation. Samples with two pre-existing coplanar flaws were fabricated using an additive 3D printing process (Projet CJP 360). Layers of gypsum (0.2 mm thick) were printed in either a horizontal (H) or a vertical (V) orientation to create prismatic samples (152.4 mm x 76.2 mm x 25.1 mm) with two 12.7 mm long coplanar flaws (19.05 mm apart) oriented at 450 with the load. Cracks were induced under uniaxial loading conditions. Digital image correlation (DIC) and acoustic emission (AE) (18 AE sensors with a frequency range of 100-450 kHz) were used to monitor crack evolution. DIC imaging of the V specimen during uniaxial compression showed that smooth cracks were initiated and propagated from the tips of the flaws parallel to the layering. Unlike the strongly bonded samples, no cracks were formed between the pre-existing flaws. The failure mechanism between the flaws was controlled by the weak bonding between the layers, and not by the coalescence of the new cracks. However, for the H specimen, failure was caused by crack coalescence between the two flaws. The new cracks exhibited a step-like roughness that was influenced by the layering in the sample. AE events were only detected when a synchronized mode was used. 3D printed samples can be effectively used to study the effect of anisotropic layering on crack initiation and propagation in a repeatable and controlled manner. Acknowledgements: Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security

  9. Initial Fracture of a Viscoelastic Isotropic Plate with Two Collinear Cracks of Equal Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, A. A.; Selivanov, M. F.; Chernoivan, Yu. A.

    2014-05-01

    The stress-strain state of an unbounded linear viscoelastic isotropic body weakened by collinear cracks of equal length and subjected to a time-independent load normal to the cracks is studied. The expression for the crack opening displacement in the nonlinear range that is derived based on the Leonov-Panasyuk-Dugdale model is used to deduce the equations of subcritical crack growth. A numerical algorithm for solving them is presented. The solutions of the equations describing subcritical crack growth are analyzed in determining the duration of the initial crack growth period. The numerical results are presented as graphs and tables

  10. Determination of the bonding strength in solid oxide fuel cells' interfaces by Schwickerath crack initiation test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccaccini, D. N.; Sevecek, O.; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2017-01-01

    An adaptation of the Schwickerath crack initiation test (ISO 9693) was used to determine the bonding strength between an anode support and three different cathodes with a solid oxide fuel cell interconnect. Interfacial elemental characterization of the interfaces was carried out by SEM/EDS analysis...... on fracture surfaces to investigate the bonding mechanisms. SEM/EDS of fresh fractures were also performed to determine the cohesion/adhesion mechanism of bonding. Calculations of the residual stresses were determined by finite element simulation using ANSYS, based on thermo-mechanical properties...

  11. Initiation and short crack growth in austenitic–ferritic duplex steel-effect of positive mean stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Petrenec, Martin; Man, Jiří; Obrtlík, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2012), s. 257-268 ISSN 8756-758X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : crack growth. * fatigue life * initiation * mean stress * short crack Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.861, year: 2012

  12. Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program: Recent developments in crack initiation and arrest research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Technology for the analysis of crack initiation and arrest is central to the reactor pressure vessel fracture-margin-assessment process. Regulatory procedures for nuclear plants utilize this technology to assure the retention of adequate fracture-prevention margins throughout the plant operating license period. As nuclear plants age and regulatory procedures dictate that fracture-margin assessments be performed, interest in the fracture-mechanics technology incorporated into those procedures has heightened. This has led to proposals from a number of sources for development and refinement of the underlying crack-initiation and arrest-analysis technology. This paper presents an overview of ongoing Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program research aimed at refining the fracture toughness data used in the analysis of fracture margins under pressurized-thermal-shock loading conditions. 33 refs., 13 figs

  13. The catalytic cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolysis char on tar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Z.; Huibin, H.; Xiangling, S.; Zhenhua, M.; Lei, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of different pyrolysis conditions for tar catalytic cracking will be analyzed according to the lignite pyrolysis char as catalyst on pyrolytic tar in this paper. The pyrolysis char what is the by-product of the cracking of coal has an abundant of pore structure and it has good catalytic activity. On this basis, making the modified catalyst when the pyrolysis char is activation and loads Fe by impregnation method. The cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolytic tar is explored by applying gas chromatograph to analyze splitting products of tar. The experimental results showed that: (1) The effect of tar cracking as the pyrolysis temperature, the heating rate, the volatilization of pyrolysis char and particle size increasing is better and better. The effect of the catalytic and cracking of lignite pyrolysis char in tar is best when the heating rate, the pyrolysis temperature, the volatiles of pyrolysis char, particle size is in specific conditions.(2) The activation of pyrolysis char can improve the catalytic effect of pyrolysis char on the tar cracking. But it reduces the effect of the tar cracking when the pyrolysis char is activation loading Fe. (author)

  14. Crystallographic Analysis of Fatigue Crack Initiation Behavior in Coarse-Grained Magnesium Alloy Under Tension-Tension Loading Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Kazuhiro; Kakiuchi, Toshifumi; Uematsu, Yoshihiko

    2017-07-01

    Plane bending fatigue tests are conducted to investigate fatigue crack initiation mechanisms in coarse-grained magnesium alloy, AZ31, under the stress ratios R = -1 and 0.1. The initial crystallographic structures are analyzed by an electron backscatter diffraction method. The slip or twin operation during fatigue tests is identified from the line angle analyses based on Euler angles of the grains. Under the stress ratio R = -1, relatively thick tension twin bands are formed in coarse grains. Subsequently, compression twin or secondary pyramidal slip operates within the tension twin band, resulting in the fatigue crack initiation. On the other hand, under R = 0.1 with tension-tension loading cycles, twin bands are formed on the specimen surface, but the angles of those bands do not correspond to tension twins. Misorientation analyses of c-axes in the matrix grain and twin band reveal that double twins are activated. Under R = 0.1, fatigue crack initiates along the double twin boundaries. The different manners of fatigue crack initiation at R = -1 and 0.1 are related to the asymmetricity of twining under tension and compression loadings. The fatigue strengths under different stress ratios cannot be estimated by the modified Goodman diagram due to the effect of stress ratio on crack initiation mechanisms.

  15. Crack initiation life analysis in notched pipe under cyclic bending loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Seong; Kwak, Sang Log; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Youn Won

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve leak-before-break methodology, more precisely the crack growth evaluation, a round robin analysis was proposed by the CEA Saclay. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the crack initiation life, penetration life and shape of through wall crack under cyclic bending loads. The proposed round robin analysis is composed of three main topic; fatigue crack initiation, crack propagation and crack penetration. This paper deals with the first topic, crack initiation in a notched pipe under four point bending. Both elastic-plastic finite element analysis and Neuber's rule were used to estimate the crack initiation life and the finite element models were verified by mesh-refinement, stress distribution and global deflection. In elastic-plastic finite element analysis, crack initiation life was determined by strain amplitude at the notch tip and strain-life curve of the material. In the analytical method, Neuber's rule with the consideration of load history and mean stress effect, was used for the life estimation. The effect of notch tip radius, strain range, cyclic hardening rule were examined in this study. When these results were compared with the experimental ones, the global deformation was a good agreement but crack initiation cycle was higher than the experimental result

  16. Creep fracture mechanics parameters for internal axial surface cracks in pressurized cylinders and creep crack growth analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jianfeng; Tu Shantung; Gong Jianming; Sun Wei

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a low alloy Cr-Mo steel cylinder subjected to internal pressure at high temperature with a semi-elliptical crack located at the inner surface is considered. The creep crack driving force parameter C*-integrals calculated by finite element (FE) method, are compared with results from previous studies, which indicates that empirical equations may be inaccurate under some conditions. A total of 96 cases for wide practical ranges of geometry and material parameters are performed to obtain systematic FE results of C*-integral, which are tabulated and formulated in this paper. It is observed that the maximum C*-integral may occur neither at the deepest point nor at the surface point when the aspect ratio is large enough and the value of C*-integral is significantly sensitive to the crack depth ratio. Furthermore, based on the proposed equations for estimating C*-integrals and a step-by-step analysis procedure, crack profile development, crack depth, crack length and remaining life prediction are obtained for surface cracks with various initial aspect ratios. It is found that when the crack depth ratio is increased, there is no obvious convergence of crack aspect ratio observed. The magnitude of half crack length increment is always minor compared with the crack depth increment. In addition, the remaining life is much more dependent on the surface crack depth than on the surface crack length. - Highlights: → Existing empirical equations of C*-integral for surface cracks may be inaccurate. → Systematic FE results of C*-integral from 96 cases are tabulated and formulated. → Maximum C*-integral may not occur at deepest/surface point if a/c is large enough. → The value of C*-integral is significantly sensitive to the crack depth ratio. → Crack profile development, crack size and remaining life prediction are obtained.

  17. Detection and closure measurement of short fatigue crack initiated at notch root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-Hyung; Kobayashi, Hideo

    1985-01-01

    Short fatigue cracks initiated at the notch root were successfully detected at a fairly high accuracy by the ultrasonic amplitude calibration method for the notched compact specimens of an A508-3 steel. Crack closure measurements by the ultrasonic and back-face strain compliance methods were also performed. Crack growth characteristics at the notch root are similar to those of delyed retardation caused by a single peak overload. Also, transitional behavior from short cracks to long cracks was interpreted in terms of effective stress intensity ΔKsub(eff). The relation between crack growth rate da/dN and ΔKsub(eff) for short cracks shows a fairly good agreement with those for long cracks. (author)

  18. Experimental Evaluation of Fatigue Crack Initiation from Corroded Hemispherical Notches in Aerospace Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Daniel B.; Forman, Royce; Shindo, David

    2010-01-01

    A test program was developed and executed to evaluate the influence of corroded hemispherical notches on the fatigue crack initiation and propagation in aluminum 7075-T7351, 4340 steel, and D6AC steel. Surface enhancements such as shot peening and laser shock peening were also incorporated as part of the test effort with the intent of improving fatigue performance. In addition to the testing, fracture mechanics and endurance limit based analysis methods were evaluated to characterize the results with the objective of challenging typical assumptions used in modeling fatigue cracks from corrosion pits. The results specifically demonstrate that the aluminum and steel alloys behave differently with respect to fatigue crack initiation from hemispherical corrosion pits. The aluminum test results were bounded by the fracture mechanics and endurance limit models while exhibiting a general insensitivity to the residual stress field generated by shot peening. The steel specimens were better characterized by the endurance limit fatigue properties and did exhibit sensitivities to residual stresses from the shot peening and laser shock peening

  19. Crack initiation and propagation on the polymeric material ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, under ultrasonic fatigue testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Domínguez Almaraz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Crack initiation and propagation have been investigated on the polymeric material ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, under ultrasonic fatigue testing. Three controlled actions were implemented in order to carry out fatigue tests at very high frequency on this material of low thermal conductivity, they are: a The applying load was low to limit heat dissipation at the specimen neck section, b The dimensions of testing specimen were small (but fitting the resonance condition, in order to restraint the temperature gradient at the specimen narrow section, c Temperature at the specimen neck section was restrained by immersion in water or oil during ultrasonic fatigue testing. Experimental results are discussed on the basis of thermo-mechanical behaviour: the tail phenomenon at the initial stage of fatigue, initial shear yielding deformation, crazed development on the later stage, plastic strain on the fracture surface and the transition from low to high crack growth rate. In addition, a numerical analysis is developed to evaluate the J integral of energy dissipation and the stress intensity factor K, with the crack length

  20. Onset of Crack Initiation in Uniaxial and Triaxial Compression Tests of Dolomite Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Jerzy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of laboratory investigation and analysis of crack initiation threshold identification of dolomite samples. First, selected methods for determining crack initiation thresholds are briefly described with special attention paid to four methods: crack volume strain method [14], change in Poisson’s ratio [8], lateral strain response method [16], and dilatancy method [4]. The investigation performed on dolomite samples shows that for the uniaxial and conventional triaxial compression tests, the above mentioned methods give quite similar values, except for the crack volume strain method. Crack initiation threshold determined by this method has a distinctively lower value than that obtained by the other methods. The aim of the present paper was to review and assess these methods for identifying crack initiation threshold based on laboratory tests of dolomite samples.

  1. Crack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spending time in a rehab facility or getting cognitive-behavioral therapy or other treatments. Right now, there are no medicines to treat a crack addiction. If you smoke crack, talking with a counselor ...

  2. Stress corrosion cracking of turbine disc steels: a study of mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, J.M.; Vaillant, F.; Dordonat, M.; Dury, J.P.

    1993-06-01

    Stress corrosion cracking was found to affect shrunk-on discs of 900 MW-EDF turbines. Investigations revealed that intergranular cracking occurred in high-stress confined locations, where concentrations of pollutants resulting from some assembling operations could take place (MoS 2 sometimes used as a lubricant, carbonated compounds with chloride as in paint marks). Laboratory tests allowed to assess the chemical conditions (pH, electrochemical potential, pollutants) responsible for the stress corrosion cracking of NiCrMo V-steels. Three main E-pH fields were found to favour stress corrosion cracking, whose boundaries may be dependant on the anionic species. The crack growth rates in these conditions were measured at 95 and 130 deg C, and compared to the observed average measurements from service. The most likely mechanism seems to involve molybdic acid, as a result of thermal decomposition of MoS 2 or generated by general corrosion of Mo-containing steel. Cracks might also have been initiated by carbonated compounds. The relevance of classical models to stress corrosion cracking of disc steel was discussed with respect to electrochemical behaviour. (authors). 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  3. Aluminum alloy weldability. Identification of weld solidification cracking mechanisms through novel experimental technique and model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coniglio, Nicolas

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present thesis is to make advancements in understanding solidification crack formation in aluminum welds, by investigating in particular the aluminum 6060/4043 system. Alloy 6060 is typical of a family of Al-Mg-Si extrusion alloys, which are considered weldable only when using an appropriate filler alloy such as 4043 (Al-5Si). The effect of 4043 filler dilution (i.e. weld metal silicon content) on cracking sensitivity and solidification path of Alloy 6060 welds are investigated. Afterwards, cracking models are developed to propose mechanisms for solidification crack initiation and growth. Cracking Sensitivity. Building upon the concept that silicon improves weldability and that weldability can be defined by a critical strain rate, strain rate-composition combinations required for solidification crack formation in the Al- 6060/4043 system were determined using the newly developed Controlled Tensile Weldability (CTW) test utilizing local strain extensometer measurements. Results, presented in a critical strain rate - dilution map, show a crack - no crack boundary which reveals that higher local strain rates require higher 4043 filler dilution to avoid solidification cracking when arc welding Alloy 6060. Using the established crack - no crack boundary as a line of reference, additional parameters were examined and their influence on cracking characterized. These parameter influences have included studies of weld travel speed, weld pool contaminants (Fe, O, and H), and grain refiner additions (TiAl{sub 3} + Boron). Each parameter has been independently varied and its effect on cracking susceptibility quantified in terms of strain rate - composition combinations. Solidification Path. Solidification path of the Al-6060/4043 system was characterized using thermal analysis and phase identification. Increasing 4043 filler dilution from 0 to 16% in Alloy 6060 arc welds resulted in little effect on thermal arrests and microstructure, no effect on

  4. Fatigue crack initiation and propagation in lotus-type porous material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Glodež

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of fatigue strength of lotus-type structure with nodular cast iron as a base material using computational model is analysed in present study. The irregular pores distribution in transversal and longitudinal direction, regarding the external loading, is considered in the computational models. The complete fatigue process of analyzed porous structure is then divided into the crack initiation (Ni and crack propagation (Np period where the total fatigue life (N is defined as: N = Ni + Np. The crack initiation period is determined using strain life approach where elastic-plastic numerical analysis is performed to obtain the total strain amplitude in the critical stress fields around the pores. The simplified universal slope method is then used to determine the number of stress cycles, Ni, required for formation of initial cracks. The number of stress cycles, Np, required for crack propagation from initial to the critical crack length is also numerically determined using finite element (FE models, in the frame of Abaqus computation FEM code. The maximum tensile stress (MTS criterion is considered when analyzing the crack path inside the porous structure. The performed computational analyses show that stress concentrations around individual pores are higher when external loading is acting in transversal direction in respect to the pore distribution. Therefore, further computational analyses regarding crack initiation and crack propagation period have been done only for pores distribution in transversal direction.

  5. Mechanical factors affecting reliability of pressure components (fatigue, cracking)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebey, J.; Garnier, C.; Roche, R.; Barrachin, B.

    1978-01-01

    The reliability of a pressure component can be seriously affected by the formation and development of cracks. The experimental studies presented in this paper are devoted to three different aspects of crack propagation phenomena which have been relatively little described. In close connection with safety analyses of PWR, the authors study the influence of the environment by carrying out fatigue tests with samples bathed in hot pressurized water. Ferritic, austenitic and Incolloy 800 steels were used and the results are presented in the form of fatigue curves in the oligocyclic region. The second part of the paper relates to crack initiation cirteria in ductile steels weakened by notches. The CT samples used make it possible to study almost all types of fracture (ductile, intermediate and brittle). The use of two criteria based on the load limit and on the toughness of the material constitutes a practical way of evaluating crack propagation conditions. A series of tests carried out on notched spherical vessels of different size shows that large vessels are relatively brittle; fast unstable fracture is observed as size increases. Crack growth rate in PWR primary circuits (3/6 steel) is studied on piping elements (0.25 scale) subjected to cyclic stress variations (285 0 C and with pressure varying between 1 and 160 bar in each cycle). By calculating the stress intensity factor, correlation with results obtained in the laboratory on CT samples is possible. (author)

  6. Comparative Study on Crack Initiation and Propagation of Glass under Thermal Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the fracture process based on finite element simulation. Both probabilistic and deterministic methods are employed to model crack initiation, and several commonly used criteria are utilized to predict crack growth. It is concluded that the criteria of maximum tensile stress, maximum normal stress, and maximum Mises stress, as well as the Coulomb-Mohr criterion are able to predict the initiation of the first crack. The mixed-mode criteria based on the stress intensity factor (SIF, energy release rate, and the maximum principal stress, as well as the SIF-based maximum circumferential stress criterion are suitable to predict the crack propagation.

  7. Initiation of fatigue cracks in ultrafine-grained copper

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukáš, Petr; Kunz, Ludvík; Navrátilová, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2012), s. 407-419 ISSN 0023-432X Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : ultrafine-grained microstructure * fatigue * slip bands * microcrack initiation * grain coarsening Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.687, year: 2012

  8. Stress-corrosion crack initiation behavior of carbon steel in simulated BWR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Koki; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Kazuo; Nakayama, Guen; Akashi, Masatsune

    1994-01-01

    Carbon steels and low-alloy steels are said to possess, even though susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking themselves, conspicuously longer life than weld-sensitized Type 304 stainless steels in actual boiling water reactor (BWR) primary coolant environments of high-temperature, high-purity water containing some dissolved oxygen. This has been examined for a carbon steel pipe material and its weld by conducting uniaxial constant-load tests as a laboratory accelerated test. By statistically analyzing the distribution of stress-corrosion cracking lifetimes and metallographical examining the features of stress-corrosion crack initiation in an SEM, following results have been obtained: (1) the stress-corrosion cracking lifetime obeys the exponential distribution model; (2) stress-corrosion cracks are initiated at the bottom of corrosion pits, and it appears possible to analyze their initiation conditions in terms of stress-intensity calculated regarding the pit as a sharp crack; (3) the microcracks as initiated at the corrosion pit are non-propagative per se, so that it is only when they have grown into a main crack by coalescence with nearby microcracks that steady propagation becomes possible; and (4) both the process of pit initiation and that of microcrack coalescence can be described as a Poisson stochastic process just as for the stainless steels in the same environment, so that the whole process of stress-corrosion crack initiation can be conceived as consisting of these two independent Poisson stochastic processes connected in serial succession

  9. Understanding cracking failures of coatings: A fracture mechanics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Ryong

    A fracture mechanics analysis of coating (paint) cracking was developed. A strain energy release rate (G(sub c)) expression due to the formation of a new crack in a coating was derived for bending and tension loadings in terms of the moduli, thicknesses, Poisson's ratios, load, residual strain, etc. Four-point bending and instrumented impact tests were used to determine the in-situ fracture toughness of coatings as functions of increasing baking (drying) time. The system used was a thin coating layer on a thick substrate layer. The substrates included steel, aluminum, polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), and Noryl. The coatings included newly developed automotive paints. The four-point bending configuration promoted nice transversed multiple coating cracks on both steel and polymeric substrates. The crosslinked type automotive coatings on steel substrates showed big cracks without microcracks. When theoretical predictions for energy release rate were compared to experimental data for coating/steel substrate samples with multiple cracking, the agreement was good. Crosslinked type coatings on polymeric substrates showed more cracks than theory predicted and the G(sub c)'s were high. Solvent evaporation type coatings on polymeric substrates showed clean multiple cracking and the G(sub c)'s were higher than those obtained by tension analysis of tension experiments with the same substrates. All the polymeric samples showed surface embrittlement after long baking times using four-point bending tests. The most apparent surface embrittlement was observed in the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) substrate system. The impact properties of coatings as a function of baking time were also investigated. These experiments were performed using an instrumented impact tester. There was a rapid decrease in G(sub c) at short baking times and convergence to a constant value at long baking times. The surface embrittlement conditions and an embrittlement toughness

  10. An experimental study of closure behavior of naturally initiated small cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X.; Sharpe, W. N., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Small cracks were initiated on the edges of 2024-T3 aluminum specimens by fatigue loading with various R-ratios. The crack opening displacement was then measured with a laser based interferometric technique and used to determine the operating load ratio. This ratio decreased with increasing distance from the tip. However, it remained essentially constant as the crack grew if a constant measuring system was used.

  11. Mechanics and mechanisms of cyclic fatigue-crack propagation in transformation-toughened zirconia ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Dauskardt, R.H.; Ritchie, R.O. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Mai, Y.W. (Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    Damage and cyclic fatigue failure under alternating loading in transformation-toughened zirconia ceramics is reviewed and compared to corresponding behavior under quasi-static loading (static fatigue). Current understanding of the role of transformation toughening in influencing cyclic fatigue-crack propagation behavior is examined based on studies which altered the extent of the tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation in MG-PSZ through subeutectoid aging. These studies suggest that near-tip computations of the crack-driving force (in terms of the local stress intensity) can be used to predict crack-growth behavior under constant amplitude and variable-amplitude (spectrum) loading, using spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy to measure the extent of the transformation zones. In addition, results are reviewed which rationalize distinctions between the crack-growth behavior of preexisting, long'' (> 2 mm), through-thickness cracks and naturally-occurring, small'' (1 to 100 [mu]m), surface cracks in terms of variations in crack-tip shielding with crack size. In the present study, the effect of grain size variations on crack-growth behavior under both monotonic (R-curve) and cyclic fatigue loading are examined. Such observations are used to speculate on the mechanisms associated with cyclic crack advance, involving such processes as alternating shear via transformation-band formation, cyclic modification of the degree of transformation toughening, and uncracked-ligament (or grain) bridging.

  12. Mechanics and mechanisms of cyclic fatigue-crack propagation in transformation-toughened zirconia ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Dauskardt, R.H.; Ritchie, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Mai, Y.W. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1992-05-01

    Damage and cyclic fatigue failure under alternating loading in transformation-toughened zirconia ceramics is reviewed and compared to corresponding behavior under quasi-static loading (static fatigue). Current understanding of the role of transformation toughening in influencing cyclic fatigue-crack propagation behavior is examined based on studies which altered the extent of the tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation in MG-PSZ through subeutectoid aging. These studies suggest that near-tip computations of the crack-driving force (in terms of the local stress intensity) can be used to predict crack-growth behavior under constant amplitude and variable-amplitude (spectrum) loading, using spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy to measure the extent of the transformation zones. In addition, results are reviewed which rationalize distinctions between the crack-growth behavior of preexisting, ``long`` (> 2 mm), through-thickness cracks and naturally-occurring, ``small`` (1 to 100 {mu}m), surface cracks in terms of variations in crack-tip shielding with crack size. In the present study, the effect of grain size variations on crack-growth behavior under both monotonic (R-curve) and cyclic fatigue loading are examined. Such observations are used to speculate on the mechanisms associated with cyclic crack advance, involving such processes as alternating shear via transformation-band formation, cyclic modification of the degree of transformation toughening, and uncracked-ligament (or grain) bridging.

  13. Analysis on the Initial Cracking Parameters of Cross-Measure Hydraulic Fracture in Underground Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyu Lu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Initial cracking pressure and locations are important parameters in conducting cross-measure hydraulic fracturing to enhance coal seam permeability in underground coalmines, which are significantly influenced by in-situ stress and occurrence of coal seam. In this study, stress state around cross-measure fracturing boreholes was analyzed using in-situ stress coordinate transformation, then a mathematical model was developed to evaluate initial cracking parameters of borehole assuming the maximum tensile stress criterion. Subsequently, the influences of in-situ stress and occurrence of coal seams on initial cracking pressure and locations in underground coalmines were analyzed using the proposed model. Finally, the proposed model was verified with field test data. The results suggest that the initial cracking pressure increases with the depth cover and coal seam dip angle. However, it decreases with the increase in azimuth of major principle stress. The results also indicate that the initial cracking locations concentrated in the second and fourth quadrant in polar coordinate, and shifted direction to the strike of coal seam as coal seam dip angle and azimuth of maximum principle stress increase. Field investigation revealed consistent rule with the developed model that the initial cracking pressure increases with the coal seam dip angle. Therefore, the proposed mathematical model provides theoretical insight to analyze the initial cracking parameters during cross-measure hydraulic fracturing for underground coalmines.

  14. A numerical study of crack initiation in a bcc iron system based on dynamic bifurcation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiantao

    2014-01-01

    Crack initiation under dynamic loading conditions is studied under the framework of dynamic bifurcation theory. An atomistic model for BCC iron is considered to explicitly take into account the detailed molecular interactions. To understand the strain-rate dependence of the crack initiation process, we first obtain the bifurcation diagram from a computational procedure using continuation methods. The stability transition associated with a crack initiation, as well as the connection to the bifurcation diagram, is studied by comparing direct numerical results to the dynamic bifurcation theory [R. Haberman, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 37, 69–106 (1979)].

  15. Crack initiation behavior of notched specimens on heat resistant steel under service type loading at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cracks at notches deserve special consideration in the design of steam turbine components. This work is addressed to investigate the crack initiation behavior a 10%Cr rotor steel with the help of notched specimens under service-type loading. A significant drifting down of the peak-values of axial deformation under constant amplitude load was observed. Crack initiation was evaluated with the help of the relationship between irreversible deformation energy and cycle number. Further, metallographic examinations were employed to characterize the superposition of creep and fatigue damage mechanisms. Both Neuber-hypothesis and von Mises equivalent strain at notch root were applied for lifetime prediction. Finally, the effectiveness of both methods is validated by comparing with experimental results

  16. Crack initiation and growth in welded structures; Amorcage et propagation de la fissuration dans les jonctions soudees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assire, A

    2000-10-13

    This work concerns the remaining life assessment of a structure containing initial defects of manufacturing. High temperature crack initiation and growth are studied for austenitic stainless steels, and defect assessment methods are improved in order to take into account welded structures. For these one, the probability to have a defect is significant. Two kinds of approaches are commonly used for defect assessment analysis. Fracture mechanics global approach with an energetic criterion, and local approach with a model taking into account the physical damage mechanism. For both approaches mechanical fields (stress and strain) have to be computed everywhere within the structure. Then, Finite Element computation is needed. The first part of the thesis concerns the identification of non linear kinematic and isotropic constitutive models. A pseudo-analytical method is proposed for a 'Two Inelastic Strain' model. This method provides a strategy of identification with a mechanical meaning, and this enables to associate each parameter to a physical phenomenon. Existing identifications are improved for cyclic plasticity and creep on a large range of stress levels. The second part concerns high temperature crack initiation and growth in welded structures. Finite Element analysis on plate and tube experimental configuration enable to understand the phenomenons of interaction between base metal and weld metal under mechanical and thermal loading. Concerning global approach, criteria based on C* parameter (Rice integral for visco-plasticity) are used. Finite Element computations underline the fact that for a defect located in the weld metal, C* values strongly depend on the base metal creep strain rate, because widespread visco-plasticity is located in both metals. A simplified method, based on the reference stress approach, is proposed and validated with Finite Element results. Creep crack growth simplified assessment is a quite good validation of the experimental

  17. Early Age Fracture Mechanics and Cracking of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    . The reasons are the increased autogenous deformation, the high rate of heat evolution and a higher brittleness of these concretes. Due to these adverse mechanisms the interest in the full description of the behavior of early age concrete has increased dramatically in the last two or three decades. Almost all...... the governing material parameters have undergone intensive research and the body of knowledge provides today a basis for calculation of the stress evolution and thus, repre- sents a tool for prediction of whether cracking will occur or not. However, the experimental investigation and the modelling of the early...... the fictitious crack model and the aim has been experimentally to determine the fracture mechanical properties related to this model. The results provide interesting and important insight into the development of the fracture properties in early age. It is found that the characteristic length has moments of low...

  18. Prevention of crack initiation in valve bodies under thermal shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmas, J.; Coppolani, P.

    1996-12-01

    On site and testing experience has shown that cracking in valves affects mainly the stellite hardfacing on seats and discs but may also be a concern for valve bodies. Metallurgical investigations conducted by EDF laboratories on many damaged valves have shown that most of the damage had either a chemical, manufacturing, or operating origin with a strong correlation between the origins and the type of damage. The chemical defects were either excess ferritic dilution of stellite or excess carburizing. Excess carburizing leads to a too brittle hardfacing which cracks under excessive stresses induced on the seating surfaces, via the stem, by too high operating thrusts. The same conditions can also induce cracks of the seats in the presence, in the hardfacing, of hidden defects generated during the welding process. Reduction of the number of defects results first from controls during manufacturing, mainly in the thickness of stellite. On the other hand, maintenance must be fitted to the type of defect. In-situ lapping may lead to release of cobalt, resulting in contamination of the circuit. Furthermore, it is ineffectual in the case of a crack through the seating surface, as is often found on globe valves. The use of new technologies of valves with removable seats and cobalt-free alloys solves permanently this kind of problem.

  19. An energy analysis of crack-initiation and arrest in epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Kim, A.; Bosnyak, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study fracture processes such as crack initiation and arrest in epoxy. A compact tension specimen with displacement-controlled loading is employed to observe multiple crack initiations and arrests. The energy release rate at crack initiation is significantly higher than that at crack arrest, as has been observed elsewhere. In this study, the difference between these energy release rates is found to depend on specimen size (scale effect), and is quantitatively related to the fracture surface morphology. The scale effect, similar to that in strength theory, is conventionally attributed to the statistics of defects which control the fracture process. Triangular shaped ripples, deltoids, are formed on the fracture surface of the epoxy during the slow sub-critical crack growth, prior to the smooth mirrorlike surface characteristic of fast cracks. The deltoids are complimentary on the two crack faces which excludes any inelastic deformation from consideration. The deltoids are analogous to the ripples created on a river surface downstream from a small obstacle. However, in spite of the expectation based on this analogy and the observed scale effect, there are no 'defects' at the apex of the deltoids detectable down to the 0.1 micron level. This suggests that the formation of deltoids during the slow process of subcritical crack growth is an intrinsic feature of the fracture process itself, triggered by inhomogeneity of material on a submicron scale. This inhomogeneity may be related to a fluctuation in the cross-link density of the epoxy.

  20. Determination and demarcation of fatigue crack initiation phase in rotating bending condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, R.A.; Rehman, K.; Shah, M.

    2012-01-01

    In engineering applications, components often experience cyclic loading and therefore, have crack initiation propagation phase. In this research work experimental demarcation of fatigue crack initiation has been investigated. Initiation phase of fatigue life of Aluminium was determined by using single and two step fatigue loading test on four point rotating bending fatigue testing machine. Experimental data is used to determine the distinction between the initiation and propagation phase. Initiation phase is determined at different stress levels. The obtained results demonstrate the effect of stress level on initiation phase and propagation phase. (author)

  1. Uncertainty Evaluation of Weibull Estimators through Monte Carlo Simulation: Applications for Crack Initiation Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Phil Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The typical experimental procedure for testing stress corrosion cracking initiation involves an interval-censored reliability test. Based on these test results, the parameters of a Weibull distribution, which is a widely accepted crack initiation model, can be estimated using maximum likelihood estimation or median rank regression. However, it is difficult to determine the appropriate number of test specimens and censoring intervals required to obtain sufficiently accurate Weibull estimators. In this study, we compare maximum likelihood estimation and median rank regression using a Monte Carlo simulation to examine the effects of the total number of specimens, test duration, censoring interval, and shape parameters of the true Weibull distribution on the estimator uncertainty. Finally, we provide the quantitative uncertainties of both Weibull estimators, compare them with the true Weibull parameters, and suggest proper experimental conditions for developing a probabilistic crack initiation model through crack initiation tests.

  2. Stress corrosion crack initiation of alloy 600 in PWR primary water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Ziqing; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2017-07-01

    Stress corrosion crack (SCC) initiation of three mill-annealed (MA) alloy 600 heats in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water has been investigated using constant load tests equipped with in-situ direct current potential drop (DCPD) measurement capabilities. SCC initiation times were greatly reduced by a small amount of cold work. Shallow intergranular (IG) attack and/or cracks were found on most high-energy grain boundaries intersecting the surface with only a small fraction evolving into larger cracks and IGSCC growth. Crack depth profiles were measured and related to DCPD-detected initiation response. Processes controlling the SCC initiation in MA alloy 600 are discussed. IN PRESS, CORRECTED PROOF, 05/02/2017 - mfl

  3. Probabilistic and microstructural aspects of fatigue cracks initiation in Inconel 718; Aspects probabilistes et microstructuraux de l'amorcage des fissures de fatigue dans l'alliage INCO 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandre, F

    2004-03-15

    Thermomechanical treatments have been recently developed to produce Inconel 718DA (Direct Aged). This alloy optimisation leads to an increase of the fatigue life but also the scatter. The aim of this study is on the one hand the understanding of the fatigue crack initiation mechanisms and on the other hand the modelling of the fatigue life and the scatter. An experimental study showed that the fatigue cracks were initiated from carbide particles in fine grain alloy. Interrupted tensile tests show that the particles cracking occurred at the first quarter of the fatigue cycle. Fatigue behaviour tests were also performed on various grain size 718 alloys. The last experimental part was devoted to measurements of the low cycle fatigue crack growth rates using a high focal distance microscope. For these tests, EDM micro-defects were used for the fatigue crack initiation sites. This method was also used to observe the small fatigue crack coalescence. A fatigue life model is proposed. It is based on the three fatigue crack initiation mechanisms competition: particle crack initiation on the surface, internal particle crack initiation and Stade I crack initiation. The particle fatigue crack initiation is supposed instantaneous at a critical stress level. The Tanaka and Mura model is used for analysing the Stage I crack initiation number of cycles. The fatigue crack growth rate was analysed using the Tomkins model identified on the small fatigue crack growth rate measurements. The proposed fatigue life model decomposed in three levels: a deterministic one and two probabilistic with and without crack coalescence. (author)

  4. Study on Fracture Initiation and Propagation in a Brazilian Disc with a Preexisting Crack by Digital Image Correlation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a preexisting crack with different inclination angles and lengths on mechanical properties, fracture initiation, and propagation in a Brazilian disc was investigated in this paper. In the experiment, digital image correlation (DIC method was employed to record the deformation in the specimen. Different failure patterns, depending on inclination angles and lengths of the preexisting crack, were observed. The fracture initiation position deviates from the tips of the preexisting crack with the inclination angle increasing from 0° to 72° at an interval of 18° per increment. Secondary cracks are more likely to occur in the Brazilian disc with a more inclined and longer preexisting crack. A finite-discrete element combined method ELFEN was used in the numerical investigation to simulate the failure process. This investigation shows that there are good correlations between the experimental and numerical results. Digital image correlation is a good method to obtain the quantitive full-field strain distribution and to observe the strain evolution process in a jointed rock.

  5. The Crack Initiation and Propagation in threshold regime and S-N curves of High Strength Spring Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubeljak, N; Predan, J; Senčič, B; Chapetti, M D

    2016-01-01

    An integrated fracture mechanics approach is proposed to account for the estimation of the fatigue resistance of component. Applications, estimations and results showed very good agreements with experimental results. The model is simple to apply, accounts for the main geometrical, mechanical and material parameters that define the fatigue resistance, and allows accurate predictions. It offers a change in design philosophy: It could be used for design, while simultaneously dealing with crack propagation thresholds. Furthermore, it allows quantification of the material defect sensitivity. In the case of the set of fatigue tests carried out by rotational bending of specimens without residual stresses, the estimated results showed good agreement and that an initial crack length of 0.5 mm can conservatively explain experimental data. In the case of fatigue tests carried out on the springs at their final condition with bending at R = 0.1 our data shows the influence of compressive residual stresses on fatigue strength. Results also showed that the procedures allow us to analyze the different combinations of initial crack length and residual stress levels, and how much the fatigue resistance can change by changing that configuration. For this set of tests, the fatigue resistance estimated for an initial crack length equal to 0.35 mm, can explain all testing data observed for the springs. (paper)

  6. The Crack Initiation and Propagation in threshold regime and S-N curves of High Strength Spring Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubeljak, N.; Predan, J.; Senčič, B.; Chapetti, M. D.

    2016-03-01

    An integrated fracture mechanics approach is proposed to account for the estimation of the fatigue resistance of component. Applications, estimations and results showed very good agreements with experimental results. The model is simple to apply, accounts for the main geometrical, mechanical and material parameters that define the fatigue resistance, and allows accurate predictions. It offers a change in design philosophy: It could be used for design, while simultaneously dealing with crack propagation thresholds. Furthermore, it allows quantification of the material defect sensitivity. In the case of the set of fatigue tests carried out by rotational bending of specimens without residual stresses, the estimated results showed good agreement and that an initial crack length of 0.5 mm can conservatively explain experimental data. In the case of fatigue tests carried out on the springs at their final condition with bending at R = 0.1 our data shows the influence of compressive residual stresses on fatigue strength. Results also showed that the procedures allow us to analyze the different combinations of initial crack length and residual stress levels, and how much the fatigue resistance can change by changing that configuration. For this set of tests, the fatigue resistance estimated for an initial crack length equal to 0.35 mm, can explain all testing data observed for the springs.

  7. Fuel micro-mechanics: homogenization, cracking, granular media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monerie, Yann

    2010-01-01

    This work summarizes about fifteen years of research in the field of micro-mechanics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the most recent work carried out in the context of nuclear safety. Micro-mechanics finds a natural place there, aiming to predict the behavior of heterogeneous materials with an evolving microstructure. The applications concerned mainly involve the nuclear fuel and its tubular cladding. The uranium dioxide fuel is modeled, according to the scales under consideration, as a porous ceramic or a granular medium. The strongly irradiated Zircaloy claddings are identified with a composite medium with a metal matrix and a gradient of properties. The analysis of these classes of material is rich in problems of a more fundamental nature. Three main themes are discussed: 1/ Homogenization, 2/ cracking, rupture and fragmentation, 3/ discrete media and fluid-grain couplings. Homogenization: The analytical scale change methods proposed aim to estimate or limit the linear and equivalent nonlinear behaviors of isotropic porous media and anisotropic composites with a metal matrix. The porous media under consideration are saturated or drained, with a compressible or incompressible matrix, and have one or two scales of spherical or ellipsoid pores, or cracks. The composites studied have a macroscopic anisotropy related to that of the matrix, and to the shape and spatial distribution of the inclusions. Thermoelastic, elastoplastic, and viscoplastic behaviors and ductile damage of these media are examined using different techniques: extensions of classic approaches, linear in particular, variational approaches and approaches using elliptical potentials with thermally activated elementary mechanisms. The models developed are validated on numerical finite element simulations, and their functional relevance is illustrated in comparison to experimental data obtained from the literature. The significant results obtained include a plasticity criterion for Gurson matrix

  8. Interaction of microcracks with selected interfaces: Focused ion beam for a systematic crack initiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, M.; Schaef, W.; Vehoff, H.; Holzapfel, C.

    2006-01-01

    The newly introduced combination of focused ion beam technique with high resolution scanning electron microscopy is the first method to initiate artificial microcracks with idealized crack parameters in front of selected phase- and grain boundaries. The boundaries of interest are selected after a complete sample characterization by Electron Back Scatter Diffraction and a calculation of the preferred slip systems within each grain. This combination of characterizing- and manipulating techniques on a microscale enables for the first time a systematic investigation of the interaction of short cracks with microstructural barriers to check the models of Tanaka, Navarro and De Los Rios quantitatively. In this paper, different notch geometries from single lines to penny shaped surface cracks for the initiation of artificial microcracks are presented. It is shown that not only the starting point of a crack can be selected. Further, the crack propagation path can be predetermined by initiating the crack directly on a slip system with a high Schmid factor. As a first result the influence of grain boundaries with different misorientation angles on the crack propagation rate for a directionally solidified nickel-based superalloy is shown. Finally this method is discussed as a powerful technique for grain boundary engineering

  9. Crack initiation at high temperature on an austenitic stainless steel; Amorcage de fissure a haute temperature dans un acier inoxydable austenitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiarinandrasana, L.

    1994-11-25

    The study deals with crack initiation at 600 and 650 degrees Celsius, on an austenitic stainless steel referenced by Z2 CND 17 12. The behaviour laws of the studied plate were update in comparison with existing data. Forty tests were carried out on CT specimens, with continuous fatigue with load or displacement controlled, pure creep, pure relaxation, creep-fatigue and creep-relaxation loadings. The practical initiation definition corresponds to a small crack growth of about the grain size. The time necessary for the crack to initiate is predicted with fracture mechanics global and local approaches, with the helps of microstructural observations and finite elements results. An identification of a `Paris`law` for continuous cyclic loading and of a unique correlation between the initiation time and C{sup *}{sub k} for creep tests was established. For the local approach, crack initiation by creep can be interpreted as the reaching of a critical damage level, by using a damage incremental rule. For creep-fatigue tests, crack growth rates at initiation are greater than those of Paris`law for continuous fatigue. A calculation of a transition time between elastic-plastic and creep domains shows that crack initiation can be interpreted whether by providing Paris`law with an acceleration term when the dwell period is less than the transition time, or by calculating a creep contribution which relies on C{sup *}{sub k} parameter when the dwell period and/or the initiation times are greater than the transition time. Creep relaxation tests present crack growth rates at initiation which are less than those for `equivalent` creep-fatigue tests. These crack growth rates when increasing hold time, but also when temperature decreases. Though, for hold times which are important enough and at lower temperature, there is no effect of the dwell period insofar as crack growth rate is equal to continuous fatigue Paris law predicted ones. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Influence of Initial Inclined Surface Crack on Estimated Residual Fatigue Lifetime of Railway Axle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Pokorný, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Hutař, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2016), č. článku 1640007. ISSN 1756-9737. [FDM 2016 - International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics /15./. Alicante, 14.09.2016-16.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : inclined crack * railway axle * residual fatigue lifetime * fatigue crack propagation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  11. Snow instability evaluation in skier-triggered snow slab avalanches: combining failure initiation and crack propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Johan; Reuter, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Dry-snow slab avalanches start with a local failure in a weak snowpack layer buried below cohesive snow slab layers. If the size of the failed zone exceeds a critical size, rapid crack propagation occurs possibly followed by slab release if the slope is steep enough. The probability of skier-triggering a slab avalanche is generally characterized by classical stability indices that do not account for crack propagation. In this study, we propose a new model to evaluate the conditions for the onset of crack propagation in skier-triggered slab avalanches. For a given weak layer, the critical crack length characterizing crack propagation propensity was compared to the size of the area where the skier-induced stress exceeds the shear strength of the weak layer. The ratio between both length scales yields a stability criterion combining the processes of failure initiation and crack propagation. The critical crack length was calculated from a recently developed model based on numerical simulations. The skier-induced stress was computed from analytical solutions and finite element simulations to account for slab layering. A detailed sensitivity analysis was performed for simplified snow profiles to characterize the influence of snowpack properties and slab layering on crack propagation propensity. Finally, we applied our approach for manually observed snow profiles and compared our results to rutschblock stability tests.

  12. Cracking of laminated glass initiated by low velocity impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, David Paul

    2001-07-01

    The work presented in this thesis is concerned with the determination of the relationship between low velocity impacts and the failure by cracking of 420mm square, 6.4 mm thick, three ply, laminated glass. An hydraulic test rig has been constructed which allows tests involving impacts with pre-determined velocities, up to 7 m/s, and deflections, up to 4.6mm, to be conducted upon the glass samples. WeibuIl's approach to describing the failure of brittle materials has been adopted. A Weibull cumulative distribution, which relates the probability of failure to the applied stress, has been generated from the experimental data, and the Weibull modulus or flaw density parameter has been determined to be 3.5. The stress intensity factor, K or fracture toughness value, is an indication of the toughness of a material. Glass, as a brittle material would be expected to have a low fracture toughness. Values for K can be determined experimentally, and as a material characteristic should not vary widely, however the value of 0.46 MPa m{sup 1/2} for the fracture toughness, obtained dynamically in this work, appears to differ from those figures determined by others, using quasi-static loading, of between 0.7 and 0.8 MPa m{sup 1/2}. If the value for K determined during quasi-static loading is applicable to this work, then the length of surface cracks in the glass is calculated to be between 55 and 72 x 10{sup -6} m. The stresses generated during the dynamic loading of glass by an impact can be divided into two distinct elements, the stresses produced by the bending of the glass, Ind the stresses generated during the impact. However, although the resulting stresses can be described separately, they have a combined effect upon the glass. The stress combination factor f, is used to describe how the bending stresses and the impact stresses combine to occasion a micro-crack (which may be found on all exposed glass surfaces) to propagate and cause a fracture in the glass. The value

  13. Strain localization and fatigue crack initiation in ultrafine-grained copper in high- and giga-cycle region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Navrátilová, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, JAN (2014), s. 202-208 ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2001; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fatigue crack initiation * Strain localization * Stability of ultrafine-grained structure * UFG Cu Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2014

  14. Crack growth threshold under hold time conditions in DA Inconel 718 – A transition in the crack growth mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fessler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeroengine manufacturers have to demonstrate that critical components such as turbine disks, made of DA Inconel 718, meet the certification requirements in term of fatigue crack growth. In order to be more representative of the in service loading conditions, crack growth under hold time conditions is studied. Modelling crack growth under these conditions is challenging due to the combined effect of fatigue, creep and environment. Under these conditions, established models are often conservative but the degree of conservatism can be reduced by introducing the crack growth threshold in models. Here, the emphasis is laid on the characterization of crack growth rates in the low ΔK regime under hold time conditions and in particular, on the involved crack growth mechanism. Crack growth tests were carried out at high temperature (550 °C to 650 °C under hold time conditions (up to 1200 s in the low ΔK regime using a K-decreasing procedure. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify the fracture mode involved in the low ΔK regime. EBSD analyses and BSE imaging were also carried out along the crack path for a more accurate identification of the fracture mode. A transition from intergranular to transgranular fracture was evidenced in the low ΔK regime and slip bands have also been observed at the tip of an arrested crack at low ΔK. Transgranular fracture and slip bands are usually observed under pure fatigue loading conditions. At low ΔK, hold time cycles are believed to act as equivalent pure fatigue cycles. This change in the crack growth mechanism under hold time conditions at low ΔK is discussed regarding results related to intergranular crack tip oxidation and its effect on the crack growth behaviour of Inconel 718 alloy. A concept based on an “effective oxygen partial pressure” at the crack tip is proposed to explain the transition from transgranular to intergranular fracture in the low ΔK regime.

  15. Study of Hot Salt Stress Corrosion Crack Initiation of Alloy IMI 834 by using DC Potential Drop Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustode, Mangesh D. [Bharat Forge Ltd., Pune (India); Dewangan, Bhupendra [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India); Raja, V. S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India); Paulose, Neeta; Babu, Narendra [Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE), Bangalore (India)

    2016-10-15

    DC potential drop technique was employed during the slow strain rate tests to study the hot salt stress corrosion crack (HSSCC) initiation at 300 and 400 ℃. Threshold stresses for HSSCC initiation were found to about 88 % of the yield strength at both temperatures, but the time from crack initiation to final failure (Δtscc) decreased significantly with temperature, which reflects larger tendency for brittle fracture and secondary cracking. The brittle fracture features consisted of transgranular cracking through the primary α grain and discontinuous faceted cracking through the transformed β grains.

  16. An Analytical Model for Fatigue Life Prediction Based on Fracture Mechanics and Crack Closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsø, Jan Behrend; Agerskov, Henning

    1996-01-01

    test specimens are compared with fatigue life predictions using a fracture mechanics approach. In the calculation of the fatigue life, the influence of the welding residual stresses and crack closure on the fatigue crack growth is considered. A description of the crack closure model for analytical...

  17. Fracture mechanics by three-dimensional crack-tip synchrotron X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, P J

    2015-03-06

    To better understand the relationship between the nucleation and growth of defects and the local stresses and phase changes that cause them, we need both imaging and stress mapping. Here, we explore how this can be achieved by bringing together synchrotron X-ray diffraction and tomographic imaging. Conventionally, these are undertaken on separate synchrotron beamlines; however, instruments capable of both imaging and diffraction are beginning to emerge, such as ID15 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and JEEP at the Diamond Light Source. This review explores the concept of three-dimensional crack-tip X-ray microscopy, bringing them together to probe the crack-tip behaviour under realistic environmental and loading conditions and to extract quantitative fracture mechanics information about the local crack-tip environment. X-ray diffraction provides information about the crack-tip stress field, phase transformations, plastic zone and crack-face tractions and forces. Time-lapse CT, besides providing information about the three-dimensional nature of the crack and its local growth rate, can also provide information as to the activation of extrinsic toughening mechanisms such as crack deflection, crack-tip zone shielding, crack bridging and crack closure. It is shown how crack-tip microscopy allows a quantitative measure of the crack-tip driving force via the stress intensity factor or the crack-tip opening displacement. Finally, further opportunities for synchrotron X-ray microscopy are explored.

  18. Two Parameter Fracture Mechanics: Fatigue Crack Behavior under Mixed Mode Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Knésl, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3-4 (2008), s. 857-865 ISSN 0013-7944. [Crack Paths 2006. Parma, 14.09.2006-16.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP101/04/P001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Constraint * Mixed-mode loading * Fatigue crack * Crack growth * Crack path Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.713, year: 2008

  19. Contribution to the study of the mechanism of crack in amorphous silica: study by the molecular dynamics of crack in amorphous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to understand the mechanism which occurs during the crack at the atomic scale in amorphous silica. The difficulties of the experimental observations at this length scale lead us to use numerical studies by molecular dynamics to access to the dynamical and the thermodynamical informations. We have carried out large simulations with 500000 atoms and studied the structure of the amorphous silica before to studying their behaviours under an imposed strain. The structure of this simulated amorphous silica settled in three length scales. In small length scale between 0 and 5 angstrom glass is composed of tetrahedra, this is close to the crystalline structure. In intermediate length scale between 3 and 10 angstrom tetrahedra are connected together and build rings of different sizes composed in majority between 5 and 7 tetrahedra. In bigger length scale between 15 and 60 angstrom, areas with high density of rings are surrounded by areas with low density of rings. These structural considerations play an important role in initiation and propagation of a crack. Indeed. in this length scale. crack propagates by growth and coalescence of some small cavities which appear in area with low density of rings behind the crack tip. The cavities dissipate the stress with carries away a delay to propagation of the crack. This phenomenons seems ductile and leads to non linear elastic behaviour near the crack tip. We have also shown that the addition of alkali in the amorphous silica changes the structure by creation of nano-porosities and leads to enhance the ductility during the crack propagation. (author)

  20. Numerical simulation of hydrogen-assisted crack initiation in austenitic-ferritic duplex steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mente, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels have been used for a long time in the offshore industry, since they have higher strength than conventional austenitic stainless steels and they exhibit a better ductility as well as an improved corrosion resistance in harsh environments compared to ferritic stainless steels. However, despite these good properties the literature shows some failure cases of duplex stainless steels in which hydrogen plays a crucial role for the cause of the damage. Numerical simulations can give a significant contribution in clarifying the damage mechanisms. Because they help to interpret experimental results as well as help to transfer results from laboratory tests to component tests and vice versa. So far, most numerical simulations of hydrogen-assisted material damage in duplex stainless steels were performed at the macroscopic scale. However, duplex stainless steels consist of approximately equal portions of austenite and δ-ferrite. Both phases have different mechanical properties as well as hydrogen transport properties. Thus, the sensitivity for hydrogen-assisted damage is different in both phases, too. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a numerical model of a duplex stainless steel microstructure enabling simulation of hydrogen transport, mechanical stresses and strains as well as crack initiation and propagation in both phases. Additionally, modern X-ray diffraction experiments were used in order to evaluate the influence of hydrogen on the phase specific mechanical properties. For the numerical simulation of the hydrogen transport it was shown, that hydrogen diffusion strongly depends on the alignment of austenite and δ-ferrite in the duplex stainless steel microstructure. Also, it was proven that the hydrogen transport is mainly realized by the ferritic phase and hydrogen is trapped in the austenitic phase. The numerical analysis of phase specific mechanical stresses and strains revealed that if the duplex stainless steel is

  1. The crystallography of fatigue crack initiation in Incoloy-908 and A-286 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenn, C.R.

    1996-12-01

    Fatigue crack initiation in the austenitic Fe-Ni superalloys Incoloy-908 and A-286 is examined using local crystallographic orientation measurements. Results are consistent with sharp transgranular initiation and propagation occurring almost exclusively on {111} planes in Incoloy-908 but on a variety of low index planes in A-286. This difference is attributed to the influence of the semicoherent grain boundary η phase in A-286. Initiation in each alloy occurred both intergranularly and transgranularly and was often associated with blocky surface oxide and carbide inclusions. Taylor factor and resolved shear stress and strain crack initiation hypotheses were tested, but despite an inconclusive suggestion of a minimum required {111} shear stress, none of the hypotheses were found to convincingly describe preferred initiation sites, even within the subsets of transgranular cracks apparently free from the influence of surface inclusions. Subsurface inclusions are thought to play a significant role in crack initiation. These materials have applications for use in structural conduit for high field superconducting magnets designed for fusion energy use

  2. Fan-head shear rupture mechanism as a source of off-fault tensile cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    This presentation discusses the role of a recently identified fan-head shear rupture mechanism [1] in the creation of off-fault tensile cracks observed in earthquake laboratory experiments conducted on brittle photoelastic specimens [2,3]. According to the fan-mechanism the shear rupture propagation is associated with consecutive creation of small slabs in the fracture tip which, due to rotation caused by shear displacement of the fracture interfaces, form a fan-structure representing the fracture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength) and self-sustaining tensile stress intensification along one side of the interface. The variation of tensile stress within the fan-head zone is like this: it increases with distance from the fracture tip up to a maximum value and then decreases. For the initial formation of the fan-head high local stresses corresponding to the fracture strength should be applied in a small area, however after completions of the fan-head it can propagate dynamically through the material at low shear stresses (even below the frictional strength). The fan-mechanism allows explaining all unique features associated with the off-fault cracking process observed in photoelastic experiments [2,3]. In these experiments spontaneous shear ruptures were nucleated in a bonded, precut, inclined and pre-stressed interface by producing a local pressure pulse in a small area. Isochromatic fringe patterns around a shear rupture propagating along bonded interface indicate the following features of the off-fault tensile crack development: tensile cracks nucleate and grow periodically along one side of the interface at a roughly constant angle (about 80 degrees) relative to the shear rupture interface; the tensile crack nucleation takes place some distance behind the rupture tip; with distance from the point of nucleation tensile cracks grow up to a certain length within the rupture head zone

  3. Models for ductile crack initiation and tearing resistance under mode 1 loading in pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.R.

    1988-06-01

    Micromechanistic models are presented which aim to predict plane strain ductile initiation toughness, tearing resistance and notched bar fracture strains in pressure vessel steels under monotonically increasing tensile (mode 1) loading. The models for initiation toughness and tearing resistance recognize that ductile fracture proceeds by the growth and linkage of voids with the crack-tip. The models are shown to predict the trend of initiation toughness with inclusion spacing/size ratio and can bound the available experimental data. The model for crack growth can reproduce the tearing resistance of a pressure vessel steel up to and just beyond crack growth initiation. The fracture strains of notched bars pulled in tension are shown to correspond to the achievement of a critical volume fraction of voids. This criterion is combined with the true stress - true strain history of a material point ahead of a blunting crack-tip to predict the initiation toughness. An attempt was made to predict the fracture strains of notched tensile bars by adopting a model which predicts the onset of a shear localization phenomenon. Fracture strains of the correct order are computed only if a ''secondary'' void nucleation event at carbide precipitates is taken into account. (author)

  4. Micro- and macroapproaches in fracture mechanics for interpreting brittle fracture and fatigue crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekobori, T.; Konosu, S.; Ekobori, A.

    1980-01-01

    Classified are models of the crack growth mechanism, and in the framework of the fracture mechanics suggested are combined micro- and macroapproaches to interpreting the criterion of the brittle fracture and fatigue crack growth as fracture typical examples, when temporal processes are important or unimportant. Under the brittle fracture conditions the crack propagation criterion is shown to be brought with the high accuracy to a form analogous to one of the crack propagation in a linear fracture mechanics although it is expressed with micro- and macrostructures. Obtained is a good agreement between theoretical and experimental data

  5. The effects of microstructure on crack initiation in liquid-metal environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available is studied. The role of plastic slip behaviour in the generation of high localized stresses and, consequently, on crack initiation is examined, Furthermore, the effects of various parameters such as strain rate, temperature and grain size on the degree...

  6. Numerical Analysis of Rolling Contact Fatigue Crack Initiation and Fatigue Life Prediction of the Railway Crossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xin, L.; Markine, V.L.; Shevtsov, I.

    2015-01-01

    The procedure for analysing rolling contact fatigue crack initiation and fatigue life prediction of the railway turnout crossing is developed. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model is used to obtain stress and strain results, considering the dynamic effects of wheel-crossing rolling contact.

  7. Numerical analysis for fatigue life prediction on railroad RCF crack initiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Y.; Markine, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, a numerical procedure for surface crack initiation analysis based on the critical plane approach is proposed. The complex stress/strain state of wheel and rail (W/R) contact is analysed by means of submodelling approach together with the transient contact nodal loads obtained

  8. Crack initiation and crack growth in high temperature materials under cyclic thermal stresses; Rissinitiierung und Risswachstum in Hochtemperaturwerkstoffen unter zyklisch thermischer Beanspruchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, C.

    1996-12-01

    The high temperatures of use in drive units, such as the combustion chamber or the hot gas turbine, for example, usually cause high temperature changes. Great temperature differences occur for short periods in the components, and thermal shock is produced. In this work, theoretical and experimental investigations are introduced on crack initiation and crack growth in high temperature materials under cyclic thermal stresses. The experiments were carried out with the inter-metallic phase Ni{sub 3}Al, the nickel-based alloy Nimonic 80A and the iron-based alloy PM 2000 strengthened by oxide dispersion (ODS). A characteristic crack appearance picture was found for each material, which was examined more closely. The stresses occurring in the sample during one cycle were calculated with the aid of the finite element program ABAQUS, knowing the specific material parameters. Based on the linear-elastic fracture mechanics, stress intensity factors were calculated on the superimposition principle. Using the material data from isothermal crack propagation experiments, the prediction of fatigue crack spread with cyclic thermal stresses is compared with the experimental findings. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Die hohen Einsatztemperaturen in Antriebsaggregaten wie z.B. der Brennkammer oder der Heissgasturbine bedingen in der Regel hohe Temperaturwechsel. Dabei treten kurzzeitig grosse Temperaturunterschiede in den Bauteilen auf, ein Thermoschock wird erzeugt. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden theoretische und experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Rissinitiierung und zum Risswachstum in Hochtemperaturwerkstoffen unter zyklisch thermischer Belastung vorgestellt. Die Experimente wurden mit der intermetallischen Phase Ni{sub 3}Al, der Nickelbasislegierung Nimonic 80A und der oxid-dispersionsverfestigten (ODS) Eisenbasislegierung PM2000 durchgefuehrt. Fuer jeden Werkstoff stellte sich ein charakteristisches Risserscheinungsbild dar, das naeher untersucht wurde. Die in der Probe auftretenden

  9. The effect of mesostructure heterogeneity on cracks initiation and the displacement distribution in NCF composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrida, H.; Giannadis, K.; Varna, J.; Ayadi, Z.

    2012-02-01

    Non Crimp Fabrics (NCF) are promising new generation composite materials. They are now being used in some sections of composite industry, for example in wind turbine blades and boat hulls. The aerospace industry also shows an increasing interest in this material, thanks to the low cost of its manufacturing process. NCFs are special types of textile composites, made of layers of parallel fiber bundles oriented in different directions and separated by resin. Due to the manufacturing process the fiber bundles are not perfectly straight. They show a certain degree of waviness which decreases the stiffness and the strength of the material. The heterogeneous mesostructure affects the mechanical properties of the material and the failure mechanisms. This was studied using both numerical and experimental methods. In our experimental approach, a carbon fiber/epoxy resin laminate with uniform fiber distribution was manufactured by voluntarily introducing waviness to simulate the NCF composites. The displacement map was studied against the thickness of a sample loaded in tension, using ESPI (Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry). This can give us a primary idea of the micro damage initiation and the cracks' shapes.

  10. Crack Cocaine Use in Adolescents: Clinical Characteristics and Predictors of Early Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianca, Thiago G; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Rosa, Ronaldo L; Begnis, Ana Paula A; Ferronatto, Pedro B; Jensen, Mariana C; Pechansky, Flavio; Ceresér, Keila Maria Mendes; Fairchild, Victoria P; Szobot, Claudia M

    2016-10-01

    ). Patients were found to have a multitude of comorbid conditions, which supports the idea of treatment by a multidisciplinary health care team. For each year of delay in the age at first drug use, the chance of crack cocaine initiation is reduced by 18%. Prevention programs aimed at delaying experimentation with addictive substances, especially "gateway" drugs, could delay the progression to crack cocaine dependence. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. Large stable crack growth in fracture mechanics specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, W.; Fricke, S.; Veith, H.

    1992-01-01

    This is a report on the crack resistance behaviour of the STE 460 steel on CT 25 and CCT 25 samples with side notches according to the J concept, from the J-controlled area to a crack growth of about 8 mm. Numerical simulation of the ductile crack growth controlled by J R curves for EVZ models of the sample geometries make an analysis possible of how well the standards, guidelines and proposals for determining the remote field J integral from experimental data agree with the numerical calculation of J from the stresses and distortions for large crack growth. With the stress, distortion and deformation fields available from the simulation with fine elementing in the ligament, the J concept for large ductile crack growth expanded by the multi-axiality parameter h is explained and the behaviour of other fracture parameters such as the crack tip opening (CTOD) and the crack opening angle (CTOA) for large crack growth are shown. (orig./DG) [de

  12. Finite element analysis of surface cracks in the Wilkins Ice Shelf using fracture mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Carolin; Müller, Ralf; Gross, Dietmar; Humbert, Angelika; Braun, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Ice shelves, located between the warming atmosphere and the ocean, are sensitive elements of the climate system. The Wilkins Ice Shelf is situated in the south-western part of the Antarctic Peninsula, a well known hot spot of global warming. Recent break-up events exemplified the potential of disintegration of the ice shelf. A multi interdisciplinary project consisting of remote sensing, modeling of the ice dynamics and fracture mechanics intends to improve the understanding of the impacts of temperature increase on ice shelf stability. As a part of this project the aim of this presentation is to demonstrate the fracture mechanical approach using finite elements and configurational forces. For fracture mechanical purposes the material behavior of ice is treated as a brittle solid, and linear fracture mechanics is used. Crucial to all methods in linear fracture mechanics is the evaluation of the stress intensity factor K which is a measure for the load concentration at the crack tip and which depends on the geometry of the body and on the applied loading. The computed value of K can be compared to the critical stress intensity factor Kc, a material property obtained from experimental examinations, to judge whether a crack will propagate. One very effective procedure to obtain the stress intensity factor takes advantage of configurational forces, which can be easily obtained in the finite element analysis. An initial investigation is based on a 2-dimensional analysis of a single crack with a mode-I load type using a static plane strain model in the finite element analysis software COMSOL and additional routines to compute and evaluate the configurational forces. Analytical solutions of simple geometry and load cases are called on in comparison. The application to the Wilkins Ice Shelf follows by using material parameters, geometries and loading situations, which are obtained from literature values, remote sensing data analysis and modeling of the ice dynamics

  13. Fracture mechanical investigations about crack resistance behaviour in non-transforming ceramics in particular aluminum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, K.K.O.; Kleist, G.; Nickel, H.

    1991-03-01

    The aim of this work is the clearification of R-curve behaviour of non-transforming ceramics, in particular aluminum oxide exhibiting incrystalline fracture. Investigations of crack growth in controlled bending experiments were performed using 3-Pt- and 4-Pt-bending samples of differing sizes under inert conditions. The fracture experiments were realized using several loading techniques, for example constant and varying displacement rates, load rupture (P = 0) and relaxation tests (v = 0). In addition unloading and reloading experiments were performed to investigate hysteresis curves and residual displacements in accordance with R-curve behaviour. During the crack-growth experiments, the crack extension was measured in situ using a high resolution immersion microscope. With this technique, the fracture processes near the crack tip (crack activity zone) was observed as well. The crack resistance as a function of crack extension (R-curve) was determined using differing calculation methods. All of the methods used resulted in approximately identical R-curves, within the statistical error band. The crack resistance at initiation R 0 was 20 N/m. The crack resistance increased during approximately 3 mm of growth to a maximum of 90 N/m. A decrease in the crack resistance was determined for large a/W (crack length normalized with sample height) values, independant of the calculation methods. The R-curve behaviour was interpreted as due to a functional resistance behind the observed crack tip, which arises from a volume dilatation in the crack activity zone while the crack proceeds. (orig.) [de

  14. Fracture Resistance Measurement Method for in situ Observation of Crack Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Horsewell, A.; Jørgensen, O.

    1998-01-01

    A special test fixture has been developed for fracture mechanical testing of brittle materials inside an environmental scanning electron microscope. The fixture loads a double cantilever beam specimen with pure bending moments and provides stable crack growth. Crack growth is detected by in situ...... observation and acoustic emission, As an example, crack growth in a cubic-phase yttria-stabilized zirconia is detected easily by in situ observation of the crack-tip region, Many fracture toughness measurements are obtained for each specimen, giving high confidence in the measured fracture toughness value......, In situ observation is useful for the study of toughening mechanisms and subcritical crack-growth behavior and to sort out erroneous measurements (e.g., due to crack branching)....

  15. Low-cycle fatigue-cracking mechanisms in fcc crystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.; Qu, S.; Duan, Q. Q.; Wu, S. D.; Li, S. X.; Wang, Z. G.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2011-01-01

    The low-cycle fatigue (LCF) cracking behavior in various face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline materials, including Cu single crystals, bicrystals and polycrystals, Cu-Al and Cu-Zn alloys, ultrafine-grained (UFG) Al-Cu and Cu-Zn alloys, was systematically investigated and reviewed. In Cu single crystals, fatigue cracking always nucleates along slip bands and deformation bands. The large-angle grain boundary (GB) becomes the preferential site in bicrystals and polycrystals. In addition, fatigue cracking can also nucleate along slip bands and twin boundaries (TBs) in polycrystalline materials. However, shear bands and coarse deformation bands are observed to the preferential sites for fatigue cracking in UFG materials with a large number of GBs. Based on numerous observations on fatigue-cracking behavior, the fatigue-cracking mechanisms along slip bands, GBs, TBs, shear bands and deformation bands were systematically compared and classified into two types, i.e. shear crack and impingement crack. Finally, these fatigue-cracking behaviors are discussed in depth for a better understanding of their physical nature and the transition from intergranular to transgranular cracking in various fcc crystalline materials. These comprehensive results for fatigue damage mechanisms should significantly aid in obtaining the optimum design to further strengthen and toughen metallic materials in practice.

  16. The effect of aqueous environments upon the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in low-alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of elevated temperature aqueous environments upon the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in low-alloy steels is discussed in terms of the several parameters which influence such behavior. These parameters include water chemistry, impurities within the steels themselves, as well as factors such as the water flow rate, loading waveform and loading rates. Some of these parameters have similar effects upon both crack initiation and propagation, while others exhibit different effects in the two stages of cracking. In the case of environmentally-assisted crack (EAC) growth, the most important impurities within the steel are metallurgical sulfide inclusions which dissolve upon contact with the water. A ''critical'' concentration of sulfide ions at the crack tip can then induce environmentally-assisted cracking which proceeds at significantly increased crack growth rates over those observed in air. The occurrence, or non-occurrence, of EAC is governed by the mass-transport of sulfide ions to and from the crack-tip region, and the mass-transport is discussed in terms of diffusion, ion migration, and convection induced within the crack enclave. Examples are given of convective mass-transport within the crack enclave resulting from external free stream flow. The initiation of fatigue cracks in elevated temperature aqueous environments, as measured by the S-N fatigue lifetimes, is also strongly influenced by the parameters identified above. The influence of sulfide inclusions does not appear to be as strong on the crack initiation process as it is on crack propagation. The oxygen content of the environment appears to be the dominant factor, although loading frequency (strain rate) and temperature are also important factors

  17. Controlling stress corrosion cracking in mechanism components of ground support equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, W. A.

    1988-01-01

    The selection of materials for mechanism components used in ground support equipment so that failures resulting from stress corrosion cracking will be prevented is described. A general criteria to be used in designing for resistance to stress corrosion cracking is also provided. Stress corrosion can be defined as combined action of sustained tensile stress and corrosion to cause premature failure of materials. Various aluminum, steels, nickel, titanium and copper alloys, and tempers and corrosive environment are evaluated for stress corrosion cracking.

  18. Embrittlement and anodic process in stress corrosion cracking: study of the influent micro-mechanical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinnes, J.Ph.

    2006-11-01

    We study the influence of local mechanical parameters on crack propagation in Stress Corrosion Cracking, at the scale of the microstructure. Two systems are compared: the CuAl 9 Ni 3 Fe 2 copper-aluminium alloy in synthetic sea water under cathodic polarization, where the crack propagation mechanism is related to strain-assisted anodic dissolution, and the 316L austenitic stainless steel in MgCl 2 solution, where embrittlement mechanisms related to hydrogen effects prevail. We use micro-notched tensile specimen that allow to study isolated short cracks. These experiments are modelled by means of finite elements calculations, and further characterized by Electron Back scattered Diffraction (EBSD) in the case of the 316L alloy. In terms of the local mechanical parameters that control propagation, fundamental differences are outlined between the two systems. They are discussed from the viewpoint of the available models of Stress Corrosion Cracking. (author)

  19. Investigation of fatigue crack initiation facets in Ti-6Al-4V using focused ion beam milling and electron backscatter diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaerts, J; Verlinden, B; Wevers, M

    2017-07-01

    In the very high cycle fatigue regime, internal crack initiation can occur in Ti-6Al-4V because of the formation of facets, which are α grains that have fractured in a transcrystalline and planar manner. Because this crack initiation phase occupies most of the fatigue life, it is essential to understand which mechanisms lead to facet formation. Fatigue tests have been performed on drawn and heat-treated Ti-6Al-4V wires, and the facets at internal crack initiation sites have been analysed in detail in terms of their appearance, their spatial orientation and their crystallographic orientation. The facets were not smooth, but showed surface markings at the nanoscale. In nearly all cases, these markings followed a linear pattern. One anomalous facet, in a sample with the largest grain size, contained a fan-shaped pattern. The facets were at relatively steep angles, mostly between 50° and 70°. Cross-sections of the fracture surfaces have been made by focused ion beam milling and were used to measure the crystallographic orientation of facets by electron backscatter diffraction. Most facet planes coincided with a prismatic lattice plane, and the linear markings were parallel to the prismatic slip direction, which is a strong indication that prismatic slip and slip band formation led to crack initiation. However, the anomalous facet had a near-basal orientation, which points to a possible cleavage mechanism. The cross-sections also exposed secondary cracks, which had formed on prismatic lattice planes, and in some cases early stage facet formation and short crack growth phenomena. The latter observations show that facets can extend through more than one grain, and that there is crack coalescence between facets. The fact that drawn wires have a specific crystallographic texture has led to a different facet formation behaviour compared to what has been suggested in the literature. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Critical applied stresses for a crack initiation from a sharp V-notch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Náhlík

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to estimate a value of the critical applied stress for a crack initiation from a sharp V-notch tip. The classical approach of the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LELM was generalized, because the stress singularity exponent differs from 0.5 in the studied case. The value of the stress singularity exponent depends on the V-notch opening angle. The finite element method was used for a determination of stress distribution in the vicinity of the sharp V-notch tip and for the estimation of the generalized stress intensity factor depending on the V-notch opening angle. Critical value of the generalized stress intensity factor was obtained using stability criteria based on the opening stress component averaged over a critical distance d from the V-notch tip and generalized strain energy density factor. Calculated values of the critical applied stresses were compared with experimental data from the literature and applicability of the LEFM concept is discussed.

  1. Controlled Mechanical Cracking of Metal Films Deposited on Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Polywka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stretchable large area electronics conform to arbitrarily-shaped 3D surfaces and enables comfortable contact to the human skin and other biological tissue. There are approaches allowing for large area thin films to be stretched by tens of percent without cracking. The approach presented here does not prevent cracking, rather it aims to precisely control the crack positions and their orientation. For this purpose, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS is hardened by exposure to ultraviolet radiation (172 nm through an exposure mask. Only well-defined patterns are kept untreated. With these soft islands cracks at the hardened surface can be controlled in terms of starting position, direction and end position. This approach is first investigated at the hardened PDMS surface itself. It is then applied to conductive silver films deposited from the liquid phase. It is found that statistical (uncontrolled cracking of the silver films can be avoided at strain below 35%. This enables metal interconnects to be integrated into stretchable networks. The combination of controlled cracks with wrinkling enables interconnects that are stretchable in arbitrary and changing directions. The deposition and patterning does not involve vacuum processing, photolithography, or solvents.

  2. Paths of interactive cracks in creep conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nowak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains plane strain analysis of uniformly stretched plate working in creep condition. The plate contains initial defects in forms of central and/or edge cracks working in mode I. These cracks are modelled by attributing critical value of damage parameter to preset points and therefore resulting in stresses set to zero (material does not support any loading. The Continuum Damage Mechanics constitutive equations are used to describe the creep crack growth problem and Finite Element Method Abaqus system is applied to solve corresponding boundary and initial value problem. Analysis of different initial cracks configuration has been performed. The crack path is defined by points in which damage parameter equals to critical one. Time to failure of the plate with single initial crack is achieved when the crack path spans its width. This time is calculated and compared to the time to failure of initially uncracked structure. For the plate with multiple cracks the paths starting from different cracks can develop independently until they merge and/or span the plate width. In each case the damage field is analysed and the direction of crack path development is determined. The analysis of crack propagation allows for determination of a distance between initial cracks for which the interaction between them is negligible. It is demonstrated that Continuum Damage Mechanics approach allows not only to model the development of initially existing cracks but also initiation of new, cross-spanning cracks and their kinking and branching.

  3. Crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics by the scratch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhongjun; Liu, Congcong; Wang, Haorong; Yang, Xue; Fang, Fengzhou; Tang, Junjie

    2016-12-01

    To eliminate the negative effects of surface flaws and subsurface damage of glass-ceramics on clinical effectiveness, crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics were studied by single and double scratch experiments conducted using an ultra-precision machine. A self-manufactured pyramid shaped single-grit tool with a small tip radius was used as the scratch tool. The surface and subsurface crack propagations and interactions, surface morphology and material removal mechanism were investigated. The experimental results showed that the propagation of lateral cracks to the surface and the interaction between the lateral cracks and radial cracks are the two main types of material peeling, and the increase of the scratch depth increases the propagation angle of the radial cracks and the interaction between the cracks. In the case of a double scratch, the propagation of lateral cracks and radial cracks between paired scratches results in material peeling. The interaction between adjacent scratches depends on the scratch depth and separation distance. There is a critical separation distance where the normalized material removal volume reaches its peak. These findings can help reduce surface flaws and subsurface damage induced by the grinding process and improve the clinical effectiveness of glass-ceramics used as biological substitute and repair materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Numerical analysis of rolling contact fatigue crack initiation and fatigue life prediction of the railway crossing

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, L.; Markine, V.L.; Shevtsov, I.

    2015-01-01

    The procedure for analysing rolling contact fatigue crack initiation and fatigue life prediction of the railway turnout crossing is developed. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model is used to obtain stress and strain results, considering the dynamic effects of wheel-crossing rolling contact. Material model accounting for elastic- plastic isotropic and kinematic hardening effects is adopted. The results from FE analysis are combined with J-S fatigue model that is based on critical plan...

  5. Fatigue crack growth and fracture mechanics analysis of a working roll surface layer material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drobne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue crack growth and fracture mechanics analysis of a working roll surface layer material is presented in this paper. The research is done on a hot strip mill working roll where High Chromium Steel is used for roll’s shell material. To obtain corresponding parameters, a rectangular single edge notched bend specimens – SENB, according to standard BS 7448, were used. The fatigue crack growth analysis was done on a resonant testing machine with use of special crack gauges, while for fracture mechanics parameters the electro–mechanical testing machine was used.

  6. An extension of fracture mechanics/technology to larger and smaller cracks/defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abé, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Fracture mechanics/technology is a key science and technology for the design and integrity assessment of the engineering structures. However, the conventional fracture mechanics has mostly targeted a limited size of cracks/defects, say of from several hundred microns to several tens of centimeters. The author and his group has tried to extend that limited size and establish a new version of fracture technology for very large cracks used in geothermal energy extraction and for very small cracks/defects or damage often appearing in the combination of mechanical and electronic components of engineering structures. Those new versions are reviewed in this paper.

  7. An extension of fracture mechanics/technology to larger and smaller cracks/defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abé, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Fracture mechanics/technology is a key science and technology for the design and integrity assessment of the engineering structures. However, the conventional fracture mechanics has mostly targeted a limited size of cracks/defects, say of from several hundred microns to several tens of centimeters. The author and his group has tried to extend that limited size and establish a new version of fracture technology for very large cracks used in geothermal energy extraction and for very small cracks/defects or damage often appearing in the combination of mechanical and electronic components of engineering structures. Those new versions are reviewed in this paper. PMID:19907123

  8. Rate-dependent mode I interlaminar crack growth mechanisms in graphite/epoxy and graphite/PEEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, J. W., Jr.; Carlsson, L. A.; Smiley, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the mode I fracture behavior of graphite/epoxy and graphite/PEEK composites is examined over four decades of crosshead rates (0.25-250 mm/min). Straight-sided double-cantilever-beam specimens consisting of unidirectional laminates were tested at room temperature. For graphite/epoxy the load-deflection response was linear to fracture, and stable slow crack growth initiating at the highest load level was observed for all rates tested. In contrast, mode I crack growth in the graphite/PEEK material was often unstable and showed stick-slip behavior. Subcritical crack growth occurring prior to the onset of fracture was observed at intermediate displacement rates. A mechanism for the fracture behavior of the graphite/PEEK material (based on viscoelastic, plastic, and microcrack coalescence in the process zone) is proposed and related to the observed rate-dependent phenomena.

  9. Effect of pre-deformation on the fatigue crack initiation life of X60 pipeline steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, M.; Luo, J.H.; Zhao, X.W.; Bai, Z.Q.; Wang, R.

    2005-01-01

    It is impossible to keep petroleum and natural gas transmission pipelines free from defects in the manufacturing, installation and servicing processes. The damage might endanger the safety of pipelines and even shorten their service life; gas or petroleum release due to defects may jeopardise the surrounding ecological environments with associated economic and life costs. Pre-tensile deformation of X60 steel is employed to experimentally simulate the influence of dents on the fatigue crack initiation life. The investigation indicates that the fatigue crack initiation life of pre-deformed X60 pipeline steel can be assessed by a previously proposed energetic approach. The threshold for crack initiation increases with the pre-deformation due to a strain hardening effect, while the fatigue resistant factor exhibits a maximum with pre-deformation owing to its special dependence on fracture strain and fracture strength. The result is expected to be beneficial to the understanding of the effect of damage on the safety of pipelines and fatigue life prediction

  10. Crack growth and fracture behaviour of stress corrosion cracks of turbine generator steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger; Vahle.

    1989-01-01

    The object of this investigation was the quantifying of the behaviour of cracks which were induced during service under corrosive media. To investigate the influence of stress corrosion crack configurations on stress intensity factor, six different test materials from 2 and 3.5% NiCrMoV and 2% Cr/1% Ni steels were chosen. The stress corrosion cracks were induced at wedge loaded compact tension specimens in a corrosive media in the laboratory. Fracture mechanics tests as well as fatigue crack growth tests were performed at these specimens. All stress corrosion cracks have an intercrystalline path and a crack length longer than 1 mm; they are multiple and have branched cracks tips. The fracture mechanics tests at these stress corrosion cracks induced in the laboratory and during service of components show that their stress intensity factor is 30 to 70% smaller than the stress intensity factor calculated for single straight cracks too. Theoretical calculations arrived to the same results. Crack initiation and growth behaviour under cyclic loading starting from these stress corrosion cracks results in that the load or the stress intensity range ΔK has to be increased three times larger than the ΔK-threshold value to induce crack initiation. The crack growth velocity influenced by multiple crack tips and multiple growing cracks from these crack tips is much lower than the crack growth velocity of a normal fatigue crack (one crack tip). (orig./MM) With 32 figs

  11. Stress Corrosion Cracking of alloy 600 in high temperature water: a study of mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boursier, J.M.; Bouvier, O. de; Gras, J.M.; Noel, D.; Vaillant, F.; Rios, R.

    1992-12-01

    Investigations of the stress corrosion cracking behaviour of Alloy 600 tubing in high temperature water were performed in order to get a precise knowledge of the different stages of the cracking and their dependence on various parameters. The compatibility of the results with the main mechanisms to be considered was examined. Results showed three stages in the cracking: a true incubation time, a slow-rate propagation period followed by a rapid-propagation stage. Tests separating stress and strain rate contributions show that the strain rate is the main parameter which controls the crack propagation. The hydrogen overpressure was found to increase the crack growth rate up to 1-4 bar, but a strong decrease is observed from 4 to 20 bar. Analysis of the hydrogen ingress in the metal showed that it is neither correlated to the hydrogen overpressure nor to the severity of cracking; so cracking resulting from an hydrogen-model is unlikely. No detrimental effect of oxygen (4 bar) was noticed both in the mill-annealed and the sensitized conditions. Finally, none of the classical mechanisms, neither hydrogen-assisted cracking nor slip-step dissolution, can correctly describe the observed behaviour. Some fractographic examinations, and an influence of primary water on the creep rate of Alloy 600, lead to consider that other recent mechanisms, involving an interaction between dissolution and plasticity, have to be considered

  12. Precursor Evolution and Stress Corrosion Cracking Initiation of Cold-Worked Alloy 690 in Simulated Pressurized Water Reactor Primary Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Ziqing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 622 Horn Rapids Road, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352.; Toloczko, Mychailo [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 622 Horn Rapids Road, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352.; Kruska, Karen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 622 Horn Rapids Road, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352.; Bruemmer, Stephen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 622 Horn Rapids Road, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352.

    2017-05-22

    Stress corrosion crack initiation of two thermally-treated, cold-worked (CW) alloy 690 (UNS N06690) materials was investigated in 360oC simulated PWR primary water using constant load tensile (CLT) tests and blunt notch compact tension (BNCT) tests equipped with direct current potential drop (DCPD) for in-situ detection of cracking. SCC initiation was not detected by DCPD for either the 21% or 31%CW CLT specimens loaded at their yield stress after ~9,220 hours, however intergranular (IG) precursor damage and isolated surface cracks were observed on the specimens. The two 31%CW BNCT specimens loaded at moderate stress intensity after several cyclic loading ramps showed DCPD-indicated crack initiation after 10,400 hours of exposure at constant stress intensity, which was resulted from significant growth of IG cracks. The 21%CW BNCT specimens only exhibited isolated small IG surface cracks and showed no apparent DCPD change throughout the test. Post-test cross-section examinations revealed many grain boundary (GB) nano-cavities in the bulk of all the CLT and BNCT specimens particularly for the 31%CW materials. Cavities were also found along GBs extending to the surface suggesting an important role in crack nucleation. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of GB cavities and discusses their effects on crack initiation in CW alloy 690.

  13. The importance of the strain rate and creep on the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Omar F.; Mattar Neto, Miguel; Schvartzman, Monica M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking is a nuclear, power, petrochemical, and other industries equipment and components (like pressure vessels, nozzles, tubes, accessories) life degradation mode, involving fragile fracture. The stress corrosion cracking failures can produce serious accidents, and incidents which can put on risk the safety, reliability, and efficiency of many plants. These failures are of very complex prediction. The stress corrosion cracking mechanisms are based on three kinds of factors: microstructural, mechanical and environmental. Concerning the mechanical factors, various authors prefer to consider the crack tip strain rate rather than stress, as a decisive factor which contributes to the process: this parameter is directly influenced by the creep strain rate of the material. Based on two KAPL-Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory experimental studies in SSRT (slow strain rate test) and CL (constant load) test, for prediction of primary water stress corrosion cracking in nickel based alloys, it has done a data compilation of the film rupture mechanism parameters, for modeling PWSCC of Alloy 600 and discussed the importance of the strain rate and the creep on the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms and models. As derived from this study, a simple theoretical model is proposed, and it is showed that the crack growth rate estimated with Brazilian tests results with Alloy 600 in SSRT, are according with the KAPL ones and other published literature. (author)

  14. Accelerated test for evaluation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking initiation characteristics of non-sensitized 316 austenitic stainless steel in simulated pressure water reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xiangyu; Bali, Shirish Chandrakant; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Accelerated technique was developed for evaluation of stress corrosion cracking. • The effect of strain rate on stress corrosion cracking was investigated. • Typical intergranular crack feature was observed on the fracture surface. • The crack depth distribution shows two peaks feature. • The work hardened layer has a strong effect on stress corrosion cracking. - Abstract: Accelerated technique has been developed for evaluation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) initiation behavior of non-sensitized materials in pressure water reactor environment by means of the implementation of hollowed cylindrical specimens under slow strain rate tensile. Typical IGSCC feature was observed on the fracture surface. The crack depth distribution showed two peaks feature which relates to the worked hardened layer on the inner surface. The specimens tested at lower strain rate showed higher fraction of IGSCC, larger number of cracks initiation, shorter elongation and smaller crack opening displacement, suggesting the transition behavior of IGSCC initiation and short crack growth.

  15. The role of time-dependent deformation in intergranular crack initiation of alloy 600 steam generator tubing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Was, G.S.; Lian, K.

    1998-03-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of two commercial alloy 600 conditions (600LT, 600HT) and controlled- purity Ni-18Cr-9Fe alloys (CDMA, CDTT) were investigated using constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests in primary water (0.01M LiOH+0.01M H 3 BO 3 ) with 1 bar hydrogen overpressure at 360 degrees C and 320 degrees C. Heat treatments produced two types of microstructures in both commercial and controlled-purity alloys: one dominated by grain boundary carbides (600HT and CDTT) and one dominated by intragranular carbides (600LT and CDMA). CERT tests were conducted over a range of strain rates and at two temperatures with interruptions at specific strains to determine the crack depth distributions. Results show that in all samples, IGSCC was the dominant failure mode. For both the commercial alloy and the controlled-purity alloys, the microstructure with grain boundary carbides showed delayed crack initiation and shallower crack depths than did the intragranular carbide microstructure under all experimental conditions. This data indicates that a grain boundary carbide microstructure is more resistant to IGSCC than an intragranular carbide microstructure. Observations support both the film rupture/slip dissolution mechanism and enhanced localized plasticity. The advantage of these results over previous studies is that the different carbide distributions were obtained in the same commercial alloy using different heat treatments, and in the other case, in nearly identical controlled-purity alloys. Therefore, observations of the effects of carbide distribution on IGSCC can more confidently be attributed to the carbide distribution alone rather than other potentially significant differences in microstructure or composition

  16. The role of time-dependent deformation in intergranular crack initiation of alloy 600 steam generator tubing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Was, G.S.; Lian, K.

    1998-03-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of two commercial alloy 600 conditions (600LT, 600HT) and controlled- purity Ni-18Cr-9Fe alloys (CDMA, CDTT) were investigated using constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests in primary water (0.01M LiOH+0.01M H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) with 1 bar hydrogen overpressure at 360{degrees}C and 320{degrees}C. Heat treatments produced two types of microstructures in both commercial and controlled-purity alloys: one dominated by grain boundary carbides (600HT and CDTT) and one dominated by intragranular carbides (600LT and CDMA). CERT tests were conducted over a range of strain rates and at two temperatures with interruptions at specific strains to determine the crack depth distributions. Results show that in all samples, IGSCC was the dominant failure mode. For both the commercial alloy and the controlled-purity alloys, the microstructure with grain boundary carbides showed delayed crack initiation and shallower crack depths than did the intragranular carbide microstructure under all experimental conditions. This data indicates that a grain boundary carbide microstructure is more resistant to IGSCC than an intragranular carbide microstructure. Observations support both the film rupture/slip dissolution mechanism and enhanced localized plasticity. The advantage of these results over previous studies is that the different carbide distributions were obtained in the same commercial alloy using different heat treatments, and in the other case, in nearly identical controlled-purity alloys. Therefore, observations of the effects of carbide distribution on IGSCC can more confidently be attributed to the carbide distribution alone rather than other potentially significant differences in microstructure or composition.

  17. Effect of CT Specimen Thickness on the Mechanical Characteristics at the Crack Tip of Stress Corrosion Cracking in Ni-based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinghao, Cui; He, Xue; Lingyan, Zhao

    2017-12-01

    It’s important to obtain accurate stress corrosion crack(SCC) growth rate for quantitative life prediction of components in nuclear power plants. However, the engineering practice shows that the crack tip constraint effect has a great influence on the mechanical properties and crack growth rate of SCC at crack tip. To study the influence of the specimen thickness on the crack tip mechanical properties of SCC, the stress, strain and C integral at creep crack tip are analyzed under different specimens thickness. Results show that the cracked specimen is less likely to crack due to effect of crack tip constraint. When the thickness ratio B/W is larger than 0.1, the crack tip constraint is almost ineffective. Value of C integral is the largest when B/W is 0.25. Then specimen thickness has little effect on the value of C integral. The effect of specimen thickness on the value of C integral is less significant at higher thickness ratio.

  18. Effect of tangential traction and roughness on crack initiation/propagation during rolling contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, N.; Yamamoto, T.

    1980-01-01

    Rolling fatigue tests of 0.45 percent carbon steel rollers were carried out using a four roller type rolling contact fatigue tester. Tangential traction and surface roughness of the harder mating rollers were varied and their effect was studied. The results indicate that the fatigue life decreases when fraction is applied in the same direction as that of rolling. When the direction of fraction is reversed, the life increases over that obtained with zero traction. The roughness of harder mating roller also has a marked influence on life. The smoother the mating roller, the longer the life. Microscopic observation of specimens revealed that the initiation of cracks during the early stages of life is more strongly influenced by the surface roughness, while the propagation of these cracks in the latter stages is affected mainly by the tangential traction.

  19. Detection of ductile crack initiation by acoustic emission testing; Detektion von duktiler Rissinitiierung durch Schallemissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, H.; Boehmert, J.; Viehrig, H.W. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR) (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung; Valo, M. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Materials and Structural Integrity, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    A Charpy impact test equipment is described permitting simultaneous measurement of impact force, crack tip opening, acoustic emissions and magnetic emissions. The core of the equipment is an inverted pendulum ram impact testing machine and the tests have been performed with laterally notched, pre-fatigue ISO-V specimens made of steels of various strength and tougness properties. The tests are intended to ascertain whether the acoustic emission method is suitable for detecting steady crack initiation in highly ductile steels. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Es wird eine Kerbschlagbiegeanordnung vorgestellt, mit der simultan Schlagkraft, Rissoeffnung, Schallemission und magnetische Emission gemessen werden koennen. Grundbaustein der Anordnung ist ein invertiertes Pendelschlagwerk. Mit dieser Anordnung wurden seitgekerbte, vorermuedete ISO-V Proben aus Staehlen mit unterschiedlichen Festigkeits-Zaehigkeitseigenschaften geprueft. Die Untersuchung soll aufzeigen, ob Schallemission zur Detektion der stabilen Rissinitierung an hochzaehen Staehlen geeignet ist. (orig./CB)

  20. Investigations of construction materials by means of cracking mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilous, W.; Wasiak, J.

    1995-01-01

    The diagnostic procedure for typical construction materials based on cracking tests has been presented. Results of investigations for aluminium base alloys and tungsten sintered materials have been shown and discussed. Application of the method for pipelines testing has been also performed. 6 figs, 2 tabs

  1. The influence of the first non-singular stress terms on crack initiation direction in an orthotropic bi-material plate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusák, Jan; Hrstka, M.; Profant, T.; Krepl, Ondřej; Ševeček, O.; Kotoul, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 71, JUN (2014), s. 67-75 ISSN 0167-8442 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR GA14-11234S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Bi-material notch * Crack initiation direction * Non-singular stress term * Generalized fracture mechanics * Path-independent integral Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.262, year: 2014

  2. Crack initiation and fracture features of Fe–Co–B–Si–Nb bulk metallic glass during compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lesz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was investigation crack initiation and fracture features developed during compression of Fe-based bulk metallic glass (BMG. These Fe-based BMG has received great attention as a new class of structural material due to an excellent properties (e.g. high strength and high elasticity and low costs. However, the poor ductility and brittle fracture exhibited in BMGs limit their structural application. At room temperature, BMGs fails catastrophically without appreciable plastic deformation under tension and only very limited plastic deformation is observed under compression or bending. Hence a well understanding of the crack initiation and fracture morphology of Fe-based BMGs after compression is of much importance for designing high performance BMGs. The raw materials used in this experiment for the production of BMGs were pure Fe, Co, Nb metals and nonmetallic elements: Si, B. The Fe–Co–B–Si–Nb alloy was cast as rods with three different diameters. The structure of the investigated BMGs rod is amorphous. The measurement of mechanical properties (Young modulus - E, compressive stress - σc, elastic strain - ε, unitary elastic strain energy – Uu were made in compression test. Compression test indicates the rods of Fe-based alloy to exhibit high mechanical strength. The development of crack initiation and fracture morphology after compression of Fe-based BMG were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM. Fracture morphology of rods has been different on the cross section. Two characteristic features of the compressive fracture morphologies of BMGs were observed. One is the smooth region. Another typical feature of the compressive fracture morphology of BMGs is the vein pattern. The veins on the compressive fracture surface have an obvious direction as result of initial displace of sample along shear bands. This direction follows the direction of the displacement of a material. The formation of veins on the

  3. Development of a Physically-Based Methodology for Predicting Material Variability in Fatigue Crack Initiation and Growth Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chan, Kwai

    2004-01-01

    ... of aerospace structural alloys. In this three-year program, physics-based fatigue crack initiation and growth models were developed and integrated into a probabilistic micromechanical code for treating fatigue life variability...

  4. Effect of machining damage on low cycle fatigue crack initiation life in drilled holes in UdimetRTM 720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadanz, Christine M.

    White layer is a generic term for a light etching surface layer on metal alloys that can result under extreme deformation conditions in wear, sliding or machining. While there has been some characterization of white layer due to abusive machining, the specific effect on fatigue crack initiation life has not been well documented. This study aimed to establish a relationship between the presence of white layer due to abusive machining and fatigue crack initiation life in a wrought nickel based superalloy (Udimet ® 720). Low cycle fatigue testing was conducted on large specimens containing through holes drilled with parameters aimed at creating holes with and without white layer. Initially, Acoustic Emission monitoring technologies were used to monitor for acoustic events associated with crack initiation, however, this technology was deemed unreliable for this testing. Instead, cycles to crack initiation was determined using striation density measurements on each fracture surface to estimate the number of cycles of crack propagation, which was subtracted from the total number of cycles for the specimen. A total of sixteen specimens were tested in this manner. The results suggested that the crack initiation lives of holes machined with good machining parameters were statistically longer than crack initiation lives of holes machined with poor machining parameters. The mean initiation life of the poorly machined specimens was a factor of approximately 2 times shorter than the mean initiation life of the well machined specimens. The holes machined with good machining parameters exhibited subsurface initiations which suggested that no anomalies affected crack initiation for these specimens. It was also shown that some of the poorly machined holes exhibited subsurface initiations rather than initiations at white layer damage. These holes had better surface finish than the poorly machined specimens that did fail at white layer. The mean initiation life of the poorly

  5. Corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on alloy corrosion cracking. Topics considered at the conference included the effect of niobium addition on intergranular stress corrosion cracking, corrosion-fatigue cracking in fossil-fueled-boilers, fracture toughness, fracture modes, hydrogen-induced thresholds, electrochemical and hydrogen permeation studies, the effect of seawater on fatigue crack propagation of wells for offshore structures, the corrosion fatigue of carbon steels in seawater, and stress corrosion cracking and the mechanical strength of alloy 600

  6. Effectiveness of Fiber Reinforcement on the Mechanical Properties and Shrinkage Cracking of Recycled Fine Aggregate Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeongsoo; Kim, Gyuyong; Yoo, Jaechul; Choe, Gyeongcheol; Kim, Hongseop; Choi, Hyeonggil; Kim, Youngduck

    2016-02-26

    This paper presents an experimental study conducted to investigate the effect of fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties and shrinkage cracking of recycled fine aggregate concrete (RFAC) with two types of fiber-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and nylon. A small fiber volume fraction, such as 0.05% or 0.1%, in RFAC with polyvinyl alcohol or nylon fibers was used for optimum efficiency in minimum quantity. Additionally, to make a comparative evaluation of the mechanical properties and shrinkage cracking, we examined natural fine aggregate concrete as well. The test results revealed that the addition of fibers and fine aggregates plays an important role in improving the mechanical performance of the investigated concrete specimens as well as controlling their cracking behavior. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength of fiber-reinforced RFAC were slightly better than those of non-fiber-reinforced RFAC. The shrinkage cracking behavior was examined using plat-ring-type and slab-type tests. The fiber-reinforced RFAC showed a greater reduction in the surface cracks than non-fiber-reinforced concrete. The addition of fibers at a small volume fraction in RFAC is more effective for drying shrinkage cracks than for improving mechanical performance.

  7. Effectiveness of Fiber Reinforcement on the Mechanical Properties and Shrinkage Cracking of Recycled Fine Aggregate Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeongsoo; Kim, Gyuyong; Yoo, Jaechul; Choe, Gyeongcheol; Kim, Hongseop; Choi, Hyeonggil; Kim, Youngduck

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study conducted to investigate the effect of fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties and shrinkage cracking of recycled fine aggregate concrete (RFAC) with two types of fiber—polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and nylon. A small fiber volume fraction, such as 0.05% or 0.1%, in RFAC with polyvinyl alcohol or nylon fibers was used for optimum efficiency in minimum quantity. Additionally, to make a comparative evaluation of the mechanical properties and shrinkage cracking, we examined natural fine aggregate concrete as well. The test results revealed that the addition of fibers and fine aggregates plays an important role in improving the mechanical performance of the investigated concrete specimens as well as controlling their cracking behavior. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength of fiber-reinforced RFAC were slightly better than those of non-fiber-reinforced RFAC. The shrinkage cracking behavior was examined using plat-ring-type and slab-type tests. The fiber-reinforced RFAC showed a greater reduction in the surface cracks than non-fiber-reinforced concrete. The addition of fibers at a small volume fraction in RFAC is more effective for drying shrinkage cracks than for improving mechanical performance. PMID:28773256

  8. Crack initiation at high loading rates applying the four-point bending split Hopkinson pressure bar technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschel, Sebastian; Krüger, Lutz

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic crack initiation with crack-tip loading rates of K˙ ≈ 2.106MPa√ms-1 in a high strength G42CrMoS4 steel was investigated. To this end, a previously developed split Hopkinson pressure bar with four-point bending was utilised. V-notched and pre-cracked Charpy specimens were tested. The detection of dynamic crack initiation was performed by analysing the dynamic force equilibrium between the incident and the transmission bar. Additionally, the signal of a near-field strain gauge and high-speed photography were used to determine the instant of crack initiation. To account for vibrations of the sample, a dynamic analysis of the stress intensity factor was performed. The dynamic and static analyses of the tests produced nearly the same results when a force equilibrium was achieved. Fracture-surface analysis revealed that elongated MnS inclusions strongly affected both the dynamic crack initiation and growth. Blunting of the precrack did not take place when a group of MnS inclusions was located directly at the precrack tip. Due to the direction of the elongated MnS inclusions perpendicular to the direction of crack growth, the crack could be deflected. The comparison with a 42CrMo4 steel without elongated MnS inclusions revealed the detrimental effect in terms of resistance to crack initiation. Taking the loading-rate dependency into consideration, it was shown that there was no pronounced embrittlement due to the high loading rates.

  9. Investigating the process of white etching crack initiation in bearing steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, Benjamin; Greco, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    White etching cracks (WECs) have been identified as a dominant mode of premature failure within wind turbine gearbox bearings. Though WECs have been reported in the field for over a decade, the conditions leading to WECs, and the process by which this failure culminates, are both highly debated. In previously published work, the generation of WECs on a benchtop scale was linked to sliding at the surface of the test sample, it was also postulated that the generation of WECs was dependent on the cumulative energy that had been applied to the sample over the entirety of the test. In this paper, a three ring on roller bench top test rig is used to systematically alter the cumulative energy that a sample experiences through changes in normal load, sliding, and run time, in an attempt to correlate cumulative energy with the formation of WECs. It was determined that, in the current test setup, the presence of WECs can be predicted by this energy criterion. The authors then used this information to study the process by which WECs initiate. Lastly, it was found that, under the current testing conditions, the formation of a dark etching microstructure precedes the formation of a crack, and a crack precedes the formation of white etching microstructure.

  10. Crack initiation and potential hot-spot formation around a cylindrical defect under dynamic compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao; Li, Xinguo; Zheng, Xianxu; Li, Kewu; Hu, Qiushi; Li, Jianling

    2017-11-01

    In recent decades, the hot-spot theory of condensed-phase explosives has been a compelling focus of scientific investigation attracting many researchers. The defect in the polymeric binder of the polymer-bonded explosive is called the intergranular defect. In this study, the real polymeric binder was substituted by poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as it is transparent and has similar thermodynamic properties to some binders. A set of modified split Hopkinson pressure bars equipped with a time-resolved shadowgraph was used to study the process of crack initiation and potential hot-spot formation around a cylindrical defect in PMMA. The new and significant phenomenon that the opening-mode crack emerged earlier than the shearing-mode crack from the cylindrical defect has been published for the first time in this paper. Furthermore, a two-dimensional numerical simulation was performed to show the evolution of both the stress field and the temperature field. The simulation results were in good agreement with the experiment. Finally, the law of potential hot-spot formation is discussed in detail.

  11. Crack modelling for the assessment of stiffness loss of reinforced concrete structures under mechanical loading - determination of the permeability of the micro-cracked body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongue Boma, M.

    2007-12-01

    We propose a model describing the evolution of mechanical and permeability properties of concrete under slow mechanical loading. Calling upon the theory of continua with microstructure, the kinematic of the domain is enriched by a variable characterising size and orientation of the crack field. We call upon configurational forces to deal with crack propagation and we determine the balance equations governing both strain and propagation. The geometry of the microstructure is representative of the porous media: the permeability is obtained from the resolution of Stokes equations in an elementary volume. An example has been treated: we considered simple assumptions (uniform crack field, application of linear fracture mechanics...) and we determined the behaviour of a body under tensile loading. Strain, crack propagation and stiffness loss are completely assessed. Finally the evolution of permeability is plotted: once activated, crack propagation is the main cause of water tightness loss. (author)

  12. Fatigue crack initiation in nickel-based superalloys studied by microstructure-based FE modeling and scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fried M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work stage I crack initiation in polycrystalline nickel-based superalloys is investigated by analyzing anisotropic mechanical properties, local stress concentrations and plastic deformation on the microstructural length scale. The grain structure in the gauge section of fatigue specimens was characterized by EBSD. Based on the measured data, a microstructure-based FE model could be established to simulate the strain and stress distribution in the specimens during the first loading cycle of a fatigue test. The results were in fairly good agreement with experimentally measured local strains. Furthermore, the onset of plastic deformation was predicted by identifying shear stress maxima in the microstructure, presumably leading to activation of slip systems. Measurement of plastic deformation and observation of slip traces in the respective regions of the microstructure confirmed the predicted slip activity. The close relation between micro-plasticity, formation of slip traces and stage I crack initiation was demonstrated by SEM surface analyses of fatigued specimens and an in-situ fatigue test in a large chamber SEM.

  13. Alcali-silica reactions: Mechanisms for crack formations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2006-01-01

    Alkali-silica reactions (ASR) are found all over the world and cause a large number of damage, which have lead to different sets of requirements in the different countries for the aggregates, the cements and the admixtures. One of the reasons for the damage and the different requirements is that ......, paste and concrete; the critical concentrations of reactive aggregates and alkali; critical aggregate sizes; the critical exposure time and predicts the potential crack patterns....

  14. Effects of oxidation on high-temperature mechanical properties of alloy 600: application to cracking in primary water of nuclear pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgues, A.F.

    1997-09-01

    Since the early 1970's certain component parts of the primary loops of nuclear pressurised water reactors, such as steam generator tubing and pressure vessel head penetrations, have been affected by intergranular stress corrosion cracking. This form of cracking, which occurs after several thousand hours, initiates on the component side exposed to primary water. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the cracking mechanism. The focus is on the interactions between the local mechanical loading conditions and the effects of an oxidising environment. Fatigue and creep fatigue crack propagation tests were carried out using CT specimens. The local mechanical loading conditions were determined by finite element calculations. The oxidation behaviour was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Creep tests were conducted on thin sheet samples to investigate the effects of environment on the creep properties. Intergranular crack propagation, as determined at 550 deg C in air and in vacuum, has been related to a creep damage mechanism. Dislocation creep deformation mechanisms, which appear to induce intergranular damage in this material at high temperature, are enhanced when the growing oxide scale is nickel- or iron-rich, compared to the results obtained in high vacuum with the protective chromium oxide scale. Thus, intergranular fracture, which occurs in all environmental conditions under creep fatigue cycles, occurs even under fatigue cycles when creep is enhanced. Fatigue crack propagation tests at 400 deg C gave essentially the same results as those obtained at 550 deg C. Crack propagation tests in deaerated water, either in low pressure vapour at 400 deg C or in primary water at 320 deg C, lead to the same cracking results. The fracture surfaces were identical to those observed after conventional stress corrosion cracking tests. For these environmental conditions, the enhanced creep model was also proposed to account for the experimental

  15. Fundamental study of crack initiation and propagation. Annual progress report, March 1976--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, D.M. Jr. (ed.)

    1977-06-01

    Ductile fracture in nuclear pressure vessel steel was characterized using a computer model of material damage. The model predicts crack initiation and growth and contains constants that are set by computer simulation of the following fracture tests: the simple tension test, the circumferentially notched round tension test, the blunt-notched compact tension test, and the Charpy V-notch test. The simulations provide the stress and strain states of these tests at fracture. The major goal of our characterization program is to determine the correlation between Charpy toughness and fracture toughness.

  16. Formation of stress/strain cycles for analytical assessment of fatigue crack initiation and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashkinov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses standard techniques for setting up cycles of stresses, strains and stress intensity factors (SIF) for use in analysing the fatigue characteristics of crack-free components or the fatigue crack growth if crack-like flaws are present. A number of improved techniques are proposed. An enhanced procedure for analytical description of true metal stress-strain curves, covering plastic effects, is presented. This procedure involves standard physical and mechanical properties of the metal in question, such as ultimate stress, yield stress and elasticity modulus. It is emphasized that the currently practiced rain-flow method of design cycle formation, which is effective for an actual (truly known) cyclic loading history, is not suitable for a projected (anticipated) history, as it leaves out of account possible variations in the sequence of operating conditions. Improved techniques for establishing design stress/strain and SIF cycles are described, which make allowance for the most unfavourable sequence of events in the projected loading history. The paper points to a basic difference in the methods of design cycle formation, employed in assessment of the current condition of a component (with the actual history accounted for) and in estimation of the residual lifetime or life extension (for a projected history). (authors)

  17. Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation in Coated and Uncoated Inconel 713LC at 800 °C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smékalová, J.; Pospíšilová, S.; Obrtlík, Karel; Juliš, M.; Podrábský, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2010), s. 155-162 ISSN 1210-0471 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Fatigue * crack propagation * high temperature Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  18. Quantitative characterization of initiation and propagation in stress corrosion cracking. An approach of a phenomenological model; Caracterisation quantitative de l`amorcage et de la propagation en corrosion sous contrainte. Approche d`une modelisation phenomenologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raquet, O.

    1994-11-25

    A purely phenomenological study of stress corrosion cracking was performed using the couple Z2CN 18.10 (304L) austenitic stainless steel/boiling MgCl{sub 2} aqueous solution. The exploitation of the morphological information (shape of the cracks and size distribution) available after constant elongation rate tests led to the proposal of an analytical expression of the crack initiation and growth rates. This representation allowed to quantitatively characterize the influence of the applied strain rate as well as the effect of corrosion inhibitors on the crack initiation and propagation phases. It can be used in the search for the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms as a `riddle` for the determination of the rate controlling steps. As a matter of fact, no mechanistic hypothesis has been used for its development. (author).

  19. Physical fracture properties (fracture surfaces as information sources; crackgrowth and fracture mechanisms; exemples of cracks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meny, Lucienne.

    1979-06-01

    Fracture surfaces are considered as a useful source of informations: an introduction to fractography is presented; the fracture surface may be observed through X ray microanalysis, and other physical methods such as Auger electron spectroscopy or secundary ion emission. The mechanisms of macroscopic and microscopic crackgrowth and fracture are described, in the case of unstable fracture (cleavage, ductile with shear, intergranular brittleness) and of progressive crack propagation (creep, fatigue). Exemples of cracks are presented in the last chapter [fr

  20. Diagnosis of retrofit fatigue crack re-initiation and growth in steel-girder bridges for proactive repair and emergency planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This report presents a vibration : - : based damage : - : detection methodology that is capable of effectively capturing crack growth : near connections and crack re : - : initiation of retrofitted connections. The proposed damage detection algorithm...

  1. Role of pluronics on rheological, drying and crack initiation of 'suckable' gels of decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousquet, C.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this work was to understand the role of an addition of pluronics on the rheological behaviour, the drying and the fracturing of 'suckable' gels used for nuclear decontamination. The system studied was an aqueous suspension of silica (100 g/L of Aerosil 380) in a strong acidic medium (HNO 3 /H 3 PO 4 1.5 mol/L/1.5 mol/L) in presence of pluronics. Pluronics are amphiphilic tri-blocks copolymers composed of ethylene poly-oxide blocks and of propylene poly-oxide. The first part of this study deals with the characterization of the rheological properties of the gels. From viscosity retaking measurements, flow rheo-grams analysis and the viscoelastic properties of the gels, have been determined an improvement of the rheological properties of the gels significant from the addition of 5 g/L of copolymer. In a second part, the determination of adsorption isotherms coupled to small angles neutrons diffusion measurements has revealed that copolymers are adsorbed flat on silica in bridging the aggregates between them and that the improvement of the rheological behaviour of the gels is due to the increase of the bonds density of the gelled lattice. Moreover, beyond 10 g/L, the adsorption saturation of copolymers at the surface of the silica prevents the bridging of the aggregates which induces the gel destabilization. The last part of this work deals with the characterization of characteristic values of drying and of crack initiation of gels. Then is revealed a relation between the drying kinetics and the formation of cracks in the gel layer. Moreover, the study of the evolution of stresses in the gel layer during time allows to reveal that the addition of pluronics to the formulation of gels allows to improve the gel resistance to the crack initiation and to the delamination. (O.M.)

  2. Mechanical weathering and rock erosion by climate-dependent subcritical cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppes, Martha-Cary; Keanini, Russell

    2017-06-01

    This work constructs a fracture mechanics framework for conceptualizing mechanical rock breakdown and consequent regolith production and erosion on the surface of Earth and other terrestrial bodies. Here our analysis of fracture mechanics literature explicitly establishes for the first time that all mechanical weathering in most rock types likely progresses by climate-dependent subcritical cracking under virtually all Earth surface and near-surface environmental conditions. We substantiate and quantify this finding through development of physically based subcritical cracking and rock erosion models founded in well-vetted fracture mechanics and mechanical weathering, theory, and observation. The models show that subcritical cracking can culminate in significant rock fracture and erosion under commonly experienced environmental stress magnitudes that are significantly lower than rock critical strength. Our calculations also indicate that climate strongly influences subcritical cracking—and thus rock weathering rates—irrespective of the source of the stress (e.g., freezing, thermal cycling, and unloading). The climate dependence of subcritical cracking rates is due to the chemophysical processes acting to break bonds at crack tips experiencing these low stresses. We find that for any stress or combination of stresses lower than a rock's critical strength, linear increases in humidity lead to exponential acceleration of subcritical cracking and associated rock erosion. Our modeling also shows that these rates are sensitive to numerous other environment, rock, and mineral properties that are currently not well characterized. We propose that confining pressure from overlying soil or rock may serve to suppress subcritical cracking in near-surface environments. These results are applicable to all weathering processes.

  3. Mechanical and Parametric Analysis of Cracks in Polypropylene Fiber Concrete U-Shaped Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The U-shaped girder is a type of open thin-walled structure, which is used in urban rail transit engineering. Although it employs polypropylene fiber concrete to avoid cracks, the girder is still easier to crack than other traditional structures owing to its special open thin-walled cross section. In this study, a cracking accident of a U-shaped girder, which happened during the prestressed steel tensioning, was studied by field investigation and mechanical analysis through the finite element (FE method. An outline of the cracks was presented. The nonlinear material properties of the polypropylene fiber concrete and steel were discussed and used in the finite element model. The effects of the main design parameters, such as the flange slab thickness, anchorage position, and prestressed steel layout, were evaluated based on the results of the FE analysis. The results indicate that the extremely low rigidity of the web and oversize of the web longitudinal prestressed steels are the main reasons for the cracks. The risk of cracks can be reduced by increasing the thickness of the flange slab and changing the anchorage position and prestressed steel layout. Some suggestions are provided for avoiding cracks based on the results of the research.

  4. Residual stress and crack initiation in laser clad composite layer with Co-based alloy and WC + NiCr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Changmin; Park, Hyungkwon; Yoo, Jaehong [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changhee, E-mail: chlee@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, WanChuck [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sunhong [Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology, Hyo-ja-dong, Po-Hang, Kyoung-buk, San 32 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • Major problem, clad cracking in laser cladding process, was researched. • Residual stress measurements were performed quantitatively by neutron diffraction method along the surface of specimens. • Relationship between the residual stress and crack initiation was showed clearly. • Ceramic particle effect in the metal matrix was showed from the results of residual stress measurements. • Initiation sites of generating clad cracks were specifically studied in MMC coatings. - Abstract: Although laser cladding process has been widely used to improve the wear and corrosion resistance, there are unwanted cracking issues during and/or after laser cladding. This study investigates the tendency of Co-based WC + NiCr composite layers to cracking during the laser cladding process. Residual stress distributions of the specimen are measured using neutron diffraction and elucidate the correlation between the residual stress and the cracking in three types of cylindrical specimens; (i) no cladding substrate only, (ii) cladding with 100% stellite#6, and (iii) cladding with 55% stellite#6 and 45% technolase40s. The microstructure of the clad layer was composed of Co-based dendrite and brittle eutectic phases at the dendritic boundaries. And WC particles were distributed on the matrix forming intermediate composition region by partial melting of the surface of particles. The overlaid specimen exhibited tensile residual stress, which was accumulated through the beads due to contraction of the coating layer generated by rapid solidification, while the non-clad specimen showed compressive. Also, the specimen overlaid with 55 wt% stellite#6 and 45 wt% technolase40s showed a tensile stress higher than the specimen overlaid with 100% stellite#6 possibly, due to the difference between thermal expansion coefficients of the matrix and WC particles. Such tensile stresses can be potential driving force to provide an easy crack path ways for large brittle fractures

  5. Thermo-mechanical simulations of early-age concrete cracking with durability predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlásek, Petr; Šmilauer, Vít; Hájková, Karolina; Baquerizo, Luis

    2017-09-01

    Concrete performance is strongly affected by mix design, thermal boundary conditions, its evolving mechanical properties, and internal/external restraints with consequences to possible cracking with impaired durability. Thermo-mechanical simulations are able to capture those relevant phenomena and boundary conditions for predicting temperature, strains, stresses or cracking in reinforced concrete structures. In this paper, we propose a weakly coupled thermo-mechanical model for early age concrete with an affinity-based hydration model for thermal part, taking into account concrete mix design, cement type and thermal boundary conditions. The mechanical part uses B3/B4 model for concrete creep and shrinkage with isotropic damage model for cracking, able to predict a crack width. All models have been implemented in an open-source OOFEM software package. Validations of thermo-mechanical simulations will be presented on several massive concrete structures, showing excellent temperature predictions. Likewise, strain validation demonstrates good predictions on a restrained reinforced concrete wall and concrete beam. Durability predictions stem from induction time of reinforcement corrosion, caused by carbonation and/or chloride ingress influenced by crack width. Reinforcement corrosion in concrete struts of a bridge will serve for validation.

  6. Theoretical prediction of energy release rate for interface crack initiation by thermal stress in environmental barrier coatings for ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, E.; Umeno, Y.

    2017-05-01

    As weight reduction of turbines for aircraft engines is demanded to improve fuel consumption and curb emission of carbon dioxide, silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) are drawing enormous attention as high-pressure turbine materials. For preventing degradation of SiC/SiC, environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for ceramics are deposited on the composites. The purpose of this study is to establish theoretical guidelines for structural design which ensures the mechanical reliability of EBC. We conducted finite element method (FEM) analysis to calculate energy release rates (ERRs) for interface crack initiation due to thermal stress in EBC consisting of Si-based bond coat, Mullite and Ytterbium (Yb)-silicate layers on a SiC/SiC substrate. In the FEM analysis, the thickness of one EBC layer was changed from 25 μm to 200 μm while the thicknesses of the other layers were fixed at 25 μm, 50 μm and 100 μm. We compared ERRs obtained by the FEM analysis and a simple theory for interface crack in a single-layered structure where ERR is estimated as nominal strain energy in the coating layers multiplied by a constant factor (independent of layer thicknesses). We found that, unlike the case of single-layered structures, the multiplication factor is no longer a constant but is determined by the combination of consisting coating layer thicknesses.

  7. An Analytical Model for Fatigue Life Prediction Based on Fracture Mechanics and Crack Closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsø, Jan Behrend; Agerskov, Henning

    1996-01-01

    test specimens are compared with fatigue life predictions using a fracture mechanics approach. In the calculation of the fatigue life, the influence of the welding residual stresses and crack closure on the fatigue crack growth is considered. A description of the crack closure model for analytical...... of the analytical fatigue lives. Both the analytical and experimental results obtained show that the Miner rule may give quite unconservative predictions of the fatigue life for the types of stochastic loading studied....... determination of the fatigue life is included. Furthermore, the results obtained in studies of the various parameters that have an influence on the fatigue life, are given. A very good agreement between experimental and analytical results is obtained, when the crack closure model is used in determination...

  8. Analysis of internal crack propagation in silicon due to permeable pulse laser irradiation: study on processing mechanism of stealth dicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Etsuji; Kawahito, Yuta; Fukumitsu, Kenshi; Okuma, Junji; Morita, Hideki

    2011-02-01

    Stealth dicing (SD) is an innovative dicing method developed by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. In the SD method, a permeable nanosecond laser is focused inside a silicon wafer and scanned horizontally. A thermal shock wave propagates every pulse toward the side to which the laser is irradiated, then a high dislocation density layer is formed inside the wafer after the thermal shock wave propagation. In our previous study, it was concluded that an internal crack whose initiation is a dislocation is propagated when the thermal shock wave by the next pulse overlaps with this layer partially. In the experimental result, the trace that a crack is progressed gradually step by step was observed. In this study, the possibility of internal crack propagation by laser pulses was investigated. A two-dimensional thermal stress analysis based on the linear fracture mechanics was conducted using the stress distribution obtained by the axisymmetric thermal stress analysis. As a result, the validity of the hypothesis based on a heat transfer analysis result previously presented was supported. Also it was concluded that the internal crack is propagated by at least two pulses.

  9. Crack Propagation Calculations for Optical Fibers under Static Bending and Tensile Loads Using Continuum Damage Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunxia; Cui, Yuxuan; Gong, Wenjun

    2017-11-15

    Static fatigue behavior is the main failure mode of optical fibers applied in sensors. In this paper, a computational framework based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) is presented to calculate the crack propagation process and failure time of optical fibers subjected to static bending and tensile loads. For this purpose, the static fatigue crack propagation in the glass core of the optical fiber is studied. Combining a finite element method (FEM), we use the continuum damage mechanics for the glass core to calculate the crack propagation path and corresponding failure time. In addition, three factors including bending radius, tensile force and optical fiber diameter are investigated to find their impacts on the crack propagation process and failure time of the optical fiber under concerned situations. Finally, experiments are conducted and the results verify the correctness of the simulation calculation. It is believed that the proposed method could give a straightforward description of the crack propagation path in the inner glass core. Additionally, the predicted crack propagation time of the optical fiber with different factors can provide effective suggestions for improving the long-term usage of optical fibers.

  10. Effect of Mechanical Heterogeneity on the Crack Driving Force of a Reactor Pressure Vessel Outlet Nozzle DMW Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingyan, Zhao; Yinghao, Cui; He, Xue

    2017-12-01

    The welding mechanical heterogeneity, load complexity, material and geometrical structure makes it very difficult to assess the structural integrity of dissimilar metal weld (DMW) joints. Based on a numerical simulated approach of the continuous change of material mechanical property in the buttering layer, a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) outlet nozzle DMW joint with service loads is studied, effect of mechanical heterogeneity on the stress-strain field and stress triaxiality at the semi-elliptical surface crack front are discussed. The analyses show that once the crack extends into the high hardness zone of Alloy 182 buttering, the strain decreases sharply, the strain gradient increases and the crack propagation slows down. The influence of strength mismatch on the stress triaxiality at the shallow crack front is greater than that at the deep crack front. The interaction between strength mismatch and crack depth directly affects the crack growth direction.

  11. Effects of pre-cracks on both initiation and propagation of re-bar corrosion in pure carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L’Hostis Valérie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with effects of pre-cracks on both initiation and propagation of reinforcement steel corrosion due to carbonation. The ring shaped mortar samples with 8 mm steel bar inside were cracked with different crack widths ranging from 12 micrometers to 600 micrometers and then subjected to carbon dioxide environment for different terms to assess the carbonation profile in cracks and along the interface between steel and concrete, damaged by the internal pressure applied to the ring samples. After carbonation of interface, ring samples were submitted to wetting-drying cycles to study the propagation of corrosion and the effect of corrosion products on healing and then repassivation of steel bar or corrosion cracks development. Results show that irrespective of width of cracks, the carbon dioxide reaches the interface between steel and mortar and propagates along this interface. The samples then subjected to wetting-drying cycles exhibit corrosion development all along the interface,the appearance of oxides does not lead to create corrosion cracks for the duration of the experiments.

  12. Evaluation of local stress for stress corrosion crack initiation by three-dimensional polycrystal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the initiation behavior of microstructurally small cracks in a stress corrosion cracking condition, it is important to know the tensile normal stress acting on the grain boundary (normal G.B. stress). The local stress in a polycrystalline body is greatly influenced by deformation constraint which is caused by anisotropic and/or inhomogeneous property of each grain. In present study, the local normal G.B. stress on bi- and tri-crystal bodies and a three-dimensional polycrystalline body consisting of 100 grains were evaluated by the finite element method under a remote uniform tensile stress condition. The polycrystalline body was generated by using a Monte Carlo procedure and random orientations were assigned to each grain. It was revealed that the local normal G.B. stress on the polycrystalline body is inhomogeneous under uniform applied stress. The stress tends to be large near the triple points due to the deformation constraint caused by adjacent grains, even though the grain boundary inclination to the load axis has large influence. It was also shown that particular high stress was not observed at corners of the polycrystalline body. (author)

  13. Localized deformation as a key precursor to initiation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels employed in nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Wade; Diego, Gonzalo; Devrient, Bastian

    2010-11-01

    Cold-work has been associated with the occurrence of intergranular cracking of stainless steels employed in light water reactors. This study examined the deformation behavior of AISI 304, AISI 347 and a higher stacking fault energy model alloy subjected to bulk cold-work and (for 347) surface deformation. Deformation microstructures of the materials were examined and correlated with their particular mechanical response under different conditions of temperature, strain rate and degree of prior cold-work. Select slow-strain rate tensile tests in autoclaves enabled the role of local strain heterogeneity in crack initiation in pressurized water reactor environments to be considered. The high stacking fault energy material exhibited uniform strain hardening, even at sub-zero temperatures, while the commercial stainless steels showed significant heterogeneity in their strain response. Surface treatments introduced local cold-work, which had a clear effect on the surface roughness and hardness, and on near-surface residual stress profiles. Autoclave tests led to transgranular surface cracking for a circumferentially ground surface, and intergranular crack initiation for a polished surface.

  14. Mechanical analysis of ceramic heat being part of hip prosthesis with presence of cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravagli, E.

    1995-03-01

    This report still pursues the aim of carrying out a systematic mechanical analysis of a ceramic heat being part of a modular hig prosthesis, in order to characterize it exhaustively, i. e. to assess its performances and some of its main specifications. A mechanical analysis of a second case is carried out here, the presence of head cracks being taken into account. The evaluations made lead to the conclusion that the head should not show cracks bigger than 100 mm. This study is performed in the frame of the STRIDE-CETMA project, which is aimed at founding and developing a centre for technologically advanced materials in Brindisi technology park (Italy)

  15. Averaged strain energy density-based synthesis of crack initiation life in notched steel bars under torsional fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Berto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The torsional fatigue behaviour of circumferentially notched specimens made of austenitic stainless steel, SUS316L, and carbon steel, SGV410, characterized by different notch root radii has been recently investigated by Tanaka. In that contribution, it was observed that the total fatigue life of the austenitic stainless steel increases with increasing stress concentration factor for a given applied nominal shear stress amplitude. By using the electrical potential drop method, Tanaka observed that the crack nucleation life was reduced with increasing stress concentration, on the other hand the crack propagation life increased. The experimental fatigue results, originally expressed in terms of nominal shear stress amplitude, have been reanalysed by means of the local strain energy density (SED averaged over a control volume having radius R0 surrounding the notch tip. To exclude all extrinsic effects acting during the fatigue crack propagation phase, such as sliding contact and/or friction between fracture surfaces, crack initiation life has been considered in the present work. In the original paper, initiation life was defined in correspondence of a 0.1÷0.4-mm-deep crack. The control radius R0 for fatigue strength assessment of notched components, thought of as a material property, has been estimated by imposing the constancy of the averaged SED for both smooth and cracked specimens at NA = 2 million loading cycles

  16. SCC life estimation based on cracks initiated from the corrosion pits of bolting material SCM435 used in steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hitomi; Ochi, Mayumi; Fujiwara, Isao; Momoo, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Life estimation was performed for the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) that occurs in deaerated and wet hot pure steam at the bottoms of the threads of bolts made of SCM435 (equivalent to AISI 4137) used in steam turbine. SCC is believed to occur when corrosion pits are formed and grow to critical size, after which SCC is initiated and cracks propagate until the critical fracture toughness value is reached. Calculations were performed using laboratory and field data. The results showed that, for a 40mm diameter bolt with 0.2% offset strength of 820MPa, the critical crack depth for straight-front cracks was 5.4mm. The SCC life depends on the lubricant used; the SCC life estimated from this value is approximately 70,000 hours when graphite is used as a lubricant. (author)

  17. Specimen design and instrumentation for monitoring fatigue crack growth initiating at ply drops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios; Di Crescenzo, Leonardo; McGugan, Malcolm

    Unpredictable and excessive loads, for example caused by aerodynamic interaction between different turbines, can accelerate fatigue damage in wind turbine blades (Ghosal et. al (2000)). Fatigue damage can also initiate in the early service life of a wind turbine blade in regions of stress...... materials and a structural health monitoring system (McGugan et al. (2015)). In this approach, a distribution of damage types within the blades is accepted as long as they can be detected by structural health monitoring techniques and their severity evaluated by material damage models. The present work aims...... embedding fibre Bragg grating sensors. c) Instrumentation of the test specimen e.g. strain gauges, acoustic emission sensors, fibre Bragg grating sensors. Selected static and cyclic results will be presented showing that certain damage types (cracks at ply drops) are stable and thus not critical...

  18. Study of low-cycle crack initiation in heterogeneous welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.P.; Petrequin, P.

    1985-06-01

    Some nuclear reactor components are subject to loads, what involves the evaluation of the fatigue resistance of these joints. Low-cycle tests have been carried out at 20 0 C with big cylindrical test pieces, taken from a heterogeneous joint (steels A533 B and 316L), including all the components of the joint. The deformations of each component of the joint are evaluated; they agree with the observed crack initiation localization, which situates preferentially in the austenitic deposited metal from the surface. With the aid of a simple method, one tries to find the characteristics of fatigue resistance and the cyclic consolidation of the joint from the low-cycle properties of the different components of the joint. The comparison of the joint components deformation, a little different from those calculated, suggest establishing a two-dimensional modeling, to agree better with experimental results [fr

  19. Creep-fatigue crack initiation assessment on thick circumferentially notched 316L tubes under cyclic thermal shocks and uniform tension with the σd approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, B.; Poette, C.

    1997-01-01

    For crack initiation assessment under creep fatigue loading, in high temperature Fast Reactor's components, specific approaches based on fracture mechanics analysis had to be developed. In the present paper the crack initiation assessment method proposed in the A16 document is presented. The so called ''σ d method'' is also validated on experimental results for tubular specimens with internal axisymmetric surface cracks. Experimental data are extracted from the TERFIS program carried out on a sodium test device at the CEA Cadarache. Metallurgical examinations on TERFIS specimens confirm that the initiation assessment of the ''σ d '' approach is conservative even for a different geometry than the CT specimen on which the method was set up. However, the conservatism is reduced when the creep residual stress field is relaxed during the hold time. An investigation concerning this last point is needed in order to know if relaxing the stress, when using a lower bound of the mechanical properties, always keeps a safety margin. (author). 14 refs, 10 figs, 4 tabs

  20. The effect of initiation feature and environment on fatigue crack formation and early propagation in aluminum zinc magnesium copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, James T.

    The current research provides insight into fatigue crack formation and progression in the poorly understood size regime that bridges safe-life and damage tolerance approaches; particular attention is given to the influences of corrosion-induced degradation and time-cycle dependent loading environment effects. Quantitative analysis of crack formation life (Ni), microstructurally small crack (database. Results show that fatigue crack formation involves a complex interaction of elastic stress concentration, due to a 3-dimensional macro-pit, coupled with local micro-feature (and constituent) induced plastic strain concentration. Such interactions cause high Ni variability, but, from an engineering perspective, a broadly corroded surface should contain an extreme group of features driving Ni to ˜0. At low-applied stresses, Ni consumes a significant portion of total life, which is well predicted by coupling elastic-plastic FEA with empirical low-cycle fatigue life models. All pristine and corroded da/dN were uniquely correlated using complex continuum stress intensity (K) and crack opening solutions which account for the stress concentrating formation feature. Multiple crack growth regimes were observed, typical of environment enhanced fatigue in Al alloys. Such behavior is not captured by prominent mechanics-based small crack models. Furthermore, neither local closure nor slip-based models captured the order of magnitude variability in da/dN attributed to microstructure. Low temperature loading produces an order of magnitude increase in Ni, and even larger reduction in da/dN, due to elimination of H-enhanced cracking by reduced external water vapor pressure, lower crack tip reaction rate (to produce atomic-H), and slower H diffusion. Engineering level modeling approaches are validated using these high fidelity experimental results, informing next generation prognosis methods for realistic airframe environments.

  1. A mechanical energy analysis of gait initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. A.; Verstraete, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of gait initiation (the transient state between standing and walking) is an important diagnostic tool to study pathologic gait and to evaluate prosthetic devices. While past studies have quantified mechanical energy of the body during steady-state gait, to date no one has computed the mechanical energy of the body during gait initiation. In this study, gait initiation in seven normal male subjects was studied using a mechanical energy analysis to compute total body energy. The data showed three separate states: quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady-state gait. During gait initiation, the trends in the energy data for the individual segments were similar to those seen during steady-state gait (and in Winter DA, Quanbury AO, Reimer GD. Analysis of instantaneous energy of normal gait. J Biochem 1976;9:253-257), but diminished in amplitude. However, these amplitudes increased to those seen in steady-state during the gait initiation event (GIE), with the greatest increase occurring in the second step due to the push-off of the foundation leg. The baseline level of mechanical energy was due to the potential energy of the individual segments, while the cyclic nature of the data was indicative of the kinetic energy of the particular leg in swing phase during that step. The data presented showed differences in energy trends during gait initiation from those of steady state, thereby demonstrating the importance of this event in the study of locomotion.

  2. Preliminary development of flaw evaluation procedures for delayed hydride cracking initiation under hydride non-ratcheting conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.; Cui, J.; Kawa, D.; Shek, G.K.; Scarth, D.A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The flaw evaluation procedure for Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) initiation currently provided in the CSA Standard N285.8 was developed for hydride ratcheting conditions, in which flaw-tip hydrides do not completely dissolve at peak temperature. Test results have shown that hydrided regions formed under non-ratcheting conditions, in which flaw-tip hydrides completely dissolve at peak temperature, have significantly higher resistance to cracking than those formed under ratcheting conditions. This paper presents some preliminary work on the development of a procedure for the evaluation of DHC initiation for flaws under hydride non-ratcheting conditions. (author)

  3. Crack initiation at a V-notch—comparison between a brittle fracture criterion and the Dugdale cohesive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Carole; Leguillon, Dominique; Martin, Eric

    2007-07-01

    The cohesive zone models are an alternative to fracture criteria for the prediction of crack initiation at stress concentration points in brittle materials. We propose here a comparison between the so-called mixed criterion involving a twofold condition (energy and stress) and the Dugdale cohesive model. The predictions of the critical load leading to failure are in perfect agreement and both models conclude that the initial process is unstable except in case of a pre-existing crack. To cite this article: C. Henninger et al., C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).

  4. Effects of microstructure and local mechanical fields on intergranular stress corrosion cracking of a friction stir welded aluminum–copper–lithium 2050 nugget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhondt, Matthieu; Aubert, Isabelle; Saintier, Nicolas; Olive, Jean Marc

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Applied stress changes the corrosion mode from pitting to intergranular cracking. • Residual stresses are sufficient to induce intergranular stress corrosion cracking. • Effect of crystallographic texture on the development of IGSCC evidenced by EBSD. • Cubic elasticity drives the local orientation of the intergranular cracking. • Tomography observations show the 3D nature of the corrosion development. - Abstract: The effects of the microstructure and mechanical fields on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of the nugget zone of heat treated welds obtained by friction stir welding in the AA2050 aluminum alloy have been investigated at different scales. At low strain rate, in 1.0 NaCl aqueous solution, IGSCC develops in the microstructure, whereas only pitting corrosion is observed without any mechanical stress. Based on surface observations, EBSD analysis and X-ray tomography, the key role of sub-millimetric textured bands (induced by the welding process) on the IGSCC is demonstrated. Analyses at a more local scale show the grain boundary (low angle boundary, special coincident site lattice boundary or high angle boundary) do not have a significant effect on crack initiation. Crystal plasticity finite element calculations show that the threshold normal stress at grain boundaries for IGSCC development is about 80% of the macroscopic stress. It is also highlighted by crystal plasticity calculations that there is a drastic effect of the local stress field on the shape of cracks. Finally, it is shown that plasticity induced residual stresses are sufficient for the formation of IGSCC

  5. Study of the initiation and the propagation of cracks under 3D thermal cyclic loading; Etude de l'amorcage et de la propagation des fissures sous chargement thermique cyclique 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancelet, O

    2005-07-01

    The incident which has occurred on the Civaux power plant has shown the noxiousness of thermal loading and the difficulty to take it into account at design level. The objective of this report is to study the initiation and the propagation of crack under thermal loading. In this aim the CEA has developed a new experiment named FAT3D. The various experiments carried out showed the harmfulness of a thermal loading, which makes it possible to rapidly initiate a network of cracks and to propagate one (or some) cracks through the totally thickness of the component under certain conditions. These experimental results associated with a mechanical analysis put at fault the usual criteria of damage based on the variations of the equivalent strain. In addition, the study of the propagation stage shows the importance of the plasticity which, in the case of a thermal loading, slows down the propagation of the crack. (author)

  6. Fracture mechanics characterization of crack growth under creep and fatigue conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollstein, T.; Kienzler, R.

    1987-01-01

    Based on theoretical considerations and experimental evidence, several concepts have been investigated to correlate crack growth under high-temperature conditions with material parameters of fracture mechanics, e.g., stress-intensity factor K, and line integrals J and C * . It could be shown for different materials that these parameters describe the behavior of cracks independent of geometry and loading conditions within certain limits of validity. The laboratory results then can be transferred to real structures for (residual) lifetime predictions or safety analyses (Incoloy 800H, Thermon 4972, 9% chromium steel). With 45 refs., 3 tabs., 56 figs [de

  7. Mechanism of intergranular stress corrosion cracking in HAZ for super-martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Yukio; Kimura, Mitsuo [Tubular Products and Casting Research Dept., JFE Steel Corporation, 1-1, Kawasaki-cho, Handa (Japan); Nakamichi, Haruo; Sato, Kaoru [Analysis and Characterization Research Dept., JFE Steel Corporation, 1-1, Minamiwatarida-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki (Japan); Itakura, Noritsugu [Products Service and Development Dept., Chita Works, JFE Steel Corporation. 1-1, Kawasaki-cho, Handa (Japan); Masamura, Katsumi [Tubular Products Business Planning Dept., JFE Steel Corporation, 2-2-3, Uchisaiwai-sho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Mechanism of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) for heat affected zone (HAZ) of super-martensitic stainless steel was studied using two types of the steel. One was a lean grade, which was Mo free and low Ni, and the other was a high grade, which was Mo added and high Ni. Specimens received heat treatments simulating welding thermal cycles were applied to SCC tests. Cracks were observed in some specimens after U-bend SCC test under low pH environments. Thermal cycle conditions with sensitization were verified from the results. No crack was observed in the specimen with the thermal cycle simulating post welding heat treatment (PWHT) after sensitizing conditions. Therefore, PWHT was clarified to be effective to prevent the cracking. Cr carbides were observed along prior austenite grain boundary intermittently, and Cr depleted zone was confirmed on the grain boundary adjacent to carbides that precipitated on the grain boundary. It is, therefore, concluded that the cracking results from Cr depletion on prior austenite grain boundary accompanied by precipitation of Cr carbides under specific welding conditions. (authors)

  8. Research on Crack Formation in Gypsum Partitions with Doorway by Means of FEM and Fracture Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Tomasz; Stawiski, Bohdan

    2017-10-01

    Cracking damage in non-loadbearing internal partition walls is a serious problem that frequently occurs in new buildings within the short term after putting them into service or even before completion of construction. Damage in partition walls is sometimes so great that they cannot be accepted by their occupiers. This problem was illustrated by the example of damage in a gypsum partition wall with doorway attributed to deflection of the slabs beneath and above it. In searching for the deflection which causes damage in masonry walls, fracture mechanics applied to the Finite Element Method (FEM) have been used. For a description of gypsum behaviour, the smeared cracking material model has been selected, where stresses are transferred across the narrowly opened crack until its width reaches the ultimate value. Cracks in the Finite Element models overlapped the real damage observed in the buildings. In order to avoid cracks under the deflection of large floor slabs, the model of a wall with reinforcement in the doorstep zone and a 40 mm thick elastic junction between the partition and ceiling has been analysed.

  9. Crack initiation and propagation paths in small diameter FSW 6082-T6 aluminium tubes under fatigue loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tovo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports results of fatigue tests of friction stir welded (FSW aluminium tubes. Relatively small 38 mm diameter tubes were used and hence an automated FSW process using a retracting tool was designed for this project, as the wall thickness of the aluminium tube was similar to the diameter of the FSW tool. This is a more complex joint geometry to weld than the more usual larger diameter tube reported in the literature. S-N fatigue testing was performed using load ratios of R = 0.1 and R = -1. Crack path analysis was performed using both low magnification stereo microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, in order to identify crack initiation sites and to determine the direction of crack propagation. Work is still in progress to follow the crack path through the various microstructural zones associated with the weld. A simple statistical analysis was used to characterize the most typical crack initiation site. This work forms part of a wider project directed at determining multiaxial fatigue design rules for small diameter 6082-T6 aluminium tubes that could be of use in the ground vehicle industry.

  10. Cyclic plastic material behavior leading to crack initiation in stainless steel under complex fatigue loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facheris, G.

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of the reliability and of the safety in the design of components belonging to the primary cooling circuit of a light water nuclear reactor is nowadays one of the most important research topics in nuclear industry. One of the most important damage mechanisms leading the crack initiation in this class of components is the low cycle fatigue (LCF) driven by thermal strain fluctuations caused by the complex thermo-mechanical loading conditions typical for the primary circuit (e.g. operating thermal transients, thermal stratification, turbulent mixing of cold and hot water flows, etc.). The cyclic application of the resulting plastic deformation to the steel grades commonly used for the fabrication of piping parts (e.g. austenitic stainless steels) is associated with a continuous evolution of the mechanical response of the material. As an additional complication, the cyclic behavior of stainless steels is influenced by temperature, strain amplitude and cyclic accumulation of inelastic strain (i.e. ratcheting). The accurate prediction of the structural response of components belonging to the primary cooling circuit requires the development of a reliable constitutive model that must be characterized by a reduced complexity to allow its application in an industrial context. In this framework, the main goal of the current dissertation is to formulate, calibrate and implement in a commercial Finite Element code, a constitutive model that is suitable for the stainless stain grade 316L subjected to complex loading conditions. As a first task, a characterization of the mechanical behavior of 316L subjected to uniaxial and multiaxial strain-controlled conditions (including LCF and ratcheting) is carried out performing several tests in the laboratories of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland) and of Politecnico di Milano (Italy). The uniaxial experiments demonstrate that, prescribing a strain-controlled ratcheting path, a harder material response

  11. A simple procedure for estimating SN-lines for crack initiation from SN-lines for total failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonsino, Cetin Morris [Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability (LBF), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-02-01

    A simple procedure is proposed for estimating the SN-line for the failure criterion of fatigue life to crack initiation of components not subjected to a surface treatment. The prerequisite is the availability of a SN-line for total failure, i.e. rupture, with the scatter-band T{sub σ} between the probabilities of survival P{sub s} = 10 and 90 %, the knee point N{sub k} and the slopes k{sub f} and k* before and after the knee point. The SN-line for crack initiation with P{sub s} = 50 % is positioned at the knee point N{sub k} of the SN-line with P{sub s} = 90 % for total failure. The slope kcr for N < N{sub k} cycles results from the exponent of the elastic portion of the strain controlled SN-line for crack initiation, obtained with unnotched specimens, and the slope k* after the knee point remains the same as that for the line for total failure. The SN-line for crack initiation possesses the same scatter-band T{sub σ} as the line for total failure.

  12. A comparison of the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of commercially pure titanium grade 4 in Ringer's solution and in distilled water: a fracture mechanics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Michael D; Williamson, R Scott; Thomas, Joseph A; Griggs, Jason A; Zardiackas, Lyle D

    2014-01-01

    From the results of laboratory investigations reported in the literature, it has been suggested that stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms may contribute to early failures in titanium alloys that have elevated oxygen concentrations. However, the susceptibility of titanium alloys to SCC in physiological environments remains unclear. In this study, a fracture mechanics approach was used to examine the SCC susceptibility of CP titanium grade 4 in Ringer's solution and distilled de-ionized (DI) water, at 37°C. The study duration was 26 weeks, simulating the non-union declaration of a plated fracture. Four wedge loads were used corresponding to 86-95% of the alloy's ligament yield load. The longest cracks were measured to be 0.18 mm and 0.10 mm in Ringer's solution and DI water, respectively. SEM analysis revealed no evidence of extensive fluting and quasi-cleavage fracture features which, in literature reports, were attributed to SCC. We thus postulate that the Ringer's solution accelerated the wedge-loaded crack growth without producing the critical stresses needed to change the fracture mechanism. Regression analysis of the crack length results led to a significant best-fit relationship between crack growth velocity (independent variable) and test electrolyte, initial wedge load, and time of immersion of specimen in electrolyte (dependent variables). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Crack Initiation and Growth Behavior at Corrosion Pit in 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and Training Command...Mesh created by Abaqus for the uni-axial specimen with a crack on a hole with refined mesh near the crack tip... Abaqus . This approach is adapted as there are neither closed form solutions nor accepted models of the previously mentioned shape of specimens

  14. Effect of segregations on mechanical properties and crack propagation in spring steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Žužek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made over the last decades to improve performance of spring steels, which would increase the service time of springs and also allow vehicles weight reduction. There are different possibilities of improving properties of spring steels, from modifying the chemical composition of steels to optimizing the deformation process and changing the heat treatment parameters. Another way of improving steel properties is through refining the microstructure and reducing amount of inclusions. Therefore, the focus of the current investigation was to determine the effect of more uniform and cleaner microstructure obtained through electro-slag remelting (ESR of steel on the mechanical and dynamic properties of spring steel, with special focus on the resistance to fatigue crack propagation. Effect of the microstructure refinement was evaluated in terms of tensile strength, elongation, fracture and impact toughness, and fatigue resistance under bending and tensile loading. After the mechanical tests the fracture surfaces of samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM and the influence of microstructure properties on the crack propagation and crack propagation resistance was studied. Investigation was performed on hot rolled, soft annealed and vacuum heat treated 51CrV4 spring steel produced by conventional continuous casting and compared with steel additional refined through ESR. Results shows that elimination of segregations and microstructure refinement using additional ESR process gives some improvement in terms of better repeatability and reduced scattering, but on the other hand it has negative effect on crack propagation resistance and fatigue properties of the spring steel.

  15. Modeling of primary water stress corrosion cracking at control rod drive mechanism nozzles of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Omar Fernandes

    2006-01-01

    One of the main failure mechanisms that cause risks to pressurized water reactors is the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) occurring in alloys. It can occurs, besides another places, at the control reactor displacement mechanism nozzles. It is caused by the joint effect of tensile stress, temperature, susceptible metallurgical microstructure and environmental conditions of the primary water. These cracks can cause accidents that reduce nuclear safety by blocking the rod's displacement and may cause leakage of primary water, reducing the reactor's life. In this work it is proposed a study of the existing models and a modeling proposal to primary water stress corrosion cracking in these nozzles in a nickel based Alloy 600. It is been superposed electrochemical and fracture mechanics models, and validated using experimental and literature data. The experimental data were obtained at CDTN-Brazilian Nuclear Technology Development Center, in a recent installed slow strain rate testing equipment. In the literature it is found a diagram that indicates a thermodynamic condition for the occurrence of some PWSCC sub modes in Alloy 600: it was used potential x pH diagrams (Pourbaix diagrams), for Alloy 600 in high temperature primary water (300 deg C till 350 deg C). Over it, were located the PWSCC sub modes, using experimental data. It was added a third parameter called 'stress corrosion strength fraction'. However, it is possible to superpose to this diagram, other parameters expressing PWSCC initiation or growth kinetics from other models. Here is the proposition of the original contribution of this work: from an original experimental condition of potential versus pH, it was superposed, an empiric-comparative, a semi-empiric-probabilistic, an initiation time, and a strain rate damage models, to quantify respectively the PWSCC susceptibility, the failure time, and in the two lasts, the initiation time of stress corrosion cracking. It was modeling from our

  16. Development of testing system for the thermo-mechanical fatigue crack analysis of nuclear power plant pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Maan Won; Lee, Bong Sang

    2003-12-01

    Fatigue crack growth analysis plays an important role in the structural integrity assessment or the service life calculation of the nuclear power plant pipes. To obtain the material properties as a basic data to achieve an accurate crack growth analysis, a lot of tests and numerical crack growth simulations have been done for decades. The BS 7910 or the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, generally used to evaluate crack growth behavior, were made under the based on simple stress states or at the evaluated isothermal temperature. It is well known that the ASME code could sometimes give so conservative results in some cases of which the cracked components are experiencing with cyclic thermal shock. In this report, we suggested a method for the life assessment of a crack embedded in nuclear power plant pipes under the thermal-mechanical fatigue loads. We here use the numerical method to get the temperature history for thermal- mechanical fatigue crack growth test. And then we can calculate the remaining life time of the pipe by using the fracture mechanics and the test results together. For this purpose, we constructed a thermal-mechanical fatigue crack growth testing system. We also gave a lot of review about recent researches in the experimental field of thermal-mechanical fatigue analysis

  17. Initiation of Stress Corrosion Cracking of 26Cr-1Mo Ferritic Stainless Steels in Hot Chloride Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, H. S.; Hehemann, R. F.

    1987-01-01

    Elongation measurements of 26Cr-1Mo ferritic stainless steels undergoing stress corrosion in boiling LiCl solution allow the induction period to be distinguished from the propagation period of cracks by the deviation of elongation from the logarithmic creep law. Localised corrosion cells are activated exclusively at slip steps by loading and developed into corrosion trenches. No cracks have developed from the corrosion trenches until the induction period is exceeded. The induction period is regarded as a time for localised corrosion cells to achieve a critical degree of occlusion for crack initiation. The repassivation rate of exposed metal by creep or emergence of slip steps decreases as the load increases and is very sensitive to the microstructural changes that affect slip tep height. The greater susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of either prestrained or grain coarsened 26Cr-1Mo alloy compared with that of mill annealed material results from a significant reduction of repassivation rate associated with the increased slip step height. The angular titanium carbonitrides particles dispersed in Ti-stabilized 26Cr-1Mo alloy have a detrimental effect on the resistance to stress corrosion cracking

  18. Corrosion and Cracking of Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Modelling of the deterioration of reinforced concrete has in recent years changed from being a deterministic modelling based on experience to be stochastic modelling based on sound and consistent physical, chemical and mechanical principles. In this paper is presented a brief review of modern mod...... for time to initial corrosion, time to initial cracking, and time to a given crack width may be obtained....

  19. Representing Matrix Cracks Through Decomposition of the Deformation Gradient Tensor in Continuum Damage Mechanics Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Frank A., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented to represent the large-deformation kinematics of intraply matrix cracks and delaminations in continuum damage mechanics (CDM) constitutive material models. The method involves the additive decomposition of the deformation gradient tensor into 'crack' and 'bulk material' components. The response of the intact bulk material is represented by a reduced deformation gradient tensor, and the opening of an embedded cohesive interface is represented by a normalized cohesive displacement-jump vector. The rotation of the embedded interface is tracked as the material deforms and as the crack opens. The distribution of the total local deformation between the bulk material and the cohesive interface components is determined by minimizing the difference between the cohesive stress and the bulk material stress projected onto the cohesive interface. The improvements to the accuracy of CDM models that incorporate the presented method over existing approaches are demonstrated for a single element subjected to simple shear deformation and for a finite element model of a unidirectional open-hole tension specimen. The material model is implemented as a VUMAT user subroutine for the Abaqus/Explicit finite element software. The presented deformation gradient decomposition method reduces the artificial load transfer across matrix cracks subjected to large shearing deformations, and avoids the spurious secondary failure modes that often occur in analyses based on conventional progressive damage models.

  20. A method for probing the effects of conformal nanoscale coatings on fatigue crack initiation in electroplated Ni films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, T.; Baumert, E.K.; Eberl, C.; Pierron, O.N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental technique to identify robust nanoscale coatings for improving the long-term reliability of metallic microelectromechanical systems. More specifically, the influence of nanoscale alumina coatings on the fatigue crack initiation process in 20 μm thick electrodeposited Ni films was investigated in a mild (30 °C, 50% RH) and harsh (80 °C, 90% RH) environment. Atomic-layer-deposited alumina layers, with thicknesses of 5 and 25 nm, were coated on Ni fatigue micro-resonators, and the fatigue degradation behavior in the very high cycle fatigue regime was compared to that of uncoated structures. Evidence based on post-test scanning electron microscopy and resonant frequency evolution plots shows that the coatings do not prevent the formation of fatigue extrusions and micro-cracks. However, their formation is likely delayed for the 25 nm thick alumina-coated Ni films. - Highlights: ► Effect of alumina coatings (5 and 25 nm thick) on fatigue initiation in nickel films ► Fatigue tests were performed at 30 °C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and 80 °C, 90% RH. ► Coatings did not prevent fatigue extrusions and micro-cracks. ► 25 nm coatings likely delayed the formation of fatigue extrusions and micro-cracks. ► The technique can be used to identify reliable nanoscale coatings.

  1. A study on the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in hot alkaline-sulfide solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasse, Kevin Robert

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) generally have superior strength and corrosion resistance as compared to most standard austenitic and ferritic stainless grades owing to a balanced microstructure of austenite and ferrite. As a result of having favorable properties, DSS have been selected for the construction of equipment in pulp and paper, chemical processing, nuclear, oil and gas as well as other industries. The use of DSS has been restricted in some cases because of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), which can initiate and grow in either the ferrite or austenite phase depending on the environment. Thorough understanding of SCC mechanisms of DSS in chloride- and hydrogen sulfide-containing solutions has been useful for material selection in many environments. However, understanding of SCC mechanisms of DSS in sulfide-containing caustic solutions is limited, which has restricted the capacity to optimize process and equipment design in pulp and paper environments. Process environments may contain different concentrations of hydroxide, sulfide, and chloride, altering corrosion and SCC susceptibility of each phase. Crack initiation and growth behavior will also change depending on the relative phase distribution and properties of austenite and ferrite. The role of microstructure and environment on the SCC of standard grade UNS S32205 and lean grade UNS S32101 in hot alkaline-sulfide solution were evaluated in this work using electrochemical, film characterization, mechanical testing, X-ray diffraction, and microscopy techniques. Microstructural aspects, which included residual stress state, phase distribution, phase ratio, and microhardness, were related to the propensity for SCC crack initiation in different simulated alkaline pulping liquors at 170 °C. Other grades of DSS and reference austenitic and superferritic grades of stainless steel were studied using exposure coupons for comparison to understand compositional effects and individual phase susceptibility

  2. ANALYSIS OF CRACKING DUE TO SHRINKAGE RESTRAINT ON THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Michou , A.; Hilaire , A.; Benboudjema , F.; NAHAS , G; WYNIECKI , P; Berthaud , Y.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Shrinkage may lead to tensile stresses and cracking in reinforced concrete structures due to several mechanisms: gradients of drying shrinkage, restraint of autogeneous and drying shrinkage by reinforcement or concrete members of different thickness or ages etc. This contribution focuses on the effect of drying shrinkage on the behavior of concrete tie members, with a focus on the restraint by reinforcement. It is showed that, if it is not taken into account, numerical...

  3. Study of alloy 600'S stress corrosion cracking mechanisms in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, R.

    1994-06-01

    In order to better understand the mechanisms involved in Alloy 600's stress corrosion cracking in PWR environment, laboratory tests were performed. The influence of parameters pertinent to the mechanisms was studies : hydrogen and oxygen overpressures, local chemical composition, microstructure. The results show that neither hydrogen nor dissolution/oxidation, despite their respective roles in the process, are sufficient to account for experimental facts. SEM observation of micro-cleavage facets on specimens' fracture surfaces leads to pay attention to a new mechanism of corrosion/plasticity interactions. (author). 113 refs., 73 figs., 15 tabs., 4 annexes

  4. Study of alloy 600 (NC15Fe) stress corrosion cracking mechanisms in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Richard

    1993-01-01

    In order to better understand the mechanisms involved in Alloy 600's stress corrosion cracking in PWR environment, laboratory tests were performed. The influence of parameters pertinent to the mechanisms was studies: hydrogen and oxygen overpressures, local chemical composition, microstructure. The results show that neither hydrogen nor dissolution/oxidation, despite their respective roles in the process, are sufficient to account for experimental facts. SEM observation of micro-cleavage facets on specimens' fracture surfaces leads to pay attention to a new mechanism of corrosion/plasticity interactions. (author) [fr

  5. Study of a flight monitor for jet engine disk cracks using the critical length criterion of fracture mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranger, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    A disk crack detector is discussed which is intended to operate while in flight. The crack detector monitors the disk rim for radial surface cracks emanating from the blade root interface. An eddy current type sensor with a remotely located capacitance-resistance bridge and signal analyzer is able to detect reliably a simulated crack 1/8 in. long. The sensor was tested at rim velocities of 600 fps and at 1000 F. Fracture mechanics is used to calculate the critical crack length. Knowledge of the crack growth rate permits the calculation of the number of stress cycles remaining for the detected crack to grow to critical size. A plot is presented of the remaining life as a function of the critical crack length and the operating stress. It is shown that for a disk of Inconel 718 a through-the-thickness crack operating under a rim stress of 50 kpsi has a critical length of 0.7-in. and a remaining life of 130 flights.

  6. CRACK REASON ANALYSIS OF DAMAGED CARBONITRIDED PART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kocúrová

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of a damaged part, which was designed for use in a mechanical clutch of a car. The crack in the part was found during the production inspection. The aim of metallographic and fractography analyses of the fracture surfaces was to discover the reasons for the crack. The reason for creating the crack was the formation of smaller cracks in the production during pressing process of the semiproduct. These cracks even grew after the following thermochemical treatment. The fracture was initiated during the straightening process of quenched part.

  7. Characterization of low temperature mechanical properties of crack sealants utilizing direct tension test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Crack sealing has been widely used as a routine preventative maintenance practice. Given its proper : installation, crack sealants can extend pavement service life by three to five years. However, current : specifications for the selection of crack s...

  8. A multi-scale approach for near-surface pavement cracking and failure mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-31

    Nearsurface cracking is one of the predominant distress types in flexible pavements. The occurrence of : nearsurface cracking, also sometimes referred to as topdown cracking, has increased in recent years : with the increased construction of...

  9. Effects of an IPyC Crack on the Mechanical Behavior of the TRISO Coating Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Moon-Sung; Kim, Y. M.; Lee, Y. W.; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, Y. K.; Oh, S. C.

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental design of a gas-cooled reactor relies on an understanding of the behavior of a coated particle fuel. KAERI, which has been carrying out the Korean VHTR (Very High Temperature modular gas cooled Reactor) Project since 2004, is developing a fuel performance analysis code for a VHTR named COPA (COated Particle fuel Analysis). COPA predicts temperatures, stresses, a fission gas release and failure probabilities of a coated particle fuel in normal operating conditions. COPA code consists of nine sub-codes and every sub-code has its own functions and models. Each sub-code can be inserted into other sub-codes or can be used to generate input data for other sub-codes. COPA-ABAQ is one of the nine sub-codes to calculate cracks or de-bondings in the coating layers of TRISO-coated particle fuel. Cracks and de-bondings can cause stress concentrations in the coating layers and increase the failure probability of the coated particle fuel. The COPA-ABAQ, which is in the process of being developed, is written in ABAQUS. In this study, a mechanical stress analysis was carried out by using the finite element analysis program, ABAQUS to evaluate the effect of a crack at the IPyC inner surface on the mechanical behavior of the TRISO coating layers

  10. Fracture mechanics analysis of a longitudinally cracked bend under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Uhlmann, D.; Koski, K.; Hunger, H.

    1993-01-01

    Where information is available about the actual crack configuration, the boundary conditions of the load case, the geometry, and the material characteristics, extensive numerical calculations by means of the finite element method allow crack growth to be calculated for pipe bends carrying longitudinal cracks. If the influence of multiple-crack fields is taken into account in the crack growth calculations, good agreement is obtained with experimental findings. Less sophisticated assessments of individual cracks furnish results which are on the safe side. (author)

  11. Mechanical Parameters and Post-Cracking Behaviour of HPFRC according to Three-Point and Four-Point Bending Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bencardino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High performance fibre reinforced concrete (HPFRC is a modern structural material with a high potential and with an increasing number of structural applications. Structural design of HPFRC elements is based on the post-cracking residual strength provided by fibre reinforcement, and for structural use, a minimum mechanical performance of HPFRC must be guaranteed. To optimize the performance of HPFRC in structural members, it is necessary to establish the mechanical properties and the post-cracking and fracture behaviour in a univocal and reliable way. The best test methodology to evaluate the post-cracking and toughness properties of HPFRC is the beam bending test. Two different types of configurations are proposed: the three-point and the four-point bending tests. The overall focus of this paper is to evaluate the mechanical properties and the post-cracking and fracture behaviour of HPFRC, using the two different standard test procedures. To achieve these aims, plain and fibre concrete specimens were tested. All the test specimens were extensively instrumented to establish the strength properties, crack tip and crack mouth opening displacement, and post-cracking behaviour. The results of the two types of bending tests were critically analysed and compared to identify and highlight the differing effects of the bending load configurations on the mechanical parameters of HPFRC material.

  12. Experimental Study of Crack Initiation and Extension Induced by Hydraulic Fracturing in a Tree-Type Borehole Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyu Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure hydraulic fracturing technology in coal and coal bed methane mines can lead to roof and floor damage, and fracture initiation disorder that leads to a “blank area”, and other issues. A new method of hydraulic fracturing is proposed to increase the homogeneous permeability of coal in underground coalmines. Numerical and other simulation tests for different forms of a tree-type, branched borehole model are presented. The results show that the branched array causes cracks to initiate from the bottom of the array, and these extend along the direction of the adjacent boreholes. Generally, as the number of branched boreholes increases, the coal seam fracture network also increase, improving the distribution of the fracture network, making the fracturing effect better. The branched boreholes appear to reduce initiation pressure and, with increasing branches, the initiation pressure decreases. A model with four tree-type, branched boreholes leads to a reduction in initiation pressure of 69%. In terms of permeability improvement technology in underground coalmines, a branched hydraulic fracturing borehole array has the advantages of reducing initiation pressure, controlling crack initiation and extension, enhancing the fracturing effect and reducing the destruction of the roof and floor.

  13. Fracture mechanics parameters calculation for semielliptical underclad cracks postulated in the cylindrical part of the WWER pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matkovskij, V.V.; Akbashev, I.F.

    2015-01-01

    The requirements of brittle fracture failure resistance are fulfilled if the cracks postulated in RPV structure remain stable within all project cases. This requirements are stated in terms of fracture mechanics parameters such as J-integral or stress intensity factor. The case of semielliptical underclad cracks postulated in a cylindrical part of WWER pressure vessel is investigated. The analytical solution for fracture mechanics parameters estimation along the crack front in the ferritic vessel was developed on the basis of finite element calculation results. The amplification of the elastic stress intensity factor with respect to effect of plasticity is introduced [ru

  14. Use of fracture mechanical methods for the investigation of ambient impacts on crack propagation under constantly increased strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietzel, W.

    1991-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of three metallic materials was investigated using both, linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methodologies. By comparison of the experimental results with existing models for the relationship between deformation rate and crack growth velocity additional information pertaining to the mechanisms of environmentally assisted cracking in the corrosion systems investigated was obtained. A proposal for a test procedure is presented, which allows the evaluation of the characteristic SCC parameters K lscc and da/dt in testing times significantly shorter than those required in conventional SCC tests. (orig.) With 61 figs., 8 tabs [de

  15. Crack path in aeronautical titanium alloy under ultrasonic torsion loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nikitin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses features of fatigue crack initiation and growth in aeronautical VT3-1 titanium alloy under pure torsion loading in gigacycle regime. Two materials: extruded and forged VT3-1 titanium alloys were studied. Torsion fatigue tests were performed up to fatigue life of 109 cycles. The results of the torsion tests were compared with previously obtained results under fully reversed axial loading on the same alloys. It has been shown that independently on production process as surface as well subsurface crack initiation may appear under ultrasonic torsion loading despite the maximum stress amplitude located at the specimen surface. In the case of surface crack initiation, a scenario of crack initiation and growth is similar to HCF regime except an additional possibility for internal crack branching. In the case of subsurface crack, the initiation site is located below the specimen surface (about 200 μm and is not clearly related to any material flaw. Internal crack initiation is produced by shear stress in maximum shear plane and early crack growth is in Mode II. Crack branching is limited in the case of internal crack initiation compared to surface one. A typical ‘fish-eye’ crack can be observed at the torsion fracture surface, but mechanism of crack initiation seems not to be the same than under axial fatigue loading.

  16. Small fatigue cracks; Proceedings of the Second International Conference/Workshop, Santa Barbara, CA, Jan. 5-10, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, R.O.; Lankford, J.

    1986-01-01

    Topics discussed in this volume include crack initiation and stage I growth, microstructure effects, crack closure, environment effects, the role of notches, analytical modeling, fracture mechanics characterization, experimental techniques, and engineering applications. Papers are presented on fatigue crack initiation along slip bands, the effect of microplastic surface deformation on the growth of small cracks, short fatigue crack behavior in relation to three-dimensional aspects and the crack closure effect, the influence of crack depth on crack electrochemistry and fatigue crack growth, and nondamaging notches in fatigue. Consideration is also given to models of small fatigue cracks, short crack theory, assessment of the growth of small flaws from residual strength data, the relevance of short crack behavior to the integrity of major rotating aero engine components, and the relevance of short fatigue crack growth data to the durability and damage tolerance analyses of aircraft.

  17. Physicochemical controls on initiation and evolution of desiccation cracks in sand-bentonite mixtures: X-ray CT imaging and stochastic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrenegus, Thomas; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Tuller, Markus

    2011-09-01

    The shrink-swell behavior of active clays in response to changes in physicochemical conditions creates great challenges for construction of geotechnical barriers for hazardous waste isolation, and is of significant importance for management of agricultural and natural resources. Initiation and evolution of desiccation cracks in active clays are strongly dependent on physicochemical initial and boundary conditions. To investigate effects of bentonite content (20, 40, 60%), pore fluid chemistry (0.05 and 0.5 M NaCl) and drying rates (40 and 60 °C) on cracking behavior, well-controlled dehydration experiments were conducted and X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) was applied to visualize and quantify geometrical features of evolving crack networks. A stochastic model based on the Fokker-Plank equation was adopted to describe the evolution of crack aperture distributions (CAD) and to assess the impact of physicochemical factors on cracking behavior. Analyses of crack porosity and crack specific surface area showed that both clay content and temperature had larger impact on cracking than pore fluid concentration. More cracks formed at high bentonite contents (40 and 60%) and at high drying rate (60 °C). The drift, diffusion and source terms derived from stochastic analysis indicated that evaporative demand had greater influence on the dynamics of the CAD than solution chemistry.

  18. Modelling the cracking of pressurised water reactor fuel pellets and its consequences on the mechanical behaviour of the fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfer, Th.

    2006-03-01

    This thesis aims to model the cracking of pressurised water reactor fuel pellets and its consequences on the mechanical behaviour of the fuel rod. Fuel cracking has two main consequences. It relieves the stress in the pellet, upon which the majority of the mechanical and physico-chemical phenomena are dependent. It also leads to pellet fragmentation. Taking fuel cracking into account is therefore necessary to adequately predict the mechanical loading of the cladding during the course of an irradiation. The local approach to fracture was chosen to describe fuel pellet cracking. Practical considerations brought us to favour a quasi-static description of fuel cracking by means of a local damage models. These models describe the appearance of cracks by a local loss of rigidity of the material. Such a description leads to numerical difficulties, such as mesh dependency of the results and abrupt changes in the equilibrium state of the mechanical structure during unstable crack propagations. A particular attention was paid to these difficulties because they condition the use of such models in engineering studies. This work was performed within the framework of the ALCYONE fuel performance package developed at CEA/DEC/SESC which relies on the PLEIADES software platform. ALCYONE provides users with various approaches for modelling nuclear fuel behaviour, which differ in terms of the type geometry considered for the fuel rod. A specific model was developed and implemented to describe fuel cracking for each of these approaches. The 2D axisymmetric fuel rod model is the most innovative and was particularly studied. We show that it is able to assess, thanks to an appropriate description of fuel cracking, the main geometrical changes of the fuel rod occurring under normal and off-normal operating conditions. (author)

  19. Crack formation mechanisms during micro and macro indentation of diamond-like carbon coatings on elastic-plastic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, N.B.; Fischer-Cripps, A.C.; Swain, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    of cracking and the fracture mechanisms taking place. In the study various diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings deposited onto stainless steel and tool steel were investigated. Results primarily for one DLC system will be presented here. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.......In the present study crack formation is investigated on both micro and macro scale using spherical indenter tips. in particular, systems consisting of elastic coatings that are well adhered to elastic-plastic substrates are studied. Depth sensing indentation is used on the micro scale and Rockwell...... indentation on the macro scale. The predominant driving force for coating failure and crack formation during indentation is plastic deformation of the underlying substrate. The aim is to relate the mechanisms creating both delamination and cohesive cracking on both scales with fracture mechanical models...

  20. Formation Mechanism of Surface Crack in Low Pressure Casting of A360 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan-Guang; Cao, Fu-Yang; Ying, Tao; Zhao, Xin-Yi; Liu, Jing-Shun; Shen, Hong-Xian; Guo, Shu; Sun, Jian-Fei

    2017-12-01

    A surface crack defect is normally found in low pressure castings of Al alloy with a sudden contraction structure. To further understand the formation mechanism of the defect, the mold filling process is simulated by a two-phase flow model. The experimental results indicate that the main reason for the defect deformation is the mismatching between the height of liquid surface in the mold and pressure in the crucible. In the case of filling, a sudden contraction structure with an area ratio smaller than 0.5 is obtained, and the velocity of the liquid front increases dramatically with the influence of inertia. Meanwhile, the pressurizing speed in the crucible remains unchanged, resulting in the pressure not being able to support the height of the liquid level. Then the liquid metal flows back to the crucible and forms a relatively thin layer solidification shell on the mold wall. With the increasing pressure in the crucible, the liquid level rises again, engulfing the shell and leading to a surface crack. As the filling velocity is characterized by the damping oscillations, surface cracks will form at different heights. The results shed light on designing a suitable pressurizing speed for the low pressure casting process.

  1. 3-D simulation of intergranular stress corrosion crack interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Marrow, T.J.; Sherry, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in austenitic stainless steels is a potential failure mechanism, which is result of local grain boundary chromium depletion by carbide precipitation or irradiation-induced segregation. Reliable models of crack nucleation and growth, and their sensitivity to microstructure, are required to underpin lifetime prediction and develop more resistant materials. A model for 3-D IGSCC crack growth has been developed which reproduces the interactions between the microstructure, the mechanical driving force for cracking and the kinetics of crack growth. In this paper, this model is used to investigate the interaction between adjacent initiating cracks, to observe the growth of those cracks before/after coalescence, and examine the sensitivity of short crack behaviour to random variations in microstructure. The model predictions are assessed against experimental observations of short intergranular stress corrosion crack behaviour, obtained by in-situ digital image correlation techniques

  2. A Retrofit Theory to Prevent Fatigue Crack Initiation in Aging Riveted Bridges Using Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyas Ghafoori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most research on fatigue strengthening of steel has focused on carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP strengthening of steel members with existing cracks. However, in many practical cases, aging steel members do not yet have existing cracks but rather are nearing the end of their designed fatigue life. Therefore, there is a need to develop a “proactive” retrofit solution that can prevent fatigue crack initiation in aging bridge members. Such a proactive retrofit approach can be applied to bridge members that have been identified to be deficient, based on structural standards, to enhance their safety margins by extending the design service life. This paper explains a proactive retrofit design approach based on constant life diagram (CLD methodology. The CLD approach is a method that can take into account the combined effect of alternating and mean stress magnitudes to predict the high-cycle fatigue life of a material. To validate the retrofit model, a series of new fatigue tests on steel I-beams retrofitted by the non-prestressed un-bonded CFRP plates have been conducted. Furthermore, this paper attempts to provide a better understanding of the behavior of un-bonded retrofit (UR and bonded retrofit (BR systems. Retrofitting the steel beams using the UR system took less than half of the time that was needed for strengthening with the BR system. The results show that the non-prestressed un-bonded ultra-high modulus (UHM CFRP plates can be effective in preventing fatigue crack initiation in steel members.

  3. The Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanism of Alloy 600 Steam Generator Tubes: Materials Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngsuk; Kim, Sungsoo; Kim, Daewhan

    2013-01-01

    The problem is that intergranular (IG) cracking of austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys occurs even in Ar with no corrosion or oxidation of grain boundaries being accompanied. This fact suggests that IG cracking has nothing to do with grain boundary (GB) corrosion or oxidation. This fact cast a doubt about the current notion that applied stresses are required to initiate IG cracking or PWSCC. These facts indicate that PWSCC is closely related to internal factors of materials, not to external factors such as grain boundary oxidation or corrosion or applied stresses. Given that austenitic alloys including Alloy 600 are a kind of solid solution alloys with alloying elements dissolved in the matrix as solutes, ordering of alloying elements of Fe, Cr and Ni occur in Alloy 600 during exposure to reactor operating condition. We suggest that atomic ordering is the main internal factor to govern PWSCC or IG cracking of austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys because lattice contraction due to atomic ordering induces internal stresses which are large enough to cause GB cracking. The aim of this work is to provide experimental evidence for our suggestion. To this end, water quenching (WQ) or air cooling (AC) or furnace cooling (FC) was applied respectively to Alloy 600 after solution treatment at 1095 .deg. C for 0.5h to make Alloy 600 with either disorder (DO) or different degrees of short range order, respectively. Alloy 600 showed lattice contraction upon aging at 400 .deg. C whose extent increased with increasing cooling rate: the water-quenched (WQ) Alloy 600 exhibited the largest amount of lattice contraction than the furnace-cooled (FC) or air-cooled (AC) one. Yonezawa's experiments have indeed shown that the WQ-Alloy 600 with the largest amount of lattice contraction upon aging at 400 .deg. C is the most susceptible to PWSCC when compared to the AC- or FC-Alloy 600 with the lesser amount of lattice contraction. These observations demonstrate, for the first time, that PWSCC of Alloy 600 is

  4. A multiscale modelling study of Ni-Cr crack tip initial stage oxidation at different stress intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Nishith Kumar; Tirtom, Ismail; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2010-01-01

    In this study, different scale analyses have been performed to understand the very beginning stage of the Ni-Cr(1 1 1) binary alloy surface oxidation mechanism. The finite elements method (FEM) has been applied to find the stress intensity effect on a compact tension (CT) specimen crack tip, and a 2-μm rectangular region has been prepared for the quasi-continuum (QC) model. The displacement load calculated by FEM was applied at the upper and lower boundaries of the QC model. The obtained atomic positions of the deformed crystal structure were considered for quantum chemical molecular dynamics (QCMD) analysis by placing water molecules on the surface. Water molecules dissociate on the top site followed by the quick diffusion of hydrogen atoms on the surface through the hollow sites. Hydrogen is easily transported into the lattice due to its small atomic size. Increases in stress intensity factor (K) act to deform the structure, which augments oxygen penetration and reduces hydrogen diffusion time; as a consequence, changes in K result in an increase of metallic surface oxidation. Oxygen preferentially bonds with chromium to develop a protective passive film on the surface, and the quickly diffused hydrogen is trapped on the metal surface. Hydrogen bonds with the metal by receiving electrons and, therefore, works as an oxidant on the surface and weakens the metal atomic bond at the primary stage. Initially, the oxidized surface forms a strong bond with oxygen, resulting in the breakage of metal-metal bonds. Therefore, this hydrogen action enhances the very early stage surface oxidation.

  5. Micro-mechanical Analysis of Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites using Cohesive Crack Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the mechanism appearing during fiber debonding in fiber reinforced cementitious composite. The investigation is performed on the micro scale by use of a Finite Element Model. The model is 3 dimensional and the fictitious crack model and a mixed mode stress formulation...... are implemented. It is shown that the cohesive law for a unidirectional fiber reinforced cementitious composite can be found through superposition of the cohesive law for mortar and the fiber bridging curve. A comparison between the numerical and an analytical model for fiber pull-out is performed....

  6. Fatigue crack growth detect, assess, avoid

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Hans Albert

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a concise introduction to fatigue crack growth, based on practical examples. It discusses the essential concepts of fracture mechanics, fatigue crack growth under constant and variable amplitude loading and the determination of the fracture-mechanical material parameters. The book also introduces the analytical and numerical simulation of fatigue crack growth as well as crack initiation. It concludes with a detailed description of several practical case studies and some exercises. The target group includes graduate students, researchers at universities and practicing engineers.

  7. Monte Carlo simulation taking account of surface crack effect for stress corrosion cracking in a stainless steel SUS 304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohgo, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Hiromitsu; Shimamura, Yoshinobu; Nakayama, Guen; Hirano, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in structural metal materials occurs by initiation and coalescence of micro cracks, subcritical crack propagation and multiple large crack formation or final failure under the combination of materials, stress and corrosive environment. In this paper, a Monte Carlo simulation for the process of SCC has been proposed based on the stochastic properties of micro crack initiation and fracture mechanics concept for crack coalescence and propagation. The emphasis in the model is put on the influence of semi-elliptical surface cracks. Numerical simulations are carried out based on CBB (creviced bent beam) test results of a sensitized stainless steel SUS 304 and the influence of micro crack initiation rate and coalescence condition on the simulation results is discussed. The numerical examples indicate the applicability of the present model to a prediction of the SCC behavior in real structures. (author)

  8. Microstructure-based approach for predicting crack initiation and early growth in metals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, James V.; Emery, John M.; Brewer, Luke N.; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Puskar, Joseph David; Bartel, Timothy James; Dingreville, Remi P. M.; Foulk, James W., III; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Boyce, Brad Lee

    2009-09-01

    Fatigue cracking in metals has been and is an area of great importance to the science and technology of structural materials for quite some time. The earliest stages of fatigue crack nucleation and growth are dominated by the microstructure and yet few models are able to predict the fatigue behavior during these stages because of a lack of microstructural physics in the models. This program has developed several new simulation tools to increase the microstructural physics available for fatigue prediction. In addition, this program has extended and developed microscale experimental methods to allow the validation of new microstructural models for deformation in metals. We have applied these developments to fatigue experiments in metals where the microstructure has been intentionally varied.

  9. Influence of pores on crack initiation in monotonic tensile and cyclic loadings in lost foam casting A319 alloy by using 3D in-situ analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Long; Limodin, Nathalie; El Bartali, Ahmed; Witz, Jean-François; Seghir, Rian; Buffiere, Jean-Yves; Charkaluk, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Lost Foam Casting (LFC) process is replacing the conventional gravity Die Casting (DC) process in automotive industry for the purpose of geometry optimization, cost reduction and consumption control. However, due to lower cooling rate, LFC produces in a coarser microstructure that reduces fatigue life. In order to study the influence of the casting microstructure of LFC Al-Si alloy on damage micromechanisms under monotonic tensile loading and Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) at room temperature, an experimental protocol based on the three dimensional (3D) in-situ analysis has been set up and validated. This paper focuses on the influence of pores on crack initiation in monotonic and cyclic tensile loadings. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) allowed the microstructure of material being characterized in 3D and damage evolution being followed in-situ also in 3D. Experimental and numerical mechanical fields were obtained by using Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) technique and Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation respectively. Pores were shown to have an important influence on strain localization as large pores generate enough strain localization zones for crack initiation both in monotonic tensile and cyclic loadings.

  10. J evaluation by simplified method for cracked pipes under mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacire, M.H.; Michel, B.; Gilles, P.

    2001-01-01

    The integrity of structures behaviour is an important subject for the nuclear reactor safety. Most of assessment methods of cracked components are based on the evaluation of the parameter J. However to avoid complex elastic-plastic finite element calculations of J, a simplified method has been jointly developed by CEA, EDF and Framatome. This method, called Js, is based on the reference stress approach and a new KI handbook. To validate this method, a complete set of 2D and 3D elastic-plastic finite element calculations of J have been performed on pipes (more than 300 calculations are available) for different types of part through wall crack (circumferential or longitudinal); mechanical loading (pressure, bending moment, axial load, torsion moment, and combination of these loading); different kind of materials (austenitic or ferritic steel). This paper presents a comparison between the simplified assessment of J and finite element results on these configurations for mechanical loading. Then, validity of the method is discussed and an applicability domain is proposed. (author)

  11. Determination of the bonding strength in solid oxide fuel cells’interfaces by Schwickerath crack initiation test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boccaccini, D. N.; Ševeček, O.; Frandsen, L. H.; Dlouhý, Ivo; Molin, S.; Charlas, B.; Hjelm, J.; Cannio, M.; Hendriksen, P. V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 11 (2017), s. 3565-3578 ISSN 0955-2219 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Schwickerath crack-initiation test * Three-point bending test * SOFC interfaces * Metal-ceramic bond strength Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016 https://apps.webofknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=WOS& search _mode=GeneralSearch&qid=3&SID=S1ftxS2ACYn8QwRNK3P&page=1&doc=1

  12. Effects of environmental variables on the crack initiation stages of corrosion fatigue of high strength aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    Fatigue initiation in six aluminum alloys used in the aircraft industry was investigated. Cyclic loading superimposed on a constant stress was alternated with atmospheric corrosion. Tests made at different stress levels revealed that a residual stress as low as 39% of the yield strength caused stress corrosion cracking in some of the alloys. An atmospheric corrosion rate meter developed to measure the corrosivity of the atmosphere is described. An easily duplicated hole in the square test specimen with a self-induced residual stress was developed.

  13. Grain boundary defects initiation at the outer surface of dissimilar welds: corrosion mechanism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bouvier, O.; Yrieix, B.

    1995-11-01

    Dissimilar welds located on the primary coolant system of the French PWR I plants exhibit grain boundary defects in the true austenitic zones of the first buttering layer. If grain boundaries reach the interface, they can extend to the martensitic band. Those defects are filled with compact oxides. In addition, the ferritic base metal presents some pits along the interface. Nowadays, three mechanisms are proposed to explain the initiation of those defects: stress corrosion cracking, intergranular corrosion and high temperature intergranular oxidation. This paper is dealing with the study of the mechanisms involved in the corrosion phenomenon. Intergranular corrosion tests performed on different materials show that only the first buttering layer, even with some δ ferrite, is sensitized. The results of stress corrosion cracking tests in water solutions show that intergranular cracking is possible on a bulk material representative of the first buttering layer. It is unlikely on actual dissimilar welds where the ferritic base metal protects the first austenitic layer by galvanic coupling. Therefore, the stress corrosion cracking assumption cannot explain the initiation of the defects in aqueous environment. The results of the investigations and of the corrosion studies led to the conclusion that the atmosphere could be the only possible aggressive environment. This conclusion is based on natural atmospheric exposure and accelerated corrosion tests carried out with SO 2 additions in controlled atmosphere. They both induce a severe intergranular corrosion on true sensitized austenitic materials. This corrosion studies cannot conclude definitively on the causes of the defect initiation on field, but they show that the atmospheric corrosion could produce intergranular attacks in the pure austenitic zones of the first buttering layer of the dissimilar welds and that this corrosion is stress assisted. (author). 1 ref., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Application of the concrete aging model to the case of cracked materials and to the coupling with the mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrenti, J.M.; Adenot, F.; Tognazzi, C.; Tognazzi, C.; Poyet, S.

    1998-01-01

    Predicting the long-term behavior of concrete used in radioactive waste disposal requires the knowledge of the effects of constantly renewed water on its chemistry and its coupling with the mechanical properties. In contact with water, concrete undergoes chemical degradation. This degradation influences the mechanical performance of the material as well as cracks could interfere with the chemical degradation. This paper shows how these problems can be treated using the Ca ++ concentration in pore solution as the state variable that conducts the evolution of chemical, physical and mechanical properties. Some comparisons with experimental results are shown. Finally, the problem of the numerical simulation of accelerated tests of cracked samples is discussed. (authors)

  15. Online Bridge Crack Monitoring with Smart Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benniu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart film crack monitoring method, which can be used for detecting initiation, length, width, shape, location, and propagation of cracks on real bridges, is proposed. Firstly, the fabrication of the smart film is developed. Then the feasibility of the method is analyzed and verified by the mechanical sensing character of the smart film under the two conditions of normal strain and crack initiation. Meanwhile, the coupling interference between parallel enameled wires of the smart film is discussed, and then low-frequency detecting signal and the custom communication protocol are used to decrease interference. On this basis, crack monitoring system with smart film is designed, where the collected crack data is sent to the remote monitoring center and the cracks are simulated and recurred. Finally, the monitoring system is applied to six bridges, and the effects are discussed.

  16. Flight monitor for jet engine disk cracks and the use of critical length criterion of fracture mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranger, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A disk crack detector is discussed which is intended to operate under flight conditions. It monitors the disk rim for surface cracks emanating from the blade root interface. An eddy current type sensor, with a remotely located capacitance/conductance bridge and signal analyzer, can reliably detect a simulated crack 3 mm long. The sensor was tested on a spinning turbine disk at 540 C. Tests indicate that the system is useful at disk rim velocities to 460 m/sec. By using fracture mechanics, it is shown for Inconel 718 th at a crack operating under a rim stress of 34 x ten to the 7th power N/sqm has a critical length of 18 mm.

  17. Mechanical properties and environmental stress cracking resistance of rubber toughened polyester/kenaf composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study rubber-toughened polyester-kenaf fibre composites were prepared by adding various percentages of kenaf fibre in unsaturated polyester resin and subsequently cross linked using a mixture of organic peroxide methyl ethyl ketone and cobalt octanoate. Three percent (3% of liquid natural rubber (LNR were added as a toughening agent. The mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated by impact and flexural testing. Environmental stress cracking resistance (ESCR of polyester-kenaf composite in acid and base medium was also studied. It was found that the addition of LNR increased impact strength by about 66% and flexural strength by 70%. Measurement of ESCR shows that the composite has the fastest diffusion rate in acid medium, followed by that in base medium and then without medium. Bonding mechanisms were assessed by scanning electron microscope and FTIR analysis.

  18. Very high cycle fatigue crack initiation in electroplated Ni films under extreme stress gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, E.K.; Pierron, O.N.

    2012-01-01

    A characterization technique based on kilohertz micro-resonators is presented to investigate the very high cycle fatigue behavior of 20 μm thick electroplated Ni films with a columnar microstructure (grain diameter less than 2 μm). The films exhibit superior fatigue resistance due to the extreme stress gradients at the surface. The effects of stress amplitude and environment on the formation of fatigue extrusions and micro-cracks are discussed based on scanning electron microscopy and the tracking of the specimens’ resonant frequency.

  19. Initiation and propagation life distributions of fatigue cracks and the life evaluation in high cycle fatigue of ADI; ADI zai no ko cycle hiro kiretsu hassei shinten jumyo bunpu tokusei to jumyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochi, Y.; Ishii, A. [University of Electro Communications, Tokyo (Japan); Ogata, T. [Hitachi Metals, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kubota, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-15

    Rotating bending fatigue tests were carried out on austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) in order to investigate the statistical properties of life distributions of crack initiation and propagation, and also the evaluation of fatigue life. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The size of crack initiation sites of the material was represented by a Weibull distribution without regarding to the kinds of crack initiation sites such as microshrinkage and graphite grain. The crack initiation life scattered widely, but the scatter became much smaller as soon as the cracks grew. (2) The crack propagation life Nac which was defined as the minimum crack propagation rate showed lower scatter than the crack initation life. (3) The fatigue life of the material was evaluated well by Nac and the propagation rate after Nac. It was clear that the fatigue life of ductile cast iron was goverened by the scatter of Nac. 8 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. The radiation swelling effect on fracture properties and fracture mechanisms of irradiated austenitic steels. Part II. Fatigue crack growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolin, B., E-mail: margolinbz@yandex.ru; Minkin, A.; Smirnov, V.; Sorokin, A.; Shvetsova, V.; Potapova, V.

    2016-11-15

    The experimental data on the fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) have been obtained for austenitic steel of 18Cr-10Ni-Ti grade (Russian analog of AISI 321 steel) irradiated up to neutron dose of 150 dpa with various radiation swelling. The performed study of the fracture mechanisms for cracked specimens under cyclic loading has explained why radiation swelling affects weakly FCGR unlike its effect on fracture toughness. Mechanical modeling of fatigue crack growth has been carried out and the dependencies for prediction of FCGR in irradiated austenitic steel with and with no swelling are proposed and verified with the obtained experimental results. As input data for these dependencies, FCGR for unirradiated steel and the tensile mechanical properties for unirradiated and irradiated steels are used.

  1. Electrochemical investigation of crack initiation during corrosion fatigue of stainless steels in the passive state. Elektrochemische Untersuchung der Rissbildung bei Schwingungsrisskorrosion im stabil-passiven Werkstoffzustand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaehn, R. (Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-03-01

    The corrosion fatigue behaviour of three stainless steels - ferritic (12% Cr), austenitic (type 316 Ti) and austenitic-ferritic (type 31803; Duplex stainless steel) - was studied under rotating bending moments in aqueous sulphuric acid of 30deg C. An instrumental set-up for recording the transient currents of specimens during potentiostatically controlled corrosion fatigue is described. Based on this transient current signal technique, three stages on the corrosion fatigue process can be discerned. In the incubation period, small stochastic current transients are caused by the response of the passive layer to alternating stresses and environmental conditions. The appearance of sinusoidal current signals indicates crack initiation whereas the phase angle between a fixed marker - i.e. a light barrier signal -, and the anodic amplitude represents the site of initiating cracks. Finally, the crack growth period is characterized by an increasing cell current and steadily growing sinusoidal current signals caused by the interplay of microplastic and repassivation processes at the crack tip. (orig.).

  2. Influence of ``short`` cracks on fracture mechanics material characteristics - methods of determination and their effects; Einfluss ``kurzer`` Risse auf die bruchmechanischen Werkstoffkennwerte - Bestimmungsmethoden und ihre Auswirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Silcher, H.; Eisele, U. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt

    1998-11-01

    The methods applicable to determining fracture mechanics characteristics of the threshold toughness, published in various recommendations and draft standards, are compared and evaluated. The methods are put to the test and comparatively analysed using compact tensile specimens (CT), standardized three-point bending specimens (TPB), and TPB specimens with short cracks. It is shown that only the physical crack initiation value J{sub i} yields results that can be applied for comparative evaluations. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die fuer das Uebergangsgebiet der Zaehigkeit in verschiedenen Pruefempfehlungen und Normvorschlaegen veroeffentlichten Verfahren zur Bestimmung bruchmechanischer Kennwerte werden gegenuebergestellt und bewertet. Anhand von Kompaktzugproben (CT), Standard Drei-Punkt-Biegeproben (TPB) und TPB-Proben mit kurzen Rissen werden diese Verfahren angewandt und die Ergebnisse verglichen. Es zeigt sich, dass nur der physikalische Risseinleitungswert J{sub i} fuer alle untersuchten Probenformen vergleichbare und uebertragbare Ergebnisse liefert. (orig.)

  3. The analysis of initiation and growth of cracks in diffusion aluminium coatings on ZS6U alloy in conditions of thermal fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciesla, M.; Swadzba, L.; Supernak, W.

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of thermal fatigue of nickel based ZS6U super alloy with 'Si-Ai' and 'Cr-Al' aluminium diffusion coatings. The processes of initiation and growth of cracks in diffusion coating in the conditions of cyclic changing temperature (500 o C - 950 o C) and simultaneous F o constant axial force loading have been analysed. The results of numerical calculations of stress distribution in the specimen with aluminium coatings have been presented. They enabled to elaborate the models of mechanical behaviour of coatings, which in turn helped to explain different character of cracks in the assumed experimental conditions. Thermal fatigue tests performed at lower static component of F o loading spectrum proved that aluminium coatings obtained in course of 'Si-Al' process show the highest lifetime respectively of their thickness. Moreover, the lifetime of 'Si-Al' aluminium coatings decreases together with the increase of static component of load fatigue spectrum unlike in case of 'Cr-Al' coatings. (author)

  4. Stress corrosion crack initiation of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes in an iodine vapor environment during creep, relaxation, and constant strain rate tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezequel, T.; Auzoux, Q.; Le Boulch, D.; Bono, M.; Andrieu, E.; Blanc, C.; Chabretou, V.; Mozzani, N.; Rautenberg, M.

    2018-02-01

    During accidental power transient conditions with Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI), the synergistic effect of the stress and strain imposed on the cladding by thermal expansion of the fuel, and corrosion by iodine released as a fission product, may lead to cladding failure by Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). In this study, internal pressure tests were conducted on unirradiated cold-worked stress-relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes in an iodine vapor environment. The goal was to investigate the influence of loading type (constant pressure tests, constant circumferential strain rate tests, or constant circumferential strain tests) and test temperature (320, 350, or 380 °C) on iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking (I-SCC). The experimental results obtained with different loading types were consistent with each other. The apparent threshold hoop stress for I-SCC was found to be independent of the test temperature. SEM micrographs of the tested samples showed many pits distributed over the inner surface, which tended to coalesce into large pits in which a microcrack could initiate. A model for the time-to-failure of a cladding tube was developed using finite element simulations of the viscoplastic mechanical behavior of the material and a modified Kachanov's damage growth model. The times-to-failure predicted by this model are consistent with the experimental data.

  5. Fatigue Crack Growth Mechanisms for Nickel-based Superalloy Haynes 282 at 550-750 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Kyle A.; Kruzic, Jamie J.; Sears, John S.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2015-10-01

    The fatigue crack growth rates for nickel-based superalloy Haynes 282 were measured at 550, 650, and 750 °C using compact tension specimens with a load ratio of 0.1 and cyclic loading frequencies of 25 and 0.25 Hz. The crack path was observed to be primarily transgranular for all temperatures, and the observed effect of increasing temperature was to increase the fatigue crack growth rates. The activation energy associated with the increasing crack growth rates over these three temperatures was calculated less than 60 kJ/mol, which is significantly lower than typical creep or oxidation mechanisms; therefore, creep and oxidation cannot explain the increase in fatigue crack growth rates. Transmission electron microscopy was done on selected samples removed from the cyclic plastic zone, and a trend of decreasing dislocation density was observed with increasing temperature. Accordingly, the trend of increasing crack growth rates with increasing temperature was attributed to softening associated with thermally assisted cross slip and dislocation annihilation.

  6. Crack shape developments and leak rates for circumferential complex-cracked pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brickstad, B.; Bergman, M. [SAQ Inspection Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    A computerized procedure has been developed that predicts the growth of an initial circumferential surface crack through a pipe and further on to failure. The crack growth mechanism can either be fatigue or stress corrosion. Consideration is taken to complex crack shapes and for the through-wall cracks, crack opening areas and leak rates are also calculated. The procedure is based on a large number of three-dimensional finite element calculations of cracked pipes. The results from these calculations are stored in a database from which the PC-program, denoted LBBPIPE, reads all necessary information. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis is presented for cracked pipes subjected to both stress corrosion and vibration fatigue.

  7. Multi-scale modelling and simulation of the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of concrete with explicit representation of cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognevi, Amen

    2012-01-01

    The concrete structures of nuclear power plants can be subjected to moderate thermo-hydric loadings characterized by temperatures of the order of hundred of degrees in service conditions as well as in accidental ones. These loadings can be at the origin of important disorders, in particular cracking which accelerate hydric transfers in the structure. In the framework of the study of durability of these structures, a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical model denoted THMs has been developed at Laboratoire d'Etude du Comportement des Betons et des Argiles (LECBA) of CEA Saclay in order to perform simulations of the concrete behavior submitted to such loadings. In this work, we focus on the improvement in the model THMs in one hand of the assessment of the mechanical and hydro-mechanical parameters of the unsaturated micro-cracked material and in the other hand of the description of cracking in terms of opening and propagation. The first part is devoted to the development of a model based on a multi-scale description of cement-based materials starting from the scale of the main hydrated products (portlandite, ettringite, C-S-H etc.) to the macroscopic scale of the cracked material. The investigated parameters are obtained at each scale of the description by applying analytical homogenization techniques. The second part concerns a fine numerical description of cracking. To this end, we choose to use combined finite element and discrete element methods. This procedure is presented and illustrated through a series of mechanical tests in order to show the feasibility of the method and to proceed to its validation. Finally, we apply the procedure to a heated wall and the proposed method for estimating the permeability shows the interest to take into account an anisotropic permeability tensor when dealing with mass transfers in cracked concrete structures. (author) [fr

  8. The influence of environmental variables and irradiation on iodine stress corrosion crack initiation and growth in Zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunde, L.; Videm, K.

    1980-01-01

    Variables in the SCC testing technique and the effect of the fast neutron dose appear to explain most of the controversy about the effect of irradiation damage on the SCC behaviour of Zircaloy. On the basis of extensive laboratory testing functions expressing the time for stress corrosion crack (SCC) initiation and the rate of crack propagation at different stresses and temperatures have been worked out. The environmental variables in the SCC test can have a much larger influence on the life-time for autoclaved material than for pickled and sandblasted metal. For irradiated (oxidized) material a ten times increase in the iodine concentration reduced the failure stress from 500 to 250 MPa. By comparing our results with published data it is concluded that the failure stress (after 1-3 hours) is very dependent upon the neutron dose. Neutron damage will raise the stress threshold for doses up to 10 20 n/cm 2 and thereafter the failure stress is gradually decreased to low values with increasing neutron doses up to 5.10 21 n/cm 2 . (author)

  9. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Uuu of... - Initial Compliance With Metal HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63... Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units 5 Table 5 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment... for Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in § 63.1564(b)(5), you shall meet each requirement in the...

  10. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Uuu of... - Initial Compliance With Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery... Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units 12 Table 12 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in § 63.1565(b)(4), you shall meet each...

  11. Analysis of crack initiation in the vicinity of an interface in brittle materials. Applications to ceramic matrix composites and nuclear fuels; Analyse de la fissuration au voisinage d'une interface dans les materiaux fragiles. Applications aux composites a matrice ceramique et aux combustibles nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitou, B

    2007-11-15

    In this study, criterions are proposed to describe crack initiation in the vicinity of an interface in brittle bi-materials. The purpose is to provide a guide for the elaboration of ceramic multi-layer structures being able to develop damage tolerance by promoting crack deflection along interfaces. Several cracking mechanisms are analyzed, like the competition between the deflection of a primary crack along the interface or its penetration in the second layer. This work is first completed in a general case and is then used to describe the crack deviation at the interface in ceramic matrix composites and nuclear fuels. In this last part, experimental tests are carried out to determine the material fracture properties needed to the deflection criteria. An optimization of the fuel coating can be proposed in order to increase its toughness. (author)

  12. In situ AFM investigation of slow crack propagation mechanisms in a glassy polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M.; Nziakou, Y.; Goerke, S.; Genix, A.-C.; Bresson, B.; Roux, S.; Delacroix, H.; Halary, J.-L.; Ciccotti, M.

    2018-03-01

    A novel experimental technique based on in situ AFM monitoring of the mechanisms of damage and the strain fields associated to the slow steady-state propagation of a fracture in glassy polymers is presented. This micron-scale investigation is complemented by optical measurements of the sample deformation up to the millimetric macroscopic scale of the sample in order to assess the proper crack driving conditions. These multi-scale observations provide important insights towards the modeling of the fracture toughness of glassy polymers and its relationship with the macromolecular structure and non-linear rheological properties. This novel technique is first tested on a standard PMMA thermoplastic in order to both evaluate its performance and the richness of this new kind of observations. Although the fracture propagation in PMMA is well known to proceed through crazing in the bulk of the samples, our observations provide a clear description and quantitative evaluation of a change of fracture mechanism towards shear yielding fracture accompanied by local necking close to the free surface of the sample, which can be explained by the local change of stress triaxiality. Moreover, this primary surface necking mechanism is shown to be accompanied by a network of secondary grooves that can be related to surface crazes propagating towards the interior of the sample. This overall scenario is validated by post-mortem fractographic investigations by scanning electron microscopy.

  13. The micro-damage process zone during transverse cortical bone fracture: No ears at crack growth initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Thomas; Josey, David; Lu, Rick Xing Ze; Minhas, Gagan; Montesano, John

    2017-10-01

    Apply high-resolution benchtop micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to gain greater understanding and knowledge of the formation of the micro-damage process zone formed during traverse fracture of cortical bone. Bovine cortical bone was cut into single edge notch (bending) fracture testing specimens with the crack on the transverse plane and oriented to grow in the circumferential direction. We used a multi-specimen technique and deformed the specimens to various individual secant modulus loss levels (P-values) up to and including maximum load (Pmax). Next, the specimens were infiltrated with a BaSO 4 precipitation stain and scanned at 3.57-μm isotropic voxel size using a benchtop high resolution-micro-CT. Measurements of the micro-damage process zone volume, width and height were made. These were compared with the simple Irwin's process zone model and with finite element models. Electron and confocal microscopy confirmed the formation of BaSO 4 precipitate in micro-cracks and other porosity, and an interesting novel mechanism similar to tunneling. Measurable micro-damage was detected at low P values and the volume of the process zone increased according to a second order polynomial trend. Both width and height grew linearly up to Pmax, at which point the process zone cross-section (perpendicular to the plane of the crack) was almost circular on average with a radius of approximately 550µm (approximately one quarter of the unbroken ligament thickness) and corresponding to the shape expected for a biological composite under plane stress conditions. This study reports details of the micro-damage fracture process zone previously unreported for cortical bone. High-resolution micro-CT enables 3D visualization and measurement of the process zone and confirmation that the crack front edge and process zone are affected by microstructure. It is clear that the process zone for the specimens studied grows to be meaningfully large, confirming the need for the J

  14. Numerical simulation of hydrogen-assisted crack initiation in austenitic-ferritic duplex steels; Numerische Simulation der wasserstoffunterstuetzten Rissbildung in austentisch-ferritischen Duplexstaehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mente, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    Duplex stainless steels have been used for a long time in the offshore industry, since they have higher strength than conventional austenitic stainless steels and they exhibit a better ductility as well as an improved corrosion resistance in harsh environments compared to ferritic stainless steels. However, despite these good properties the literature shows some failure cases of duplex stainless steels in which hydrogen plays a crucial role for the cause of the damage. Numerical simulations can give a significant contribution in clarifying the damage mechanisms. Because they help to interpret experimental results as well as help to transfer results from laboratory tests to component tests and vice versa. So far, most numerical simulations of hydrogen-assisted material damage in duplex stainless steels were performed at the macroscopic scale. However, duplex stainless steels consist of approximately equal portions of austenite and δ-ferrite. Both phases have different mechanical properties as well as hydrogen transport properties. Thus, the sensitivity for hydrogen-assisted damage is different in both phases, too. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a numerical model of a duplex stainless steel microstructure enabling simulation of hydrogen transport, mechanical stresses and strains as well as crack initiation and propagation in both phases. Additionally, modern X-ray diffraction experiments were used in order to evaluate the influence of hydrogen on the phase specific mechanical properties. For the numerical simulation of the hydrogen transport it was shown, that hydrogen diffusion strongly depends on the alignment of austenite and δ-ferrite in the duplex stainless steel microstructure. Also, it was proven that the hydrogen transport is mainly realized by the ferritic phase and hydrogen is trapped in the austenitic phase. The numerical analysis of phase specific mechanical stresses and strains revealed that if the duplex stainless steel is

  15. The monitoring of slow-moving landslides and assessment of stabilisation measures using an optical-mechanical crack gauge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Jan; Rowberry, Matthew David; Blahůt, Jan; Briestenský, Miloš; Hartvich, Filip; Košťák, Blahoslav; Rybář, Jan; Stemberk, Josef; Štěpančíková, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2012), s. 407-415 ISSN 1612-510X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : long-term monitoring * optical-mechanical crack gauge * deep-seated landslides Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2012

  16. Experimental investigations of the influence of thickness and mixed-mode loading on the crack initial angle in LC4-CS aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huiru; Guo, Wanlin; Yu, Liang

    2002-05-01

    The influence of thickness and mixed mode I/II loading on the crack initial angle of aluminum LC4-CS plates of 2, 4, 8 and 14 mm thickness was investigated experimentally from tensile-tearing testing of the compact-tension-shear type specimens. Experimental results of the crack initial angle for various thickness plates and load mode mixity were presented, and compared with theoretical predictions form the maximum tangential stress criterion and the maximum triaxial stress criterion. The crack initial angle is found to vary not only with load mode mixity but also with specimen thickness. The experimental result show a god agreement with theoretical predictions in 2, 14 mm- thickness specimens but a great deal difference in 8 mm-thickness specimens. The results are discussed in the viewpoint of 3D failure theory.

  17. Initiation and growth of thermal fatigue crack networks in an AISI 304 L type austenitic stainless steel (X2 CrNi18-09); Amorcage et propagation de reseaux de fissures de fatigue thermique dans un acier inoxydable austenitique de type X2 CrNi18-09 (AISI 304 L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillot, V

    2004-07-01

    We studied the behaviour of a 304 L type austenitic stainless steel submitted to thermal fatigue. Using the SPLASH equipment of CEA/SRMA we tested parallelepipedal specimens on two sides: the specimens are continuously heated by Joule effect, while two opposites faces are cyclically. cooled by a mixed spray of distilled water and compressed air. This device allows the reproduction and the study of crack networks similar to those observed in nuclear power plants, on the inner side of circuits fatigued by mixed pressurized water flows at different temperatures. The crack initiation and the network constitution at the surface were observed under different thermal conditions (Tmax = 320 deg C, {delta}T between 125 and 200 deg C). The experiment produced a stress gradient in the specimen, and due to this gradient, the in-depth growth of the cracks finally stopped. The obtained crack networks were studied quantitatively by image analysis, and different parameters were studied: at the surface during the cycling, and post mortem by step-by-step layer removal by grinding. The maximal depth obtained experimentally, 2.5 mm, is relatively coherent with the finite element modelling of the SPLASH test, in which compressive stresses appear at a depth of 2 mm. Some of the crack networks obtained by thermal fatigue were also tested in isothermal fatigue crack growth under 4-point bending, at imposed load. The mechanisms of the crack selection, and the appearance of the dominating crack are described. Compared to the propagation of a single crack, the crack networks delay the propagation, depending on the severity of the crack competition for domination. The dominating crack can be at the network periphery, in that case it is not as shielded by its neighbours as a crack located in the center of the network. It can also be a straight crack surrounded by more sinuous neighbours. Indeed, on sinuous cracks, the loading is not the same all along the crack path, leading to some

  18. Fracture-mechanical investigations on the propagation of heat-tension-cracks, in boittle multi-component media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebner, H.

    1983-01-01

    The quasistatic dissipation of thermically induced cracks in brittle multi-components material with plane boundary areas is studied. The distribution of Eigentension, which is causing the dissipation of cracks, is produced by cooling the composite material from the production temperature to room temperature. Tension distributions, respectively of the fracture-mechanical coefficients were determined by solving of the boundary value problems of the theory of plane thermoelasticity, a based on existence of a plane distortion state, respectively of a plane state of tension. Because of the complicated shape of the free surface one adopted a numerical solution, the finite-element method, to solve the corresponding mixed boundary value problems. (orig.) [de

  19. Conditions for crack initiation in an orthotropic bi-material notch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusák, Jan; Profant, T.; Kotoul, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2012), s. 302-307 ISSN 1537-6494 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/0994; GA ČR GAP108/10/2049 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : General singular stress concentrators * Fracture mechanics * Notches * Bi-material notches * Fracture mechanics Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.701, year: 2012

  20. Laser Ultrasonic System for Surface Crack Visualization in Dissimilar Welds of Control Rod Drive Mechanism Assembly of Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Shil Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a J-groove dissimilar weld crack visualization system based on ultrasonic propagation imaging (UPI technology. A full-scale control rod drive mechanism (CRDM assembly specimen was fabricated to verify the proposed system. An ultrasonic sensor was contacted at one point of the inner surface of the reactor vessel head part of the CRDM assembly. Q-switched laser beams were scanned to generate ultrasonic waves around the weld bead. The localization and sizing of the crack were possible by ultrasonic wave propagation imaging. Furthermore, ultrasonic spectral imaging unveiled frequency components of damage-induced waves, while wavelet-transformed ultrasonic propagation imaging enhanced damage visibility by generating a wave propagation video focused on the frequency component of the damage-induced waves. Dual-directional anomalous wave propagation imaging with adjacent wave subtraction was also developed to enhance the crack visibility regardless of crack orientation and wave propagation direction. In conclusion, the full-scale specimen test demonstrated that the multiple damage visualization tools are very effective in the visualization of J-groove dissimilar weld cracks.

  1. Reliability calculation of cracked components using probabilistic fracture mechanics and a Markovian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.

    1988-01-01

    The numerical reliability calculation of cracked construction components under cyclical fatigue stress can be done with the help of models of probabilistic fracture mechanics. An alternative to the Monte Carlo simulation method is examined; the alternative method is based on the description of failure processes with the help of a Markov process. The Markov method is traced back directly to the stochastic parameters of a two-dimensional fracture mechanics model, the effects of inspections and repairs also being considered. The probability of failure and expected failure frequency can be determined as time functions with the transition and conditional probabilities of the original or derived Markov process. For concrete calculation, an approximative Markov chain is designed which, under certain conditions, is capable of giving a sufficient approximation of the original Markov process and the reliability characteristics determined by it. The application of the MARKOV program code developed into an algorithm reveals sufficient conformity with the Monte Carlo reference results. The starting point of the investigation was the 'Deutsche Risikostudie B (DWR)' ('German Risk Study B (DWR)'), specifically, the reliability of the main coolant line. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Crack initiation criteria for singular stress concentrations, Part IV: Applications to fracture of coated structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knésl, Zdeněk; Náhlík, Luboš; Bareš, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2008), s. 263-270 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1284; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB200410803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Fracture mechanics * bi-material body * thin layers * fracture of coated structures Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  3. Probabilistic modeling of crack networks in thermal fatigue; Modelisation probabiliste de formation de reseaux de fissures de fatigue thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malesys, N

    2007-11-15

    Thermal superficial crack networks have been detected in mixing zone of cooling system in nuclear power plants. Numerous experimental works have already been led to characterize initiation and propagation of these cracks. The random aspect of initiation led to propose a probabilistic model for the formation and propagation of crack networks in thermal fatigue. In a first part, uniaxial mechanical test were performed on smooth and slightly notched specimens in order to characterize the initiation of multiple cracks, their arrest due to obscuration and the coalescence phenomenon by recovery of amplification stress zones. In a second time, the probabilistic model was established under two assumptions: the continuous cracks initiation on surface, described by a Poisson point process law with threshold, and the shielding phenomenon which prohibits the initiation or the propagation of a crack if this one is in the relaxation stress zone of another existing crack. The crack propagation is assumed to follow a Paris' law based on the computation of stress intensity factors at the top and the bottom of crack. The evolution of multiaxial cracks on the surface can be followed thanks to three quantities: the shielding probability, comparable to a damage variable of the structure, the initiated crack density, representing the total number of cracks per unit surface which can be compared to experimental observations, and the propagating crack density, representing the number per unit surface of active cracks in the network. The crack sizes distribution is also computed by the model allowing an easier comparison with experimental results. (author)

  4. 3D Progressive Damage Modeling for Laminated Composite Based on Crack Band Theory and Continuum Damage Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John T.; Pineda, Evan J.; Ranatunga, Vipul; Smeltzer, Stanley S.

    2015-01-01

    A simple continuum damage mechanics (CDM) based 3D progressive damage analysis (PDA) tool for laminated composites was developed and implemented as a user defined material subroutine to link with a commercially available explicit finite element code. This PDA tool uses linear lamina properties from standard tests, predicts damage initiation with an easy-to-implement Hashin-Rotem failure criteria, and in the damage evolution phase, evaluates the degradation of material properties based on the crack band theory and traction-separation cohesive laws. It follows Matzenmiller et al.'s formulation to incorporate the degrading material properties into the damaged stiffness matrix. Since nonlinear shear and matrix stress-strain relations are not implemented, correction factors are used for slowing the reduction of the damaged shear stiffness terms to reflect the effect of these nonlinearities on the laminate strength predictions. This CDM based PDA tool is implemented as a user defined material (VUMAT) to link with the Abaqus/Explicit code. Strength predictions obtained, using this VUMAT, are correlated with test data for a set of notched specimens under tension and compression loads.

  5. Aerial pruning mechanism, initial real environment test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Javier; Hirai, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    In this research, a pruning mechanism for aerial pruning tasks is tested in a real environment. Since the final goal of the aerial pruning robot will be to prune tree branches close to power lines, some experiments related to wireless communication and pruning performance were conducted. The experiments consisted of testing the communication between two XBee RF modules for monitoring purposes as well as testing the speed control of the circular saw used for pruning tree branches. Results show that both the monitoring and the pruning tasks were successfully done in a real environment.

  6. A damage cumulation method for crack initiation prediction under non proportional loading and overloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, S.

    1992-04-01

    For a sequence of constant amplitude cyclic loading containing overloads, we propose a method for damage cumulation in non proportional loading. This method uses as data cyclic stabilized states at non proportional loading and initiation or fatigue curve in uniaxial case. For that, we take into account the dependence of Cyclic Strain Stress Curves (C.S.S.C.) and mean cell size on prehardening and we define a stabilized uniaxial state cyclically equivalent to a non proportional stabilized state through a family of C.S.S.C. Although simple assumptions like linear damage function and linear cumulation is used we obtain a sequence effect for difficult cross slip materials as 316 stainless steel, but the Miner rule for easy cross-slip materials. We show then differences between a load-controlled test and a strain controlled test: for a 316 stainless steel in a load controlled test, the non proportional loading at each cycle is less damaging than the uniaxial one for the same equivalent stress, while the result is opposite in a strain controlled test. We show also that an overloading retards initiation in a load controlled test while it accelerates initiation in a strain controlled test. (author). 26 refs., 8 figs

  7. Crack Initiation and Growth Behavior at Corrosion Pit in 7075-T6 High Strength Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    corrosion damage in 7075-T6511 aluminium alloy under aircraft loading”. Dept of Mechanical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, 1996. [14...AZ31 in sodium chloride solution”. International Journal of Fatigue, 38:1181–1188, 2008. ISSN 0142-1123. [31] Pao, P.S., P.S. Gill, and C.R. Feng. “On

  8. Analysis of fatigue crack initiation in cycled austempered ductile cast irons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrenec, Martin; Beran, Přemysl; Dluhoš, J.; Zouhar, Michal; Ševčík, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2010), s. 2337-2346 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [Fatigue 2010. Praha, 06.06.2010-11.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2371; GA ČR GD106/09/H035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Low cycle fatigue * ADI * Finite element modelling * Neutron diffraction Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  9. A study on the behaviour of stress-corrosion crack initiation and propagation of type 304 stainless steel in aqueous 35wt% MgCl2 solution by electrical potential method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Kyo; Pyun, Su Il; Rhee, Woo Bong

    1988-01-01

    The behaviour of stress corrosion(SC) crack initiation and propagation of Type 304 stainless steel in 35 wt% MgCl 2 has been studied as a function of temperature and applied stress at the applied electrochemical potential of -106mV SHE by using electrical potential method. In the present study, the electrical potential method allows to differentiate the incubation period from the propagation period for SC crack. The optical microscopy revealed that the pit is a primary source of SC crack initiation under the applied stress lower than yield strength. SC crack initiation stage is composed of three steps; 1) pit initiation, 2) pit growth to critical size, and 3) crack propagation in the lateral and the through-thickness directions. The portion of anodic dissolution trenches to pits as sites of SC crack initiation increased with applied stress higher than yield strength. The activation energy of the electrochemical reaction contribution to the SC crack initiation and the energy of the stress contribution to the SC crack initiation under 212MPa are evaluated to be 30.5 kJ/mol and 14.0 kJ/mol, respectively. The fractography of SC crack propagation showed the transition of fracture mode from fully transgranular mode to the mixed zone with intergranular mode in the interior of the specimen. The intergranular portion is nearly independent of temperature, however it increases with the applied stress. (Author)

  10. Fatigue Crack Initiation and Facet Formation in Ti-6Al-4V Wires:Initiatie van vermoeiingsscheuren en facetvorming in Ti-6Al-4V draden

    OpenAIRE

    Everaerts, Joris

    2017-01-01

    In Ti-6Al-4V, fatigue cracks can nucleate internally instead of at the surface. Internal or subsurface cracks in titanium alloys are found to initiate at faceted features, which can be seen on the fracture surface after failure. These facets are fractured primary α (hcp) grains, which have broken in a very planar manner. The main purpose of this work is to study internal fracture in drawn Ti-6Al-4V wires, which has not been done before, since all published studies use forged or rolled samples...

  11. Evaluation of Detrimental Effects on Mechanical Properties of Zry-4 Due to Hydrogen Absorption by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) In-Situ Observation of Crack Propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L; Fernandez, G.E; Bertolino, G; Meyer, G

    2001-01-01

    The study of mechanical properties degradation of zirconium alloys due to hydrides assumes fundamental importance in the nuclear industry.During normal nuclear reactors operation, structural parts absorbed hydrogen generated from radiolysis of water, causing detrimental effects on mechanical properties.As a consequence, these materials are easily cracked in the presence of mechanical solicitation due to loss of ductility of the hydride-phase.The presence of cracks indicates fracture mechanic as the most suitable methodology in the study of mechanical properties degradation.In this work we used the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) criteria to evaluate the detrimental effects on mechanical properties with the observation in SEM of crack propagation.The samples used were SEN (B) of Zry-4 and cathodic homogenous charged with hydrogen concentrations lower than 400 ppm

  12. Role of polymeric binders on mechanical behavior and cracking resistance of silicon composite electrodes during electrochemical cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Wang, Yikai; Hu, Jiazhi; Lu, Bo; Dang, Dingying; Zhang, Junqian; Cheng, Yang-Tse

    2018-05-01

    This work focuses on understanding the role of various binders, including sodium alginate (SA), Nafion, and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), on the mechanical behavior and cracking resistance of silicon composite electrodes during electrochemical cycling. In situ curvature measurement of bilayer electrodes, consisting of a silicon-binder-carbon black composite layer on a copper foil, is used to determine the effects of binders on bending deformation, elastic modulus, and stress on the composite electrodes. It is found that the lithiation induced curvature and the modulus of the silicon/SA electrodes are larger than those of electrodes with Nafion and PVDF as binders. Although the modulus of Nafion is smaller than that of PVDF, the curvature and the modulus of silicon/Nafion composite are larger than those of silicon/PVDF electrodes. The moduli of all three composites decrease not only during lithiation but also during delithiation. Based on the measured stress and scanning electron microscopy observations of cracking in the composite electrodes, we conclude that the stress required to crack the composite electrodes with SA and Nafion binders is considerably higher than that of the silicon/PVDF electrode during electrochemical cycling. Thus, the cracking resistance of silicon/SA and silicon/Nafion composite electrodes is higher than that of silicon/PVDF electrodes.

  13. Flaw preparations for HSST program vessel fracture mechanics testing: mechanical-cyclic pumping and electron-beam weld-hydrogen-charge cracking schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holz, P.P.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of the document is to present schemes for flaw preparations in heavy section steel. The ability of investigators to grow representative sharp cracks of known size, location, and orientation is basic to representative field testing to determine data for potential flaw propagation, fracture behavior, and margin against fracture for high-pressure-, high-temperature-service steel vessels subjected to increasing pressurization and/or thermal shock. Gaging for analytical stress and strain procedures and ultrasonic and acoustic emission instrumentation can then be applied to monitor the vessel during testing and to study crack growth. This report presents flaw preparations for HSST fracture mechanics testing. Cracks were grown by two techniques: (1) a mechanical method wherein a premachined notch was sharpened by pressurization and (2) a method combining electron-beam welds and hydrogen charging to crack the chill zone of a rapidly placed autogenous weld. The mechanical method produces a naturally occurring growth shape controlled primarily by the shape of the machined notch; the welding-electrochemical method produces flaws of uniform depth from the surface of a wall or machined notch. Theories, details, discussions, and procedures are covered for both of the flaw-growing schemes

  14. Fatigue crack nucleation in metallic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Laird, C. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Ramamurty, U. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). School of Mechanical and Production Engineering; Suresh, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Campbell, G.H.; King, W.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Mitchell, T.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for Materials Science

    1999-04-01

    The process of fatigue crack nucleation in metallic materials is reviewed placing emphasis in results derived for pure FCC metals with wavy slip behavior. The relationship between Persistent Slip Bands (PSB`s) and crack initiation will be examined for both single crystals and polycrystals, including the conditions for inter- and transgranular crack nucleation and their connection to type of loading, crystallography and slip geometry. The latter has been found to be an important parameter in the nucleation of intergranular cracks in polycrystals subjected to high strain fatigue, whereby primary slip bands with long slip lengths impinging on a grain boundary produce intergranular crack nucleation under the right conditions. Recent results related to intergranular crack nucleation in copper bicrystals and crack nucleation in Cu/Sapphire interfaces indicate that this mechanism controls crack nucleation in those simpler systems as well. Furthermore, it is found that under multiple slip conditions the crack nucleation location is controlled by the presence of local single slip conditions and long slip lengths for a particular Burgers vector that does not have to be in the primary slip system.

  15. Contribution to the study of the mechanism of crack in amorphous silica: study by the molecular dynamics of crack in amorphous silica; Contribution a l'etude des mecanismes de rupture dans les amorphes: etude par dynamique moleculaire de la rupture de verre de silice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Brutzel, L

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this thesis was to understand the mechanism which occurs during the crack at the atomic scale in amorphous silica. The difficulties of the experimental observations at this length scale lead us to use numerical studies by molecular dynamics to access to the dynamical and the thermodynamical informations. We have carried out large simulations with 500000 atoms and studied the structure of the amorphous silica before to studying their behaviours under an imposed strain. The structure of this simulated amorphous silica settled in three length scales. In small length scale between 0 and 5 angstrom glass is composed of tetrahedra, this is close to the crystalline structure. In intermediate length scale between 3 and 10 angstrom tetrahedra are connected together and build rings of different sizes composed in majority between 5 and 7 tetrahedra. In bigger length scale between 15 and 60 angstrom, areas with high density of rings are surrounded by areas with low density of rings. These structural considerations play an important role in initiation and propagation of a crack. Indeed. in this length scale. crack propagates by growth and coalescence of some small cavities which appear in area with low density of rings behind the crack tip. The cavities dissipate the stress with carries away a delay to propagation of the crack. This phenomenons seems ductile and leads to non linear elastic behaviour near the crack tip. We have also shown that the addition of alkali in the amorphous silica changes the structure by creation of nano-porosities and leads to enhance the ductility during the crack propagation. (author)

  16. Microstructural characterization of hydrogen induced cracking in TRIP-assisted steel by EBSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureys, A.; Depover, T.; Petrov, R.; Verbeken, K.

    2016-01-01

    The present work evaluates hydrogen induced cracking by performing an elaborate EBSD (Electron BackScatter Diffraction) study in a steel with transformation induced plasticity (TRIP-assisted steel). This type of steel exhibits a multiphase microstructure which undergoes a deformation induced phase transformation. Additionally, each microstructural constituent displays a different behavior in the presence of hydrogen. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding on the mechanisms governing hydrogen induced crack initiation and propagation in the hydrogen saturated multiphase structure. Tensile tests on notched samples combined with in-situ electrochemical hydrogen charging were conducted. The tests were interrupted at stresses just after reaching the tensile strength, i.e. before macroscopic failure of the material. This allowed to study hydrogen induced crack initiation and propagation by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and EBSD. A correlation was found between the presence of martensite, which is known to be very susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, and the initiation of hydrogen induced cracks. Initiation seems to occur mostly by martensite decohesion. High strain regions surrounding the hydrogen induced crack tips indicate that further crack propagation may have occurred by the HELP (hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity) mechanism. Small hydrogen induced cracks located nearby the notch are typically S-shaped and crack propagation was dominantly transgranularly. The second stage of crack propagation consists of stepwise cracking by coalescence of small hydrogen induced cracks. - Highlights: • Hydrogen induced cracking in TRIP-assisted steel is evaluated by EBSD. • Tensile tests were conducted on notched hydrogen saturated samples. • Crack initiation occurs by a H-Enhanced Interface DEcohesion (HEIDE) mechanism. • Crack propagation involves growth and coalescence of small cracks. • Propagation is governed by the characteristics of

  17. Model for fracture mechanics based prediction of the fatigue strength of engineering alloys containing microscopical initial defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerbst Uwe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently two of the authors of the present paper proposed a model for fracture mechanics based prediction of the S-N characteristics of metallic components with large microstructural defects and supported this by a validation excercise on an aluminium alloy AL5380 H321. Within this presentation the authors extend the study using a number of data sets from the literature. Despite of necessary assumptions for the compensation of partially missing input information the results are fairly reasonable, with the exception of high loading levels where the analyses of two of the data sets yield non-conservative results. The authors propose multiple crack initiation as the potential root of the problem and discuss methods for extending the model for taking into account crack initiation.

  18. Research on cracking mechanism of the thin shell mould in expendable pattern shell casting during pattern removal process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wenming

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the cracking phenomenon of the thin shell mould in the expendable pattern shell casting during the pattern removing process, some systemic researches are presented. The influence of the pattern removing method and temperature on the pattern removing were investigated. The shell mould cracking mechanism was analyzed by using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA, and combining the temperature field and the volume change of the expanded polystyrene (EPS foam pattern being tested. The results indicated that the shell mould was not easily cracked when the pattern removing process was carried out with the furnace being heated little by little because of the shell slowly shrinking with dehydration and shell strength gradually increasing. The shell mould was soon destroyed when it was set directly into the furnace at above 400 ℃ because of the thin shell mould rapidly shrinking and the foam pattern hindering. However, the shell mould had no cracking when it had been preheated for a long time even if the furnace temperature was above 400 篊 and the shell was put into the furnace directly. Moreover, when the shell mould was directly set into the furnace at lower temperatures, 250 to 300 ℃, the shell would shrink slowly and the foam pattern would stay at the maximum expansion stage temperature of 100 to 110 ℃ for a long time; and the shell mould would experience an expansion force from the foam pattern for a long time. The expansion force is related to the pattern removing temperature, holding time, foam pattern thickness and density. Therefore, the foam pattern with higher density could make the shell crack.

  19. Finite element analysis of the influence of elastic anisotropy on stress intensification at stress corrosion cracking initiation sites in fcc alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meric de Bellefon, G.; van Duysen, J. C.

    2018-05-01

    A recent finite-element method (FEM)-based study from the present authors quantified the effect of elastic anisotropy of grains on stress intensification at potential intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) initiation sites in austenitic stainless steels. In particular, it showed that the auxetic behavior of grains (negative Poisson's ratio) in some directions plays a very important role in IGSCC initiation, since it can induce local stress intensification factors of about 1.6. A similar effect is expected for other fcc alloys such as Ni-based alloys. The present article confirms those results and paves the way to the definition of an IGSCC susceptibility index by identifying grain configurations that are the most favorable for crack initiation. The index will rely on the probability to get those configurations on surface of specimens.

  20. Crack growth and fracture toughness of amorphous Li-Si anodes: Mechanisms and role of charging/discharging studied by atomistic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrownejad, S. M.; Curtin, W. A.

    2017-10-01

    Fracture is the main cause of degradation and capacity fading in lithiated silicon during cycling. Experiments on the fracture of lithiated silicon show conflicting results, and so mechanistic models can help interpret experiments and guide component design. Here, large-scale K-controlled atomistic simulations of crack propagation (R-curve KI vs. Δa) are performed at LixSi compositions x = 0.5 , 1.0 , 1.5 for as-quenched/relaxed samples and at x = 0.5 , 1.0 for samples created by discharging from higher Li compositions. In all cases, the fracture mechanism is void nucleation, growth, and coalescence. In as-quenched materials, with increasing Li content the plastic flow stress and elastic moduli decrease but void nucleation and growth happen at smaller stress, so that the initial fracture toughness KIc ≈ 1.0 MPa√{ m} decreases slightly but the initial fracture energy JIc ≈ 10.5J/m2 is similar. After 10 nm of crack growth, the fracture toughnesses increase and become similar at KIc ≈ 1.9 MPa√{ m} across all compositions. Plane-strain equi-biaxial expansion simulations of uncracked samples provide complementary information on void nucleation and growth. The simulations are interpreted within the framework of Gurson model for ductile fracture, which predicts JIc = ασy D where α ≃ 1 and D is the void spacing, and good agreement is found. In spite of flowing plastically, the fracture toughness of LixSi is low because voids nucleate within nano-sized distances ahead of the crack (D ≈ 1nm). Scaling simulation results to experimental conditions, reasonable agreement with experimentally-estimated fracture toughnesses is obtained. The discharging process facilitates void nucleation but decreases the flow stress (as shown previously), leading to enhanced fracture toughness at all levels of crack growth. Therefore, the fracture behavior of lithiated silicon at a given composition is not a material property but instead depends on the history of charging

  1. A multi\\0x2010scale approach for near\\0x2010surface pavement cracking and failure mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    Nearsurface cracking is one of the predominant distress types in flexible pavements. The occurrence of : nearsurface cracking, also sometimes referred to as topdown cracking, has increased in recent years : with the increased construction of...

  2. Characterization of ion irradiation effects on the microstructure, hardness, deformation and crack initiation behavior of austenitic stainless steel:Heavy ions vs protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, J.; Hure, J.; Tanguy, B.; Laffont, L.; Lafont, M.-C.; Andrieu, E.

    2018-04-01

    Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) is a complex phenomenon of degradation which can have a significant influence on maintenance time and cost of core internals of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Hence, it is an issue of concern, especially in the context of lifetime extension of PWRs. Proton irradiation is generally used as a representative alternative of neutron irradiation to improve the current understanding of the mechanisms involved in IASCC. This study assesses the possibility of using heavy ions irradiation to evaluate IASCC mechanisms by comparing the irradiation induced modifications (in microstructure and mechanical properties) and cracking susceptibility of SA 304 L after both type of irradiations: Fe irradiation at 450 °C and proton irradiation at 350 °C. Irradiation-induced defects are characterized and quantified along with nano-hardness measurements, showing a correlation between irradiation hardening and density of Frank loops that is well captured by Orowan's formula. Both irradiations (iron and proton) increase the susceptibility of SA 304 L to intergranular cracking on subjection to Constant Extension Rate Tensile tests (CERT) in simulated nominal PWR primary water environment at 340 °C. For these conditions, cracking susceptibility is found to be quantitatively similar for both irradiations, despite significant differences in hardening and degree of localization.

  3. Crack tip strain evolution and crack closure during overload of a growing fatigue crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Qiang Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that fatigue crack growth is retarded after an overload, which has been explained either by plasticity-induced crack closure or near-tip residual stress. However, any interpretation of overload effect is insufficient if strain evolution in front of crack tip is not properly considered. The current understanding of overload-induced retardation lacks the clarification of the relationship between crack closure at crack wake and strain evolution at crack tip. In this work, a material with low work hardening coefficient was used to study the effect of overload on crack tip strain evolution and crack closure by in-situ SEM observation and digital image correlation technique. Crack opening displacement (COD and crack tip strain were measured before and after the overload. It was observed that the evolution of crack tip strain follows the crack opening behaviour behind the crack tip, indicating a smaller influence of overload on micro-mechanical behaviour of fatigue crack growth. After the overload, plastic strain accumulation was responsible for crack growth. The strain at a certain distance to crack tip was mapped, and it was found that the crack tip plastic zone size correlated well with crack growth rate during post-overload fatigue crack propagation.

  4. Mechanical Behavior of 3D Crack Growth in Transparent Rock-Like Material Containing Preexisting Flaws under Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu-Dan Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical behavior of 3D crack propagation and coalescence is investigated in rock-like material under uniaxial compression. A new transparent rock-like material is developed and a series of uniaxial compressive tests on low temperature transparent resin materials with preexisting 3D flaws are performed in laboratory, with changing values of bridge angle β (inclination between the inner tips of the two preexisting flaws of preexisting flaws in specimens. Furthermore, a theoretical peak strength prediction of 3D cracks coalescence is given. The results show that the coalescence modes of the specimens are varying according to different bridge angles. And the theoretical peak strength prediction agrees well with the experimental observation.

  5. Ductile failure simulation of tensile plates with multiple through wall cracks based on damage mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Jeon Jun; Kim, Nak Hyun; Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple numerical method, based on the stress modified fracture strain damage model with the stress reduction technique, for predicting the failure behaviors of ductile plates with multiple through wall cracks. This technique is implemented using the user defined subroutines provided in ABAQUS. For validation, the results simulated using the proposed method are compared with published experimental data of Japanese researchers

  6. Biaxial fatigue crack propagation behavior of perfluorosulfonic-acid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; Shi, Shouwen; Wang, Lei; Chen, Xu; Chen, Gang

    2018-04-01

    Perfluorosulfonic-acid membranes have long been used as the typical electrolyte for polymer-electrolyte fuel cells, which not only transport proton and water but also serve as barriers to prevent reactants mixing. However, too often the structural integrity of perfluorosulfonic-acid membranes is impaired by membrane thinning or cracks/pinholes formation induced by mechanical and chemical degradations. Despite the increasing number of studies that report crack formation, such as crack size and shape, the underlying mechanism and driving forces have not been well explored. In this paper, the fatigue crack propagation behaviors of Nafion membranes subjected to biaxial loading conditions have been investigated. In particular, the fatigue crack growth rates of flat cracks in responses to different loading conditions are compared, and the impact of transverse stress on fatigue crack growth rate is clarified. In addition, the crack paths for slant cracks under both uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions are discussed, which are similar in geometry to those found after accelerated stress testing of fuel cells. The directions of initial crack propagation are calculated theoretically and compared with experimental observations, which are in good agreement. The findings reported here lays the foundation for understanding of mechanical failure of membranes.

  7. Crack propagation of brittle rock under high geostress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Chu, Weijiang; Chen, Pingzhi

    2018-03-01

    Based on fracture mechanics and numerical methods, the characteristics and failure criterions of wall rock cracks including initiation, propagation, and coalescence are analyzed systematically under different conditions. In order to consider the interaction among cracks, adopt the sliding model of multi-cracks to simulate the splitting failure of rock in axial compress. The reinforcement of bolts and shotcrete supporting to rock mass can control the cracks propagation well. Adopt both theory analysis and simulation method to study the mechanism of controlling the propagation. The best fixed angle of bolts is calculated. Then use ansys to simulate the crack arrest function of bolt to crack. Analyze the influence of different factors on stress intensity factor. The method offer more scientific and rational criterion to evaluate the splitting failure of underground engineering under high geostress.

  8. Crack Propagation Behavior of Alumina with Different Grain Sizes under Static and Cyclic Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Attaoui, H.; Saadaoui, M.; Chevalier, J.; Fantozzi, G.

    Crack propagation in high purity alumina ceramics with different grain sizes was investigated with the Double Torsion method during static and cyclic fatigue. Slow crack growth in alumina is due to stress corrosion by water molecules at the crack tip. However, the microstructure plays a significant role on V-KI laws (crack velocity versus stress intensity factor) under static loading: the higher the grain size, the larger the crack resistance. This increase in crack resistance with grain size is easily attributed to crack bridging mechanisms. A compliance function, based on the variation of compliance with bridging stresses, is applied here to quantify the amount of crack bridging. It is shown experimentally that the reinforcement due to crack bridging is proportional to the compliance function. Under cyclic fatigue, a reduction of crack bridging is observed, followed by a decrease of the compliance function. During crack propagation under cyclic loading, the compliance is affected by the frictional degradation of bridges (due to repeated unloading and loading). The amount of frictional degradation versus number of cycles is followed for different loading conditions. At low loads, the crack rate is initially equal to zero, but crack bridging decreases monotonically with the number of cycles. After an 'incubation' period, crack propagation initiates and new bridges are formed. This leads further to an equilibrium between crack shielding degradation and crack shielding accumulation. The equilibrium condition is obtained more rapidly for higher loads. In any case, the crack resistance at the equilibrium is always lower than that obtained under monotonic loading. This is particularly significant for coarse grain microstructures: the higher the crack resistance under monotonic loading, the higher the degradation under cyclic loading. This implies, that it is inappropriate to incorporate directly V-KI curves obtained from monotonic loading into a cyclic fatigue analysis

  9. Fracture Profile and Crack Propagation of Ultra-High Strength Hot-Stamped Boron Steel During Mechanical Trimming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianhong; Yang, Kun; Chen, Sisi; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical trimming process for ultra-high strength boron steel after hot stamping was carried out in this study. Shear and tensile tests were designed to analyze the influences of stress state on the fracture mode; trimmed fracture surface and profile were observed and compared to other commonly used steels such as DP980 and Q235 etc.; the crack propagation during trimming process was studied through step-by-step tests. The observation and analysis reveal that the fracture mode of hot-stamped boron steel is highly related to the stress state, it belongs to cleavage fracture on low stress triaxiality but dimple fracture on high stress triaxiality. Such phenomenon is reflected in the trimming process, during which the stress state changes from shear-dominated state to tensile-dominated state. In addition, the burnish zone of trimmed boron steel is much smaller than other high strength steels, and the profile of cutting surface shows an `S'-like shape which is destructive to the trimming tool. Moreover, during the trimming process, most martensite laths near the cutting edge are stretched and rotated markedly to the direction of the shear band, and the main crack expands along those grain boundaries, which may penetrate through a few martensite laths and form small crack branches.

  10. Technical basis for the initiation and cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking of low-alloy steels in elevated temperature PWR environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, L.A.

    1997-10-01

    The Section 11 Working Group on Flaw Evaluation of the ASME B and PV Code Committee is considering a Code Case to allow the determination of the conditions under which environmentally-assisted cracking of low-alloy steels could occur in PWR primary environments. This paper provides the technical support basis for such an EAC Initiation and Cessation Criterion by reviewing the theoretical and experimental information in support of the proposed Code Case.

  11. Technical basis for the initiation and cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking of low-alloy steels in elevated temperature PWR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Section 11 Working Group on Flaw Evaluation of the ASME B and PV Code Committee is considering a Code Case to allow the determination of the conditions under which environmentally-assisted cracking of low-alloy steels could occur in PWR primary environments. This paper provides the technical support basis for such an EAC Initiation and Cessation Criterion by reviewing the theoretical and experimental information in support of the proposed Code Case

  12. Terahertz non-destructive imaging of cracks and cracking in structures of cement-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shujie; Li, Tongchun; Zhou, Jun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Xiaoming; Qi, Huijun; Mu, Zhiyong

    2017-11-01

    Cracks and crack propagation in cement-based materials are key factors leading to failure of structures, affecting safety in construction engineering. This work investigated the application of terahertz (THz) non-destructive imaging to inspections on structures of cement-based materials, so as to explore the potential of THz imaging in crack detection. Two kinds of disk specimens made of plain cement mortar and UHMWPE fiber concrete were prepared respectively. A mechanical expansion load device was deployed to generate cracks and control the whole process of cracking. Experimental tests were carried out on cracked specimens by using a commercial THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) during loading. The results show that crack opening and propagation could be examined by THz clearly and the material factors influence the ability of crack resistance significantly. It was found that the THz imaging of crack initiation and propagation agrees with the practical phenomenon and supplies more information about damage of samples. It is demonstrated that the damage behavior of structures of cement-based materials can be successfully detected by THz imaging.

  13. Effect of Strength and Microstructure on Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior and Mechanism of X80 Pipeline Steel in High pH Carbonate/Bicarbonate Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Du, Cuiwei; Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Shengrong; Zhao, Tianliang; Jia, Jinghuan

    2014-04-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviors and mechanisms of X80 pipeline steels with different strength and microstructure in high pH carbonate/bicarbonate solution were investigated by slow strain rate testing and electrochemical test. The results showed that the cracking mode of low strength X80 steel composed of bulky polygonal ferrite and granular bainite in high pH solution was intergranular (IGSCC), and the SCC mechanism was anodic dissolution (AD). While the mixed cracking mode of high strength X80 steel consisted of fine acicular ferrite and granular bainite was intergranular (IGSCC) in the early stage, and transgranular (TGSCC) in the later stage. The decrease of pH value of crack tip was probably the key reason for the occurrence of TGSCC. The SCC mechanism may be a mixed mode of AD and hydrogen embrittlement (HE), and the HE mechanism may play a significant role in the deep crack propagation at the later stage. The cracking modes and SCC mechanisms of the two X80 steels were associated with its microstructure and strength.

  14. Post analysis of AE data of seal plug leakage of NAPS-2 and fatigue crack initiation of three point bend sample using cluster and artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Mehta, H.R.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic Emission data is very weak and passive in nature that leads to a challenging task to separate AE data from noise. This paper illuminates the work done of post analysis of acoustic emission data of seal plug leakage of operating PHWR, NAPS-2, Narora and Fatigue Crack initiation of three-point bend sample using cluster analysis and artificial neural network (ANN). First the known AE data generated in lab by PCB debonding and pencil leak break were analyzed using ANN to get the confidence. After that the AE data acquired by scanning all 306-coolant channels at NAPS-2 was sorted out in five separate clusters for different leakage rate and background noise. Fatigue crack initiation, AE data generated in MSD lab on three-point bend sample was clustered in ten separate clusters in which one cluster was having 98% AE data of crack initiation period noted with the help of travelling microscope but remaining clusters indicating AE data of different sources and noise. The above data was further analysed with self organizing map of Artificial Neural Network. (author)

  15. Three-dimensional characterization of stress corrosion cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano-Perez, S.; Rodrigo, P.; Gontard, Lionel Cervera

    2011-01-01

    the best spatial resolution. To illustrate the power of these techniques, different parts of dominant stress corrosion cracks in Ni-alloys and stainless steels have been reconstructed in 3D. All relevant microstructural features can now be studied in detail and its relative orientation respect......Understanding crack propagation and initiation is fundamental if stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms are to be understood. However, cracking is a three-dimensional (3D) phenomenon and most characterization techniques are restricted to two-dimensional (2D) observations. In order to overcome...

  16. Mechanics of curved surfaces, with application to surface-parallel cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    The surfaces of many bodies are weakened by shallow enigmatic cracks that parallel the surface. A re-formulation of the static equilibrium equations in a curvilinear reference frame shows that a tension perpendicular to a traction-free surface can arise at shallow depths even under the influence of gravity. This condition occurs if σ11k1 + σ22k2 > ρg cosβ, where k1 and k2 are the principal curvatures (negative if convex) at the surface, σ11 and σ22 are tensile (positive) or compressive (negative) stresses parallel to the respective principal curvature arcs, ρ is material density, g is gravitational acceleration, and β is the surface slope. The curvature terms do not appear in equilibrium equations in a Cartesian reference frame. Compression parallel to a convex surface thus can cause subsurface cracks to open. A quantitative test of the relationship above accounts for where sheeting joints (prominent shallow surface-parallel fractures in rock) are abundant and for where they are scarce or absent in the varied topography of Yosemite National Park, resolving key aspects of a classic problem in geology: the formation of sheeting joints. Moreover, since the equilibrium equations are independent of rheology, the relationship above can be applied to delamination or spalling caused by surface-parallel cracks in many materials.

  17. Modified Dugdale cracks and Fictitious cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1998-01-01

    A number of theories are presented in the literature on crack mechanics by which the strength of damaged materials can be predicted. Among these are theories based on the well-known Dugdale model of a crack prevented from spreading by self-created constant cohesive flow stressed acting in local...... areas, so-called fictitious cracks, in front of the crack.The Modified Dugdale theory presented in this paper is also based on the concept of Dugdale cracks. Any cohesive stress distribution, however, can be considered in front of the crack. Formally the strength of a material weakened by a modified...... Dugdale crack is the same as if it has been weakened by the well-known Griffith crack, namely sigma_CR = (EG_CR/phi)^1/2 where E and 1 are Young's modulus and crack half-length respectively, and G_CR is the so-called critical energy release rate. The physical significance of G_CR, however, is different...

  18. Assigning quantum-mechanical initial conditions to cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2003-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical initial conditions for the fluctuations of the geometry can be assigned in excess of a given physical wavelength. The two-point functions of the scalar and tensor modes of the geometry will then inherit corrections depending on which Hamiltonian is minimized at the initial stage of the evolution. The energy density of the background geometry is compared with the energy-momentum pseudo-tensor of the fluctuations averaged over the initial states, minimizing each different Hamiltonian. The minimization of adiabatic Hamiltonians leads to initial states whose back-reaction on the geometry is negligible. The minimization of non-adiabatic Hamiltonians, ultimately responsible for large corrections in the two-point functions, is associated with initial states whose energetic content is of the same order as the energy density of the background

  19. Preventive effect of shot peening on stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Shinobu; Yoshimura, Toshihiko; Enomoto, Kunio; Saito, Hideyo; Morinaka, Ren; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2002-01-01

    The effect of shot peening (SP) on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) prevention was evaluated from the viewpoints of crack initiation and propagation. It was found that the residual stress in a Type-304 stainless-steel specimen is changed - from tensile of 300 MPa to compressive of -800 MPa - by shot peening, and the effective SP depth is 0.35 mm. It was also found that the crack initiation and propagation were prevented by shot peening. The mechanism by which the shot peening prevents these phenomena is explained according to the theory of superposition and loading history. That is, the prevention of crack initiation and propagation results from the fact that the compressive residual stress caused by SP decreases the applied load on the crack surface and prevents rupturing of the oxide film on the surface. Moreover, the effects of SCC prevention were shown to be valid when cyclic loading is applied after peening. (author)

  20. Cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking in a low-alloy steel: Theoretical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wire, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) can cause increases in fatigue crack growth rates of 40 to 100 times the rate in air for low alloy steels. The increased rates can lead to very large predicted crack growth. EAC is activated by a critical level of dissolved sulfides at the crack tip. Sulfide inclusions (MnS) in the steel produce corrosive sulfides in solution following exposure by a growing crack. In stagnant, low oxygen water conditions considered here, diffusion is the dominant mass transport mechanism acting to change the sulfide concentration within the crack. The average crack tip velocity is below the level required to produce the critical crack tip sulfide ion concentration required for EAC. Crack extension analyses also consider the breakthrough of large, hypothetical embedded defects with the attendant large freshly exposed sulfide inventory. Combrade et al. noted that a large inventory of undissolved metallurgical sulfides on crack flanks could trigger EAC, but did not quantify the effects. Diffusion analysis is extended herein to cover breakthrough of embedded defects with large sulfide inventories. The mass transport via diffusion is limited by the sulfide solubility. As a result, deep cracks in high sulfur steels are predicted to retain undissolved sulfides for extended but finite periods of time t diss which increase with the crack length and the metallurgical sulfide content in the steel. The analysis shows that the duration of EAC is limited to t diss providing V eac , the crack tip velocity associated with EAC is less than V In , the crack tip velocity below which EAC will not occur in an initially sulfide free crack. This condition on V eac need only be met for a short time following crack cleanup to turn off EAC. The predicted crack extension due to limited duration of EAC is a small fraction of the initial embedded defect size and would not greatly change calculated crack depths

  1. Assessment of copper resistance to stress-corrosion cracking in nitrite solutions by means of joint analysis of acoustic emission measurements, deformation diagrams, qualitative and quantitative fractography, and non-linear fracture mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanzhin, V.G.; Nikulin, S.A. [Moscow State Inst. of Steel and Alloys (Russian Federation)

    2005-06-01

    A study of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of copper in 0.1M NaNO{sub 2} aqueous solution is presented. The fracture kinetics was monitored by measuring the acoustic emission (AE) signals. Macro- and micro-fractography analysis, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), was employed to investigate the fracture mechanisms. Estimates of stress intensity factor, KI, and J-integral were derived in order to assess the resistance of copper to stress corrosion cracking. Two kinds of SCC tests under continuous circulation of the corrosive solution were employed in the present study: 1. Constant extension rate (2x10{sup -6}/s) tests on pre-cracked, middle tension (MT) panel specimens. 2. Tests on pre-cracked, compact tension (CT) specimens at a fixed (by a fixing bolt) opening of the crack walls ({delta} = 0.3 mm, K{sub i} = 27 MPax{radical}m). The time base for these tests was about two months. After the completion of the SCC test, the CT specimen was additionally tested, under a constant-rate (0.02 mm/s) off-center extension. In the both kinds of tests, the SCC fracture kinetics is found to exhibit two typical stages: Stage 1: SCC initiation stage (after a certain incubation period, T{sub i}, measured to be T{sub i} {approx_equal} 3-4 hours for MT specimens under constant extension, the corresponding stress was {sigma} {approx_equal} 40-70 MPa, and T{sub i} {approx_equal} 200 hours for CT specimens under a fixed crack wall opening). Stage 2: Active fracture process (SCC macro-fracture) distinguished by strong AE pulses (which are registered after time T{sub 2} {approx_equal} 8 hours for MT specimens and T{sub 2} {approx_equal} 800 hours for CT specimens). Fractography analysis has shown that the zone of SCC fracture in MT specimens extends to approximately 1,500 {mu}m. A 400-700 {mu}m deep zone of brittle transgranular fracture, which included small areas showing characteristic SCC 'striations', was observed adjacent to the fatigue pre-crack area. At higher

  2. Assessing Heat-to-Heat Variations Affecting Mechanism Based Modeling of Hydrogen Environment Cracking (HEAC) in High Strength Alloys for Marine Applications: Monel K-500

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-28

    commonly used in marine applications due to its excellent combination of corrosion resistance, strength, and fracture toughness. For such applications...34Assessing Heat-to-Heat Variations Affecting Mechanism Based Modeling of Hydrogen Environment Cracking (HEAC) in High Strength Alloys for Marine ...Environment Cracking (HEAC) in High Strength Alloys for Marine Applications: Monel K-500 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N00014-12-1-0506 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c

  3. Toward a better understanding of strain incompatibilities at grain boundaries in the analysis of fatigue crack initiation at low temperature in the UdimetTM 720 Li superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrouy Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low cycle fatigue properties of polycrystalline γ-γ′ Ni-based superalloys are dependent on many factors such as temperature, environment, grain size and distribution of the strengthening phases. Under LCF conditions at intermediate temperatures, an intergranular crack initiation could be observed. In this paper we propose to analyze the local conditions favouring such an intergranular cracking mode considering the high strength C&W UdimetTM720 Li alloy, widely used for manufacturing high pressure turbine disk for aeroengine applications. Tensile and fatigue tests were performed in air in the 20–465 ∘C range of temperature on micro-samples in order to focus on plasticity and damage processes developed near grain boundaries. A special attention was paid on the slip transfer between neighbouring grains taking into account their local crystallographic orientations. In some specific crystallographic configurations, small zones were detected at the tip of slip bands presenting an intense elastic/plastic activity. Although they are limited in size, they are associated to local crystalline rotations. High levels of local strain/stress were also evaluated in these volumes using an EBSD pattern cross correlation technique. The development of such specific zones was investigated at different stages of the tensile and LCF behaviour and was identified as leading to micro-cracks initiation for both solicitation modes.

  4. Mechanisms of initial heart rate response to postural change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, C.; Wieling, W.; van Brederode, J. F.; Hond, A.; de Rijk, L. G.; Dunning, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    We explored in 43 healthy subjects the afferent mechanisms of the initial heart rate response to standing by comparing free standing, 70 degrees head-up tilt, handgrip, and contraction of abdominal and leg muscles. The results indicate the following. 1) Standing evokes an immediate, large, bimodal

  5. Image-based detection and analysis of crack propagation in cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, E.B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, J.A.O.

    2011-01-01

    The initiation and propagation of cracking in concrete and other cementitious materials is a governing mechanism for many physical and mechanical material properties. The observation of these cracking processes in concrete is typically taking place at discrete locations using destructive methods...... after the cracking process has occurred. The alternative nondestructive methods are often either not precise enough or experimentally too demanding. In this study, the use of an image analysis procedure to capture the crack initiation and propagation process is described, which utilizes digital images...

  6. Thermal fatigue cracking of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fissolo, A.

    2001-01-01

    This report deals with the thermal fatigue cracking of austenitic stainless steels as AISI 316 LN and 304 L. Such damage has been clearly observed for some components used in Fast Breeder reactors (FBR) and Pressure Water Reactor (PWR). In order to investigate thermal fatigue, quasi-structural specimen have been used. In this frame, facilities enforcing temperature variations similar to those found under the operation conditions have been progressively developed. As for components, loading results from impeded dilatation. In the SPLASH facility, the purpose was to establish accurate crack initiation conditions in order to check the relevance of the usual component design methodology. The tested specimen is continuously heated by the passage of an electrical DC current, and submitted to cyclic thermal down shock (up to 1000 deg C/s) by means of periodical spraying of water on two opposite specimen faces. The number of cycles to crack initiation N i is deduced from periodic examinations of the quenched surfaces, by means of optical microscopy. It is considered that initiation occurs when at least one 50μm to 150□m long crack is observed. Additional SPLASH tests were performed for N >> N i , with a view to investigate the evolution of a surface multiple cracking network with the number of cycles N. The CYTHIA test was mainly developed for the purpose of assessing crack growth dynamics of one isolated crack in thermal fatigue conditions. Specimens consist of thick walled tubes with a 1 mm circular groove is spark-machined at the specimen centre. During the test, the external wall of the tube is periodically heated by using a HF induction coil (1 MHz), while its internal wall is permanently cooled by flowing water. Total crack growth is derived from post-mortem examinations, whereby the thermal fatigue final rupture surface is oxidized at the end of the test. The specimen is broken afterwards under mechanical fatigue at room temperature. All the tests confirm that

  7. Fatigue Crack Propagation in a Gear Tooth in the Presence of an Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vineet; Zagade, Pramod R.; Khan, Danish; Gautham, B. P.

    2014-05-01

    A computational model for studying the fatigue crack propagation characteristics in a gear tooth root in the presence of inclusions is presented. A step-by-step crack growth scheme is implemented to predict the crack path using the finite element method and linear elastic fracture mechanics. Paris law approach is used to model fatigue crack propagation. The effect of size and location of hard circular inclusion on the growth of a surface-initiated crack and service life in a gear tooth is studied.

  8. Characterization of Cracking and Crack Growth Properties of the C5A Aircraft Tie-Box Forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Smith, Stephen W.; Newman, John A.; Willard, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed destructive examinations were conducted to characterize the integrity and material properties of two aluminum alloy (7075-T6) horizontal stabilizer tie box forgings removed.from US. Air Force C5A and C5B transport aircraft. The C5B tie box forging was,found to contain no evidence of cracking. Thirteen cracks were found in the CSA,forging. All but one of the cracks observed in the C5A component were located along the top cap region (one crack was located in the bottom cap region). The cracks in the C5A component initiated at fastener holes and propagated along a highly tunneled intergranular crack path. The tunneled crack growth configuration is a likelv result of surface compressive stress produced during peening of the .forging suijace. The tie box forging ,fatigue crack growth, fracture and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) properties were characterized. Reported herein are the results of laboratory air ,fatigue crack growth tests and 95% relative humidity SCC tests conducted using specimens machined from the C5A ,forging. SCC test results revealed that the C5A ,forging material was susceptible to intergranular environmental assisted cracking: the C5A forging material exhibited a SCC crack-tip stress-intensity factor threshold of less than 6 MPadn. Fracture toughness tests revealed that the C5A forging material exhibited a fracture toughness that was 25% less than the C5B forging. The C5A forging exhibited rapid laboratory air fatigue crack growth rates having a threshold crack-tip stress-intensity factor range of less than 0.8 MPa sup m. Detailed fractographic examinations revealed that the ,fatigue crack intergranular growth crack path was similar to the cracking observed in the C5A tie box forging. Because both fatigue crack propagation and SCC exhibit similar intergranular crack path behavior, the damage mechanism resulting in multi-site cracking of tie box forgings cannot be determined unless local cyclic stresses can be quantified.

  9. Effect of cracking and randomness of inputs on corrosion initiation of reinforced concrete bridge decks exposed to chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Konecny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at the indicative evaluation of the effect of random scatter of input parameters in case of durability of reinforced concrete bridge deck. The time to onset of corrosion of steel reinforcement of concrete bridge deck exposed to chloride is evaluated. The effect of cracking in concrete onto chloride ingress is considered. The selected steel reinforcement protection strategies are: unprotected steel reinforcement, epoxy-coated steel reinforcement and water-proof barrier bellow asphalt overlay. The preliminary model for damage effect on chloride ion ingress through water proof membrane under penetrable asphalt overlay is used. 2-D finite element chloride ingress model is combined with Monte Carlo simulation technique. The innovative crack effect modeling via highly penetrable elements is applied. Deterministic and probabilistic calculations are compared.

  10. The temperature dependence and environmental enhancement mechanism of fatigue crack growth rates of A 351-CF8A cast stainless steel in LWR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, W.H.; Haenninen, H.; Toerroenen, K.; Kemppainen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth rates for A 351-CF8A cast stainless steel were determined over a range of temperatures from 93 degC to 338 degC (200 degF to 640 degF). The waveform was 17 mHz sinusoidal and the load ratio was 0.2. The environment was borated and lithiated water with a dissolved oxygen content of approximately 1 ppb. The results show an easily measurable (factors of 2 to 8) increase in crack growth rates due to the environment. However, these rates are well within the known band of results for low-alloy pressure vessel and low-carbon piping steels in LWR environments. An extensive fractographic investigation shows fatigue fracture surfaces consisting of brittle morphology. This fracture morphology is similar to that of stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels, suggesting that there is a distinctive environmental assistance mechanism resulting in the increased crack growth rates. (author)

  11. Microstructural modelling of creep crack growth from a blunted crack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, P.R.; Giessen, E. van der

    1998-01-01

    The effect of crack tip blunting on the initial stages of creep crack growth is investigated by means of a planar microstructural model in which grains are represented discretely. The actual linking-up process of discrete microcracks with the macroscopic crack is simulated, with full account of the

  12. Crack path simulation for cylindrical contact under fretting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Cardoso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work different strategies to estimate crack path for cylindrical contacts under fretting conditions are carried out. The main goal is to propose and to evaluate methodologies not only to estimate the direction of crack initiation but also the subsequent propagation in its earlier stages, where the stress field is multiaxial, non-proportional and decays very fast due to the proximity with the contact interface. Such complex conditions pose a substantial challenge to the modelling of crack path. The numerical simulations are provided by a 2D Finite Element Analysis taking into account interactions between the crack faces. The results show that, under fretting conditions, models based on the critical plane method are not effective to estimate the crack initiation orientation, while models based on a so called “critical direction” applied along a critical distance provide better results. Regarding the subsequent crack propagation orientation, it was possible to see that stress intensity factor based models where one considers an infinitesimal virtual crack emerging from an original preexistent crack are powerful mechanisms of crack orientation estimation.

  13. High temperature cracking of steels: effect of geometry on creep crack growth laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabiri, M.R.

    2003-12-01

    This study was performed at Centre des Materiaux de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris. It deals with identification and transferability of high temperature creep cracking laws of steels. A global approach, based on C * and J non-linear fracture mechanics parameters has been used to characterize creep crack initiation and propagation. The studied materials are: the ferritic steels 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V (hot and cold parts working at 540 and 250 C) used in the thermal power stations and the austenitic stainless steel 316 L(N) used in the nuclear power stations. During this thesis a data base was setting up, it regroups several tests of fatigue, creep, creep-fatigue, and relaxation. Its particularity is to contain several creep tests (27 tests), achieved at various temperatures (550 to 650 C) and using three different geometries. The relevance of the C * parameter to describe the creep crack propagation was analysed by a means of systematic study of elasto-viscoplastic stress singularities under several conditions (different stress triaxiality). It has been shown that, besides the C * parameter, a second non singular term, denoted here as Q * , is necessary to describe the local variables in the vicinity of the crack tip. Values of this constraint parameter are always negative. Consequently, application of typical creep crack growth laws linking the creep crack growth rate to the C * parameter (da/dt - C * ), will be conservative for industrial applications. Furthermore, we showed that for ferritic steels, crack incubation period is important, therefore a correlation of Ti - C * type has been kept to predict crack initiation time Ti. For the austenitic stainless steel, the relevant stage is the one of the crack propagation, so that a master curve (da/dt - C * ), using a new data analysis method, was established. Finally, the propagation of cracks has been simulated numerically using the node release technique, allowing to validate analytical expressions utilised for the experimental

  14. Influence of transverse shear on plasticity around an axial crack in a cylindrical shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenk, S.

    1977-01-01

    A plasticity model for a semi-elliptical axial surface crack is developed. It generalizes Dugdale's assumption of a concentrated yield zone in the plane of the crack, and a continuous stress distribution is assumed in the yield zone. The inherent difficulties arising from the use of shell theory to model a three-dimensional problem can be overcome when the crack is sufficiently deep and the material is so ductile that full yield of the section around the crack develops before failure. In that case the calculations confirm the initial assumption of separation of the crack surfaces and the sides of the yield zone. The model is used to analyse published test data on surface cracked pressurized pipes. The analysis consists in COD evaluation and estimate of failure as consequence of plastic instability. COD values are found at the crack front and bottom. The plastic instability treated here is due to occurence of large plastic strains around the crack causing the section to be contracted. Thus the effective crack size is somewhat larger than the initial size. For sufficiently high loads this mechanism may lead to instability. A method is proposed which deals with the problem by simultaneous analysis of a number of cracks with increasing depth. The method avoids iterations and enables for any load and crack length the calculation of the smallest crack depth, which wo

  15. Determination of the initiation of ductile tearing in cracked branch pipes on the basis of a pre-determined criterion using small specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuliot, S.; Marie, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes an experimental and numerical study of the initiation conditions of ductile tearing in ferritic materials. An initial criterion J i is determined experimentally using a sufficiently thick CT specimen. The numerical and experimental aspects are then discussed for thinner CT specimen and a method is proposed for determining it in thin test samples. The local ductile tear initiation criterion, which was determined on the basis of 3D finite element calculations, was applied to a cracked branch pipe geometry subjected to out-of-plane bending to compare the load estimates at the start of propagation and the values measured during the test. The results of the comparison were highly satisfactory: the criterion is predictive. (orig.)

  16. Crack propagation behaviour in stainless steel AISI 316L at elevated temperatures under static and cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, H.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental investigations of crack growth under creep and creep-fatigue conditions are presented. The experiments were performed with the austenitic steel AISI 316L, that will be used in fast breeder reactors. A comparison of crack propagation behaviour at temperatures of T = 550deg C and T = 700deg C in common through-thickness cracked specimens and in plates containing surface cracks is carried out by application of several fracture mechanics parameters. The quantitative description of crack initiation times and crack velocities is persued particularly. The propagation rate of one-dimensional cracks under cyclic loading conditions at T = 550deg C is also treated with fracture mechanical methods. The influence of the hold periods on crack speed is discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. The mechanism of hot crack formation in Ti-6A1-4V during cold crucible continuous casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng DING

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Hot crack is one of common defects in castings, which often results in failure of castings. This work studies the formation of hot cracks during cold crucible continous casting by means of experiments and thoretical analysis. The results show that the hot crack occurs on the surface and in the circumference of ingots, where the solidified shell and solidification front meet each other. The tendency of hot cracking decreases with the increase of withdrawal velocities in some extent. The hot crack is caused mainly by friction force between the shell and the crucible inner wall, and it takes place when the stress resulting from friction exceeds the tensile strength of the shell. The factors affecting the hot cracks are analyzed and verified. In order to decrease the tendency of hot cracks, technical parameters should be optimized.

  18. Review of the models and mechanisms for environmentally-assisted crack growth of pressure vessel and piping steels in PWR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, W.; Gabetta, G.; Hanninen, H.

    1985-12-01

    The crack-tip micromechanisms and the computational models for environmentally-assisted cracking in pressure vessel and piping steels in high-temperature, low-oxygen (PWR), reactor-grade water are described and evaluated in this report. The report begins with a brief description of the critical variables which are known to affect environmentally-assisted subcritical cracking in these metal/environment systems. The micromechanistic models are discussed in some detail, with anodic dissolution and hydrogen assistance being the prime candidates for the successful explanation of the observed phenomena. The anodic dissolution model offers far better quantification of the environmentally-assisted crack growth rates, but tends to overpredict the rates for a large number of conditions. The hydrogen assistance models qualitatively could account for a wider range of effects, but quantification of the model is virtually nonexistent. A variety of calculational models are in various stages of development; all of them are far from use as a predictive tool. Crack-tip strain rate models have received the most attention, and the approach to their use has been to partition the environmentally-assisted growth rates into a mechanically-driven component, with the environmental enhancement superposed. The environment component is then correlated with a calculated crack-tip strain rate. 141 refs., 59 figs

  19. Experimental study of the crack depth ratio threshold to analyze the slow crack growth by creep of high density polyethylene pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laiarinandrasana, Lucien; Devilliers, Clémence; Lucatelli, Jean Marc; Gaudichet-Maurin, Emmanuelle; Brossard, Jean Michel

    2014-01-01

    To assess the durability of drinking water connection pipes subjected to oxidation and slow crack growth, a comprehensive database was constructed on a novel specimen geometry: the pre-cracked NOL ring. 135 tests were carried out consisting of initial crack depth ratio ranging from 0.08 to 0.6; single or double longitudinal cracks: tensile with steady strain rate and creep loading. A threshold value of the crack depth ratio of 0.2, induced by the oxidation was determined by analyzing several mechanical parameters. This threshold value was shown to be independent on the strain rate effects, single or double crack configuration and the kind of loading: tensile or creep. Creep test results with crack depth ratio larger than 0.2 were then utilized to establish a failure assessment diagram. A methodology allowing the prediction of residual lifetime of in-service pipes was proposed, using this diagram. - Highlights: • Experimental data on pre-cracked rings featuring a longitudinally cracked HDPE pipe. • Crack depth ratio threshold for slow crack growth study consecutive to oxidation. • Investigation of the effects of the single/double notch(es) and of the strain rate. • Original results obtained from tests performed with tensile and creep loadings. • Correlation between creep initiation time and C* with DENT and ring specimens

  20. The length of pre-existing fissures effects on the mechanical properties of cracked red sandstone and strength design in engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangyu; Feng, Meimei; Yu, Bangyong; Han, Guansheng

    2018-01-01

    It is important to study the mechanical properties of cracked rock to understand the engineering behavior of cracked rock mass. Consequently, the influence of the length of pre-existing fissures on the strength, deformation, acoustic emission (AE) and failure characteristics of cracked rock specimen was analyzed, and the optimal selection of strength parameter in engineering design was discussed. The results show that the strength parameters (stress of dilatancy onset and uniaxial compressive strength) and deformation parameters (axial strain and circumferential strain at dilatancy onset and peak point) of cracked rock specimen decrease with the increase of the number of pre-existing fissures, and the relations which can use the negative exponential function to fit. Compared with the intact rock specimens, the different degrees of stress drop phenomena were produced in the process of cracked rock specimens when the stress exceeds the dilatancy onset. At this moment, the cracked rock specimens with the existence of stress drop are not instantaneous failure, but the circumferential strain, volumetric strain and AE signals increase burstingly. And the yield platform was presented in the cracked rock specimen with the length of pre-existing fissure more than 23mm, the yield failure was gradually conducted around the inner tip of pre-existing fissure, the development of original fissures and new cracks was evolved fully in rock. However, the time of dilatancy onset is always ahead of the the time of that point with the existence of stress drop. It indicates that the stress of dilatancy onset can be as the parameter of strength design in rock engineering, which can effectively prevent the large deformation of rock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. New mechanism of spiral wave initiation in a reaction-diffusion-mechanics system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis D Weise

    Full Text Available Spiral wave initiation in the heart muscle is a mechanism for the onset of dangerous cardiac arrhythmias. A standard protocol for spiral wave initiation is the application of a stimulus in the refractory tail of a propagating excitation wave, a region that we call the "classical vulnerable zone." Previous studies of vulnerability to spiral wave initiation did not take the influence of deformation into account, which has been shown to have a substantial effect on the excitation process of cardiomyocytes via the mechano-electrical feedback phenomenon. In this work we study the effect of deformation on the vulnerability of excitable media in a discrete reaction-diffusion-mechanics (dRDM model. The dRDM model combines FitzHugh-Nagumo type equations for cardiac excitation with a discrete mechanical description of a finite-elastic isotropic material (Seth material to model cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and stretch activated depolarizing current. We show that deformation alters the "classical," and forms a new vulnerable zone at longer coupling intervals. This mechanically caused vulnerable zone results in a new mechanism of spiral wave initiation, where unidirectional conduction block and rotation directions of the consequently initiated spiral waves are opposite compared to the mechanism of spiral wave initiation due to the "classical vulnerable zone." We show that this new mechanism of spiral wave initiation can naturally occur in situations that involve wave fronts with curvature, and discuss its relation to supernormal excitability of cardiac tissue. The concept of mechanically induced vulnerability may lead to a better understanding about the onset of dangerous heart arrhythmias via mechano-electrical feedback.

  2. Crack layer theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.

    1987-01-01

    A damage parameter is introduced in addition to conventional parameters of continuum mechanics and consider a crack surrounded by an array of microdefects within the continuum mechanics framework. A system consisting of the main crack and surrounding damage is called crack layer (CL). Crack layer propagation is an irreversible process. The general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are employed to identify the driving forces (causes) and to derive the constitutive equation of CL propagation, that is, the relationship between the rates of the crack growth and damage dissemination from one side and the conjugated thermodynamic forces from another. The proposed law of CL propagation is in good agreement with the experimental data on fatigue CL propagation in various materials. The theory also elaborates material toughness characterization.

  3. Towards the prediction of the growth of crack networks: influence of microstructural parameters on scattering at initiation; Vers la prediction de l'apparition de reseaux de fissures: influence des parametres microtructuraux sur la dispersion a l'amorcage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterstock, St

    2008-10-15

    This research thesis aims at understanding the importance of microstructure in the scattering of mechanical fields and of its potential influence on fatigue crack initiation, at studying the grains in which equi-biaxial fatigue cracks are appearing, and at proposing a coalescence model based on the discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD). After an overview of fatigue, the author describes the tests developed by EDF or the CEA to study thermal fatigue. Then, he presents the equi-biaxial fatigue test which allows the first stages of initiation of thermal fatigue cracks to be studied. Maps of cracked areas are obtained by Electron Back Scattered Diffraction, and results are discussed with respect to results obtained in dislocation dynamics. Polycrystalline computations are implemented. They allow a better understanding of the importance of the material microstructure for the scattering of the surface grain mechanical fields. Finally, a coalescence model is presented, based on experimental results obtained during the equi-biaxial fatigue testing. Coalescence criteria are proposed.

  4. Knuckle Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people realize that cracking knuckles produces a funny noise and may repeat cracking just to produce the ... main areas of exercise are aerobic exercise and resistance News Categories Ankylosing Spondylitis News Fibromyalgia News Gout ...

  5. Numerical simulations of material mismatch and ductile crack growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestby, Erling

    2002-07-01

    Both the global geometry and inhomogeneities in material properties will influence the fracture behaviour of structures in presence of cracks. In this thesis numerical simulations have been used to investigate how some aspects of both these issues affect the conditions at the crack-tip. The thesis is organised in an introduction chapter, summarising the major findings and conclusions, a review chapter, presenting the main aspects of the developments in the field of fracture mechanics, and three research papers. Paper I considers the effect of mismatch in hardening exponent on the local near-tip stress field for stationary interface cracks in bi-materials under small scale yielding conditions. It is demonstrated that the stress level in the weaker material increases compared to what is found in the homogeneous material for the same globally applied load level, with the effect being of increasing importance as the crack-tip is approached. Although a coupling between the radial and angular dependence of the stress fields exists, the evolving stress field can still be normalised with the applied J. The effect on the increase in stress level can closely be characterised by the difference in hardening exponent, {delta}n, termed the hardening mismatch, and is more or less independent of the absolute level of hardening in the two materials. Paper II and Ill deal with the effects of geometry, specimen size, hardening level and yield stress mismatch in relation to ductile crack growth. The ductile crack growth is simulated through use of the Gurson model. In Paper H the effect of specimen size on the crack growth resistance is investigated for deep cracked bend and shallow cracked tensile specimens. At small amounts of crack growth the effect of specimen size on the crack growth resistance is small, but a more significant effect is found for larger amounts of crack growth. The crack growth resistance decreases in smaller specimens loaded in tension, whereas the opposite is

  6. Modelling of Corrosion Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed.......Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed....

  7. Buckling Analysis of Edge Cracked Sandwich Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Mohammed Hussein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents mainly the buckling load of sandwich plates with or without crack for different cases. The buckling loads are analyzed experimentally and numerically by using ANSYS 15. The experimental investigation was to fabricate the cracked sandwich plate from stainless steel and PVC to find mechanical properties of stainless steel and PVC such as young modulus. The buckling load for different aspect ratio, crack length, cracked location and plate without crack found. The experimental results were compared with that found from ANSYS program. Present of crack is decreased the buckling load and that depends on crack size, crack location and aspect ratio.

  8. Short crack growth and fatigue life in austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Zezulka, Petr

    28 2005, č. 10 (2005), s. 923-935 ISSN 8756-758X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/01/0376 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : crack growth * crack initiation * duplex steel Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.673, year: 2004

  9. In situ observation of interfacial fatigue crack growth in diffusion bonded joints of austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shu-xin [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130, Meilong Road, P.O. Box 402, Shanghai 200237 (China)]. E-mail: li_shuxion@163.com; Xuan, Fu-Zhen [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130, Meilong Road, P.O. Box 402, Shanghai 200237 (China); Tu, Shan-Tung [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130, Meilong Road, P.O. Box 402, Shanghai 200237 (China)]. E-mail: sttu@ecust.edu.cn

    2007-06-30

    Micro-fatigue tests were performed on 316LSS vacuum diffusion bonded joints to investigate the interfacial fatigue crack growth behavior with discrete micro-voids located ahead of a pre-existing crack tip. In situ observation of the interfacial fatigue crack propagation and micro-voids evolution was carried out during the whole fatigue testing. SEM of the fracture surface was analyzed. The results showed that the interface failure mechanism of similar diffusion bonded joints is different from that of dissimilar materials joints. A brittle mode is observed in the main crack growth. And the ridge interface formed in diffusion bonded joints due to surface roughness can be a resistance to the crack growth. The location of the fatigue crack initiation and the crack propagation direction derived from SEM observation of the fracture surface of the specimen are in consistent with those obtained from the in situ observation by using the optical microscope.

  10. Causes and mechanisms of thermal embrittlement and corrosion cracking of complex α-titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushkov, S.S.; Rybin, V.V.; Razuvaeva, I.N.; Nesterova, E.V.; Gunbina, O.A.

    1995-01-01

    Effect of aging under 500 deg C on mechanical and corrosion-mechanical properties of Ti-6Al base titanium α-alloys with zirconium and carbon additions is studied. Using electron microscopy one determines the reasons of reduction of plasticity and of corrosion-mechanical strength of alloys after aging. It is determined that in the given alloys there are two different processes with occurrence different kinetics: the first one-formation of grain-boundary precipitations of Ti 2 (Fe, Ni) intermetallic compound responsible for plasticity reduction; and the second one-homogeneous decomposition of Ti-Al solid solution responsible for reduction of corrosion-mechanical properties. 14 refs., 6 figs

  11. Generalized linear elastic fracture mechanics: an application to a crack touching the bimaterial interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Šestáková, L.; Hutař, Pavel; Knésl, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 452-453, - (2011), s. 445-448 ISSN 1013-9826 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB200410803; GA ČR GA101/09/1821 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : generalized stress intensity factor * bimaterial interface * composite materials * strain energy density factor * fracture criterion * generalized linear elastic fracture mechanics Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  12. Mechanisms initiating deep convection over complex terrain during COPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kottmeier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Precipitating convection in a mountain region of moderate topography is investigated, with particular emphasis on its initiation in response to boundary-layer and mid- and upper-tropospheric forcing mechanisms. The data used in the study are from COPS (Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study that took place in southwestern Germany and eastern France in the summer of 2007. It is found that the initiation of precipitating convection can be roughly classified as being due to either: (i surface heating and low-level flow convergence; (ii surface heating and moisture supply overcoming convective inhibition during latent and/or potential instability; or (iii mid-tropospheric dynamical processes due to mesoscale convergence lines and forced mean vertical motion. These phenomena have to be adequately represented in models in order to improve quantitative precipitation forecast. Selected COPS cases are analysed and classified into these initiation categories. Although only a subset of COPS data (mainly radiosondes, surface weather stations, radar and satellite data are used here, it is shown that convective systems are captured in considerable detail by sensor synergy. Convergence lines were observed by Doppler radar in the location where deep convection is triggered several hours later. The results suggest that in many situations, observations of the location and timing of convergence lines will facilitate the nowcasting of convection. Further on, forecasting of the initiation of convection is significantly complicated if advection of potentially convective air masses over changing terrain features plays a major role. The passage of a frontal structure over the Vosges - Rhine valley - Black Forest orography was accompanied by an intermediate suppression of convection over the wide Rhine valley. Further downstream, an intensification of convection was observed over the Black Forest due to differential surface heating, a convergence line

  13. Thermo-mechanical properties and cracking during solidification of thin slab cast steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santillana, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays a vast majority of the steel produced worldwide is via the continuous casting process route because this is the most low-cost, efficient and high quality method to mass produce metal products in a variety of sizes and shapes. Most of the continuous casters are the initial manufacturing step

  14. Mechanism of Solder Joint Cracks in Anisotropic Conductive Films Bonding and Solutions: Delaying Hot-Bar Lift-Up Time and Adding Silica Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuye Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Micron sizes solder metallurgical joints have been applied in a thin film application of anisotropic conductive film and benefited three general advantages, such as lower joint resistance, higher power handling capability, and reliability, when compared with pressure based contact of metal conductor balls. Recently, flex-on-board interconnection has become more and more popular for mobile electronic applications. However, crack formation of the solder joint crack was occurred at low temperature curable acrylic polymer resins after bonding processes. In this study, the mechanism of SnBi58 solder joint crack at low temperature curable acrylic adhesive was investigated. In addition, SnBi58 solder joint cracks can be significantly removed by increasing the storage modulus of adhesives instead of coefficient of thermal expansion. The first approach of reducing the amount of polymer rebound can be achieved by using an ultrasonic bonding method to maintain a bonding pressure on the SnBi58 solder joints cooling to room temperature. The second approach is to increase storage modulus of adhesives by adding silica filler into acrylic polymer resins to prevent the solder joint from cracking. Finally, excellent acrylic based SnBi58 solder joints reliability were obtained after 1000 cycles thermal cycling test.

  15. The fracture mechanical significance of cracks formed during stress-relief annealing of a submerged arc weldment in pressure vessel steel of type A508 class 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljestrand, L.-G.; Oestberg, G.

    1978-01-01

    In large weldments of type A508 C12 cracks can form in the heat-affected zone during stress-relief annealing. The significance of such cracks with respect to catastrophic fracture is of interest from the point of view of safety, in particular for nuclear pressure vessels. In this investigation the size of reheat cracks, as formed and after fatigue growth, has been compared with the critical size for fast fracture. The latter was assessed by determination of the toughness of the heat-affected zones. The fracture toughness of the heat-affected zones did not differ much from that of the parent material. The presence of microcracks reduced the fracture toughness (of a special type of simulated specimen) at 20 0 C by about 20%. The fracture mechanical evaluation indicates that the cracks formed during stress-relief annealing should not impair the safety of the vessel under normal conditions, except for particular geometries and when the cracks may rapidly link together during fatigue. (author)

  16. Fracture-mechanical assessment of electrically permeable interface cracks in piezoelectric bimaterials by consideration of various contact zone models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, KP; Loboda, VV

    An interface crack with an artificial contact zone at the right-hand side crack tip between two piezoelectric semi-infinite half-planes is considered under remote mixed-mode loading. Assuming the stresses, strains and displacements are independent of the coordinate x(2), the expression for the

  17. An elastic-plastic fracture mechanics based methodology to characterize cracking behavior and its application to environmental assisted processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.A.; Gutierrez-Solana, F.

    1999-01-01

    Cracking processes suffered by new structural and piping steels when used in petroleum or other energy installations have demonstrated the need for a cracking resistance characterization methodology. This methodology, valid for both elastic and elastoplastic regimes, should be able to define crack propagation kinetics as a function of their controlling local parameters. This work summarizes an experimental and analytical methodology that has been shown to be suitable for characterizing cracking processes using compact tensile specimens, especially subcritical environmentally assisted ones, such as those induced by hydrogen in microalloyed steels. The applied and validated methodology has been shown to offer quantitative results of cracking behavior and to correlate these with the existing fracture micromechanisms. (orig.)

  18. Structural Reliability of Ceramics at High Temperature: Mechanisms of Fracture and Fatigue Crack Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhold H. Dauskardt

    2005-08-01

    Final report of our DOE funded research program. Aim of the research program was to provide a fundamental basis from which the mechanical reliability of layered structures may be understood, and to provide guidelines for the development of technologically relevant layered material structures with optimum resistance to fracture and subcritical debonding. Progress in the program to achieve these goals is described.

  19. An Analytical Model for Fatigue Life Prediction Based on Fracture Mechanics and Crack Closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsø, Jan Behrend; Agerskov, Henning

    1996-01-01

    Fatigue in steel structures subjected to stochastic loading is studied. Of special interest is the problem of fatigue damage accumulation and in this connection, a comparison between experimental results and results obtained using fracture mechanics. Fatigue test results obtained for welded plate...

  20. Stress analysis of fatigue cracks in mechanically fastened joints : An analytical and experimental investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rijck, J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The two historical fuselage failures, Comet in 1954 and Aloha in 1988, illustrate that similar accidents must be avoided which requires a profound understanding of the fatigue mechanisms involved, including analytical models to predict the fatigue behavior of riveted joints of a fuselage structure.

  1. On the Initiation Mechanism in Exploding Bridgewire and Laser Detonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D. Scott; Thomas, Keith A.; Clarke, S.; Mallett, H.; Martin, E.; Martinez, M.; Munger, A.; Saenz, Juan

    2006-07-01

    Since its invention by Los Alamos during the Manhattan Project era the exploding bridgewire detonator (EBW) has seen tremendous use and study. Recent development of a laser-powered device with detonation properties similar to an EBW is reviving interest in the basic physics of the deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) process in both of these devices. Cutback experiments using both laser interferometry and streak camera observations are providing new insight into the initiation mechanism in EBWs. These measurements are being correlated to a DDT model of compaction to detonation and shock to detonation developed previously by Xu and Stewart. The DDT model is incorporated into a high-resolution, multi-material model code for simulating the complete process. Model formulation and the modeling issues required to describe the test data will be discussed.

  2. Crack modelling for the assessment of stiffness loss of reinforced concrete structures under mechanical loading - determination of the permeability of the micro-cracked body; Modelisation de la fissuration pour l'evaluation de la perte d'etancheite des structures en beton arme sous chargements mecaniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongue Boma, M

    2007-12-15

    We propose a model describing the evolution of mechanical and permeability properties of concrete under slow mechanical loading. Calling upon the theory of continua with microstructure, the kinematic of the domain is enriched by a variable characterising size and orientation of the crack field. We call upon configurational forces to deal with crack propagation and we determine the balance equations governing both strain and propagation. The geometry of the microstructure is representative of the porous media: the permeability is obtained from the resolution of Stokes equations in an elementary volume. An example has been treated: we considered simple assumptions (uniform crack field, application of linear fracture mechanics...) and we determined the behaviour of a body under tensile loading. Strain, crack propagation and stiffness loss are completely assessed. Finally the evolution of permeability is plotted: once activated, crack propagation is the main cause of water tightness loss. (author)

  3. The effect of crack propagation mechanism on the fractal dimension of fracture surfaces in steels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlouhý, Ivo; Strnadel, B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3-4 (2008), s. 726-738 ISSN 0013-7944 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/06/0646; GA AV ČR IAA200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : low-alloyed steel * fracture surface * fractography Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.713, year: 2008

  4. Embrittlement and anodic process in stress corrosion cracking: study of the influent micro-mechanical parameters; Fragilisation et processus anodiques en corrosion sous contrainte: etude des parametres micro-mecaniques influents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinnes, J.Ph

    2006-11-15

    We study the influence of local mechanical parameters on crack propagation in Stress Corrosion Cracking, at the scale of the microstructure. Two systems are compared: the CuAl{sub 9}Ni{sub 3}Fe{sub 2} copper-aluminium alloy in synthetic sea water under cathodic polarization, where the crack propagation mechanism is related to strain-assisted anodic dissolution, and the 316L austenitic stainless steel in MgCl{sub 2} solution, where embrittlement mechanisms related to hydrogen effects prevail. We use micro-notched tensile specimen that allow to study isolated short cracks. These experiments are modelled by means of finite elements calculations, and further characterized by Electron Back scattered Diffraction (EBSD) in the case of the 316L alloy. In terms of the local mechanical parameters that control propagation, fundamental differences are outlined between the two systems. They are discussed from the viewpoint of the available models of Stress Corrosion Cracking. (author)

  5. Simulation of stress corrosion crack growth in steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, K. I.; Park, J. H.; Joo, J. W.; Shin, E. S.; Kim, H. D.; Chung, H. S.

    2000-01-01

    Stress corrosion crack growth is simulated after assuming a small axial surface crack inside a S/G tube. Internal pressure and residual stresses are considered as applied forces. Stress intensity factors along crack front, variation of crack shape and crack growth rate are obtained and discussed. It is noticed that the aspect ratio of the crack is not depend on the initial crack shape but depend on the residual stress distribution

  6. Effect of thermo-mechanical loading histories on fatigue crack growth behavior and the threshold in SUS 316 and SCM 440 steels. For prevention of high cycle thermal fatigue failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Masakazu; Muzvidziwa, Milton; Iwasaki, Akira; Kasahara, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    High cycle thermal fatigue failure of pipes induced by fluid temperature change is one of the interdisciplinary issues to be concerned for long term structural reliability of high temperature components in energy systems. In order to explore advanced life assessment methods to prevent the failure, fatigue crack propagation tests were carried out in a low alloy steel and an austenitic stainless steel under typical thermal and thermo-mechanical histories. Special attention was paid to both the effect of thermo-mechanical loading history on the fatigue crack threshold, as well as to the applicability of continuum fracture mechanics treatment to small or short cracks. It was shown experimentally that the crack-based remaining fatigue life evaluation provided more reasonable assessment than the traditional method based on the semi-empirical law in terms of 'usage factor' for high cycle thermal fatigue failure that is employed in JSME Standard, S017. The crack propagation analysis based on continuum fracture mechanics was almost successfully applied to the small fatigue cracks of which size was comparable to a few times of material grain size. It was also shown the thermo-mechanical histories introduced unique effects to the prior fatigue crack wake, resulting in occasional change in the fatigue crack threshold. (author)

  7. 3-D analysis of fatigue crack behaviour in a shot peened steam turbine blade material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, B.Y., E-mail: Binyan.he@soton.ac.uk [Engineering Materials, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Katsamenis, O.L. [muVIS X-ray Imaging Centre, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Mellor, B.G.; Reed, P.A.S. [Engineering Materials, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-26

    Serial mechanical sectioning and high resolution X-ray tomography have been used to study the three-dimensional morphology of small fatigue cracks growing in a 12 Cr tempered martensitic steam turbine blade material. A range of surface conditions has been studied, namely polished and shot peened (with varying levels of intensity). In the polished (unpeened) condition, inclusions (alumina and manganese sulphide) played an important role in initiating and controlling early fatigue crack behaviour. When fatigue cracks initiated from an alumina stringer, the crack morphology was normally dominated by single stringers, which were always in the centre of the fatigue crack, indicating its primary role in initiation. Manganese sulphide inclusion groups however seemed to dominate and affect the crack path along both the surface and depth crack growth directions. The more intensely shot peened condition did not however evidence inclusion or stringer affected fatigue crack initiation or growth behaviour; sub-surface crack coalescence being clearly observed by both serial sectioning and computed tomography (CT) imaging techniques at a depth of about 150–180 μm. These sub-surface crack coalescences can be linked to both the extent of the compressive residual stress as well as the depth of the plastic deformation arising from the intense shot peening process. Shot peening appears to provide a different defect population that initiates fatigue cracks and competes with the underlying metallurgical defect populations. The most beneficial shot peening process would in this case appear to “deactivate” the original metallurgical defect population and substitute a known defect distribution from the shot peening process from which fatigue cracks grow rather slowly in the strain hardened surface layer which also contains compressive residual stresses. A benefit to fatigue life in bending, even under Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) conditions, has been observed in these tests if a

  8. 3-D analysis of fatigue crack behaviour in a shot peened steam turbine blade material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, B.Y.; Katsamenis, O.L.; Mellor, B.G.; Reed, P.A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Serial mechanical sectioning and high resolution X-ray tomography have been used to study the three-dimensional morphology of small fatigue cracks growing in a 12 Cr tempered martensitic steam turbine blade material. A range of surface conditions has been studied, namely polished and shot peened (with varying levels of intensity). In the polished (unpeened) condition, inclusions (alumina and manganese sulphide) played an important role in initiating and controlling early fatigue crack behaviour. When fatigue cracks initiated from an alumina stringer, the crack morphology was normally dominated by single stringers, which were always in the centre of the fatigue crack, indicating its primary role in initiation. Manganese sulphide inclusion groups however seemed to dominate and affect the crack path along both the surface and depth crack growth directions. The more intensely shot peened condition did not however evidence inclusion or stringer affected fatigue crack initiation or growth behaviour; sub-surface crack coalescence being clearly observed by both serial sectioning and computed tomography (CT) imaging techniques at a depth of about 150–180 μm. These sub-surface crack coalescences can be linked to both the extent of the compressive residual stress as well as the depth of the plastic deformation arising from the intense shot peening process. Shot peening appears to provide a different defect population that initiates fatigue cracks and competes with the underlying metallurgical defect populations. The most beneficial shot peening process would in this case appear to “deactivate” the original metallurgical defect population and substitute a known defect distribution from the shot peening process from which fatigue cracks grow rather slowly in the strain hardened surface layer which also contains compressive residual stresses. A benefit to fatigue life in bending, even under Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) conditions, has been observed in these tests if a

  9. Corrosion of steel in cracked concrete: a microscale study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco, J.; Savija, B.; Schlangen, E.; Polder, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of concrete cracking upon reinforcement corrosion is complex. Cracks allow fast penetration of chlorides, potentially leading to a shorter initiation period of reinforcement corrosion. Structural regulations control acceptable crack width values based on the exposure class of the

  10. Analysis of Mode I and Mode II Crack Growth Arrest Mechanism with Z-Fibre Pins in Composite Laminated Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevan Kumar, N.; Ramesh Babu, P.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the numerical study of the mode I and mode II interlaminar crack growth arrest in hybrid laminated curved composite stiffened joint with Z-fibre reinforcement. A FE model of hybrid laminated skin-stiffener joint reinforced with Z-pins is developed to investigate the effect of Z- fibre pins on mode I and mode II crack growth where the delamination is embedded inbetween the skin and stiffener interface. A finite element model was developed using S4R element of a 4-node doubly curved thick shell elements to model the composite laminates and non linear interface elements to simulate the reinforcements. The numerical analyses revealed that Z-fibre pinning were effective in suppressing the delamination growth when propagated due to applied loads. Therefore, the Z-fibre technique effectively improves the crack growth resistance and hence arrests or delays crack growth extension.

  11. Quantitative Acoustic Emission Fatigue Crack Characterization in Structural Steel and Weld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adutwum Marfo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue crack growth characteristics of structural steel and weld connections are analyzed using quantitative acoustic emission (AE technique. This was experimentally investigated by three-point bending testing of specimens under low cycle constant amplitude loading using the wavelet packet analysis. The crack growth sequence, that is, initiation, crack propagation, and fracture, is extracted from their corresponding frequency feature bands, respectively. The results obtained proved to be superior to qualitative AE analysis and the traditional linear elastic fracture mechanics for fatigue crack characterization in structural steel and welds.

  12. Evaluation of different fracture-mechanical J-integral initiation values with regard to their usability in the safety assessment of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisele, U.; Roos, E.

    1991-01-01

    Determining fracture-mechanical material characteristic values on the basis of the J-integral is described and stipulated in a variety of standards and guidelines. The individual specifications differ in terms of procedure when determining the characteristic values and, therefore, also in terms of the meaningfulness of the results. This paper presents the different procedures, suggested in the course of the development of test methods in the field of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, used to characterize crack initiation behaviour with regard to their features as material characteristic values and their usability in the safety assessment of components. (orig.)

  13. Numerical modelling of desiccation cracking of clayey soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vo Thi Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation and propagation of desiccation cracks in soil is an extremely complex phenomenon because of the coupling between hydraulic and mechanical behaviour of soil, which are constituted here by the presence of capillary forces and discontinuities. The formation of a cracks network strongly influences the mechanical and hydraulic properties of soil. The main objective of this research is to study the evolution of suction and strain fields, the initiation and propagation of cracks under the effect of drying, using the finite element method. A simulation of a soil sample with four cohesive joints shows the results similar to experimental data. In addition, a simulation of multijoints shows that cracks does not open in all potentials positions and it gives similar spacing.

  14. Cracking of open traffic rigid pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Niken Chatarina; Siswanto Yudi; Widodo; Tjahjono Elly

    2017-01-01

    The research is done by observing the growth of real structure cracking in Natar, Lampung, Indonesia compared to C. Niken’s et al research and literature study. The rigid pavement was done with open traffic system. There are two main crack types on Natar rigid pavement: cracks cross the road, and cracks spreads on rigid pavement surface. The observation of cracks was analyzed by analyzing material, casting, curing, loading and shrinkage mechanism. The relationship between these analysis and s...

  15. In situ analysis of cracks in structural materials using synchrotron X-ray tomography and diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuwer, A.; Edwards, L.; Pratihar, S.; Ganguly, S.; Peel, M.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.; Marrow, T.J.; Withers, P.J.; Sinclair, I.; Singh, K.D.; Gao, N.; Buslaps, T.; Buffiere, J.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The structural integrity and performance of many components and structures are dominated by cracks and hence the study of cracked bodies study is of major economical and social importance. Despite nearly 30 years of study, there is still no detailed consensus regarding either the fundamental parameters that drive cracks or the precise mechanisms of their growth in most materials. Thus, virtually all crack life prediction models currently in engineering use are largely phenomenological rather than physically based. Historically, a major hindrance to our understanding of crack initiation and propagation has been the inability to measure either the crack tip stresses or the crack morphology deep within materials. The development of very high-resolution strain and tomography mapping on third generation synchrotron sources such as the ESRF has opened up the possibility of developing complementary techniques to monitor the entire plastic/process zone growth mechanisms and the accompanying crack tip field and crack wake field around growing cracks. If realized, such techniques would produce unique information that would be invaluable both in validating present finite element simulations of fatigue crack growth and in developing the future high accuracy simulations necessary for the development of physically realistic fatigue life-prediction models. Recent technique developments at the ESRF, Grenoble, opens up the possibility of imaging cracks and crack tip stress/strain fields, and the ability to study the extend of crack closure and overload effects, even under in situ loading. In this paper, first results from synchrotron X-ray diffraction and tomography experiments performed on ID11 and ID19 (respectively) at the ESRF, Grenoble, are presented and discussed in comparison with predictions from finite element modeling

  16. Overview of strength, crack propagation and fracture of nuclear reactor moderator graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskovic, R.; Heard, P.J.; Flewitt, P.E.J.; Wootton, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fracture behaviour. • Cracking initiation and growth. • Different loadings configurations. • Fracture mechanisms. -- Abstract: Nuclear reactor moderator graphite is an aggregate of needle coke filler particles within a matrix of fine coke flour particles mixed with pitch binder. Following extrusion in green condition, impregnation with liquid pitch binder and graphitisation, a polygranular aggregate with orthotropic properties is produced. Its mechanical properties under several different loading conditions and associated cracking behaviour were examined to establish crack initiation and propagation behaviour. Both virgin and radiolytically oxidised material were examined using optical and electron optical microscopy, focused ion beam microscope and digital image correlation. The appearance of force vs. displacement curves varied with type of loading. Mostly linear elastic traces occurred in uniaxial tensile and flexural tests. Large departures from linear elastic behaviour were observed in standard uniaxial and diametral compression testing. Digital image correlation has shown that the initiation of cracking involves formation of a process zone which grows to a critical size of approximately 3–5 mm before a macro-crack is initiated. Cracks straddle a torturous path which zigzags between the filler particles through the matrix consistent with crack propagation along the filler matrix interface. This paper provides an overview of strength, crack propagation and fracture of nuclear reactor moderator graphite. It reviews the physical processes and mathematical approaches that have been adopted to describe the behaviour of brittle materials and then considers if they apply to reactor core graphites

  17. Shear-tensile crack as a tool for reliable estimates of the non-double-couple mechanism: West Bohemia-Vogtland earthquake 1997 swarm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šílený, Jan; Horálek, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 95, October (2016), s. 113-124 ISSN 1474-7065 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2235; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03950S Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : earthquake mechanism * moment tensor * shear-tensile crack * confidence regions Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.426, year: 2016

  18. Formation of white etching cracks at manganese sulfide (MnS) inclusions in bearing steel due to hammering impact loading

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, T.; Long, H.; Slatter, T.; Dwyer-Joyce, R.S.

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbine gearbox bearings (WTGBs) are failing prematurely, leading to increased operational costs of wind energy. Bearing failure by white structure flaking (WSF) and axial cracking may both be caused by the propagation of white etching cracks (WECs) and have been observed to cause premature failures; however, their damage mechanism is currently not well understood. Crack initiation has been found to occur at subsurface material defects in bearing steel, which may develop into WECs. One h...

  19. Comprehensive analysis of fractures, microstructure, and physical and mechanical properties for the evaluation of the crack resistance of medium-carbon Cr-Ni-Mo steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, R. A.; Dubinskii, V. N.; Evstifeeva, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    The crack resistance of the 38CrNi3MoV (34NiCrMoV14—5. 35NiCrMoV12—5) tempered steel (at various tempering temperatures) has been estimated based on a comprehensive study of the steel fractures, microstructure, physical, and mechanical properties. Stress-intensity factor K 1C at the apex of the crack is growing continuously with an increase in the tempering temperature from 200 to 620°C. This indicates that K 1C is a structural-sensitive parameter, which depends on the steel microstructure and submicrostructure, the fracture mechanism that occurs under these structural conditions, the internal stress level, and the existence of microdefects and microcracks. The linear correlation dependence is found between the coefficient K 1C and the transverse velocity V transv. The obtained results reveal that the acoustic method can be used to quickly and efficiently estimate the crack resistance of the thermostrengthened steel without the recourse to labor-consuming mechanical tests and computations of the K 1C value.

  20. Geometrically Nonlinear Field Fracture Mechanics and Crack Nucleation, Application to Strain Localization Fields in Al-Cu-Li Aerospace Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Satyapriya; Taupin, Vincent; Fressengeas, Claude; Jrad, Mohamad

    2018-03-27

    The displacement discontinuity arising between crack surfaces is assigned to smooth densities of crystal defects referred to as disconnections, through the incompatibility of the distortion tensor. In a dual way, the disconnections are defined as line defects terminating surfaces where the displacement encounters a discontinuity. A conservation statement for the crack opening displacement provides a framework for disconnection dynamics in the form of transport laws. A similar methodology applied to the discontinuity of the plastic displacement due to dislocations results in the concurrent involvement of dislocation densities in the analysis. Non-linearity of the geometrical setting is assumed for defining the elastic distortion incompatibility in the presence of both dislocations and disconnections, as well as for their transport. Crack nucleation in the presence of thermally-activated fluctuations of the atomic order is shown to derive from this nonlinearity in elastic brittle materials, without any algorithmic rule or ad hoc material parameter. Digital image correlation techniques applied to the analysis of tensile tests on ductile Al-Cu-Li samples further demonstrate the ability of the disconnection density concept to capture crack nucleation and relate strain localization bands to consistent disconnection fields and to the eventual occurrence of complex and combined crack modes in these alloys.

  1. A new system for crack closure of cementitious materials using shrinkable polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, Anthony; Joseph, Christopher; Lark, Robert; Isaacs, Ben; Dunn, Simon; Weager, Brendon

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents details of an original crack-closure system for cementitious materials using shrinkable polymer tendons. The system involves the incorporation of unbonded pre-oriented polymer tendons in cementitious beams. Crack closure is achieved by thermally activating the shrinkage mechanism of the restrained polymer tendons after the cement-based material has undergone initial curing. The feasibility of the system is demonstrated in a series of small scale experiments on pre-cracked prismatic mortar specimens. The results from these tests show that, upon activation, the polymer tendon completely closes the preformed macro-cracks and imparts a significant stress across the crack faces. The potential of the system to enhance the natural autogenous crack healing process and generally improve the durability of concrete structures is addressed.

  2. Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics Analyses For circumferential Part-through Surface Cracks At The Interface Between Elbows and Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae; Oh, Chang Kyun; Kim, Jong Sung; Jin, Tae Eun

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents plastic limit loads and approximate J-integral estimates for circumferential part-through surface crack at the interface between elbows and pipes. Based on finite element limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials, plastic limit moments under in-plane bending are obtained and it is found that they are similar those for circumferential part-through surface cracks in the center of elbow. Based on present FE results, closed-form limit load solutions are proposed. Welds are not explicitly considered and all materials are assumed to be homogeneous. And the method to estimate the elastic-plastic J-integral for circumferential part-through surface cracks at the interface between elbows and straight pipes is proposed based on the reference stress approach, which was compared with corresponding solutions for straight pipes

  3. Cracking of SHCC due to reinforcement corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savija, B.; Lukovic, M.; Pacheco Farias, J.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Saouma, V.; Bolander, J.; Landis, E.

    2016-01-01

    Reinforcement corrosion is the most important deterioration mechanism affecting reinforced concrete infrastructures. After corrosion starts, expansive pressures are exerted onto the surrounding concrete, causing cracking and spalling of the cover concrete. The amount of cover cracking can possibly

  4. Delayed hydride cracking: alternative pre-cracking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieza, Juan I.; Ponzoni, Lucio M.E.; Vigna, Gustavo L.; Domizzi, Gladys

    2009-01-01

    The internal components of nuclear reactors built-in Zr alloys are prone to a failure mechanism known as Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC). This situation has triggered numerous scientific studies in order to measure the crack propagation velocity and the threshold stress intensity factor associated to DHC. Tests are carried out on fatigued pre-crack samples to ensure similar test conditions and comparable results. Due to difficulties in implementing the fatigue pre-crack method it would be desirable to replace it with a pre-crack produced by the same process of DHC, for which is necessary to demonstrate equivalence of this two methods. In this work tests on samples extracted from two Zr-2.5 Nb tubes were conducted. Some of the samples were heat treated to obtain a range in their metallurgical properties as well as different DHC velocities. A comparison between velocities measured in test samples pre-cracked by fatigue and RDIH is done, demonstrating that the pre-cracking method does not affect the measured velocity value. In addition, the incubation (t inc ), which is the time between the application of the load and the first signal of crack propagation, in samples pre-cracked by RDIH, was measured. It was found that these times are sufficiently short, even in the worst cases (lower speed) and similar to the ones of fatigued pre-cracked samples. (author)

  5. Stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in caustic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Ananya

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) with roughly equal amount of austenite and ferrite phases are being used in industries such as petrochemical, nuclear, pulp and paper mills, de-salination plants, marine environments, and others. However, many DSS grades have been reported to undergo corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in some aggressive environments such as chlorides and sulfide-containing caustic solutions. Although stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in chloride solution has been investigated and well documented in the literature but the SCC mechanisms for DSS in caustic solutions were not known. Microstructural changes during fabrication processes affect the overall SCC susceptibility of these steels in caustic solutions. Other environmental factors, like pH of the solution, temperature, and resulting electrochemical potential also influence the SCC susceptibility of duplex stainless steels. In this study, the role of material and environmental parameters on corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in caustic solutions were investigated. Changes in the DSS microstructure by different annealing and aging treatments were characterized in terms of changes in the ratio of austenite and ferrite phases, phase morphology and intermetallic precipitation using optical micrography, SEM, EDS, XRD, nano-indentation and microhardness methods. These samples were then tested for general and localized corrosion susceptibility and SCC to understand the underlying mechanisms of crack initiation and propagation in DSS in the above-mentioned environments. Results showed that the austenite phase in the DSS is more susceptible to crack initiation and propagation in caustic solutions, which is different from that in the low pH chloride environment where the ferrite phase is the more susceptible phase. This study also showed that microstructural changes in duplex stainless steels due to different heat treatments could affect their SCC

  6. In vivo oxide-induced stress corrosion cracking of Ti-6Al-4V in a neck-stem modular taper: Emergent behavior in a new mechanism of in vivo corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jeremy L; Mali, Sachin; Urban, Robert M; Silverton, Craig D; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2012-02-01

    In vivo modular taper corrosion in orthopedic total joint replacements has been documented to occur for head-neck tapers, modular-body tapers, and neck-stem tapers. While the fretting corrosion mechanism by which this corrosion occurs has been described in the literature, this report shows new and as yet unreported mechanisms at play. A retrieved Ti-6Al-4V/Ti-6Al-4V neck-stem taper interface, implanted for 6 years is subjected to failure analysis to document taper corrosion processes that lead to oxide driven crack formation on the medial side of the taper. Metallurgical sectioning techniques and scanning electron microscopy analysis are used to document the taper corrosion processes. The results show large penetrating pitting attack of both sides of the taper interface where corrosion selectively attacks the beta phase of the microstructure and eventually consumes the alpha phase. The pitting attack evolves into plunging pits that ultimately develop into cracks where the crack propagation process is one of corrosion resulting in oxide formation and subsequent reorganization. This process drives open the crack and advances the front by a combination of oxide-driven crack opening stresses and corrosion attack at the tip. The oxide that forms has a complex evolving structure including a network of transport channels that provide access of fluid to the crack tip. This emergent behavior does not appear to require continued fretting corrosion to propagate the pitting and cracking. This new mechanism is similar to stress corrosion cracking where the crack tip stresses arise from the oxide formation in the crack and not externally applied tensile stresses. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Extended FEM modeling of crack paths near inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2012-01-01

    the effects on the crack path when changing the relative stiffness between inclusion and matrix material, the relative distance between initial crack and inclusion, and the size of the inclusion. Both edge cracks and internal cracks are studied. An example with an internal crack near an inclusion is presented......, where both crack tips propagate at different growth rates until one crack tip eventually stops growing, as the related energy release rate drops below the critical value. In another example, only one crack tip propagates initially, but eventually, the energy release rate of the second crack tip becomes...... critical, and both crack tips propagate. Finally, an example of two cracks near an inclusion is presented in which up to four crack tips propagate simultaneously....

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of stress corrosion cracking on smooth surface under non-uniform stress condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiromitsu; Tohgo, Keiichiro; Shimamura, Yoshinobu; Nakayama, Guen; Hirano, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation model for the process of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in structural metal materials under non-uniform stress condition has been proposed. The possible number of crack initiations is set for given space and initiation times for all cracks are assigned random numbers based on exponential distributions depending on stress level. Sites and lengths of the cracks are assigned by random numbers based on uniform distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Coalescence of cracks and subcritical crack growth are determined based on the fracture mechanics concept. Through the SCC process in the model, the influence of semi-elliptical surface cracks is taken into consideration. SCC simulations were carried out on a smooth surface under two kinds of non-uniform stress conditions such as residual stress distribution around a weld line. Multiple parallel cracks and multiple cracks along narrow high stress region were obtained depending on the stress distributions, respectively. Simulation results exhibit the applicability of the model to describe the SCC behavior observed in real structures. (author)

  9. Effects of irradiation on initiation and crack-arrest toughness of two high-copper welds and on stainless steel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Iskander, S.K.; Haggag, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the study on the high-copper welds is to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the ASME K Ic and K Ia toughness curves. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Compact specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288 degree C to fluences from 1.5 to 1.9 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (>1 MeV). The fracture toughness test results show that the irradiation-induced shifts at 100 MPa/m were greater than the Charpy 41-J shifts by about 11 and 18 degree C. Mean curve fits indicate mixed results regarding curve shape changes, but curves constructed as lower boundaries to the data do indicate curves of lower slopes. A preliminary evaluation of the crack-arrest results shows that the neutron-irradiation induced crack-arrest toughness temperature shift is about the same as the Charpy V-notch impact temperature shift at the 41-J energy level. The shape of the lower bound curves (for the range of test temperatures covered), compared to those of the ASME K Ia curve did not appear to have been altered by the irradiation. Three-wire stainless steel weld overlay cladding was irradiated at 288 degree C to fluences of 2 and 5 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (>1 MeV). Charpy 41-J temperature shifts of 13 and 28 degree C were observed, respectively. For the lower fluence only, 12.7-mm thick compact specimens showed decreases in both J Ic and the tearing modulus. Comparison of the fracture toughness results with typical plate and a low upper-shelf weld reveals that the irradiated stainless steel cladding possesses low ductile initiation fracture toughness comparable to the low upper-shelf weld. 8 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  10. A new criterion for failure of materials by environment-induced cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    A new criterion has been developed for predicting failure of materials by environment-induced cracking. The criterion has been developed by the use of fracture mechanics concepts and assumes that the relationship between crack-growth rate and stress intensity can be described by three separable regions of behavior as first suggested by Wiederhorn. The analytical form of the criterion relates failure time to the initial crack length and the critical crack length or alternatively, to the initial stress intensity and the fracture toughness for various conditions of stress and the environmental variables. The analytical expression is examined by the use of some experimental data on the hydrogen-induced cracking of Ti-5Al-2.5 Sn, and it is demonstrated that the expression predicts the general expected form of the relationship between the normalized stress intensity parameter and the failure time.

  11. Use of Circumferentially Cracked Bar sample for CTOD fracture toughness determination in the upper shelf regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gentile

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the use of circumferentially cracked bar (CCB sample to determine material fracture toughness in the upper shelf regime for carbon steels has been investigated. Since high fracture toughness materials are known to exhibit extensive crack tip blunting before ductile crack initiation, accurate specimen design is required to provide realistic fracture toughness measurement. Here, a CCB was designed to have similar loss of constraint as for SENT sample. Continuum damage mechanics was used to predict the occurrence of ductile crack initiation and propagation. Finite element analysis was performed to predict specimen response and to compare computed J-integral crack driving force with measured CTOD. Finally, experimental tests were performed on X65 carbon steel and the measured critical CTOD was compared with available fracture data obtained with SENT.

  12. Cracking behavior of tungsten armor under ELM-like thermal shockloads II: A revised prediction for crack appearance map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyuan Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the surface cracking features of tungsten armor under thermal shock loads by edge-localized mode (ELM were investigated by means of computational fracture mechanics analysis. For the simulation it was assumed that a small crack was initiated at low temperature after the shut-off of thermal load in contrast to the previous studies where the presence of a crack before thermal loading was assumed. The threshold power density for surface cracking was predicted to range between 0.3 and 0.6GW/m2 while the threshold of base temperature lay between 200 and 400°C. The theoretically predicted damage map agreed well with the experimental data from electron beam irradiation tests. The current simulation model turned out to match better to the real experimental observation than the previous predictions where the threshold base temperature lies roughly between 400 and 600°C.

  13. Proceedings of the 20th meeting of the working group on fracture mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains 41 contributions presented at the 20th meeting of the working group on fracture mechanisms. The contributions dealt with the following topics: 1.) mechanical and test fundamentals of crack initiating corrosion processes; 2.) crack formation in water and seawater; 3.) crack formation in the process industry; 4.) hydrogen-induced crack formation; 5.) stress and crack corrosion of rustproof cast alloys; 6.) corrosion-induced crack formation at high temperatures; 7.) experimental and numerical studies on fracture behaviour. 30 contributions were separately integrated in the data base 'ENERGY'. (MM) [de

  14. Mathematical sense-making in quantum mechanics: An initial peek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Elby, Andrew; Gupta, Ayush; Sohr, Erin Ronayne

    2017-12-01

    Mathematical sense-making—looking for coherence between the structure of the mathematical formalism and causal or functional relations in the world—is a core component of physics expertise. Some physics education research studies have explored what mathematical sense-making looks like at the introductory physics level, while some historians and "science studies" have explored how expert physicists engage in it. What is largely missing, with a few exceptions, is theoretical and empirical work at the intermediate level—upper division physics students—especially when they are learning difficult new mathematical formalism. In this paper, we present analysis of a segment of video-recorded discussion between two students grappling with a quantum mechanics question to illustrate what mathematical sense-making can look like in quantum mechanics. We claim that mathematical sense-making is possible and productive for learning and problem solving in quantum mechanics. Mathematical sense-making in quantum mechanics is continuous in many ways with mathematical sense-making in introductory physics. However, in the context of quantum mechanics, the connections between formalism, intuitive conceptual schema, and the physical world become more compound (nested) and indirect. We illustrate these similarities and differences in part by proposing a new symbolic form, eigenvector eigenvalue, which is composed of multiple primitive symbolic forms.

  15. Microstructure, local mechanical properties and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of an SA508-52M-316LN safe-end dissimilar metal weld joint by GTAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Hongliang; Zhu, Ruolin; Zhang, Zhiming; Wang, Jianqiu; Han, En.-Hou.; Ke, Wei; Su, Mingxing

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure, local mechanical properties and local stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of an SA508-52M-316LN domestic dissimilar metal welded safe-end joint used for AP1000 nuclear power plant prepared by automatic gas tungsten arc welding was studied in this work by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (with electron back scattering diffraction and an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system), micro-hardness testing, local mechanical tensile testing and local slow strain rate tests. The micro-hardness, local mechanical properties and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility across this dissimilar metal weld joint vary because of the complex microstructure across the fusion area and the dramatic chemical composition change across the fusion lines. Briefly, Type I boundaries and Type II boundaries exist in 52Mb near the SA508-52Mb interface, a microstructure transition was found in SA508 heat affected zone, the residual strain and grain boundary character distribution changes as a function of the distance from the fusion boundary in 316LN heat affected zone, micro-hardness distribution and local mechanical properties along the DMWJ are heterogeneous, and 52Mw-316LN interface has the highest SCC susceptibility in this DMWJ while 316LN base metal has the lowest one.

  16. Effect of wetting-drying cycles on soil desiccation cracking behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Chao-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Better understanding the desiccation cracking process is essential in analysing drought effects on soil hydraulic and mechanical properties through consideration of the atmosphere-ground interaction. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the consequence of wetting-drying cycles on the initiation and propagation characteristics of desiccation cracks on soil surface. Initially saturated slurry specimens were prepared and subjected to five subsequent wetting-drying cycles. Image processing technique was employed to quantitatively analyze the morphology characteristics of crack patterns formed during each drying path. The results show that the desiccation cracking behaviour of soil is significantly affected by the wetting-drying cycles. Before the third wetting-drying cycle is reached, the surface crack ratio and the average crack width increases while the average clod area decreases with increasing the number of wetting-drying cycles. The number of intersections and crack segments per unit area reaches the peak values after the second wetting-drying cycle. After the third wetting-drying cycle is reached, the effect of increasing wetting-drying cycles on crack patterns is insignificant. Moreover, it is observed that the applied wetting-drying cycles are accompanied by a continual reconstruction of soil structure. The initial homogenous slurry structure is completely replaced with aggregated structure after the third cycles, and a significant increase in the inter-aggregate porosity can be observed.

  17. Fenton-like initiation of a toluene transformation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Fenton-driven oxidation treatment systems, reaction intermediates derived from parent compounds can play a significant role in the overall treatment process. Fenton-like reactions in the presence of toluene or benzene, involved a transformation mechanism that was highly effici...

  18. Fatigue crack closure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, R. M. J.

    1990-09-01

    The phenomenon of fatigue crack closure is now recognized as one of the most influential mechanisms operating during fatigue. This literature survey traces the development of research into fatigue crack closure and has been divided to present the two major approaches. The first part covers early work carried out between 1970 to 1980 which, broadly speaking, adopted a 'continuum' approach. The second part covers the period 1980 to 1988 when a mechanistic approach was widely adopted. The survey has highlighted, firstly, the critical nature of experimental technique in the achievement of a meaningful measurement of crack closure load and secondly, that a diversity of mechanisms may operate to produce closure. Particular attention has been given to crack closure in aluminum alloys and also to work relating crack closure to the corrosion fatigue situation.

  19. Estimation of the crack propagation direction in a mixed-mode geometry via multi-parameter fracture criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Malíková

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The presented work introduces a numerical parametric study on the crack propagation direction under mixed-mode conditions (mode I + II. It is conducted for the geometry of an eccentric asymmetric fourpoint bending of a single edge notched beam specimen; various levels of mode-mixity are ensured by modifications in the crack length and crack eccentricity. The direction of crack propagation is estimated semianalytically using both the maximum tangential stress criterion and the strain energy density criterion (implemented as a procedure within the used finite element computational code as well as numerically (from verification reasons. Multi-parameter fracture mechanics is employed in the presented work for precise analytical evaluation of the stress field in the cracked specimen. This theory is based on description of the stress and deformation fields in the cracked body by means of their approximation using several initial terms of the Williams power series. Recent studies show that utilization of only first term of the series, which corresponds to the stress intensity factor (SIF, the single controlling parameter for the crack initiation and propagation assessment in brittle materials, is insufficient in many crack problems. It appears also in this study that the higher-order terms of the asymptotic crack-tip field are of great relevance for the conducted analysis, similarly to a number of other fracture phenomena (near-crack-tip stress field approximation, non-linear zone extent estimation, etc..

  20. Mechanisms of initial endplate failure in the human vertebral body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Aaron J; Lee, Gideon L; Keaveny, Tony M

    2010-12-01

    Endplate failure occurs frequently in osteoporotic vertebral fractures and may be related to the development of high tensile strain. To determine whether the highest tensile strains in the vertebra occur in the endplates, and whether such high tensile strains are associated with the material behavior of the intervertebral disc, we used micro-CT-based finite element analysis to assess tissue-level strains in 22 elderly human vertebrae (81.5 ± 9.6 years) that were compressed through simulated intervertebral discs. In each vertebra, we compared the highest tensile and compressive strains across the different compartments: endplates, cortical shell, and trabecular bone. The influence of Poisson-type expansion of the disc on the results was determined by compressing the vertebrae a second time in which we suppressed the Poisson expansion. We found that the highest tensile strains occurred within the endplates whereas the highest compressive strains occurred within the trabecular bone. The ratio of strain to assumed tissue-level yield strain was the highest for the endplates, indicating that the endplates had the greatest risk of initial failure. Suppressing the Poisson expansion of the disc decreased the amount of highly tensile-strained tissue in the endplates by 79.4 ± 11.3%. These results indicate that the endplates are at the greatest risk of initial failure due to the development of high tensile strains, and that such high tensile strains are associated with the Poisson expansion of the disc. We conclude that initial failure of the vertebra is associated with high tensile strains in the endplates, which in turn are influenced by the material behavior of the disc. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of hydrogen in stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Electrochemical basis for differentiation between hydrogen embrittlement and active path corrosion or anodic dissolution crack growth mechanisms is examined. The consequences of recently demonstrated acidification in crack tip region irrespective of electrochemical conditions at the bulk surface of the sample are that the hydrogen can evolve within the crack and may be involved in the cracking process. There are basically three aspects of hydrogen involvement in stress corrosion cracking. In dissolution models crack propagation is assumed to be caused by anodic dissolution on the crack tip sustained by cathodic reduction of hydrogen from electrolyte within the crack. In hydrogen induced structural transformation models it is postulated that hydrogen is absorbed locally at the crack tip producing structural changes which facilitate crack propagation. In hydrogen embrittlement models hydrogen is absorbed by stressed metal from proton reduction from the electrolyte within the crack and there is interaction between lattice and hydrogen resulting in embrittlement of material at crack tip facilitating crack propagation. In the present paper, the role of hydrogen in stress corrosion crack growth in high strength steels, austenitic stainless steels, titanium alloys and high strength aluminium alloys is discussed. (author)

  2. Crack path morphology in dual phase steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.

    1995-01-01

    The crack path morphology in low carbon, low alloy dual phase steel has been investigated. Thermomechanical processing and inter critical heat treatments were used to vary proportion, morphology, and distribution of the ferrite and martensite phases. The tortuous morphology of crack path was observed in unrolled material at high delta K. In thermo mechanically processed material, the crack tended to cross martensite frequently and crack path become less circuitous. (author)

  3. Microstructurally sensitive crack nucleation around inclusions in powder metallurgy nickel-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J.; Yang, J.; Zhang, T.; Zou, J.; Wang, Y.; Dunne, F.P.E.; Britton, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel-based superalloys are used in high strength, high-value applications, such as gas turbine discs in aero engines. In these applications the integrity of the disc is critical and therefore understanding crack initiation mechanisms is of high importance. With an increasing trend towards powder metallurgy routes for discs, sometimes unwanted non-metallic inclusions are introduced during manufacture. These inclusions vary in size from ∼10 μm to 200 μm which is comparable to the grain size of the nickel-based superalloys. Cracks often initiate near these inclusions, and the precise size, shape, location and path of these cracks are microstructurally sensitive. In this study, we focus on crack initiation at the microstructural length scale using a controlled three-point bend test, with the inclusion deliberately located within the tensile fibre of the beam. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is combined with high spatial resolution digital image correlation (HR-DIC) to explore full field plastic strain distributions, together with finite element modelling, to understand the micro-crack nucleation mechanisms. This full field information and controlled sample geometry enable us to systematically test crack nucleation criteria. We find that a combined stored energy and dislocation density provide promising results. These findings potentially facilitate more reliable and accurate lifing prediction tools to be developed and applied to engineering components. - Highlights: • High resolution digital image correlation. • High resolution electron backscatter diffraction. • Crack nucleation. • Non-metallic inclusion.

  4. Inflammation and intracranial aneurysms: mechanisms of initiation, growth, and rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S Amenta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remain poor in many patients, despite advances in microsurgical and endovascular management. Consequently, considerable effort has been placed in determining the mechanisms of aneurysm formation, growth, and rupture. Various environmental and genetic factors are implicated as key components in the aneurysm pathogenesis. Currently, sufficient evidence exists to incriminate the inflammatory response as the common pathway leading to aneurysm generation and rupture. Central to this model is the interaction between the vessel wall and inflammatory cells. Dysfunction of the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs promotes a chronic pathological inflammatory response that progressively weakens the vessel wall. We review the literature pertaining to the cellular and chemical mechanisms of inflammation that contribute to aneurysm development. Hemodynamic stress and alterations in blood flow are discussed regarding their role in promoting chronic inflammation. Endothelial cell and VSMC dysfunction are examined concerning vascular remodeling. The contribution of inflammatory cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor-α is illustrated. Inflammatory cell infiltration, particularly macrophage-mediated deterioration of vascular integrity, is reviewed. We discuss the inflammation as a means to determine aneurysms at greatest risk of rupture. Finally, future therapeutic implications of pharmacologic modulation of the inflammation are discussed.

  5. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stradomski Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

  6. Cracking oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelgemann, W.

    1933-12-19

    A volatile spirit suitable for use as petrol and containing aromatic and aliphatic constituents is obtained by cracking crude oils, asphalts, and creosotes, in presence of catalysts comprising a halogenated oxygen compound of nitrogen, e.g. nitrosyl chloride, and calcium oxide. The method of carrying out the process and the apparatus used are the same as described in Specification 430,748.

  7. Cracking oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelgemann, W.

    1933-12-19

    A volatile spirit suitable for use as petrol and containing aromatic and aliphatic constituents is obtained by cracking crude oils, asphalts, and creosotes, in presence of catalysts comprising a halogenated oxygen compound of nitrogen and a mixture of iron and aluminum chlorides. The method of carrying out the process and the apparatus used are the same as described in Specification 430,748.

  8. Crystallization mechanisms in cream during ripening and initial butter churning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldo, Patrizia; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Wiking, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The temperature treatment of cream is the time-consuming step in butter production. A better understanding of the mechanisms leading to partial coalescence, such as fat crystallization during ripening and churning of the cream, will contribute to optimization of the production process. In this study, ripening and churning of cream were performed in a rheometer cell and the mechanisms of cream crystallization during churning of the cream, including the effect of ripening time, were investigated to understand how churning time and partial coalescence are affected. Crystallization mechanisms were studied as function of time by differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and by X-ray scattering. Microstructure formation was investigated by small deformation rheology and static light scattering. The study demonstrated that viscosity measurements can be used to detect phase inversion of the emulsion during churning of the cream in a rheometer cell. Longer ripening time (e.g., 5h vs. 0 h) resulted in larger butter grains (91 vs. 52 µm), higher viscosity (5.3 vs. 1.3 Pa · s), and solid fat content (41 vs. 13%). Both ripening and churning time had an effect on the thermal behavior of the cream. Despite the increase in solid fat content, no further changes in crystal polymorphism and in melting behavior were observed after 1h of ripening and after churning. The churning time significantly decreased after 0.5h of ripening, from 22.9 min for the cream where no ripening was applied to 16.23 min. Therefore, the crystallization state that promotes partial coalescence (i.e., aggregation of butter grains) is obtained within the first hour of cream ripening at 10 °C. The present study adds knowledge on the fundamental processes of crystallization and polymorphism of milk fat occurring during ripening and churning of cream. In addition, the dairy industry will benefit from these insights on the optimization of butter manufacturing. Copyright © 2013 American

  9. Comparison of delayed hydride cracking behavior of two zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponzoni, L.M.E.; Mieza, J.I.; De Las Heras, E.; Domizzi, G.

    2013-01-01

    Delayed hydride cracking (DHC) is an important failure mechanism that may occur in Zr alloys during service in water-cooled reactors. Two conditions must be attained to initiate DHC from a crack: the stress intensity factor must be higher than a threshold value called K IH and, hydrogen concentration must exceed a critical value. Currently the pressure tubes for CANDU reactor are fabricated from Zr–2.5Nb. In this paper the critical hydrogen concentration for DHC and the crack velocity of a developmental pressure tube, Excel, was evaluated and compared with that of Zr–2.5Nb. The DHC velocity values measured in Excel were higher than usually reported in Zr–2.5Nb. Due to the higher hydrogen solubility limits in Excel, its critical hydrogen concentration for DHC initiation is 10–50 wppm over that of Zr–2.5Nb in the range of 150–300 °C

  10. Comparison of delayed hydride cracking behavior of two zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponzoni, L.M.E. [CNEA – Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Hidrógeno en Materiales, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín (B1650KNA), Bs. As. (Argentina); Mieza, J.I. [CNEA – Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Hidrógeno en Materiales, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín (B1650KNA), Bs. As. (Argentina); Instituto Sabato, UNSAM–CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín (B1650KNA), Bs. As. (Argentina); De Las Heras, E. [CNEA – Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Hidrógeno en Materiales, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín (B1650KNA), Bs. As. (Argentina); Domizzi, G., E-mail: domizzi@cnea.gov.ar [CNEA – Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Hidrógeno en Materiales, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín (B1650KNA), Bs. As. (Argentina); Instituto Sabato, UNSAM–CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín (B1650KNA), Bs. As. (Argentina)

    2013-08-15

    Delayed hydride cracking (DHC) is an important failure mechanism that may occur in Zr alloys during service in water-cooled reactors. Two conditions must be attained to initiate DHC from a crack: the stress intensity factor must be higher than a threshold value called K{sub IH} and, hydrogen concentration must exceed a critical value. Currently the pressure tubes for CANDU reactor are fabricated from Zr–2.5Nb. In this paper the critical hydrogen concentration for DHC and the crack velocity of a developmental pressure tube, Excel, was evaluated and compared with that of Zr–2.5Nb. The DHC velocity values measured in Excel were higher than usually reported in Zr–2.5Nb. Due to the higher hydrogen solubility limits in Excel, its critical hydrogen concentration for DHC initiation is 10–50 wppm over that of Zr–2.5Nb in the range of 150–300 °C.

  11. Evaluation of the Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of Inconel 600 Alloy by Acoustic Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Key Yong; Kim, In Sup; Yoon, Young Ku

    1996-01-01

    Acoustic emission(AE) response during stress corrosion cracking(SCC) of Inconel 600 alloy has been monitored to study the AE detectability of crack generation and growth by comparing the crack behavior with AE parameters processed, and to evaluate the applicability as a nondestructive evaluation(AE) by measuring the minimum crack size detectable with AE. Variously heat-treated specimens were tensioned by constant extension rate test(CERT) in various extension rate to give rise to the different SCC behavior of specimens. The AE amplitude level generated from intergranular stress-corrosion cracking(IGSCC) is higher than those from ductile fracture and mechanical deformation, which means the AE amplitude can be a significant parameter for distinguishing the An source. AE can also provide the effective means to identify the transition from the small crack initiation and formation of dominant cracks to the dominant crack growth. Minimum crack size detectable with AE is supposed to be approximately 200 to 400μm in length and below 100μm in depth. The test results show that AE technique has a capability for detecting the early stage of IGSCC growth and the potential for practical application as a NDE

  12. Crack Growth Behaviour of P92 Steel Under Creep-fatigue Interaction Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JING Hong-yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Creep-fatigue interaction tests of P92 steel at 630℃ under stress-controlled were carried out, and the crack propagation behaviour of P92 steel was studied. The fracture mechanism of crack growth under creep-fatigue interaction and the transition points in a-N curves were analyzed based on the fracture morphology. The results show that the fracture of P92 steel under creep-fatigue interaction is creep ductile fracture and the (Ctavg parameter is employed to demonstrate the crack growth behaviour; in addition, the fracture morphology shows that the crack growth for P92 steel under creep-fatigue interaction is mainly caused by the nucleation and growth of the creep voids and micro-cracks. Furthermore, the transition point of a-lg(Ni/Nf curve corresponds to the turning point of initial crack growth changed into steady crack growth while the transition point of (da/dN-N curve exhibits the turning point of steady creep crack growth changed into the accelerated crack growth.

  13. The Energy Dissipation of Propagating Cracks in Solnhofen Limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, A.; Kalthoff, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    Crack propagation events are initiated in Solnhofen limestone under impact loading conditions. The Fracture energy respectively the fracture toughness and the velocity of propagating cracks are measured by means of an optimized strain gauge measuring technique. Cracks are accelerated to velocities in the range of 1500 m/s. The measured crack propagation energies/crack propagation toughnesses are significantly higher than the crack initiation energy/crack initiation toughness. Control measurements on the basis of a global energy approach by means of Charpy pendulum impact tests verify the found behaviour. The results explain characteristic peculiarities of the crack propagation behaviour of brittle fracture in rock. Keywords: Fracture energy, fracture toughness, crack propagation, crack velocity, rock

  14. The growth of small corrosion fatigue cracks in alloy 2024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.

    1993-04-01

    The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 2024 is established. The damaging effect of salt water on the early stages of small crack growth is characterized by crack initiation at constituent particle pits, intergranular microcracking for a less than 100 micrometers, and transgranular small crack growth for a micrometer. In aqueous 1 percent NaCl and at a constant anodic potential of -700 mV(sub SCE), small cracks exhibit a factor of three increase in fatigue crack growth rates compared to laboratory air. Small cracks exhibit accelerated corrosion fatigue crack growth rates at low levels of delta-K (less than 1 MPa square root of m) below long crack delta-K (sub th). When exposed to Paris regime levels of crack tip stress intensity, small corrosion fatigue cracks exhibit growth rates similar to that observed for long cracks. Results suggest that crack closure effects influence the corrosion fatigue crack growth rates of small cracks (a less than or equal to 100 micrometers). This is evidenced by similar small and long crack growth behavior at various levels of R. Contrary to the corrosion fatigue characteristics of small cracks in high strength steels, no pronounced chemical crack length effect is observed for Al by 2024 exposed to salt water.

  15. Mechanisms Governing DDK Regulation of the Initiation of DNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larasati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The budding yeast Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK complex—comprised of cell division cycle (Cdc7 kinase and its regulatory subunit dumbbell former 4 (Dbf4—is required to trigger the initiation of DNA replication through the phosphorylation of multiple minichromosome maintenance complex subunits 2-7 (Mcm2-7. DDK is also a target of the radiation sensitive 53 (Rad53 checkpoint kinase in response to replication stress. Numerous investigations have determined mechanistic details, including the regions of Mcm2, Mcm4, and Mcm6 phosphorylated by DDK, and a number of DDK docking sites. Similarly, the way in which the Rad53 forkhead-associated 1 (FHA1 domain binds to DDK—involving both canonical and non-canonical interactions—has been elucidated. Recent work has revealed mutual promotion of DDK and synthetic lethal with dpb11-1 3 (Sld3 roles. While DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2-7 subunits facilitates their interaction with Sld3 at origins, Sld3 in turn stimulates DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2. Details of a mutually antagonistic relationship between DDK and Rap1-interacting factor 1 (Rif1 have also recently come to light. While Rif1 is able to reverse DDK-mediated Mcm2-7 complex phosphorylation by targeting the protein phosphatase glycogen 7 (Glc7 to origins, there is evidence to suggest that DDK can counteract this activity by binding to and phosphorylating Rif1.

  16. Assessment of cracking in dissimilar metal welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenssen, Anders; Norrgaard, K.; Lagerstroem, J.; Embring, G.; Tice, D.R.

    2001-08-01

    During the refueling in 2000, indications were observed by non-destructive testing at four locations in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) nozzle to safe end weld in Ringhals 4. All indications were confined to the outlet nozzle (hotleg) oriented at 25 deg, a nozzle with documented repair welding. Six boat samples were removed from the four locations, and the samples were subsequently subjected to a metallographic examination. The objectives were to establish the fracture morphology, and if possible the root cause for cracking. The examination revealed that cracks were present at all four boat sample locations and that they all were confined to the weld metal, alloy 182. Cracking extended in the axial direction of the safe-end. There was no evidence of any cracks extending into the RPV-steel, or the stainless steel safe-end. All cracking was interdendritic and significantly branched. Among others, these observations strongly suggested crack propagation mainly was caused by interdendritic stress corrosion cracking. In addition, crack type defects and isolated areas on the fracture surfaces suggested the presence of hot cracking, which would have been formed during fabrication. The reason for crack initiation could not be established based on the boat samples examined. However, increased stress levels due to repair welding, cold work from grinding, and defects produced during fabrication, e. g. hot cracks, may alone or in combination have contributed to crack initiation

  17. Analysis of cracking in glass molds made of cast iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leushin, I. O.; Chistyakov, D. G.

    2014-09-01

    The cracking in the parts of cast iron molds intended for glass is considered, and this cracking substantially affects the operation of glass-blowing equipment, maintainability, and the replacement of mold sets. The processes that cause cracking in the parts of glass molds and initiate crack growth are studied.

  18. Stress corrosion cracking of iron-nickel-chromium alloys in primary circuit environment of PWR-type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boursier, Jean-Marie

    1993-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 steam generator tubing is a great concern for pressurized water reactors. The mechanism that controls intergranular stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in primary water (lithiated-borated water) has yet to be clearly identified. A study of stress corrosion cracking behaviour, which can identify the main parameters that control the cracking phenomenon, was so necessary to understand the stress corrosion cracking process. Constant extension rate tests, and constant load tests have evidenced that Alloy 600 stress corrosion cracking involves firstly an initiation period, then a slow propagation stage with crack less than 50 to 80 micrometers, and finally a rapid propagation stage leading to failure. The influence of mechanical parameters have shown the next points: - superficial strain hardening and cold work have a strong effect of stress corrosion cracking resistance (decrease of initiation time and increase of crack growth rate), - strain rate was the most suitable parameter for describing the different stage of propagation. The creep behaviour of alloy 600 has shown an increase of creep rate in primary water compared to air, which implies a local interaction plasticity/corrosion. An assessment of the durations of the initiation and the propagation stages was attempted for the whole uniaxial tensile tests, using the macroscopic strain rate: - the initiation time is less than 100 hours and seems to be an electrochemical process, - the durations of the propagation stage are strongly dependent on the strain rate. The behaviour in high primary water temperature of Alloys 690 and 800, which replace Alloy 600, was studied to appraise their margin, and validate their choice. Then the last chapter has to objective to evaluate the crack tip strain rate, in order to better describe the evolution of the different stages of cracking. (author) [fr

  19. Epigenetic mechanisms in the initiation of hematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Maleki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer development is not restricted to the genetic changes, but also to epigenetic changes. Epigenetic processes are very important in the development of hematological malignancies. The main epigenetic alterations are aberrations in DNA methylation, post-translational modifications of histones, chromatin remodeling and microRNAs patterns, and these are associated with tumor genesis. All the various cellular pathways contributing to the neoplastic phenotype are affected by epigenetic genes in cancer. These pathways can be explored as biomarkers in clinical use for early detection of disease, malignancy classification and response to treatment with classical chemotherapy agents and epigenetic drugs. Materials and Method: A literature review was performed using PUBMED from 1985 to 2008. Cross referencing of discovered articles was also reviewed.Results: In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, regional hypermethylation of gene promoters leads to gene silencing. Many of these genes have tumor suppressor phenotypes. In myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, CDKN2B (alias, P15, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that negatively regulates the cell cycle, has been shown to be hypermethylated in marrow stem (CD34+ cells in patients with MDS. At present both Vidaza and Decitabine (DNA methyltransferase inhibitors are approved for the treatment of MDS.Conclusion: Unlike mutations or deletions, DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation are potentially reversible by pharmacological inhibition, therefore those epigenetic changes have been recognized as promising novel therapeutic targets in hematopoietic malignances. In this review, we discussed molecular mechanisms of epigenetics, epigenetic changes in hematological malignancies and epigenetic based treatments

  20. Mechanism of chlorphentermine-induced lymphocyte toxicity: initial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauers, L.J.; Wierda, D.; Reasor, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Chlorphentermine (CP) inhibits the blastogenic response of mouse splenic and human peripheral blood lymphocytes to the T-cell mitogens, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A). The purpose of these studies was to examine in vitro the mechanism mediating this immunosuppression. If mouse or human lymphocytes are pretreated with CP for 30 minutes, then stimulated with PHA, their blastogenic response is inhibited 80% and 45%, respectively. However, if CP is not added until 10 minutes or later following PHA stimulation, the inhibitory effect of the drug is essentially eliminated. The authors also determined that CP can potentiate Con A-induced agglutination of human lymphocytes. Enhanced agglutination can result from changes in the integrity of membrane phospholipids. Because changes in membrane phospholipid biochemistry characteristically occur within 10 minutes after mitogen-induced lymphocyte activation, the authors examined whether CP altered the incorporation of choline into cellular phospholipids. They found that CP decreases overall incorporation of 14 C-choline into cellular phospholipids of mouse lymphocytes by 45% during the first 4 hours of activation. These data suggest that the immunotoxicity associated with CP may be mediated by drug-induced changes at the membrane level that appear to occur early during lymphocyte activation

  1. An effective finite element model for the prediction of hydrogen induced cracking in steel pipelines

    KAUST Repository

    Traidia, Abderrazak

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive finite element model for the numerical simulation of Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) in steel pipelines exposed to sulphurous compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). The model is able to mimic the pressure build-up mechanism related to the recombination of atomic hydrogen into hydrogen gas within the crack cavity. In addition, the strong couplings between non-Fickian hydrogen diffusion, pressure build-up and crack extension are accounted for. In order to enhance the predictive capabilities of the proposed model, problem boundary conditions are based on actual in-field operating parameters, such as pH and partial pressure of H 2S. The computational results reported herein show that, during the extension phase, the propagating crack behaves like a trap attracting more hydrogen, and that the hydrostatic stress field at the crack tip speed-up HIC related crack initiation and growth. In addition, HIC is reduced when the pH increases and the partial pressure of H2S decreases. Furthermore, the relation between the crack growth rate and (i) the initial crack radius and position, (ii) the pipe wall thickness and (iii) the fracture toughness, is also evaluated. Numerical results agree well with experimental data retrieved from the literature. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reaction Mechanism for the Formation of Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) During Coke Oxidation in Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Units

    KAUST Repository

    Chaparala, Sree Vidya

    2015-06-11

    Fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) units in refineries process heavy feedstock obtained from crude oil distillation. While cracking feed, catalysts get deactivated due to coke deposition. During catalyst regeneration by burning coke in air, nitrogen oxides (NOx) are formed. The increase in nitrogen content in feed over time has resulted in increased NOx emissions. To predict NOx concentration in flue gas, a reliable model for FCC regenerators is needed that requires comprehensive understanding and accurate kinetics for NOx formation. Based on the nitrogen-containing functional groups on coke, model molecules are selected to study reactions between coke-bound nitrogen and O2 to form NO and NO2 using density functional theory. The reaction kinetics for the proposed pathways are evaluated using transition state theory. It is observed that the addition of O2 on coke is favored only when the free radical is present on the carbon atom instead of nitrogen atom. Thus, NOx formation during coke oxidation does not result from the direct attack by O2 on N atoms of coke, but from the transfer of an O atom to N from a neighboring site. The low activation energies required for NO formation indicate that it is more likely to form than NO2 during coke oxidation. The favorable pathways for NOx formation that can be used in FCC models are identified. Copyright © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  3. A review of fatigue crack propagation modelling techniques using FEM and XFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, K.; Lemu, H. G.

    2017-12-01

    Fatigue is one of the main causes of failures in mechanical and structural systems. Offshore installations, in particular, are susceptible to fatigue failure due to their exposure to the combination of wind loads, wave loads and currents. In order to assess the safety of the components of these installations, the expected lifetime of the component needs to be estimated. The fatigue life is the sum of the number of loading cycles required for a fatigue crack to initiate, and the number of cycles required for the crack to propagate before sudden fracture occurs. Since analytical determination of the fatigue crack propagation life in real geometries is rarely viable, crack propagation problems are normally solved using some computational method. In this review the use of the finite element method (FEM) and the extended finite element method (XFEM) to model fatigue crack propagation is discussed. The basic techniques are presented, together with some of the recent developments.

  4. Modelling of the Stress Corrosion Cracking Behaviour for Low Alloy Steels in High Temperature Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirbonod, B.

    2000-11-01

    The goal of the model is to calculate the crack growth and to determine the parameters of relevance for the stress corrosion cracking of the low alloy steels in high temperature water for reactor safety purposes. The model assumes for the crack growth mechanism an anodic dissolution initiated by the rupture of the oxide film by creep at the crack tip, a repassivation, and, for representing other possible crack growth mechanisms, a cleavage. The model for the dissolution considers all the parameters of relevance for the dissolution and well accepted laws of physics. The creep is calculated by a constitutive law of Chaboche with the finite element method. The dissolution cell is found to be situated in the region of the crack tip with a length up to a few hundred micrometers. Sensitive parameters for the crack growth are the strain to film rupture, the composition of the electrolyte, the exchange current densities, and the cleavage length. The model is in qualitative agreement with measurements. It is discussed with particular attention to the geometry and dimensions of the dissolution cell and to the species transport in the dissolution cell and along the crack. Further work should be devoted to the comparison of the model to experiments. (author)

  5. Analysis of Fatigue Crack Growth in Ship Structural Details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leheta Heba W.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue failure avoidance is a goal that can be achieved only if the fatigue design is an integral part of the original design program. The purpose of fatigue design is to ensure that the structure has adequate fatigue life. Calculated fatigue life can form the basis for meaningful and efficient inspection programs during fabrication and throughout the life of the ship. The main objective of this paper is to develop an add-on program for the analysis of fatigue crack growth in ship structural details. The developed program will be an add-on script in a pre-existing package. A crack propagation in a tanker side connection is analyzed by using the developed program based on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM and finite element method (FEM. The basic idea of the developed application is that a finite element model of this side connection will be first analyzed by using ABAQUS and from the results of this analysis the location of the highest stresses will be revealed. At this location, an initial crack will be introduced to the finite element model and from the results of the new crack model the direction of the crack propagation and the values of the stress intensity factors, will be known. By using the calculated direction of propagation a new segment will be added to the crack and then the model is analyzed again. The last step will be repeated until the calculated stress intensity factors reach the critical value.

  6. Stress corrosion cracking of NiTi in artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqiu; Li, Nianxing; Rao, Guangbin; Han, En-Hou; Ke, Wei

    2007-02-01

    This paper aimed to study the mechanism of the cracking of orthodontic NiTi wire. Two orthodontic NiTi wires were subjected: (1) optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the fracture surface; (2) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to determine the composition of the surface product; (3) anodic polarization to remove the surface product. Samples of NiTi alloy were subjected to the constant loading test to study the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy in artificial saliva. The results showed that there were three typical areas at the fracture surface of NiTi orthodontic wire. Area '1' was a tool-made notch. Crack initiated from the root of this notch and propagated to form Area '2', which was perpendicular to the wire axis and covered by surface film. This film consisted of Na, K, Cl, P, S and O except Ni and Ti. The cracking process of NiTi alloy under the constant loading test depended on the pH of saliva and applied stress. The crack length was about 262microm, the longest at 300MPa and pH 3.0. A tool-made notch in orthodontic NiTi wires can cause SCC. At high stress and low pH, this NiTi alloy was most sensitive to cracking.

  7. Rare earth metals influence on mechanical properties and crack resistance of GP240GH and G17CrMo5-5 cast steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gajewski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of research on modification influence of REM on mechanical properties and crack resistance of GP240GH cast carbon steel and G17CrMo5-5 high-temperature cast steel. The tests have been performed on successive industrial melts. The rare earth metals were put into the ladle during tapping of heat melt from the furnace. Each time ca 2000 kg of liquid metals were modified. Because of this the amount of sulphur in the cast steel was decreased and the non-metallic inclusion morphology was significantly changed. There were tested mechanical properties (Re,Rm, plastic properties (A5,Z and impact strength (KV, and on the basis of the three-point bend test the KJC stress intensity factor was evaluated. It was noticed that the REM modification brings essential increase of impact strength as well as fracture toughness determined by KJC factor.

  8. Password cracking

    OpenAIRE

    Χριστοφάκης, Μιχαήλ Κ.

    2014-01-01

    Information security is the next big thing in computers society because of the rapidly growing security incidents and the outcomes of those. Hacking and cracking existed even from the start of the eighties decade when there was the first step of the interconnection through the internet between humans. From then and ever after there was a big explosion of such incidents mostly because of the worldwide web which was introduced in the early nineties. Following the huge steps forward of computers...

  9. Metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling alloy 718 stress corrosion cracking resistance in PWR primary water; Facteurs metallurgiques et mecaniques controlant l'amorcage de defauts de corrosion sous contrainte dans l'alliage 718 en milieu primaire des reacteurs a eau sous pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleume, J

    2007-11-15

    Improving the performance and reliability of the fuel assemblies of the pressurized water reactors requires having a perfect knowledge of the operating margins of both the components and the materials. The choice of alloy 718 as reference material for this study is justified by the industrial will to identify the first order parameters controlling the excellent resistance of this alloy to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). For this purpose, a specific slow strain rate (SSR) crack initiation test using tensile specimen with a V-shaped hump in the middle of the gauge length was developed and modeled. The selectivity of such SSR tests in simulated PWR primary water at 350 C was clearly established by characterizing the SCC resistance of nine alloy 718 thin strip heats. Regardless of their origin and in spite of a similar thermo-mechanical history, they did not exhibit the same susceptibility to SCC crack initiation. All the characterized alloy 718 heats develop oxide scale of similar nature for various exposure times to PWR primary medium in the temperature range [320 C - 360 C]. {delta} phase precipitation has no impact on alloy 718 SCC initiation behavior when exposed to PWR primary water, contrary to interstitial contents and the triggering of plastic instabilities (PLC phenomenon). (author)

  10. Tensile cracks in creeping solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, H.; Rice, J.R.

    1979-02-01

    The loading parameter determining the stress and strain fields near a crack tip, and thereby the growth of the crack, under creep conditions is discussed. Relevant loading parameters considered are the stress intensity factor K/sub I/, the path-independent integral C*, and the net section stress sigma/sub net/. The material behavior is modelled as elastic-nonlinear viscous where the nonlinear term describes power law creep. At the time t = 0 load is applied to the cracked specimen, and in the first instant the stress distribution is elastic. Subsequently, creep deformation relaxes the initial stress concentration at the crack tip, and creep strains develop rapidly near the crack tip. These processes may be analytically described by self-similar solutions for short times t. Small scale yielding may be defined. In creep problems, this means that elastic strains dominate almost everywhere except in a small creep zone which grows around the crack tip. If crack growth ensues while the creep zone is still small compared with the crack length and the specimen size, the stress intensity factor governs crack growth behavior. If the calculated creep zone becomes larger than the specimen size, the stresses become finally time-independent and the elastic strain rates can be neglected. In this case, the stress field is the same as in the fully-plastic limit of power law hardening plasticity. The loading parameter which determines the near tip fields uniquely is then the path-independent integral C*.K/sub I/ and C* characterize opposite limiting cases. The case applied in a given situation is decided by comparing the creep zone size with the specimen size and the crack length. Besides several methods of estimating the creep zone size, a convenient expression for a characteristic time is derived, which characterizes the transition from small scale yielding to extensive creep of the whole specimen

  11. Pitting and stress corrosion cracking behavior in welded austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, B.T.; Chen, Z.K.; Luo, J.L.; Patchett, B.M.; Xu, Z.H.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of microstructural changes in 304 austenitic stainless steel induced by the processes of gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and laser-beam welding (LBW) on the pitting and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviors was investigated. According to the in situ observations with scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and the breakdown potentials of the test material with various microstructures, the GTAW process made the weld metal (WM) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) more sensitive to pitting corrosion than base metal (BM), but the LBW process improved the pitting resistance of the WM. In the initiation stage of SCC, the cracks in the BM and HAZ propagated in a transgranular mode. Then, the crack growth mechanism changed gradually into a mixed transgranular + intergranular mode. The cracks in the WM were likely to propagate along the dendritic boundaries. The crack initiation rate, crack initiation lifetime and crack propagation rate indicated that the high-to-low order of SCC resistance is almost the same as that for pitting resistance. High heat-input (and low cooling rate) was likely to induce the segregation of alloying elements and formation of Cr-depleted zones, resulting in the degradation in the corrosion resistance

  12. Study on Characteristics of Corrosion Fatigue Crack Propagation for Austenitic Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Uh Joh; Kim, Bu Ahn

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of the corrosion fatigue cracking of both TIG weld heat affected zone and base metal for austenitic stainless steel were investigated under the environments of various specific resistance and the air. The corrosion fatigue crack initiation sensitivity was quantitatively investigated for SUS 304 weldments in the various specific resistances. Also, the characteristics of corrosion fatigue cracking for the weldments were investigated from mechanical, electrochemical, and microstructural point of view. Main results obtained are as follows: (1) The corrosion fatigue crack initiation sensitivity on the base metal and weld hea affected zone increases as the specific resistance of corrosion environment decreases, and the sensitivity of the weld heat affected zone appears increasing more than that of the base metal. (2) The corrosion potentials of various specific resistances are almost constant in initial corrosion fatigue cracking, but the corrosion potential becomes less noble promptly with the corrosion fatigue crack growth as the specific resistances decrease. (3) The corrosion fatigue crack growth of the weld heat affected zone rapid than that of the base metal, because of the softening and the less noble potential caused by welding heat cycle

  13. Environmentally assisted cracking of LWR materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Kassner, T.F.; Shack, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    Research on environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of light water reactor materials has focused on (a) fatigue initiation in pressure vessel and piping steels, (b) crack growth in cast duplex and austenitic stainless steels (SSs), (c) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic SSs, and (d) EAC in high- nickel alloys. The effect of strain rate during different portions of the loading cycle on fatigue life of carbon and low-alloy steels in 289 degree C water was determined. Crack growth studies on wrought and cast SSs have been completed. The effect of dissolved-oxygen concentration in high-purity water on IASCC of irradiated Type 304 SS was investigated and trace elements in the steel that increase susceptibility to intergranular cracking were identified. Preliminary results were obtained on crack growth rates of high-nickel alloys in water that contains a wide range of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen concentrations at 289 and 320 degree C. The program on Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Light Water Reactor Materials is currently focused on four tasks: fatigue initiation in pressure vessel and piping steels, fatigue and environmentally assisted crack growth in cast duplex and austenitic SS, irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of austenitic SSs, and environmentally assisted crack growth in high-nickel alloys. Measurements of corrosion-fatigue crack growth rates (CGRs) of wrought and cast stainless steels has been essentially completed. Recent progress in these areas is outlined in the following sections

  14. Study of stress relief cracking in titanium stabilized austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabaud-Reytier, M.

    1999-01-01

    The heat affected zone (HAZ) of titanium stabilised austenitic stainless steel welds (AISI 321) may exhibit a serious form of intercrystalline cracking during service at high temperature. This type of cracking, called 'stress relief cracking', is known to be due to work hardening but also to ageing: a fine and abundant intragranular Ti(C,N) precipitation appears near the fusion line and modifies the mechanical behaviour of the HAZ. This study aims to better know the accused mechanism and to succeed in estimating the risk of such cracking in welded junctions of 321 stainless steel. To analyse this embrittlement mechanism, and to assess the lifetime of real components, different HAZ are simulated by heat treatments applied to the base material which is submitted to various cold rolling and ageing conditions in order to reproduce the HAZ microstructure. Then, we study the effects of work hardening and ageing on the titanium carbide precipitation, on the mechanical (tensile and creep) behaviour of the resulting material and on its stress relief cracking sensitivity. It is shown that work hardening is the main parameter of the mechanism and that ageing do not favour crack initiation although it leads to titanium carbide precipitation. The role of this precipitation is also discussed. Moreover, a creep damage model is identified by a local approach to fracture. Materials sensitive to stress relief cracking are selected. Then, creep tests are carried out on notched bars in order to quantify the intergranular damage of these different materials; afterwards, these measurements are combined with calculated mechanical fields. Finally, it is shown that the model gives good results to assess crack initiation for a compact tension (CT) specimen during relaxation tests, as well as for a notched tubular specimen tested at 600 deg. C under a steady torque. (author)

  15. Crack arrest tests for a new ASTM-standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillot, R.; Kalthoff, J.

    1980-01-01

    In order to quantitatively describe the procedures in crack arrest, the following two parameters must be known which can be determined either experimentally or analytically: 1. The crack arrest toughness which represents a measure of the capability of the material to stop running cracks and 2. the stress intensity factor at the peak of the crack of the running or stopping crack as a measure of the danger of the crack. As cracks propagate as long as the K factor is greater than the crack arrest toughness, there are principally two possibilities of influencing the arrest: either one makes sure that the crack is led into an increasingly tougher region, i.e. by material-specific measures, or by leading the crack into an area of reduced stress by constructive measures. Both possibilities for crack arrest are described by the same fracture mechanical formula. (orig./RW) [de

  16. Shapes formed by interacting cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Brittle failure through multiple cracks occurs in a wide variety of contexts, from microscopic failures in dental enamel and cleaved silicon to geological faults and planetary ice crusts. In each of these situations, with complicated stress geometries and different microscopic mechanisms, pairwise interactions between approaching cracks nonetheless produce characteristically curved fracture paths. We investigate the origins of this widely observed ``en passant'' crack pattern by fracturing a rectangular slab which is notched on each long side and subjected to quasi-static uniaxial strain from the short side. The two cracks propagate along approximately straight paths until they pass each other, after which they curve and release a lens-shaped fragment. We find that, for materials with diverse mechanical properties, each curve has an approximately square-root shape, and that the length of each fragment is twice its width. We are able to explain the origins of this universal shape with a simple geometrical model.

  17. Stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietzel, W.; Turnbull, A.

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive Structural Integrity is a reference work which covers all activities involved in the assurance of structural integrity. It provides engineers and scientists with an unparalleled depth of knowledge in the disciplines involved. The new online Volume 11 is dedicated to the mechanical characteristics of materials. This paper contains the chapter 11.03 and is structured as follows: General aspects of SCC testing; Non-precracked specimens; Precracked specimens - the fracture mechanics approach to SCC; Crack growth measurement; Limitations of the LEFM approach to SCC; The use of SCC data; Guide to selection of mechanical scc test method

  18. Mechanical analysis of ceramic heat being part of hig prosthesis with presence of cracks; Analisi meccanica di una testina in materiale ceramico per protesi d`anca supponendo la presenza di cricche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravagli, E. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia `E. Clementel` - Area Energia e Innovazione

    1995-03-01

    This report still pursues the aim of carrying out a systematic mechanical analysis of a ceramic heat being part of a modular hig prothesis, in order to characterize it exhaustively, i. e. to assess its performances and some of its main specifications. A mechanical analysis of a second case is carried out here, the presence of head cracks being taken into account. The evaluations made lead to the conclusion that the head should not show cracks bigger than 100 mm. This study is performed in the frame of the STRIDE-CETMA project, which is aimed at founding and developing a centre for technologically advanced materials in Brindisi technology park (Italy).

  19. Crack growth in linearly viscoelastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, N.C.

    1991-01-01

    A computational method for the analysis of initiation and quasi-static extension of a crack in a linearly viscoelastic medium subjected to a tensile mode of deformation is presented. A fracture process zone of Dugdale type is assumed in front of the crack tip. Viscoelastic and viscoplastic deformations of the fracture process zone are analyzed, and crack initiation and crack growth are considered to follow a fracture criterion of critical energy release rate. Examples are given for demonstration of the computational method. (orig.)

  20. CHANGE IN THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING UNDER MATERIAL OF METALWARE TENSION OF A CLAMP-FORMING MACHINE ARROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Polishchuk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim is to study the effects of conditions and duration of working of structures arrows of a clamp-forming machine on mechanical properties of the material and its stress corrosion cracking under tension. It is necessary to improve the accuracy of resources analysis of boom metalwares of lifting and transporting machines. Methodology. Samples for experimental investigations were made of the elements of arrow continued exploited clamp-forming machine where there were major work stress. Centers of greatest efforts in elements of arrows constructions were determined in its 3D model in the analysis of the stress cards by finite element method. Experimental studies were performed at the facility UVP-6, which determined the characteristics of strength and ductility of samples of two types by means of tensile strain, speed 10-5 s-1 and 10-6 s-1 in air and in the environment of synthetic rain. Metallographic studies were performed on a scanning electron microscope. Findings. Experimental studies found that after long-term operation of arrow of clamp-forming machine material of its most loaded elements changed due to characteristics of strength and ductility. At joint action of corrosion environment and the greatest stress on the surface of the material expressions, point defects are appeared. They are concentrators of local mechanical stress, which reduce the resource construction elements of the arrow. Originality. 1. Firstly set patterns of changes in the mechanical properties of continued operated metal construction of arrow of clamp-forming machine made of St. 3; 2. Received further developed methodology for remaining resource estimation continued operated of metal boom lifting and shipping the machine by taking into account joint action vibration and dynamic loads and corrosive environments. Practical value. Determination the residual resource of continued operated boom lifting and transporting metal machines should be carried out

  1. Controlling fatigue crack paths for crack surface marking and growth investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While it is well known that fatigue crack growth in metals that display confined slip, such as high strength aluminium alloys, develop crack paths that are responsive to the loading direction and the local microstructural orientation, it is less well known that such paths are also responsive to the loading history. In these materials, certain loading sequences can produce highly directional slip bands ahead of the crack tip and by adjusting the sequence of loads, distinct fracture surface features or progression marks, even at very small crack depths can result. Investigating the path a crack selects in fatigue testing when particular combinations of constant and variable amplitude load sequences are applied is providing insight into crack growth. Further, it is possible to design load sequences that allow very small amounts of crack growth to be measured, at very small crack sizes, well below the conventional crack growth threshold in the aluminium alloy discussed here. This paper reports on observations of the crack path phenomenon and a novel test loading method for measuring crack growth rates for very small crack depths in aluminium alloy 7050-T7451 (an important aircraft primary structural material. The aim of this work was to firstly generate short- crack constant amplitude growth data and secondly, through the careful manipulation of the applied loading, to achieve a greater understanding of the mechanisms of fatigue crack growth in the material being investigated. A particular focus of this work is the identification of the possible sources of crack growth retardation and closure in these small cracks. Interpreting these results suggests a possible mechanism for why small fatigue crack growth through this material under variable amplitude loading is faster than predicted from models based on constant amplitude data alone.

  2. Orbiter LH2 Feedline Flowliner Cracking Problem. Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles E.; Cragg, Clinton H.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Elliot, Kenny B.; Madaras, Eric I.; Piascik, Robert S.; Halford, Gary R.; Bonacuse, Peter J.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Bakhle, Milind A.

    2005-01-01

    In May of 2002, three cracks were found in the downstream flowliner at the gimbal joint in the LH2 feedline at the interface with the Low Pressure Fuel Turbopump (LPFP) of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) #1 of Orbiter OV-104. Subsequent inspections of the feedline flowliners in the other orbiters revealed the existence of 8 additional cracks. No cracks were found in the LO2 feedline flowliners. A solution to the cracking problem was developed and implemented on all orbiters. The solution included weld repair of all detectable cracks and the polishing of all slot edges to remove manufacturing discrepancies that could initiate new cracks. Using the results of a fracture mechanics analysis with a scatter factor of 4 on the predicted fatigue life, the orbiters were cleared for return to flight with a one-flight rationale requiring inspections after each flight. OV-104 flew mission STS-112 and OV-105 flew mission STS-113. The post-flight inspections did not find any cracks in the repaired flowliners. At the request of the Orbiter Program, the NESC conducted an assessment of the Orbiter LH2 Feedline Flowliner cracking problem with a team of subject matter experts from throughout NASA.

  3. Evaluation of options for life cycle management of feeder cracking at the Point Lepreau Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendron, T.S.; Slade, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The CANDU industry has a predictive capability for most Heat Transport System (HTS) degradation issues that allows utilities to apply cost-effective maintenance programs. The standard approach for maintenance programs is focussed inspection and planned replacement. Some examples of degradation issues with deterministic failure rates are feeder thinning, and pressure tube elongation and deuterium ingress. However, the cracking observed in Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) outlet feeder first bends is one notable exception to this behaviour. A predictive capability for feeder cracking does not currently exist for several reasons. First, the mechanism of feeder cracking, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), has to some degree a random nature. Second, although a probable environment causing cracking has been identified, the precise stress and environmental conditions for feeder crack initiation and propagation have not been defined. Finally, the very low incidence of feeder cracking observed to-date (four, all at PLGS) precludes a probabilistic or statistical prediction of failure rate. Generally, utilities select a Life Cycle Management Plan that ensures safe operation and has the lowest Net Present Value cost. In preparing a Feeder Life Cycle Management Plan, New Brunswick Power (NBP) has recognized that the Net Present Value cost is very sensitive to failure rate. Since the failure rate for feeder cracking is not well defined, the following three scenarios were considered to bound the probability of future failures at PLGS. (author)

  4. The influence of initial defects on mechanical stress and deformation distribution in oxidized silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulinich O. A.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The near-surface silicon layers in silicon – dioxide silicon systems with modern methods of research are investigated. It is shown that these layers have compound structure and their parameters depend on oxidation and initial silicon parameters. It is shown the influence of initial defects on mechanical stress and deformation distribution in oxidized silicon.

  5. Constitutive Mixed Mode Behavior of Cracks in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jonas Sejersbøl

    may open in mixed mode, i.e. a combination of opening and sliding. To get a thorough description of the structural consequences it is important to include the stress transferring effects related to the mixed mode opening. The existing constitutive mixed mode models either have a rather extensive model...... formulation or are based on one or more model parameters which are difficult to conceive and give a mechanical interpretation. To some extent this may be explained by the sparse experimental basis for the mixed mode cracking in concrete. In this thesis a series of new mixed mode experiments are presented...... of custom made orthogonal gauge rails mounted on the specimen. The precise orthogonal gauge rails entail a direct interpretation of the mixed mode crack opening process, ensuring that the achieved response over the ligament is equal to the prescribed mixed mode displacement. After a crack is initiated...

  6. Quantitative image analysis of WE43-T6 cracking behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A; Yahya, Z

    2013-01-01

    Environment-assisted cracking of WE43 cast magnesium (4.2 wt.% Yt, 2.3 wt.% Nd, 0.7% Zr, 0.8% HRE) in the T6 peak-aged condition was induced in ambient air in notched specimens. The mechanism of fracture was studied using electron backscatter diffraction, serial sectioning and in situ observations of crack propagation. The intermetallic (rare earthed-enriched divorced intermetallic retained at grain boundaries and predominantly at triple points) material was found to play a significant role in initiating cracks which leads to failure of this material. Quantitative measurements were required for this project. The populations of the intermetallic and clusters of intermetallic particles were analyzed using image analysis of metallographic images. This is part of the work to generate a theoretical model of the effect of notch geometry on the static fatigue strength of this material.

  7. The effects of martensite morphology on mechanical properties, corrosion behavior and hydrogen assisted cracking in A516 grade steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, M.; Tayyaba, Q.; Manzoor, T.; ud-din, Rafi; Subhani, T.; Qureshi, A. H.

    2018-01-01

    A low carbon A516 steel (0.2% C) having 0.9% Mn content has been annealed at 760 °C with predominantly austenite and martensite input structure. This treatment lead to a dual phase (DP) ferrite–martensite microstructures with 50% martensite volume fraction in two morphologies, i.e. bulk martensite (BM) and fibrous martensite (FM) respectively. The ferrite–martensite DP steels exhibits much higher strength (∼2 times) than ferrite–pearlite (FP) steel albeit with lower elongation (50%). The martensite morphology does not affect the uniform elongation but FM morphology exhibits higher strain to fracture. However, the corrosion rate is effected by the fraction of interfaces rather than the type of constituent phase. The BM condition with minimum interfaces has the least corrosion rate in weak acidic solution. The DP steels are more disposed to hydrogen embrittlement than FP steel. This phenomena causes a lowering of flow stress and strain fracture, the former is more progressive with rise in temperature than the latter. The crack nucleation is directly related to the corrosion rate, however despite twofold higher corrosion rate in BM condition, the extent of hydrogen embrittlement in both morphologies is similar because of the connected ferrite–martensite boundaries in BM morphology.

  8. Analysis, prediction, and case studies of early-age cracking in bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSafty, Adel; Graeff, Matthew K.; El-Gharib, Georges; Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Mike Jackson, N.

    2016-06-01

    Early-age cracking can adversely affect strength, serviceability, and durability of concrete bridge decks. Early age is defined as the period after final setting, during which concrete properties change rapidly. Many factors can cause early-age bridge deck cracking including temperature change, hydration, plastic shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shrinkage. The cracking may also increase the effect of freeze and thaw cycles and may lead to corrosion of reinforcement. This research paper presents an analysis of causes and factors affecting early-age cracking. It also provides a tool developed to predict the likelihood and initiation of early-age cracking of concrete bridge decks. Understanding the concrete properties is essential so that the developed tool can accurately model the mechanisms contributing to the cracking of concrete bridge decks. The user interface of the implemented computer Excel program enables the user to input the properties of the concrete being monitored. The research study and the developed spreadsheet were used to comprehensively investigate the issue of concrete deck cracking. The spreadsheet is designed to be a user-friendly calculation tool for concrete mixture proportioning, temperature prediction, thermal analysis, and tensile cracking prediction. The study also provides review and makes recommendations on the deck cracking based mainly on the Florida Department of Transportation specifications and Structures Design Guidelines, and Bridge Design Manuals of other states. The results were also compared with that of other commercially available software programs that predict early-age cracking in concrete slabs, concrete pavement, and reinforced concrete bridge decks. The outcome of this study can identify a set of recommendations to limit the deck cracking problem and maintain a longer service life of bridges.

  9. The role of local strains from prior cold work on stress corrosion cracking of α-brass in Mattsson's solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulaganathan, Jaganathan; Newman, Roger C.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic strain rate ahead of a crack tip formed during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) under a static load is assumed to arise from the crack propagation. The strain surrounding the crack tip would be redistributed as the crack grows, thereby having the effect of dynamic strain. Recently, several studies have shown cold work to cause accelerated crack growth rates during SCC, and the slip-dissolution mechanism has been widely applied to account for this via a supposedly increased crack-tip strain rate in cold worked material. While these interpretations consider cold work as a homogeneous effect, dislocations are generated inhomogeneously within the microstructure during cold work. The presence of grain boundaries results in dislocation pile-ups that cause local strain concentrations. The local strains generated from cold working α-brass by tensile elongation were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The role of these local strains in SCC was studied by measuring the strain distributions from the same regions of the sample before cold work, after cold work, and after SCC. Though, the cracks did not always initiate or propagate along boundaries with pre-existing local strains from the applied cold work, the local strains surrounding the cracked boundaries had contributions from both the crack propagation and the prior cold work. - Highlights: • Plastic strain localization has a complex relationship with SCC susceptibility. • Surface relief created by cold work creates its own granular strain localization. • Cold work promotes crack growth but several other factors are involved

  10. Crack Growth Modeling and Life Prediction of Pipeline Steels Exposed to Near-Neutral pH Environments: Dissolution Crack Growth and Occurrence of Crack Dormancy in Stage I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiaxi; Chen, Weixing; Yu, Mengshan; Chevil, Karina; Eadie, Reg; Van Boven, Greg; Kania, Richard; Been, Jenny; Keane, Sean

    2017-04-01

    This investigation was initiated to provide governing equations for crack initiation, crack growth, and service life prediction of pipeline steels in near-neutral pH (NNpH) environments. This investigation has focused on the crack initiation and early-stage crack growth. The investigation considered a wide range of conditions that could lead to crack initiation, crack dormancy, and crack transition from a dormant state to active growth. It is concluded that premature rupture caused by stress cracking at a service life of about 20 to 30 years previously observed during field operation could take place only when the worst conditions responsible for crack initiation and growth have been realized concurrently at the site of rupture. This also explains the reason that over 95 pct of NNpH cracks remain harmless, while about 1 pct of them become a threat to the integrity of pipeline steels.

  11. Subsurface metals fatigue cracking without and with crack tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shanyavskiy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue regime for metals was considered and mechanisms of the subsurface crack origination were introduced. In many metals first step of crack origination takes place with specific area formation because of material pressing and rotation that directed to transition in any volume to material ultra-high-plasticity with nano-structure appearing. Then by the border of the nano-structure takes place volume rotation and fracture surface creates with spherical particles which usually named Fine-Granular-Area. In another case there takes place First-Smooth-Facet occurring in area of origin due to whirls appearing by the one of the slip systems under discussed the same stress-state conditions. Around Fine-Granular-Area or First-Smooth-Facet there plastic zone appeared and, then, subsurface cracking develops by the same manner as for through cracks. In was discussed quantum-mechanical nature of fatigue crack growth in accordance with Yang’s modulus quantization for low level of deformations. New simply equation was considered for describing subsurface cracking in metals out of Fine-Granular-Area or Fist-Smooth-Facet.

  12. Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.

  13. Peridynamic model for fatigue cracking.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silling, Stewart Andrew; Abe Askari (Boeing)

    2014-10-01

    The peridynamic theory is an extension of traditional solid mechanics in which the field equations can be applied on discontinuities, such as growing cracks. This paper proposes a bond damage model within peridynamics to treat the nucleation and growth of cracks due to cyclic loading. Bond damage occurs according to the evolution of a variable called the "remaining life" of each bond that changes over time according to the cyclic strain in the bond. It is shown that the model reproduces the main features of S-N data for typical materials and also reproduces the Paris law for fatigue crack growth. Extensions of the model account for the effects of loading spectrum, fatigue limit, and variable load ratio. A three-dimensional example illustrates the nucleation and growth of a helical fatigue crack in the torsion of an aluminum alloy rod.

  14. Experimental investigation of interfacial crack arrest in sandwich beams subjected to fatigue loading using a novel crack arresting device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J.H.; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A recently proposed face-sheet–core interface crack arresting device is implemented in sandwich beams and tested using the Sandwich Tear Test configuration. Fatigue loading conditions are applied to propagate the crack and determine the effect of the crack stopper on the fatigue growth rate...... the energy release rate, mode mixity and to simulate crack propagation and arrest of the crack. Finally, the effectiveness of the crack arresting device is demonstrated on composite sandwich beams subjected to fatigue loading conditions....... and arrest of the crack. Digital image correlation is used through the duration of the fatigue experiment to track the strain evolution as the crack tip advances. The measured strains are related to crack tip propagation, arrest, and re-initiation of the crack. A finite element model is used to calculate...

  15. Simulations of dynamic crack propagation in brittle materials using nodal cohesive forces and continuum damage mechanics in the distinct element code LDEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, G I; Rubin, M B; Morris, J P; Berryman, J G

    2006-08-23

    Experimental data indicates that the limiting crack speed in brittle materials is less than the Rayleigh wave speed. One reason for this is that dynamic instabilities produce surface roughness and microcracks that branch from the main crack. These processes increase dissipation near the crack tip over a range of crack speeds. When the scale of observation (or mesh resolution) becomes much larger than the typical sizes of these features, effective-medium theories are required to predict the coarse-grained fracture dynamics. Two approaches to modeling these phenomena are described and used in numerical simulations. The first approach is based on cohesive elements that utilize a rate-dependent weakening law for the nodal cohesive forces. The second approach uses a continuum damage model which has a weakening effect that lowers the effective Rayleigh wave speed in the material surrounding the crack tip. Simulations in this paper show that while both models are capable of increasing the energy dissipated during fracture when the mesh size is larger than the process zone size, only the continuum damage model is able to limit the crack speed over a range of applied loads. Numerical simulations of straight-running cracks demonstrate good agreement between the theoretical predictions of the combined models and experimental data on dynamic crack propagation in brittle materials. Simulations that model crack branching are also presented.

  16. The concept of the average stress in the fracture process zone for the search of the crack path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.G. Matvienko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the average stress has been employed to propose the maximum average tangential stress (MATS criterion for predicting the direction of fracture angle. This criterion states that a crack grows when the maximum average tangential stress in the fracture process zone ahead of the crack tip reaches its critical value and the crack growth direction coincides with the direction of the maximum average tangential stress along a constant radius around the crack tip. The tangential stress is described by the singular and nonsingular (T-stress terms in the Williams series solution. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed MATS criterion, this criterion is directly applied to experiments reported in the literature for the mixed mode I/II crack growth behavior of Guiting limestone. The predicted directions of fracture angle are consistent with the experimental data. The concept of the average stress has been also employed to predict the surface crack path under rolling-sliding contact loading. The proposed model considers the size and orientation of the initial crack, normal and tangential loading due to rolling–sliding contact as well as the influence of fluid trapped inside the crack by a hydraulic pressure mechanism. The MATS criterion is directly applied to equivalent contact model for surface crack growth on a gear tooth flank.

  17. Role of pluronics on rheological, drying and crack initiation of 'suckable' gels of decontamination; Role des pluronics sur les proprietes rheologiques, de sechage et de fracturation des gels 'aspirables' de decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousquet, C

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this work was to understand the role of an addition of pluronics on the rheological behaviour, the drying and the fracturing of 'suckable' gels used for nuclear decontamination. The system studied was an aqueous suspension of silica (100 g/L of Aerosil 380) in a strong acidic medium (HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} 1.5 mol/L/1.5 mol/L) in presence of pluronics. Pluronics are amphiphilic tri-blocks copolymers composed of ethylene poly-oxide blocks and of propylene poly-oxide. The first part of this study deals with the characterization of the rheological properties of the gels. From viscosity retaking measurements, flow rheo-grams analysis and the viscoelastic properties of the gels, have been determined an improvement of the rheological properties of the gels significant from the addition of 5 g/L of copolymer. In a second part, the determination of adsorption isotherms coupled to small angles neutrons diffusion measurements has revealed that copolymers are adsorbed flat on silica in bridging the aggregates between them and that the improvement of the rheological behaviour of the gels is due to the increase of the bonds density of the gelled lattice. Moreover, beyond 10 g/L, the adsorption saturation of copolymers at the surface of the silica prevents the bridging of the aggregates which induces the gel destabilization. The last part of this work deals with the characterization of characteristic values of drying and of crack initiation of gels. Then is revealed a relation between the drying kinetics and the formation of cracks in the gel layer. Moreover, the study of the evolution of stresses in the gel layer during time allows to reveal that the addition of pluronics to the formulation of gels allows to improve the gel resistance to the crack initiation and to the delamination. (O.M.)

  18. Crack Propagation in Bamboo's Hierarchical Cellular Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Meisam K.; Lu, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Bamboo, as a natural hierarchical cellular material, exhibits remarkable mechanical properties including excellent flexibility and fracture toughness. As far as bamboo as a functionally graded bio-composite is concerned, the interactions of different constituents (bamboo fibers; parenchyma cells; and vessels.) alongside their corresponding interfacial areas with a developed crack should be of high significance. Here, by using multi-scale mechanical characterizations coupled with advanced environmental electron microscopy (ESEM), we unambiguously show that fibers' interfacial areas along with parenchyma cells' boundaries were preferred routes for crack growth in both radial and longitudinal directions. Irrespective of the honeycomb structure of fibers along with cellular configuration of parenchyma ground, the hollow vessels within bamboo culm affected the crack propagation too, by crack deflection or crack-tip energy dissipation. It is expected that the tortuous crack propagation mode exhibited in the present study could be applicable to other cellular natural materials as well.

  19. DBEM crack propagation for nonlinear fracture problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Citarella

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional crack propagation simulation is performed by the Dual Boundary Element Method (DBEM. The Stress Intensity Factors (SIFs along the front of a semi elliptical crack, initiated from the external surface of a hollow axle, are calculated for bending and press fit loading separately and for a combination of them. In correspondence of the latter loading condition, a crack propagation is also simulated, with the crack growth rates calculated using the NASGRO3 formula, calibrated for the material under analysis (steel ASTM A469. The J-integral and COD approaches are selected for SIFs calculation in DBEM environment, where the crack path is assessed by the minimum strain energy density criterion (MSED. In correspondence of the initial crack scenario, SIFs along the crack front are also calculated by the Finite Element (FE code ZENCRACK, using COD, in order to provide, by a cross comparison with DBEM, an assessment on the level of accuracy obtained. Due to the symmetry of the bending problem a pure mode I crack propagation is realised with no kinking of the propagating crack whereas for press fit loading the crack propagation becomes mixed mode. The crack growth analysis is nonlinear because of normal gap elements used to model the press fit condition with added friction, and is developed in an iterative-incremental procedure. From the analysis of the SIFs results related to the initial cracked configuration, it is possible to assess the impact of the press fit condition when superimposed to the bending load case.

  20. A fracture mechanics assessment of surface cracks existing in protective layers of multi-layer composite pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutař, Pavel; Náhlík, Luboš; Šestáková, Lucie; Ševčík, Martin; Knésl, Zdeněk; Nezbedová, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 5 (2010), s. 1120-1125 ISSN 0263-8223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/0279 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Protective layers * Multi-layer pipes damage * Fracture mechanics * Bi-material interface * Generalized stress intensity factor Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.028, year: 2010

  1. Influence of the residual stresses on crack initiation in brittle materials and structures; Prise en compte des contraintes residuelles dans un critere d'amorcage en rupture fragile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henninger, C

    2007-11-15

    Many material assemblies subjected to thermo-mechanical loadings develop thermal residual stresses which modify crack onset conditions. Besides if one of the components has a plastic behaviour, plastic residual deformations may also have a contribution. One of the issues in brittle fracture mechanics is to predict crack onset without any pre-existing defect. Leguillon proposed an onset criterion based on both a Griffth-like energetic condition and a maximum stress criterion. The analysis uses matched asymptotics and the theory of singularity. The good fit between the model and experimental measurements led on homogeneous isotropic materials under pure mechanical loading incited us to take into account residual stresses in the criterion. The comparison between the modified criterion and the experimental measurements carried out on an aluminum/epoxy assembly proves to be satisfying concerning the prediction of failure of the interface between the two components. Besides, it allows, through inversion, identifying the fracture properties of this interface. The modified criterion is also applied to the delamination of the tile/structure interface in the plasma facing components of the Tore Supra tokamak. Indeed thermal and plastic residual stresses appear in the metallic part of these coating tiles. (author)

  2. Hydrogen Assisted Cracking of High Strength Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    equilibrium H content for unstressed exposure of the superalloy in a given H2 pressure ( PH2 ) and temperature (T) environment, coupled with enhancement...CRACKING OF HIGH STRENGTH ALLOYS Richard P. Ganqloff August, 2003 Page 72 of 194 decreasing pH , H2S addition, temperature , and other chemical variables...mechanism for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and sulfide stress cracking for alloys in aqueous H2S -bearing electrolytes. Electrochemical reactions leading

  3. Application of digital image correlation method for analysing crack ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Developing the. DIC method into a rapid, cost-effective with high precision technology is made possible by rapid ... linear elastic fracture mechanics and nonlinear fracture mechanics to describe the crack propaga- tion and fracture .... before crack occurs on either side of the cracking line, and the line connecting P and Q is.

  4. Investigation of the dwell period's influence on the fatigue crack growth of a titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefranc, P. [LMPM, UMR CNRS 6617, ENSMA, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); LMS, UMR CNRS 7649, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); SNECMA Groupe SAFRAN, 77550 Moissy Cramayel (France); Sarrazin-Baudoux, C. [LMPM, UMR CNRS 6617, ENSMA, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France)], E-mail: baudoux@lmpm.ensma.fr; Doquet, V. [LMS, UMR CNRS 7649, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Petit, J. [LMPM, UMR CNRS 6617, ENSMA, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France)

    2009-03-15

    The dwell effect, which is known to induce a reduction in the fatigue life of titanium alloys at room temperature, is related to early crack initiation. The present results support faster crack growth rates. The governing mechanisms are identified by mean of scanning electron microfractographic observations. The potential role of the atmosphere is examined through comparative testing performed in air and in high vacuum in order to distinguish the specific contributions of cold creep and environment assistance.

  5. Using advanced tomography techniques to investigate the development of White Etching Cracks in a prematurely failed field bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, Benjamin; Greco, Aaron; Stadler, Kenred; Vegter, Erik; Xiao, Xianghui

    2017-12-01

    Crack surrounded by areas of microstructural alteration deemed "White etching cracks" (WECs) lead to premature failures within a multitude applications. While the exact cause of these failures remains unknown, a large number of hypotheses exist as to how and why these cracks form. The aim of the current work is to study newly initiated WEC networks using X-ray tomography followed by selective sectioning, in an attempt to elucidate the formation mechanisms of these cracks. The results obtained show that, for the presented bearing, WECs form preferentially around multi-phase inclusions containing aluminum, manganese, and sulfur. Additionally the results support the idea that the microstructural alterations form secondary to any cracking, suggesting that the alterations are simply a symptom of a preexisting failure.

  6. Stress corrosion cracking behaviour of low alloy steels in high temperature water: Description and results from modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirbonod, B.

    2001-01-01

    The initiation and growth of a crack by stress and corrosion in the low alloy steels used for the pressure vessels of Boiling Water Reactors may affect the availability and safety of the plant. This paper presents a new model for stress corrosion cracking of the low alloy steels in high temperature water. The model, based on observations, assumes the crack growth mechanism to be based on an anodic dissolution and cleavage. The main results deal with the position of the dissolution cell found at the crack tip, and with the identification of the parameters sensitive to crack growth, among which are the electrolyte composition and the cleavage length. The model is conservative, in qualitative agreement with measurements conducted at PSI, and may be extended to other metal-environment systems. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility Using Fracture Mechanics Techniques, Part 1. [environmental tests of aluminum alloys, stainless steels, and titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprowls, D. O.; Shumaker, M. B.; Walsh, J. D.; Coursen, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SSC) tests were performed on 13 aluminum alloys, 13 precipitation hardening stainless steels, and two titanium 6Al-4V alloy forgings to compare fracture mechanics techniques with the conventional smooth specimen procedures. Commercially fabricated plate and rolled or forged bars 2 to 2.5-in. thick were tested. Exposures were conducted outdoors in a seacoast atmosphere and in an inland industrial atmosphere to relate the accelerated tests with service type environments. With the fracture mechanics technique tests were made chiefly on bolt loaded fatigue precracked compact tension specimens of the type used for plane-strain fracture toughness tests. Additional tests of the aluminum alloy were performed on ring loaded compact tension specimens and on bolt loaded double cantilever beams. For the smooth specimen procedure 0.125-in. dia. tensile specimens were loaded axially in constant deformation type frames. For both aluminum and steel alloys comparative SCC growth rates obtained from tests of precracked specimens provide an additional useful characterization of the SCC behavior of an alloy.

  8. Crack formation and prevention in colloidal drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Cho, Kun; Ryu, Seul-A.; Kim, So Youn; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-08-01

    Crack formation is a frequent result of residual stress release from colloidal films made by the evaporation of colloidal droplets containing nanoparticles. Crack prevention is a significant task in industrial applications such as painting and inkjet printing with colloidal nanoparticles. Here, we illustrate how colloidal drops evaporate and how crack generation is dependent on the particle size and initial volume fraction, through direct visualization of the individual colloids with confocal laser microscopy. To prevent crack formation, we suggest use of a versatile method to control the colloid-polymer interactions by mixing a nonadsorbing polymer with the colloidal suspension, which is known to drive gelation of the particles with short-range attraction. Gelation-driven crack prevention is a feasible and simple method to obtain crack-free, uniform coatings through drying-mediated assembly of colloidal nanoparticles.

  9. Thermal fatigue of a 304L austenitic stainless steel: simulation of the initiation and of the propagation of the short cracks in isothermal and aniso-thermal fatigue; Fatigue thermique d'un acier inoxydable austenitique 304L: simulation de l'amorcage et de la croissance des fissures courtes en fatigue isotherme et anisotherme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddar, N

    2003-04-01

    The elbow pipes of thermal plants cooling systems are submitted to thermal variations of short range and of variable frequency. These variations bound to temperature changes of the fluids present a risk of cracks and leakages. In order to solve this problem, EDF has started the 'CRECO RNE 808' plan: 'thermal fatigue of 304L austenitic stainless steels' to study experimentally on a volume part, the initiation and the beginning of the propagation of cracks in thermal fatigue on austenitic stainless steels. The aim of this study is more particularly to compare the behaviour and the damage of the material in mechanic-thermal fatigue (cycling in temperature and cycling in deformation) and in isothermal fatigue (the utmost conditions have been determined by EDF for the metal: Tmax = 165 degrees C and Tmin = 90 degrees C; the frequency of the thermal variations can reach a Hertz). A lot of experimental results are given. A model of lifetime is introduced and validated. (O.M.)

  10. Thermal fatigue cracking of austenitic stainless steels; Fissuration en fatigue thermique des aciers inoxydables austenitiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fissolo, A

    2001-07-01

    This report deals with the thermal fatigue cracking of austenitic stainless steels as AISI 316 LN and 304 L. Such damage has been clearly observed for some components used in Fast Breeder reactors (FBR) and Pressure Water Reactor (PWR). In order to investigate thermal fatigue, quasi-structural specimen have been used. In this frame, facilities enforcing temperature variations similar to those found under the operation conditions have been progressively developed. As for components, loading results from impeded dilatation. In the SPLASH facility, the purpose was to establish accurate crack initiation conditions in order to check the relevance of the usual component design methodology. The tested specimen is continuously heated by the passage of an electrical DC current, and submitted to cyclic thermal down shock (up to 1000 deg C/s) by means of periodical spraying of water on two opposite specimen faces. The number of cycles to crack initiation N{sub i} is deduced from periodic examinations of the quenched surfaces, by means of optical microscopy. It is considered that initiation occurs when at least one 50{mu}m to 150{open_square}m long crack is observed. Additional SPLASH tests were performed for N >> N{sub i}, with a view to investigate the evolution of a surface multiple cracking network with the number of cycles N. The CYTHIA test was mainly developed for the purpose of assessing crack growth dynamics of one isolated crack in thermal fatigue conditions. Specimens consist of thick walled tubes with a 1 mm circular groove is spark-machined at the specimen centre. During the test, the external wall of the tube is periodically heated by using a HF induction coil (1 MHz), while its internal wall is permanently cooled by flowing water. Total crack growth is derived from post-mortem examinations, whereby the thermal fatigue final rupture surface is oxidized at the end of the test. The specimen is broken afterwards under mechanical fatigue at room temperature. All the

  11. Mechanics of Failure Mechanisms in Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, R L; Craig, J I

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on the mechanisms and underlying mechanics of failure in various classes of materials such as metallic, ceramic, polymeric, composite and bio-material.  Topics include tensile and compressive fracture, crack initiation and growth, fatigue and creep rupture in metallic materials, matrix cracking and delamination and environmental degradation in polymeric composites, failure of bio-materials such as prosthetic heart valves and prosthetic hip joints, failure of ceramics and ceramic matrix composites, failure of metallic matrix composites, static and dynamic buckling failure, dynamic excitations and creep buckling failure in structural systems. Chapters are devoted to failure mechanisms that are characteristic of each of the materials.  The work also provides the basic elements of fracture mechanics and studies in detail several niche topics such as the effects of toughness gradients, variable amplitude loading effects in fatigue, small fatigue cracks, and creep induced brittleness. Furthe...

  12. A distinct translation initiation mechanism generates cryptic peptides for immune surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley R Starck

    Full Text Available MHC class I molecules present a comprehensive mixture of peptides on the cell surface for immune surveillance. The peptides represent the intracellular protein milieu produced by translation of endogenous mRNAs. Unexpectedly, the peptides are encoded not only in conventional AUG initiated translational reading frames but also in alternative cryptic reading frames. Here, we analyzed how ribosomes recognize and use cryptic initiation codons in the mRNA. We find that translation initiation complexes assemble at non-AUG codons but differ from canonical AUG initiation in response to specific inhibitors acting within the peptidyl transferase and decoding centers of the ribosome. Thus, cryptic translation at non-AUG start codons can utilize a distinct initiation mechanism which could be differentially regulated to provide peptides for immune surveillance.

  13. Fatigue crack growth characteristics of a533 brade b glass i plate in an environment of high-temperature primary grade nuclear reactor water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mager, T.R.; Moon, D.M.; Landes, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    To characterize the effect of environment on crack growth rate properties of reactor pressure vessel materials, a program was initiated as part of the Heavy Section Steel Technology Program (HSST) to evaluate the effect of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) primary grade coolant environments. The experiments included such variables as frequency, temperature and R ratio. This paper describes the investigation and presents the results of a fracture mechanics evaluation of the fatigue crack growth rate tests of A533 Grade B Class 1 steel plate material in an environment of primary reactor grade water at 550 0 F (288 0 C). A compliance crack growth monitoring technique was utilized to measure the crack growth. The compliance crack length monitor uses a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) to measure the specimen front face displacement which is converted to crack length by the appropriate compliance calibration curve. The crack growth rate tests were conducted on constant load universal fatigue machines, under sinusoidal tension to tension loading conditions. Tests showed an increase in growth rates at a frequency of 1 cpm over previous results obtained at frequencies of 60 cpm and higher. This increase, the general character of the crack growth rate versus the $DELTA$K curve, and the results from fractographic studies, all indicated that stress corrosion cracking might have occurred for this material and environment. However, a specimen loaded statically in a PWR environment showed no static load crack growth. 13 refs

  14. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Zircaloy-4 in Halide Solutions: Effect of Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farina S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Zircaloy-4 was found to be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in 1 M NaCl, 1 M KBr and 1 M KI aqueous solutions at potentials above the pitting potential. In all the solutions tested crack propagation was initially intergranular and then changed to transgranular. The effect of strain rate and temperature on the SCC propagation was investigated. An increase in the strain rate was found to lead to an increase in the crack propagation rate. The crack propagation rate increases in the three solutions tested as the temperatures increases between 20 and 90 °C. The Surface-Mobility SCC mechanism accounts for the observation made in the present work, and the activation energy predicted in iodide solutions is similar to that found in the literature.

  15. Two-parameter fracture mechanical analysis of a near-crack-tip stress field in wedge splitting test specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Veselý, V.; Řoutil, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 89, 21-22 (2011), s. 1852-1858 ISSN 0045-7949. [International Conference on Civil, Structural and Enviromental Engineering Computing /12./. Funchal, Madeira, 01.09.2009-04.09.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Wedge splitting test * Stress intensity factor * T-stress * Numerical simulation * Direct method Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.874, year: 2011

  16. Cracked tooth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Tanumihardja