WorldWideScience

Sample records for craccivora koch homoptera

  1. Action of some micronutrients on the infestation and yield components of faba bean by the aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae, Homoptera) and the leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Agromyzidae, Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A K; Hammad, S A; Guirguis, G Z; Zaghloul, O A; Sadek, Hanan A

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out in the two growing seasons of 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 on faba bean (Vicia faba) plants in the Experimental Farm of Agriculture Research Station at Nubaria region, Alexandria, which is considered as a newly reclaimed calcareous soil. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of spraying faba bean plants with certain micronutrients, i.e. Iron, Manganese and Zinc either in single double or triple combinations on the infestation by the aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae, Homoptera) and the leaf miner, Liriomyza trfolü (Burgess) (Agromyzidae, Diptera). The infestation by these insects was assessed using the parameters of Infestation grades as well as the injury indices. Faba bean plants cv. Giza Blanca were sprayed twice (45 and 66 days) after planting with the above-mentioned micronutrients. However, results of this investigation showed, with no doubt, that Mn, Zn and Fe individually or in double or triple combinations have increased to varied extents the infestation rates (%) of faba bean plants compared to the untreated ones. Such varied increases were mainly due to the metabolic roles of the used foliar sprays and their interactions, which indirectly affect the physio-biological actions of plants that may render them suitable for either A. craccivora or L. trifoii reproduction. This phenomenon might be also due to the different environmental factors. In both seasons, the relationship between nutrients applications and pests Infestation followed the same trend of increase in the percentages of infested plants. This assures and confirms the constant metabolic roles of such micronutrients. The biological seed weight (ton/fed.) was positively affected by the application of the used micronutrients. It is worth mentioning that the maximum response was observed in case of the triple treatment followed by the double and single treatments in a descending order. Application of the investigated micronutrients alone or in

  2. EFISIENSI PENULARAN VIRUS MOSAIK BENGKUANG DENGAN Aphis craccivora Koch. DAN A. gossypii Glover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Asmira Damayanti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Yambean mosaic virus is the most important virus infecting yam bean in Indonesia. The virus were transmitted either mechanically or via aphid.  This study to test the transmission efficiency of the virus via A. craccivora and A. gossypii by using different number of aphid such 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 for each treatment. To determine the transmission efficiency, incubation period, type of symptom and incidence were used as parameter. Transmission of virus by A. craccivora showed incidence range 90 to 100%, significant differences in incubation time of 1 aphid compared to other treatments and showed severe leaf mosaic, vein-banding and severe leaf malformation such as string. However, the incidence of transmission of virus by A. gossypii was range 70 to 100%, with longer incubation period in compare with A. craccivora. There was no significant differences of incubation period among treatments by A. gossypii. The infected plants showed leaf malformation, vein-banding, wrinkle and blotch on the leaves. Based on these, both aphids species could transmitted virus efficiently, and among them A. craccivora considerate has higher ability as efficient insect vector to transmit the virus in compare with A. gossypii.

  3. The role of detoxifying enzymes in the resistance of the cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch to thiamethoxam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ibrahim Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch is considered a serious insect pest attacking several crops. We carried out biochemical studies to elucidate the role of the metabolising enzymes in conferring resistance to thiamethoxam, in two strains (resistant and susceptible of the cowpea aphid. Bioassay experiments showed that the thiamethoxam selected strain developed a 48 fold resistance after consecutive selection with thiamethoxam for 12 generations. This resistant strain also exhibited cross-resistance to the tested carbamates; pirimicarb and carbosulfan, organophosphorus (malathion, fenitrothion, and chlorpyrifos-methyl, and the neonicotinoid (acetamiprid. Synergism studies have indicated that S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF, a known inhibitor for esterases, increased thiamethoxam toxicity 5.58 times in the resistant strain compared with the susceptible strain. Moreover, the biochemical determination revealed that carboxylestersae activity was 30 times greater in the resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. In addition, the enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST and mixed function oxidases (mfo increased only in the resistant strain 3.7 and 2.7 times, respectively, in relation to the susceptible (the control. Generally, our results suggest that the higher activity of the detoxifying enzymes, particularly carboxylesterase, in the resistant strain of the cowpea aphid, apparently have a significant role in endowing resistance to thiamethoxam, although additional mechanisms may contribute.

  4. Predators of the Alfalfa Aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris, Aphis craccivora Koch, and Therioaphis trifolii (Monell (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea as Determined by the Serological Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Cunha

    2016-08-01

    Resumo. A serologia é uma técnica imunológica baseada em reações antígeno/anticorpo, em que suas principais vantagens são a alta sensibilidade e especificidade que permitem o reconhecimento biológico em nível molecular. Este trabalho avalia o uso da técnica serológica para determinar os predadores dos pulgões da alfafa, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris, Aphis craccivora Koch e Therioaphis trifolii (Monell (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea. As coletas dos pulgões para a obtenção dos anticorpos e de seus possíveis predadores para serem utilizados como antígenos foram realizadas nos campos de alfafa da Unidade da Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste, São Carlos, SP. no período de agosto de 2011 a julho de 2012. Foram testados 2.161 artrópodes predadores, incluindo insetos e aranhas. Os anticorpos obtidos para os pulgões A. craccivora, A. pisum, e T. trifolii mostraram identidade parcial mas, ainda assim, permitiu reconhecer os predadores dos pulgões da alfafa. Dentre os insetos, sirfídeos e crisopídeos foram os que apresentaram as maiores porcentagens de resultados positivos nos testes serológicos. A. craccivora foi o afídeo mais consumido pelos predadores.

  5. Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, a diferentes genótipos de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, preference to different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gutemberg Leite Moraes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a avaliar a resposta de cultivares de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., à presença do pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora Koch. Os experimentos foram conduzidos de agosto a outubro de 2004, em casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC. As cultivares foram: "Epace-10", "Epace-11", "Patativa", "Pingo de Ouro", "Pitiúba", "BR-10 Piauí", "BR-12 Canindé", "BR-14 Mulato" e "BR-17 Gurguéia". O experimento constou de três ensaios, cada um com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os genótipos foram cultivados em copos plásticos de 300ml e mantidos em gaiolas protegidas por tela antiafídeos. As plantas foram infestadas após doze dias do plantio através da liberação de cinco fêmeas adultas do pulgão-preto por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas após o terceiro e o quinto dia da infestação, constando da contagem direta das formas adulta e jovem do inseto presentes nas plantas. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de análise de variância e pelo teste de Tukey em 5% de probabilidade de erro. As cultivares "Epace-10" e "Patativa" foram as menos preferidas por A. craccivora.This research was conducted with the intention of evaluating the response of different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, cultivars to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch. The bioassays were conducted from August through October of 2004 in a greenhouse at the Ceará Federal University (UFC campus. The cowpea cultivars used were: Epace-10, Epace-11, Patativa, Pingo de Ouro, Pitiúba, BR-10 Piauí, BR-12 Canindé, BR-14 Mulato and BR-17 Gurguéia. Each assay had five treatments and six replications in a completely randomized block design. The genotypes were raised in a 300ml plastic cup and maintained in cages protected by an insect proof net. Plants were infested twelve days after planting with five adult females per plant

  6. Toxicity of Synergistic Imidacloprid to Aphis craccivora Koch%增效吡虫啉对豆蚜的室内毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何秀玲; 李艳波; 刘月; 冷阳; 张一宾

    2012-01-01

    [目的]测定增效吡虫啉对豆蚜的毒力.[方法]采用浸渍法测定了2种增效吡虫啉对豆蚜的24 h致死作用,同时以市售的35%吡虫啉悬浮剂为对照.[结果]31%增效吡虫啉悬浮剂SE-6-4防治豆蚜的效果最佳,其LC50值为5.2673 mg/L;其次为31%增效吡虫啉悬浮剂SE-1,LC50值为7.7441 mg/L;35%吡虫啉悬浮剂的LC50值为10.563 0 mg/L,豆蚜对其的敏感性相对较低.[结论]31%增效吡虫啉悬浮剂SE-6-4和SE-1是2个良好的制剂产品,具有减量同效的应用价值,可将其进一步用于田间试验.%[Aims] Toxicity of synergistic imidacloprid to Aphis craccivora Koch was studied. [Methods] The 24 h-lethal effect of synergistic imidacloprid were determined by impregnation method, and the commercial imidacloprid 35% SC as control [Results] The results showed that synergistic imidacloprid SE-6-4 31 % SC had the highest control efficacy with LC50 of 5.2673 mg/L, followed by synergistic imidacloprid SE-1 31% SC with LC50 of 7.7441 mg/L. The LC^of imidacloprid 35% SC was 10.5630 mg/L, and had low toxicity to Aphis craccivora Koch. [Conclusions] The control efficacy of low-dose synergistic imidacloprid SE-6-4 and SE-1 31% SC were similar to that of high-dose imidacloprid 35% SC, They were good formulations and could be used in field trials.

  7. Identification of novel resistance gene sources to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, H; Ishiyaku, M F

    2013-08-01

    The development of cowpea aphid larvae was monitored on seven cowpea genotypes (IAR-48, TVu-15866, IT84S-2246-4, SAKA BABBA SATA, IT90K-76, KANANNADO and TVX 3236). The aim of the study was to determine the developmental response of the larvae as an indication of antibiotic resistance of the genotypes. Highly significant differences (p < 0.01) were observed with respect to fertility, larval development, adult longevity, life span, multiplication rate and intrinsic rate of increase. KANANNADO and TVX 3236 show minimum antibiotic effects while a landrace SAKA BABBA SATA shows relatively high antibiotic effects. This result further reveals the potential of SAKA BABBA SATA as a resistance source to aphid. The reaction of IT84S-2246-4, a hitherto aphid resistant genotype, which supported higher levels of survival of the larvae relative to other known susceptible genotype IAR-48, may be an indication of the presence of a new biotype of Aphis craccivora endemic to Zaria environs, or that of the ability of insects to overcome hindrances to their survival including various forms of resistance.

  8. Toxicity of cycloxaprid toAphis craccivora (Koch) and its effects on detoxification enzymes%环氧虫啶对苜蓿蚜的毒力及对其体内解毒酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴勇超; 须志平; 邵旭升; 程家高; 李忠

    2016-01-01

    为研究桥环新烟碱类化合物对苜蓿蚜的影响,以吡虫啉为对照药剂,采用带虫浸叶法测定了环氧虫啶等桥环新烟碱类化合物对苜蓿蚜的毒力及对其体内解毒酶活性的影响。结果表明:以环氧虫啶为代表的七元桥环新烟碱类化合物对苜蓿蚜具有较好的杀虫活性,其中,环氧虫啶的 LC50值为3.454 mg/L,高于八元桥环新烟碱化合物。酶抑制剂顺丁烯二乙酯(DEM)和胡椒基丁醚(PBO)对环氧虫啶均具有显著的增效作用,增效比分别为4.02和3.22;而对照药剂吡虫啉仅 PBO对其具有明显增效作用。与空白对照组相比,经 LC50浓度环氧虫啶和吡虫啉处理后,存活苜蓿蚜体内谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GSTs)和细胞色素 P450s活力均显著升高(P <0.05),其中,环氧虫啶处理组 GSTs和 P450s活力分别达到(2.730±0.012)和(0.239±0.009)μmol/(mg pro.·min),诱导能力弱于吡虫啉;而苜蓿蚜体内羧酸酯酶(CarE)活性则无明显变化。研究显示,在苜蓿蚜对环氧虫啶的解毒代谢过程中,GSTs和细胞色素 P450s可能发挥着主要作用。%To investigate the effects of bridged-neonicotinoid compounds onAphis craccivora (Koch), the toxicity of cycloxaprid and the other three bridged-neonicotinoid compounds onA. craccivora and its effects on detoxification enzymes were determined by leaf dipping method using imidacloprid as the control. The results showed that cycloxaprid and other seven-membered bridged neonicotinoid compounds displayed high insecticidal activities againstA. craccivora. The LC50 of cycloxaprid was 3.454 mg/L, which is higher than that of the eight-membered bridged neonicotinoid compounds. The synergistic ratios of enzyme inhibitors DEM and PBO were 4.02 and 3.22, respectively. Both compounds showed remarkable synergistic effects on the toxicity of cycloxaprid, whereas only PBO could significantly enhance the toxicity of imidacloprid. Further enzyme activity

  9. Pyridine derivatives as insecticides. Part 1: synthesis and toxicity of some pyridine derivatives against cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhite, Etify A; Abd-Ella, Aly A; El-Sayed, Mohamed E A; Abdel-Raheem, Shaban A A

    2014-10-15

    Five pyridine derivatives, namely, N-morpholinium 7,7-dimethyl-3-cyano-4-(4'-nitrophenyl)-5-oxo-1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinoline-2-thiolate (1), sodium 5-acetyl-3-amino-4-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-6-methylthieno[2,3-b] pyridine-2-carboxylate (2), piperidinium 3,5-dicyano-2-oxo-4-spirocyclopentane-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-6-thiolate (3), piperidinium 5-acetyl-3-cyano-4-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-6-methylpyridine-2-thiolate (4), and piperidinium 5-acetyl-4-(4'-chlorophenyl)-3-cyano-6-methyl-pyridine-2-thiolate (5) were prepared in pure state and subjected to the title study. The bioassay results indicated that the insecticidal activity of compound 1 is about 4-fold that of acetamiprid insecticide. The rest of the tested compounds possess moderate to strong aphidicidal activities.

  10. Functional response of the ladybird, Cydonia vicina nilotica to cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora in the laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NASSER SAID MANDOUR; NESREN ABDEL-SALLAM EL-BASHA; TONG-XIAN LIU

    2006-01-01

    The functional response of Cydonia vicina nilotica Muls. (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) to six densities of Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) nymphs on broad bean (Vicia faba Linn.) was investigated in the laboratory. A linear relationship between the rate of consumption and prey density was observed with r2 values between 0.58 and 0.97. Plotting prey density against prey killed by four larval instars, and adult males and females of C. vicina nilotica fit well with the type Ⅱ model of Holling' s disc equation.Adult females consumed the highest number of prey, followed by fourth instars and adult males. Based on the functional response data, the model predicts a maximum of 144.9, 116.3,86.2, 80.0, 72.5 and 20.0 nymphs to be consumed per day by an individual adult female,fourth instar, adult male, third, second and first instars, respectively. The differences in the responses of the predator to aphid densities are discussed.

  11. Sigmund Koch as critical humanist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M B

    2001-05-01

    Just as Sigmund Koch was a good scientist without succumbing to scientism, he was a good humanist without succumbing to the popular distortions trading on the name of humanism. When humanistic psychology was seduced by the touchy-feely encounter group movement, Koch derided its technology of authenticity as shamelessly meretricious. Later, when postmodern humanists of deconstruction and textual analysis began to be heard in psychology, Koch wryly expressed his preference for the old-fashioned kind of humanism. Koch's interests and his conception of the domain of psychology thus transcended scientific and humanistic labels and boundaries. To be good science, human psychological studies have to start with and be guided by openness to all aspects of being human. No less in the present and future than during his lifetime, the implications of Koch's vision of psychological inquiry warrant discerning and disciplined attention.

  12. Pasteur, Koch and American bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossel, P P

    2000-01-01

    This study traces American awareness of the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch from the 1860s to the 1890s. In the years before the Civil War, American interest in germ theories had appeared at times of epidemics and persisted to a limited extent among physician-microscopists. Discussions of Pasteur's work occurred primarily in the context of spontaneous generation and antisepsis. Few Americans imitated his work on immunology or studied with Pasteur, but his work on immunity influenced their faith in the potential of bacteriology as a solution to problems of infectious disease. Koch's discoveries of the bacterial agents of tuberculosis and cholera stimulated American medical and public health interest in bacteriology in a more practical way. Americans learned Koch's methods by taking his courses and imported them directly into their own laboratories. A context of enthusiasm for science, educational reform, and problems of infectious disease associated with urbanization and changes in agriculture aided the growth of bacteriology in the American context.

  13. Riemann Boundary Value Problems for Koch Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengshun Ruanand

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, when L is substituted for Koch curve, Riemann boundary value problems was defined, but generally speaking, Cauchy-type integral is meaningless on Koch curve. When some analytic conditions are attached to functions G (z and g (z, through the limit function of a sequence of Cauchytype integrals, the homogeneous and non-homogeneous Riemann boundary problems on Koch curve are introduced, some similar results was attained like the classical boundary value problems for analytic functions.

  14. Koch Curves: Rewriting System, Geometry and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Rani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, new Koch curves have been generated by dividing the initiator into three unequal parts. There is no formal rewriting system to generate such kind of curves. Approach: It is required to measure the new changed geometrical properties. Generalized rewriting systems for the new Koch curves have been developed. Results: New formulas have been given to measure their geometrical properties. Conclusion/Recommendations: The geometrical properties of new Koch curves make them more suitable as antennas in wireless communication than the conventional Koch curve.

  15. Koch-Fractal Yagi-Uda Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teisbæk, Henrik Bjørn; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    A Yagi-Uda antenna constructed of three Koch fractal elements is presented. Simulated and measured characteristics of the antenna shows a half-power beam-width of 64◦ achieved with dimensions below a third of a wavelength. Furthermore, the Koch dipole and its size miniaturization capabilities...

  16. Koch-Fractal Yagi-Uda Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teisbæk, Henrik Bjørn; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    A Yagi-Uda antenna constructed of three Koch fractal elements is presented. Simulated and measured characteristics of the antenna shows a half-power beam-width of 64◦ achieved with dimensions below a third of a wavelength. Furthermore, the Koch dipole and its size miniaturization capabilities...

  17. Evolutionary aspects of acoustic communication in Ribautodelphax planthoppers (Homoptera, Delphacidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Delphacidae (Homoptera), commonly referred to as planthoppers, are herbivores, which usually feed on grasses and sedges. During sexual behaviour males and females communicate by exchanging low-frequency vibrational signals, which are transmitted through the substrate, normally the host plant. This t

  18. Koch's postulates, carnivorous cows, and tuberculosis today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrah, Frank L

    2011-07-01

    With Koch's announcement in 1882 of his work with the tubercle bacillus, his famous postulates launched the rational world of infectious disease and an abrupt social change--strict patient isolation. The postulates, so successful at their inception, soon began to show some problems, particularly with cholera, which clearly violated some of Koch's requirements. Subsequent studies of other diseases and the discovery of entirely new ones have so altered and expanded the original postulates that they now are little but a precious touch of history. The present additions and replacements of the original concepts are skillful changes that several authors have devised to introduce new order into understanding complex viral and prion diseases. In 1988, this knowledge, with the totally rational response of the British population and its cattle industry, was critical in promptly blocking the threatened epidemic of human prion disease. In contrast, the recent upsurge of tuberculosis (TB) in the worldwide AIDS epidemic in developing countries, and the sudden increase in metabolic syndrome in wealthy ones, suggests the need for focused sociobiologic research seeking ways to affect the damaging lifestyle behavior of many less educated populations in both settings. The world awaits an equivalent of Koch's Postulates in sociobiology to explain and possibly avert large self-destructive behaviors.

  19. Field population abundance of leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) as affected by rice growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizal, M. M.; Idris, A. B.

    2013-11-01

    The leafhopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) are considered as important rice pest in Asia including Malaysia. As phloem-feeders, they can cause loss to rice growth development and their population abundance is thought to be influenced by rice growth stages. This study was conducted to examine the population of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae between different rice growth stages, i.e. before and after rice planting periods. Monthly sampling was conducted in three sites in Kuala Selangor at before planting, vegetative, reproductive, maturing stages and post-harvest period using sweeping net and light traps. Population abundance of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae were found to be significantly different and positively correlated with different rice growth stages (ppopulation of these two homopterans indicated adaptive feeding strategy to reduce food competition.

  20. All 37 Mitochondrial Genes of Aphid Aphis craccivora Obtained from Transcriptome Sequencing: Implications for the Evolution of Aphids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available The availability of mitochondrial genome data for Aphididae, one of the economically important insect pest families, in public databases is limited. The advent of next generation sequencing technology provides the potential to generate mitochondrial genome data for many species timely and cost-effectively. In this report, we used transcriptome sequencing technology to determine all the 37 mitochondrial genes of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora. This method avoids the necessity of finding suitable primers for long PCRs or primer-walking amplicons, and is proved to be effective in obtaining the whole set of mitochondrial gene data for insects with difficulty in sequencing mitochondrial genome by PCR-based strategies. Phylogenetic analyses of aphid mitochondrial genome data show clustering based on tribe level, and strongly support the monophyly of the family Aphididae. Within the monophyletic Aphidini, three samples from Aphis grouped together. In another major clade of Aphididae, Pterocomma pilosum was recovered as a potential sister-group of Cavariella salicicola, as part of Macrosiphini.

  1. First report of Vryburgia amaryllidis (Bouché (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae on Agapanthus sp. in Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Longo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The lily mealybug, Vryburgia amarillidis (Bouché (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae was detected on containerized Agapanthus sp. plants in Sicily, Italy. The morphological characteristics of the Sicilian populations of this pest are described.

  2. Biological and taxonomic differentiation in the Ribautodelphax collinus complex (Homoptera, Delphacidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Bieman, C.F.M.

    1987-01-01

    Dit proefschrift behandelt de biosystematiek van het Ribautodelphaxcollinus komplex (Homoptera, Delphacidae). De soorten uit dit komplex vertonen slechts geringe morfologische verschillen, 'terwijl enkele diagnostische kenmerken ook nog variabel zijn. Deze geringe verschillen waren een

  3. Structure Properties of Koch Networks Based on Networks Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhai, Yinhu; Wang, Shaohui

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an informative labeling algorithm for the vertices of a family of Koch networks. Each of the labels is consisted of two parts, the precise position and the time adding to Koch networks. The shortest path routing between any two vertices is determined only on the basis of their labels, and the routing is calculated only by few computations. The rigorous solutions of betweenness centrality for every node and edge are also derived by the help of their labels. Furthermore, the community structure in Koch networks is studied by the current and voltage characteristics of its resistor networks.

  4. The artist speaks. Sigmund Koch on aesthetics and creative work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, M B

    2001-05-01

    Sigmund Koch is widely recognized as a prime mover of the radical transformation of psychology from a discipline dominated by behaviorism and related views to a multivalenced set of inquiries into human mentality and functioning. It is less widely remarked that Koch saw aesthetic endeavors as standing at the center of human life and thus warranting psychologists' closest attention. Koch's interest in aesthetics and art making is evident in his writings from the mid-1950s to the mid-1970s on different states of mind, the notion of value properties, and the theory of definition. Koch's study of creative work in the latter decades of his life with artists of high accomplishment was guided by a set of methodological signposts for the study of creative work, contains formulations relevant to contemporary psychoaesthetics, and generates significant questions for further inquiry.

  5. Kurt Koch, Die Kirche Gottes : Gemeinschaft im Geheimnis des Glaubens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarot, M.

    2013-01-01

    KURT KOCH ON THE CHURCH This article discusses Kurt Koch’s book on the church as a crucial text for con¬tem¬po¬ra¬ry theology. Koch adopts a ‘hermeneutics of reform’ and emphasizes that the image of the church as the people of God should not be employed in isolation from the image of the church as t

  6. Kurt Koch, Die Kirche Gottes : Gemeinschaft im Geheimnis des Glaubens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarot, M.

    2013-01-01

    KURT KOCH ON THE CHURCH This article discusses Kurt Koch’s book on the church as a crucial text for con¬tem¬po¬ra¬ry theology. Koch adopts a ‘hermeneutics of reform’ and emphasizes that the image of the church as the people of God should not be employed in isolation from the image of the church as

  7. Saponins from Cephalaria aristata C. Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Gülcemal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One new oleanane-type saponin, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1 was isolated from the MeOH extract of whole plant parts of Cephalaria aristata C. Koch along with three known oleanane-type saponins (2-4, 3-O- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2- α -L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-( β -D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6- β -D-glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O- β -D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4- β -D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2- α -L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin and 3-O- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2- α -L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin respectively, (5-7, oleanolic acid (5, β -amyrin (6 and 20 β -hydroxyursolic acid (7 and one sterol glucoside (8, 29-hydroxystigmast-5-en-3-O- β -D-glucopyranosyde. Their structures were established by the extensive use of 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments along with ESIMS and HRMS analysis.

  8. Generic vapor heat treatments to control Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A

    2004-08-01

    Vapor heat treatments were developed against life stages of the mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Treatments tested were 47 degrees C for 5-50 min in 5-min increments and 49 degrees C for 3, 5, 8, 10, and 12 min. All tests were conducted with mixed age M. hirsutus on Chinese pea, Pisum sativum L. Treatment at 47 degrees C required 45 min to kill all M. hirsutus, whereas treatment at 49 degrees C required 10 min. The adult female and nymphal stages were the most heat tolerant at 47 degrees C, but the egg stage was the most heat tolerant at 49 degrees C. Use of the vapor heat treatments on other commodities will require achieving or exceeding the proper temperature and duration at all locations on the host where M. hirsutus may reside.

  9. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants.

  10. Koch Carbon LLC Response to Section 114 Information Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch Carbon states objections to several of EPA's Dec. 30, 2013 requests, and asserts that its pet coke facilities do not fall within their scope. It does provide end user information for petroleum coke stored/handled by Detroit Bulk Storage.

  11. The Slovenian Architect Ciril Metod Koch in a European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Simonišek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian architect and urban planner Ciril Metod Koch (1867–1925 worked in Ljubljana’s town office for almost three decades. He received his degree in Vienna, where he probably studied under the architect Karl von Hasenauer. Especially at the beginning of his career, Koch was influenced by Baron Hasenauer, who was one of the most important architects of the Vienna court. Hasenauer was very close to Emperor Franz Joseph I (with plans for the Art History Museum, Natural History Museum, Imperial Court Theater, Lützow Palace, etc., and had already established his name when Koch came to Vienna. This article also addresses some specific similarities between these two architects, which can be seen on the facades of some buildings today. After Koch finished his studies, he immediately returned to Ljubljana, where he first worked in a private office for the successful builder Filip Supančič. After the 1895 earthquake, he designed many secular buildings in Ljubljana (inns, apartment buildings, detached houses and also worked in the countryside (detached houses, a church, and a bridge. Today his life and work is known only from letters; on the basis of archival reports, more than fifty buildings can be attributed to him. He started with buildings, where he remained committed to the more conservative tradition of historicism. A characteristic feature of his architectural activity is stylistic variety and eclecticism. While Ivan Hribar was mayor of Ljubljana at the turn of the century, Koch was ambitiously developing his sensitive and original form of expression. In his modern works, Koch took international European currents as a model, thereby considerably moving towards the esthetics of the Viennese Secession. At that time Koch probably followed modern trends with the help of international journals: Ver Sacrum (a leading and very popular Austrian journal, the mouthpiece of Vienna Secession and Der Architekt (an important journal for art and

  12. Obituary: Robert H. Koch (1929-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Joanne; Corcoran, Michael; Holenstein, Bruce; Sion, Edward

    2011-12-01

    Robert H. Koch, emeritus professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the University of Pennsylvania, passed away at his home in Ardmore, Pennsylvania on 11 October 2010 after a brief illness. Bob was 80 years old and remained sharp and intellectually engaged with the astronomical community up until the onset of complications from a brain tumor. Bob was born in York, Pennsylvania on 19 December 1929, and graduated from York Catholic High School in 1947. He attended the University of Pennsylvania on a senatorial scholarship, graduating in 1951. After two years in the United States Army, he enrolled in graduate school at the University of Pennsylvania, doing his doctoral research on the photoelectric photometry of R CMa, AO Cas, AS Eri, and XY Leo at the Steward Observatory, University of Arizona in Tucson. Bob would continue this exploration of close binary stars, their atmospheres and interactions, for the rest of his career. Bob met his future spouse, Joanne C. Underwood, while in graduate school in 1957 and they were married in 1959. Bob received his PhD in astronomy in 1959 and moved to Amherst, Massachusetts, where he taught as a member of the Four College Astronomy Department until 1966. Following a year at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, Bob joined the Astronomy Department at Penn, teaching and doing research there until his retirement in 1996. Bob's main interests were the study of close and eclipsing binary stars, stellar envelopes and winds, intrinsic variables, transits and occultations, and the Milky Way Galaxy, producing well over 100 refereed publications. Bob was partial to photoelectric photometry and polarimetry, conducting most of his observational research at the University of Pennsylvania Flower and Cook Observatory, and at other ground- and space-based observatories. As an international figure in the area of binary stars, Bob had widespread collaborations with scientists at other institutions, in the US and throughout the world, and

  13. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  14. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  15. Average weighted receiving time in recursive weighted Koch networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DAI MEIFENG; YE DANDAN; LI XINGYI; HOU JIE

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by the empirical observation in airport networks and metabolic networks, we introduce the model of the recursive weighted Koch networks created by the recursive division method. As a fundamental dynamical process, random walks have received considerable interest in the scientific community. Then, we study the recursive weighted Koch networks on random walk i.e., the walker, at each step, starting from its current node, moves uniformly to any of itsneighbours. In order to study the model more conveniently, we use recursive division method again to calculate the sum of the mean weighted first-passing times for all nodes to absorption at the trap located in the merging node. It is showed that in a large network, the average weighted receiving time grows sublinearly with the network order.

  16. [GENETIC VARIABILITY OF MATERNAL PLANTS AND SEED EMBRYOS OF KOCH PINE POPULATIONS (PINUS KOCHIANA KLOTZSCH EX KOCH) IN CRIMEA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshykov, I I; Kalafat, L O; Vynogradova, O M; Podgornyi, D Y

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies of genetic variability were undertaken for 12 allozyme loci selections of trees and embryos of seed, and also for the crossing systems in five populations of Koch pine of (Pinus kochiana Klotzsch ex Koch) in Crimea. It was shown that in seed embryos the allelic variety peculiar to the maternal plants was restored, however the level of the available (H₀) heterozygosity was considerably lower, 0.286 and 0.189 respectively. For the embryos unlike the trees, in the majority of the analyzed loci the considerable divergence was specific in the actual distribution of genotypes from the theoretically expected according to Hardy- Weinberg law. The proportion of cross pollination at the unilocal (t(s)) estimation varied from 0.384 to 0.673 in the populations, while at the multilocal ones (t(m)) it was 0.639-0.841.

  17. 不同杀虫剂对花生蚜毒力及拌种控制效果研究%Toxicities and Control Effects of Clothianidin and Other Insectcides to Aphis craccivora by the Seed Dressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文丹; 刘磊; 渠成; 薛明

    2015-01-01

    To define the toxicity of clothianidin and other 8 insectcides to Aphis craccivora , the toxicities to Aphis craccivora were detected using the insect-dip bioassay method.The effects of pot and field experiment to Aphis craccivora were also studied.The results showed that the toxicities of clothianidin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam against Aphis craccivora were 49.2, 40.7, 26.6 and 26.1 times as those of chlorpyrifos, respectively.Followed by imidacloprid, beta-cyper-methrin, cyfluthrin were 7.5, 6.7 and 6.4 times as those of chlorpyrifos, respectively.And the toxic-itiy of pyridaben was 3.9 times of chlorpyrifos.Pot test results showed that the control effects of clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid were all over 89% when given the dose of 240g /100kg 50 days later.The results of field efficacy showed that the control effects of clothianidin, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid were all up to 100% 25 days later, and were 87.07%~92.67% 45 days later.Clothiani-din had the best control effect to Aphis craccivora , while the control effect of chlorpyrifos was very poor.Clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid had excellent control effects to Aphis craccivora with seed dressing, and could control underground pests and protect the natural enemy effectively.%为明确噻虫胺等9种杀虫剂对花生蚜虫的毒力和拌种处理对花生蚜虫的控制效果,采用浸渍法进行了室内毒力测定,并进行了盆栽和田间药剂拌种防治试验。结果表明,以新烟碱类噻虫胺、吡虫啉、啶虫脒和噻虫嗪对蚜虫的毒力最高,其毒力分别是毒死蜱的49.2、40.7、26.6和26.1倍;其次是吡蚜酮、高效氯氰菊酯和氯氟氰菊酯,哒螨灵的毒力是毒死蜱的3.9倍。盆栽药剂拌种处理后50d,噻虫胺、噻虫嗪和吡虫啉对花生蚜的防效达仍在89%以上。田间拌种处理后25d,噻虫胺、噻虫嗪和吡虫啉对蚜虫的防效均达100%,药后45d 防效达87.07%~92.67%,其中以噻虫胺防效

  18. A Fractal Comparison of Escher and Koch Tesselations

    CERN Document Server

    Van Dusen, Ben; Taylor, Richard

    2012-01-01

    M.C. Eschers tessellations have captured the imaginations of both artists and mathematicians. Circle Limit III is the most intricate of his tessellations, featuring patterns that repeat at increasingly fine scales. Although his patterns follow a scaling law determined by hyperbolic geometry, his work is often mistakenly described as following fractal geometry. Here, we perform a 'box counting' scaling analysis on Circle Limit III and an equivalent monofractal pattern based on a Koch Snowflake. Whereas our analysis highlights the expected visual differences between Eschers hyperbolic patterns and the simple monofractal, the analysis also identifies unexpected similarities between Eschers work and the bifractal poured paintings of Jackson Pollock.

  19. Particle film affects black pecan aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on pecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Reilly, Charles C

    2002-08-01

    Three species of aphids attack pecan foliage, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, and cause economic damage. We tested a kaolin-based particle film against one of these aphid species, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis). Effect of particle film on host selection, adult mortality, and production of nymphs by M. caryaefoliae was tested on seedling pecans in the laboratory. Fewer M. caryaefoliae adults selected treated foliage compared with untreated foliage. A higher percentage of adults that did select treated foliage were recovered from upper leaf surfaces compared with the percentage of adults recovered from upper leaf surfaces of untreated leaves. Observations with a microscope revealed an accumulation of particle film on aphid body parts, especially on tarsi, and strongly suggests that aphid mobility was restricted. Adult mortality was higher on treated foliage and led to an overall decrease in production of nymphs on those seedlings. In addition, we measured spectral properties of treated seedling pecan foliage. Light reflectance by treated foliage was increased and absorptance decreased compared with control foliage whereas transmittance of light through control and particle film-treated leaves was similar. We did not detect any phytotoxic effect on pecan due to application of particle film.

  20. Koch Institute Symposium on Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Adam; Joshi, Nikhil S; Szeto, Gregory L; Zhu, Eric; Eisen, Herman N; Irvine, Darrell J

    2013-10-01

    The 12(th) annual summer symposium of The Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT was held in Cambridge, MA, on June 14(th), 1023. The symposium entitled "Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy" focused on recent advances in preclinical research in basic immunology and biomedical engineering, and their clinical application in cancer therapies. The day-long gathering also provided a forum for discussion and potential collaborations between engineers and clinical investigators. The major topics presented include: (i) enhancement of adoptive cell therapy by engineering to improve the ability and functionality of T-cells against tumor cells; (ii) current therapies using protein and antibody therapeutics to modulate endogenous anti-tumor immunity; and (iii) new technologies to identify molecular targets and assess therapeutic efficacy, and devices to control and target drug delivery more effectively and efficiently.

  1. Of Postulates and Peccadillos: Robert Koch and Vaccine (Tuberculin) Therapy for Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Reviews featured a cover cartoon be the case. (Ref. 17) with ’Koch as the new St George’ slaying the tubercle bacillus. In the feature article Arthur ... Conan Doyle, and the physician-author of Sherlock Holmes stories, characterized Koch the man thus"’: Amongst the many rumours that have been current of...a Nobel laureate but then an assistant to Koch, became to learn more about the treatment first hand. Sir Joseph a patientŖ -". Conan Doyle noted a

  2. [Tuberculosis 110 years after the Nobel Prize awarded to Koch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritacco, Viviana; Kantor, Isabel N

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1905 to Robert Koch "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis (TB)". He discovered the causal agent of TB, described the four principles that since then have guided research in communicable diseases and also prepared the old tuberculin, a bacillary extract that failed as a healing element but allowed the early diagnosis of TB infection and promoted the understanding of cellular immunity. After his death, the most conspicuous achievements against TB were the BCG vaccine, and the discovery of streptomycin, the antibiotic that launched the era of the effective treatment of TB. Drug-resistance soon appeared. In Argentina, studies on drug resistance began in the 60s. In the 70s, shortened anti-TB drug schemes were introduced consisting in two-month treatment with four drugs, followed by four months with two drugs. The incidence of TB decreased worldwide, but the immune depression associated with awarded together with the misuse of anti-TB drugs allowed the emergence of multidrug resistance and extensive resistance, with the emergence of nosocomial outbreaks worldwide, including Argentina. New rapid diagnostic methods based on molecular biology were developed and also new drugs, but the treatment of multidrug resistant and extensively resistant TB is still difficult and expensive. TB research has marked several milestones in medical sciences, including the monumental Koch postulates, the tuberculin skin test that laid the basis for understanding cell-mediated immunity, the first design of randomized clinical trials and the use of combined multi-drug treatments.

  3. Neue mediterrane Zikadenarten der Gattungen Hysteropterum Amyot & Serville, 1843, Macropsidius Ribaut, 1952, und Chlorita Fieber, 1872 (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dlabola, Jirí

    1975-01-01

    Some mediterranean species of Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha are described and figured. Hysteropterum duffelsi n. sp. and H. gravesteini n. sp. (Issidae) are described respectively from Cyprus and Mallorca. In the genus Macropsidius (Cicadellidae), M. hispanus Dlabola, 1963 falls as a junior synonym of

  4. Development and Fecundity of Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Three Malvaceae Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar SATAR; KERSTING, Ulrich; UYGUN, Nedim

    1999-01-01

    Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera, Aphididae) obtained from cotton fields near Adana in the east Mediterranean region of Turkey were colonized on Gossypium hirsutumL. 'Çukurova 1518' in a climatic room. The effect of host transfer from cotton to common mallow, Malva sylvestris L., and okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench 'Bamya 501', on performance of A. gossypii was studied at constant 25 ± 1°C, 60 ± 5 % relative humidity and 16 h of artificial light (5000 l...

  5. Development and Fecundity of Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Three Malvaceae Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar SATAR; KERSTING, Ulrich; UYGUN, Nedim

    2014-01-01

    Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera, Aphididae) obtained from cotton fields near Adana in the east Mediterranean region of Turkey were colonized on Gossypium hirsutumL. 'Çukurova 1518' in a climatic room. The effect of host transfer from cotton to common mallow, Malva sylvestris L., and okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench 'Bamya 501', on performance of A. gossypii was studied at constant 25 ± 1°C, 60 ± 5 % relative humidity and 16 h of artifici...

  6. Feeding preference of Macrolophus caliginosus (Heteroptera: Miridae) on Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Olivier; Couton, Louise; Fargues, Jacques

    2006-08-01

    A study of predation choices of Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae) late instars and adults, when offered various developmental stages (eggs and nymphs) of the recently established whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), was made based on two preference indices. In addition, prey choices of late instars when presented with three ratios of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and B. tabaci at a similar developmental stage (eggs, young or late instars) were assessed. M. caliginosus preferred older nymphs of B. tabaci than any other stage. It also chose T. vaporariorum over B. tabaci, unless the latter consisted of > 75% of the available prey. These results suggested that M. caliginosus might interfere with parasitoids such as Encarsia, Eretmocerus, or Amitus spp. because all three species emerge from the host pupal case. Furthermore, in mixed infestations, M. caliginosus preference for T. vaporariorum might either negatively affect the control of B. tabaci, or, contrarily, enhance the predator population, before a B. tabaci outbreak occurs in the greenhouse.

  7. [Robert Koch was right. Towards a new interpretation of tuberculin therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Pere J

    2006-01-01

    At the centenary of Robert Koch's Nobel Prize award, tuberculosis treatment with tuberculin, which was announced in Berlin in 1890, is still considered a failure. Nevertheless, there is now sufficient information supporting the idea that tuberculin therapy was widely used until the second half of the twentieth century; thus, the impact of this treatment should be studied and related to the decrease in tuberculosis-related mortality recorded in that period. Moreover, tuberculin therapy has inspired at least two new immunotherapies; these, however, were directed toward precisely the opposite effect: suppression of the Koch phenomenon. Thus, inoculation of Mycobacterium vaccae polarizes the immune response towards the Th1 type; and inoculation of RUTI avoids local immunodepression after short-term chemotherapy without inducing toxicity. For this reason, Robert Koch's work on antituberculosis therapy should be reread and proper recognition given to his contribution in this field.

  8. [Robert Koch, eminent medical bacteriologist, creator of the applied microbiology and its technnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Fernández, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    In our communication we wish consider to bring at a first instance the egregious figure of Robert Koch a hundred of years after his dead. Nobody else had contributed so much in the development of the bacteriology as unic and independent science. Several books and biographical sketchs had been published about Koch in german, english and french, mainly, with differents detais and interpretations, about his life. However, nobody doubred about his innovator spirit and scientist at highest level. This communication revise and discuss diverse chapters about his life as innovator, researcher, groups leader and Magister.

  9. Das Fortbildungsangebot der Bibliothek des Robert Koch-Instituts: Dienstleistung im Publikationsprozess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senst, Henriette

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Robert Koch-Institute’s scientists are supported during the publishing process in different ways. Relating to frequently asked questions the library offers trainings, which are integrated in the training program of the institute.How does a good literature research work? How do I manage my literature and how do I cite correctly? What do I have to consider during the publishing process? These and other questions are answered in trainings on literature research, managing bibliographies with EndNote and “Scientific Publishing in the Robert Koch-Institute” which take place regularly.

  10. Steps towards the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Robert Koch, 1882.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambau, E; Drancourt, M

    2014-03-01

    Palaeomicrobiology has detected the tuberculosis agent in animal and human skeletons that are thousands of years old. The German doctor Robert Koch was the first microbiologist to report in 1882 the successful isolation of the causative agent of tuberculosis, named 1 year later as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This immense discovery, however, was not made from scratch, but involved the combining of previous scientific knowledge, chiefly the previous demonstration by the French doctor Jean-Antoine Villemin that tuberculosis was a transmissible disease, and two innovations--a new staining procedure that allowed R. Koch to consistently observe the new organism in tuberculous lesions, and use of a solidified, serum-based medium instead of broths for the culture. These innovations allowed R. Koch not only to isolate M. tuberculosis from animal and patient specimens for the first time, but also to reproduce the disease in experimentally inoculated guinea pigs. It is thanks to R. Koch that one of the most lethal diseases in human history could be diagnosed, could be treated and cured after the discovery of streptomycin 65 years later, and could be efficiently prevented by isolation of cases. His microbiological innovations are now being renewed with molecular and improved culture-based detection being the twenty-first century weapons in the fight against this disease, which remains a major killer.

  11. Differences among plant species in acceptance by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch has a broad range of host plants. However, the spider mite does not accept all plants to the same degree because of differences in nutritive and toxic constituents. Other factors, such as the induction of secondary metabolites, the morphology of a leaf surfac

  12. An Inexpensive and Safe Experiment to Demonstrate Koch's Postulates Using Citrus Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Citrus fruit (oranges, tangerines, grapefruit or lemons) purchased in a grocery store can be experimentally infected with readily-available sources of "Penicillium digitatum" to demonstrate the four basic steps of Koch's postulates, also known as proof of pathogenicity. The mould is isolated from naturally-infected citrus fruit into pure culture…

  13. Poliitikud kaitsevad saadikute kulude hüvitamise süsteemi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Erakondade juhtpoliitikud on rahul praeguse parlamendiliikmete kulude hüvitamise süsteemiga, mille kohaselt hüvitatakse neile kuludokumentide alusel kulutused kuni 30 protsendi ulatuses palgast. Vt. samas: Tuuli Koch. Künka kosilased. Lisa: Hea teenistus

  14. Werner Koch Maschinenfabrik:先进的模块化辅助加工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Werner Koch Maschinenfabrik拥有33年的历史,是全球知名的专业化混料、定量给料、输送、干燥系统供应商,其产品以创新、高精确度、灵活和低成本而著称。

  15. Scaling of Average Weighted Receiving Time on Double-Weighted Koch Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meifeng; Ye, Dandan; Hou, Jie; Li, Xingyi

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a model of the double-weighted Koch networks based on actual road networks depending on the two weight factors w,r ∈ (0, 1]. The double weights represent the capacity-flowing weight and the cost-traveling weight, respectively. Denote by wFij the capacity-flowing weight connecting the nodes i and j, and denote by wCij the cost-traveling weight connecting the nodes i and j. Let wFij be related to the weight factor w, and let wCij be related to the weight factor r. This paper assumes that the walker, at each step, starting from its current node, moves to any of its neighbors with probability proportional to the capacity-flowing weight of edge linking them. The weighted time for two adjacency nodes is the cost-traveling weight connecting the two nodes. We define the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) on the double-weighted Koch networks. The obtained result displays that in the large network, the AWRT grows as power-law function of the network order with the exponent, represented by θ(w,r) = ½ log2(1 + 3wr). We show that the AWRT exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order. Thus, the double-weighted Koch networks are more efficient than classic Koch networks in receiving information.

  16. A synonymic revision of the Prunus-infesting aphid genus Hyalopterus Koch 1854 (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three species of Hyalopterus Koch cause economic damage to various stone fruit trees of the genus Prunus L., H. pruni (Geoffroy), H. amygdali (Blanchard), and H. persikonus Miller et al. Although the third species was established recently, it has been suggested that one of the twelve older synon...

  17. Water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae) from Australia. Part II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Two new water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae), characterized by single or absence of swimming setae on II-L-5, are reported from Australia: Hydrodroma wilesi sp. nov. and H. cooki sp. nov. New information is provided for H. tonapii Cook from I

  18. Differences among plant species in acceptance by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch has a broad range of host plants. However, the spider mite does not accept all plants to the same degree because of differences in nutritive and toxic constituents. Other factors, such as the induction of secondary metabolites, the morphology of a leaf surfac

  19. Multifractal analysis and topological properties of a new family of weighted Koch networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Wen; Yu, Zu-Guo; Anh, Vo

    2017-03-01

    Weighted complex networks, especially scale-free networks, which characterize real-life systems better than non-weighted networks, have attracted considerable interest in recent years. Studies on the multifractality of weighted complex networks are still to be undertaken. In this paper, inspired by the concepts of Koch networks and Koch island, we propose a new family of weighted Koch networks, and investigate their multifractal behavior and topological properties. We find some key topological properties of the new networks: their vertex cumulative strength has a power-law distribution; there is a power-law relationship between their topological degree and weight strength; the networks have a high weighted clustering coefficient of 0.41004 (which is independent of the scaling factor c) in the limit of large generation t; the second smallest eigenvalue μ2 and the maximum eigenvalue μn are approximated by quartic polynomials of the scaling factor c for the general Laplacian operator, while μ2 is approximately a quartic polynomial of c and μn= 1.5 for the normalized Laplacian operator. Then, we find that weighted koch networks are both fractal and multifractal, their fractal dimension is influenced by the scaling factor c. We also apply these analyses to six real-world networks, and find that the multifractality in three of them are strong.

  20. Differences among plant species in acceptance by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch has a broad range of host plants. However, the spider mite does not accept all plants to the same degree because of differences in nutritive and toxic constituents. Other factors, such as the induction of secondary metabolites, the morphology of a leaf

  1. [Julius Ludwig August Koch (1841-1908). Psychiatrist, philosopher, and Christian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Julius Ludwig August Koch was born 1841 in the small town of Laichingen (Württemberg) in the Southwest of Germany. After working as a chemist for about seven years, he studied medicine in Tübingen from 1863 to 1867. First he worked as a physican and later in a private mental hospital in Göppingen. From 1874 to 1898, he was director of a state mental hospital in Zwiefalten (Württemberg). Koch died in 1908 after a long period of suffering in Zwiefalten. Being deeply routed in a Christian faith and having much interest in moral and ethical issues, Koch published some philosophical works 'Epistomological investigations' (Erkenntnistheoretische Untersuchungen, 1882), 'Outline of philosophy' (Grundriss der Philosophie, 1885) and 'Reality and its knowledge' (Die Wirklichkeit und ihre Erkenntnis, 1886). In this papers he tried to bring together critical Kantian philosophy and Christian conviction. In 1888 he published a 'Short Textbook of Psychiatry' (Kurzgefasster Leitfaden der Psychiatrie), where he mentioned the term "psychopathic inferiority" for the first time (Psychopathische Minderwertigkeiten). The following work, focussing on this issue with the title 'Psychopathic Inferiority' (Die psychopathischen Minderwertigkeiten, 1891-1893), became one of the fundamental texts concerning the concept of disorders of personality, which are in use today. In this book, published in three parts, he tried to describe the hole field between psychic normality and psychoses. Only the first and biggest part deals with psychopathological symptoms which we now think to be essential for personality disorders. Koch differentiates between "disposition" (Disposition), "burden" (Belastung) and "degeneration" (Degeneration), assuming a graduation. "Disposition" should be the mildest disorder, turning into normality, whereas "degeneration" turns to psychosis. Koch believed, that on the basis of all degrees of "psychpathic inferiority" there was a congenital defect of the constitution of

  2. Preliminary results of entomological studies of diseased oaks in Lower Austria. [Scolytus intricatus; Agrilus; Andricus quercusradicus; Homoptera; Xiphydria; Xyleborus; Cerambycidae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schopf, A.

    1987-03-01

    Entomological studies on diseased Quercus petraea at several localities in Lower Austria show that numerous insect species are involved in the lethal course of the disease. As expected, Scolytus intricatus and Agrilus species as well as two coccid species were frequently present. Particular importance is attached to the massive infestation of young branches by Andricus quercusradicus and egg deposition by an as yet undetermined leafhopper species (Homoptera). Wood-boring insects (Xiphydria, Xyleborus, Cerambycidae) attack the trunk at an early stage of the disease and devalue the wood.

  3. Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini: descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini; descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae. The genera Hemiptycha Germar, Metheisa Fowler, Maturnaria Metcalf, Aphetea Fowler, Dioclophara Kirkaldy, and Phormophora Stål, are redescribed; Creonus, gen.n. (type species: Maturna lloydi Funkhouser, 1914, and Aphetea robustula, sp.n. (from Bolivia, are described. Some nomenclatural changes are introduced, as follow: - Hemiptycha Germar, 1833 = Polyrhyssa Stål, 1869, syn.n.: - Hemiptycha cultrata (Coquebert, 1801, comb.n., = Polyglyptodes flavocostatus Haviland, 1925, syn.n., = Polyrhyssa cultrata maculata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Hemiptycha obtecta (Fabricius, 1803 = Hille herbicola Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Maturnaria ephippigera (Fairmaire, 1846 = Publilia tumulata Buckton, 1903, syn.n., = Metheisa fowleri Funkhouser, 1927, syn.n. - Creonus lloydi (Funkhouser, 1914, comb.n. - Aphetea parvula (Fabricius, 1803, comb.n., = Aphetea affinis Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Dioclophara Kirkaldy, 1904 = lncolea Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Dioclophara viridula (Fairmaire, 1846 = Maturna multilineata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Dioclophara variegata (Goding, 1926, comb.n. = lncolea viridis Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Phormophora maura (Fabricius, 1803 = Darnis dorsata Fabricius, 1803, syn.n.

  4. Greenhouse whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) dispersal under different UV-light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, Dimitrios; Payne, Christopher C

    2007-04-01

    The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), is known to respond to UV light (UV). Field studies were conducted to improve our understanding of the behavioral effects and practical implications of using UV-blocking plastic films for the control of whitefly. Adult whiteflies were released in outdoor-located choice-chamber experiments with compartments clad with a range of films that transmitted incident UV to different extents. In release-recapture experiments, a very small proportion of the whiteflies recovered had dispersed into compartments where the entire UV spectrum was blocked, whereas the major proportion preferred compartments with UV. Compartments clad with films that blocked UV below 375 nm attracted significantly more whiteflies than films that blocked UV below 385 nm, whereas the absorption of UV wavelengths above 385 nm did not show any further effect on whitefly numbers. A reduction in the side cladding of the compartments by >20% significantly reduced the advantage of using UV-blocking films. Adult whitefly did not discriminate between direct- and diffused-light environments, as long as the UV-absorbing properties of the films were equivalent. Whitefly dispersal was influenced by the time of the day when adult whitefly were released, with a higher proportion of whitefly avoiding compartments clad with UV-blocking films, at times of the day when light intensities were higher. The future use of UV-blocking films as a potentially highly effective component of integrated pest management systems for the control of whitefly is discussed.

  5. Enumerative and binomial sampling plans for citrus mealybug (Homoptera: pseudococcidae) in citrus groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ferrer, María Teresa; Ripollés, José Luís; Garcia-Marí, Ferran

    2006-06-01

    The spatial distribution of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), was studied in citrus groves in northeastern Spain. Constant precision sampling plans were designed for all developmental stages of citrus mealybug under the fruit calyx, for late stages on fruit, and for females on trunks and main branches; more than 66, 286, and 101 data sets, respectively, were collected from nine commercial fields during 1992-1998. Dispersion parameters were determined using Taylor's power law, giving aggregated spatial patterns for citrus mealybug populations in three locations of the tree sampled. A significant relationship between the number of insects per organ and the percentage of occupied organs was established using either Wilson and Room's binomial model or Kono and Sugino's empirical formula. Constant precision (E = 0.25) sampling plans (i.e., enumerative plans) for estimating mean densities were developed using Green's equation and the two binomial models. For making management decisions, enumerative counts may be less labor-intensive than binomial sampling. Therefore, we recommend enumerative sampling plans for the use in an integrated pest management program in citrus. Required sample sizes for the range of population densities near current management thresholds, in the three plant locations calyx, fruit, and trunk were 50, 110-330, and 30, respectively. Binomial sampling, especially the empirical model, required a higher sample size to achieve equivalent levels of precision.

  6. [The importance of Robert Koch's discovery for the development of bacteriology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G

    1983-01-01

    On March 24th, 1882 Robert Koch reported to the Physiological Society of Berlin the discovery of microbes causing tuberculosis. Simultaneously he expressed his views on the pathogenesis of this nation-wide disease. With his work he contributed decisively to the development of a theory on infectious process. The results of his investigations on cholera and typhoid fever greatly stimulated the development of the epidemiology of contagious diseases.

  7. Opositsioon veeretab Villu Reiljani kaudu vastutuse peaministrile / Tuuli Koch, Kärt Anvelt, Rasmus Kagge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 9. veebr. lk. 4. Opositsioon nõudis Riigikogu infotunnis keskkonnaminister Villu Reiljanilt ja siseminister Kalle Laanetilt reostusega seotud küsimustele vastuseid. Valitsuse vastasleeri poliitikud oletavad, et kui peaminister Andrus Ansip jätab Reiljani ametisse, on poliitilise vastutuse kord peaministri enda käes. Kommenteerib peaminister Andrus Ansip. Vt. samas: Tuuli Koch. Laanet ja Reiljan ei taha vastutust enesele võtta; Ansipi soolo

  8. Microscopical, macroscopical and chemical investigations and their uses in chemotaxonomy of Crataegus pontica C. Koch

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollah Ghassemi Dehkordi; Alireza Ghannadi; Alireza Khabbaz Mehrjardi

    2012-01-01

    The Crataegus genus is widely distributed in Iran. This genus belongs to Rosaceae family and has 17 species in Iran one of which is Crataegus pontica C. Koch. In this paper, we analyzed some microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of this plant, then compared them with other features that were presented previously in previous reports. We analyzed all components in C. pontica, using thin layer chromatography method and then specified the type of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid in C. po...

  9. Optimal spinneret layout in Von Koch curves of fractal theory based needleless electrospinning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenxiu; Liu, Yanbo; Zhang, Ligai; Cao, Hong; Wang, Yang; Yao, Jinbo

    2016-06-01

    Needleless electrospinning technology is considered as a better avenue to produce nanofibrous materials at large scale, and electric field intensity and its distribution play an important role in controlling nanofiber diameter and quality of the nanofibrous web during electrospinning. In the current study, a novel needleless electrospinning method was proposed based on Von Koch curves of Fractal configuration, simulation and analysis on electric field intensity and distribution in the new electrospinning process were performed with Finite element analysis software, Comsol Multiphysics 4.4, based on linear and nonlinear Von Koch fractal curves (hereafter called fractal models). The result of simulation and analysis indicated that Second level fractal structure is the optimal linear electrospinning spinneret in terms of field intensity and uniformity. Further simulation and analysis showed that the circular type of Fractal spinneret has better field intensity and distribution compared to spiral type of Fractal spinneret in the nonlinear Fractal electrospinning technology. The electrospinning apparatus with the optimal Von Koch fractal spinneret was set up to verify the theoretical analysis results from Comsol simulation, achieving more uniform electric field distribution and lower energy cost, compared to the current needle and needleless electrospinning technologies.

  10. A Study on Genetic Analysis and Extract Cytotoxicity of Scolopendra subspinipes multilans L. Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sung-Nam

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to investigate nucleotide sequence and extract cytotoxicity of Scolopendrae corpus. The nature and taste of Scolopendrae corpus is hot, Warm and toxic, and the effect of this is dispelling wind, anti-spasmodic action and detoxication so it has been used for C.V.A, facial palsy, sensory disorder at extremities, wounds and arthritis. Methods : Scolopendrae corpus were collected by locality on the market. They were morphologically classified. Their nucleotide sequence was investigated and compared among them. In addition, the water-alcohol extract cytotoxicity of them was studied by MTT-based cytotoxicity assay. Results : It was shown that the each Scolopendrae corpus by locality is almost identical at genetic result and is identified as Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch. Nucleotide sequence of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch in this study will help to discriminate other species of Scolopendrae corpus. The water-alcohol extract of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch did not induce cytotoxicity on Hep G2, L929 cell and peritoneal macrophages. Besides, it did not influence nitrite production of peritoneal macrophages. These results can be used as basic data for genetic discrimination with another species of scolopendrae corpus.

  11. 关于停止使用"同翅目Homoptera" 目名的建议%A proposal to stop using the insect order name "Homoptera"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱萍

    2005-01-01

    长期以来,在我国昆虫学界,"同翅目Homoptera"和半翅目Hemiptera一直被作为2个并列的昆虫目被广泛使用.传统的"同翅目"被分为3亚目10总科,即鞘喙亚目Coleorrhyncha(包括膜翅蝽总科Peloridioidea)、胸喙亚目Sternorrhyncha(包括木虱总科Psylloidea、粉虱总科Aleyrodoidea、蚧总科Coccoidea和蚜总科Aphidoidea)和头喙亚目Auchenorrhyncha[包括蜡蝉子亚目Fulgoromorpha(包括蜡蝉总科Fulgoroidea)和蝉子亚目Cicadomorpha(包括蝉总科Cicadoidea、沫蝉总科Cercopoidea、叶蝉总科Cicadelloidea和角蝉总科Membracoidea)].近年来,形态学及分子学特征数据的支序分析研究表明,木虱总科、粉虱总科、蚧总科、蚜总科、蜡蝉总科、蝉总科、沫蝉总科、角蝉总科都是单系群;鞘喙亚目、胸喙亚目、蝉子亚目及蜡蝉子亚目也都是单系群,其相互之间的系统发育关系为:胸喙亚目+(蝉子亚目+(蜡蝉子亚目+(鞘喙亚目+异翅亚目(蝽类)))),它们共同组成了单系的半翅目Hemiptera.系统发育分析表明,在半翅目中,鞘喙亚目与异翅亚目具有最近的亲缘关系,蜡蝉子亚目与鞘喙亚目+异翅亚目是姊妹群,蝉子亚目是蜡蝉子亚目+(鞘喙亚目+异翅亚目)的姐妹群,胸喙亚目是半翅目中最早和最原始的一个分枝.因此传统的"同翅目"并不是一个自然的单系类群,而是一个人为的并系类群.目前,在国际昆虫学界,"同翅目"作为一个人为的并系类群已得到公认和普遍接受,并已不再作为昆虫纲的一个有效目被使用.然而,"同翅目"作为昆虫纲的一个有效目在国内一直被广泛使用,为此,作者建议我国的昆虫学工作者今后应停止使用"同翅目"这一人为的并系目名而使用单系的半翅目目名,即将长期以来一直置于"同翅目"的木虱、粉虱、蚧虫、蚜虫、蝉、沫蝉、叶蝉、角蝉及蜡蝉类昆虫与蝽类昆虫一起作为半翅目的成员对待.

  12. Morphological and electrophysiological properties of single myocardial cells from Koch triangle of rabbit heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Fu-xian; NIU Xiao-lin; OU Yan; HAN Zhen-hua; LING Feng-dong; ZHOU Shi-sheng; LI Ya-jie

    2006-01-01

    Background The morphological and electrophysiological characteristics of cardiac cells in Koch triangle are still disputed. We studied the appearance and electrical properties of these diverse myocytes to elucidate their complex electrophysiological phenomena.Methods Experiments were conducted using cooled charge coupling device (CCD) system and whole cell,patch clamp technique to determine the morphology, action potential and sodium current density of single viable myocytes enzymatically isolated from the Koch triangle of rabbit hearts.Results Morphologically, cardiac cells in shape of spider, tiny spindle, slender spindle, rod and strip were observed in percentage of 3.0±0.3, 35.0±5.0, 15.0±2.0, 40.0±5.0 and 6.0±0.7 respectively. The cellular dimensions and capacitance gradually increased in the above order (all P<0.05). Electrophysiologically, action potential configurations recorded from them were similar respectively to nodal (N), atrial nodal (AN), nodal Hisian (NH), atrial (A) and Hisian like potentials obtained from the intact atrioventricular nodal preparations.Diastolic depolarization appeared in all myocytes except for rod cells. Sodium current density increased in the order of tiny spindle, strip, rod, slender spindle cell (all P<0.05), but could not be detected in spider-shaped cells.Linear regression analysis revealed that membrane capacitance was correlated negatively to the rate of diastolic depolarization r=-0.70, P<0.001, but positively to maximum depolarization potential, amplitude of action potential, upstroke velocity and maximum peak value of sodium current density r=-0.84, 0.80, 0.87 and 0.75,respectively; all P<0.001.Conclusions The results demonstrated that spider-shaped, spindle, rod and strip cells in Koch triangle might correspond to pacemaking, transitional, atrial and Purkinje like cells, respectively. Furthermore, tiny spindle and slender spindle cells were referred to transitional cell α (TCα) and β (TCβ) accordingly

  13. Dynamical decimation renormalization-group technique: kinetic gaussian model on nonbranching, branching, and multibranching koch curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu; Yang

    2000-06-01

    A generalizing formulation of dynamical real-space renormalization that is appropriate for arbitrary spin systems is suggested. The alternative version replaces single-spin flipping Glauber dynamics with single-spin transition dynamics. As an application, in this paper we mainly investigate the critical slowing down of the Gaussian spin model on three fractal lattices, including nonbranching, branching, and multibranching Koch curves. The dynamical critical exponent z is calculated for these lattices using an exact decimation renormalization transformation in the assumption of the magneticlike perturbation, and a universal result z=1/nu is found.

  14. Phylogenetic position of the yeast-like symbiotes of Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) based on 18S ribosomal DNA partial sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Xet-Mull, Ana M.; Quesada, Tania; Espinoza, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus Muir (Homoptera: Delphacidae), the endemic delphacid species of tropical America carries yeast-like symbiotes (YLS) in the abdominal fat bodies and the ovarial tissues, like other rice planthoppers of Asia. These YLS are obligate symbiotes, which are transmitted transovarially, and maintain a mutualistic relationship with the insect host. This characteristic has made in vitro culture and classification of YLS rather difficult using conventional methods. Nevertheless, micr...

  15. Description of a new species of Oligosita Walker (Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoid of Balclutha brevis Lindberg (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) living on Pennisetum setaceum, from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Salvatore; Cupani, Sebastiano; D'urso, Vera; Laudonia, Stefania; Sinno, Martina; Viggiani, Gennaro

    2015-11-06

    A new species of Oligosita Walker (Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae), O. balcluthae Viggiani et Laudonia n. sp., is described as a parasitoid of the eggs of Balclutha brevis Lindberg (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) associated with crimson fountain grass, Pennisetum setaceum (Poaceae) in Italy. Morphological features and biology of the new species are discussed and illustrated. The 28S-D2 and ITS2 regions were successfully amplified and sequenced.

  16. ASSOCIATIONS OF MOLINIETALIA KOCH 1926 (MOLINIO-ARRHENATHERETEA R. Tx. 1937 IDENTIFIED IN NEAGRA BROSTENILOR BASIN (EASTERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARDARI CONSTANTIN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents eight vegetal communities (Junco-Molinietum coeruleae Preising in R. Tx. et Preising ex Klapp 1954, Calthetum laetae Krajina 1933, Scirpetum sylvatici Ralski 1931, Epilobio-Juncetum effusi Oberd. 1957, Cirsietum rivularis Nowinski 1928, Angelico-Cirsietum oleracei R. Tx. 1937, Filipendulo-Geranietum palustris W. Koch 1926, Deschampsietum caespitosae Hayek ex Horvatic 1930 from Molinietalia Koch 1926 (Molinio-Arrhenatheretea R. Tx. 1937 identified in Neagra Brostenilor hydrographic basin. These are analyzed from the chorology, floristic and phytosociological composition, bio-forms, floristic elements and ecological requests perspectives.

  17. Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify; Fatma S Ali; Turky AF

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. Methods: Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. Results: The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase, esterase (α-esterase and α-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are α-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-α-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%),p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). Conclusions: It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T.urticae.

  18. Acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini L. Skeels (Pomposia) against Tetranychus urticae Koch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Sayed A Fayed; Emad A Shalaby

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini (S.cumini) (Pomposia) againsst Tetranychus urticae Koch (T. urticae) and the biochemical changes in antioxidants enzymes. Methods: Six extracts of S. cumini (Pomposia) at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300μg/mL were used to control T. urticae (Koch). Results: The ethanol extract showed the most efficient acaricidal activity agent against T. urticae (98.5%) followed by hexane extract (94.0%), ether and ethyl acetate extract (90.0%). The LC50 values of the promising extract were 85.0, 101.0, 102.0 and 98.0μg/mL, respectively. The activities of enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in susceptible mites were increased. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes reach the maximum value in mites at LC50 with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. Conclusions: The extract of S. cumini has acaricidal acivity against T. urticae, and the ethanol extract is the most efficient.

  19. Impact of degree heterogeneity on the behavior of trapping in Koch networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongzhi; Gao, Shuyang; Xie, Wenlei

    2010-12-01

    Previous work shows that the mean first-passage time (MFPT) for random walks to a given hub node (node with maximum degree) in uncorrelated random scale-free networks is closely related to the exponent γ of power-law degree distribution P(k )˜k-γ, which describes the extent of heterogeneity of scale-free network structure. However, extensive empirical research indicates that real networked systems also display ubiquitous degree correlations. In this paper, we address the trapping issue on the Koch networks, which is a special random walk with one trap fixed at a hub node. The Koch networks are power-law with the characteristic exponent γ in the range between 2 and 3, they are either assortative or disassortative. We calculate exactly the MFPT that is the average of first-passage time from all other nodes to the trap. The obtained explicit solution shows that in large networks the MFPT varies lineally with node number N, which is obviously independent of γ and is sharp contrast to the scaling behavior of MFPT observed for uncorrelated random scale-free networks, where γ influences qualitatively the MFPT of trapping problem.

  20. The Development of a High School Poetry Writing Program from Selected Writings of Erik Erikson, Kenneth Koch, and Theodore Roethke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Albert Luck, Jr.

    In this study, a program for teaching poetry writing in secondary schools is derived from Kenneth Koch's and Theodore Roethke's ideas, and from Erik Erikson's model of adolescent human processes. A review of related literature defines three major approaches to the teaching of poetry writing: models, activities, and models and activities combined.…

  1. EN EL CENTENARIO DEL DESCUBRIMIENTO DEL MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS POR ROBERTO KOCH. 24 DE MARZO DE 1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rueda Pérez

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Hace exactamente 100 años, señores académicos, Roberto Koch presentó en concisa, lacónica y podríamos decir perfecta comunicación, a la Sociedad de Fisiología de Berlín, la demostración de que la TBC tenía como causa única la proliferación en el organismo vivo, del germen denominado por él Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.

    Esta comunicación que hoy conmemoramos, cambió el curso de la microbiología, y sentó las bases para el desarrollo posterior del tratamiento etiológico de las enfermedades infecciosas. Años más tarde, Koch recibiría el máximo galardón otorgado por Nobel a los grandes benefactores de la humanidad, por este descubrimiento. Sería glorificado por sus
    contemporáneos y por quienes posteriormente hemos tenido el privilegio de ejercer la medicina en el mundo civilizado, así como por quienes padecieron y padecen aún el terrible mal, al ver cercana su curación gracias a los descubrimientos recientes que han permitido derrotar al más temible enemigo de la patología humana: el Bacilo puesto en evidencia
    por este retraído sabio alemán.

    Pero no todo fue gloria y renombre en la vida de Roberto Koch. Vale la pena rememorar a grandes rasgos en este Centenario y ante esta Academia de Medicina Colombiana, algunos de los hechos sobresalientes de la vida de este hombre excepcional, que le dio luz en su época y le sigue dando a la ciencia en general, y que sentó premisas que siguen vigentes en nuestros días a través del postulado que lleva su nombre, ineludibles para quienes quieren demostrar científicamente hechos bacteriológicos.

    Nace el 11 de diciembre de 1843 en la pequeña población de Klausthal en Hanover, y allí transcurre su primera juventud provinciana y sencilla para luego viajar a Gotinga, en cuya universidad estudia medicina, destacándose siempre por su dedicación y método en las asignaturas, recibiendo su doctorado en 1886, a los 23 años, bajo la tutela del Profesor

  2. Compositional changes of Australia-grown Western Schley pecans [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singanusong, Riantong; Mason, Richard L; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Nottingham, Stephen M

    2003-01-15

    Changes in composition during the maturation of Western Schley pecans [Carya illinoinensis(Wangenh.) K. Koch] grown in Australia were investigated. Pecans of different maturity levels were collected at monthly intervals between March and June in 1999 and 2000 and analyzed for the concentrations of moisture, total lipid, sucrose, raffinose, protein, and the minerals aluminum, boron, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc. Moisture, total lipid, and calcium contents changed significantly (p < 0.05) with harvest time and maturity, whereas the other components did not. Western Schley pecans grown in Australia should be harvested after the shuck has opened and it is either green or brown in color to maximize total lipid content and quality. This occurred after May 11 in 1999 and after May 17 in 2000.

  3. Sigmund Freud and the Crick-Koch hypothesis. A footnote to the history of consciousness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D L

    1999-06-01

    The author describes Crick and Koch's recently developed theory of the neurophysiological basis of consciousness as synchronised neural oscillations. The thesis that neural oscillations provide the neurophysiological basis for consciousness was anticipated by Sigmund Freud in his 1895 'Project for a scientific psychology'. Freud attempted to solve his neuropsychological 'problem of quality' by means of the hypothesis that information concerning conscious sensory qualities is transmitted through the mental apparatus by means of neural 'periods'. Freud believed that information carried by neural oscillations would proliferate across 'contact-barriers' (synapses) without inhibition. Freud's theory thus appears to imply that synchronised neural oscillations are an important component of the neurophysiological basis of consciousness. It is possible that Freud's thesis was developed in response to the experimental research of the American neuroscientist M. M. Garver.

  4. HUBUNGAN KUTU DOMPOLAN DYSMICOCCUS BREVIPES (CKLL. (HOMOPTERA : PSEUDOCOCCIDAE DAN SEMUT API SOLENOPSIS SP. (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE PADA DUA CARA BERTANAM NENAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosma Hasibuan .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Association of mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Ckll. (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae and fire ant, Solenopsis sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae on two pineapple–planting patterns.  A pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus  brevipes (Ckll.  (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae is an important insect pest in major pineapple growing areas.  Its feeding activity causes damage on the pineapple plants and it can also transmit pineapple wilt virus.  The mealybugs are often found in association with fire ants, Solenopsis sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae that provide protection in exchange for the sweet honeydew liquid. The field study was conducted to determine the close association between  mealybugs and fire ants on  two plant row spacing (single and double row spacing four different plant stages (3, 7, 11, and 17 months after planting. The  results indicated  that there was a significant correlation between the mealybugs and the fire ant on two pineapple-planting patterns, particularly on late growth periods (11, and 17 months after planting. In this field study, population of mealybugs on double row spacing were more abundant  (ranging from 0 to 25.67 bugs/plant compared with that on single row spacing which ranged 0 to 3.67 bugs/plant. Moreover, general mean of population density of mealybugs (14.53 bugs/plant on double row was significantly higher  than that on single row spacing (1.83 bugs/plant. In  line with this mealybug-population development, mean numbers of fire ants caught on baited-sticky traps were ranged from 0 to 8.53 ants/trap on single row versus 0 to 23.57 ants/trap on double row spacing pattern. The general mean number of captured ants (12.73 ants/trap on double row was significantly higher compared with that on single row spacing (5.55 ants/trap. It appears that the patterns of population densities of mealybugs are closely related to that of fire ants that act as attendant species on two pineapple row spacing.

  5. A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae from Ethiopia, with a discussion on the biodiversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pesic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari, Hydrachnidia is described from Ethiopia. The world number of Atractides now tallies 297 species. The diversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region is briefly discussed.

  6. A cladistically based reinterpretation of the taxonomy of two Afrotropical tenebrionid genera Ectateus Koch, 1956 and Selinus Mulsant & Rey, 1853 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Platynotina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Marcin Jan

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of a newly performed cladistic analysis a new classification of the representatives of two Afrotropical tenebrionid genera, Ectateus Koch, 1956 and Selinus Mulsant & Rey, 1853 sensu Iwan 2002a, is provided. Eleoselinus is described as a new genus. The genus Monodius, previously synonymized with Selinus by Iwan (2002), is redescribed and considered as a separate genus. Following new combinations are proposed: Ectateus calcaripes (Gebien, 1904), Monodius laevistriatus (Fairmaire, 1897), Monodius lamottei (Gridelli, 1954), Monodius plicicollis (Fairmaire, 1897), Eleoselinus villiersi (Ardoin, 1965) and Eleoselinus ursynowiensis (Kamiński, 2011). Neotype for Ectateus calcaripes and lectotypes for E. crenatus (Fairmaire, 1897), E. ghesquierei Koch, 1956 and Monodius malaisei malaisei Koch, 1956 are designated to fix the taxonomic status of these taxa. The following synonymies are proposed: Selinus monardi Kaszab, 1951 and Ectateus latipennis Koch, 1956 with E. crenatus (Fairmaire, 1897). Identification keys are provided to all known species of Ectateus sensu novum, Eleoselinus, Monodius and Selinus sensu novum.

  7. Genetics, realized heritability and preliminary mechanism of spinosad resistance in Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): an invasive pest from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2015-12-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) has gained recognition as a key pest due to its invasive nature throughout the world. The P. solenopsis has a wide range of host plants and damages the cotton crop in various parts of the world. In view of the economic importance of this pest, a study on selection, inheritance and mechanism of spinosad resistance was conducted on P. solenopsis. Selection of field collected P. solenopsis for seven generations with spinosad resulted in a high resistance ratio of 282.45-fold. Genetic studies of spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis indicated that maternal effects are not involved in spinosad resistance; and resistance development is an autosomal and incompletely dominant trait. The number of genes involved in spinosad resistance was determined to be more than one, suggesting that resistance is controlled by multiple loci. The realized heritability (h (2)) value for spinosad resistance was 0.94. Synergism bioassays of spinosad with piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate showed that spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis could be due to esterase only. The study provides the basic information for implementation of effective resistance management strategies to control P. solenopsis.

  8. Characterization of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate: Cross-Resistance Patterns and Fitness Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, M B S; Shad, S A

    2016-06-01

    Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis.

  9. Inheritance, realized heritability and biochemical mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2015-07-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a serious pest in many countries of the world because of its polyphagous nature and has caused huge losses to the cotton crop. The aim of present study was to explore the mode of inheritance and mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in P. solenopsis. After five rounds of selection with acetamiprid, P. solenopsis developed a 315-fold resistance compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The LC50 values of progenies of both reciprocal crosses (F1 and F1') showed no significant difference and degree of dominance values were 0.56 and 0.93 for F1 and F1', respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance and Lande's method revealed that more than one factors were involved in acetamiprid resistance. Realized heritability (h(2)) value was 0.58 for acetamiprid resistance. A synergism study of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) with acetamiprid also showed the significant presence of P-450 mono-oxygenase and esterase in the acetamiprid resistance. Hence, acetamiprid resistance in the P. solenopsis was autosomal, incompletely dominant and polygenic. These results are a source of basic information to design and plan fruitful management programmes to control P. solenopsis.

  10. Influences of Soil Fertility on Spatial Patterns of Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae Occurred in Bt-cotton Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Tan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread planting of bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-cotton, non-target piercing-sucking insects such as Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae have become the main hazard of cotton. Fertilization influences the distribution and population dynamics of aphid seriously. In this study, the effects of Nitrogen (N and Phosphorus (P on aphid population density were investigated on Bt-cotton; the combinational impacts of nitrogen and potassium (K fertilizers on the distribution of aphid were examined as to guide rational fertilization to reduce pests and environmental pollution. Aphid density in cotton plants fertilized with 72 kg/ha N (84.2±22.7 aphids/plant was significantly higher than fertilized with 0 and 108 kg/ha N (36.7±4.0 and 47.8±18.7 aphids/plant. Compared to cotton plants treated with 23 and 69 kg/ha P, aphid density was higher (61.67±21.08 aphids/plant in cotton plants treated with 46 kg/ha P. Comparison of spatial distribution of aphid population showed that aphid preferred to suck the sap of bottom fruit branches in cotton plants treated by single K fertilizer and combinational fertilizers of N and K. Thus, these results suggested that proper application of fertilizers should be beneficial to controlling phytophagous insects in Bt-cotton production.

  11. Influence of yield on in vitro accumulation of aflatoxins in pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) nutmeats.

    OpenAIRE

    McMeans, J L

    1983-01-01

    Pecans were harvested from trees (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) in November of 1977 through 1979. Kernel meals from high-, medium-, and low-yielding trees were inoculated with a spore suspension of Aspergillus parasiticus and incubated for 7 days at 25 degrees C. Significant differences in aflatoxin accumulation were found among the three substrates, with a direct correlation between high aflatoxin concentration and tree yield.

  12. Influence of yield on in vitro accumulation of aflatoxins in pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) nutmeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeans, J L

    1983-02-01

    Pecans were harvested from trees (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) in November of 1977 through 1979. Kernel meals from high-, medium-, and low-yielding trees were inoculated with a spore suspension of Aspergillus parasiticus and incubated for 7 days at 25 degrees C. Significant differences in aflatoxin accumulation were found among the three substrates, with a direct correlation between high aflatoxin concentration and tree yield.

  13. Emma Kleè Koch and children's art exhibitions: rituals colored by modern education (1949-1952)

    OpenAIRE

    Osinski, Dulce Regina Baggio; Universidade Federal do Paraná - UFPR; Simão, Giovana; Faculdade de Artes do Paraná

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses children's art exhibitions organized by thePolish educator and artist Emma Kleè Koch (1904-1975), wholived in Curitiba, Brazil. These exhibitions were held as part of theactions by the Arts Education Department of the Education andCulture Secretariat of Paraná State (1949-1952), under theadministration of Erasmo Pilotto, an intellectual and educator whoidentified with the ideals of the New School trends. Using officialdocuments, exhibition signature lists, government pro...

  14. Voyage of discovery? A comment on Koch et al. "A voyage to Terra Australis: human-mediated dispersal of cats".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rose L; Smith, Deane; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Janes, Jasmine K

    2016-12-07

    The origins of feral cats in Australia may be understood with the help of molecular studies, but it is important that hypotheses be tested with appropriate sampling and methodology. We point out several shortcomings in the analysis by Koch et al. (BMC Evol Biol 15:262, 2015; A voyage to Terra Australis: human-mediated dispersal of cats. Dryad Digital Repository, 2015), present a reanalysis of part of the study and discuss the challenges of elucidating the early history of feral cats.

  15. Ester Tuiksoo: Tuvi tänava korter võlus oma hea asukohaga / Ester Tuiksoo ; interv. Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 11. okt. 2007, lk. 3. Parlamendiliige vastab küsimustele Tullio Liblikult üüritava korteri kohta. Vt. samas: Risto Berendson, Tuuli Koch. Maadevahetuses kahtlustatav üürib Tuiksoole odavalt korterit; Risto Berendsoni intervjuu Tullio Liblikuga: Tullio Liblik: eelistasin Estrit üürnikuna vana tutvuse pärast. Lisa: Tullio Liblik; Rahvaliit kutsub Villu Reiljani kapo-komisjonist tagasi

  16. Sulfate resistance evaluation of the cement with fly ash (using the Koch & Steinegger method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irassar, Edgardo F.

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase of active mineral admixtures consumption in contemporaneous cementiceous materials has stablished revision of some test methods. In the evaluation of blended cement durability, many accelerated tests of large application in portland cements become unvalid, because they don't allow to value the improvements produced by pozzolan materials. Koch-Steinegger Method appears as the most appropiate to evaluate sulfate resistance of cement with active mineral admixtures. In this paper are presented the results obtained with this test in the evaluation of an ordinary portland cement (CPN and one resisting sulfates (CPARS, with low calcium fly ash addition. Fly ash is incorporated with three fineness (280, 420 and 480 m2/Kg Blaine. The results show that this addition improves sulfate resistance of CPN and in minor way of ARS cement. Fly ash influences evolution of mechanical strength in water and chemical resistance at first ages.

    El aumento del consumo de las adiciones minerales activas en los materiales cementíceos contemporáneos ha determinado la revisión de algunos métodos de ensayo utilizados para determinar sus propiedades. En la evaluación de la durabilidad de los cementos compuestos, muchos ensayos de corta duración (de gran aplicación en cementos portland dejan de tener validez, pues no permiten evaluar las mejoras que producen los materiales puzolánicos. El método propuesto por KOCH & STEINEGGER (1960 aparece como uno de los más apropiados para determinar el comportamiento de cementos con adiciones minerales activas frente al ataque de sulfatos. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados alcanzados con ente ensayo en la determinación del comportamiento de un cemento portland normal (CRN y uno resistente a los sulfatos (CPARS, adicionados con ceniza volante de bajo contenido en óxido de calcio. La ceniza se incorpora con tres finuras (280, 420 y 480 m2/kg —Blaine—. Estos

  17. Antioxidant Properties of Pecan Nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] Shell Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fett, Roseane

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional composition of Pecan nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] shells and the total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of Pecan nut shell infusion were determined and the antioxidant activity of the infusion was evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. The shell presented high fiber content (48% ± 0.06, the total phenolic content ranged from 116 to 167 mg GAE/g and the condensed tannin content was between 35 and 48 mg CE/g. The antioxidant activity varied from 1112 and 1763 μmol TEAC/g in the ABTS system. In the DPPH method, the antioxidant activity was from 305 to 488 mg TEAC/g (30 minutes reaction and from 482 to 683 mg TEAC/g (24 h reaction. The oxidation inhibition percentage obtained in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system varied from 70 to 96%. The results indicated the high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pecan nut shell infusion.La composición nutricional de la cáscara de nuez Pecana [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] y los contenidos de fenoles totales y de taninos condensados de la infusión de la cáscara de nuez Pecana se determinaron en este trabajo. La actividad antioxidante de la infusión se evaluó a través de los sistemas ABTS, DPPH y β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. La cáscara presentó un contenido elevado de fibras (48% ± 0,06, el contenido de fenoles totales varió de 116 a 167 mg GAE/g y el de taninos condensados se encontró entre 35 y 48 mg CE/g. La actividad antioxidante varió entre 1112 y 1763 μmol TEAC/g en el sistema ABTS. Por el método DPPH, la actividad antioxidante fue de 305 a 488 mg TEAC/g (30 minutos de reacción y de 482 a 683 mg TEAC/g (24 h de reacción. El porcentaje de inhibición de la oxidación que se obtuvo en el sistema β -caroteno/ácido linoleico varió de 70 a 96%. Los resultados indicaron un elevado contenido de fenoles y una elevada actividad antioxidante para la infusión de la cáscara de nuez Pecana.

  18. Koch曲线上的齐次Riemann边值问题%Homogeneous Riemann Boundary Value Problems for Koch Curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮正顺; 罗艾花

    2012-01-01

    当L为典型的分形曲线-Koch曲线时,提出了Riemann边值问题,但在一般情况下,在Koch曲线上所做的Cauchy型积分无意义.当对已知函数G(z),g(z)增加一定的解析条件,同时利用一列Cauchy型积分的极限函数,对定义在Koch曲线上的齐次Riemann边值问题进行了讨论,并得到与经典解析函数边值问题相类似的结果.%In this paper, when Lis substituted for Koch curve, Riemann boundary value problems was defined, but generally speaking, Cauchy-type integral is meaningless on Koch curve. When some analytic conditions are attached to functions G(z)and g(z), through the limit function of a sequence of Cauchy-type integrals, the homogeneous Riemann boundary problems on Koch curve are introduced, some similar results was attained with the classical boundary value problems for analytic functions.

  19. Microscopical, macroscopical and chemical investigations and their uses in chemotaxonomy of Crataegus pontica C. Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Ghassemi Dehkordi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Crataegus genus is widely distributed in Iran. This genus belongs to Rosaceae family and has 17 species in Iran one of which is Crataegus pontica C. Koch. In this paper, we analyzed some microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of this plant, then compared them with other features that were presented previously in previous reports. We analyzed all components in C. pontica, using thin layer chromatography method and then specified the type of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid in C. pontica. Hyproside, rutin and chlorogenic acid were the main flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic occurred acid in this plant. Also, we analyzed its flavonoids quantitatively based on Deutsch Pharmacopoeia method according to hyproside content. Because, to determine the chemosystematic relevancies in some species flavonoids are used, so in this paper we compared C. pontica with 3 other species of its genus such as C. monogyna, C. melanocarpa and C. curvisepala that are found in Iran, and also with the medicinal standard species of Crataegus genus which is called C. oxyacantha. Finally we concluded that hyproside, rutin and chlorogenic acid were the main and common structural components in all species of that genus which were mentioned above.

  20. Pecan (Carya illinoinensis/Wangenh./K. Koch: A new species of the Allochthonous dendroflora in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobinac Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the alien species Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, carya-pecan, (Juglandaceae A. Richard ex Kunth that has not been mentioned so far in the dendroflora of Serbia. One tree was recorded within the first Serbian sugar factory in Čukarica that is now a protected cultural property in the City of Belgrade. The tree is about 35 years old and about 20 m high. The length of the trunk without branches is 6.0 m and the diameter at breast height is 57 cm. Carya-pecan is a native species of the southeastern part of North America, and is grown in Europe for edible fruits and quality wood. The recorded tree in Belgrade is fruitful and characterized by good vitality and rapid growth. Due to its special characteristics, it can have multiple practical application in the territory of Serbia for decoration in urban areas, for forest plantations and in orchards. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  1. Gamma irradiation used on adult Tetranychus urticae Koch as a quarantine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osouli Shiva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gamma radiation with 0, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 Gy intensities on the longevity, total number of eggs, and the percent of hatched eggs laid by irradiated females of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae was evaluated. Two different groups (0–24 h old and 48–72 h old of adult females were irradiated. The results showed that 350 and 300 Gy doses significantly reduced the longevity of the 0–24 h old females and the 48–72 h old females. The younger females were more tolerant at lower dose rates than the older females. There was a quadratic relationship between dose rates and young females, while it was linear in older females. The total number of eggs laid by females of both ages was significantly reduced with a linear trend by 250 Gy irradiation. The eggs laid by females of both the 0–24 h olds and the 48–72 h olds lost their hatchability when the dose rate was 350 Gy. It was concluded, that applying a dose rate of 320 Gy on one of the mates (male or female before mating, or a 300 Gy on both of them, would be sufficient to cause sterility in adult mites.

  2. Toxicity of spiromesifen and natural acaricides to Tetranychus urticae koch and compatibility with Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vargas de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, is one important pest of cotton crop due to reductions in cotton yield and fiber quality. Thus, this work evaluated the toxicity of the synthetic acaricide spiromesifen and natural products on T. urticae and the compatibility with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Spiromesifen and the natural products Azadirachtin A/B, Azadirachtin 1%, Jatropha curcas L. and Ricinus communis L. oils were used at different concentrations; the leaf dipping method was employed. The mortality of T. urticae females and eggs was evaluated 48 and 96 h after treatment to calculate the lethal concentrations. The effect on P. macropilis was studied using the LC50s obtained to T. urticae. All acaricides tested were effective in controlling females and eggs of T. urticae. However, according to the LC50s and LC90s calculated, spiromesifen was the most toxic acaricide to females and J. curcas oil presented the higher toxicity to eggs. Spiromesifen, J. curcas oil and Azadiractina 1% caused side effects on P. macropilis. However, only espiromesifeno was classified as harmful to the predator, whereas Azadirachtin A/B and R. communis oil were slightly harmful. R. communis and Azadirachtin A/B were effective in controlling the two-spotted spider mite and promising for the management of this pest in cotton considering their low toxicity to the predator.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in two morphological root types of Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, P; Fontenla, S B

    2010-01-01

    Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch is a conifer distributed in the Andean-Patagonian forests in the south of Argentina and Chile. The main objective of this work was to relate the different root classes appearing in A. araucana to mycorrhizal behavior. Samples were collected in three different sites in the Lanín National Park (NW Patagonia, Argentina). Two different root classes were present in A. araucana: longitudinal fine roots (LFR) and globular short roots (GSR). Both had extensive mycorrhizal arbuscular symbiosis (AM) and presented abundant hyphae and coils in root cells, a characteristic of the anatomical Paris-type. Dark septate fungal endophytes were also observed. Values of total AM colonization were high, with similar partial AM% values for each root class. Seasonal differences were found for total and partial colonization, with higher values in spring compared to autumn. Regarding the percentage of fungal structures between root classes, values were similar for vesicles and arbuscules, but higher coil percentages were observed in GSR compared to LFR. The percentages of vesicles increased in autumn, whereas the arbuscule percentages increased in spring, coinciding with the plant growth peak. Results show that both root classes of A. araucana in Andean-Patagonian forests are associated with AM fungi, which may have ecological relevance in terms of the importance of this symbiosis, in response to soil nutrient-deficiencies, especially high P-retention.

  4. Antioxidant Properties of Pecan Nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] Shell Infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro do Prado, A. C.; Monalise Aragao, A.; Fett, R.; Block, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The nutritional composition of Pecan nut [Ca rya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] shells and the total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of Pecan nut shell infusion were determined and the antioxidant activity of the infusion was evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and {beta}-carotene/linoleic acid systems. The shell presented high fiber content (48% {+-} 0.06), the total phenolic content ranged from 116 to 167 mg GAE/g and the condensed tannin content was between 35 and 48 mg CE/g. The antioxidant activity varied from 1112 and 1763 {mu}mol TEAC/g in the ABTS system. In the DPPH method, the antioxidant activity was from 305 to 488 mg TEAC/g (30 minutes reaction) and from 482 to 683 mg TEAC/g (24 h reaction). The oxidation inhibition percentage obtained in the {beta}-carotene/linoleic acid system varied from 70 to 96%. The results indicated the high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pecan nut shell infusion. (Author) 28 refs.

  5. Studies on Paederus alfierii Koch (Coleoptera:Staphylinidae) with special reference to the medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Arafa, M A; Younis, T A; Mahmoud, I A

    1996-08-01

    In Egypt, the rove beetle; Paederus alfierii Koch, is an active predator of several insects pests attacking a wide variety of cultivated plants as maize, cotton, clover ... etc. On the other hand, members of genus Paederus contain pederin (potent toxin) which in contact with human skin causes a necrotizing lesion (dermatitis linearis) and with the eye causes conjunctivitis. After the sudden flood of the year 1994, this beetle attacked a factory and about forty factors suffered a form of contact dermatitis and conjunctivitis. The majority of such factors needed hospitalization. To fill the gap in the knowledge of medical importance on such a predator, the present investigation was aimed. The aqueous extract from twenty wild collected adults (0.0101 gm) was tested on different groups of albino mice. No cutaneous reaction was seen macroscopically. On the other hand, another group of mice (3/4) showed mild conjunctival congestion faded on the next day. However, these experimental findings do not indicate the innocence of this rove-beetle from being harmful to man. The discussion was given on the light of work done abroad.

  6. [Historical development of tuberculosis since Robert Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus in 1882].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J F

    2007-12-01

    Robert Koch's single-handed discovery of M. tuberculosis, one of the most gigantic scientific accomplishments of all times, provided the necessary foundation for subsequent investigative breakthroughs that have made it possible for experts to begin to contemplate the ultimate eradication of TB: the dreaded pestilence that for centuries was the greatest cause of death in the world. Further important milestones in the fight against TB were the discovery of X-rays, the development of BCG vaccination, the introduction of chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis, and deciphering the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. First of all, though, we must find a way to deal with the recent resurgence of the disease in the poor countries of sub-Saharan Africa, which is being fueled by another scourge, HIV/AIDS. And there is also the global problem of worsening anti-TB drug resistance. Eradication is conceivable and a worthy goal, but, I suspect, we will need to wait for another one or two additional "milestones" to help us along before the long-awaited nirvana can finally occur.

  7. Occurrence of Two-Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch on Potentilla fruticosa Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szafranek Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Potentilla fruticosa L. (Rosaceae Juss. is one of the most popular deciduous shrubs cultivated in Poland. Among pests identified so far on P. fruticosa, a serious threat is caused by two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae. During three-year study, the occurrence of two-spotted spider mite T. urticae on four cultivars of P. fruticosa: ‘Goldfinger’, ‘McKay’s White’, ‘Uman’ and ‘Pink Beauty’ grown in field conditions was compared. While conducting experiment, weather conditions were monitored. The number of eggs and motile forms of two-spotted spider mite were recorded separately. The most attractive cultivar to spider mite was ‘Goldfinger’. The largest amount of motile forms of mites and their eggs were found on the leaves of this cultivar in all three years of study. The least number of pests occurred on the cv. ‘Pink Beauty’. However, differences in the abundance of this pest on all studied cultivars were variable during the growing seasons.

  8. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Souza-Pimentel

    Full Text Available Abstract Predatory mites that belong to the Phytoseiidae family are one of the main natural enemies of phytophagous mites, thus allowing for their use as a biological control. Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 (Acari: Phytoseiidae is among the main species of predatory mites used for this purpose. Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value. The objective of the present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the reproductive parameters of the predatory mite P. macropilis when fed T. urticae. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 2 °C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. In addition, biological aspects were evaluated and a fertility life table was established. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the longevity of adult female was 27.5 days and adult male was 29.0 days. The population was estimated to increase approximately 27 times (Ro in mean generation time (T, which was 17.7 days. Lastly, the mite population grew 1.2 times/day (λ and doubled every 3.7 days (TD.

  9. PATOGENICIDADE DE BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS. VUILL. AO ÁCARO Tetranychus urticae KOCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamai Marco Antonio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae Koch foi desenvolvido a 25 ± 2°C, 70 ± 5% UR e 12 horas de fotofase, utilizando-se fêmeas recém-emergidas. Os ácaros foram mantidos durante seis dias em discos de folha de Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC. inoculadas com B. bassiana, isolado 447, nas concentrações: 5x106, 1x107, 5x107, 1x108, 5x108 e 1x109 conídios/ml. Este isolado mostrou-se patogênico a T. urticae, apresentando aumento nos valores das mortalidades acumuladas (total, corrigida e confirmada à medida que a suspensão de conídios se tornou mais concentrada. Nas seis concentrações testadas, os valores de mortalidade corrigida ao sexto dia, foram inferiores a 50%, sendo observada apenas na concentração de 1x109 conídios/ml, mortalidade total superior a 50%.

  10. Aspectos biológicos de Coccidophilus citricola (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae sobre Aspidiotus nerii e Chrysomphalus aonidum (Homoptera, Diaspididae Biological studies of Coccidophilus citricola (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae on Aspidiotus nerii and Chrysomphalus aonidum (Homoptera, Diaspididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cesar dos Santos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos biológicos de Coccidophilus citricola Brèthes (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae foram estudados sobre Chrysomphalus aonidum Linnaeus e Aspidiotus nerii Bouchè (Homoptera, Diaspididae criadas sobre abóbora. Observou-se a duraç��o (dias do período de ovo, dos quatro ínstares, pré-pupa, pupa, longevidade de adultos e a proporção machos: fêmeas de C. citricola. Determinou-se também verificar a eficiência de predação de adultos de C. citricola sobre A. nerii. C. aonidum e A. nerii são presas adequadas para C. citricola, com desenvolvimento semelhante do coccinelídeo sobre essas cochonilhas; o período de incubação do ovo foi de 7,9 e 8,1 dias com A. nerii e C. aonidum; a duração (dias de cada ínstar larval de C. citricola sobre A. nerii e C. aonidum foram respectivamente de: (I 2,7 e 2,9; (II 3,1 e 3,3; (III 3,0 e 3,3 e (IV 3,2 e 3,1 dias. A duração das fases de pré-pupa e pupa foi de 2,5 e 4,5 dias sobre A. nerii e 2,8 e 4,8 dias sobre C. aonidum e a viabilidade de ovo a adulto foi de 63,2% e 62,7% respectivamente para indivíduos criados sobre essas presas. A longevidade de adultos de C. citricola foi de 57,0 dias com A. nerii e de 62,0 dias com C. aonidum. A proporção macho: fêmea foi de 0,82:1,00. O consumo diário de C. citricola foi de 1,15 adultos ou 2,35 ninfas de 2o ínstar ou 3,16 ninfas de 1o ínstar de A. nerii por dia.Laboratory trials were carried out to study biological aspects of Coccidophilus citricola Brèthes (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae on Chrysomphalus aonidum Linnaeus and Aspidiotus nerii Bouché (Homoptera: Diaspididae. The scales were reared on squashes and then served as food source to the predator. The period of egg, larvae (four ínstars, pre-pupae, pupae, adults’ longevity and male: female ratio was observed. Predatory efficacy of C. citricola on A. nerii was also determined. The period of egg was 7.9 and 8.1 days on A. nerii and C. aonidum. The development (days of different stages of C

  11. Factors affecting herbivory of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae on the eggplant (Solanum melongena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of total rainfall, mean temperature, natural enemies, chemical composition of leaves, levels of nitrogen and potassium on leaves and density of leaf trichomes on attack intensity of Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae on plantations of the eggplant (Solanum melongena in two regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Higher numbers of A. gossypii/leaf and T. palmi/leaf were observed in plantations of this eggplant in the Municipalities of Viçosa and Guidoval, respectively. Guidoval had a rainy and hotter weather than Viçosa. T. palmi was almost positivelly correlated with rainfall (r= 0.49, P= 0.0538 while A. gossypii seemed to be more affected by mean temperature (r= -0.31; P= 0.1134. Higher number of aphids in eggplants in Viçosa than in Guidoval could be explained by the higher number of natural enemies such as Adialytus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Cycloneda sanguinea (L. and Exochomus bimaculosus Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and Chrysoperla spp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in this municipality. However, only Adialytus spp. was significativelly correlated with aphid populations. Higher number of T. palmi in eggplant plantations of Guidoval than in Viçosa could be due to the absence of its possible Eulophidae parasitoid in the first municipality. The spiders were significativelly correlated with this pest in both municipalities.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de pluviosidade total, temperatura média, inimigos naturais, composição química foliar, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio foliar e densidade de tricomas na intensidade de ataque de Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae e Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae em plantações de berinjela (Solanum melongena em dois municípios de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Observou-se maiores números de A. gossypii e T. palmi por folha em plantações de berinjela nos

  12. Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENY HERNAWATI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hernawati H, Wiyono S, Santoso S (2011 Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae. Biodiversitas 12: 187-191. The objectives of the research were to study the diversity of leaf endophytic fungi of chili, and investigate its potency in protecting host plants against Aphis gossypii Glov. Endophytic fungi were isolated from chili leaves with two categories: aphid infested plants and aphid-free plants, collected from farmer’s field in Bogor, West Java. Abundance of each fungal species from leave samples was determined by calculating frequency of isolation. The isolated fungi were tested on population growth of A. gossypii. The fungal isolates showed suppressing effect in population growth test, was further tested on biology attributes i.e. life cycle, fecundity and body length. Five species of leaf endophytic fungi of chili were found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp., and SH1 (sterile hypha 1, SH2 (sterile hypha 2. Eventhough the number of endophytic fungi species in aphid-free and aphid-infested plant was same, the abundance of each species was different. Nigrospora sp., sterile hyphae 1 and sterile hyphae 2 was more abundant in aphid-free plants, but there was no difference in dominance of Aspergillus flavus and Coniothyrium sp. Nigrospora sp., SH1 and SH2 treatment reduced significantly fecundity of A. gossypii. Only SH2 treatment significantly prolonged life cycle and suppress body length, therefore the fungus had the strongest suppressing effect on population growth among fungi tested. The abundance and dominance of endophytic fungal species has relation with the infestation of A. gossypii in the field.

  13. Ocorrência de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (homoptera: margarodidae) em videira no município de Louveira, Estado de São Paulo Occurrence of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (homoptera: margarodidae) on grape at Louveira, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Lourenção; Fernando Picarelli Martins; Luiz Carlos Mollo Alarcon

    1989-01-01

    Em 1986, em inspeção em vinhedos no município de Louveira, SP, foi observado definhamento acentuado de plantas em uma quadra de uma propriedade no Bairro de Abadia. Plantas do mesmo vinhedo, mas de outros talhões e de outras propriedades, não apresentava o problema. O exame do sistema radicular de plantas da quadra em questão revelou a presença de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Homoptera: Margarodidae) em alta infestação. Conhecida também como pérola-da-terra ou margarodes, é praga muit...

  14. Biochemical analysis of a chlorfenapyr-selected resistant strain of Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Van Pottelberge, Steven; Tirry, Luc

    2006-05-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch has recently developed resistance to chlorfenapyr in Australia and Japan, but no attempt has yet been made to describe the biochemical mechanisms involved in chlorfenapyr resistance. In this study a laboratory-selected chlorfenapyr-resistant strain was investigated. Resistance to chlorfenapyr was associated with a strong increase in esterase activity and P450 mono-oxygenase (MO) activity but a decrease in 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMBZ) peroxidation activity. Differences in esterase activities between susceptible and resistant strains increased with increasing carbon number of the aliphatic side-chain of the nitrophenol substrate. A 4.4-fold increase in the O-deethylation of 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin (7-EFC) mediated by P450 MOs was detected. Remarkably, the resistant strain showed only half of the total TMBZ peroxidation activity found in the susceptible strain. The activity of these enzymes was further determined on different crosses and back-crosses of both strains. Results indicated that activities correlated with chlorfenapyr susceptibility and could be considered as biochemical markers. Esterase isozymes of both strains and their crosses were separated with isoelectric focusing (IEF) and visualised after activity staining. It was clear that two distinct zones of enhanced esterase activity were present in the chlorfenapyr-resistant strain (EST 11, pI = 4.88 and EST 16, pI = 4.71). EST 11 was identified with inhibitors as a carboxylesterase. The relative presence and intensity of these esterase zones changed in the different crosses and could be seen as a marker for chlorfenapyr resistance. Glutathione-S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were not significantly different between strains. A twofold decrease in TMBZ peroxidase activity in the resistant strain could reflect decreased activation of chlorfenapyr. On the basis of these results the involvement of P450 MOs and esterases in the

  15. Assessment of the Performance of Membranes Type Koch in Hartha Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala'a Abdulrazaq Jassim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the assessment of the performance of reverse osmosis membranes type (TFC-Koch model (8822XR-365 which are used in water desalination unit in Hartha power plant, one of the electrical power plant in the south Iraq. This unit has a capacity of 100 m3/h withdraws water from Shat Al-Arab River as a raw water having total dissolved solid (TDS >3000 ppm, and consists of two stages with total recovery and salt rejection of about 60% and 95%, respectively. The first array contains twelve vessels and the second six vessels. Each vessel contains six elements, 8 inches in diameter and 40 inches in length. The performance of the reverse osmosis (RO membranes is based on surveying the chemical analysis of different ions present in water for both permeate and rejected streams from the unit log book, and only those readings where the overall recovery was 60% were selected. The results depicted that the reduction of membrane efficiency is attributed to the membrane blockage due to scaling and fouling. Under high fouling conditions the permeate flow rate is reduced and accordingly a high feed pressure is required to produce the design flow rate of permeate or percent recovery. A simulation of the behavior of RO membranes was conducted using standard Saehane software and compared with predicted model that was developed by the same authors. The results revealed that the reduction in water flow in both elements one and two in each vessel in the first array is attributed to the high permeate water flux through these two elements beyond the operation limits. Accordingly it is necessary to replace these two elements or change their position relative to other elements periodically.

  16. Ecology of the tick Amblyomma hebraeum Koch in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. I. Distribution and seasonal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norval, R A

    1977-08-01

    In the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa larvae of Amblyomma hebraeum Koch occur in well-drained, shaded habitats, with a ground cover of grass. The life cycle is normally of 3 years duration. Peak larval activity occurs in the summer of the 1st year, peak nymphal activity in the spring of the 2nd year, and peak adult activity in the summer of the 3rd year. Larval activity shows no direct correlation with macroclimate. Adult activity is correlated with, in the following order of signficance, daylength, temperature, and rainfall. Nymphal activity appears to be regulated by the same factors.

  17. Composition of pecan cultivars Wichita and Western Schley [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.)K. Koch] grown in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, L T; Mason, R L; D'Arcy, B R; Caffin, N A

    2001-03-01

    Pecans from the cultivars Wichita and Western Schley [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] collected over three years were analyzed for the following constituents: total lipid content; fatty acid profiles; sucrose content; protein; total dietary fiber; the minerals magnesium, calcium, potassium, sulfur, phosphorus, boron, copper, iron, manganese, sodium, zinc, and aluminum; vitamin C; and lipase and lipoxygenase activities. Year of harvest and cultivar had little effect on the composition of the pecans. Overall, protein content was the only constituent that differed between pecans grown in Australia and those grown in the United States. This difference is probably related to differences in growing location and horticultural practices between the two countries.

  18. Cytotoxic Activity and Composition of Petroleum Ether Extract from Magydaris tomentosa (Desf. W. D. J. Koch (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Autore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum ether extract of Magydaris tomentosa flowers (Desf. W. D. J. Koch has been analyzed by GC-MS. It is mainly constituted by furanocoumarins such as xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol, isopimpinellin, and bergaptene. Other coumarins such as 7-methoxy-8-(2-formyl-2-methylpropyl coumarin and osthole also occurred. The antiproliferative activity of Magydaris tomentosa flower extract has been evaluated in vitro on murine monocye/macrophages (J774A.1, human melanoma (A375 and human breast cancer (MCF-7 tumor cell lines, showing a major activity against the latter.

  19. Neue Arbeitsfelder in der Bibliothek des Robert Koch-Instituts: Open Access und institutionelles Repositorium [New areas of work in the library of the Robert Koch-Institute: Open access and institutional repositorium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senst, Henriette

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] The Robert Koch-Institute’s Library exists since foundation of the Institute for Infectious Diseases in 1891. Until the nineties of the last century acquisition, indexing and allocation (of print media where the three typical tasks of the library. The progression of IT did not only change the work habits and research possibilities of the scientists dramatically; it also led to a massive shift in the tasks of the library. Two new areas of work, which cannot be assigned to classical library tasks, will be introduced below: The operation of an institutional repository and the support of scientists during the publication process.[german] Die Bibliothek des Robert Koch-Instituts (RKI existiert seit der Gründung des Instituts für Infektionskrankheiten im Jahr 1891. Bis in die 1990iger Jahre bestand die Bibliotheksarbeit aus dem klassischen Dreiklang Erwerben – Erschließen – Bereitstellen (von Print-Medien. Die IT hat nicht nur dramatisch das Arbeitsverhalten und die Forschungsmöglichkeiten der Wissenschaftler verändert, sondern auch massiv zur Verlagerung von Arbeitsschwerpunkten in der Bibliothek geführt. Zwei neue Arbeitsgebiete werden im Folgenden vorgestellt: Der Betrieb eines Publikationsservers und die Betreuung der RKI-Wissenschaftler während des Publikationsprozesses eigener Veröffentlichungen.

  20. Actividad fagodisuasiva de las plantas Tithonia diversifolia y Montanoa hibiscifolia (Asteraceae sobre adultos del insecto plaga Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Bagnarello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae es una plaga polífaga, cosmopolita y de gran relevancia mundial, sobre todo como vector de virus en numerosos cultivos, por lo que sería deseable un enfoque preventivo para su manejo. En tal sentido, podría recurrirse a la utilización de sustancias repelentes o disuasivas, algunas de ellas presentes en plantas tropicales, lo cual contribuiría al aprovechamiento de la rica biodiversidad mesoamericana. Por tanto, se evaluó la posible actividad fagodisuasiva sobre los adultos de B. tabaci de dos especies silvestres de la familia Asteraceae: titonia (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray y tora (Montanoa hibiscifolia Benth.. Para ello, en condiciones de invernadero se evaluaron los extractos crudos y cuatro fracciones (hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etilo y metanol de ambas especies, a los cuales se les hizo un análisis fitoquímico (tamizaje el cual permitió determinar cuáles metabolitos presentes en T. diversifolia y M. hibiscifolia podrían causar fagodisuasión en B. tabaci. Se realizaron dos tipos de experimentos: de escogencia restringida y de escogencia irrestricta. En los primeros, cada fracción se evaluó a cuatro dosis (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 y 1.5% v/v, y se comparó con cuatro tratamientos testigo: aceite agrícola, endosulfán, un emulsificante (Citowett y un testigo absoluto (agua. Se asperjaron plantas de tomate colocadas dentro de jaulas de manga, donde se liberaron 50 adultos de B. tabaci. Para determinar si existía fagodisuasión se utilizó como criterio el número de adultos posados a las 48h. Para el experimento de escogencia irrestricta se utilizaron las dos concentraciones más altas (1.0 y 1.5% del extracto crudo de cada especie y se compararon con el aceite agrícola y agua. Los extractos crudos de titonia y tora causaron fagodisuasión, y para ambas especies la fracción de metanol fue la que más sobresalió. En conclusión, los resultados obtenidos en los bioensayos

  1. Description of a new species of scorpion of the genus Lychas C.L. Koch, 1845 (Scorpiones: Buthidae from Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.A. Mirza

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of buthid scorpion belonging to the genus Lychas C.L. Koch, 1845 is described from the degraded scrub of Aarey Milk Colony (Mumbai. Lychas aareyensis sp. nov. is similar to L. nigristernis, but can be differentiated based on a combination of morphological characters. Notes on natural history are also presented.

  2. Report of Platythomisus octomaculatus (C. L. Koch, 1845) and Platythomisus sudeepi Biswas, 1977 from India (Araneae, Thomisidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Vinayak; Ismavel, Vijay Anand

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The genus Platythomisus Doleschall, 1859 presently comprises 13 valid species, nine known from Africa and four from Asia. All Platythomisus species are known from females only, except P. jucundus Thorell, 1894 and P. sudeepi Biswas, 1977 from both sexes and P. quadrimaculatus from juvenile. Only, P. sudeepi was reported from India. New information Platythomisus octomaculatus (C. L. Koch, 1845) is recorded after 120 years of its last report; newly recorded from Assam, India which extends its distribution from the previously known localities, Java and Sumatra. Platythomisus sudeepi is newly recorded from the Maharashtra State. The variation in the number of abdominal spots on juvenile, sub-adult and adult of P. octomaculatus observed during rearing is reported. Although, the species name 'octomaculatus' suggests eight spots, we observed that the anterior pair of abdominal spots is fused in adults.

  3. Rezension zu: Angela Koch: Ir/Reversible Bilder. Zur Visualisierung und Medialisierung von sexueller Gewalt. Berlin: Verlag Vorwerk 8 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Saalfeld

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela Koch legt eine umfangreiche Betrachtung der Darstellbarkeit von sexueller Gewalt in den Bildmedien Film, Fernsehen und Fotografie vor. Indem sie theoretische Positionen des Poststrukturalismus mit konkreten Film- und Bildanalysen konfrontiert, zeigt sie auf, dass den Möglichkeiten der (Audio-Visualisierung sexueller Gewalt Grenzen gesetzt sind. Über die Herstellung und Bedienung ästhetischer Konventionen wird ein normiertes Wissen über sexuelle Gewalt hergestellt, das die hegemoniale Geschlechterordnung unterstützt und aufrechterhält. Während auch grenzüberschreitende Momente der Darstellbarkeit aufgespürt werden, liegt das Hauptgewicht der Studie auf der Kritik des medial vermittelten Geschlechterverhältnisses als Gewaltverhältnis.

  4. Optimization of In Vitro Conservation Protocol of Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch through Medium Concentration, Temperature and Irradiation Duration Decrease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enni Suwarsi Rahayu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch, an endemic species in Dieng mountains, must be conserved. The in vitro conservation has been developed, but sub-culture period needs to be extended. This study aimed to obtain a more efficient in vitro conservation protocol of C. pubescens. The research was carried out experimentally by using a completely randomized factorial design with three factors, namely decreasing in storage medium concentration (75% and 50% of MS medium, temperature (4oC and 8°C, and irradiation duration (8 hours/day and 16 hours/day. Shoots were kept in the storage medium for 6, 9 and 12 months, then their viability were tested by growing them in the regeneration medium. Data were analyzed by Analyses of Variance and Least Significant Difference Test. The results showed that medium concentration of 50% of MS, the temperature of 8 °C, and 16 hours/day of irradiation were able to suppress the C. pubescens growth in vitro storage for six months and could maintain its viability in the regeneration medium. Based on these results the medium concentration of 50% of MS, the temperature of 8 °C and 16 hours/day irradiation can be used for in vitro conservation of C. pubescens without sub-culture for six months. How to CiteRahayu, E., & Habibah, N. (2016. Optimization of In Vitro Conservation Protocol of Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch through Medium Concentration, Temperature and Irradiation Duration Decrease. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1, 85-93.

  5. KADAR VITAMIN DAN MINERAL DALAM BUAH SEGAR DAN MANISAN BASAH KARIKA DIENG (Carica pubescens Lenne&K.Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enni Suwarsi Rahayu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk membandingkan kadar vitamin A, vitamin C, fosfor, besi, dan kalsium dalam buah segar dan manisan basah Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch (karika dieng serta menentukan waktu perebusan optimal dalam proses pembuatan manisan karika yang tidak menurunkan kadar vitamin C secara signifikan. Kadar vitamin C dianalisis menggunakan titrasi yodium yacobs, kadar vitamin A diukur dengan spektronik-20, dan kadar mineral diukur dengan AAS. Data kadar vitamin dan mineral dianalisis menggunakan t-test, sedangkan waktu perebusan optimal dianalisis menggunakan Anava dan uji beda nyata terkecil. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kadar vitamin A, vitamin C, fosfor, besi, dan kalsium pada lima merk manisan karika lebih kecil dibandingkan dalam buah karika segar. Waktu perebusan optimal adalah 10 menit.The study was aimed to compare the levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and the minerals i.e. phosphorus, iron and calcium in sweet preserved and fresh fruit of Dieng mountain papaya Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch, and to determine the optimal boiling duration of the fruit in order to determine the preserved fruit processing technique. The level of vitamin C was analyzed using Jacob’s iodine titration, the level of vitamin A was analyzed using Spectronic 20, and the minerals were analyzed using AAS. The data of the contents of vitamins and minerals in sweet preserved and fresh fruit were analyzed using t-test, whereas the data of the optimum boiling time was analyzed using Anova and a least significant difference test. The results showed that the levels of vitamin A and vitamin C and minerals P, Fe and Ca at 5 brands of sweet preserved carica were lower than in carica fresh fruit. The optimum boiling time was 10 minutes to obtain the high vitaim C content.

  6. KADAR VITAMIN DAN MINERAL DALAM BUAH SEGAR DAN MANISAN BASAH KARIKA DIENG (Carica pubescens Lenne&K.Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enni Suwarsi Rahayu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk membandingkan kadar vitamin A, vitamin C, fosfor, besi, dan kalsium dalam buah segar dan manisan basah Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch (karika dieng serta menentukan waktu perebusan optimal dalam proses pembuatan manisan karika yang tidak menurunkan kadar vitamin C secara signifikan. Kadar vitamin C dianalisis menggunakan titrasi yodium yacobs, kadar vitamin A diukur dengan spektronik-20, dan kadar mineral diukur dengan AAS. Data kadar vitamin dan mineral dianalisis menggunakan t-test, sedangkan waktu perebusan optimal dianalisis menggunakan Anava dan uji beda nyata terkecil. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kadar vitamin A, vitamin C, fosfor, besi, dan kalsium pada lima merk manisan karika lebih kecil dibandingkan dalam buah karika segar. Waktu perebusan optimal adalah 10 menit.The study was aimed to compare the levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and the minerals i.e. phosphorus, iron and calcium in sweet preserved and fresh fruit of Dieng mountain papaya Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch, and to determine the optimal boiling duration of the fruit in order to determine the preserved fruit processing technique. The level of vitamin C was analyzed using Jacob’s iodine titration, the level of vitamin A was analyzed using Spectronic 20, and the minerals were analyzed using AAS. The data of the contents of vitamins and minerals in sweet preserved and fresh fruit were analyzed using t-test, whereas the data of the optimum boiling time was analyzed using Anova and a least significant difference test. The results showed that the levels of vitamin A and vitamin C and minerals P, Fe and Ca at 5 brands of sweet preserved carica were lower than in carica fresh fruit. The optimum boiling time was 10 minutes to obtain the high vitaim C content.

  7. Host plant shifts and transitions into new adaptive zones in leafhoppers: the example of Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) of Russia and adjacent countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2016-06-08

    The modes of diversification of Palaearctic Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) are reconstructed based on data on their host plants and distribution in Russia and the adjacent territories. Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) is originally an Oriental group, which penetrated into the Palaearctic from Southeast Asia. The genus Pediopsoides and species of the genus Macropsis that feed on East Asian oaks have not dispersed beyond broadleaf forests of the Eastern Palaearctic. Apparently, Pediopsis and elm-feeding species of Macropsis initially dispersed throughout the entire broadleaf forest zone. Division of this zone into two widely separated parts in temperate areas of Europe and East Asia (nemoral disjunction), produced closely related vicariant pairs of sister species. The genus Oncopsis and species of Macropsis feeding on Salicaceae dispersed throughout the entire Palaearctic following their host plants. Both lineages penetrated into riparian forests of the foothills and midlands of Central Asia, where they produced endemic species. The Central Asian Macropsis lineage shifted from Salicaceae to trees and shrubs of unrelated families (wild roses, barberry, oleaster, and sea-buckthorn) growing in the same biotopes. Subsequent diversification on those plants produced several separate host-associated species-groups, some of which penetrated following their hosts from riparian forests into arid habitats. One such lineage apparently shifted from shrubs to wormwood species (Artemisia spp.) and thus gave rise to the genus Macropsidius. This genus underwent adaptive radiation on wormwood species in the plains of South Kazakhstan and Central Asia; advancing westward, it formed secondary centres of diversity in Transcaucasia and the Mediterranean. Finally, some lineage of Macropsidius (or its sister-group) switched from feeding on Artemisia to polyphagy, yielding the ancestral form of the genus Hephathus. In general, the evolution of

  8. Host stage preference and suitability of Allotropa suasaardi Sarkar & Polaszek (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae, a newly identified parasitoid of pink cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Akhtaruzzaman Sarkar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Allotropa suasaardi Sarkar & Polaszek (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae has been recently reported as a gregarious endoparasitoid of the pink cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae in Thailand. With the aim of improving mass production of this parasitoid, laboratory experiments were conducted comparing the parasitoid’s preference on different host stages of mealybug, host suitability and its effect on parasitism, development, progeny fitness and sex ratio. All nymphal stages and adult of P. manihoti were parasitized by the parasitoid. However, host stage preference and suitability tests showed that the parasitoid had a significant preference for the older host stages. Percentage parasitization was higher in the third instar and early adult female stages compared with the first and second instar host. Mean developmental time for male parasitoids was shorter than for the females. Higher percentage emergence of parasitoid was observed from older mealybugs. Sex ratios of the offspring produced by the parasitoid were varied in different host stages and the ratio of female to male was higher in the older host stages. The implication of this host selection behavior for mass rearing of A. suasaardi and for evaluating it in a biological control program of the cassava mealybug are discussed.

  9. Energy budgets of the Chinese green lacewing (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and its potential for biological control of the cotton aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG GAO; XIANG-HUI LIU; FENG GE

    2007-01-01

    Energy budgets of larval stages of the Chinese green lacewing, Chrysopa sinica (Tjeder) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were determined under laboratory conditions at photoperiod of 14:10 L:D, 27±1℃ and 75%±2% RH. The energy used as ingestion,assimilation, respiration, productivity and feces was constructed for each developmental stage. In addition, under these experimental conditions, the potential of C.sinica as a biological control agent was evaluated according to the ingestion by this predator and the energy content of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover) (Homoptera: Aphididae). The larval stage of C. sinica was able to consume 1281.4 1-day-old aphids, 1018.7 2-day-old aphids,626.9 3-day-old aphids, 393.5 4-day-old aphids, 312.1 5-day-old aphids or 203.5 9-day-old aphids, respectively. No significant difference was detected between the estimated number of aphids consumed by the lacewings using energetic methods and the actual number of aphids consumed by the lacewings in this experiment. Our results showed that C. sinica is an important natural enemy of the cotton aphid, and energetic methods are very useful to quantify biological control efficacy of natural enemies.

  10. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time; Padronizacao da criacao de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris): idade da planta e tempo de colheita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel [Universidade Militar Nueva Granada, Bogota (Colombia). Facutad de Ciencias. Programa de Biologia Aplicada], e-mail: fernando.cantor@unimilitar.edu.co

    2009-09-15

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm{sup 2} of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  11. Tuuli Koch : SL Esileedi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese väitel häirib teda kollase ajakirjanduse kasvav mõju. Proua Evelin Ilvese tegevust kajastatakse pidevalt kollases ajakirjanduses. Kui Postimees on püüdnud proua E. Ilveselt saada kommentaare tõsisematel teemadel, on põrkutud presidendi kantselei vastuseisule. Presidendi kantselei avalike suhete nõuniku Toomas Sildami kommentaaridest

  12. Investigations on the Effects of Five Different Plant Extracts on the Two-Spotted Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arachnida: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervin Erdogan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arac.: Tetranychidae, is an economic pest worldwide including Turkey, causing serious damage to vegetables, flowers, and fruit crops. In recent years, broad-spectrum insecticides/miticides have been used to control this pest in Turkey. Control is difficult mainly due to resistance to conventional pesticides. This study was conducted to determine efficacy of pesticides extracted from five different plants [i.e., Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae, Rhododendron luteum S. (Ericaceae, Helichrysum arenarium L. (Asteraceae, Veratrum album L. (Liliaceae, and Tanacetum parthenium L. (Asteraceae] against this mite. Bioassays were tested by two different methods to determine the effects of varying concentrations. Experiments were performed using 3 cm diameter leaf disk from unsprayed bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. In addition, the effects of the extracts on reproduction and oviposition were investigated. The extract yielded high mortality. In the lowest-concentration bioassays, the adult mites laid lower numbers of eggs compared to the untreated control. No ovicidal effect was observed.

  13. Antidepressant, anxiolytic and anti-nociceptive activities of ethanol extract ofSteudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch leaves in mice model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir; Mohammed Munawar Hossain; Md. Mominur Rahman; Shabbir Ahmad; Abul Hasanat; Tanvir Ahmad Chowdhury; Md. Akramul Hoque; Nishan Chakrabarty; Md. Shakhawat Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To estimate the antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract ofSteudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (S. colocasiifolia) leaves. Methods: Swiss albino mice treated with 1% Tween solution, standard drugs and ethanol extract ofS. colocasiifolia,respectively, were subjected to the neurological and antinociceptive investigations. The tail suspension test and forced swimming test were used for testing antidepressant activity, where the parameter is the measurement of immobility time. Anxiolytic activity was evaluated by hole board model. Anti-nociceptive potential of the extract was also screened for centrally acting analgesic activity by using formalin induced licking response model and acetic acid induced writhing test was used for testing peripheral analgesic action. Results: Ethanol extract ofS. colocasiifolia significantly decreased the period of immobility in both tested models (tail suspension and forced swimming models) of antidepressant activity. In the hole board model, there was a dose dependant (at 100 and 200 mg/kg) and a significant increase in the number of head dipping by comparing with control (1% Tween solution) (P Conclusions: The results proofed the prospective antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract ofS. colocasiifolia leaves.

  14. Perbandingan Kadar Vitamin dan Mineral dalam Buah Segar dan Manisan Basah Karika Dieng (Carica pubescens Lenne & K.Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enni Suwarsi Rahayu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and minerals phosphorus, ironand calcium in wet sweets and fresh fruit Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch (mountainpapaya Dieng, and determine the optimal long boiling the fruit in order to evaluate thecandied wet processing techniques. Research conducted at the Laboratory of Biology andChemistry, State Unnes, Laboratory of Food Technology Unika Soegijapranoto Semarangand Laboratory of Agricultural Engineering Technology- Seamarang University. Levelsof vitamin C was analyzed by yacobs iodine titration, vitamin A with spectronic 20, andmineral analysis by AAS. Data content of vitamins and minerals in wet candied andfresh fruits were analyzed by t test, whereas the optimal boiling time data were analyzedby Fe 1.2 ppm, P 0.0254%, while in 5 brands carica candied fruit vitamin C content24-30mg/100g ranged, ranged 300-500ìg/100 g vitamin A, minerals ranging from 5-9ppm Ca, Fe minerals ranged from 0.58 to 0.8 ppm, and mineral P ranging from .003 to.008%. Optimal boiling time with high enough levels of vitamin C is 10 minutes.Keywords : vitamin A, vitamin C, phosphor, calsium, iron, Carica pubescens

  15. A Microstrip Second-Iteration Square Koch Dipole Antenna for TT&C Downlink Applications in Small Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Simón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A microstrip second-iteration square Koch dipole fractal antenna is presented. This meandered antenna has a total length of 56.56 cm including its feed gap and was printed on the diagonal of a 100 mm × 100 mm PCB card that acts as CubeSat face. The antenna that was designed to optimize space shows acceptable performance at its resonance frequency of 455 MHz within the 70-centimeter band, a band that is commonly used for TTC CubeSat subsystems. The designed fractal antenna shows a reflection coefficient below −20 dB, a VSWR below 1.2, a −10 dB bandwidth of 50 MHz, and impedance magnitude of 56 Ω, while the average maximum gain around its resonance frequency is 2.14 dBi. All these parameters make this designed antenna suitable for small satellite applications at a band where a linear λ/2 dipolar antenna working at 455 MHz would be about 32.97 cm long, which does not fit within the largest dimension of a CubeSat face corresponding to 14.14 cm.

  16. Nephila clavata L Koch, the Joro Spider of East Asia, newly recorded from North America (Araneae: Nephilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Richard Hoebeke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nephila clavata L Koch, known as the Joro spider and native to East Asia (Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan, is newly reported from North America. Specimens from several locations in northeast Georgia were collected from around residential properties in Barrow, Jackson, and Madison counties in late October and early November 2014. These are the first confirmed records of the species in the New World. Our collections, along with confirmed images provided by private citizens, suggest that the Joro spider is established in northeast Georgia. Genomic sequence data for the COI gene obtained from two specimens conforms to published sequences for N. clavata, providing additional confirmation of species identity. Known collection records are listed and mapped using geocoding. Our observations are summarized along with published background information on biology in Asia and we hypothesize on the invasion history and mode of introduction into North America. Recognition features are given and photographic images of the male and female are provided to aid in their differentiation from the one native species of the genus (Nephila clavipes in North America.

  17. Clinical evaluation of Rasayana compound as an adjuvant in the management of tuberculosis with anti-Koch's treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Purvi; Chandola, H M; Ghanchi, Firoz; Ranthem, Shivprakash

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to intimidate the human race since time immemorial not only due to its effects as a medical malady, but also by its impact as a social and economic tragedy. At the dawn of the new millennium, we are still mute witnesses to the silent yet efficient march of this sagacious disease, its myriad manifestations and above all its unequalled, vicious power. Through the millennia, TB never ever disappeared from the developing world. In 1991, the World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution recognized TB as a major global public health problem. The DOTS strategy was launched in 1994, and became the global recommended strategy for TB control since then. The present study deals with clinical evaluation of Rasayana drugs considering of Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia willd.), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) Dunal, Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), Pippali (Piper longum Linn.), Sariva (Hemidesmus indicus R.Br.), Kustha (Saussurea lappa Falc.), Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn.) and Kulinjan (Alpinia galangal Linn.) as an adjuvant therapy with anti-Koch's treatment. The results obtained revealed that Rasayana compound was found to decrease cough (83%), fever (93%), dyspnea (71.3%), hemoptysis (87%) and increase body weight (7.7%) with statistically highly significant (P<0.001).

  18. Nephila clavata L Koch, the Joro Spider of East Asia, newly recorded from North America (Araneae: Nephilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebeke, E Richard; Huffmaster, Wesley; Freeman, Byron J

    2015-01-01

    Nephila clavata L Koch, known as the Joro spider and native to East Asia (Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan), is newly reported from North America. Specimens from several locations in northeast Georgia were collected from around residential properties in Barrow, Jackson, and Madison counties in late October and early November 2014. These are the first confirmed records of the species in the New World. Our collections, along with confirmed images provided by private citizens, suggest that the Joro spider is established in northeast Georgia. Genomic sequence data for the COI gene obtained from two specimens conforms to published sequences for N. clavata, providing additional confirmation of species identity. Known collection records are listed and mapped using geocoding. Our observations are summarized along with published background information on biology in Asia and we hypothesize on the invasion history and mode of introduction into North America. Recognition features are given and photographic images of the male and female are provided to aid in their differentiation from the one native species of the genus (Nephila clavipes) in North America.

  19. Laboratory and field evaluation of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria cateniannulata strain 08XS‐1, against Tetranychus urticae (Koch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Zou, Xiao; Guo, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND The two‐spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is one of the most serious mite pests of crops throughout the world. Biocontrol of the mite with fungal agents has long been paid much attention because of the development of insecticide resistance and the severe restriction of chemical pesticides. In this study, the efficacy of submerged conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria cateniannulata strain 08XS‐1 against T. urticae eggs, larvae and female adults was evaluated at different temperatures and humidity in the laboratory and under field conditions. RESULTS The results showed that a suspension of 2 × 107 submerged conidia mL −1 caused the highest mortalities of mite eggs, larvae and females (100, 100 and 70% respectively) at 100% relative humidity and 25 °C in the laboratory. In the field experiments against the mites, a suspension of 2 × 108 submerged conidia mL −1 achieved significant efficiency – the relative control effects were 88.6, 83.8 and 83%, respectively, in cucumber, eggplant and bean fields after 10 days of treatment. CONCLUSION The results suggest that the I. cateniannulata strain 08XS‐1 is a potential fungal agent, with acceptable production cost of conidia, against T. urticae in the field in an area such as southwestern China with higher air humidity. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26775712

  20. Acaricidal Potentials of the Terpene-rich Essential Oils of Two Iranian Eucalyptus Species against Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadollahi, Asgar; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Maroufpoor, Mostafa; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    There is a rapid growth in the screening of plant materials for finding new bio-pesticides. In the present study, the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata leaves were extracted using a Clevenger apparatus and their chemical profiles were investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Among identified compounds, the terpenes had highest amount for both essential oils; 93.59% for E. oleosa and 97.69% for E. torquata. 1,8-Cineole (31.96%), α-pinene (15.25%) and trans-anethole (7.32%) in the essential oil of E. oleosa and 1,8-cineole (28.57%), α-pinene (15.74%) and globulol (13.11%) in the E. torquata essential oil were identified as the main components. The acaricidal activity of the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata were examined using fumigation methods against the adult females of Tetranychus urticae Koch. The essential oils have potential acaricidal effects on T. urticae. The essential oil of E. oleosa with LC50 value of 2.42 µL/L air was stronger than E. torquata. A correlation between log concentration and mite mortality has been observed. Based on the results of present study, it can be stated that the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata have a worthy potential in the management of T. urticae.

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in two morphological root types of Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch Infección por micorrizas arbusculares en dos tipos de raíces de Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diehl

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch is a conifer distributed in the Andean-Patagonian forests in the south of Argentina and Chile. The main objective of this work was to relate the different root classes appearing in A. araucana to mycorrhizal behavior. Samples were collected in three different sites in the Lanín National Park (NW Patagonia, Argentina. Two different root classes were present in A. araucana: longitudinal fine roots (LFR and globular short roots (GSR. Both had extensive mycorrhizal arbuscular symbiosis (AM and presented abundant hyphae and coils in root cells, a characteristic of the anatomical Paris-type. Dark septate fungal endophytes were also observed. Values of total AM colonization were high, with similar partial AM% values for each root class. Seasonal differences were found for total and partial colonization, with higher values in spring compared to autumn. Regarding the percentage of fungal structures between root classes, values were similar for vesicles and arbuscules, but higher coil percentages were observed in GSR compared to LFR. The percentages of vesicles increased in autumn, whereas the arbuscule percentages increased in spring, coinciding with the plant growth peak. Results show that both root classes of A. araucana in Andean-Patagonian forests are associated with AM fungi, which may have ecological relevance in terms of the importance of this symbiosis, in response to soil nutrient-deficiencies, especially high P-retention.La conífera Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch se encuentra distribuida en los bosques Andino-Patagónicos de Argentina y Chile. En este trabajo se relacionaron las diferentes clases morfológicas de raíces presentes en la especie con el comportamiento micorrícico. Las muestras fueron tomadas en tres sitios del Parque Nacional Lanín (NO de Patagonia, Argentina. Se observaron dos clases diferentes de raíces: raíces finas longitudinales (RFL y raíces cortas globulares (RCG. Ambas clases

  2. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjampur, Sitara S R; Png, Chin Wen; Chia, Wan Ni; Zhang, Yongliang; Tan, Kevin S W

    2016-01-01

    Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), isolate B (ST7-B) and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H), we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite.

  3. Toxicity of essential oils of Piper marginatum Jacq. against Tetranychus urticae Koch and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Ribeiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae is an economically important pest of agricultural and ornamental crops worldwide. It has been shown that many of natural plant-based pesticides have fewer side effects compared with synthetic chemicals. The essential oils of plants have been broadly studied for pest-control, including toxic and repellent effects, antifeedant, ovicidal, and other properties. Essential oils from stems, flowers, and leaves of Piper marginatum Jacq. were evaluated in the laboratory regarding their acaricidal potential against the two-spotted spider mite (T. urticae and the results were compared with eugenol as a positive control. The oils were also evaluated with regard to the susceptibility of the natural enemy of T. urticae (Neoseiulus californicus McGregor. Based on LC50 estimates, oils from stems and flowers exhibited the same toxicity and differed significantly from the leaf oil with LC50 0.37, 0.56, and 3.77 μL L-1, respectively. None of the oils tested exhibited toxicity greater than or equal to that of the positive control. The oil mortality rate was significantly lower for N. californicus (50% to 70% than for T. urticae (> 95%. The P. marginatum oils also deterred oviposition. Among the chemical constituents tested, sesquiterpenes were more toxic with an LC50 of 2.89 μL L-1 than phenylpropanoids Z-asarone and E-asarone with LC50 6.64 and 8.51 μL L-1, respectively. The acaricidal properties, oviposition deterrence and selectivity make these oils strong candidates for use as the active ingredient in a plant-based acaricidal agent.

  4. RESPUESTAS MORFOGÉNICAS EN LA PROPAGACIÓN in vitro DE NOGAL PECANERO (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh] K. Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmín A. Ávila-Treviño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las respuestas embriogénicas y organogénicas en nogal (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh] K. Koch se observaron bajo el cultivo in vitro de segmentos de hojas, yemas axilares y embriones cigóti- cos. El necrosamiento se controló empleando carbón activado (CA: 1 %, polivinilpirrolidona (0.1 %, nitrato de plata (AgNO3: 1 %, ácido cítrico (150 mg·L-1 y ácido ascórbico (100 mg·L-1, con presencia de luz y en oscuridad. Se utilizó el medio básico de Murashige y Skoog suplementado con 0.40 mg·L-1 de tiamina, 100 mg·L-1 de myo-inositol, 3 % de sacarosa, incorporando 2,4-D para hojas, tidiazurón (TDZ para embriones, y las combinaciones de benciladenina (BA, kinetina (KIN, ácido naftalenacético (ANA y ácido indolbutírico (AIB para yemas axilares. El necrosamiento de tejidos se redujo en 75 % y 83 % adicionando CA y AgNO3, respectivamente. El 33 % y 66 % de los callos embriogénicos se indujeron a partir de hojas, utilizando 1 y 3 mg·L-1 de 2,4-D. La mayor producción de callos (58 % a partir de embriones se obtuvo con la concentración de 3 mg·L-1 de TDZ. En yemas axilares, la combinación de KIN (3.0 μM, BA (1.0 μM y AIB (0.3 μM incrementó el número de hojas y plántulas, y longitud de brotes.

  5. Resistance mechanisms to mitochondrial electron transport inhibitors in a field-collected strain of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pottelberge, S; Van Leeuwen, T; Nauen, R; Tirry, L

    2009-02-01

    A Belgian field strain (MR-VP) of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) exhibits different levels of resistance to four frequently used METI (mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor)-acaricides, i.e. tebufenpyrad, fenpyroximate, pyridaben and fenazaquin. Resistance factors for these compounds were 184, 1547, 5971 and 35, respectively. A 23.5-fold increase in 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin O-deethylation activity suggested that metabolic resistance through elevated levels of cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase-activity is a possible resistance mechanism.However, synergism studies with different metabolic inhibitors revealed some contrasting resistance mechanisms between the METI-acaricides. Tebufenpyrad resistance could only be synergized after pre-treatment with the monooxygenase inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO), whereas pyridaben resistance was strongly synergized both by PBO and the esterase inhibitor S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF). Resistance levels to fenpyroximate could neither be suppressed by PBO nor by DEF. Although METI-acaricides are structurally related, these findings probably reflect a different role of esterases and mono-oxygenases in metabolic detoxification between these compounds. The overall lack of synergism by diethylmaleate (DEM) suggests that glutathione-S-transferases are not an important factor in resistance to METIs.Reciprocal crosses between susceptible females and resistant males showed no maternal effect, and resistance to METI-acaricides was inherited generally as a dominant trait. Backcrosses with F1 females revealed striking differences in the mode of inheritance. Although resistance to fenpyroximate and pyridaben was under monogenic control, resistance to tebufenpyrad was under control of more than one gene.

  6. Microsatellites reveal a strong subdivision of genetic structure in Chinese populations of the mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jing-Tao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two colour forms of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch coexist in China: a red (carmine form, which is considered to be native and a green form which is considered to be invasive. The population genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this organism were unclear in China, and there is a controversy over whether they constitute distinct species. To address these issues, we genotyped a total of 1,055 individuals from 18 red populations and 7 green populations in China using eight microsatellite loci. Results We identified 109 alleles. We found a highly significant genetic differentiation among the 25 populations (global FST = 0.506, global FST {ENA} = 0.473 and a low genetic diversity in each population. In addition, genetic diversity of the red form mites was found to be higher than the green form. Pearson correlations between statistics of variation (AR and HE and geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude showed that the genetic diversity of the red form was correlated with latitude. Using Bayesian clustering, we divided the Chinese mite populations into five clades which were well congruent with their geographic distributions. Conclusions Spider mites possess low levels of genetic diversity, limit gene flow between populations and significant and IBD (isolation by distance effect. These factors in turn contribute to the strong subdivision of genetic structure. In addition, population genetic structure results don't support the separation of the two forms of spider mite into two species. The morphological differences between the two forms of mites may be a result of epigenetic effects.

  7. [Trichophyton thuringiense H.A. Koch 1969. A rare geophilic dermatophyte--now isolated for the first time from man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, P; Winter, I; Winter, A; Krüger, C; Herrmann, J; Gräser, Y; Rangno, N; Maier, T; Simon, J C

    2014-03-01

    In 1969, Kolipp and Hoffmann isolated Trichophyton (T.) thuringiense spec. nov. Koch when they performed their thesis dealing with the distribution and epidemiology of dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi in mice and other small mammals. At that time, T. thuringiense was detected as saprophytic fungus of the skin of different mice species (e.g. Mus musculus) both in rural and urban settings in the area of Thuringia in Germany. There were no further reports on this dermatophyte species until now, neither in animals, nor in man. Currently, we were able to isolate this geophilic fungus for the first time from a human being. A 58 year old patient baker by trade and living in a rural setting (village) suffered from nail changes like hyperkeratosis and thickening of the nail plate of his big toe. From his nail samples grew a dermatophyte with peripheral radiating and flat colonies which were a bit cottony in the centre. On Sabouraud's 4 % dextrose agar the thallus of the fungus was white to purple stained, the reverse side showed a dark red to brown color. In a typical manner, macroconidia were cylindrical to clavate, microconidia obovoidal to short-clavate with broad base. The species identification of T. thuringiense was done and confirmed by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA. Antifungal treatment has been refused from the patient. In conclusion, this is the second description of the geophilic dermatophyte T. thuringiense, which could be isolated for the first time from a human being, in particular from nail sample of the big toe under the suspicion of onychomycosis. However, it is still uncertain if this fungus should be considered either as secondary colonization of the nail plate, or as causative agent of tinea unguium or onychomycosis.

  8. Antidepressant, anxiolytic and anti-nociceptive activities of ethanol extract of Steudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch leaves in mice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract of Steudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (S. colocasiifolia leaves. Methods: Swiss albino mice treated with 1% Tween solution, standard drugs and ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia, respectively, were subjected to the neurological and antinociceptive investigations. The tail suspension test and forced swimming test were used for testing antidepressant activity, where the parameter is the measurement of immobility time. Anxiolytic activity was evaluated by hole board model. Anti-nociceptive potential of the extract was also screened for centrally acting analgesic activity by using formalin induced licking response model and acetic acid induced writhing test was used for testing peripheral analgesic action. Results: Ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia significantly decreased the period of immobility in both tested models (tail suspension and forced swimming models of antidepressant activity. In the hole board model, there was a dose dependant (at 100 and 200 mg/kg and a significant increase in the number of head dipping by comparing with control (1% Tween solution (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. In formalin induced licking model, a significant inhibition of pain compared to standard diclofenac sodium was observed (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. In acetic acid induced test, there was a significant reduction of writhing response and pain in mice treated with leaves extract of S. colocasiifolia at 200 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. Conclusions: The results proofed the prospective antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves.

  9. Virulence testing and extracellular subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) activity during propagule production of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus isolates from whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Moguel, Judith; González-Barajas, Margarita; Mier, Teresa; Reyes-Montes, María Del Rocío; Aranda, Eduardo; Toriello, Conchita

    2007-03-01

    To properly characterize several isolates of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, a fungal entomopathogen of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and other insect pests for biocontrol purposes, virulence towards Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) protease activity during propagule production were investigated in monospore cultures (MCs). The virulence of three MCs towards second instar whiteflies was measured and expressed as lethal median concentration (LC50). Number and widthlength ratio of propagules (blastospores, hyphal bodies, short hyphae, submerged conidia) and extracellular proteolytic activity was determined simultaneously in liquid medium. Total protease activity was assayed with azocasein, Pr1 and Pr2 activity was determined with the substrates N-Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide and N-Benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-pnitroanilide, respectively. Natural variability in virulence, propagule production and cuticle-degrading proteases among isolates was observed. Bioassays showed a LC50 of 1.1 x 1,000, 2.5 x 10,000 and 7.6 x 10,000 conidia/ml for MCs EH-506/3, EH-503/3 and EH-520/3, respectively, EH-506/3 being the most virulent isolate. Isolate EH-503/3 produced the highest yield of propagules (7.7 x 10000000 propagules/ml), followed by EH-520/3 with 6.4 x 10000000 and EH-506/3 with 1.0 x 10000000 propagules/ml. Subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) activity was present in the three MCs. Subtilisin-like (Pr1) activity was highest (745.7 UPr1/ml at 120 h) in the most virulent isolate, EH-506/3, pointing at Pr1 as a phenotypic marker of virulence for P. fumosoroseus. EH-506/3 appears to be a good candidate for whitefly biocontrol due to its high virulence, Pr1 concentration and rapid transition to blastospores in submerged liquid medium.

  10. Densidades y frecuencias de liberación de Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae sobre Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae en tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tello Paola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae es una de las plagas más importantes de cultivos de tomate bajo invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá. Para su control tradicionalmente se acude a la aplicación de insecticidas. Sin embargo, también son contempladas liberaciones del parasitoide Encarsia formosa (Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae. Para estandarizar el proceso de cría masiva de E. formosa, se evaluaron tres densidades diferentes de liberación de las avispas (6, 12 y 18 avispas/planta en tres frecuencias de liberación (1, 2 y 3 veces/semana, sobre plantas de tomate de ocho semanas de edad con tres niveles de infestación (15, 30 y 45 ninfas de mosca blanca/hoja, susceptibles de ser parasitadas. El mayor porcentaje de parasitismo (70% en ninfas de tercer instar se logró cuando se liberaron seis avispas por planta, dosificadas en tres momentos diferentes en la misma semana. El menor porcentaje de parasitismo (50%, se obtuvo cuando se realizó una sola liberación de 6, 12 o 18 avispas. Los resultados anteriores permiten concluir que se puede lograr un porcentaje de parasitismo en torno a un 70% de la infestación de mosca blanca (hasta 45 ninfas/hoja en plantas de tomate con pocas avispas de E. formosa (seis cuando se liberan en tres momentos diferentes.

  11. Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that

  12. Ocorrência de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae e Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks (Acari, Tarsonemidae sobre folhas de Ipomoea cairica (Linnaeus Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae Occurrence of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks (Acari, Tarsonemidae on leaves of I. cairica (Linnaeus Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozana M. de A. Maia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de três espécies acarinas fitófagas é relatada pela primeira vez sobre folhas de Ipomoea cairica. As espécies Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, Tetranychus urticae (Koch e Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, foram coletadas sobre folhas de I. cairica nas imediações da Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, em 20 de janeiro de 2005.The first occurrence of three phytophagus mites on Ipomoea cairica, is reported. The species Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, Tetranychus urticae (Koch and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks were caught on leaves of I. cairica, around Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, in January 20th, 2005.

  13. [Taxonomy of the Sokuluk virus (SOKV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus, Entebbe bat virus group) isolated from bats (Vespertilio pipistrellus Schreber, 1774), ticks (Argasidae Koch, 1844), and birds in Kyrgyzstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Samokhvalov, E I; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Complete genome sequencing of the Sokuluk virus (SOKV) isolated in Kyrgyzstan from bats Vespertilio pipistrellus and their obligatory parasites--Argasidae Koch, 1844, ticks was carried out. SOKV was classified as attributed to the Flaviviridae family, Flavivirus genus. The maximum homology (71% for nucleotide and 79% for amino acid sequences) was detected with respect to the Entebbe bat virus (ENTV). ENTV and SOKV form a group joining to the yellow fever virus (YFV) within the limits of the mosquito flavivirus branch. Close relation of SOKV with bat covers and human housings permits to assume SOKV potentially patogenic to human health.

  14. [Regionalization of federal health reporting using the example of diabetes surveillance : Aims and results of the discussion between the Robert Koch Institute and the federal states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrys, Lars; Heidemann, Christin; Teti, Andrea; Borrmann, Brigitte; Gawrich, Stefan; Maulbecker-Armstrong, Catharina; Fertmann, Regina; Schubert, Ulrike; Schmidt, Christian; Baumert, Jens; Paprott, Rebecca; Du, Yong; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Ziese, Thomas

    2017-09-04

    Insufficiently treated diabetes mellitus can lead to severe comorbidities. National and international analyses show a continuous increase in diabetes prevalence over the last decades. Currently, an indicator-based national diabetes surveillance system is implemented at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) to monitor and report on diabetes development on the basis of available primary and secondary data. The aim of the meeting was to go into deeper discussions and to integrate expectations and expertise of the federal states into the design of the national surveillance system. A close collaboration between the RKI and the federal states is intended.

  15. Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772) and Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae): hosts, distribution and 16S rDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmone, A A; Estrada-Peña, A; Mangold, A J; Barros-Battesti, D M; Labruna, M B; Martins, J R; Venzal, J M; Arzua, M; Keirans, J E

    2003-05-01

    DNA sequences of Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772) and Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 were obtained to determine genetic differences between these tick species. Collections of these species are discussed in relation to distribution and hosts. Seven ticks collections (four from Brazil, one from Argentina, one from Uruguay and one from USA) house a total of 1272 A. aureolatum (224 males, 251 females, 223 nymphs and 574 larvae) and 1164 A. ovale (535 males, 556 females, 66 nymphs and 7 larvae). The length of the sequenced mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment for A. aureolatum was 370bp and for A. ovale was 373bp. The DNA sequence analysis showed a 13.1% difference between the two species. Apart from one male A. ovale found on a toad, all adult ticks were found on mammals. The majority of adult specimens of both tick species were removed from Carnivora (96.1 and 84.3% of A. aureolatum and A. ovale, respectively), especially from dogs (53.1% of A. aureolatum, and 46.4% of A. ovale). Collections on wild Canidae were higher for A. aureolatum (23.3%) than for A. ovale (7.1%). On the other hand, collections of A. ovale adults on wild Felidae were higher (18.3%) than findings of A. aureolatum (9.2%). The contribution of other mammalian orders as hosts for adults of A. aureolatum and A. ovale was irrelevant, with the exception of Perissodactyla because Tapiridae contributed with 13.0% of the total number of A. ovale adults. Adults of both tick species have been found occasionally on domestic hosts (apart of the dog) and humans. Most immature stages of A. aureolatum were found on Passeriformes birds, while rodents and carnivores were the most common hosts for nymphs and larvae of A. ovale. A. aureolatum has been found restricted to the Neotropical region, covering the eastern area of South America from Uruguay to Surinam, including northeastern Argentina, eastern Paraguay, southeastern Brazil and French Guiana. A. ovale showed a distribution that covers the Neotropical region

  16. ESTIMATION OF AGE OF SEGREGATION OF JUVENILE AND MATURE Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh K. Koch WOOD USING ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Alberto Gatto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the demarcation of juvenile and mature wood is essential both for wood technology and forest management. Thinning, in most cases, must take into account this parameter, as the juvenile wood has inferior characteristics compared to mature wood, and different proportions of each type of wood will affect the quality and the use of the wood. Thus, this study aimed to determine the age of maturation of the wood using anatomical characteristics of Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh K. Koch wood, through the segregation of juvenile and mature wood. Three adult trees, of good trunk, with diameter greater than 30 cm DBH, were chosen from the region Encosta Superior do Nordeste in the State of the Rio Grande do Sul. From each tree, one disc was removed, with approximately 2 cm in thickness, at 0.10 m in height of the trunk. From each disc was removed a central portion of 2 cm in width, well oriented in the radial direction, including the pith in the center, and this central portion was divided into samples “A” and “B”. One of these two samples was selected for separation of the initial wood of each growth ring for maceration (Jeffrey method . First, the length, width and diameter of the lumen of one hundred fibers were measured in the first ring (next to the bark and later, thirty fibers were defined per growth ring as statistically sufficient for the assay. The thickness of the walls of the fiber was taken as the half of the difference of the diameter of the fiber and the lumen. The segregation of the two types of wood was defined by the radial variation (pith-bark of the anatomical characteristics (length, diameter, width of the lumen and thickness of the wall of fibers, through two simple linear regressions. The results indicate that the fiber length is the best characteristic for the definition of the year of segregation. The age of segregation of juvenile-mature wood was defined as 16 years. In their turn, the anatomical parameters

  17. Sweepoviruses cause disease in sweet potato and related Ipomoea spp.: fulfilling Koch's postulates for a divergent group in the genus begomovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena P Trenado

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas and related Ipomoea species are frequently infected by monopartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae, known as sweepoviruses. Unlike other geminiviruses, the genomes of sweepoviruses have been recalcitrant to rendering infectious clones to date. Thus, Koch's postulates have not been fullfilled for any of the viruses in this group. Three novel species of sweepoviruses have recently been described in Spain: Sweet potato leaf curl Lanzarote virus (SPLCLaV, Sweet potato leaf curl Spain virus (SPLCSV and Sweet potato leaf curl Canary virus (SPLCCaV. Here we describe the generation of the first infectious clone of an isolate (ES:MAL:BG30:06 of SPLCLaV. The clone consisted of a complete tandem dimeric viral genome in a binary vector. Successful infection by agroinoculation of several species of Ipomoea (including sweet potato and Nicotiana benthamiana was confirmed by PCR, dot blot and Southern blot hybridization. Symptoms observed in infected plants consisted of leaf curl, yellowing, growth reduction and vein yellowing. Two varieties of sweet potato, 'Beauregard' and 'Promesa', were infected by agroinoculation, and symptoms of leaf curl and interveinal loss of purple colouration were observed, respectively. The virus present in agroinfected plants was readily transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to I. setosa plants. The progeny virus population present in agroinfected I. setosa and sweet potato plants was isolated and identity to the original isolate was confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, Koch's postulates were fulfilled for the first time for a sweepovirus.

  18. Topographical and numerical study of the idiosomal integumentary structures of the larva of four Neotropical species of Amblyomma Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Fábio S; Chacón, Samuel C; Labruna, Marcelo B; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Faccini, João L H; Famadas, Kátia M

    2007-09-01

    Integumentary structures of the larvae of Amblyomma longirostre (Koch, 1844), A. parvum Aragão, 1908, A. rotundatum Koch, 1844 and from three populations of A. cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) were studied using light microscopy. A new nomenclature for the localisation of the integumentary structures is proposed. Three types of integumentary structures were identified in the larval idiosoma of the four Amblyomma species: lyrifissures, small glands and large wax glands. These structures were observed isolated or associated over the entire idiosoma, except in the scutum, which lacked lyrifisures and large wax glands. Large wax glands were the most stable within and between the tick species, followed by lyrifissures and small glands. Small glands, although relatively stable, showed the highest number of numerical variations within and between the tick species. Even though there were intra-population variations in the topographical and numerical pattern of some integumentary structures of A. cajennense larvae, there was a definitive pattern for most of the specimens, as showed by the similar modal and mean numbers of integumentary structures per tick side. The patterns of lyrifissures, small glands and large wax glands showed little differences when compared between the four Amblyomma species; however, a few differences were well evident. These differences were sufficient to differentiate larvae of the four species. Thus, we expect that the study of integumentary structures on the larvae of other Amblyomma species will be useful in future taxonomic keys for the identification of Amblyomma larvae from the Neotropical region.

  19. Influence des facteurs écologiques (température et hygrométrie sur le développement de la cochenille farineuse du manioc (Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero, Homoptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obame Minko, D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Influence of Ecological Factors (such as Temperature and Hygrometry on the Development of Cassava Mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero, Homoptera: Pseudococcidae. Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero cassava mealybug was accidentally carried away from South America to Africa by early 70s. Since then, it has been inducing a lot of damage to cassava cultures, which cassava remains the main foodstuff in the southern Sahara inhabitant's nutrition. Being anxious to understand the depredator population evolution in the nature, we have studied the temperature and hygrometry as main ecological factors helpful to development. The temperature favours eggs hatching and reduces the duration of embryonic, larval and cycle development whereas hygrometry's action on mealybug development can be neglected. As both factors are opposite functions in the nature, mutual influence on the field can be possible.

  20. Ocorrência de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel (homoptera: margarodidae em videira no município de Louveira, Estado de São Paulo Occurrence of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel (homoptera: margarodidae on grape at Louveira, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenção

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Em 1986, em inspeção em vinhedos no município de Louveira, SP, foi observado definhamento acentuado de plantas em uma quadra de uma propriedade no Bairro de Abadia. Plantas do mesmo vinhedo, mas de outros talhões e de outras propriedades, não apresentava o problema. O exame do sistema radicular de plantas da quadra em questão revelou a presença de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel (Homoptera: Margarodidae em alta infestação. Conhecida também como pérola-da-terra ou margarodes, é praga muito nociva à videira e de difícil controle. Sua ocorrência no Estado de São Paulo infestando raízes de videira restringia-se aos municípios de São Miguel Arcanjo e Guareí, acrescentando-se, agora, Louveira.A survey on vineyards at Louveira, State of São Paulo, Brazil, carried out in 1986 revealed a limited but pronounced manifestation of decay, including death of some plants. Analysis of the root system of symptomatic plants showed infestation of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis females. This insect is a serious grape pest in Southern Brazil. In the State of Sao Paulo, however, occurrence of E. brasiliensis on grape had so far been restricted to São Miguel Arcanjo and Guareí counties. The region in which Louveira is located has been the most important grape producing area of the State. Therefore, due to the harm this pest represents to the grape crop, the growers should be alerted to prevent further dissemination.

  1. Experimental infestation with the immatures of Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae on Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae and Oryctolagus cuniculus Infestação experimental com as fases imaturas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae e Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.T. Freitas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas provenientes de duas fêmeas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, naturalmente ingurgitadas em uma iguana (Iguana iguana e provenientes do Estado do Mato Grosso, foram utilizadas na infestação experimental de lagartos da espécie Tropidurus torquatus e coelhos domésticos. As larvas alimentadas em ambos os hospedeiros realizaram ecdise para ninfas. As ninfas apenas ingurgitaram no lagarto e mudaram para machos e fêmeas. Este é o primeiro registro do parasitismo de larvas e ninfas de A. dissimile em T. torquatus e de larvas em coelhos.

  2. G-P sells fluff and pulp to Koch%G-P公司将绒毛浆厂和纸浆厂出售给Koch公司

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐其铮

    2004-01-01

    @@ 美国Georgia-Pacific公司已将其绒毛浆厂和商品浆厂以6.1亿美元出售给KoCell公司,KoCell公司是KochIndustries公司的独资子公司.该出售协议还包括承担7300万美元的债务.G-P公司预计通过这一交易可获得约7.35亿美元的税后收入.这一交易还包括G-P公司在乔治亚州Brunswisk市和在密西西比州New Augusta市的纸浆厂、供New Augusta纸浆厂专用的短线铁路和2个国际纸浆营业所的资产.

  3. Floristic diversity and agricultural value of Phalaridetum arundinaceae (Koch 1926 n.n. Lib. 1931 in the selected river valleys of the Zamość region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Grażyna Wyłupek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of a floristic survey conducted using the Braun-Blanquet method (50 phytosociological relevés in permanent grasslands in three river valleys of the Zamość region (Por, Huczwa, Wieprz. The goal of the survey was to determine the floristic diversity and fodder value of the Phalaridetum arundinaceae association (Koch 1926 n.n. Lib. 1931.  A total of 93 plant species from 25 botanical families were identified in the areas under study. The species richness of the Phalaridetum arundinaceae differed among river valleys. It was observed that these are often transitional forms similar to the association of the Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, Molinietalia order. Predominance of hemicryptophytes and a relatively large share of geophytes was recorded. Based on the fodder value score calculated for the dry matter of the association, the community under study can be classified as having a medium or poor nutritional value.

  4. Re-description of Xysticus bimaculatus L. Koch, 1867 (Araneae, Thomisidae and characterization of its subsocial lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Ruch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Spiders have become an important model to study the evolution of sociality, but a lack of their detailed natural history and taxonomy hinders broader comparative studies. Group-living crab spiders (Thomisidae provide an excellent contrast to other social spiders since they lack a communal capture web, which was thought to be a critical factor in the evolution of sociality. Only three non-webbuilding crab-spider species are known to be subsocial or social, all of which belong to the genus Diaea Thorell, 1869. The aim of this study is to describe the social lifestyle of Xysticus bimaculatus L. Koch, 1867 for the first time. Furthermore, we present a detailed re-description of this species and discuss its taxonomic implications. Like other subsocial crab spiders, X. bimaculatus builds nests from tree leaves. Nests contain up to 38 spiders and sometimes several adult females, indicating the species may be at a transitory stage between subsociality and permanent sociality.

  5. Redescription and synonymies of Diplura macrura (C.L. Koch, 1841 and D. lineata (Lucas, 1857, with notes on the genus (Araneae, Dipluridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Rafael Pedroso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diplura C.L. Koch, 1850 is a mygalomorph genus with putative records from Central and South America. The type-species Diplura macrura (C.L. Koch, 1841, originally described from West Indies, is poorly known and represented only by its holotype. Most of the 20 species currently included in the genus lack modern taxonomic descriptions, as D. lineata (Lucas, 1857, from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Males and females of Diplura macrura and D. lineata are herein redescribed. New junior synonyms of D. macrura are identified (Linothele bicolor (Simon, 1889, Diplura uniformis Mello-Leitão, 1923, and the two junior synonyms of the latter species, Thalerothele minensis Mello-Leitão, 1926 and T. aurantiaca Mello-Leitão, 1943. Also, two junior synonyms are established for D. lineata: Diplura fasciata (Bertkau, 1880 and Diplura nigridorsi (Mello-Leitão, 1924. The type-locality of D. macrura is corrected to São João del Rei, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. D. macrura is restricted to the state of Minas Gerais and D. lineata to the state of Rio de Janeiro. The type-locality of D. parallela (Mello-Leitão, 1923 is also corrected from Argentina to Paraná state, Brazil. The distribution of Diplura is now restricted from south Panama to north Argentina, excluding previous erroneous records for Cuba and West Indies. The six synonymies herein established help to clarify the genus composition, which includes now 17 valid species.

  6. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in the seeds of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. gracile (C. Koch Ietswaart and Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz. Ietswaart from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erecevit, P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined some biological compounds (fatty acids, vitamins, sterols and flavonoids, radical scavenging capacity and antimicrobial activity of two Origanum L. species of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. gracile (C. Koch Ietswaart and Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz.. Ietswaart. Linolenic acid was found to be the main fatty acid in both species, which was followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, stearic acid (C18:0, oleic acid (C18:1 n9, linoleic acid (C18:2 n6 and stearidonic acid (C18:4. In addition, the two Origanum species were recorded as containing high levels of stigmasterol. It was also found that Origanum vulgare L. subsp. gracile (C. Koch Ietswaart had a high β-sitosterol content (152.8±2.6 µg/g; high amounts of D3 (33.1±0.8 µg/g, K1 (29.4±0.8 µg/g, K2 (26.0±0.8 µg/g vitamins; and low amounts of α-tocopherol (7.8±0.2 µg/g and D2 (1.8±0.1 µg/g, while Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz. Ietswaart contained high amounts of D2 (42.9±1.5 µg/g vitamin; and low amounts of D3 (2.9±0.1 µg/g, α-tocopherol (3.1±0.1 µg/g, r-tocopherol (3.5±0.2 µg/g, K2 (1.3±0.1 µg/g, retinol (1.3±0.2 µg/g and retinol acetate (1.2±0.1 µg/g vitamins. The present study showed that Origanum vulgare L. subsp. gracile (C. Koch Ietswaart and Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz. Ietswaart contained the lowest amount of flavonoid. Furthermore, methanol extracts were recorded to be the most effective agent against the DPPH radical in both Origanum L. species examined. Experimental results showed that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts of both Origanum L. species were effective in the inhibition of the growth of the tested microorganisms at varying levels.En el presente estudio se han determinado algunos compuestos biológicos (ácidos grasos, vitaminas, esteroles y flavonoides, la capacidad de secuestrar radicales libres y la actividad antimicrobiana de dos especies de orégano, Origanum vulgare L. subsp. gracile (C. Koch Ietswaart y

  7. Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna with Quadratic Koch Fractal Boundary%具有二次Koch分形边界的圆极化微带天线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林澍; 张雪莹; 王宇碟; 刘圣英; 邱景辉; 王进祥

    2011-01-01

    设计了一种单馈点圆极化微带天线.微带贴片采用二次Koch分形边界的贴片结构,通过底馈方法激励起两个相互正交的简并模实现圆极化;采用CST Microwave Studio(R)软件进行了仿真.其结果表明.在微带贴片的对角线上适当位置用探针馈电,可以实现圆极化辐射.对具有介质损耗的天线进行了仿真,结果与理想介质的差异较大.设计了一个右旋圆极化微带天线,并进行了测试.该天线工作于1.575 GHz;VSWR小于2的阻抗带宽为51 MHz;轴比为4 dB;增益为3.8 dB;贴片尺寸为42.4 mm×42.4 mm,可以用作GPS天线.%A Koch fractal boundary circularly polarized microstrip antenna with single feeding point is presented.The microstrip patch has a quadratic Koch fractal boundary structure which stimulates two orthogonal degenerate modes to realize circular polanzation by feeding at the bottom.The antenna simulation is performed with CST Microwave Studio(R) software.The simulation results show that the antenna can realize the characteristic of circular-polarization with the feeding position on the diagonal line of the patch.The antenna with dielectric loss of board is simulated, and the results differ from those in perfect dielectric, which is embodied in the decrease of the gain and the increase of axial ratio.A dextrorotatory circularly polanzed microstrip antenna is proposed and tested, which works at 1.575 GHz with impedance bandwidth of 3.2% at VSWR less then 2, and whose axial ratio is 4 dB and gain is 5 dB.The size of the antenna is 42.4 mm×42.4 mm, and it can be used as GPS anterma.

  8. Pengaruh Jenis Mangsa dan Suhu pada Perkembangan Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae dan Peranannya dalam Pengendalian Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tris Haris Ramadhan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is the vector of citrus greening (Huanglongbing bacterium and the most serious impediment to citrus culture. Classical biological control of this psyllid vector should contribute to suppress their population. This research was conducted to determine the performance of Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae when they were fed with D. citri. The larval performance index of M. sexmaculatus on D. citri compared with Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae diet was 1.3.M. sexmaculatus fed with D. citri had lower fitness than those fed with A. craccivora as shown by longer larval stadium, lower adult dry weight, less number of egg produced and lower percentage of egg hatched. M. sexmaculatus grew best at the temperature of 27oC. Employing the exclusion procedure under field condition,M. sexmaculatus could reduce the population of D. citri up to 90%. These findings showed that theM. sexmaculatus could be a potential predator in reducing D. citri, particularly when the more preferred prey A. craccivora was not present.   Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae merupakan kelompok Psyllid yang menularkan penyebab penyakit Huanglongbing yang sangat berbahaya pada tanaman jeruk. Pengendalian hayati klasik telah banyak memberikan kontribusi dalam pengendalian di lapangan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk melihat penampilan Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae dengan pakan D. citri. Indeks penampilan larva M. sexmaculatus dengan pakan D. citri dibandingkan dengan Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae adalah 1,3. M. sexmaculatus yang diberi pakan D. citri menunjukkan penurunan kebugaran dibandingkan jika diberi pakan A. craccivora seperti yang ditunjukkan dengan stadium larva lebih lama, penurunan berat kering serangga dewasa, telur yang dihasilkan lebih sedikit, dan penurunan jumlah telur yang menetas. Menggunakan metode eksklusi pada kondisi

  9. 山西杉苞蚧蜡泌物的超微形态与化学成分研究%The Ultra-Morphology and Chemical Composition of Waxes Secreted by a Scale Insect Physokermes shanxiensis (Homoptera: Coccidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢映平; 薛皎亮; 郑乐怡

    2005-01-01

    The ultra-morphology and chemical composition of waxes secreted by the scale insect Physokermes shartxiensis (Homoptera: Coccidae) was researched with the techniques of scanning electron microscope (SEM), infrared absorption spectra(IR) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The result indicated that the scale insect secreted wet wax in its nymph stage. The wet wax coagulated into translucent wax covering on the body surface. However, the female adult secreted its wax secretion with white color and long thread form. According to the infrared absorption spectra characteristic of the waxes, it can be known that the both waxes either from male nymph or female adult were composed by a series of saturated and unsaturated long carbon chain compounds. But the two waxes have different in the chemical functional group's kind and numbers that composed the compounds, because of the differences in absorption peaks' numbers and forms which appeared in the two infrared spectra from the wave number 1 800 cm-1 to 1 000 cm-1. Through detected with GC/MS, 14 compounds with carbon atomnumber form C13 to C32 were obtained form the wax of the male scale insect. These compounds included 5 saturated higher fatty acids, 1 unsaturated higher fatty acid, 1 saturated higher fatty alcohol, 1 unsaturated higher fatty alcohol, 1 unsaturated ester,1 saturated aldehyde, and 4 saturated alkane compounds.

  10. Infestation and seasonal activity of Ixodes vespertilionis Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae) on the Maghreb mouse-eared bat, Myotis punicus Felten, 1977, in northeastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjeddou, Mohammed Lamine; Bouslama, Zihad; Amr, Zuhair S; BaniHani, Rihan

    2016-06-01

    Infestation of Ixodes vespertilionis Koch, 1844 on Myotis punicus Felten, 1977 from two sites (Trios Tunnel and Sidi Trad cave) in northeastern Algeria was studied. An overall infestation of 41.4% for all stages was found among bats collected from both sites. By stage, a total of eight females, 70 nymphs, and 107 larvae were recovered from both populations. The number of females recovered per bat at Sidi Trad ranged from 0-1, for nymphs 0-2, and for larvae 0-2. While no female ticks were collected at Trios Tunnel, the number of nymphs ranged from 0-2 and for larvae 0-2. At Trios Tunnel, the number of nymphs was significantly higher during April and June but not for July and September. On the other hand, the number of larvae increased from July to November, while at Sidi Trad cave, female ticks were recovered during April and May and then disappeared until the end of the study period. Significant differences were noted during all the months when compared with all stages. Nymphs infested bats significantly during April and May, declined in June and July, and then became steady until October. Larvae peaked in July, with low frequency in April, and then fluctuated from August to November.

  11. Aislamiento y caracterización de cepas de Bacillus spp. con actividad contra Tetranychus urticae Koch en cultivos comerciales de rosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Larrea-Izurieta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the species of mites that cause considerable qualitative and quantitative losses in roses growing under greenhouses in Ecuador is Tetranychus urticae, where conventional agrochemicals control is not effective; therefore seeks to identify strains of Bacillus spp. Isolated from T. urticae and determine their anatomical pathogenic scenarios for future control with bacteria. The field phase took place in Naranjo Roses S.A. in Latacunga in a growing roses under organic conditions, where they were collected sheets of each third of six plants with presence of T. urticae Koch. The samples were taken to be processed in Plantsphere Laboratories (PSL in Quito. They were identified and quantified the different stages of the pest and some individuals were isolated for the presence of pathogenic strains of Bacillus spp., which were isolated, purified and identified. Check treatments of pathogenic were strains, distilled water (control and Bacillus thuringiensis biovar acari (positive control. Pathogenic events were evaluated in adult females of T. urticae by citohistochemistry, where breakout of the outer walls, precipitation of cell contents and cuticular malformations were reported. It was determined that the largest numbers of pest individuals are located in the lower third (59.4% with greater presence of eggs (63.3%. Using principal component analysis (PCA of the treatments, the PSL 104, 113, 114 and Bacillus thuringiensis biovar acari was determined as the most efficient Biocatalytic Effectors (EBc©.

  12. [Report of the third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany on 15 and 16 December 2011 at the Robert Koch Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, M

    2012-11-01

    Since 2004 the Robert Koch-Institute has supported the formation of regional networks for prevention of the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multiresistant pathogens (MRSA/MRP, EpiBull 5/2005)). The third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany took place on 15 and 16 December 2011. A total of 60 representatives of the Public Health Services from 12 states participated. It must be emphasized that in the meantime many successfully established networks are active and not all coordinators of existing networks could participate merely due to the organizational format. Interested parties can obtain a good overview via a link to the corresponding internet homepage of each state under http://www.rki.de → Infektionsschutz → Krankenhaushygiene → Regionale Netzwerke. In summary it was clear that the number and the activity of regional MRP networks in Germany have further increased. The networks can synergistically benefit from important experiences through the different individual focal points of each network and a corresponding exchange of ideas.

  13. Some characteristics of segregation in hybrids of Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch emend. Bacht. × H. vulgare (L.) emend. Vav. et Bacht.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhteyev, F K

    1969-01-01

    The analysis of hybrid generations, that had arisen from crosses of various forms of H. spontaneum, as well as comparison of the results of crossing representatives of H. spontaneum with two and six-row forms of H. vulgare warrant the following statements: 1. When various morphological races of H. spontaneum were intercrossed, no morphologically new types arose among the progeny of hybrid generations as a result of these crosses. Various morphological hybrid groups, eight up to F 3, remained strictly within the variability of the system of the species Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch emend. Bacht. 2. When various morphological races of H. spontaneum were hybridized with two- and six-row forms of H. vulgare, marked dominance of characters of the wild parent were observed, nevertheless even in F 3 occasional hybrid individuals with a nonbrittle ear have been obtained. This fact is an evidence that cultivated barley may take part in the formation of such hybrids. In the fourth generation of the above interspecific crosses besides individuals which had inherited the characters of one or the other of the parents new morphological types arise. The latter are characterized by new combinations, inherited from both parents. In studies reported previously such casual hybrid individuals were provisionally named by us "sessiliproskowetzii". At first glance, the latter seemed not to differ from H. spontaneum v. proskowetzii, but more thorough observation showed that such hybrids differ from genuine individuals of v. proskowetzii: their sterile lateral spikelets are sessile, i.e. deprived of pedicels.

  14. Absorption of SO/sub 2/ by pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang) K. Koch) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. ) and its effect on net photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisson, W.B.; Booth, J.A.; Throneberry, G.O.

    1981-06-01

    Absorption rates of SO/sub 2/ by pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang) K. Koch) leaflets exposed to 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8 mg SO/sub 2/ m/sup -3/ were measured over a 2 h period. SO/sub 2/ was rapidly absorbed by the leaflets in all treatments during the initial 30-50 min; the rate of uptake decreased to a rather constant level thereafter. Total SO/sub 2/ absorbed during the 2 h period was 15.6, 25.6, and 38.9 nmol cm/sup -2/ for the low, medium, and high SO/sub 2/ concentrations, respectively. Reductions in net photosynthetic rates were proportional to ambient SO/sub 2/ concentrations and total SO/sub 2/ absorbed. Partial photosynthetic recovery occurred in all treatments during a 2 hr post-treatment period and full recovery occurred during a 12 h dark period. Exposure to SO/sub 2/ resulted in slight increases in stomatal and boundary layer resistances to CO/sub 2/ and substantial increases in residual resistances. Absorption rates of SO/sub 2/ by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) exposed to 5.2 mg SO/sub 2/ m/sup -3/ for 1 h were approximately double those of pecan exposed to the same ambient SO/sub 2/ concentration. Alfalfa net photosynthetic rates were reduced 74% after 1 h exposure to 5.2 mg SO/sub 2/ m/sup -3/ while a depression of 42% occurred in pecan.

  15. Male Reproductive System and Spermatogenesis in Homoptera (Insecta: Hemiptera)%同翅类昆虫的雄性生殖系统及精子发生(昆虫纲:半翅目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田润刚; 袁锋; 张雅林

    2006-01-01

    本文比较了同翅类昆虫雄性生殖系统的结构、减数分裂期间染色体的行为和精子尾部的超微结构.研究表明蜡蝉总科和异翅类的精巢具有被膜,而蝉总科、叶蝉总科、沫蝉总科、角蝉总科、木虱总科、蚜总科、粉虱总科和蚧总科的精巢均不具有被膜.也可以根据精巢小叶的形状将精巢分为三类,蝉总科、叶蝉总科、沫蝉总科、角蝉总科、蚜总科和粉虱总科的精巢小叶为球形,蜡蝉总科、木虱总科和蚧总科的精巢小叶为管状,而异翅类的精巢小叶为片层状.减数分裂可以被分为5类:①蝉型(Cicadoid type);②蜡蝉型(Fulgoroid type);③木虱型(Psyloid type);④蚜型(Aphidoid type);⑤粉虱型(Aleyrodoid type)和⑥蚧型(Coccoid type),至少具有四个类群的减数分裂前期I具有弥散期,它们是:木虱总科、蜡蝉总科、蚧总科和异翅类.除粉虱总科和蚧总科的精子尾部退化以外,其余种类的精子鞭毛均具有典型的9+9+2轴丝结构.%Morphology of the male reproductive system, chromosome behaviors during meiosis and spem tail structures in Homoptera and Heteroptera are compared in this paper. The sheathed testis is found in Fulgoroidea and Heteroptera, and unsheathed testis occurs in Cicadoidea, Cicadelloidea, Cercopoidea, Membracoidea, Psyloidea, Aphidoidea, Aleyrodoidea and Coccoidea. The testis also can be divide into three types by the shape of testicular follicles. The sphere-shaped type is found in Cicadoidea, Cicadelloidea, Cercopoidea, Membracoidea, Aphidoidea and Aleyrodoidea, the tube-shaped type observed in Fulgoroidea, Psyloidea and Coccoidea, and the lamella-shaped type represented by Heteroptera. It is suggested the unsheathed testis may be the primitive type in Homoptera. Meiosis can be divided into 6 type at least, i.e. 1) Cicadoid type; 2) Fulgoroid type; 3) Psyloid type; 4) Aphidoid type; 5) Aleyrodoid type; and 6) Coccoid type. At

  16. Amistades Internacionales como contribución a la paz. La correspondencia entre Paul Rivet y Theodor Koch - Grünberg en el contexto de la Primera Guerra Mundial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kraus.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the correspondence between the French anthropologist paul rivet (1876-1958, and the german anthropologist theodor Koch-grünberg (1872-1924 after the First World War. the letters illustrate how both anthropologists struggled to reactivate the scientifc exchange between the two nations which had been interrupted by the war. their interest in common research themes, which had always transcended their national borders, established a collaborative attempt to overcome hostility and further appreciate international discourses over national ideologies.

  17. 一种X和Ka波段频率可重构Koch分形振子天线研究%Study of Frequency Reconfigurable Koch Fractal Dipole Antenna at X/Ka Wave Bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖存; 吴素云

    2013-01-01

    A compacted frequency reconfigurable antenna working at X and Ka bands has been designed by combing RF switches with Koch fractal dipole antenna.The length of the designed antenna is about eighty percent of the common dipole at the same resonant frequency.When working at Ka band,the other parts of antenna disconnected by RF switches affect the radiation performance seriously.So,we tried to improve and optimize the antenna.The final modified antenna is composed of a Koch fractal dipole and common dipole added in front of the Koch fractal dipole.The performance of the modified antenna at X and Ka bands are determined by the Koch fractal dipole and the common dipole respectively.Both simulation and experiment show that,the modified antenna has good performance at X and Ka bands.%将射频开关和Koch分形振子相结合,设计了一款结构紧凑的可工作于X和Ka两个波段的频率可重构天线,所设计的天线长度约为相同谐振频率普通振子天线的80%.天线工作于Ka频段时,由于天线中被射频开关断开的其它部分对其辐射性能的影响严重,会使Ka频段的方向图发生严重变形,因此我们又对天线进行了改进优化.改进后的天线由Koch分形振子和其前端另外延伸增加的一普通振子构成,改进天线在X频段和Ka频段的性能分别由Koch分形振子和普通振子所决定.仿真和实测结果表明:改进优化后的天线在X和Ka两个频段都具有良好的性能.

  18. Effect of gamma radiation on the toxicity of milbemectin and chlorfenapyr in acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicastro, Roberto L.; Arthur, Valter; Machi, Andre R., E-mail: rnicastro@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Sato, Mario E., E-mail: mesato@biologico.sp.gov.br [Laboratorio de Acarologia, Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is considered one of the most important phytophagous mites, causing considerable damage in several agricultural crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on the toxicity of the acaricides milbemectin and chlorfenapyr in resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae. The R and S strains for milbemectin and chlorfenapyr were irradiated with gamma radiation at Gamma cell-220 source at doses of 5, 10, 20, 40 e 80 Gy. Five concentrations of milbemectin and chlorfenapyr were evaluated, making applications 24 hours after irradiation. Mites of the controls were sprayed with the same acaricide concentrations used for the R and S strains but they were not exposed to gamma radiation. Experiments on the effects of gamma radiation on the growth rates of mites for acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae were also carried out. Tests with the Milbemectin S strain showed an increased susceptibility to the acaricide milbemectin, when the mites were irradiated (20 Gy), in comparison with the control (non irradiated mites). For the Milbemectin R strain, there was no significant influence of gamma irradiation on the toxicity of milbemectin to the mites of this strain. For the Chlorfenapyr S strain, the effect of gamma radiation was similar to that observed for Milbemectin S strain, with increased toxicity of chlorfenapyr to the mites of this susceptible strain. In the case of the Chlorfenapyr R strain, the mites exposed to gamma radiation showed to be more tolerant to chlorfenapyr, considering the LC{sub 10} values. The same trend was observed for the LC{sub 50} values, however, there was no significant difference with the control. The experiments showed that doses of 200 and 300 Gy eliminated the mite populations of acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae, in a period of ten days. The dose of 100 Gy did not lead to total elimination of the mite populations, but reduced

  19. Dermal glands in freshwater mites Limnesia undulata (O.F. Müller, 1776) and Limnesia fulgida (C.L. Koch, 1836) (Acariformes, Limnesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatrov, Andrew B; Soldatenko, Elena V

    2016-07-01

    Dermal glands in the water mites Limnesia undulata (O.F. Müller, 1776) and Limnesia fulgida (C.L. Koch, 1836) and their secretion were studied by means of light microscopical, transmission electron microscopical (TEM) and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) methods. These mites possess two types of dermal glands - the 'common' dermal glands in a number of 14 pairs and one pair of the so-called 'idiosomal' dermal glands. The common dermal glands are bi-lobed organs and consist of high prismatic secretory cells directed to the gland mouth and mostly replacing the intra-alveolar lumen. The cells contain numerous cisterns of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and specifically organized Golgi bodies (GB) producing electron-dense elongated secretory granules. These granules are released from the cells via apocrine secretion and come to the gland mouth, where they are sometimes accompanied by secretory cell cytoplasm. The final secretion may show a fibrous character. The idiosomal glands are sac-like organs stretched along the ventral body wall in posterior direction from the gland orifice corresponding to the epimeroglandularia 4. The secretory epithelium leaves a large intra-alveolar lumen filled with an electron-dense secretory material. Golgi bodies are organized identically with those in the common glands, which indicates the general homology of these two types of dermal glands. The glands' orifices are organized similarly in all glands and possess an internal funnel-shaped sclerite with muscle armament, an internal valve, medial epicuticular flaps and an external circular cuticular ring. All glandularia, except for E4 and V1, are accompanied with a long and thin sensitive seta. During fixation, secretion of the common dermal glands is extruded to the exterior in the form of large amounts of convoluted tube-like structures. In the living organisms, being secreted in mass from the glands, this secretion acquires the form of long rigid mostly hollow un

  20. On the Feasibility of Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K.Koch Introduction in Hubei Province%美国山核桃在湖北省引种可行性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永杰; 徐春永; 杜洋文; 杜拾平; 马林江; 程军勇

    2012-01-01

    Comparing Caryan illinoensis(Wangenh.)K.Koch niche breadth with geography,climate,soil physical and chemical properties of Hubei province new habitat was presented by authors.It concluded that Caryan illinoensis(Wangenh.)K.Koch is suitable for growth in Hubei province and it's development prospects will be broad.Also it proposed that enshi,yichang area should be considered in the introduction of Caryan illinoensis(Wangenh.)K.Kochin Hubei Province,after that Wuhan and Jingzhou.And in introduction process,it required to choose deep and fertile soil,consider the micro climate factors in its entirety,at the same time.%笔者通过比较美国山核桃生态位宽与湖北省新生境的地理位置、气候、土壤理化性质,得出了湖北省基本适宜美国山核桃生长且发展前景广阔的结论,同时建议湖北省引种美国山核桃首先考虑恩施、宜昌地区,其次考虑武汉、荆州地区。引种过程中需选择土层深厚、土壤肥沃的地块建园,同时要充分考虑微气候因素。

  1. Comparison and Characterization of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Bulbs Extracts and Their Effect on Mortality and Repellency of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae Comparación y Caracterización de Extractos de Bulbos de Ajo (Allium sativum L. y su Efecto en a Mortalidad y Repelencia de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Hincapié Ll

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae Koch is a pest that causes great economic losses because it attacks a wide range of host plants. Also, some populations have developed resistance against commercial acaricides. This work compares different extracts from garlic (Allium sativum L. bulbs measuring their toxicity and repellency effects on T. urticae. Extracts were obtained using as solvents CO2 in supercritical conditions (CSC, ethanol and petroleum ether using soxhlet and soaking methods and soaking in water. The supercritical fluid extraction technique allows for obtaining extracts at low temperature using high pressures, avoiding compound degradation and making possible solvent separation by exposing the extract at room temperature. Mites were bred on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a laboratory environment in Laureles Campus, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia. Mortality was evaluated putting 10 mites in P. vulgaris 3 cm diameter leaf discs previously submersed in the extract. The lowest mean lethal concentrations (LC50 were obtained with the CSC method (8.1188, 5.4105, 2.8206 mg g-1 at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Extracts were characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS, finding vinyl dithiins (63.11%, diallyl disulfide (10.88% and diallyl trisulfide (10.4% as the main compounds in the CSC extract. The main conclusion is that, in comparison with other techniques of extraction from garlic bulbs used in this study, supercritical fluids allow for obtaining extracts with a higher concentration of biologically active compounds against T. urticae.Tetranychus urticae Koch es una plaga que causa grandes pérdidas económicas porque ataca un numeroso grupo de cultivos. Además, algunas poblaciones han desarrollado resistencia a acaricidas comerciales. Este trabajo compara diferentes extractos a partir de bulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L. a través de su toxicidad y repelencia sobre T. urticae. Los extractos se

  2. Resistencia de cuatro poblaciones del acaro (Tetranychus urticae Koch. a propargite en rosa de corte (Rosa x hybrida en el Estado de México, México Resistance of four population mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch. to propargite in cut rose (Rosa x hybrida in the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Robles-Bermúdez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La araña roja, Tetranychus urticae Koch., es una de las plagas más importantes de la rosa de corte, (Rosa x hybrida, en el Estado de México y su combate se realiza principalmente mediante el uso de acaricidas como el propargite; mismo que los productores usaron inicialmente con resultados satisfactorios y actualmente no controla esta plaga. Con el objetivo de estimar el nivel de resistencia a dicho acaricida, en el año 2007 se evaluó su respuesta a dicho acaricida en poblaciones provenientes de Coatepec Harinas, Tenancingo, Villa Guerrero y Zumpahuacán, Estado de México. De cada localidad se recolectaron al menos 4000 ninfas y 2 000 adultos en el cultivo de rosa de corte bajo invernadero y se reprodujeron hasta F1 para realizar los bioensayos. Se determinó el rango de dosis que eliminaba el 0 al 100% de los individuos tratados (ventana biológica. Posteriormente se incluyeron de cinco a siete concentraciones que cubrieron dicho rango. Se realizaron cinco repeticiones cuatro en días consecutivos diferentes. Las poblaciones de araña roja provenientes de Coatepec Harinas (RR95= 7.9x, Villa Guerrero (RR95=1.3x y Zumpahuacán (RR95= 11 x se consideran susceptibles a propargite; mientras que la población de Tenancingo (RR95 = 90.1 x se considera resistente a dicho acaricida.The spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch., is one of the most important pests of cut rose (Rosa x hybrida in the State of México and, its primary control it's through the use of acaricides, such as propargite; the producers initially used it with satisfactory results and currently it does not control this pest anymore. In order to estimate the level of resistance to that acaricide, in 2007, its response to this acaricide was assessed in populations from Coatepec Harinas, Tenancingo, Villa Guerrero and Zumpahuacán, State of México. In each locality at least 4 000 nymphs and 2 000 adults were collected in the cut rose cultivation in greenhouses and were

  3. A new subfamily, Bothriocrotoninae n. subfam., for the genus Bothriocroton Keirans, King & Sharrad, 1994 status amend. (Ixodida: Ixodidae), and the synonymy of Aponomma Neumann, 1899 with Amblyomma Koch, 1844.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompen, Hans; Dobson, Susan J; Barker, Stephen C

    2002-10-01

    Evidence suggesting polyphyly of the traditionally recognised tick genus Aponomma Neumann, 1899 is summarized. Continued recognition of this genus in its current concept leaves a polyphyletic genus Aponomma and a paraphyletic genus Amblyomma Koch, 1844. To improve the correlation between our understanding of phylogenetic relationships in metastriate ticks and their classification, a few changes in classification are proposed. The members of the 'indigenous Australian Aponomma' group (sensu Kaufman, 1972), A. auruginans Schulze, 1936, A. concolor Neumann, 1899, A. glebopalma Keirans, King & Sharrad, 1994, A. hydrosauri (Denny, 1843) and A. undatum (Fabricius, 1775), are transferred to Bothriocroton Keirans, King & Sharrad, 1994, which is raised to full generic rank. The remaining members of Aponomma are transferred to Amblyomma. Uncertainty remains on relationships of Bothriocroton to other metastriate lineages and on the systematic position of the two species formerly included in the 'primitive Aponomma' group, A. elaphense Price, 1959 and A. sphenodonti Dumbleton, 1943.

  4. Génesis y evolución de los postulados de koch y su relación con la fitopatología. una revisión

    OpenAIRE

    Volcy, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Robert Koch, médico alemán, es señalado como uno de los pioneros de la microbiología y de la bacteriología médica. Durante el apogeo del ántrax y de la tuberculosis en el Viejo Mundo en el siglo XIX, desarrolló la teoría microbiana de la enfermedad que planteaba que las enfermedades infecciosas son de origen microbiano y, de paso, elaboró un revolucionario protocolo experimental –los postulados de Koch– con el fin de establecer cuándo un microbio putativo es la condición necesaria y su...

  5. Génesis y evolución de los postulados de Koch y su relación con la fitopatología. Una revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volcy Charles

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Robert Koch, médico alemán, es señalado como uno de los pioneros de la microbiología y de la bacteriología médica. Durante el apogeo del ántrax y de la tuberculosis en el Viejo Mundo en el siglo XIX, desarrolló la teoría microbiana de la enfermedad que planteaba que las enfermedades infecciosas son de origen microbiano y, de paso, elaboró un revolucionario protocolo experimental –los postulados de Koch– con el fin de establecer cuándo un microbio putativo es la condición necesaria y suficiente para ocasionar una patología cualquiera. Esta reseña pretendió revelar las raíces de dicha teoría que se remontan a la Edad Media, su esencia, su lucha con otras doctrinas, las numerosas y genuinas experimentaciones que se anticiparon a dicha teoría y su relación con el desarrollo de la fitopatología. Se analizaron las limitaciones de la versión original y algunas de las enmiendas propuestas desde la década del treinta hasta la era de las herramientas moleculares, y se dedujo finalmente que los postulados de Koch han superado la prueba del tiempo, gracias a su consistencia, su estabilidad, su coherencia conceptual y el uso del razonamiento lógico.

  6. Toxicities of Seveal Acaricides to Different Development Stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch and Their Safety Evaluations%多种杀螨剂对二斑叶螨不同发育阶段的毒力比较及安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金勇; 涂洪涛; 郭小辉; 陈汉杰

    2011-01-01

    [Aims] Toxicities and vertebrate selectivity ratio of 14 acaricides to different development stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch were analyzed. The obtained results have guiding significance for choosing acaricides to control Tetranychus urticae Koch. [Results] Abamectin and emamectin benzoate had relative higher toxicity to different development stages of T. Urticae Koch, pyridaben, amitraz and propargite had the low activity to them. Spirodiclofen and hexythiazox had higher toxicity to eggs and nymphs of T. Urticae Koch, however, they had lower toxicity to adults. The analysis of the vertebrate selectivity ratio(VSR) of different acaricides showed that emamectin benzoate had the highest selectivity against female adults, spirodiclofen, hexythiazox and liuyangmycin had higher selectivity against eggs and nymphs, pyridaben, amitraz and azocyclotin showed lower selectivity to different development stages of T. Urticae Koch. [Conclusions] Emamectin benzoate and liuyangmycin had higher toxicity to different development stages of T. Urticae Koch, safety to natural enemies and that were suggested be used in orchard.%[目的]选取14种杀螨剂对二斑叶螨进行了不同发育阶段的室内毒力测定,并对选择毒性进行评价,对防治二斑叶螨药剂的合理使用具有指导意义.[结果]阿维菌素和甲维盐对3种螨态的活性均较高;螺螨酯、噻螨酮等对二斑叶螨卵、若螨均有较强活性(<2 mg/L),但是对成螨活性明显偏低.甲维盐表现出对二斑叶螨成螨的高度选择性,噻螨酮、螺螨酯和浏阳霉索对二斑叶螨若螨态和卵态表现出显著选择性.[结论]甲维盐和浏阳霉素对二斑叶螨活性较高,对天敌安全,可以作为优先选择药剂.

  7. Effects of insecticide application on Oracella acuta (Lobdell) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) population and its two dominant parasitoids%杀虫剂对湿地松粉蚧种群及其天敌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙江华; 张彦周

    2003-01-01

    湿地松粉蚧是于1988年传入我国广东省的一种重要林业外来入侵害虫.现在该害虫在我国的分布面积为35.52万公顷,严重影响着我国南方松林的生长健康.该害虫在其原产地美国南方并不造成大的危害,也不是一种主要害虫.只有当大量应用杀虫剂防治其它害虫时,由于杀死了其天敌,湿地松粉蚧种群才会明显增长.为控制这一外来入侵害虫,中美两国于1995年开展了从美国引进天敌防治广东省湿地松粉蚧的林业合作项目.本文报道了1996~1997年间在美国南方三个种子园使用杀虫剂防治球果种实害虫时,杀虫剂对湿地松粉蚧种群及其两种主要天敌有明显的影响,这也间接地说明了寄生性天敌对湿地松粉蚧在自然条件下的控制作用.相关分析显示湿地松粉蚧种群数量与其天敌是密切相关的,但杀虫剂可以打破这种平衡.这一方面说明从美国引进天敌防治湿地松粉蚧是可行的,另一方面也显示在美国采集湿地松粉蚧天敌应在使用过杀虫剂后的林分中.%The effects of insecticide application on loblolly pine mealybug, Oracella acuta (Lobdell) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) and its two dominant parasitoids, Allotropa sp. (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Zarhopalus debarri Sun (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), were investigated using yellow sticky traps. Theresultsrevealed that the Oracella population responded positively to the intensityof insecticide use, which had adverse effects on its two parasitoids. In fact, the outbreak of the mealybug was largely due to this adverse effect of insecticides on its parasitoids. Orchards with high intensity use of insecticides resulted higher Oracella population and vice versa. Comparison of three orchards with three levels of insecticide use further demonstrated the effectiveness of the parasitoids in regulating mealybug populations. Significantly more males of Zarhopalus sp. were caught than females indicated a

  8. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawadee Chamnan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon. The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass provided the highest effectiveness tocontrol aphids (Aphis craccivora Koch. Control of A. craccivora was not significantly different between the synthetic insecticide and plant crude extracts, except methamidophos. Pod damage caused by pod borer (Maruca testulalis Geyer and yields were also not significantly different among treatments. However, the highest yield of 1,224.7 kg/rai was recorded in plots treated with neem seed extracts and the synthetic insecticide, carbosulfan. In untreated plots, the lowest yield of 587.3 kg/rai was collected.

  9. Development of reference transcriptomes for the major field insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa.

  10. DETECTION OF RICKETTSIA FELIS LIKE AGENT FROM EULAELAPS STABULARIS KOCH%从厩真厉螨中检出与猫立克次体近缘的立克次体核酸片段

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚李四; 刘勇先; 邵丽筠; 张晓龙; 杨宇; 王静; 徐宝梁; 王宝麟; 赵彤言

    2012-01-01

    本研究用立克次体属特异的gltA和ompB基因扩增引物,从吉林长白县捕获鼠中分拣的534只厩真厉螨中扩得gltA和ompB基因片段.通过基因片段的序列测定、BLAST比对和系统发育分析,显示两个扩增基因与猫立克次体Rickettsia felis同源性最高(99%),证明该地区厩真厉螨携带与猫立克次体近缘的立克次体.%The segments of glt A gene and omp B gene were amplified and identified with Rickettsia specific git A and omp B primers from 534 mites (Eulaelaps stabularis Koch) collected from rodents of Changbai County, Jilin Province, China. By sequencing, BLAST qualifying and phylogenetic analyzing, it was revealed that the two amplified segments were of highest homology to Rickettsia fells (99% ) , implying that the locally collected E. Stabularis may carry some Rickettsia sp. Allied to Rickettsia fells.

  11. Evaluation of Toxicological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Shells from the Pecan Nut Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch and the Possible Association with Its Inorganic Constituents and Major Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Luiz Carlos S; da Silva, Juliana; Sousa, Karen; Ambrozio, Mariana L; de Almeida, Aline; Dos Santos, Carla Eliete I; Dias, Johnny F; Allgayer, Mariangela C; Dos Santos, Marcela S; Pereira, Patrícia; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Picada, Jaqueline N

    2016-01-01

    Background. Industrial processing of the pecan nut Carya illinoinensis K. Koch generated a large amount of shells, which have been used to prepare nutritional supplements and medicinal products; however, the safe use of shells requires assessment. This study evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of pecan shell aqueous extract (PSAE) and the possible contribution of phenolic compounds, ellagic and gallic acids, and inorganic elements present in PSAE to induce toxicity. Results. Levels of inorganic elements like K, P, Cl, and Rb quantified using the Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission method were higher in PSAE than in pecan shells, while Mg and Mn levels were higher in shells. Mice showed neurobehavioral toxicity when given high PSAE doses (200-2,000 mg kg(-1)). The LD50 was 1,166.3 mg kg(-1). However, PSAE (50-200 mg·kg(-1)) and the phenolic compounds (10-100 mg·kg(-1)) did not induce DNA damage or mutagenicity evaluated using the comet assay and micronucleus test. Treatment with ellagic acid (10-100 mg·kg(-1)) decreased triglyceride and glucose levels, while treatments with PSAE and gallic acid had no effect. Conclusion. Pecan shell toxicity might be associated with high concentrations of inorganic elements such as Mn, Al, Cu, and Fe acting on the central nervous system, besides phytochemical components, suggesting that the definition of the safe dose should take into account the consumption of micronutrients.

  12. Morfologia externa dos cicadellinae (homoptera, cicadellidae: comparação entre versigonalia ruficauda (walker (cicadellini e tretogonia cribrata melichar (proconiini, com notas sobre outras espécies e análise da terminologia External morphology of the cicadellinae (homoptera, cicadellidae: comparison between versigonalia ruficauda (walker (cicadellini and tretogonia cribrata melichar (proconiini, with notes on other species and an analysis of the structural terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mejdalani

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The external morphology of two cicadelline species, Versigonalia ruficauda (Walker, 1851 (Cicadellini and Tretogonia cribrata Melichar, 1926 (Proconiini, is analyzed. The head, axillary sclerites, wing venation, female genitalia, and tegumentary processes are described. Notes on other Cicadellini - Amblyscarlidia albofasciata (Walker, 1851, Tettisama quinquemacidata (Germar, 1821, Macugonalia lencomelas (Walker, 1851, and Diedrocephala variegata (Fabricius, 1775 - and Proconiini - Ciccus adspersus (Fabricius, 1803, Homoscarta superciliaris (Jacobi, 1905, Ichthyobelus sp., and Rhaphirrhinus phosphoreus (Linnaeus, 1758 - are added. A technique for dissecting the female genitalia is presented. The facial porlion of head in V. ruficauda, T. cribrata, and remaining species has a large sclerite (frons or postfrontofrons clearly defined by the frontogenal suture. Below the frons, and separated from it by the epistomal suture, a smaller sclerite is present (clypeus. The identification of these sclerites is based on comparisons with descriptions in the literature of a generalized Pterygota, a Psocoptera, a fossil Hemipteroidea, and other Homoptera. The conclusions about the identities of frons and clypeus corroborate the hypotheses of Hamilton (1981 on the homologies of cephalic areas in Rhynchota. The facial sclerites have modifications related with the xyleniomyzous diet. The frons is swollen, providing a larger area for attachmcnt of cibarial muscles. Other modifications increasing the area of frons are observed in the Proconiini. In C. adspersus its lateral margins are distinctly pronounced and its upper portion has a pair of lateral elevations. In Ichthyobelus sp. and R. phosphoreus the upper part of frons is greatly developed, occupying 4/5 of dorsal area of head on middle line. The vertex is limited to a small portion (1/5 of that area. The clypeus is also swollen, a fact related with the greater development of cibarium. This character is more

  13. Nouvelle technique d'élevage de l'acarien phyllophage Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari : Tetranychidae et son application à l'étude de l'efficacité de quelques acaricides sur pomme de terre (Solarium tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badegana, AM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A New Rearing Technique of Phytophagous Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari : Tetranychida and its Application in the Study of the Efficacy of some Acaricides on Potato [Solanum tuberosum L.. A 5 cm diameter leaf disc of potato or another host plant (or four on 2.5 cm diameter was used in a Petri dish of 9 cm diameter for the rearing technique. This leaf disc, pierced in its centre, slides along a rustproof pin and floats on a 1 mm thick lamina of demineralized fresh water. Water is a "strong barrier" which confines the tetranychid mites on the leaf disc, even if this one does not corne from a host plant (tetranychid mites deprived of food. This rearing technique was used as a bioassay to test the effectiveness of acaricides (pyrimiphos-methyl, bromopropylate, fenpropathrin, dienochlor on the developmental stages of Tetranychus urticae. The ovicidal activity against the eggs of one, three, seven days old (the eggs incubation duration being 8.1 ±0.15 days was also studied. The results obtained show that bromopropylate, fenpropathrin and dienochlor have an ovicidal activity against the eggs of the different ages, but dienochlor has the highest efficiency (90 % mortality. Pyrimiphos-methyl is only active against the seven-day old eggs and bromopropylate has a high efficiency only on the one-day old eggs. Concerning the other developmental stages such as chrysalis (protochrysalis, deu-tochrysalis, teleiochrysalis and mobile stages (larva, protonymph, deutonymph and adult female, pyrimiphos-methyl has de highest efficiency (90 % mortality ; dienochlor also, except mobile stages. Bromopropylate has no activity against the chrysalis and mobile stages and fenpropathrin has a remarkable repulsive effect.

  14. Evaluation of Toxicological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Shells from the Pecan Nut Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch and the Possible Association with Its Inorganic Constituents and Major Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos S. Porto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Industrial processing of the pecan nut Carya illinoinensis K. Koch generated a large amount of shells, which have been used to prepare nutritional supplements and medicinal products; however, the safe use of shells requires assessment. This study evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of pecan shell aqueous extract (PSAE and the possible contribution of phenolic compounds, ellagic and gallic acids, and inorganic elements present in PSAE to induce toxicity. Results. Levels of inorganic elements like K, P, Cl, and Rb quantified using the Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission method were higher in PSAE than in pecan shells, while Mg and Mn levels were higher in shells. Mice showed neurobehavioral toxicity when given high PSAE doses (200–2,000 mg kg−1. The LD50 was 1,166.3 mg kg−1. However, PSAE (50–200 mg·kg−1 and the phenolic compounds (10–100 mg·kg−1 did not induce DNA damage or mutagenicity evaluated using the comet assay and micronucleus test. Treatment with ellagic acid (10–100 mg·kg−1 decreased triglyceride and glucose levels, while treatments with PSAE and gallic acid had no effect. Conclusion. Pecan shell toxicity might be associated with high concentrations of inorganic elements such as Mn, Al, Cu, and Fe acting on the central nervous system, besides phytochemical components, suggesting that the definition of the safe dose should take into account the consumption of micronutrients.

  15. 柑桔黄龙病的鉴定和柯赫氏定理%"Candidatus Liberibacter Species": Without Koch's Postulates Completed, Can the Bacterium be Considered as the Causal Agent of Citrus Huanglongbing (Yellow Shoot Disease) ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen J; Deng X; Civerolo E L; Lee R F; Jones J B; Zhou C; Hartung J S; Manjunath K L; Brlansky R H

    2011-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease) has been a destructive disease of citrus around the world for over a century, yet the etiology of the disease has not been definitively established. Based mainly on assays for 16S rRNA gene sequences, fastidious bacteria known as "Candidatus Liberibacter species" have been .ssociated with HLB. We are concerned that some current literature frequendy refers to "Ca. Liberibacter spp." as the causal or etiological agent of HLB. However, Koch' s postulates, either sensu stricto or modified, have not yet been completely fulfilled to establish that "Ca. Liberibacter spp." are the cause of HLB.Direct pathological interactions between the bacteria and citrus host have not been conclusively documented.We suggest there is a need for the literature to be precise on this point until the etiology of HLB is firmly established.%黄龙(梢)病被认为是世界柑橘生产上的毁灭性病害已超过一个世纪,但该病害的病原学至今还没有清晰地建立起来.根据16S rRNA基因序列分析,一组被称为"Candidatus Liberibacter species"的难培养细菌被认为与黄龙病相关.然而,要确定"Ca.Liberibacter spp."是黄龙病病原的柯赫氏定理并没有真正完成.令我们担忧的是,近年来有些文献频频指出"Ca.Liberibacter spp."是黄龙病的病原,其实该细菌与柑橘寄主的直接病理反应还没有完全确定.我们建议,在黄龙病病原学清楚之前,文献报道在这方面需要有准确的阐述.

  16. ESTIMATIVA DA IDADE DE SEGREGAÇÃO DO LENHO JUVENIL E ADULTO DE Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh K. Koch POR MEIO DE PARÂMETROS ANATÔMICOS DA MADEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Alberto Gatto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the demarcation of juvenile and mature wood is essential both for wood technology and forest management. Thinning, in most cases, must take into account this parameter, as the juvenile wood has inferior characteristics compared to mature wood, and different proportions of each type of wood will affect the quality and the use of the wood. Thus, this study aimed to determine the age of maturation of the wood using anatomical characteristics of Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh K. Koch wood, through the segregation of juvenile and mature wood. Three adult trees, of good trunk, with diameter greater than 30 cm DBH, were chosen from the region Encosta Superior do Nordeste in the State of the Rio Grande do Sul. From each tree, one disc was removed, with approximately 2 cm in thickness, at 0.10 m in height of the trunk. From each disc was removed a central portion of 2 cm in width, well oriented in the radial direction, including the pith in the center, and this central portion was divided into samples "A" and "B". One of these two samples was selected for separation of the initial wood of each growth ring for maceration (Jeffrey method . First, the length, width and diameter of the lumen of one hundred fibers were measured in the first ring (next to the bark and later, thirty fibers were defined per growth ring as statistically sufficient for the assay. The thickness of the walls of the fiber was taken as the half of the difference of the diameter of the fiber and the lumen. The segregation of the two types of wood was defined by the radial variation (pith-bark of the anatomical characteristics (length, diameter, width of the lumen and thickness of the wall of fibers, through two simple linear regressions. The results indicate that the fiber length is the best characteristic for the definition of the year of segregation. The age of segregation of juvenile-mature wood was defined as 16 years. In their turn, the anatomical parameters, diameter

  17. Rahvusmeedia otsib uut logo / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Rahvusringhäälinguks ühinenud Eesti Televisioon ja Eesti Raadio hakkavad otsima ühist logo, teleekraani nurka jääb ikka lühend ETV ning erinevad raadiojaamad jätkavad ka tulevikus oma näo ja nimega

  18. Eurovalimistele 68 protsenti rahvast / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2004-01-01

    Juunis toimuvatel europarlamendi valimistel kavatseb osaleda 68 protsenti Eesti valimisõiguslikest kodanikest. Diagrammid: Küsitluste tulemused europarlamendi valimiste kohta. Arvamust avaldavad Rein Lang, Peeter Tulviste, Peeter Kreitzberg ja Paavo Palk. Kommenteerib Urmet Kook

  19. Rikutud altar toob kirikule trahvi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    Raplamaa Vigala kiriku kogudus lasi kooskõlastuseta üle värvida 17. sajandist pärineva Christian Ackermanni barokkaltari ja -kantsli. Muinsuskaitsjate arvates tuleb värv altarilt ja kantslilt eemaldada. Omavoliliselt värvitud on ka mälestiseks kuulutatud pingistik, oreliväär, krutsifiks, numbritahvlid, kiriku uksed

  20. Sotside enamus lepib Savisaarega / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2009-01-01

    Sotsiaaldemokraatidest enamus toetab koos Keskerakonnaga võimuvastutuse võtmist Tallinnas. Riigikogu sotsiaaldemokraatide fraktsiooni esimees Eiki Nestor on läbirääkimiste suhtes tsentristidega negatiivselt meelestatud

  1. Tulevased presidendid saatsid Presidenti / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    President Lennart Meri oli 26. märtsil ära saatma tulnud tuhanded eestimaalased, kes jälgisid kiriklikku tseremooniat Vabaduse väljakule paigutatud ekraanidelt ning saatsid president Lennart Merit Kadrioru lossini

  2. Algebraic Thinking through Koch Snowflake Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jonaki B.

    2016-01-01

    Generalizing is a foundational mathematical practice for the algebra classroom. It entails an act of abstraction and forms the core of algebraic thinking. Kinach (2014) describes two kinds of generalization--by analogy and by extension. This article illustrates how exploration of fractals provides ample opportunity for generalizations of both…

  3. The aetiology of SARS: Koch's postulates fulfilled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractProof that a newly identified coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the primary cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) came from a series of studies on experimentally infected cynomolgus macaques (Macaca, fascicularis). SARS-CoV-infected

  4. Rahvusmeedia otsib uut logo / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Rahvusringhäälinguks ühinenud Eesti Televisioon ja Eesti Raadio hakkavad otsima ühist logo, teleekraani nurka jääb ikka lühend ETV ning erinevad raadiojaamad jätkavad ka tulevikus oma näo ja nimega

  5. Siseminister toetab politseijuhtide vaidluses Antropovit / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2003-01-01

    Siseminister Margus Leivo politseiameti peadirektori Robert Antropovi ja keskkriminaalpolitsei juhi Andres Anvelti diskussioonist keskkriminaalpolitsei tuleviku üle. Endise siseministri Ain Seppiku arvamus

  6. Sobre la validez de Pachychila freyi Koch, 1944, P. denticollis Grimm, 1987 y las sinonimias del género introducidas por Viñolas & Cartagena (2005 en su Fauna de Tenebriónidos (Argania Editio (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Pimeliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrer, J.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Pachychila freyi Koch, 1944, misidentified as Pachychila incrassata Rosenhauer, 1856 by Viñolas & Cartagena (2005, and P. denticollis Grimm, 1987 are two valid species from Almería, Spain, arbitrarily treated as junior synonyms respectively of Pachychila glabella (Herbst, 1799 and of P. germari Solier, 1835. They differ clearly from Pachychila glabella and P. germari and from all other described species of this genus, by several morphological external and internal characters, ignored by the authors, who failed to study types. Moreover, the insect treated as “Pachychila germari Solier” by Viñolas & Cartagena (2005, exhibits significant genitalia differences compared to Pachychila germari from North Africa, and in reality belongs to Pachychila bifida Rosenhauer, 1856, another valid species of the Iberian fauna.Pachychila freyi Koch, 1944 –confundida con Pachychila incrassata Rosenhauer, 1856–, y P. denticollis Grimm, 1987, son dos especies válidas de Almería, España, arbitrariamente puestas en sinonimia de Pachychila glabella (Herbst, 1799 y de P. germari Solier, 1835, respectivamente, por Viñolas & Cartagena (2005. Ambas son claramente diferentes de estas especies, y de todas las Pachychilas conocidas y descritas, por un gran número de caracteres morfológicos, ignorados por estos autores, que no han examinado los tipos. Además, “Pachychila germari Solier” (Viñolas & Cartagena, 2005, presenta considerables diferencias en su genitalia con Pachychila germari del norte de África, y en realidad se trata de Pachychila bifida Rosenhauer, 1856, otra especie válida de la fauna ibérica.

  7. «  Erika hätte so gern ein Bild von Koch ». Materielle Erinnerungskulturen in Mädchenschulen in Österreich und Deutschland in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gerhalter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available « Erika aimerait tellement avoir une image de la Koch ». Cultures matérielles de la mémoire dans des écoles pour jeunes filles en Autriche et en Allemagne pendant la première moitié du XXe siècle.Le présent article se situe à la croisée de problématiques formulées, d’une part, par l’histoire du genre et les études sur l’auto/biographie et les ego-documents, et d’autre part, par l’histoire de l’amitié et du patronage, l’histoire des émotions ainsi que les recherches sur la culture matérielle. En effet, l’étude d’un ensemble de journaux intimes et de correspondances, tenus par des jeunes filles issues de milieux bourgeois en Autriche et en Allemagne pendant la première moitié du XXe siècle, permet de dégager trois séries d’objets qui circulent entre les élèves mais aussi entre élèves et enseignantes et qui, en matérialisant ainsi les relations affectives (d’amitié, d’admiration, etc. en milieu scolaire, deviennent des objets mémoriels. Ce sont avant tout les cahiers de souvenirs, des lettres ainsi que des portraits photographiques qui s’échangeaient suivant des logiques spécifiques, dont l’article se propose de relever les contraintes, les possibilités et les temporalités propres au parcours scolaire. Les classes, exclusivement féminines, sont considérées comme des ensembles sociaux fortement hiérarchisés mais au sein desquels relations formelles et informelles entre les élèves et les enseignantes s’imbriquaient étroitement. Les objets échangés entre élèves et ceux échangés entre élèves et enseignantes étaient les mêmes ; les modalités des échanges en revanche étaient clairement plus hiérarchiques dans le second cas. Si la nature des faveurs (une lettre, une photo ou un mot écrit sur le cahiers de souvenirs que demandaient les élèves à une camarade ou à une enseignante, était la même, l’enseignante n’y accédait que rarement ; les enseignantes ne

  8. El test del Árbol, su aplicación en la exploración de la personalidad en la clínica médico-forense Application of the Koch Tree test in the exploration of personality in Forensic Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Cid Rodriguez

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se propone el Test del Árbol como un instrumento muy útil para la exploración médico-forense en casos de violencia familiar, agresiones sexuales y en los casos de víctimas infantiles. Para la interpretación de la prueba se indica la metodología a seguir y la bibliografia necesaria. Como aplicación práctica se expone una pericia sobre una niña víctima de abusos sexuales y los dos adultos denunciados; en el informe se comparan los resultados obtenidos en el Cuestionario Factorial de Personalidad 16-PF de Catell y el análisis del Test del Árbol dibujado por las personas exploradas.In a case of infant sexual abuse a number of psycho-diagnostic tests were performed both in the victim and two men arrested as possible perpetrators. After collecting and analyzing all results, the authors formally propose the "Koch Tree test" as a projective test of forensic utility.

  9. Preferência do pulgão-preto e da cigarrinha-verde em diferentes genótipos de feijão-caupi em Roraima = Preference of the black aphid and green leafhopper in different genotypes of cowpea in Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Falkyner da Silva Bandeira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de insetos praga está entre os fatores que mais afetam a produtividade do feijão-caupi. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a resistência de nove genótipos de feijão-caupi ao ataque do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854, e da cigarrinha-verde, (Empoasca sp., e a flutuação populacional de A. craccivora sobre a cultura, em condições de campo. Foram selecionados nove genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, a saber: BR-17 Gurgueia, BRS Guariba, BRS Cauamé, Pretinho Precoce 1, UFRR Grão Verde, Apiaú, Iracema, Cara-Preta e Sempre Verde. O delineamento experimental foi realizado em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com quatro repetições. Cada variedade foi plantada em quatro linhas paralelas, considerando as duas fileiras centrais como área útil. A contagem dos pulgões foi feita diretamente na última folha trifoliolada completamente aberta, enquanto que a das cigarrinhas foi realizada pelo método da batida de plantas em bandeja com água. Nos genótipos BRS Cauamé, BRS Guariba e Pretinho Precoce 1 foram observados os menores índices de infestação por A. craccivora, apresentando, portanto, resistência do tipo não preferência em relação aos demais avaliados. O genótipo Apiaú mostrou-se suscetível a Empoasca sp., e os BR-17 Gurgueia, Cara-Preta, Sempre Verde, UFRR Grão Verde e BRS Cauamé foram os mais resistentes, em função da menor preferência pelas cigarrinhas, registrada, principalmente, aos 28 e 35 dias após a emergência das plantas. = The occurrence of insect pests is among the most important factors affecting cowpea productivity. This study aimed at evaluating the resistance of nine genotypes of cowpea attack in black aphid Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854, and of green leafhopper (Empoasca sp., and the population fluctuation of A. craccivora on culture, under field conditions. Nine cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp genotypes were chosen: BR-17

  10. Distribuição espacial do pulgão preto em feijão de corda e cálculo do número de amostras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefté Ferreira da Silva

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a dispersão espacial do pulgão preto (Aphis craccivora Koch, na cultura de feijão de corda (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. e estabelecer o número de amostras necessárias para a estimativa da população da praga para o uso em programas de Manejo Integrado de Pragas. Para isso, foram cultivados dois campos experimentais na Universidade Federal do Ceará, em Fortaleza. O primeiro campo tinha uma área de 216 m², composta de 15 parcelas. O segundo campo tinha uma área de 576 m² dividida em 25 parcelas. A cultivar utilizada foi a Vita 7 com plantas espaçadas em 0,25 m x 0,8 m. Foram realizadas seis coletas de dados em cada campo onde foram avaliadas dez plantas por parcela. Foi contado o número de colônias de pulgão presentes em toda a planta. Os resultados obtidos nos índices de agregação utilizados indicam que a dispersão do A. craccivora no campo é do tipo agregada o que foi confirmado pelo ajuste dos dados à distribuição de frequência Binomial Negativa. Quarenta e cinco é o número de amostras adequado para a estimativa da população de A. craccivora em campos de V. unguiculata para aplicação em programas de Manejo Integrado de Pragas.

  11. Seleções para resistência e suscetibilidade, detecção e monitoramento da resistência de Tetranychus urticae ao acaricida clorfenapir Selections for resistance and susceptibility, detection and monitoring of resistance to the acaricide chlorfenapyr in Tetranychus urticae koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Eidi Sato

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Problemas com resistência de ácaro-rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, a acaricidas têm sido registrados em diversos países, inclusive no Brasil. O estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a resistência de T. urticae ao acaricida clorfenapir e avaliar a freqüência de resistência a esse composto em áreas comerciais de seis culturas no Estado de São Paulo. Seleções para resistência e suscetibilidade a clorfenapir foram realizadas em laboratório, utilizando-se uma população de T. urticae coletada em 2002 de um cultivo comercial de crisântemo em Holambra (SP. Após seis seleções para resistência e cinco seleções para suscetibilidade, foram obtidas as linhagens suscetível (S e resistente (R de T. urticae a clorfenapir. A razão de resistência (CL50 R/ CL50 S obtida alcançou valores de 571 vezes. Estabeleceu-se uma concentração discriminatória de 37,4 mg L-1 de ingrediente ativo (i.a. para o monitoramento da resistência de T. urticae a clorfenapir. O monitoramento foi realizado coletando-se 21 populações de ácaros em áreas comerciais de diferentes culturas (mamão, morango, feijão, tomate, crisântemo, rosa, em vários municípios do Estado de São Paulo. Arenas confeccionadas com folha de feijão foram infestadas com ácaros T. urticae e pulverizadas com clorfenapir, na sua concentração discriminatória, em torre de Potter. Os resultados indicaram grande variabilidade entre as populações com relação à suscetibilidade a clorfenapir. Foram observadas populações com freqüências de resistência entre 0,0 e 65,4%. As maiores freqüências de resistência foram observadas para populações coletadas de crisântemo em Holambra (SP.Problems associated with acaricide resistance in Tetranychus urticae Koch have been recorded in several countries including Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize the resistance of T. urticae to the acaricide chlorfenapyr and to evaluate the resistance

  12. Biosystematic studies on the Muellerianella complex (Delphacidae), Homoptera, auchenorrhyncha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drosopoulos, S.

    1977-01-01

    The genus Muellerianella comprises the species: M. farmairei, M. brevipennis, M. relicta and one pseudogamous all-female biotype M. fairmairei (3n). The bisexual species M. fairmairei and M. brevipennis as well as the unisexual M. fairmairei (3n) were investigated from a biosystematic point of view.

  13. Perkembangan Populasi Empoasca sp. (Homoptera : Cicadelidae di Kebun Teh Pagilaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachrudin Pachrudin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Empoasca sp. was first reported as pest in West Java tea plantation in 1998. In 2000, this cicadellid was also found in Pagilaran tea plantation in Central Java. The aim of this research was to observe the preferences of Empoasca sp. to tea cultivars and the effect of altitude and climate factors to population dynamics of Empoasca sp. the result showed that Kiara 8 cultivar planted in 700 - 850 m asl was highly susceptible to Empoasca sp. The lowest population and the least damage was found in PS 1 cultivar which has leaves with the densest hair. Intensity of the rain-fall was likely to have higher impact to population of Empoasca sp. rather than humidity and temperature.

  14. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Eun-Hee; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Park, Hyung-Man; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2003-10-01

    A total of 53 plant essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against eggs, nymphs, and adults of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, using an impregnated filter paper bioassays without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and developmental stage of the insect. Bay, caraway seed, clove leaf, lemon eucalyptus, lime dis 5 F, pennyroyal, peppermint, rosewood, spearmint, and tea tree oils were highly effective against T. vaporariorum adults, nymphs, and eggs at 0.0023, 0.0093, and 0.0047 microl/ml air, respectively. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Significant correlations among adulticidal, nymphicidal, and ovicidal activities of the test oils were observed. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. vaporariorum control.

  15. Biosystematic studies on the Muellerianella complex (Delphacidae Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drosopoulos, S.

    1977-01-01

    The genus Muellerianella comprises the species: M. farmairei, M. brevipennis, M. relicta and one pseudogamous all-female biotype M. fairmairei (3n). The bisexual species M. fairmairei and M. brevi

  16. Una nueva especie de Iragua Melichar, 1926 (Insecta: Homoptera: Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro W. Lozada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Iragua Melichar, I. chola sp. n., de material procedente de la Zona Reservada de Tambopata, departamento de Madre de Dios, y de Chanchamayo, departamento de Junín, en Perú. El material tipo se encuentra depositado en las colecciones del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural y del Museo de Entomología de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú.

  17. Appearance of Neotoxoptera formosana (Homoptera: Aphididae) in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piron, P.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Neotoxoptera formosana (Takahashi) is a pest of wild and cultivated Allium species, but never iwht disastrous consequences. In 1984, N. formosana was found in France. This was the first finding in Europe. Since then, N. formosana has been observed also in other European countries. The first record f

  18. Karyotypes of six previously unstudied European mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Gavrilov-Zimin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenacoccus peruvianus Granada de Willink, 2007, Ph. prope avenae Borchsenius, 1949, Ph. hordei (Lindeman, 1886, Вalanococcus boratynskii Williams, 1962, Trionymus  radicum (Newstead, 1895, Rhizoecus halophilus (Hardy, 1868 were studied karyologically for the first time. All species demonstrate 2n=10 and a Lecanoid genetic system. Photos of karyotypes of all studied species are given.

  19. The male of Nancyana curva (Homoptera: Cicadellidae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Boa Nova Coelho

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult male of Nancyana curva is described and illustrated for the first time, based on four specimens from the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Male diagnostic characters include the presence of a pair of inner projections on the dorsal lobe of the pygofer, and a dorsal pair of short subapical processes on the aedeagus. The female color pattern is similar to that of male, with dark brown bands on torax not so clear.

  20. A synopsis of the tribe Micrutalini Haupt (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Micrutalini and its two genera, Trachytalis Fowler and Micrutalis Fowler, are redescribed. The following species are treated and, in some cases, nomenclatura! changes introduced: Trachytalis isabellina Fowler, 1895; T. distinguenda Fowler, 1895; T. retrofasciata (Lethierry, 1890, comb.n.; Micrutalis alrovena Goding, 1930; M. balteata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Aculalis lucidus Buckton, 1902, syn.n.; M. bella Goding, 1929; M. biguttula (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.; M. binaria (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis flavivenlris Lethierry, 1890, syn.n.; M. callan-gensis Goding, 1930; M. calva (Say, 1830; M. discalis (Walker, 1858; M. dorsalis (Fitch, 1851; M. dubia Fowler, 1895 = M. zeteki Goding, 1928, syn.n.; M. flava Goding, 1929; M. flavozonala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n. = Acutalis geniculata Stál, 1862, syn.n. = Acutalis modesta Stál, 1862, syn.n.; M. godfreyi Sakakibara, 1976; M. incerla Sakakibara, 1976; M. lata Goding, 1930; M. litlerala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.;M lugubrina(Stál, 1862;M malleiferaFovj]er, 1895 = M binariamutabilis Fowler, 1895, syn.n.; M. minutus Buckton, 1902; M. nigrolineata (Stál, 1864; M. nigromarginata Funkhouser, 1940; M. notalipennis Fowler, 1895; M. occidentalis (Goding, 1893; M. pollens Fowler, 1895; M. parva (Goding, 1893; M. plagíala (Stál, l&62 = AcutalisvariabiIisBerg, 1879,syn.n. =M. chapadensisGoding, 1930,syn.n.; M. punctifera (Walker, 1858; M. semialba (Stál, 1862; M. stipulipennis Buckton, 1902; M. tau Goding, 1930; M. trifurcala Goding, 1893; M. tripunctata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis moesta Stál, 1859, syn.n. = M. tartaredoides Goding, 1930, syn.n.. New species: Micrutalis diminuta sp.n. (Ecuador, Pichincha; Micrutalis divisa sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis henki sp.n. (Panama, Canal Zone; Micrutalis infúscala sp.n. (Venezuela, Portuguesa; Micrutalis margínala sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis meridana sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis mucuya sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis robustula sp.n. (Venezuela, Caracas; M. seminigra sp.n. (Brazil, Paraná; Micrutalis turriba sp.n. (Costa Rica, Turrialba. Lectotypes are designated for: Acutalis balteata Fairmaire, 1846, Aculalis binaria Fairmaire, 1846, Acutalis flavozonala Fairmaire, 1846, una Acutalis tripunctata Fairmaire, 1846. New taxonomic position: Micrutalis melanogramma (Petty, 1833 is transferred to Melu-sinella Metcalf, 1952 (Ceresini - Melusinella melanogramma (Petty, 1833, comb.n. = Melusinella nervosa (Fairmaire, 1846, syn.n.. Species incertae sedis: Tragopa ephippium Burmeister, 1836.

  1. Appearance of Neotoxoptera formosana (Homoptera: Aphididae) in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piron, P.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Neotoxoptera formosana (Takahashi) is a pest of wild and cultivated Allium species, but never iwht disastrous consequences. In 1984, N. formosana was found in France. This was the first finding in Europe. Since then, N. formosana has been observed also in other European countries. The first record

  2. Biosystematic studies on the Muellerianella complex (Delphacidae Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drosopoulos, S.

    1977-01-01

    The genus Muellerianella comprises the species: M. farmairei, M. brevipennis, M. relicta and one pseudogamous all-female biotype M. fairmairei (3n). The bisexual species M. fairmairei and M.

  3. Two New Treehoppers of the Genus Sipylus (Homoptera, Membracidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Masami, HAYASHI; Toshitsugu, ENDO; Department of Biology, Faculty of Education, Saitama University

    1990-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Sipylus, sphyrna and piceus, are described from North Thailand and the Malay Peninsula, respectively. Some remarks on the species are given in comparison with S. truncaticornis FUNKHOUSER and auriculatus FUNKHOUSER.

  4. Distributional patterns and possible origin of leafhoppers (Homoptera, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin W. Nielson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The zoogeographical distribution of 42 cicadellid subfamilies and their assigned tribes and genera is compiled with distributional maps and proposed dispersal pathways of genera that are shared interzoogeographically. Possible origin of the subfamilies and tribes is proposed in an ancestral context from which the more modern extant groups evolved whereas origin of genera is in a more modern context. Notwithstanding their complex biogeography, the distributional data of the higher groups indicate that all of the cosmopolitan and near cosmopolitan subfamilies arose during early Cretaceous or possibly the late Jurassic period (140-116 m.y.a. when continental drift was in its early stages. Nearly all of the New World and some Old World subfamilies are considered of more recent origin (late Cretaceous-Tertiary. Ninety percent of the known genera (2,126 are endemic to their respective zoogeographical region and subregion, thus indicating relatively high host specificity and low rate of dispersal. The majority (76% of known extant genera are pantropical in origin, suggesting early or possible Gondwanaland origin of their ancestors. Dispersal pathways of genera shared by more than one zoogeographical region were generally south to north (Neotropical/Nearctic, Oriental/Palaearctic or west to east (Palaearctic/Nearctic, Oriental/Australian, from regions of high diversity to regions of low diversity and from warmer climates to cooler climates. The most diverse and richest leafhopper fauna are present in the Neotropical and Ethiopian regions although taxal affinities between them are poorest. The most depauperate fauna are in the Nearctic region and in Australia, reflecting the impact of isolating and ecological factors on distribution and radiation. Ecological barriers were more evident between the Ethiopian and Oriental fauna than between any other zoogeographical combination. Taxal affinities appeared to be correlated with close continental proximities. Vicariance (physical was the principal event that appealed to explain the distribution of many subfamilies and tribes whereas dispersal accounted for distribution of the majority of interzoogeographical genera.

  5. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca) angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska); Empoasca (Empoasca) ch...

  6. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Dmitriev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska; Empoasca (Empoasca chilensis nom.nov. for Empoasca diversa Linnavuori & DeLong (not Vilbaste; Austroasca verdensis nom.nov. for Empoasca artemisiae Lindberg (not Lethierry; Kropka vidanoi Dworakowska for Erythroneura unipunctata Dlabola (not Cerutti; Zyginella vietnamica nom.nov. for Zyginella melichari Dworakowska (not Kirkaldy; Eupteryx (Eupteryx dlabolai nom.nov. for Eupteryx octonotata Dlabola (not Hardy; Baaora ahmedi nom.nov. for Baaora spinosa (Ahmed (not Beamer; Paradelphacodes insolitus Dmitriev is synonymized with Paradelphacodes gvosdevi (Mitjaev, syn.nov.

  7. Biology of Diaphorina citri (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on four host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, J H; Liu, Y H

    2000-12-01

    The biology of the citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama was studied at 25 degrees C on four commonly grown citrus and related plants [rough lemon, Citrus jambhiri Lush; sour orange, C aurantium L.; grapefruit, C. paradisi Macfadyen; and orange jessamine, Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack] in the laboratory. The biological characteristics of each life stage are described. The average egg incubation periods on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon, and sour orange varied very little (4.1-4.2 d). The average nymphal developmental periods on these four host plants were essentially the same except the fifth stadium. Survival of immatures on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon, and sour orange was 75.4, 84.6, 78.3, and 68.6%, respectively. Female adults lived an average of 39.7, 39.7, 47.6, and 43.7 d on these respective host plants. The average number of eggs laid per female on grapefruit (858 eggs) was significantly more than those on other hosts (P < 0.05). The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) for D. citri on grapefruit was highest. Jackknife estimates of r(m) varied from 0.188 on grapefruit to 0.162 on orange jessamine and rough lemon. The mean population generation time on these hosts ranged from 31.6 to 34.1 d. The continuous flushes produced by orange jessamine could play an important role in maintaining high populations of this vector when the new flushes are not available in the commercial citrus groves.

  8. Migration, trapping and local dynamics of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Lisbeth; Nachman, Gösta

    2006-01-01

    1 The ability to quantify whitefly migration provides a tool that can contribute to an improved understanding of the epidemic development of whitefly-transmitted viruses. 2 In an attempt to develop a protocol for estimating whitefly immigration and emigration rates in an annual crop, new traps...... and sampling devices were tested in the field and models for population dynamics were developed. 3 An estimate of immigration rate was derived from the growth of a natural population of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) in the beginning of a crop cycle before offspring of immigrants contributed...

  9. Strawberry resistance to the aphid Chaetosiphon fragaefolii Cockerell (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Milenković

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sections of leaf blades and petioles of different strawberry genotypes exhibiting different levels of resistance to Chaetosiphon fragaefolii were studied using the paraffin method, and staining with safranin, crystal violet and light green. Besides thicker cell walls of the cortex collenchyma in the more resistant genotypes, and a proportionally wider collenchyma than parenchyma in the cortex, their midribs are also encircled by a ring of more intensely stained lignified cells forming a physical ring. This stain reaction of cells to safranin and crystal violet occurs also in lateral vascular bundles, as well as in leaf palisade tissue. The tissue cross-sections of the sensitive genotypes revealed a predominance of green on the cellulose cell walls and protoplasts due to the reaction to light green SF, while stain reactions to safranin and crystal violet were not evidenced.

  10. COMPARATIVE DEMOGRAPHICS OF A GENERALIST PREDATORY LADYBIRD ON FIVE APHID PREY: A LABORATORY STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omkar; AhmadPervez

    2004-01-01

    Prey driven demographic parameters of an aphidophagous ladybird, Propylea dissecta (Mulsant) were studied in attempt to answer how ladybird overcomes the problem of seasonally fluctuating food base. The ladybird reared for five generations in laboratory derived differential nutrition from five food sources (i.e. aphid species, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Aphis craccivora Koch, Aphis gossypii Glover, Uroleucon compositae (Theobald) and Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)). The order of relative prey suitability was A. gossypii, A. craccivora, R. maidis, U. compositae and L.erysimi. Neonates suffered maximum mortality followed by eggs. Estimates of net reproductive rate,intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase were highest (407.18, 0.2274 day-1, 1.2553 day-1) on A. gossypii and lowest (176.02, 0.1533 day-1, 1.1657 day-1) on L. erysimi. Generation time was shortest (26.43 days) on A. gossypii and longest (33.73 days) on L. erysimi. The present study thus,provides an explanation to the high incidence of P. dissecta on A. gossypii, as it experienced high intrinsic rate of increase and optimal values for related demographic parameters.

  11. Tritrophic associations and taxonomic notes on Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae, a keystone aphid parasitoid in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshani Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of host associations, distribution and types of reproduction (sexual, asexual of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall across 20 provinces of Iran during 2006-2011 was undertaken. The parasitoid was reared from three groups of host aphids belonging to genera Aphis and Brachycaudus, and occasional host aphid genera. Aphis craccivora Koch was the most frequent host aphid for L. fabarum on various host plants, including economically important crops. The field sex ratio generally favored females, but in some cases, only thelytokous (uniparental populations were found. In those cases, the host was always an Aphis species. Specimens reared from Brachycaudus aphids were all biparental, indicating the presence of a sibling biological species. Overall analysis of diagnostic morphological characters in the forewing indicated intra-specific variability in forewing marginal setae as well as variations in length of the R1 vein. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

  12. 多食性瓢虫捕食5种蚜虫的统计学比较:实验室研究%COMPARATIVE DEMOGRAPHICS OF A GENERALIST PREDATORY LADYBIRD ON FIVE APHID PREY:A LABORATORY STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omkar; Ahmad Pervez

    2004-01-01

    Prey driven demographic parameters of an aphidophagous ladybird, Propylea dissecta (Mulsant) were studied in attempt to answer how ladybird overcomes the problem of seasonally fluctuating food base. The ladybird reared for five generations in laboratory derived differential nutrition from five food sources (i.e. aphid species, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Aphis craccivora Koch, Aphis gossypii Glover, Uroleucon compositae (Theobald) and Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)). The order of relative prey suitability was A. gossypii, A. craccivora, R. maidis, U. compositae and L.erysimi. Neonates suffered maximum mortality followed by eggs. Estimates of net reproductive rate,intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase were highest (407.18, 0.2274 day-1, 1.2553 day-1) on A. gossypii and lowest (176.02, 0.1533 day-i, 1.1657 day-1) on L. erysimi. Generation time was shortest (26.43 days) on A. gossypii and longest (33.73 days) on L. erysimi. The present study thus,provides an explanation to the high incidence of P. dissecta on A. gossypii, as it experienced high intrinsic rate of increase and optimal values for related demographic parameters.%通过食蚜瓢虫Propylea dissecta(Mulsant)的捕食统计学参数的比较,尝试回答瓢虫是如何克服食物基础季节性的变动问题.在实验室中饲养五世代的瓢虫从五种蚜虫(Rhopalosiphum maidis(Fitch),Aphis craccivora Kock,Aphis gossypii Glover,Uroleucon compositae(Theobald)和Lipaphis erysimi(Kalt))为食物来源获得营养.相对适合的猎物次序是A.gossypii,A.craccivora,R.maidis,U.compositae和L.erysimi.新生幼虫的死亡率最高,其次是卵.统计表明,净生殖率、内懔增长率和有限增长率为(407.18,0.2274天-1,1.2553天-1)最高的在A.gossypii和最低的(176.02,0.1533天-1,1.1657天-1)在L.erysimi,一个世代时间最短的26.43天是捕食A.gossypii;而最长的33.73天为捕食L.erysimi.本研究为P.dissecta捕食A.gossypii高发生提供一种解释,因为它经历了

  13. 迷走神经对犬房室传导的调节作用及Koch三角底部消融对其影响%Vagal modulation on atrioventricular conduction before and after ablation on the bottom of the Koch's triangle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹晓盟; 林治湖; 杨延宗; 张树龙; 杨东辉; 高连君; 夏云龙; 赵宏伟; 刘金秋; 董颖雪; 常栋

    2009-01-01

    .This study aimed to investigate the vagal modulation to atrioventricular conduction and the effect of ablation on bottom of Koch's triangle.Methods In 11 dogs,bilateral cervical sympathovagal trunks were decentralized,with Metopmlol edministrated.Linear lesion waft performed from middle area of Koch's triangle to the coronary sinus ostium.Before and after ablation,atrioventricular nodal effective refractory period(Era,)and atrioventricular conduction curves were measured at baseline and during vagal stimulation.The histological studies were also performed.Results The data from 7 dogs were available.(1)ERP of atrioventricular conduction prolonged under vagai stimulation before[(165.7±43.1)ms vs.(172.9±55.6)ms]and after ablation[(167.1±53.8)ms vs.(171.4±59.8)ms],but without statistic significance(P>0.05).(2)The atrioventricular.conduction time was remarkably prolonged during vagal stimulation before ablation,which means the conduction cunre shifted upward and to the right.More important,the cur,de became discontinuous.(3)The architecture of individual ganglia was significantly altered after ablation.ConclusionCertain strength of vagal stimulation could increase the lonsitudinal dissociation of the atrioventricular conduction.Radiofrequency ablation did cause the damage of the regional vagal innervation.

  14. Viimase minuti eelarve koostajad on riius / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 17. sept. 2008, lk. 3. Reformierakonna ja IRL-i vastasseisust eelarveläbirääkimistel. Vt. samas Mart Laari ajaveebi: Laar: riigieelarvega on kurb seis. Lisa: Kaardimaja kisub kiiva

  15. Marite Kallasma - diktorist eetrinägude direktoriks / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    Legendaarne telediktor Marite Kallasma pälvis president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt Valgetähe V klassi teenetemärgi. Praegu on Marite Kallasma eetrinõustaja ja diktorite õpetaja. Vt. samas: teenetemärgi pälvinud kaitseliitlane Janek Tšeljadinov, USA ajaloolane ja ajakirjanik Anne Applebaum, briti ajaloolane Antony Beevor, Portugali president Anibal Cavaco Silva, briti ajaloolane Norman Davies, Narva sümfooniaorkestri looja Anatoli Štšura, Kallaste vanausuliste koguduse esimees Pavel Varunin, Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastuse kunstiline toimetaja Maie-Hele Segerkrantz

  16. Kemplus pärast lahingut / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    ETV 19. oktoobri saatest "Foorum", kus osalesid erakondade aseesimehed: Mailis Reps (Keskerakond), Meelis Atonen (Reformierakond), Katrin Saks (Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond) ja Andres Herkel (Isamaaliit)

  17. Riigikogu liikmed suvel komisjonides ei istu / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 23. juuli 2007, lk. 5. Kuigi riigikogu liikme staatuse seadus kaotas parlamendisaadikute puhkuse, ei ole mitmed Riigikogu komisjonid suvel koos käinud. Lisa: Tööl 365 päeva aastas

  18. Meeleavaldajad osutasid valitsuse puudega südametunnistusele / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 14. dets. lk. 2. 13. detsembril korraldasid puudega inimesed Toompeal piketi, kuna valitsus ei ole leidnud seitsme aasta jooksul võimalust puudetoetust tõsta

  19. Kemplus pärast lahingut / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    ETV 19. oktoobri saatest "Foorum", kus osalesid erakondade aseesimehed: Mailis Reps (Keskerakond), Meelis Atonen (Reformierakond), Katrin Saks (Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond) ja Andres Herkel (Isamaaliit)

  20. Võimuliit asub tuleva aasta eelarve kallale / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2009-01-01

    Ministeeriumid peavad esitama oma 2010. aasta eelarveprojektid juuli lõpuks, riigikogus hakatakse uue eelarvega tegelema sügisel. Vt. samas: Riigikogu eilsed otsused; Tabel: Teine lisaeelarve sunnib veel rohkem püksirihma pingutama

  1. Parts ei soovi Res Publica esimehe ametit / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    Kõige tõenäolisem kandidaat Res Publica juhi kohale on Taavi Veskimägi, aseesimeesteks kandideerivad Marko Mihkelson ja Henn Pärn. Res Publica fraktsiooni koosolekul leidis Mihhail Lotman, et erakond võiks olla feminiinsem

  2. Nord Stream "ründas" Gotlandil Eestit / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2010-01-01

    Vene- Saksa gaasijuhtme ehituse sõlmpunktiks muutuval Gotlandil jäi Slite sadamasse Nord Streami raha eest ehitatud kaile ette mälestusmärk eestlastele ja lätlastele, kes 1944. aastal punavõimu eest põgenedes Gotlandile jõudsid. Kaart

  3. Savisaar sai miljonikrundi 500 000 krooniga / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Edgar Savisaar omandas 500 000 krooni eest maatüki koos majaga Keila-Joa suvilakompleksis. Lisad: Laidoneri suvemaja ostu-müügitehing; Keila-Joa suvilakompleks

  4. USA-reis nõuab biomeetrilist passi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2004-01-01

    USA-s pikendati viisavabastusprogrammi biomeetrilise passi tähtaega 2005. aasta 26. oktoobrini. USA Eesti-saatkonna töötaja Christopher Smithi sõnul ei kehti viisavabadusprogrammi raames reisimise puhul passid, mida ei saa masinaga lugeda

  5. Nord Stream "ründas" Gotlandil Eestit / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2010-01-01

    Vene- Saksa gaasijuhtme ehituse sõlmpunktiks muutuval Gotlandil jäi Slite sadamasse Nord Streami raha eest ehitatud kaile ette mälestusmärk eestlastele ja lätlastele, kes 1944. aastal punavõimu eest põgenedes Gotlandile jõudsid. Kaart

  6. 21 CFR 133.127 - Cook cheese, koch kaese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mass is cut, stirred, and heated with continued stirring, so as to separate the curd and whey. The whey is drained from the curd and the curd is cured for 2 or 3 days. It is then heated to a temperature of not less than 180 °F until the hot curd will drop from a ladle with a consistency like that of...

  7. Lasnamäe koolijuht kaebas keeleinspektsiooni kohtusse / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    Eestikeelsetest küsimustest vaevu aru saav, kuid riigikeeles kõrgtaseme tunnistuse saanud Tallinna Lasnamäe Gümnaasiumi direktor Aleksander Haak kaebas keeletunnistuse päritolus kahtleva keeleinspektsiooni kohtusse

  8. USA-reis nõuab biomeetrilist passi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2004-01-01

    USA-s pikendati viisavabastusprogrammi biomeetrilise passi tähtaega 2005. aasta 26. oktoobrini. USA Eesti-saatkonna töötaja Christopher Smithi sõnul ei kehti viisavabadusprogrammi raames reisimise puhul passid, mida ei saa masinaga lugeda

  9. Savisaare erakonda toetab veerand kõigist valijatest / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke ja Pärnu Postimees 9. märts lk. 2,5. Veebruaris korraldas TSN Emor Eesti erakondade reitingu uurimuse, mille kohaselt Keskerakonna toetajaid oli 25%, Reformierakonna toetajaid 13% ning ülejäänud erakonnad said 7 ja vähem protsenti toetushäältest. Graafik: Populaarseim partei on Keskerakond. Diagrammid: Toetus Keskerakonnale (%). Lisa: Parteide toetus. Arvamust avaldavad: Katrin Saks, Margus Tsahkna, Ott Lumi, Kadri Must, Agu Uudelepp ja Kristen Michal. Vt. samas: Protsendi paranoia

  10. Kiiristungeid pidavate saadikute palgaralli / Tuuli Koch, Kaire Uusen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees: na russkom jazõke 25. veebr. lk. 4. Statistikaameti andmetel oli 2007. a. neljanda kvartali keskmine brutopalk Eestis 12 270 krooni kuus, mis on 2006. a. viimase kvartaliga võrreldes 20,1 % rohkem. Sellega kaasneb kõrgemate riigiametnike palgatõus. President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kuuteenistuseks on määratud seitse keskmist palka, koos esindustasuga on tema palgasummaks 103 068 krooni. Presidendi palga kasvades suureneb ka tema abikaasa esindustasu, mis on 30 % presidendi ametipalgast. Vt. samas: Riigimeeste palgatõus (aastatel 2005-2009); Kui palju teenis Konstantin Päts? Riigipalgad 1935. aastal

  11. Oravapartei hüppas aktsiiside osas vastasleeri / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 13. juuni 2007, lk. 2. Postimees : na russkom jazõke autorita. Riigikokku jõuab alkoholi aktsiisitõusu puudutav eelnõu, milles varem kokku lepitud 30%-line aktsiisitõus langes 20%-le opositsiooni ettepanekul ja Reformierakonna vaikival nõusolekul

  12. Kiiristungeid pidavate saadikute palgaralli / Tuuli Koch, Kaire Uusen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees: na russkom jazõke 25. veebr. lk. 4. Statistikaameti andmetel oli 2007. a. neljanda kvartali keskmine brutopalk Eestis 12 270 krooni kuus, mis on 2006. a. viimase kvartaliga võrreldes 20,1 % rohkem. Sellega kaasneb kõrgemate riigiametnike palgatõus. President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kuuteenistuseks on määratud seitse keskmist palka, koos esindustasuga on tema palgasummaks 103 068 krooni. Presidendi palga kasvades suureneb ka tema abikaasa esindustasu, mis on 30 % presidendi ametipalgast. Vt. samas: Riigimeeste palgatõus (aastatel 2005-2009); Kui palju teenis Konstantin Päts? Riigipalgad 1935. aastal

  13. Võimuliidu loojad kombivad üksteist / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Reformierakonna esimees ja peaminister Andrus Ansip kohtus Kadrioru lossis president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesega, et süüa koos õhtust ning arutada Riigikogu valimiste järgset olukorda. A. Ansip avas presidendi kohtumisringi kõigi Riigikokku pääsenud erakondade juhtidega. Reformierakonna esindajad on juba kohtunud Isamaa ja Res Publica Liidu delegatsiooni ja sotsiaaldemokraatidega ning Eestimaa Rohelistega

  14. Vabaduse monument presidendi südameasi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2004-01-01

    President Arnold Rüütel on oma viimastel kohtumistel kõrgemate riigijuhtidega arutanud Vabaduse monumendi teemat. Res Publica eestseisuse liikme Urmas Reinsalu sõnul toetab tema erakond monumendi rajamist. Vabaduse monumendi kavandivõistluse võitis 2002. a. töö "Opaal"

  15. Savisaare kihutamise menetlus politseis venib / Tuuli Koch, Risto Berendson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 23. juuli 2007, lk. 3. Politsei ei ole siiani määranud karistust Eesti Keskerakonna esimehele ja Tallinna linnapeale Edgar Savisaarele, kes 10. juulil Lääne-Virumaal Vihula vallas Viitna-Koljaku teel sõitis 30 km/h alas 81-kilomeetrise tunnikiirusega. Lisa: Lubatust 51 km/h kiiremini

  16. Parts ei soovi Res Publica esimehe ametit / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    Kõige tõenäolisem kandidaat Res Publica juhi kohale on Taavi Veskimägi, aseesimeesteks kandideerivad Marko Mihkelson ja Henn Pärn. Res Publica fraktsiooni koosolekul leidis Mihhail Lotman, et erakond võiks olla feminiinsem

  17. Keskerakonnas tõstavad pead Savisaare vastased / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Keskerakonna esimehe Edgar Savisaare kriisiolukorras tegevusetuse kritiseerimisest erakonna liikmete poolt. Eesti Eruohvitseride Kogu liige Tiit Põder ütleb, et talle on arusaamatu riigikorda ja valitsust kukutada püüdvate jõudude toetamine. Endine siseminister Kalle Laanet tänas politseid, kes suutis tagada riigis sisejulgeoleku

  18. Legendaarse Georg Otsa elust valmib film / Tuuli Koch, Priit Rajalo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Filmi Sihtasutus eraldas eile tootmistoetuse režissöör Peeter Simmi mängufilmile "Georg". Eesti, Venemaa ja Soome ühisprojekt on eluloofilm lauljast (stsenaristid Mati Põldre, Aleksandr Borodjanski), nähtuna tema teise naise Asta Otsa silme läbi

  19. Marite Kallasma - diktorist eetrinägude direktoriks / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    Legendaarne telediktor Marite Kallasma pälvis president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt Valgetähe V klassi teenetemärgi. Praegu on Marite Kallasma eetrinõustaja ja diktorite õpetaja. Vt. samas: teenetemärgi pälvinud kaitseliitlane Janek Tšeljadinov, USA ajaloolane ja ajakirjanik Anne Applebaum, briti ajaloolane Antony Beevor, Portugali president Anibal Cavaco Silva, briti ajaloolane Norman Davies, Narva sümfooniaorkestri looja Anatoli Štšura, Kallaste vanausuliste koguduse esimees Pavel Varunin, Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastuse kunstiline toimetaja Maie-Hele Segerkrantz

  20. Kihutav politseijuht Antropov testis Saaremaal Hummerit / Risto Berendson, Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berendson, Risto, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    Politsei pressishefi sõnul testis politseijuht Robert Antropov Saaremaal julgestuspolitsei tarbeks maastikuautot Hummer. Endise politseijuhi Ain Seppiku kommentaare. Tabel: Tavaline politseimaastur võrreldes Hummeriga

  1. Savisaare kihutamise menetlus politseis venib / Tuuli Koch, Risto Berendson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 23. juuli 2007, lk. 3. Politsei ei ole siiani määranud karistust Eesti Keskerakonna esimehele ja Tallinna linnapeale Edgar Savisaarele, kes 10. juulil Lääne-Virumaal Vihula vallas Viitna-Koljaku teel sõitis 30 km/h alas 81-kilomeetrise tunnikiirusega. Lisa: Lubatust 51 km/h kiiremini

  2. Resistance in Cucumis sativus L. to tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponti, de O.M.B.

    1980-01-01

    Chapter 1The role of plant breeding and particularly of host plant resistance in integrated control is discussed. Host plant resistance to insects and mites, especially to Tetranychus urticae is reviewed. A standard terminology for disease and pest resistance is recommended.Chapter 2The relationship

  3. Dissection of Koch's residual feed intake: implications for selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggrey, Samuel E; Rekaya, Romdhane

    2013-10-01

    For 50 yr, residual feed intake (RFI) has remained a black box even though many researchers have touted it as a more biological estimate of efficiency of feed utilization than feed conversion ratio (FCR). We successfully dissected the efficiency of feed utilization by decomposing the components of RFI and ascertained the contributions of its components. Currently, a fixed effect model is used to predict RFI, which we term RFIF. We used a random effect model to predict RFIR, which allowed a separate estimation of RFI for maintenance (RFIM) and for growth (RFIG) and also ascertained their respective efficiencies. Judged by residual variance, R(2) and deviance information criterion, the random effect model was superior to the traditional fixed effect model used to generate RFIF. Under the traditional method, the h(2) of RFIF was 0.13 but h(2) of RFIR was 0.35. The heritability of RFIM and RFIG were moderate (~0.50), but the genetic correlation between them was highly negative (-0.95), suggesting that these 2 efficiencies contribute in an opposing way toward RFI. As a result, there should be caution in ascribing a biological basis to RFI. Under the current methodology, a biological basis can be ascribed to RFIM and RFIG. Selecting on RFIM will lead to smaller but efficient birds. The genetic gains in feed efficiency will be achieved by reductions in feed required for maintenance. The RFIG is not an efficiency parameter and should not be used as a sole criterion for selection. The ability of the current method to estimate efficiency values for metabolic BW and BW gain provides geneticists with additional parameters to use to discriminate between animals with similar RFIR. It also provides the flexibility to impose weights on RFIM and RFIG to meet a desired objective.

  4. Dissection of Koch's residual feed intake: implications for selection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aggrey, Samuel E; Rekaya, Romdhane

    2013-01-01

    For 50 yr, residual feed intake (RFI) has remained a black box even though many researchers have touted it as a more biological estimate of efficiency of feed utilization than feed conversion ratio (FCR...

  5. 二斑叶螨两种群中Wolbachia诱导的胞质不亲和作用的影响因子比较研究%A comparative study of factors influencing the expression of Wolbachiainduced cytoplasmic incompatibility in two populations of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch ( Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆明红; 谢蓉蓉; 赵臻君; 于明志; 薛晓峰; 洪晓月

    2011-01-01

    The cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is the most common effect of Wolbachia on the reproduction of its arthropod hosts, and the expression of CI differs greatly among different populations. Using the Jiangsu (JS) and Liaoning (LN) populations of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) , as experimental materials, 100% infected and uninfected Wolbachia lines were obtained by screening. The present study tried to evaluate some factors influencing the expression of CI in the spider mite by crossing experiment and Real-time quantitative PCR. These factors include age of host, temperature, host genes and Wolbachia density. The 1, 3, 5, 7-day-old virgin males were used to investigate the influence of host age on Wolbachia-induced CI. The results showed no effect of age on CI, suggesting that host age does not reduce the sperm modification induced by Wolbachia. The effect of temperatures (20℃, 25℃ and 30℃ ) on the CI induced by Wolbachia was also checked. Neither high nor low temperatures influenced the expression of CI. Wolbachia density in males of the JS population, as measured by quantitative PCR using the wsp (surface protein of Wolbachia) gene, was significantly higher than that in the LN population. In addition, in both the JS and LN populations, Wolbachia density increased with the age of male hosts. Wolbachia density also showed no effect on CI. We estimated the variability of CI expression between the JS and LN population of T. Urticae was due to the interaction between Wolbachia and host genotypes. The results might provide foundation for understanding the mechanisms of reproductive manipulation induced by Wolbachia.%Wolbachia诱导胞质不亲和(cytoplasmic incompatibility,CI)是对寄主的生殖调控中最常见的一种方式,在不同种群中CI表达的差异较大.以二斑叶螨Tetranychus urticae辽宁兴城(LN)和江苏徐州(JS)两个地理种群为实验材料,经筛选获得100%感染Wolbachia和不感

  6. Aphididae (Hemiptera on ornamental plants in Córdoba (Argentina Aphididae (Hemiptera en plantas ornamentales de Córdoba (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsina Szpeiner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In 30 surveys across Cordoba city and surroundings (Argentina I recorded, from November 2001 to May 2002, a total of 109 ornamental plants infested with aphid colonies. Surveys were conducted in the local botanical garden as well as homestead gardens and nurseries. Seventeen species of aphids were identified, 4 of which are new species in the area, from 47 ornamental plants. In a total of 59 plant/aphid associations, 38 new associations were found. I present the first record of aphids colonizing Cactaceae in Argentina. Most aphid colonies were medium and a high proportion (more than 40% showed alate individuals. The most frequent aphid species, Aphis gossypii Glover and Aphis craccivora Koch were especially associated with the most frequent damages: curled leaves or buds and necrosis, respectively. More than 30% of aphid colonies were attended by ants. Camponotus Mayr and Prenolepis Mayr were the ant genus attending the highest number of aphid species.En 30 censos realizados en la ciudad de Córdoba y alrededores (Argentina se registraron, entre noviembre de 2001 y mayo de 2002, un total de 109 plantas ornamentales infestadas de colonias de áfidos. Los censos fueron realizados en jardines, viveros y el jardín botánico de la ciudad. Se identificaron 47 especies de plantas ornamentales infestadas con 17 especies de áfidos (4 nuevas en el área. Se establecen 59 relaciones áfido/planta, de las cuales 38 son nuevas. Se obtuvo el primer registro de áfidos que colonizan Cactaceae en Argentina. La mayoría de las colonias de áfidos fueron medianas y una alta proporción (más del 40 % mostró individuos alados. Aphis gossypii Glover y Aphis craccivora Koch, fueron las especies más frecuentes y generaban los daños más conspicuos, como el enrollamiento y la necrosis foliar. Más del 30% de las colonias estuvieron atendidas por hormigas, siendo Camponotus Mayr y Prenolepis Mayr los géneros de hormigas que frecuentaban el mayor número de

  7. Branch whorls of juvenile Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch: are they formed annually? Los verticilos de juveniles de Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch: ¿son formados anualmente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H. LUSK

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Araucaria araucana, like that of many other conifers, is characterised by the production of a monopodial stem with branch whorls. However, the periodicity of whorl formation in this species has not been subjected to systematic study. We used growth ring counts to determine the frequency of whorl formation in sun- and shade-grown juvenile A. araucana in a montane forest in the Chilean coast range. Whorls were not annual in any of the 35 individuals studied, growth rings outnumbering whorls by a factor of 1.8 to 3.9. The mean interval between successive whorls was significantly shorter in sun-grown (2.1 yrs whorl -1 than in shade-grown trees (2.6 yrs whorl-1, suggesting a relationship with plant carbon balance. Mean distance between whorls was also sensitive to light environment. The overall result of this effect of light environment on both whorl spacing and production rate was that mean height growth rates were > 50% higher in sun-grown trees (169 mm yr-1 than in shade-grown individuals (111 mm yr-1. Despite the non-annual nature of whorls in the study population, whorl counts may have some potential as a non-invasive method of age estimation in juvenile A. araucana. In both shade- and sun-grown subpopulations, whorl number was a better predictor of stem age than were stem diameter or heightEl crecimiento de A. araucana, al igual que el de muchas otras coníferas, se caracteriza por la producción de un fuste monopódico y ramas en verticilos. Sin embargo, en esta especie, no se ha investigado sistemáticamente la periodicidad de la formación de los verticilos. Esta nota documenta el conteo de anillos de crecimiento para determinar la frecuencia de formación de verticilos, en árboles juveniles de A. araucana. Se muestrearon 17 árboles en ambientes soleados y otros 18 bajo sombra, en un bosque montano de la Cordillera de la Costa, Chile. Ninguno de los 35 individuos estudiados mostró evidencias de formación anual de verticilos, puesto que el número de anillos de crecimiento excedió al número de verticilos en 1,8 a 3,9 veces. El intervalo promedio entre la producción de verticilos sucesivos fue significativamente menor en individuos expuestos a pleno sol (2,1 años verticilo-1 que en aquellos que crecieron bajo sombra (2,6 años verticilo-1, sugiriendo cierta relación con el balance de carbono de la planta. La distancia promedio entre verticilos también se mostró sensible al ambiente lumínico. El resultado de este efecto del ambiente lumínico sobre tanto la tasa de producción de verticilos, como la distancia entre éstos, fue que la tasa promedio de crecimiento en altura de los individuos soleados (169 mm año-1 excedió en > 50% a la de los individuos sombreados (111 mm año-1. A pesar de la naturaleza no anual de los verticilos en la población estudiada, los recuentos de verticilos pueden tener potencial como un método no invasivo de estimación de edad para juveniles de A. araucana. Tanto dentro de las subpoblaciones soleadas como sombreadas, el número de verticilos fue mejor indicador de la edad que el diámetro o la altura del fuste

  8. Conservation of predatory arthropods in cotton: role of action thresholds for Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, S E; Ellsworth, P C; Chu, C C; Henneberry, T J

    2002-08-01

    Studies were conducted in 1994 and 1995 to examine the effects of a range of action thresholds for managing Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Biotype B (= B. argentifolii Bellows & Perring) with insecticides in cotton on populations of arthropod predators in Imperial Valley, CA, and Maricopa, AZ. Application of insecticides significantly reduced population densities of spiders, Geocoris punctipes (Say), G. pallens (Stål), Orius tristicolor (White), Nabis alternatus Parshley, Zelus renardii Kolenati, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Méneville, Spanogonicus albofasciatus (Reuter), Drapetis sp., and Chrysoperla carnea Stephens in one or both years and sites compared with untreated controls. Use of higher B. tabaci thresholds conserved some species and groups relative to lower thresholds. Stepwise regression analyses indicated that reductions in predator populations were generally influenced more strongly by the timing of the first insecticide application than by the total number of sprays necessary to maintain suppression of the pest below any given action threshold. A predation index, which weights the importance of each predator species based on their known frequency of predation on B. tabaci and another key pest, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), was developed and analyzed. Patterns were similar to results based on changes in abundance alone, but the index generally revealed less severe effects of insecticides on overall predator function. The current action threshold for conventional insecticidal control of B. tabaci in Arizona and southern California is five adults per leaf. Results here suggest that predator conservation may be enhanced by raising the initial threshold to delay the first application or initially using more selective materials such as insect growth regulators.

  9. Duas novas espécies de Tunama fennah, 1968 (Homoptera, Cercopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervásio Silva Carvalho

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new brazilian species of Tunaima Fennah, 1968 are described: T. brunneoau-rantiaca sp.n. (from São Paulo and Paraná and T. brunneolutea sp.n. (from Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul.

  10. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis Goethe (Homoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papura, D; Giresse, X; Chauvin, B; Caron, H; Delmotte, F; VAN Helden, M

    2009-05-01

    Eight dinucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized within the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Goethe) using an enrichment cloning procedure. Primers were tested on 171 individuals collected in the southwest of France from the vine plants. The identified loci were polymorphic, with allelic diversity ranging from two to 18 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosities were from 0.021 to 0.760. These microsatellite markers should prove to be a useful tool for estimating the population genetic structure, host-plant specialization and migration capacity of this insect.

  11. BIOEFFICACY OF PIPER RIBESIOIDES (PIPERACEAE) EXTRACTS AGAINST NILAPARVATA LUGENS STAL. (HOMOPTERA: DELPHACIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phankaen, Y; Pluempanupat, W; Mourad, A K; Bullangpoti, V

    2014-01-01

    The extracts of stem and seeds of Piper ribesioides (Piperaceae) were prepared in hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol and evaluated for their efficacy against 3-day-old adult brown plant hoppers, Nilaparvata lugens Stal under laboratory conditions. The treatment was given topically and results suggest the dose dependent response related to exposure time. The ethyl acetate extract was the best with an LC50 = 738 ppm-, 24 h post-treatment. There was substantial increase in activity (LC50 = 27.298 ppm) with the increase in duration of exposure. This trend was observed in all treatments that suggests the potential of Piper ribesioides as an insecticide for N. lugens as an alternative control.

  12. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2012-06-01

    Low temperature regular phosphine fumigations under the normal oxygen level and oxygenated phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels were compared for efficacy against the aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature regular phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphid. However, a 3 d treatment with high phosphine concentrations of > or = 2,000 ppm was needed for complete control of the aphid. Oxygen greatly increased phosphine toxicity and significantly reduced both treatment time and phosphine concentration for control of N. ribisnigri. At 1,000 ppm phosphine, 72 h regular fumigations at 6 degrees C did not achieve 100% mortality of the aphid. The 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigation under 60% O2 killed all aphids in 30 h. Both a 72 h regular fumigation with 2,200 ppm phosphine and a 48 h oxygenated fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 were tested on romaine and head lettuce at 3 degrees C. Both treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. However, the 72 h regular fumigation resulted in significantly higher percentages of lettuce with injuries and significantly lower lettuce internal quality scores than the 48 h oxygenated phosphine fumigation. Although the oxygenated phosphine fumigation also caused injuries to some treated lettuce, lettuce quality remained very good and the treatment is not expected to have a significant impact on marketability of the lettuce. This study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation was more effective and less phytotoxic for controlling N. ribisnigri on harvested lettuce than regular phosphine fumigation and is promising for practical use.

  13. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to compare phosphine fumigations under the normal and superatmospheric oxygen levels on toxicity against Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphi...

  14. Rapid method to screen resistance of potato plants against Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Vincent; Saguez, Julien; Vincent, Charles; Giordanengo, Philippe

    2004-12-01

    With the objective to develop a potato, Solanum tuberosum L., resistance program against aphids, we propose a rapid screening method with Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in the laboratory. We aimed to optimize the duration of the whole procedure and to decrease the frequency of measurements. In a first experiment, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) values were compared between adult aphids reared throughout their entire life and adults reared only during a period equivalent to their prereproductive period. No significant differences were observed. In a second experiment, four groups of aphids were distinguished according to the sampling frequency, i.e., those whose biological parameters were evaluated every single, second, third, and fourth day. Except for the fourth-day experiment, the r(m) values estimated on aphids reared on the three potato lines were not significantly different whatever sampling frequency of single, second, or third day used to check aphids. Thus, screening efforts in laboratory can be largely optimized by evaluating adult aphids only during a period equivalent to their prereproductive period and assessing M. persicae populations every third day. Our method is reliable and adapted to screen a large number of potato plants against M. persicae because it allows an average 70% reduction in the time required for the whole experimental process.

  15. Seasonal population dynamics of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on strawberries in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, J L; Toscano, N C; Ballmer, G R

    2002-12-01

    The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), has recently become a major insect pest of strawberries in Southern California. The population dynamics of this pest were monitored over 2 yr in six commercial strawberry fields near the coastal communities of Oxnard and Ventura under two crop-production regimes, summer- and fall-planted strawberries. Adult whitefly numbers generally peaked during the February through May period for fall-planted strawberries and during the October through November period for summer-planted strawberries. Population densities varied greatly among fields within each regime and the differences were likely caused by surrounding alternate host crops.

  16. Effects of UV-absorbing plastic films on greenhouse whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutwiwa, Urbanus N; Borgemeister, Christian; von Elsner, Burkhard; Tantau, Hans-Juergen

    2005-08-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing plastic films on the orientation and distribution behavior of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). In field experiments, small tunnels were constructed and covered with either an UV-transmitting (Thermilux) or UV-absorbing (K-Rose) plastic film. Results show that significantly more whiteflies were recorded in the tunnels with high compared with those with low UV intensities. Moreover, whitefly penetration and dispersion were less inside the UV-deficient tunnels. These results suggest that the type of plastic film used for greenhouse covers may have a significant influence on both the initial immigration and distribution of T. vaporariorum into greenhouses. The possibilities of using UV-absorbing plastic films for whitefly integrated pest management in greenhouses are discussed.

  17. The genus Baeturia Stål as represented in New Guinea (Homoptera, Cicadidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blöte, H.C.

    1960-01-01

    Until now only three species of the genus Baeturia have been recorded from New Guinea, viz., B. bicolorata Distant, B. viridicata Distant, and B. nana Jacobi. As I had the opportunity to study a fairly large collection of this group from different sources, collected in New Guinea, it appeared to me

  18. The phylogeny and taxonomic status of the Chlorocystini (sensu stricto) (Homoptera, Tibicinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The “Baeturia and related genera complex”, as defined earlier (De Boer, 1990) by shared aedeagal characters, is identified as the tribe Chlorocystini (sensu stricto). The Prasiini (sensu stricto) are identified as the sister group of the Chlorocystini (sensu stricto), while the genus Muda is recogni

  19. Characterization and discrimination of three Rhopalosiphum species (Homoptera: Aphididae based on isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. N. Lázzari

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen clones of Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus, 1758, 14 of R. maidis (Fitch, 1856, and two of R. insertum (Walker, 1849, representing a wide range of host plants and geographic distribution, were examined electrophoretically to determine intra and interspecific variation. Twenty-one enzyme systems were tested using starch-gel techniques. The electromorph variation within species was low, as expected for parthenogenetic organisms. Frequency of heterozygotes was also relatively low for most populations. The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 0% to 27.3% in R. padi, but it was lower (0% to 18.2% in the completely an holocyclic R. maidis. No consistent correlation between band patterns and host plant or geographic origin could be established for R. padi and R. maidis. The distinction between R. padi and R. insertum was made by Est-1, Lap-2, Pgm, Got-1,and α-gpdh.The enzymes Est-2, G-3pdh, Sdh, and Got-2 were useful to separate R. maidis from R. padi, while Est-1, Lap-2, Got-1, and α-gpdh, in addition to the first three mentioned above, separated R. maidis from R. insertum. However, many other loci shared only one electromorph and had another that was useful to partially distinguish the species. The utilization of starch-gel electrophoresis as a taxonomic tool in distinguishing populations and species of aphids and its combination with other taxonomic methods are briefly discussed.

  20. Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation on cassava genotypes grown at different ecozones in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyo, O A; Dixon, A G O; Atiri, G I

    2005-04-01

    Large-scale screening of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, genotypes for resistance to infestation by whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, the vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is limited. A range of new cassava elite clones were therefore assessed for the whitefly infestation in the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 cropping seasons in experimental fields of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. On each scoring day, between 0600 and 0800 hours when the whiteflies were relatively immobile, adult whitefly populations on the five topmost expanded leaves of cassava cultivars were counted. All through the 6-mo scoring period, there was a highly significant difference in whitefly infestation among the new cassava elite clones. Vector population buildup was observed in Ibadan (forest-savanna transition zone) and Onne (humid forest), 2 mo after planting (MAP). Mean infestation across cassava genotypes was significantly highest (16.6 whiteflies per plant) in Ibadan and lowest in Zaria (0.2). Generally, whitefly infestation was very low in all locations at 5 and 6 MAP. During this period, cassava genotypes 96/1439 and 91/02324 significantly supported higher infestations than other genotypes. Plants of 96/1089A and TMS 30572 supported the lowest whitefly infestation across cassava genotypes in all locations. The preferential whitefly visitation, the differences between locations in relation to whitefly population, cassava mosaic disease, and the fresh root yield of cassava genotypes are discussed.

  1. Induced life cycle transition from holocycly to anholocycly of the Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko),exists with holocyclic life cycle in Tacheng, Xinjiang in Northwest China. It produces males and oviparae to mate and oviposit for overwintering by eggs. Under laboratory conditions with 14 h/d photophase and temperature not lower than 15℃, RWA occurred in parthenogenesis and produced no males. The laboratory popu-lations of Russian wheat aphid, which were kept under natural conditions in fall by 15th, 49th and 81st generation while wild populations produced males and oviparae for mating, produced males and oviparae with their number decreased gradually, but viviparae and nymphs increased sequen-tially. As a result, it produced a small amount of oviparae and no males emerged in fields by 49 generations' reproduction in laboratory. After development of 81 generations, oviparae happened occasionally and no eggs occurred for overwintering instead of viviparae and nymphs. A hypothesis of RWA disastrous process was proposed. The life cycle of RWA can be changed from holocycly to anholocycly in its long-term spread and evolution. Anholocycly is more dangerous than holocycly to small grains for its strong adaptability and dispersal ability.

  2. Aphicidal Activity of an Ageraphorone Extract From Eupatorium adenophorum Against Pseudoregma bambucicola (Homoptera: Aphididae, Takahashi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Xiang; Chen, Feng-Zheng; Yang, Yao-Jun; Liang, Zi; Huang, Bao-Lian; Li, Yi; Liu, Tian-Fei; Yu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The bamboo aphid, Pseudoregma bambucicola, is an important insect pest of bamboo that affects normal bamboo growth and induces sooty molds. The control of P. bambucicola involves the application of chemicals, such as imidacloprid, to which many species are resistant. In this study, we isolate a novel botanical pesticide (9-oxo-10,11-dehydro-ageraphorone) from an Eupatorium adenophorum(Asteraceae: Compositae) petroleum ether extract and test the aphicidal activity of this compound against P. bambucicola in laboratory bioassay and field-based experiments. This ageraphorone compound at a concentration of 2 mg/ml caused 73.33% mortality (corrected mortality [Subtracted the mortality of the negative control]: 70%) of P. bambucicola by laboratory bioassay within 6 h. Even at lower concentrations, this compound caused greater 33% mortality (corrected mortality: 30%) of aphids. Field experiments with naturally infested bamboo plants showed that two applications of 2 mg/ml ageraphorone to infested plants completely cleared infestations within 30 d. These effects were similar to those of the positive control (imidacloprid). These results reveal that 9-oxo-10,11-dehydro-ageraphorone exhibits significant aphicidal activity against bamboo aphids. We suggest that future research be directed at developing this ageraphorone compound from E. adenophorum as an aphicidal agent for biocontrol.

  3. Molecular identification and population dynamics of two species of Pemphigus (Homoptera: Pemphidae) on cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naiqi Chen; Tong-Xian Liu; Mamoudou Sétamou; J. Victor French; Eliezer S. Louzada

    2009-01-01

    The poplar petiole gall aphid, Pemphiguspopulitransversus Riley, has been one of the major pests on cruciferous vegetable in the Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas since the late 1940s. It normally migrates from poplar trees to cruciferous vegetables in the fall, and migrates back to the trees in early spring of the coming year. Some root-feeding aphids were found on cruciferous vegetables in late spring and early summer in 1998 and the following years. Those aphids have been identified as Pemphigus obesinymphae Moran. This discovery completely changed the current knowledge about the root-feeding aphids on cruciferous vegetables in the LRGV. Due to their small size, morphological and feeding similarities between P. populitransversus and P. obesinymphae, their identification and distinction are difficult. In this study, random amplification ofpolymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were used to distinguish these two species over a period of time when the two species occurred together, or separately, in cabbage fields. The two species occurred on cabbage at different times of the year, and overlapped from October to June. From May to October, both species migrated to their primary hosts. The apterous aphids found on cabbage in winter contained mainly P. obesinymphae, whereas in early spring more apterous P. populitransversus were recovered. The root-feeding aphids would feed on cabbage plants as long as this host was available even during the hot, dry summer in the LRGV, although their populations were generally low. Both RAPD and AFLP techniques were efficient in discriminating the two species that showed obviously genetic variability. These molecular techniques confirmed the existence of the two aphid species in apterous samples collected from the soil in cabbage fields in the LRGV, and the results performed by RAPD were confirmed by AFLP. Furthermore, the results suggest that RAPD technique was a better choice despite its reproducibility problem, as it was less time-consuming and required less technology, labor and expense than AFLP.

  4. Three New Rhizopulvinaria Species (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) for Scale Insect Fauna of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora

    2002-01-01

    Three Rhizopulvinaria species, Rhizopulvinaria pyrethri Borchsenius, Rhizopulvinaria turkestanica (Archangelskaya), and Rhizopulvinaria viridis Borchsenius, were identified on wild flora in eastern Anatolia in 1997. All of them are new records for the Turkish scale insect fauna.

  5. Seasonal capacity of attached and detached vineyard roots to support grape phylloxera (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granett, J; Omer, A D; Walker, M A

    2001-02-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate population densities and survival, developmental rate, and fecundity of grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch), as influenced by root attachment or detachment from mature, field-grown, Vitis vinifera L. grapevines through the growing season. Experiments were performed using artificial infestations of California biotype A grape phylloxera. Thirty-day bioassays on attached- and detached-roots were repeated monthly from May to September in 1997 (cultivar 'Carignane') and April to September in 1998 (cultivar 'Thompson Seedless'). The bioassays showed that attached roots had lower population densities than detached roots in all months of both years. Densities varied by month, tending to be higher in spring than in summer. Of the population parameters studied, survival was most influenced by attachment condition, being higher on detached than on attached roots by up to 25-fold. These results imply the importance of vine-related mortality factors to grape phylloxera population density. Influence of root attachment condition on developmental rate and fecundity was not uniform across bioassay months for either year; however, in the four out of 21 assays where there was a significant difference it favored detached roots by twofold. Fruit harvest resulted in higher survival in the July assay but not for assays in August and September; however, neither developmental rate nor fecundity was affected by harvest in any ofthe assays. We conclude that mortality rather than nutritional factors are most limiting for field populations on susceptible vines. This work suggests that detachment of roots as occurs with root girdling by root pathogens may increase grape phylloxera populations on infested, susceptible vines. These results imply that excised root bioassays over-estimate grape phylloxera virulence and underestimate rootstock resistance.

  6. Aphids of Java. Part II: Sinomegoura Takahashi, 1960 (Homoptera: Aphididae), with a new species from Coffea*

    OpenAIRE

    Noordam, D.

    1986-01-01

    A description is given of Sinomegoura. The following three species were collected in Java: Sinomegoura citricola (Van der Goot, 1917), from various woody plants; Sinomegoura symplocois (Van der Goot, 1917), collected by Van der Goot from Symplocos and described by him as Aulacorthum symplocois Van der Goot, 1917; and a new species collected from leaves of Coffea sp., Sinomegoura coffeae spec. nov. Keys are given to the apterae and alatae viviparae, and the species are described.

  7. New cytogenetic data for some Palaearctic species of scale insects (Homoptera, Coccinea with karyosystematic notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Gavrilov-Zimin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available New cytogenetic data are reported for 17 species from 15 genera of the families Pseudococcidae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, and Coccidae. Twelve species and 6 genera (Peliococcopsis Borchsenius, 1948, Heterococcopsis Borchsenius, 1948, Heliococcus Šulc, 1912, Trabutina Marchal, 1904, Lecanopsis Targioni Tozzetti, 1868, and Anapulvinaria Borchsenius, 1952 were studied cytogenetically for the first time. The taxonomic problems in the genera Trionymus Berg, 1899, Acanthopulvinaria Borchsenius, 1952 and Rhizopulvinaria Borchsenius, 1952 are discussed based on karyotype characters. Two chromosomal forms (cryptic species of Acanthopulvinaria orientalis (Nasonov, 1908, 2n=18 and 2n=16 were discovered.

  8. Catalogación inicial de las Cochinillas del Valle del Cauca. [Homoptera-Coccoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa Potes. Adalberto

    1946-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es un intento hacia la catalogación de las especies de cóccidos (cochinillas, palomillas etc. que se encuentran en el Valle del Cauca, sean o no de importancia económica. La presente catalogación no comprende todas las especies de cochinillas de este Departamento, pero sí las más comunes y las que he tenido oportunidad de recolectar personalmente o han recolectado mis colegas y amigos. He anotado los nombres científicos válidos hoy después de la revisión de algunos grupos, hecha esa revisión por taxonomistas renombrados de la época moderna. También algunas sinonimias, la distribución o lugar donde se han recolectado o constatado y la planta hospedadora con su nombre científico y vulgar

  9. Effect of temperature on the biology of Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Effect of temperature on the biology of Paracoccus marginatus was investigated. P. marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18°, 20°, 25° and 30°C. At 15°, 34° and 35°C eggs hatched, but further development was arrested. Approximately 80 -90% of the eggs survived betw...

  10. Genetics and preliminary mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance in Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Ijaz, Mamuna; Farooq, Zahra; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2015-03-01

    Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, is a serious pest of cotton and other crops and infestation by this pest results in yield losses that affect the economy of Pakistan. Various groups of insecticides have been used to control this pest but resistance development is a major factor that inhibits its control in the field. Chlorpyrifos is a common insecticide used against many pests including P. solenopsis. The present experiment was designed to assess the genetics and mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance and to develop a better resistance management strategy and assess the genetics and mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance. Before selection, the field strain showed 3.1-fold resistance compared to the susceptible strain (CSS). After 8 rounds of selection with chlorpyrifos, a selected population developed a 191.0-fold resistance compared to the CSS. The LC50 values of F1 (CRR ♀ × CSS ♂) and F1(†) (CRR ♂ × CSS ♀) strains were not significantly different and dominance (DLC) values were 0.42 and 0.55. Reciprocal crosses between chlorpyrifos susceptible and resistant strains indicated that resistance was autosomal and incompletely recessive. The monogenic model of fit test and calculation of number of genes segregating in the chlorpyrifos resistant strain demonstrated that resistance is controlled by multiple genes. A value of 0.59 was calculated for realized heritability for chlorpyrifos resistance. Synergism bioassays with piperonyl butoxide and S, S, S-butyl phosphorotrithioate showed that chlorpyrifos resistance was associated with microsomal oxidases and esterases. It was concluded that chlorpyrifos resistance in P. solenopsis was autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive and polygenic. These findings would be helpful to improve the management of P. solenopsis.

  11. Distinction of Indian commercial lac insect lines of Kerria spp. (Homoptera: Coccoidea) based on their morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ayashaa; Ramani, Ranganathan; Sharma, Kewal K; Vidyarthi, Ambrish S; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor V

    2014-01-01

    The lac insects belong to the genus Kerria (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kerriidae) and are commercially exploited worldwide for the production of lac, which comes from their waxy test and has diverse industrial applications. The insects are maintained by the Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums as distinctive lines that are cultivated and commercialized in the lac producing areas of India. The lines are all considered to belong to the genus Kerria but without validation of their taxonomic characters, and their identity to species has not been ascertained. This study used single-factor analysis of variance and several multivariate analyses, such as principal component analysis, discriminant function analysis, and canonical discriminant analysis to explore the morphometrics of some of the adult female lac insect lines. The results have enabled the identification of some taxonomically significant characters in adult females, which has grouped the 32 lac insect lines studied into 15 species along with validation of the most significant characters. Distinctive grouping patterns for the species of Kerria have been brought out using morphometrics.

  12. The Australian species of the genus Lembeja Distant, 1892 (Homoptera, Tibicinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four described Australian and one described New Guinean species of the tribe Prasiini in fact represent only two species: Lembeja paradoxa (Karsch, 1890) and Lembeja vitticollis (Ashton, 1912), the only representatives of the tribe in Australia. Relationships of the species are discussed. The specie

  13. Einfluss der Bitterstoffe des Hopfens auf das Wirtswahlverhalten von Phorodon humuli (Schrank), Homoptera, Aphididae

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvynets, Oleg; Walker, Frank; Zebitz, Claus Paul Walter

    2008-01-01

    Erkenntnisse über das Wirt-Parasit-Verhältnis zwischen Hopfen Humulus lupulus L. und Hopfenblattlaus Phorodon humuli (Schrank) sind von entscheidender Bedeutung für die Selektion blattlausresistenter Sorten. Die Besiedelung des Wirts durch Blattläuse wird durch in den Pflanzen befindliche Substanzen erheblich beeinflusst (Nault & Styer 1972; Leath & al. 1974; Klingauf & al. 1978; Kendall & al. 1980; Singh 1980; Powell & al. 1999; Campo & al. 2003). Die in dieser Hinsicht wichtigsten Bestandte...

  14. The Hawaiian cave planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae - A model for rapid subterranean speciation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Hoch

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available After the successful colonization of a single ancestral species in the Hawaiian Islands, planthoppers of the cixiid genus Oliarus underwent intensive adaptive radiation resulting in 80 described endemic species. Oliarus habitats range from montaneous rain forests to dry coastal biotopes and subterranean environments. At least 7 independant evolutionary lines represented by different species have adapted to lava tubes on Molokai (1, Maui (3, and Hawaii Island (3. Behavioral and morphological studies on one of these evolutionary lines on Hawaii Island, the blind, flight- and pigmentless Oliarus polyphentus have provided evidence for reproductive isolation between allopatric populations which may in fact be separate species. Significant differences in song parameters were observed even between populations from neighbouring lava tubes, although the planthoppers are capable of underground migration through the voids and cracks of the mesocavernous rock system which is extant in young basalt: after a little more than 20 years, lava tubes within the Mauna Ulu 1974 flow had been colonized by O. ‘polyphenius” individuals, most probably originating from a near-by forestkipuka. Amazingly, this species complex is found on the youngest of the Hawaiian Islands, with probably less than 0.5 m.y., which suggests rapid speciation processes. Field observations have led to the development of a hypothesis to match underground speciation with the dynamics of vegetational succession on the surface of active volcanoes. Planthopper range partitioning and geographic separation of populations by young lava flows, founder events and small population size may be important factors involved in rapid divergence.

  15. Effects on the non-target aphid Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bych76-zhjh77

    2012-05-22

    May 22, 2012 ... studies comparing aphid populations in Bt and non-Bt cotton fields gave ..... reported that Bt maize affected the development, reproduction and intrinsic .... Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2011. ISAAA Brief ...

  16. Kemampuan Pemangsaan Menochilus sexmaculatus F. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae terhadap Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriya Radiyanto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the functional response of M. sexmaculatus. The hypothesis of this study was that age of predator and the numbers of prey will effect predation rate. To test this hypothesis, a set of prey (first and fourth instar and adult R. maidis was separately placed together with first and fourth instar larval and adult female of M. sexmaculatus at different densities. The length of the exposure of the hosts were respectively 13, 14 and 2 hours for 1st instar larval predator, 4th instar larval predator and adult predators. In addition a combination of 1st and 4th instar nymph of R. maidis were exposed to adult M. sexmaculatus for 24 hours. The result of this study showed that the ability to predation of young and adult M. exmaculatus was type II, indicating that M. sexmaculatus can be categorized as effective biological control agent. Adults of M. sexmaculatus are better predators than the larval stages. Based on non linear regression analysis, the maximum numbers of preys consumed by adult females of M. sexmaculatus was 300 individuals of various stages of R. maidis per 24 hours.

  17. Sugarcane aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae): A new pest on sorghum in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2013 the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive pest of sorghum in North America, was confirmed on sorghum in four states and 38 counties in the U.S. In 2015, the aphid was reported on sorghum in 17 states and over 400 counties as well as all sorgh...

  18. Antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididac) in Colocasia esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleson, Jenifer L; Miller, Ross H

    2005-06-01

    Fifty cultivars of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae), collected from islands in Micronesia and Polynesia, eight cultivars from the University of Hawaii's taro germplasm collection, and a closely related aroid, Xanthosorna sagittifolium (L.) (Araceae), were screened for antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii Clover. Life history data for A. gossypii were collected by assessing survivorship and fecundity of aphids caged on taro leaves in the field. Significant differences in aphid reproductive rate and longevity were observed among the taro cultivars, and cultivars were ranked from most resistant to most susceptible. Antixenosis was assayed in the laboratory in a multiround choice test where A. gossypii were offered four leaf discs excised from different taro cultivars. Additionally, field observations of aphid abundance on taro cultivars were made to corroborate clip cage studies and laboratory experiments. 'Iliuaua','Rumung Mary','Maria', 'Ketan 36', and'Agaga' were the most resistant in terms of reducing aphid fecundity and survivorship, whereas the Iliuana,'Purple', 'TC-83001', and 'Putih 24' were least preferred in aphid choice tests. X. sagittifolium consistently exhibited strong aphid resistance. Resistant cultivars identified in this study may form the basis of breeding programs seeking to combine aphid resistance with other desirable agronomic traits in taro.

  19. Lophopidae of the amazon basin with keys to new world genera and species (HOMOPTERA: FULGOROIDEA).

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The two especies of Lophopidae found in the lowland Amazon Basin, Hesticus rufimanus, (walker) and H. sanguinifrons Muir, are redescribed and their geographical distributions given. Keys are provided to genera of New World lophopidae, and to species of Hesticus .

  20. New discovery of Palaeontinid fossils from the Middle Jurassic in Daohugou, Inner Mongolia (Homoptera, Palaeontinidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIH; ChungKun

    2007-01-01

    Three new species of fossil Palaeontinidae are described from Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China: Daohugoucossus shii sp. nov., D. parallelivenius sp. nov., D. lii sp. nov. The diagnosis of Dao- hugoucossus Wang, Zhang and Fang, 2006 is revised. These materials are the first complete fossil palaeontinids in the Middle Jurassic of the world. Based on observation of these new specimens, Sc of this new genus has the following combined characters: joined with R at base, diverged near M separa- tion, coalesced with R before the nodal line, extended beyond the nodal line and fused with R1 before distal end. Due to the Sc characteristics mentioned above, the genus Liaocossus Ren, Yin and Dou, 1998 can be well distinguished from “Ilerdocossus-complex”.

  1. Plastic cup traps equipped with light-emitting diodes for monitoring adult Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chang-Chi; Jackson, Charles G; Alexander, Patrick J; Karut, Kamil; Henneberry, Thomas J

    2003-06-01

    Equipping the standard plastic cup trap, also known as the CC trap, with lime-green light-emitting diodes (LED-plastic cup trap) increased its efficacy for catching Bemisia tabaci by 100%. Few Eretmocerus eremicus Rose and Zolnerowich and Encarsia formosa Gahan were caught in LED-plastic cup traps. The LED-plastic cup traps are less expensive than yellow sticky card traps for monitoring adult whiteflies in greenhouse crop production systems and are more compatible with whitefly parasitoids releases for Bemisia nymph control.

  2. Enemigos naturales de la mosca blanca Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): parasitoides y depredadores.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Se estudió la composición de parasitoides y depredadores de la mosca blanca en espiral Aleurodicus dispersus así como la abundancia relativa de las primeras diez fincas productoras de banano, durante 1997 y 1998 en Matina, Limón, Costa Rica. Se recuperaron cuatro especies de parasitoides de ninfas de mosca blanca Encarsiella noyesi Hayat, E. aleurodici (Girault), Encarsiella probo nsp. y Encarsia guadeloupae Viggiani. Los depredadores de ninfas y adultos de mosca blanca más comunes fueron dos...

  3. Egg parasitoids of Sophonia rufofascia (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.T.; Yang, P.; Huber, J.T.; Jones, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitism of the leafhopper Sophonia rufofascia (Kuoh and Kuoh), a recent immigrant that has become a widespread pest in Hawaii, was examined in a 1-year survey in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Samples of young leaves of four plant species infested with eggs of S. rufofascia were collected at five sites ranging from 880 to 1190 m in elevation. Leafhopper eggs were parasitized principally by three species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera): Polynema sp., Schizophragma sp. probably bicolor (Dozier), and Chaetomymar sp. Although parasitism by each species fluctuated at levels usually below 10%, all three were detected consistently across most host plants, sites, and sample periods. Total parasitism differed at a marginally significant level among host plants and sites, but not among sample periods. Total parasitism averaged 14.3% (maximum: 26.3%) on Dodonaea viscosa Jacquin, 10.6% (maximum: 17.5%) on Myrica faya Aiton, 8.7% (maximum: 29.5%) on Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich-Beaupre, and 1.6% (maximum: 4.3%) on Vaccinium reticulatum Smith. Parasitism was generally higher at sites lower in elevation. Further monitoring is recommended to determine whether parasitism will increase to levels that can effectively suppress S. rufofascia populations. The efficacy of natural enemies already present in Hawaii is important because concern over nontarget impacts on endemic leafhoppers makes introduction of new biological control agents difficult. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Studies on Idiocerine Leafhoppers XII. Idioscopus Clavosignatus spec. nov. (Homoptera, Cicadellidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maldonado Capriles, J.

    1974-01-01

    Among material from the Leiden Museum loaned to me for study a new species of Idioscopus was found that is described here. A summary of the species in the genus is added in two tables. In the descriptions below 30 micrometer units are equivalent to 1.0 mm. The types are deposited in the Leiden Museu

  5. Cuatro cigarrillas de la subfamilia Typhlocybinae (Homoptera, Cicadellidae nuevas para la fauna española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguin Pombo, D.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Typhlocibid leafhoppers are a group of phytophagous insects little known in the Iberian Peninsula. Until now only about seventy leafhopper species have been recorded. After the study of material collected mainly from the northwest of Spain, four new species records belonging to the tribe Typhlocibini were found. Of those, two species are new to the Iberian Peninsula: Wagneripteryx germari (Zetterstedt, 1840 and Edwardsiana hippocastani (Edwards, 1888, the other two: Eupteryx filicum (Newman, 1853 and Eurhadina ribauti Wagner, 1935, are new records to Spain. For each species information on distribution, biology and food plants is included.

    Los Tiflocíbinos son un grupo de insectos fitófagos poco conocidos en la Península Ibérica. Hasta ahora han sido citadas solamente unas setenta especies de cigarrillas. Del estudio del material recogido principalmente en el noroeste de España han resultado cuatro cigarrillas nuevas para la fauna española pertenecientes a la tribu Typhlocibini. De estas, dos especies son nuevas para la Península: Wagneripteryx germari (Zetterstedt, 1840 y Edwardsiana hippocastani (Edwards, 1888; las otras dos: Eurhadina ribauti Wagner, 1935 y Eupteryx filicum (Newman, 1853, son dos citas nuevas para España. Para cada especie se incluye información sobre su distribución, biología y plantas nutricias.

  6. Distributional patterns and possible origins of the tribes and genera of Coelidiinae (Homoptera, Membracoidea, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin W Nielson

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which supports the proposed centers of origin and relatively low rate of intercontinental dispersal. The pantropical tribe Coelidiini is suggested as the basal group of the subfamily which is believed to have arisen prior to continental drift (late Jurassic-early Cretaceous because there appears to be no other evidence at the present time to explain its near cosmopolitan distribution. Possible origins of three Old World tribes, Hikangiini (Ethiopian, Thagriini (Oriental and Thanini (Australian and four New World -(Neotropical tribes, Teruliini, Tinobregmini, Gabritini and Sandersellini are elucidated. The tribe Youngolidiini occupies the Neotropical and Ethiopian realms but its origin is problematical. There appears to be ample evidence that origin/dispersal patterns are related to the geological history of the areas occupied by its faunal members.

  7. Distributional patterns and possible origins of the tribes and genera of Coelidiinae (Homoptera, Membracoidea, Cicadellidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nielson, Mervin W.; William J. Knight; Yalin Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which sup...

  8. Metcalfa pruinosa (Say (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha anew harmful species for entomofauna of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Ljubodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early autumn 2006, a Nonarctic species of cicadas Metcalfa pruinosa (Say (Auchenorrhyncha: Flatidae was identified in Belgrade (Košutnjak. In Europe, this species was identified for the first time in Italy in 1979. In Slovenia, it was identified in 1990 in west Istria, and in 2001 in the neighbourhood of Ljubljana. In the park forest Košutnjak (Belgrade mass occurrence of M. pruinosa was recorded in the area of about 5 ha. The larvae developed on woody species in the genera: Acer, Aesculus, Gleditchia Robinia, Ailanthus, Populus, Platanus, Prunus, Pyrus, Ulmus, Tilia, Cornus Fraxinus, Quercus and Thuja, što is konstatovano based on damages of larvae while numerous adults were found on trees and branches of the same plants.

  9. Paracoccus burnerae (HOMOPTERA; PLANOCOCCIDAE AS A VECTOR OF Banana streak virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muturi S M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Banana streak virus ( BSV is a causative agent of the banana streak disease (BSD which causes considerable damage to banana production in tropical countries. The virus is vectored by several mealy bug species. However, the competence of the oleander mealy bug ( Paracoccus burnerae , in the transmission of BSV is unknown. Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA technique was used to select both diseased and healthy plantlets fo r transmission experiments. RCA was conducted on viruliferous instars of P . burnerae and virus - inoculated plantlet DNA samples. The results revealed that P . burnerae is a vector of BSV . However, during hot conditions (24 - 30ºC, the insect was unable to acq uire and transmit BSV . Under cool conditions (9 - 20ºC, a minimum of 6 h of feeding time was necessary for P . burnerae instars to become viruliferous. These results indicate that P . burnerae is a vector of BSV and transmission efficiency depends on the ambi ent temperature and the feeding time.

  10. Biology of Scymnus ningshanensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): A predator of Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Montgomery; Hongbin Wang; Defu Yao; Wenhau Lu; Nathan Havill; Guangwu. Li

    2002-01-01

    Information is presented on the occurrence, development, and feeding of Scymnus (Neopullus) ningshanensis Yu et Yao. Information on its biology was collected in the field and laboratory in China and in quarantine in the United States. This lady beetle was found in China only on hemlock infested with ...

  11. Extended survival of spiders (Aranaeae) feeding on whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) honeydew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeydew produced by homopteran insects such as aphids, whiteflies and mealybugs, can be abundant in some crops and may represent an important food resource for spiders and other honeydew feeding natural enemies. Woolly whiteflies are common in south Texas citrus, and spiders consistently make up a...

  12. Induced life cycle transition from holocycly to anholocycly of the Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Runzhi; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Jiao Jiujiu, Grey hydrogeologic system analysis and time series model, Survey Science and Technology (in Chinese), 1987,(10): 39-43.[2]Li Shuwen, Wang Baolai, Xiao Guoqiang, A compound model of grey and periodic scrape and its application in groundwater prediction, Journal of Hebei Institute of Architectural Science & Technology (in Chinese), 1992, (3): 246-251.[3]Wang Qingyin, Li Shuwen, Grey distributed parameter model and groundwater analog, Journal of Hebei Institute of Architectural Science & Technology (in Chinese), 1992, (3): 66-70.[4]Guo Chunqing, Xia Riyuan, Liu Zhenglin, Gray Systematic Theory and Methodological Study of Krast Groundwater Resources Evaluation (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993, 3-60.[5]Wang Qingyin, Liu Kaidi, The Mathematical Method of Grey Systematic Theory and Its Application (in Chinese), Chengdu: Publishing House of Southwestern China University of Communication, 1990, 23-27.[6]Wang Qingyin, Wu Heqing, The concept of grey number and its property, in Proceedings of NAFIPS98, USA, 1998,45-49.[7]Givoli, D., Doukhovni, I., Finite element programming approach for contact problems with geometrical nonlinearity, Computers and Structures, 1996, (8): 31-41.[8]Li Shuwen, Wang Zhiqiang, Wu Qiang, The superiority of storage-centered finite element method in solving seepage problem, Coal Geology and Exploration (in Chinese), 1999, (5): 46-49.

  13. Aploneura lentisci (Homoptera: Aphididae) and Its Interactions with Fungal Endophytes in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popay, Alison J.; Cox, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    Aploneura lentisci Pass. is endemic to the Mediterranean region where it is holocyclic, forming galls on its primary host, Pistacia lentiscus and alternating over a 2-year period between Pistacia and secondary hosts, principally species of Gramineae. This aphid is widely distributed in Australia and New Zealand on the roots of the common forage grasses, ryegrass (Lolium spp.) and tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) where it exists as permanent, anholocyclic, parthenogenetic populations. Previous studies have indicated that infestations of A. lentisci significantly reduce plant growth and may account for differences in field performance of Lolium perenne infected with different strains of the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae var. lolii. These obligate biotrophs protect their host grasses from herbivory via the production of alkaloids. To confirm the hypothesis that growth of L. perenne is associated with the effect of different endophyte strains on aphid populations, herbage and root growth were measured over time in two pot trials that compared three fungal endophyte strains with an endophyte-free control. In both pot trials, aphid numbers were lowest on plants infected with endophyte strain AR37 at all sampling times. In plants infected with a common toxic strain naturalized in New Zealand, aphid numbers overall were lower than on uninfected plants or those infected with strain AR1, but numbers did not always differ significantly from these treatments. Populations on AR1-infected plants were occasionally significantly higher than those on endophyte-free. Cumulative foliar growth was reduced in AR1 and Nil treatments relative to AR37 in association with population differences of A. lentisci in both trials and root dry weight was reduced in one trial. In four Petri dish experiments survival of A. lentisci on plants infected with AR37 declined to low levels after an initial phase of up to 19 days during which time aphids fed and populations were similar to those on plants without endophyte. Aphids on AR37-infected plants became uncoordinated in their movement and developed tremors before dying suggesting a neurotoxin was responsible for their mortality. Results support the hypothesis that differences in A. lentisci populations due to endophyte infection status and strain affects plant growth. PMID:27695470

  14. Aploneura lentisci (Homoptera: Aphididae and its interactions with fungal endophytes in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jean Popay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aploneura lentisci Pass. is endemic to the Mediterranean region where it is holocyclic, forming galls on its primary host, Pistacia lentiscus and alternating over a 2 year period between Pistacia and secondary hosts, principally species of Graminae. This aphid is widely distributed in Australia and New Zealand on the roots of the common forage grasses, ryegrass (Lolium spp. and tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix where it exists as permanent, anholocyclic, parthenogenetic populations. Previous studies have indicated that infestations of A. lentisci significantly reduce plant growth and may account for differences in field performance of Lolium perenne infected with different strains of the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae var lolii. These obligate biotrophs protect their host grasses from herbivory via the production of alkaloids. To confirm the hypothesis that growth of L. perenne is associated with the effect of different endophyte strains on aphid populations, herbage and root growth were measured over time in two pot trials that compared three fungal endophyte strains with an endophyte-free control. In both pot trials, aphid numbers were lowest on plants infected with endophyte strain AR37 at all sampling times. In plants infected with a common toxic strain naturalized in New Zealand, aphid numbers overall were lower than on uninfected plants or those infected with strain AR1, but numbers did not always differ significantly from these treatments. Populations on AR1-infected plants were occasionally significantly higher than those on endophyte-free. Cumulative foliar growth was reduced in AR1 and Nil treatments relative to AR37 in association with population differences of A. lentisci in both trials and root dry weight was reduced in one trial. In four Petri dish experiments survival of A. lentisci on plants infected with AR37 declined to low levels after an initial phase of up to 19 days during which time aphids fed and populations were similar to those on plants without endophyte. Aphids on AR37-infected plants became uncoordinated in their movement and developed tremors before dying suggesting a neurotoxin was responsible for their mortality. Results support the hypothesis that differences in A. lentisci populations due to to endophyte infection status and strain affects plant growth.

  15. The tribe Acutalini Fowler (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae: new genera, new species and some nomenclatural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M Sakakibara

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Acutalini Fowler is redescribed as well as the genera Acutalis Fairmaire, Euritea Stål, and Thrasymedes Kirkaldy. The following new taxa and nomenclatural changes are presented: Thrasymedes mexicana sp.n. (from Mexico, Oaxaca; Bordonia gen.n., with B. venezuelana sp.n. (type-species (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, B. clypeata sp.n. (from Colombia, Cuesta Boba, B. majuscula sp.n. (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, and Cornutalis gen.n., with C. cauca sp.n. (type-species (from Colombia, Cauca, and C. validu sp.n. (from Ecuador, Sto. Domingo. Acutalis fusconervosa Fairmaire, 1846 = Horiola venosa Walker, 1858, syn.n.; Euritea munda (Walker, 1858 = Stictolobus nitidus Funkhouser, 1940, syn.n.; Bordonia nigricosta (Goding, 1926, comb.n.; Bordonia virescens (Funkhouser, 1940, comb.n.. One species is transferred to Smiliinae-Ceresini: Tapinolobus curvispina (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Thrasymedes = Tapinolobus fasciatus Sakakibara, 1969, syn.n.; another one is transferred to Darninae-Cymbomorphini: Eumela darnioides (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Euritea.

  16. Mechanisms of Oryza sativa (Poaceae resistance to Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae under greenhouse condition in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex González

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tagosodes orizicolus is one of the main plagues of rice in tropical America causing two types of damages, the direct one, feeding and oviposition effect, and an indirect one, by the transmission of the “Rice hoja blanca virus”. During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundación Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance to T. orizicolus, which could be acting in commercial varieties and advanced lines of the rice genetic breeding programs of INIA and Fundación Danac. The method of free feeding was used for the antixenosis evaluation, whereas the method of forced feeding was used for antibiosis evaluation (effect on survival and oviposition. Additionally, we used the indirect method based on biomass depression to estimate the tolerance. Some of the evaluated traits included: grade of damage, number of insects settling on rice plants, percentage of sogata mortality at the mature state, number of eggs in the leaf midrib and an index of tolerance. The results showed that rice genotypes possess different combinations of resistance mechanisms, as well as different grades of reactions. The susceptible control ‘Bluebonnet 50’ was consistently susceptible across experiments and the resistant control ‘Makalioka’ had high antixenosis and high antibiosis based on survival and oviposition. The rest of the genotypes presented lower or higher degrees of antixenosis and antibiosis for survival and viposition. The genotype ‘FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1’ was identified with possible tolerance to the direct damage of sogata.Tagosodes orizicolus es una de las principales plagas del cultivo del arroz en América tropical causando dos tipos de daños a la planta, el directo, por efecto de la alimentación y oviposición; el indirecto, por la transmisión del virus de la hoja blanca del arroz. Durante el período 2006-2007 se llevó a cabo una investigación bajo condiciones de umbráculo en la Fundación Danac, Venezuela, con el objeto de determinar los mecanismos de resistencia de antixenosis, antibiosis y tolerancia a T. orizicolus que pudieran estar actuando en líneas avanzadas y cultivares del programa de mejoramiento enético de arroz de las instituciones INIA y Fundación Danac. Para la evaluación de antixenosis se utilizó el método de libre elección, para antibiosis (efecto sobre sobrevivencia y oviposición de los insectos el de alimentación forzada, adicionalmente se usó un método indirecto para estimar la tolerancia. Dentro de los principales parámetros determinados se encontraban: grado de daño, número de insectos posados sobre plantas de arroz, porcentaje de mortalidad de sogata en estado adulto, número de huevos y se calculó un índice de tolerancia con base en la biomasa. Los resultados mostraron que los genotipos de arroz evaluados poseen diferentes combinaciones en cuanto a los mecanismos de resistencia, así como el grado de su efecto. El testigo ‘Bluebonnet 50’ se mantuvo consistentemente susceptible en las evaluaciones y el testigo resistente ‘Makalioka’ fue el único genotipo que presentó alta antixenosis y alta antibiosis para sobrevivencia y oviposición. El resto de los genotipos presentaron un menor o mayor grado de resistencia de tipo antixenosis y antibiosis para sobrevivencia y oviposición. Se identificó el genotipo ‘FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1’ con posible tolerancia al daño directo de sogata.

  17. Aphididae (Hemiptera on ornamental plants in Córdoba (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsina SZPEINER

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En 30 censos realizados en la ciudad de Córdoba y alrededores (Argentina se registraron, entre noviembre de 2001 y mayo de 2002, un total de 109 plantas ornamentales infestadas de colonias de áfidos. Los censos fueron realizados en jardines, viveros y el jardín botánico de la ciudad. Se identificaron 47 especies de plantas ornamentales infestadas con 17 especies de áfidos (4 nuevas en el área. Se establecen 59 relaciones áfido/planta, de las cuales 38 son nuevas. Se obtuvo el primer registro de áfidos que colonizan Cactaceae en Argentina. La mayoría de las colonias de áfidos fueron medianas y una alta proporción (más del 40 % mostró individuos alados. Aphis gossypii Glover y Aphis craccivora Koch, fueron las especies más frecuentes y generaban los daños más conspicuos, como el enrollamiento y la necrosis foliar. Más del 30% de las colonias estuvieron atendidas por hormigas, siendo Camponotus Mayr y Prenolepis Mayr los géneros de hormigas que frecuentaban el mayor número de especies de áfidos.

  18. Effect of plant traps and sowing dates on population density of major soybean pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef E.Y. Abdallah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was conducted to evaluate the role of certain field crops as plant traps in soybean fields. Maize, mungbean and sunflower were sown on the borders of soybean fields to investigate their ability to attract Lampides boeticus L., Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, aphids [Aphis gossypii (Glover & Aphis craccivora (Koch] and Nezara viridula L. away from soybean plants. Results revealed that sowing either maize or sunflower at the borders of soybean fields was not effective in reducing infestation with L. boeticus. On the other hand, surrounding the borders of soybean field with maize or mungbean might offer a reliable protection against the infestation with B. tabaci. When soybean was surrounded by a mixture of maize, mungbean and sunflower, it escaped from aphid infestation. Soybean plants surrounded by mungbean were more liable to be attacked by N. viridula individuals as compared with the other treatments where soybean plants were surrounded by maize, sunflower, mixture of the three plant traps, or soybean alone.

  19. 出口豆类蔬菜害虫种类及危害初步研究%Primarily Study on Sorts and Damage of Pests on Exported Legumious Vegetable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽娟; 郑长英; 孙立宁; 衣维贤

    2010-01-01

    于2007年6月10日至9月6日对菜用大豆、四季豆、豇豆、扁豆和豌豆等5种出口豆类蔬菜上发生的害虫种类及危害进行了研究.结果表明:发生在上述豆类蔬菜上害虫分属6目18科,共30种.其中危害严重的种类是豌豆上的豌豆潜叶蝇(Chomatomyia horticola Goureau)和棉铃虫(Helicoverpa armigra Hubuer),豇豆和四季豆上的南美斑潜蝇(Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard)和美洲斑潜蝇(Liriomyza sativae Blanchard),四季豆上的花生蚜(Aphis craccivora Koch),菜用大豆上的短额负蝗(Atractomorpha sinensis Bolivar)和温室白粉虱(Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood),四季豆和豇豆上的朱砂叶螨(Tetranythus cinnabarinus)等.

  20. Degradation of the neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid via the N-carbamoylimine derivate (IM-1-2) mediated by the nitrile hydratase of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Ensifer meliloti CGMCC 7333.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling-Yan; Zhang, Long-Jiang; Sun, Shi-Lei; Ge, Feng; Mao, Shi-Yun; Ma, Yuan; Liu, Zhong-Hua; Dai, Yi-Jun; Yuan, Sheng

    2014-10-15

    The metabolism of the widely used neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid (ACE) has been extensively studied in plants, animals, soils, and microbes. However, hydration of the N-cyanoimine group in ACE to the N-carbamoylimine derivate (IM-1-2) by purified microbes, the enzyme responsible for this biotransformation, and further degradation of IM-1-2 have not been studied. The present study used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine that the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Ensifer meliloti CGMCC 7333 transforms ACE to IM-1-2. CGMCC 7333 cells degraded 65.1% of ACE in 96 h, with a half-life of 2.6 days. Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) overexpressing the nitrile hydratase (NHase) from CGMCC 7333 and purified NHase converted ACE to IM-1-2 with degradation ratios of 97.1% in 100 min and 93.9% in 120 min, respectively. Interestingly, IM-1-2 was not further degraded by CGMCC 7333, whereas it was spontaneously hydrolyzed at the N-carbamoylimine group to the derivate ACE-NH, which was further converted to the derivative ACE-NH2. Then, ACE-NH2 was cleaved to the major metabolite IM-1-4. IM-1-2 showed significantly lower insecticidal activity than ACE against the aphid Aphis craccivora Koch. The present findings will improve the understanding of the environmental fate of ACE and the corresponding enzymatic mechanisms of degradation.

  1. THE ROLE OF BACTERIAL SYMBIONTS IN AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF BLACK BEAN APHIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingGan; De-ChengDing; Xue-xiaMiao

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the role of bacterial symbionts ( Buchnera spp. ) in the black bean aphids ( Aphis craccivora Koch), the aphids were treated with the antibiotic, rifampicin, to eliminate their intracellular symbiotic bacteria. Analysis of protein and amino acid concentration in 7-day-old of aposymbiotic aphids showed that the total protein content per mg fresh weight was significantly reduced by 29 %, but free amino acid titers were increased by 17% . The ratio of the essential amino acids was in general only around 20% essential amino acids in phloem sap of broad bean, whereas it was 44% and 37% in symbiotic and aposymbiotic aphids, respectively,suggesting that the composition of the free amino acids was unbalanced. For example, the essential amino acid,threonine represented 21. 6% of essential amino acids in symbiotic aphids, but it was only 16.7% in aposymbiotic aphids. Likewise, two nonessential amino acids, tyrosine and serine, represented 8.9% and 5.6% of total amino acids in symbiontic aphids, respectively, but they enhanced to 21.1% and 13.6% in aposymbiotic aphids. It seems likely that the elevated free amino acid concentration in aposymbiotic aphids was caused by the limited protein anabolism as the result of the unbalanced amino acid composition.

  2. Genetic mapping and legume synteny of aphid resistance in African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) grown in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Ndeve, Arsenio; Wanamaker, Steve; Lucas, Mitchell R; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A

    The cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora Koch (CPA) is a destructive insect pest of cowpea, a staple legume crop in Sub-Saharan Africa and other semiarid warm tropics and subtropics. In California, CPA causes damage on all local cultivars from early vegetative to pod development growth stages. Sources of CPA resistance are available in African cowpea germplasm. However, their utilization in breeding is limited by the lack of information on inheritance, genomic location and marker linkage associations of the resistance determinants. In the research reported here, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between a susceptible California blackeye cultivar (CB27) and a resistant African breeding line (IT97K-556-6) was genotyped with 1,536 SNP markers. The RILs and parents were phenotyped for CPA resistance using field-based screenings during two main crop seasons in a 'hotspot' location for this pest within the primary growing region of the Central Valley of California. One minor and one major quantitative trait locus (QTL) were consistently mapped on linkage groups 1 and 7, respectively, both with favorable alleles contributed from IT97K-556-6. The major QTL appeared dominant based on a validation test in a related F2 population. SNP markers flanking each QTL were positioned in physical contigs carrying genes involved in plant defense based on synteny with related legumes. These markers could be used to introgress resistance alleles from IT97K-556-6 into susceptible local blackeye varieties by backcrossing.

  3. Pikaro: hull, kui Pärnu jätkab samade juhtoinastega / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    Kaitsepolitsei asub üle kuulama Pärnu linnapead Mart Viisitamme ja abilinnapead Simmo Saart, keda kahtlustatakse riigihangetes omade soosimises, samal ajal arutlevad kriisi sattunud linna volikogu liikmed selle üle, kuidas linnajuhtimisega antud olukorras edasi minna. Vt. samas: Pärnu linnavalitsus; Pärnu linnavolikogu

  4. Tactile learning by a whip spider, Phrynus marginemaculatus C.L. Koch (Arachnida, Amblypygi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Roger D; Hebets, Eileen A

    2009-04-01

    The ability of animals to learn and remember underpins many behavioural actions and can be crucial for survival in certain contexts, for example in finding and recognising a habitual refuge. The sensory cues that an animal learns in such situations are to an extent determined by its own sensory specialisations. Whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi) are nocturnal and possess uniquely specialised sensory systems that include elongated 'antenniform' forelegs specialised for use as chemo- and mechanosensory feelers. We tested the tactile learning abilities of the whip spider Phrynus marginemaculatus in a maze learning task with two tactile cues of different texture--one associated with an accessible refuge, and the other with an inaccessible refuge. Over ten training trials, whip spiders got faster and more accurate at finding the accessible refuge. During a subsequent test trial where both refuges were inaccessible, whip spiders searched for significantly longer at the tactile cue previously associated with the accessible refuge. Using high-speed cinematography, we describe three distinct antenniform leg movements used by whip spiders during tactile examination. We discuss the potential importance of tactile learning in whip spider behaviour and a possible role for their unique giant sensory neurons in accessing tactile information.

  5. Composition of the Essential Oil of Marrubium anisodon C. Koch of Turkish Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neş’e Kırımer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodistilled essential oil from aerial parts of Marrubium anisodon (Lamiaceae was analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Thirty-nine components were characterized representing 87.9 % of the oil. (Z- b -Farnesene (20.2 %, nonacosane (18.5% and b -caryophyllene (13.3 % were the main constituents.

  6. Sõjaraamatu hävitamisel on seos Eestiga / Hendrik Vosman, Tuuli Koch ; kommenteerinud Jaak Aaviksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Suurbritannia ajakirjaniku Toby Harndeni Afganistani sõda käsitlevast raamatust "Dead Men Risen: The Welsh Guards and the Real Story of Britain's War in Afganistan" ("Ülestõusnud surnud: Walesi kaardivägi ja tegelik lugu brittide sõjast Afganistanis"). Briti kaitseministeerium lükkab ümber Harndeni väite raamatu ümber puhkenud skandaali poliitilisest tagamaast, autori arvates kartis kaitseministeerium, et raamatus leiduv info võiks Eestit ärritada

  7. [Bromatological characteristics of pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis Koch) cultivated in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, V D

    1975-01-01

    The A. studied pecan nuts cultivated in Brazil: two samples represented North American varieties and three others Brazilian hybrids. The comparison between physical classification and chemical composition, specially amino acid contents pointed to non significant differences, all beeing useful for commercial purposes. The A. stresses the importance of the culture of pecan nuts in Brazil.

  8. Parts : ükski inimene ei saa hakkama ilma erakonnata / Juhan Parts ; interv. Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parts, Juhan, 1966-

    2004-01-01

    Peaminister on rahul Res Publica ministrite toetusega üldkogul ning arvab, et Res Publica on nii ühtne, kui üks selline erakond üldse olla saab. Lisa: Suurpuhastus. Vt. samas: Res Publica - paremtsentristid

  9. Keila-Joa suvemaja eest küsitakse kolm miljonit / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    Kinnitamata andmetel pakkus kinnisvaraportaal City24 kaks kuud tagasi 3,5 miljoni krooni eest müüa Keila-Joal paiknevat kinnistut, mille 2004. aastal oli ostnud Raimo Kägu firma OÜ Marriot. Ärimees eitab maja müüki sellise hinnaga

  10. Tuleva aasta eelarve tekitab Tallinna võimuliidus pingeid / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2003-01-01

    Tallinna linnavolikogu keskfraktsiooni aseesimehe Merike Martinsoni sõnul on linnaeelarve kokkupanek küll pingeline, aga see ei tähenda, et see tekitaks koalitsioonipartnerite vahel erilisi poliitilisi pingeid. Lisa: Pingete põhjused

  11. KUMU zakrõt tselõh dva dnja v nedelju / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Kunstimuuseum KUMU puhkab rahapuudusel nädalas kaks päeva. Jaan Elkeni, Marika Valgu ja Peeter Maueri selgitused. KUMU külastatavus esimesel nädalal. Samal teemal lk. 1 "Lishni võhodnoi KUMU - iz-za nedostatka sredstv".

  12. Sõjaraamatu hävitamisel on seos Eestiga / Hendrik Vosman, Tuuli Koch ; kommenteerinud Jaak Aaviksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Suurbritannia ajakirjaniku Toby Harndeni Afganistani sõda käsitlevast raamatust "Dead Men Risen: The Welsh Guards and the Real Story of Britain's War in Afganistan" ("Ülestõusnud surnud: Walesi kaardivägi ja tegelik lugu brittide sõjast Afganistanis"). Briti kaitseministeerium lükkab ümber Harndeni väite raamatu ümber puhkenud skandaali poliitilisest tagamaast, autori arvates kartis kaitseministeerium, et raamatus leiduv info võiks Eestit ärritada

  13. Saare sild sõltub süvasadamast / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2003-01-01

    Saaremaa süvasadama ehituse edasilükkumine seab kahtluse alla Saaremaa ja mandri vahelise silla ehitamise. Maanteeameti peadirektori Riho Sõrmuse, ELF-i kohtus esindanud Marek Strandbergi arvamused

  14. Amblyomma mixtum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae): First record confirmation in Colombia using morphological and molecular analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Páez, Fredy A; Labruna, Marcelo B; Martins, Thiago F; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2016-07-01

    Up to some years ago, the taxon Amblyomma cajennense represented a single tick species in the New World, from southern United States to northern Argentina. Recent studies, based on genetic, reproductive and morphological data reorganized this taxon into a complex of the following 6 valid species: A. cajennense sensu stricto, Amblyomma mixtum, Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma interandinum, Amblyomma tonelliae, and Amblyomma patinoi. According to this classification, the A. cajennense complex is currently represented in Colombia by only one species, A. patinoi. Because the Colombian land is surrounded by confirmed records of A. mixtum in Panama and Ecuador, and by A. cajennense s.s. in Venezuela and the Brazilian Amazon, it is possible that these two species could also occur in Colombia. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of ticks of the A. cajennense complex in the Orinoquía region of Colombia. A total of 246 adult ticks of the Amblyomma genus were collected in three sampled regions: 71 females and 110 males in Arauca (Arauca Department), 27 females and 20 males in Nunchía (Casanare Department), and 10 females and 8 males in Yopal (Casanare Department). Based on morphological and molecular analyses, these ticks were identified as A. mixtum. Molecular analyses consisted of DNA sequences of two molecular markers, the nuclear second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). The presence of A. mixtum in Colombia is of medical relevance, since this species is incriminated as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii in Central America. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. Mart Laar murrab ikkagi Andrus Ansipi valitsusse / Tuuli Koch, Kai Kalamees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 28. märts 2007, lk. 2. Koalitsiooniläbirääkimistel Reformierakonna, IRL-i ja SDE vahel kujunes tüliõunaks haridusministri koht, mida soovivad nii Peeter Kreitzberg kui Tõnis Lukas. Mart Laar võib saada kaitseministriks. Lisa: Võimalik uus valitsus ja riigikogu juhatus. Vt. samas: Savisaar: rohelistele näidati ust, sest nad nõudsid võrdset kohtlemist

  16. Res Publica toetus pole aastaga üle viie protsendi tõusnud / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Emori jaanuarikuu küsitluse põhjal on 22 protsendiga suurim toetajaskond Keskerakonnal, Res Publica reiting on aasta aega püsinud viie ja kolme toetusprotsendi vahel. Vt. samas: Taavi Veskimägi. 2 küsimust. Diagrammid: Res Publica valiks riigikogusse tagasi vaid kolm protsenti valijaist; Toetus Res Publicale

  17. Res Publica ladvikus hõõgub võimutüli / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    22. aprillil kogunenud Res Publica volikogu toetas 60 poolthäälega ühe vastu Res Publica ja Isamaaliidu ühinemist. Tõnis Palts teatas volikogul esinedes, et Taavi Veskimägi ei sobi Res Publica poolseks läbirääkimiste juhiks

  18. Lotmani kõne ajas erakonnad tülli / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    SDE ja Res Publica konfliktist seoses Mihhail Lotmani kõnega vanemahüvitise seaduseelnõu arutelul Riigikogus. Res Publica esimehe Juhan Partsi kirjast SDE esimehele Ivari Padarile, I. Padari vastusest. Lisa: Nestor: kõige tavalisem fašism

  19. Res Publica lihtliikmed tõrjuvad Veskimäge / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Pärnu Postimees 17. okt. lk. 6. Isamaa ja Res Publica liidu peaministrikandidaadiks sai Mart Laar, kuid pinged erakondade sees kestavad edasi. Res Publica opositsioon toetab isamaaliitlast Mart Laari ja on Taavi Veskimäe vastu. Lisa: Otsitakse peaministrit

  20. In Defense of Unification (Comments on West and Koch’s review of Causality)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    ago, prior to the mathematization of causality. But I am curious to learn how they can be used today, when new tools are available, which permit us to...detect and neutralize threats with mathematical precision. Of course, I would not rule out the possibility that Campbell’s lists are still used by... physicists ). What we need therefore is a detailed analysis of how Campbell’s heuristics follow from the structural theory of causation. and in what types of

  1. Kadriorg ostis 115 500 krooni eest president Rüütli raamatuid / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 14. juuni lk. 4. Presidendi kantselei on ostnud 500 president Arnold Rüütli seniseid ametiaastaid kajastava raamatut "Eesti Vabariigi President Arnold Rüütel", mille algtiraazh on 850 eksemplari, makstes nende eest üle saja tuhande krooni. Vt. samas: Väljavõtteid president Rüütli elulooraamatust

  2. Kadriorg ostis 115 500 krooni eest president Rüütli raamatuid / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees: na russkom jazõke 14. juuni, lk. 4. Presidendi kantselei ostis 500 eksemplari raamatut " Eesti Vabariigi president Arnold Rüütel", mis kajastab president Arnold Rüütli senist ametitegevust. Samas ka: Väljavõtteid president Rüütli elulooraamatust

  3. Mating success of two geographically distinct populations of Gulf Coast ticks, Amblyomma maculatum Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, H R; Teel, P D; Strey, O F; Longnecker, M T

    2006-08-31

    Gulf Coast ticks collected from Refugio Co., TX and Osage Co., KS are reproductively compatible despite differences in genetic haplotypes, geographic separation and seasonal phenologies. Two heifers per mating combination (TX males x TX females, KS males x KS females, TX males x KS females, KS males x TX females) were each infested with 360 pairs of Gulf Coast ticks. Only mean pre-oviposition and mean egg conversion efficiency index for the Texas male-Kansas female mating were significantly different (p<0.05) from other mating treatments. These females began oviposition 1-day later and used 4% less body mass toward egg production when compared to site-specific matings. However, the overall trend in reproductive performance of reciprocal tick matings was slightly lower than that of site-specific matings. There appear to be no pre-zygotic barriers to mating among Gulf Coast ticks from these Texas and Kansas populations.

  4. Müüride saatus samba kerkimist ei sega / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    Tallinnas Harjumäel kaevamistööde käigus välja tulnud müürid Vabadussõja võidusamba rajamist ei takista. Nende säilitamise korral on tõenäoline, et samba avamine lükkub edasi. Kommenteerib Kalev Uustalu

  5. Traditional uses and potential health benefits of Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch ex N.E.Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Melinda; Baldwin, Timothy C; Hocking, Trevor J; Chan, Kelvin

    2010-03-24

    Amorphophallus konjac (konjac) has long been used in China, Japan and South East Asia as a food source and as a traditional medicine. Flour extracted from the corm of this species is used in Far Eastern cuisine to make noodles, tofu and snacks. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a gel prepared from the flour has been used for detoxification, tumour-suppression, blood stasis alleviation and phlegm liquefaction; and for more than 2000 years has been consumed by the indigenous people of China for the treatment of asthma, cough, hernia, breast pain, burns as well as haematological and skin disorders. Over the past two decades, purified konjac flour, commonly known as konjac glucomannan (KGM) has been introduced on a relatively small scale into the United States and Europe, both as a food additive and a dietary supplement. The latter is available in capsule form or as a drink mix and in food products. Clinical studies have demonstrated that supplementing the diet with KGM significantly lowers plasma cholesterol, improves carbohydrate metabolism, bowel movement and colonic ecology. Standards for the classification of both konjac flour and KGM have been established by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, the European Commission and the U.S. Food Chemicals Codex. However, to date, there is no worldwide agreed regulatory standard for konjac flour or KGM. This highlights the need for harmonization of konjac commercial standards to assess and ensure the quality of existing and future KGM products. Despite the widespread consumption of konjac derived products in East and South East Asia, there has been limited research on the biology, processing and cultivation of this species in the West. Most studies performed outside Asia have focussed on the structural characterisation and physicochemical properties of KGM. Therefore, the objective of this monograph is to review the literature covering the ethnic uses, botany and cultivation of konjac corms, together with the health benefits of KGM with the associated requirements for quality control. Possible directions for future research and development and standardisation of production and classification of this versatile natural product will be discussed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Konjac glucomannan, a promising polysaccharide of Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Sudhanshu S; Ray, Ramesh C

    2016-11-01

    In recent year, konjac glucomannan (KGM) has attracted more attention due to its non-harmful and non-toxic properties, good biocompatibility, biodegradability and hydrophilic ability. Moreover, KGM and their derivatives have several importances in the multidirectional research areas such as nutritional, biotechnological and fine chemical fields. In the previous article, we have reviewed the nutritional aspects of KGM covering the various aspects of functional foods, food additives and their derivatives. This review aims at highlighting the diverse biomedical research conducted on KGM in the past ten years, covering therapies for anti-obesity, regulation in lipid metabolism, laxative effect, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, prebiotic to wound dressing applications. Moreover, this review deals with global health aspects of KGM and the disparate health related factors associated with diseases and their control measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Peroxynitrite scavenging activities of aromatic compounds isolated from Konnyaku, Amorphophallus konjac K.Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Tatsuya; Murakami, Kazushi; Ohtake, Tetsuro; Etoh, Hideo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Shimizu, Yasuo; Kato, Yoji; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2002-06-01

    (+/-)-5,5'-Dimethoxysesamin, erythrinasinate, indole-3-carbaldehyde, (7R,8S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, cis- and trans-N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin, serotonin, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde have been found in tobiko, a food by-product, and evaluation of their peroxynitrite scavenging activities has been done. Among these compounds, serotonin, trans-N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid showed stronger activities than that of BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) at 200 microM.

  8. Eesti räpane sisepoliitika võtab Gaudeamuselt ühe salmi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Nördimust presidendivalimiste ja poliitikas toimuva suhtes näitab Tallinna Ülikool õppeaasta pidulikul avaaktusel sellega, et jätab riigile tänu avaldava salmi Gaudeamusest laulmata. Selgitab rektor Rein Raud

  9. Una nueva especie ibérica de Ferulago Koch (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solanas, José Luis

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferulago ternatifolia Solanas, M.B. Crespo & García Martín, sp. nov., is described from populations found in the littoral zones of Alicante Province (Puigcampana and Vall de Gallinera, and the Sierra de Moratalla (Pico Revolcadores of Murcia Province. Morphological and structural characters defining the new species are analysed, and the diagnostic differences with other Iberian taxa are also established.Se describe Ferulago ternatifolia Solanas, M.B. Crespo & García Martín, sp. nov., a partir de poblaciones encontradas en zonas litorales (Puigcampana y Vall de Gallinera de la provincia de Alicante y en la Sierra de Moratalla (Pico Revolcadores de la provincia de Murcia. Se analizan los caracteres morfológicos y estructurales que la definen y se establecen las principales diferencias con otras especies ibéricas del género.

  10. Una nueva especie ibérica de Ferulago Koch (Apiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Villalba, Manuel Benito; Solanas, José Luis; García Martín, Felipe José

    2000-01-01

    Se describe Ferulago ternatifolia Solanas, M.B. Crespo & García Martín, sp. nov., a partir de poblaciones encontradas en zonas litorales (Puigcampana y Vall de Gallinera) de la provincia de Alicante y en la Sierra de Moratalla (Pico Revolcadores) de la provincia de Murcia. Se analizan los caracteres morfológicos y estructurales que la definen y se establecen las principales diferencias con otras especies ibéricas del género.

  11. Una nueva especie ibérica de Ferulago Koch (Apiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Solanas Ferrándiz, José Luis; Crespo Villalba, Manuel Benito; García Martín, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    Se describe Ferulago ternatifolia Solanas, M.B. Crespo & García Martín, sp. nov., a partir de poblaciones encontradas en zonas litorales (Puigcampana y Vall de Gallinera) de la provincia de Alicante y en la Sierra de Moratalla (Pico Revolcadores) de la provincia de Murcia. Se analizan los caracteres morfológicos y estructurales que la definen y se establecen las principales diferencias con otras especies ibéricas del género. Ferulago ternatifolia Solanas, M.B. Crespo & García Martín, sp. n...

  12. Peaminister Parts : "ei" seisukohaga Keskerakonnaga valitsust ei tee / Juhan Parts ; interv. Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parts, Juhan, 1966-

    2003-01-01

    Peaminister Juhan Parts tõdeb, et Keskerakonna juht Edgar Savisaar on selgelt väljendanud oma eitavat seisukohta Eesti EL-iga liitumise suhtes ning sellelt pinnalt on võimu jagamine Keskerakonnaga võimatu

  13. Raudtee uus tegevjuht lubab pikki ronge ja rohkem tonne / Earl Currie ; interv. Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Currie, Earl

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Raudtee juhatuse esimees Earl Currie raudtee eelmise juhtkonna tegutsemisest, uue juhtkonna seisukohast läbirääkimistel ametiühingutega muutustest ER-i juhtimises, olulisematest investeeringutest jm. Earl Currie eluloost. Vt. samas "Rask näeb Savisaare avalduses kommunismi"

  14. The formation of collective silk balls in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendoline Clotuche

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae is a phytophagous mite that forms colonies of several thousand individuals. These mites construct a common web to protect the colony. When plants become overcrowded and food resources become scarce, individuals gather at the plant apex to form a ball composed of mites and their silk threads. This ball is a structure facilitating group dispersal by wind or animal transport. Until now, no quantitative study had been done on this collective form of migration. This is the first attempt to understand the mechanisms that underlie the emergence and growth of the ball. We studied this collective behaviour under laboratory conditions on standardized infested plants. Our results show that the collective displacement and the formation of balls result from a recruitment process: by depositing silk threads on their way up to the plant apex, mites favour and amplify the recruitment toward the balls. A critical threshold (quorum response in the cumulative flow of mites must be reached to observe the emergence of a ball. At the beginning of the balls formation, mites form an aggregate. After 24 hours, the aggregated mites are trapped inside the silk balls by the complex network of silk threads and finally die, except for recently arrived individuals. The balls are mainly composed of immature stages. Our study reconstructs the key events that lead to the formation of silk balls. They suggest that the interplay between mites' density, plant morphology and plant density lead to different modes of dispersions (individual or collective and under what conditions populations might adopt a collective strategy rather than one that is individually oriented. Moreover, our results lead to discuss two aspects of the cooperation and altruism: the importance of Allee effects during colonization of new plants and the importance of the size of a founding group.

  15. Näiliselt leppinud partnerid ootavad kiiresti uut ministrit / Tuuli Koch, Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    Järgmiseks määravaks sammuks valitsuskoalitsiooni püsimise suhtes võib kujuneda uue välisministri kandidaadi nimetamine. Lisa: Ansip jäi oma seisukoha juurde. Vt. samas: Võitlus Meelis Atoneni ja Andrus Ansipi vahel; lühiintervjuud peaminister Juhan Partsiga

  16. Partsi otsus Langi kohta määrab valitsuse saatuse / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    Peaministri otsus, kas esitada Rein Lang välisministri kandidaadiks või mitte, osutub valitsuskriisi võtmeküsimuseks. Peaminister peab vajalikuks veel kord kandidaadiga kohtuda. Vt. samas lühiintervjuud Rein Langiga. Kommenteerivad politoloog Kaido Jaanson, MK Estonija peatoimetaja Pavel Ivanov ja Euroopa Parlamendi liige Marianne Mikko

  17. Miljardikärbe ähvardab eakaid ja lapsi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2009-01-01

    Valitsuse võimalikest sammudest majandusolukorra stabiliseerimisel. Presidendi avalike suhete nõuniku Toomas Sildami sõnul kohtub president Toomas Hendrik Ilves regulaarselt peaministri ja valitsusliidu juhtpoliitikutega, et olla kursis valitsuse võimalike sammudega majandusolukorra stabiliseerimisel. Vt. samas: Ilvese avaldused. Väljavõtteid president T. H. Ilvese sõnavõttudest kohtumistel Poola presidendi Lech Kaczynskiga 23. jaanuaril 2009 ja Leedu peaministri Andrius Kubiliusega 27. jaanuaril 2009

  18. Andrus Ansip seadis Tallinna-Tartu maantee riigi prioriteetide hulka / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Peaminister Andrus Ansip sõnas Riigikogu infotunnis, et Tallinn-Tartu maantee on olnud riigi jaoks prioriteet ning aastani 2013 Euroopa Liidu struktuurifondidest Eestile laekuvast 52 miljardist kroonist on riigil kavas Tartu maanteesse investeerida 4,5 miljardit krooni

  19. Rüütlit saadab Hiinas hiigelvõlgades firma juht / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    President Arnold Rüütli 23. augustil alanud Hiina-visiidi ärimeeste delegatsiooni juhib AS-i Olexela Oil üks omanikest Juhan Kolk, kelle firmal on riigi ees ligi 40 miljoni krooni suurune maksuvõlg. Lisa: President Rüütel Hiinas. Riigivisiit Hiina Rahvavabariiki 23.-30.08.2005

  20. Pronkssõduri lahing jõuab vahefinišisse / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Keelatud rajatise kõrvaldamise seaduse eelnõu menetlemisest Riigikogus. President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese hinnagul on eelnõu praeguses tekstis märgata vastuolu põhiseadusega. Parlamendiliikmete arvamusi

  1. Rüütlit saadab Hiinas hiigelvõlgades firma juht / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    Presidendi 23. augustil alandud Hiina-visiidi ärimeeste delegatsiooni juhib AS-i Alexela Oil üks omanikest Juhan Kolk, kelle firmal on riigi ees ligi 40 miljoni krooni suurune maksuvõlg. Lisa: President Rüütel Hiinas

  2. Eesti müüb end maailmale kui põrsast kotis / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Kuigi Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutus eraldab aastas kümneid miljoneid kroone Eestit tutvustavatele programmidele, leiavad turundusspetsialistid, et Eesti vajab koordineeritud riiklikku turunduskampaaniat. 13 miljonit krooni maksnud "Welcome to Estonia" projekt on jäänud siiani esimeseks ja viimaseks riigipoolseks katseks müüa Eestit kui toodet. Lisad: Mis riikidega on tegu?; Kas teate?

  3. Valimiste teise koha eest võitlevad kolm erakonda / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2011-01-01

    Turu-uuringute ASi poolt läbi viidud uuring nätas, et Reformierakonna järel võitlevad valimistel teise tulemuse eest Isamaa ja Res Publica Liit, Keskerakond ja Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond. Diagramm

  4. Putin ei kiirusta enam MRP pakti hukka mõistma / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    President Arnold Rüütel ja Venemaa presidendi pressiesindaja kajastavad Vladimir Putini seisukohti Molotovi-Ribbentropi pakti ümberhindamise kohta erinevalt. Vt. samas: Rüütel sõitis Moskvast Kiievisse

  5. Putin ei kiirusta enam MRP pakti hukka mõistma / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    President Arnold Rüütli pressiesindaja Eero Raun ja Venemaa presidendi pressiesindaja Dimitri Peskov kajastavad Vladimir Putini seisukohti Molotovi-Ribbentropi pakti ümberhindamise kohta erinevalt. Vt. samas: Rüütel sõitis Moskvast Kiievisse. Töövisiit Moskvasse 20.-22.01.2005. Töövisiit Ukrainasse 22.-24.01.2005

  6. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Sandro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-preguiça" (sloth's giant tick is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae, Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae. Based on the material examined, the states of Rondônia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  7. Vene keele trump on Ida-Viru valimisvõitluses rolli kaotamas / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 22. veebr. lk. 4. Vaatluse all on Lääne-Virumaa ja Ida-Virumaa kandidaadid parlamendivalimistel. Lisa: Ringkond nr. 6; Ringkond nr. 7. Vt samas: Spiiker ja endine miss hääli püüdmas

  8. Väljakutse saadikutele - peatada riigikogu allakäik / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Riigikogu uue istungjärgu avakogunemise puhul meenutatakse president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese sõnavõttu XI koosseisu avaistungil 2007. a. aprillis. President ülistas parlamentarismi ja hoiatas, et rahvaesindus ei tohi muutuda täidesaatva võimu ripatsiks. Riigikogu poliitilise kultuuri ja maine kohta avaldavad arvamust Keskerakonna esimees Edgar Savisaar, Reformierakonna fraktsiooni esimees Keit Pentus, Isamaa ja Res Publica Liidu fraktsiooni aseesimees Urmas Reinsalu, endine Riigikogu liige Jaak Allik. Vt. samas: Riigikogu ootavad ülesanded

  9. Paremerakonnad tahaks vasakpoolsete võimu edasi lükata / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2004-01-01

    Res Publica liige Indrek Raudne teeb partei üldkogul ettekande paremerakondade ühinemisest. Tema sõnul peab ühinemisega ära hoidma vasakpoolsete võimuletuleku 2007. a. valimistel. Lisa: Ühinemismõtted juba eelmisel aastal

  10. Peaminister Parts : "ei" seisukohaga Keskerakonnaga valitsust ei tee / Juhan Parts ; interv. Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parts, Juhan, 1966-

    2003-01-01

    Peaminister Juhan Parts tõdeb, et Keskerakonna juht Edgar Savisaar on selgelt väljendanud oma eitavat seisukohta Eesti EL-iga liitumise suhtes ning sellelt pinnalt on võimu jagamine Keskerakonnaga võimatu

  11. Identification and Characterization of a New Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] Allergen, Car i 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhu; Lee, BoRam; Du, Wen-Xian; Lyu, Shu-Chen; Nadeau, Kari C; Grauke, Larry J; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Fan, Yuting; Yi, Jiang; McHugh, Tara H

    2016-05-25

    The 7S vicilin and 11S legumin seed storage globulins belong to the cupin protein superfamily and are major food allergens in many foods from the "big eight" food allergen groups. Here, for the first time, pecan vicilin was found to be a food allergen. Western blot experiments revealed that 30% of 27 sera used in this study and 24% of the sera from 25 patients with double-blind, placebo controlled clinical pecan allergy contained IgE antibodies specific to pecan vicilin. This allergen consists of a low-complexity region at its N-terminal and a structured domain at the C-terminal that contains two cupin motifs and forms homotrimers. The crystal structure of recombinant pecan vicilin was determined. The refined structure gave R/Rfree values of 0.218/0.262 for all data to 2.65 Å. There were two trimeric biological units in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Pecan vicilin is also a copper protein. These data may facilitate the understanding of the nutritional value and the allergenicity relevance of the copper binding property of seed storage proteins in tree nuts.

  12. Biochemical composition and immunological comparison of select pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Kshirsagar, Harshal H; Seeram, Navindra P; Heber, David; Thompson, Tommy E; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2007-11-28

    On an edible portion basis, pecan moisture, protein, lipid, total soluble sugars, and ash contents ranged from 2.1% to 6.4%, 6.0% to 11.3%, 65.9% to 78.0%, 3.3% to 5.3%, and 1.2% to 1.8%, respectively. With the exception of a high tannin (2.7%) Texas seedling, pecan tannin content was in a narrow range (0.6-1.85%). Unsaturated fatty acids (>90%) dominated pecan lipid composition with oleic (52.52-74.09%) and linoleic (17.69-37.52%) acids as the predominant unsaturated fatty acids. Location significantly influenced pecan biochemical composition. Pecan lipid content was negatively correlated with protein (r = -0.663) and total sugar (r = -0.625). Among the samples tested using SDS-PAGE a common pattern, with minor differences, in subunit polypeptide profiles was revealed. Rabbit polyclonal antibody-based immunoblotting experiments (Western blot) also illustrated the similarity in polypeptide profiles with respect to immunoreactivity. All tested cultivars registered similar immunoreactivity when their protein extracts (each at 1 mg/mL) were assessed using inhibition ELISAs (mean +/- standard deviation = 0.89 +/- 0.20; n = 27) with the USDA "Desirable" cultivar as the reference standard (immunoreactivity designated as 1.0).

  13. Biochemical characterization of soluble proteins in pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2008-09-10

    Pecans (cv. Desirable) contained approximately 10% protein on a dry weight basis. The minimum nitrogen solubility (5.9-7.5%) at 0.25-0.75 M trichloroacetic acid represented the nonprotein nitrogen. Among the solvents assessed for protein solubilization, 0.1 M NaOH was the most effective, while borate saline buffer (pH 8.45) was judged to be optimal for protein solubilization. The protein solubility was minimal in the pH range of 3-7 and significantly increased on either side of this pH range. Increasing the NaCl concentration from 0 to 4 M significantly improved ( approximately 8-fold increase) protein solubilization. Following Osborne protein fractionation, the alkali-soluble glutelin fraction (60.1%) accounted for a major portion of pecan proteins followed by globulin (31.5%), prolamin (3.4%), and albumin (1.5%), respectively. The majority of pecan polypeptides were in the molecular mass range of 12-66 kDa and in the pI range of 4.0-8.3. The pecan globulin fraction was characterized by the presence of several glycoprotein polypeptides. Lysine was the first limiting essential amino acid in the defatted flour, globulin, prolamin, and alkaline glutelin fractions. Leucine and tryptophan were the first limiting essential amino acids in albumin and acid glutelin fractions, respectively. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies detected a range of pecan polypeptides in the 12-60 kDa range, of which the globulin fraction contained the most reactive polypeptides.

  14. Res Publica lihtliikmed tõrjuvad Veskimäge / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Pärnu Postimees 17. okt. lk. 6. Isamaa ja Res Publica liidu peaministrikandidaadiks sai Mart Laar, kuid pinged erakondade sees kestavad edasi. Res Publica opositsioon toetab isamaaliitlast Mart Laari ja on Taavi Veskimäe vastu. Lisa: Otsitakse peaministrit

  15. Res Publica toetus pole aastaga üle viie protsendi tõusnud / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Emori jaanuarikuu küsitluse põhjal on 22 protsendiga suurim toetajaskond Keskerakonnal, Res Publica reiting on aasta aega püsinud viie ja kolme toetusprotsendi vahel. Vt. samas: Taavi Veskimägi. 2 küsimust. Diagrammid: Res Publica valiks riigikogusse tagasi vaid kolm protsenti valijaist; Toetus Res Publicale

  16. Res Publica ladvikus hõõgub võimutüli / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    22. aprillil kogunenud Res Publica volikogu toetas 60 poolthäälega ühe vastu Res Publica ja Isamaaliidu ühinemist. Tõnis Palts teatas volikogul esinedes, et Taavi Veskimägi ei sobi Res Publica poolseks läbirääkimiste juhiks

  17. Lotmani kõne ajas erakonnad tülli / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    SDE ja Res Publica konfliktist seoses Mihhail Lotmani kõnega vanemahüvitise seaduseelnõu arutelul Riigikogus. Res Publica esimehe Juhan Partsi kirjast SDE esimehele Ivari Padarile, I. Padari vastusest. Lisa: Nestor: kõige tavalisem fašism

  18. Short communication: Development of a new polymorphic genetic marker in Araucaria araucana (Mol) K. Koch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, F.; Martin, M. A.; Alvarez, A.; Molina, J. R.; Alvarez, J. B.; Herrera, M. A.; Martin, L. M.

    2012-11-01

    Seed storage proteins have been used as genetic marker in forest species to evaluate genetic variability, demonstrating its effectiveness both in conifers and broad-leaved. In conifers, megagametophyte storage proteins are particularly useful because of their haploid nature. The aim of this study was to determine whether these proteins could be used as a new marker of genetic diversity in Araucaria araucana, one of the oldest conifers of South America and a representative symbol of Chilean forest biodiversity. For this, megagametophytes from two A. araucana populations were assessed to identify polymorphic bands and to obtain a preliminary estimation of the genetic diversity. The results revealed that globulin is the best fraction for measuring the variability in the species, due to their high level of variation (20 identified bands, 11 of them polymorphic). Both populations showed high genetic diversity, with more than 92% of the variation within populations. The study highlighted that these proteins can be used to measure the genetic diversity in A. araucana, providing good information to ensure the preservation of the species genetic resources. (Author) 29 refs.

  19. Parts sai parteilt loa valitsusliidule lõpp peale teha / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    Peaminister Juhan Partsi sõnul on tal juhul, kui justiitsminister Ken-Marti Vaherile avaldatakse umbusaldust, volitus astuda samme koalitsiooni lõpetamiseks. Vaatlejate hinnangul teeb president peaminister J. Partsi tagasiastumise korral ettepaneku asuda peaministri kohale Reformierakonna esimehele Andrus Ansipile. Res Publica volikogust. Lisa: Valitsuse vahetumise kord

  20. Rahvaliidu juht Marrandi: peame end taas kehtestama / Jaanus Marrandi ; interv. Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marrandi, Jaanus, 1963-

    2007-01-01

    Rahvaliidu juht vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad erakonna reitingut ning arengut, programmi, sotsiaaldemokraatidega ühinemise võimalust, kahte leeri erakonnas, maavahetusskandaali, Villu Reiljani rolli erakonnas

  1. Kentucky coffeetree, Gymnocladus dioicus (L.) K. Koch: Current abundance in nature and prospective persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Carstens; A.P. Schmitz

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a collaboration between The Brenton Arboretum and the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) was initiated to assemble comprehensive ex situ germplasm collections of Kentucky coffeetree, Gymnocladus dioicus. Gymnocladus dioicus was selected due to its adaptation to poor soils common to urban conditions, extreme drought...

  2. Skandaalne politseijuht kaalub poliitiku karjääri / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 12. okt. lk. 2. Reformierakond on teinud ettepaneku endisele politseiameti peadirektorile Robert Antropovile kandideerida parlamendivalimistel. Teiste parteide kandidaatidest. Lisa: Robert Antropovi autoskandaal

  3. Indrek Sirk : liikluspolitseinikega kaubeldakse pistise üle nagu turul / Indrek Sirk ; interv. Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sirk, Indrek

    2003-01-01

    Ametist vabastatud liikluspolitsei komissar Indrek Sirk oma ametist vabastamise põhjusest, liikluspolitsei büroo likvideerimisest ja selle tagajärjest, liikluseeskirja rikkumisega vahele jäänud politseiniku karistamisest, altkäemaksust. Kommenteerivad Harry Tuul ja Robert Antropov. Vt. samas: Ajakirjanikud taunivad Harry Tuule käitumist

  4. Robert Antropov saab tagasi politseitööle / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    25. augustil politseiameti peadirektori kohalt vabastatud Robert Antropov jätkab teenistust politseiameti politseidirektori ametikohal. Antropovi tööülesandeks uues ametis on tõhustada politsei ja siseministeeriumi koostööd. Vt. samas: Ansip toetab politseiameti kaotamise ideed

  5. Valedetektor kinnitas Lepiksoni väiteid Savisaare pildi laskmisest / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Päevaleht kontrollis Robert Lepiksoni väiteid Savisaare pildi tulistamise kohta valedetektoril. Robert Lepiksoni versioon juhtunust. Kommentaar psühhiaater Jüri Ennetilt: "Peaminister Mart Laar vajab kindlasti eriarsti abi"

  6. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sandro; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho

    2002-12-01

    Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-pregui a" (sloth's giant tick) is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae), Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae). Based on the material examined, the states of Rond nia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  7. on control of the spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch.) in peanut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samson Edoja

    2016-07-27

    Jul 27, 2016 ... spp. are mites that cause damage to several crops and are primarily controlled by synthetic pesticides. Literature showed that ... increase pesticide resistance of insect-pests (Gill and ... way less aggressive to the environment.

  8. President Rüütel võidab rahva poolehoidu / Antti Oolo, Tuuli Koch, Jaanus Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oolo, Antti, 1967-

    2001-01-01

    EPL-i tellitud küsitlus näitab rahva enamuse rahulolu presidendiga. Diagrammid: President L. Meri populaarsus 1992-2001; A. Rüütli jt. presidendikandidaatide personaalne eelistus; erakondade populaarsus

  9. Symposium on Highlights from 14 years of LEAR Physics : "Meson spectroscopy" by H. Koch

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    Symposium on Highlights from 14 years of LEAR Physics hold at CERN, commemorating the closure of LEAR and giving a topical review of the impact of experiments with low energy antiprotons in their respective fields

  10. Vene keele trump on Ida-Viru valimisvõitluses rolli kaotamas / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 22. veebr. lk. 4. Vaatluse all on Lääne-Virumaa ja Ida-Virumaa kandidaadid parlamendivalimistel. Lisa: Ringkond nr. 6; Ringkond nr. 7. Vt samas: Spiiker ja endine miss hääli püüdmas

  11. [Aspects of dysmicrobism in the isolation of Koch bacilli and its pathological implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemna, I; Vintilescu, E; Lego, I

    1982-01-01

    The results are presented, of a follow-up over several years concerning the changes which occurred in the products sampled from tuberculous patients, with regard to the ecologic balance between Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and other mycobacteria and fungi under the influences of chemical drugs and antibiotics. Thus atypical mycobacteria have been recorded, in a proportion of 1.07% (and in some periods as high as 2.52%). Other species were also identified, classified according to morphological and chemical characteristics. These species are included in a synoptic scheme used in laboratories which are concerned with the isolation of mycobacteria. At present different species of mycobacteria can be isolated on the same culture medium, as appears also from the results of the authors of this study. Beside manifestations of dysmicrobism another fact was also demonstrated, namely the frequent isolation of fungi in patients undergoing anti-tuberculous therapy, or secondary to the anti-tuberculous treatment. This has permitted, on the basis of the authors' cases to confirm some pulmonary mycoses according to generally accepted rigorous laboratory techniques. The present study stresses the new pathologic phenomena interrelated with tuberculosis. These data expand the knowledge of laboratory techniques and methods, and improve cooperation between laboratories and clinical units involved in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary affections.

  12. Avaliação de inseticidas no controle de Myzus persicae (sulz. (homoptera: aphididae na cultura da alface Evaluation of insecticides to control Myzus persicae (Sulz (Homoptera: Aphididae on lettuce crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Zagonel

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a eficiência de inseticidas no controle de Myzus persicae (Sulz. na cultura da alface, cv. Verônica, em experimento conduzido na UEPG, em 1999. Usou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de thiamethoxam nas doses de 50; 75 e 100 g i.a./ha; imidacloprid na dose de 140 g i.a./ha; pymetrozine na dose de 150 g i.a./ha e testemunha sem pulverização. Os tratamentos foram aplicados nas mudas em bandejas, um dia antes do transplantio. Avaliou-se a fitotoxicidade, o número de pulgões por planta, a porcentagem de plantas com pulgões e a eficiência dos inseticidas. O thiamethoxam nas doses de 50; 75 e 100 g i.a./ha foi eficiente no controle de M. persicae durante todo o ciclo, mostrando eficiência igual ou superior a 98,6%, similar ao imidacloprid. O pymetrozine apresentou eficiência no controle de M. persicae até 21 dias após o transplante das mudas. Os inseticidas não causaram efeitos fitotóxicos nas plantas de alface; além disso, houve produção de plantas com maior massa fresca em relação à testemunha.A field trial was carried out at Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, State of Paraná, Brazil, in 1999, to evaluate the efficiency of insecticides in controlling Myzus persicae (Sulz on lettuce cv. Veronica. The experimental design was of completely randomized blocks with six treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of thiamethoxam (50; 75 and 100 g i.a/ha imidacloprid (140 g i.a/ha; pymetrozine (150 g i.a/ha and control. The treatments were applied to seedlings grown in polyestyrene trays one day before the transplanting. The fitotoxicity, the number of aphids/plant, the percentage of plants with aphids and the efficiency of the insecticides were evaluated. Thiamethoxan at doses of 50; 75 and 100 g i.a/ha was efficient to control M. persicae from transplanting till 43 days after showing equal or higher efficiency than 98.6%, similar to imidacloprid. The pymetrozine was efficient to control M. persicae until 21 days after transplanting. Effects of fitotoxicity on lettuce plants were not observed. Higher fresh weight was observed in treated plants in comparison to the one of the control.

  13. Bandaromimus Linnavuori (Homoptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae: primeiro registro no Brasil e descrição de duas espécies novas Bandaromimus Linnavuori (Homoptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae: first record for Brazil and description of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keti Maria Rocha Zanol

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Bandaromimus Linnavuori, 1959 is reported for the first time in Brazil. Two new species are described: Bandaromimus matogrossensis sp. nov. (Brazil, Mato Grosso and Bandaromimus insularis sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná. The female of Bandaromimus parvicauda Linnavuori & Heller, 1961 is described and the illustrations of male genitalia is also added.

  14. Impacts of the Psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on Invasive French Broom in Relation to Plant Size and Psyllid Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Brian N; Moran, Patrick J; Smith, Lincoln

    2017-06-01

    The impacts of weed biological control agents may vary with plant ontogeny. As plants grow, structural and chemical changes can alter plant resistance, which may reduce herbivory via chemical or structural defenses, and plant tolerance, which may enable plants to maintain fitness despite attack. Resistance and tolerance generally increase as plants grow. Nonetheless, prerelease tests of agent efficacy often overlook plant ontogeny. Here, we assess the performance and impacts of a candidate biocontrol agent, the psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Loginova), in relation to the age of its host plant, the invasive shrub French broom, Genista monspessulana. We also examined whether the psyllid can consistently kill plants when its densities are sufficiently high. Survival of psyllids to adulthood and the timing of adult emergence did not differ between plant sizes, indicating that performance of nymphs was not influenced by plant size. However, adult psyllid survival was reduced on small plants, suggesting that nymphs and adults responded differently to ontogenetic changes in plant quality. Psyllids affected the growth of small and large plants similarly; all measured plant growth parameters were lower in the presence of psyllids regardless of plant size. In a separate experiment, effects on plant survival depended on psyllid density, as higher realized densities of ∼9 psyllids per cm stem length were necessary to consistently kill plants. Thus, results suggest that the psyllid would be equally effective on a range of plant sizes, particularly at high densities, and show the potential of the psyllid to help control French broom in California. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Resolution of phylogenetic relationships of the major subfamilies of the Delphacidae (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) using the mitochondrial ribosomal DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EDDY DIJKSTRA; MICHEL A. SLOTMAN; RORY J. POST

    2006-01-01

    Delphacid relationships from the genus level to the subfamily have been completely resolved (among those taxa examined) using sequence data from the 3' end of the 12S gene. Monophyly of the non-asiracine subfamilies was strongly supported and the asiracine Ugyops was placed in the most basal position of the tree. Support levels for monophyly of the Delphacini increased after weighting transversions more heavily than transitions and after removing the cixiid outgroup from the dataset. Among the Delphacini,Conomelus and Megamelus were more closely related to each other than either was to Chloriona. These results are in agreement with the tree based on morphological characters. However, in contrast to morphological data our results strongly supported a sister group relationship between the Stenocraninae and the Kelisiinae. Although the 12S gene fragment gave some information about the species relationships within Chloriona, neither this fragment nor the 5' end of the 16S gene appear to be very useful for this level. Molecular evolutionary patterns provided evidence that there has been a shift in base composition from T to A during the early evolution of the non-Asiracinae. The non-Asiracinae also had comparatively fast substitution rates and these two observations are possibly correlated. In the 'modern' delphacid Chloriona, the AT content was comparatively low in regions free of constraints but this was not the case for 'non-modern' delphacids. The tRNA for valine has been translocated elsewhere, probably before the Delphacidae and Cixiidae diverged from each other.

  16. Interplant movement and spatial distribution of alate and apterous morphs of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, B M; Barrios, L; Fereres, A

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge on colonization modes and interplant movement of Nasonovia ribisnigri can contribute to the development of optimal control of this pest. The aim of this study was to determine the spatio-temporal distribution and the mode of spread between adult morphs of Nasonovia ribisnigri, comparing spring and autumn lettuce protected crops. The spatial and temporal pattern was analyzed using the spatial analysis by distance indices (SADIE) methodology and other related displacement indices. The population size of N. ribisnigri was greater in the autumn than in the spring growing seasons due to milder temperatures. The percentage of plants colonized by aphids was higher in spring than in autumn, showing the great dispersal potential of this aphid species independent of their population size. Differential propensity for initial displacement from the central plant was observed between adult morphs in spring, resulting in a greater ability of apterous than alate aphids to spread far away from the source plant. In autumn, both adult morphs showed an initial reduced displacement; however, the number of plants infested (≈20%) with at least one aphid at this initial time (seven days) was similar for both adult morphs and both growing seasons. Analysis of the spatial pattern of both adult morphs revealed a predominantly random distribution for both spring and autumn trials. This pattern was achieved by a prevalent random movement over the area (γ≈0.5). These results highlight the ability of the apterous N. ribisnigri to spread within greenhouse lettuce crops early in the spring, suggesting that detection of the pest by deep visual inspection is required after lettuce emergence.

  17. Evaluation of the Synergistic Effect Between Ethyl Formate and Phospine for Control of Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Ho; Kim, Hye Min; Kim, Bong Soo; Yang, Jeong Oh; Moon, Young Mi; Ren, Yonglin

    2016-02-01

    Cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is known as a quarantine pest that is hard to control with short periods of fumigation with phosphine (PH(3)) or low concentrations of ethyl formate. Moreover, low-temperature fumigation with ethyl formate can lead to phototoxic damage of some perishable commodities. Therefore, a laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic effect of mixing ethyl formate and PH(3) for the treatment of adults and nymphs of A. gossypii. Combined toxicity was observed and compared with a single dose of eitherrethyl formate or PH(3). When insects were exposed to 0.5 g/m(3) of PH(3) combined with different levels of ethyl formate from 1.6 to 16.3 g/m(3) at 5 and 20C for 2 h, L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) values were greatly reduced in comparison with a single dose of either ethyl formate or PH(3). The synergistic ratio (SR) is described as L(Ct) of ethyl formate alone/L(Ct) of ethyl formate + PH(3). The SR values of L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) for adult A. gossypii at 5C were 4.55 and 2.33, respectively. However, at 20C the SR levels of L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) were 2.22 and 1.45, respectively, but still showed significant synergism (significant difference, P<0.5). This new technology could meet quarantine and preshipment requirements for shorter exposure times and less damage of perishable commodities, and could also be extended for controlling other quarantine pests and thereby be a useful alternative to methyl bromide for fruit and vegetable applications.

  18. Aphids (Homoptera, Aphidodea inhabiting the trees Crataegus x media Bechst. in the urban green area. Part I. The population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Jaśkiwicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted in the years 1999-2001 in the green areas of Lublin, on the trees of Crataegus x media Bechst. The purpose of the studies was to establish the species composition and the population dynamics of aphids inhabiting hawthorn in the street and park sites. The studies found out the presence of four aphid species on the examined trees, namely Aphis pomi De Geer, aphids from the genus Dysaphis Börn., Ovatus crataegarius (Walk. and Rhopalosiphum insertum (Walk.. More aphid species and bigger populations were found in the street site (A as compa red with the park site (B.The weather conditions (air temperatures of over 30°C and stormy rainfalls limited the population of all aphid species. On the other hand, a mild winter and a warm spring with the rainfalls within the norm caused that the number of aphids decreased considerably.

  19. Comparison of numerical response and predation effects of two coccinellid species on hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butin, Elizabeth; Elkinton, Joseph; Havill, Nathan; Montgomery, Michael

    2003-06-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, is an introduced pest in North America that is native to Asia, and is causing extensive damage to eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis Carriere) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Englemann) in the eastern United States. We compared two coccinellids imported for biological control of the adelgid: Scymnus ningshanensis Yu et Yao from China and Pseudoscymnus tsugae Sasaji and McClure from Japan. In a laboratory study, we measured the numerical response of each beetle species to a range of prey densities, and in field studies we examined the reproductive success and ability of the coccinellids to reduce populations of the hemlock woolly adelgid. In the laboratory, S. ningshanensis showed a positive numerical response as hemlock woolly adelgid density increased, and P. tsugae showed a density-independent response. In field cages, the presence of S. ningshanensis resulted in negative hemlock woolly adelgid population growth, in contrast to positive growth in both control cages and cages containing P. tsugae. Both our laboratory and field experiments suggest that S. ningshanensis has good potential as a biological control agent of hemlock woolly adelgid.

  20. Growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): effect of host age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing S; Gelman, Dale B; Blackburn, Michael B

    2002-03-01

    The tiny parasitoid wasp, Encarsia formosa, has been used successfully to control greenhouse whiteflies (GHWFs) in greenhouses in many countries throughout the world. Therefore, there has been considerable interest in developing methods for artificially rearing this wasp. However, little information is available concerning the regulation of its development including the host-parasitoid interactions that are required for the parasitoid to complete its life cycle. Here we confirm that parasitoid developmental rates differ significantly based upon the host instar parasitized. Development was faster when 3rd and 4th instar GHWFs were offered for parasitization than when 1st or 2nd instars were used. Our results show that it is primarily the embryo and the first two parasitoid instars that exhibit prolonged developmental times when 1st and 2nd instar whiteflies are parasitized. Although percent emergence was not affected by host age at the time of parasitization, adult longevity as well as adult emergence pattern varied greatly depending upon the instar parasitized. When 3rd and 4th instar GHWFs were selected for oviposition, adult wasps lived significantly longer than when 1st or 2nd instars were used; also, there was a sharp emergence peak on the 2nd day after emergence was first observed (reduced or absent when 1st or 2nd instar GHWFs were parasitized) and the emergence period was reduced from between 8 and 11 days to 5 days. In general, the younger the host instar parasitized, the less synchronous was parasitoid development. Previous reports that E. formosa will not molt to the 2nd instar until the host has reached its 4th instar were not confirmed. When 1st instar host nymphs were parasitized, 2nd instar parasitoids were detected in 3rd instar hosts. Importantly, however, no matter which instar was parasitized, the parasitoid never molted to its last instar until the host had reached Stage 5 of its last instar, a stage in which host pharate adult formation has been initiated. It appears, then, that a condition(s) associated with host pharate adult formation is required for the parasitoid's final larval molt. Results reported here should facilitate the development of in vitro rearing systems for E. formosa.

  1. Delphastus catalinae and Coleomegilla maculata lengi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as biological control agents of the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Eric; Labrecque, Claude; Coderre, Daniel

    2004-11-01

    Predation efficacy and compatibility of the predatory lady beetles Coleomegilla maculata lengi Timberlake and Delphastus catalinae (Horn) against the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) were studied in laboratory on glabrous fuchsia (Fuchsia hybrida Voss cv Lena Corolla) and pubescent poinsettia plants (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd ex Klotzch cv Dark Red Annette Hegg). On glabrous plants (fuchsia), fourth-instar and adults of C maculata were the most efficient, both against whitefly eggs and pupae. On pubescent plants (poinsettia), the larger stages of C maculata were negatively affected and less efficient than adults of D catalinae. The presence of plant structure did not affect the voracity of either predator species. Finally, the simultaneous use of both predator species generated inter-specific competition. These results provide recommendations for biological control of whitefly in horticultural greenhouses.

  2. Co-development of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): a histological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Michael B; Gelman, Dale B; Hu, Jing S

    2002-09-01

    Using histological techniques, we have simultaneously examined the co-development of the Aphelinid parasitoid Encarsia formosa and its host the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Previously we have determined that regardless of the whitefly instar parasitized, parasitoid larvae would not molt to their final instar until the whitefly reaches its maximum dimensions. In unparasitized T. vaporariorum, this point in development corresponds to the initiation of the adult molt. In part, this study was conducted to determine the developmental state of parasitized whiteflies at the time they achieve their maximum dimensions. It was found that parasitized final instar T. vaporariorum do, in fact, undergo a final molt and that E. formosa larvae will not molt to their final instar until this has occurred. The timing of the final whitefly molt appears unaffected by parasitization. The commonly observed melanization of parasitized whiteflies appears to be a consequence of this molt. In addition, we have discovered that the adult wasp oviposits within the ventral ganglion of the whitefly, and that major organ systems of the whitefly persist very late into parasitoid development. We also report the presence of possible endosymbiotic bacteria residing in the fatbody of E. formosa.

  3. [Evaluation of interactive efficacy of two mycoinsecticides and low application rate imidacloprid in controlling greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Feng, Mingguang

    2003-11-01

    The interactive effects of pure emulsifiable formulations (10(10) conidia.ml-1) of Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus conidia and 1% and 3% of imidacloprid 10% WP were tested for controlling greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, on lettuce grown in four polyethylene film-covered greenhouses (5 m x 100 m) in Kunming, Yunnan. Six fungal treatments, two imidacloprid ones, and one water-spray control were included in the experiment, with each being replicated in three plots (7 m x 5 m.plot-1). For each of the treatments, 1000-fold aqueous dilution (10(7) conidia.ml-1) was sprayed twice at a 15-d interval, with the first spray given on day 11 after lettuce transplantation. Counts of live and dead whiteflies from each treatment were made on the initial day, and then, once every five days. During a 30-d period of observation from August 20, the two applications of the fungal formulations alone or those containing low rates of imidacloprid 10% WP effectively protected the lettuce from damage by T. vaporariorum, and generated relative efficacies. Whitefly density decreased > 95%, which was significantly higher than that attributed to the low application rates of imidacloprid 10% WP. Based on the estimations of relative efficacy and percent density decrease, P. fumosoroseus treatments controlled the whiteflies better than B. bassiana ones, and the effects of both fungi on the pest population were apparently enhanced with the quantity of imidacloprid added. The differences among the fungal treatments in the two estimations were larger during the first 10 days, but decreased thereafter, becoming insignificant on day 10 after the second spray. The results indicated that the fungal formulations tested in this study are of great potential for practical use in whitefly control, and their efficacy could be enhanced with low rates of imidacloprid.

  4. The taxonomy and biogeography of the exhausta group of the genus Baeturia Stål, 1866 (Homoptera, Tibicinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The exhausta group is proposed for a supposedly monophyletic group of eight species of the cicada genus Baeturia Stal, 1866. Three species (B. bicolorata Distant, B. exhausta Guérin Méneville, and B. vanderhammeni Blöte) are redescribed and five species B. colossea, B. maai, B. rossi, B. versicolor,

  5. The phylogenetic relationships of introduced Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), biological control agents of the Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Cheng Zhu; Quentin Q.Fang

    2009-01-01

    Several species of Aphelinus have been introduced to the US from the Old World for biological control of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Modvilko). Reproductive incompatibility has been observed among populations collected from different geographic areas. We examined whether or not the reproductive incompatibility between strains of A. asychis was caused by distant phylogenetic relationships. Ribosomal DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacers 2 (ITS2) were analyzed in several species of Aphelinus collected from multiple sites of Europe and Asia. The phylogenetic analysis showed that strains within the species A. albipodus and A. asychis are not monophyletic, and two clearly divergent clades were revealed among sequenced samples. Our results suggest that the reproductive incompatibility between three exotic strains ofA. asychis was more likely caused by divergence of phylogeny than by symbiotic bacteria.

  6. The taxonomy and biogeography of the bloetei group of the genus Baetura Stål, 1866 (Homoptera, Tibicinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The bloetei group is proposed for a monophyletic group of 18 species of the genus Baeturia Stål, 1866. Fifteen species are described as new ( B. bilebanarai, B. bismarckensis, B. bloetei, B. boulardi, B. brandti, B. cristovalensis, B. gressitti, B. macgillavryi, B. manusensis, B. marginata, B. menda

  7. Imidacloprid susecptibility survey and selection risk assessment in field populations of Nilaparvata lugens(Stal)(Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imidacloprid has been used for many years to control the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in China. To provide resistance assessment for the national insecticide resistance management program, we collected a total of 42 samples of the planthoppers from 27 locations covering 8 provinces t...

  8. Inheritance Mode and Realized Heritability of Resistance to Imidacloprid in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is a serious pest which causes enormous losses to the rice crop in Asia. The genetic basis of imidacloprid resistance was investigated in N. lugens. RESULTS: The resistant strain, selected for imidacloprid resistance from a laboratory pop...

  9. Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae adults: I. Gliricidia sepium (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Flores

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci is an important virus vector on a number of crops worldwide. Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period. Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water:methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether of mother-of-cocoa (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract and some fractions exerted such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages, three fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (methanol, 0.5% (water:methanol and 1.5% (diethyl ether. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 2099-2113. Epub 2008 December 12.Mundialmente, Bemisia tabaci es un importante vector de virus en numerosos cultivos. Por tanto, un enfoque preventivo para enfrentar las epidemias virales podría ser el empleo de sustancias repelentes o fagodisuasivas en las etapas tempranas del desarrollo de las plantas (período crítico. Así, tanto el extracto crudo como cuatro fracciones (agua, agua:metanol, metanol y éter dietílico del madero negro (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae fueron evaluadas en cuanto a su actividad fagodisuasiva sobre los adultos de B. tabaci en condiciones de invernadero, utilizando plantas de tomate, en Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tanto los experimentos de escogencia restringida como los de escogencia irrestricta revelaron que el extracto crudo y algunas fracciones mostraron dicha actividad. En los primeros experimentos (en jaulas de manga, tres fracciones causaron fagodisuasión a dosis tan bajas como 0.1% (metanol, 0.5% (agua:metanol y 1.5% (éter dietílico. Sin embargo, en los segundos (plantas expuestas dentro de un invernadero ninguna de las fracciones lo hizo, lo cual sugiere que los principios fagodisuasivos perdieron su actividad en esas condiciones experimentales.

  10. Effects of temperature on population growth parameters of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae reared on Planococcus citri (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Saeedi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature on the development, survival, fecundity and population growth parameters of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Col.: Coccinellidae reared on Planococcus citri Risso (Hom.: Pseudococcidae was determined at five constant temperatures (18, 22, 26, 30 and 32±1°C in the laboratory conditions. Results showed a temperature - dependent development of the coccinellid. The mean total of immature period was estimated 76.6±0.9, 33.9±0.1, 25.8±0.1, 22.6±0.1 and 26.2±1.4 days at 18, 22, 26, 30 and 32°C, respectively. The highest and lowest values of R0, rm and λ were obtained 369.9±50.2 and 2.5±0.8 (female/female/generation, 0.07±0.01 and 0.02±0.01 (female/female/day and 1.08±0.01 and 1.02±0.01 (day-1 at 26 and 32°C, respectively. The lowest values of generation time (T and doubling time (Dt were calculated 42.2±0.9 and 8.9±0.5 days at 32 and 26°C, respectively. The lower and higher developmental threshold of total of immature period were obtained 11.5 and 25.5°C, respectively. The thermal requirement for completion of total of immature period of this predator were estimated 400 DD. These results showed that 26°C and/or adjacent temperature is most suitable for mass rearing of this predator.

  11. 安粉蚧族Antoninini中国种类记述%The tribe Antoninini of China (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武三安

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the tribe Antoninini of China. Seven generaand 16 species were studied. Of which, two species are new to science, and are described and illustrated. They are Antonina hubeiana sp. nov. and Nesticoccus fanjingensis sp. nov. The type specimens are deposited in Insect Collections, Beijing Forestry University.%该文研究了粉蚧科安粉蚧族的中国种类,计有7属16种,其中包括2新种,即湖北安粉蚧Antonina hubeianasp.nov.和梵净巢粉蚧Nesticoccus fanjingensis sp.nov.,并提供了该群中国种类的分属分种检索表.新种模式标本保存在北京林业大学昆虫标本室.

  12. A redescription of Puto antennatus Sign. (Homoptera, Coccoidea) with notes on Ceroputo pilosellae Šulc and Macrocerococcus superbus Leon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyne, A.

    1954-01-01

    In the taxonomy of Coccoidea or scale insects much confusion is due to an insufficient knowledge of the type species of several genera. Especially our knowledge of some of the older genera is very incomplete, as the descriptions of their type species are extremely short and superficial from the mode

  13. Comparison of AC electronic monitoring and field data for estimating tolerance to Empoasca kraemeri (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in common bean genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M S; Backus, E A; Cardona, C

    2000-12-01

    Two methods for estimating the tolerance of common bean genotypes to Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore were compared, using a yield trial carried out at Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia, versus stylet penetration tactics measured by AC electronic feeding monitors. A stylet penetration index was devised based on principal component scores of three penetration tactics identified (pulsing laceration, cell rupturing, and lancing sap ingestion), combined with knowledge of the hopperburn symptoms caused by each tactic. Tolerant genotypes, as classified by the CIAT yield index, showed significantly more unprotected yield and lower hopperburn scores than the susceptible control. They also induced performance of less pulsing laceration (the tactic considered most damaging to the plant), and more of the other two, mitigating tactics, especially cell rupturing. When index values were calculated for each genotype, stylet penetration index values matched those of the yield index for three out of five genotypes: two EMP-coded tolerant lines ('EMP 385' and 'EMP 392') and the susceptible control 'BAT 41'. Thus, for these three genotypes, all subsequent hoppereburn symptoms are predictable by the type of feeding behavior performed on them. 'Porrillo Sintético' and 'EMP 84', considered borderline genotypes by the yield index, were overestimated and underestimated respectively, by the stylet penetration index. We postulate that, for these two genotypes, plant physiological responses to feeding (either compensatory or heightened sensitivity, respectively) synergize with type of feeding performed to generate the overall hopperburn condition. This multivariate analysis of electronic monitoring data was successfully used to devise an index of resistance. The implications of using the stylet penetration index and the advantages of using electronic monitoring in a bean-breeding program are discussed.

  14. Tanggap fungsional Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae terhadap Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae pada umur tanaman cabai berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novri Nelly

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The lady beetle, Menochilus sexmaculatus is one of the biological control agents that can be used to control aphids. Presently, there is a lack of information about the effectiveness of this beetle to control aphids. The objective of this research was to study the functional response of M. sexmaculatus on Aphis gossypii at different ages of plants. All preys were exposed to one M. sexmaculatus adult for an hour at five different densities of aphids (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 individuals is four different ages of chilli plants (2,4,6, and 8 weeks. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression to determine the type of functional response. The results showed that the ability of M. sexmaculatus to prey was not significant at 2 to 4 and 6 to 8 weeks old chilli plants. At 2 week old chilli plants M. sexmaculatus showed type I of functional response, while at 4, 6 and 8 weeks the functional response were type III.

  15. Impact of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) infestation and squash silverleaf disorder on zucchini yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang; McAuslane, Heather J; Carle, R Bruce; Webb, Susan E

    2004-12-01

    Fruit yield and quality of zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L., plants infested with Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring were evaluated in a screenhouse under spring and fall growing conditions by using closely related sister lines that were either susceptible (ZUC61) or tolerant (ZUC76-SLR) to squash silverleaf disorder. Our objective was to test separately the effects of level of whitefly infestation and expression of silverleaf symptoms on zucchini yield and quality. In a second experiment, yield and quality of fruit produced by silverleaf-tolerant zucchini genotypes incorporating two different sources of tolerance (ZUC76-SLR and ZUC33-SLR/PMR) were compared with that of 'Zucchini Elite', a silverleaf-susceptible commercial hybrid. Zucchini fruit yield was reduced in plants exposed to repeated infestations of whiteflies in spring and fall of both experiments. In addition, fruit grew to harvestable size more slowly under the highest whitefly infestations. Fruit quality was reduced at high infestations because of uneven and reduced pigmentation. The fruit yield and quality of ZUC61 and ZUC76-SLR were similarly affected by whitefly infestation despite differences in their susceptibility to squash silverleaf disorder. Fruit from infested plants showed decreased levels of chlorophyll and carotenoids causing the "blanching" of the fruit that is associated with loss of quality and reduced marketability. Leaves of infested plants of all genotypes had reduced levels of photosynthetic and photoprotectant pigments, possibly leading to reduced photosynthesis and consequently reduced yield. We conclude that feeding by high whitefly populations rather than expression of squash silverleaf disorder is responsible for yield and quality reduction in zucchini.

  16. A new genus and new species of felt scales (Homoptera: Coccinea: Eriococcidae from Tierra del Fuego (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Gavrilov-Zimin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Telmatococcus igniumterrae gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the material collected from a sphagnum bog in the extreme southern part of South America (Tierra del Fuego. The new monotypic genus differs from all known genera of Eriococcidae in having short cylindrical truncated setae of the anal apparatus and pouches with numerous quinquelocular pores near the anal apparatus. The habitat of the new taxon is characterized.

  17. New discovery of Palaeontinid fossils from the Middle Jurassic in Daohugou,Inner Mongolia (Homoptera,Palaeontinidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; REN Dong; SHIH ChungKun

    2007-01-01

    Three new species of fossil Palaeontinidae are described from Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China:Daohugoucossus shii sp. Nov., D. Parallelivenius sp. Nov., D. Lii sp. Nov. The diagnosis of Daohugoucossus Wang, Zhang and Fang,2006 is revised. These materials are the first complete fossil palaeontinids in the Middle Jurassic of the world. Based on observation of these new specimens, Sc of this new genus has the following combined characters:joined with R at base, diverged near M separation, coalesced with R before the nodal line, extended beyond the nodal line and fused with R1 before distal end. Due to the Sc characteristics mentioned above, the genus Liaocossus Ren, Yin and Dou, 1998 can be well distinguished from"llerdocossus-complex".

  18. Distribution and abundance of mymarid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) of Sophonia rufofascia Kuoh and Kuoh (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P.; Foote, D.; Alyokhin, A.V.; Lenz, L.; Messing, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    The abundance of mymarid parasitoids attacking the two-spotted leafhopper (Sophonia rufofascia [Kuoh and Kuoh]), a polyphagous pest recently adventive to Hawaii, was monitored using yellow sticky cards deployed in several areas on the islands of Kauai and Hawaii. The yellow cards captured Chaetomymar sp. nr bagicha Narayanan, Subba Rao, & Kaur and Schizophragma bicolor (Dozier), both adventive species, and Polynema sp. Haliday, which is endemic to Hawaii (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). The former two species were most abundant at all sites. On Kauai, there was a negative correlation between the captures of C. sp. nr bagicha and those of Polynema sp. Throughout the season, the increase in parasitoid numbers generally followed the increase in leafhopper numbers. C. sp. nr. bagicha and S. bicolor showed distinct habitat preferences. Removal of Myrica faya Aiton, an invasive weed that is a highly preferred two-spotted leafhopper host, decreased the overall numbers of captured parasitoids, but led to a twofold increase in the ratio of trapped parasitoids/hosts in weed-free areas. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  19. Microsatellite markers reveal a predominant sugarcane aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) clone is found on sorghum in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, has become a serious pest causing severe economic losses to sorghum grown in the southern United States (U.S.). Since its original detection in four states in 2013, M. sacchari on sorghum has now spread to 17 states. The presence of one or multiple genotype...

  20. Bioassay evaluation of the entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassaina Vuellemin against eggs and nymphs of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Deghairi, Mohammad A

    2008-06-15

    This study was carried out to determine the lethal effect of the entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassaina Vuell. on eggs, young and old nymphs of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. Mortality percentage was significantly differed based on stage of B. tabaci and conidial concentrations of B. bassina. Average of the infection level to insect was very low particularly in eggs with only 4.49%, even with higher conidial concentrations (6 x 10(6) conidia mL(-1)). Whereas, it was higher with 1st and 2nd instars (42.045%) and 3rd and 4th instars (35.93%). Three parameters was assessed with B. tabaci eggs, namely; egg infection, egg hatchability and crawlers emergence. Egg mortality percentages averaged 1.2, 4.27 and 8.0% with fungal concentration 2 x 10(6), 4 x 10(6) and 6 x 10(6) conidia mL(-1), respectively. Daily infection percentages were varied depend upon the conidial concentration where the highest infection rate of eggs was occurred with 6 x 10(6), followed by 4 x 10(6) conidia mL(-1). Egg hatch was very high, while the mortality among the emerged crawlers was neglectable compared with the check. Efficiency of B. bassaina on whitefly nymphs also was varied based on the insect instar and fungal concentration. Mortality percentages were obviously higher to young nymphs (1st and 2nd instars) than to older ones (3rd and 4th instars). The results indicated that nymphs were highly susceptible to fungal treatment compared with eggs. Additionally, pathogenicity and virulence of B. bassaina against B. tabaci immatures was not indicated by LC50 only, but also, by the time in days (LT50) required to achieve 50% mortality of an insect.

  1. Trap catches of the sweetpotato whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in the Imperial Valley, California, from 1996 to 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG-CHI CHU; EDWARD BARNES; ERIC T. NATWICK; TIAN-YE CHEN; DAVID RITTER; THOMAS J. HENNEBERRY

    2007-01-01

    An outbreak of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), biotype B occurred in the Imperial Valley, California in 1991. The insects destroyed melon crops and seriously damaged other vegetables, ornamentals and row crops. As a result of the need for sampling technology, we developed a whitefly trap (named the CC trap) that could be left in the field for extended time periods. We used the traps to monitor populations of B. tabaci adults during year-round samplings from 1996 to 2002 to study variations in the weekly trap catches of the insect. The greatest number of B. tabaci adults was recorded in 1996, followed by a continuing annual decrease in trap catches each year through 2002. The overall decline of B. tabaci is attributed in part to the adoption of an integrated pest management (IPM) program initiated in 1992 and reduced melon hectares from 1996 to 2002. Other factors may also have contributed to the population reductions. Seasonally, B. tabaci trap catches decreased during the late summer and fall concurrent with decreasing minimum temperatures that are suggested to be a significant factor affecting seasonal activity and reproduction.

  2. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmei eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues, including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod. The majority of the phloem-feeding aphids carry Buchnera, an obligate symbiotic proteobacteria. Buchnera has a highly reduced genome size, but encode key enzymes in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and is crucial for nutritional balance, development and reproduction in aphids. In this study, we investigated the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors, symbionts and starvation, on the wing dimorphism in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, a devastating insect pest of cereal crops (e.g., wheat worldwide. Elimination of Buchnera using the antibiotic rifampicin significantly reduced the formation of winged morphs, body mass and fecundity in S. avenae. Furthermore, the absence of this primary endosymbiont may disrupt the nutrient acquisition in aphids and alter transgenerational phenotypic expression. Similarly, both survival rate and the formation of winged morphs were substantially reduced after neonatal (< 24h old offspring were starved for a period of time. The combined results shed light on the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors on the phenotypic plasticity in aphids. A better understanding of the wing dimorphism in aphids will provide the theoretical basis for the prediction and integrated management of these phloem-feeding insect pests.

  3. Scale insects and mealy bugs (Homoptera: Coccoidea) attacking deciduous fruit trees in the western north coast of Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A K; Moursi Khadiga, S; Mesbah, H A; Abdel-Razak Soad, I

    2008-01-01

    This investigation covered a survey of scale insects and mealy bugs infesting ten growing species of deciduous fruit trees in three localities in Alexandria govemorate. These localities were Merghem, Burg El-Arab, and El-Nahda about 50 Km. West of Alexandria under both rain-fed and irrigation system conditions. The common inspected fruit trees were fig, white mulberry, pomegranate, apple, pear, apricot, European plum, peach, almond, and persimmon. It was shown that a group of twenty scale insects and meaty bug species pertaining to fifteen genera belonging to six families of the super family: Coccoidea were collected and identified during the elapsing period from January to December, 2004. Among these species, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) was recorded for the first time in Egypt. In the present study, many insect and non-insect parasitoids and predators were also found associated with these scale insects and mealy bugs on deciduous fruit trees in the three concerned localities throughout this investigation. These natural enemies were identified and recorded.

  4. Relationship Between Several Biochemical Indexes and Resistance of Aegilops Species to Oat-Bird Cherry Aphids(Homoptera:Aphididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing; YE Hua-zhi; YANG Qun-fang; JIANG Su-rong

    2003-01-01

    The biochemical mechanism of resistance of 9 Aegilops species including A.biuncialis,A.juvenalis, A.ovata, A.kotschyi var. varianilis, A.triaristata, A.tauschii, A.vavilovii, A.crassa and A.ventricosa in Triticeae to oat-bird cherry aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) were reported for the first time. The results showed that the content of total phenols in seedling was not associated with resistance to this aphid. The level of DIMBOA was negatively related to intrinsic innate rate of increase (rm) of R. padi. Neither of soluable sugar nor total phenols in adult stage was associated with resistance level. However, concentrations of free proline and serine in leaf were positively related to rm of R. padi (rm =-0.0636+0.23xpro** +1.982xser*). The content of DIMBOA was high-negatively related to rm of R. padi (r=-0.819**). The low level of free proline and serine and high concentration of DIMBOA could be regarded as important elements for resistance of Aegilops species to R. padi.

  5. Morphostructural analysis of the male reproductive system and DNA barcoding in Balclutha brevis Lindberg 1954 (Homoptera, Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, D G M; Viscuso, R; D'Urso, V; Gibilras, S; Sardella, A; Marletta, A; Pappalardo, A M

    2015-12-01

    Balclutha brevis Lindberg 1954 is an allochthonous leafhopper infesting an invasive grass, Pennisetum setaceum, in Sicily and in mainland Europe; therefore, this species could compete with populations of native species, thus contributing to the loss of biodiversity. Considering the ecological implications of B. brevis, investigations on all its biological aspects represent, therefore, a premise for further studies in applied sciences. Based on the lacking ultrastructural data about the reproductive systems of the Auchenorrhyncha, we carried out morphostructural investigations on the male reproductive system of B. brevis. Further, a first report of DNA barcoding analysis (amplification and sequencing of Cytochrome Oxidase I gene) has also been performed to characterize B. brevis compared to other congeneric species. From a morphological point of view, the male reproductive system of B. brevis has an organization comparable to the general anatomical features of most of the Auchenorrhyncha species; however, comparing our data with those concerning the different groups of Cicadomorpha, some considerations are discussed. As for the histological and ultrastructural investigations, our results show a secretory activity of the various examined structures, mainly in the lateral ejaculatory ducts and in the accessory glands. The latter, in particular, show morphostructural differences comparing the distal tract to the proximal one; moreover, the histochemical techniques showed the possible presence of a lipid component in the peculiar cytoplasmic granules found in the gland cells. The significance of these findings in the accessory glands is discussed. Finally, the ultrastructural features found in the seminal vesicles are different from those of the lateral ejaculatory ducts and are indicative of the different roles played by these structures in the organization of the spermatozoa bundles.

  6. Effect of photoperiod on slow and fast developing individuals in aphidophagous ladybirds, Menochilus sexmaculatus and Propylea dissecta (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neha; Mishra, Geetanjali; Omkar

    2016-02-01

    The effects of environmental parameters on insect development have been studied extensively. But the reasons for 2 differential developmental rates within same cohort under varying environmental factors have not been explored. For the purpose, in this study the existence and stability of slow and fast development under 5 photoperiods (i.e., 8L: 16D, 10L : 14D, 12L : 12D, 14L : 10D and 16L : 8D; light and dark hours per day) and its effect on body mass and reproductive attributes in 2 aphidophagous ladybirds, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius) and Propylea dissecta (Mulsant) was examined on Aphis craccivora Koch at 27 ± 1 °C temperature. A clear bimodal (2 peaks, where the first peak represented the fast developing and the 2nd peak slow developing individuals) pattern of distribution at each photoperiod was found. The proportion of slow and fast developing individuals in a cohort differed with photoperiods. The slow developing individuals were more in numbers at 8L : 16D, in equal numbers at 14L : 10D and in less numbers at 16L: 8D, indicating that the variation in emergence was owing to exogenous cues influenced differential rates of mortality. Slow developing individuals had female biased sex ratio, higher longevity and lower body mass than fast developing individuals. Fast developing females laid higher numbers of eggs with higher egg viability than slow developing females. Study of such variations in development at different photoperiods is helpful to understand its role in the development of insects particularly ladybirds and permits the selection of fast developing bioagents for their use in biocontrol of pest species. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Differential Life History Trait Associations of Aphids with Nonpersistent Viruses in Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelella, G M; Egel, D S; Holland, J D; Nemacheck, J A; Williams, C E; Kaplan, I

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of vectors and fleeting nature of virus acquisition and transmission renders nonpersistent viruses a challenge to manage. We assessed the importance of noncolonizing versus colonizing vectors with a 2-yr survey of aphids and nonpersistent viruses on commercial pumpkin farms. We quantified aphid alightment using pan traps, while testing leaf samples with multiplex RT-PCR targeting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Overall, we identified 53 aphid species (3,899 individuals), from which the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, a pumpkin-colonizing species, predominated (76 and 37% of samples in 2010 and 2011, respectively). CMV and ZYMV were not detected, but WMV and PRSV were prevalent, both regionally (WMV: 28/29 fields, PRSV: 21/29 fields) and within fields (infection rates = 69 and 55% for WMV in 2010 and 2011; 28 and 25% for PRSV in 2010 and 2011). However, early-season samples showed extremely low infection levels, suggesting cucurbit viruses are not seed-transmitted and implicating aphid activity as a causal factor driving virus spread. Interestingly, neither noncolonizer and colonizer alightment nor total aphid alightment were good predictors of virus presence, but community analyses revealed species-specific relationships. For example, cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) and spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii Monell f. maculata) were associated with PRSV infection, whereas the oleander aphid (Aphis nerii Bover de Fonscolombe) was associated with WMV spread within fields. These outcomes highlight the need for tailored management plans targeting key vectors of nonpersistent viruses in agricultural systems.

  8. Antalya İlinde Portakal Bahçelerinde Gözlenen Önemli Zararlı ve Yararlı Böcek Popülasyonları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildan GÖL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, 2014 yılında, Antalya ilinde bulunan iki portakal bahçesinde önemli zararlı ve yararlı böcek popülasyonları belirlenmiştir. Bahçelerde ağırlıklı olarak portakal bulunması nedeniyle örneklemeler de bu tür üzerinde yapılmıştır. Çalışma süresince zararlılara karşı herhangi bir mücadele yöntemi uygulanmamıştır. Çalışmada örneklerin toplanması için gözle kontrol yöntemi, yaprak, sürgün, meyve örnekleme yöntemi, darbe ve tuzakla yakalama yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda zararlı türler olarak Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae, Empoasca decipiens (Paoli, Asymmetrasca decedens (Paoli (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell (Hem.: Aleyrodidae, Aphis craccivora (Koch (Hem.: Aphididae, Icerya purchasi Maskell (Hem.: Margarodidae, Coccus hesperidum (Linnaeus, Ceroplastes floridensis (Comstock (Hem.: Coccidae, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell, Aonidiella citrina (Coquillet, Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock (Hem.: Diaspididae, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hem.: Pseudococcidae, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae ve Phyllocnistis citrella (Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillaridae saptanmıştır. Bunlardan E. decipiens (Paoli, A. decedens (Paoli, A. floccosus (Maskell, A. aurantii (Maskell ve Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock en yaygın türler olarak belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca 2 takıma bağlı 7 avcı ve asalak tür saptanmıştır. Bu türler: Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, Coccinella septempunctata L., Chilocorus bipustulatus L., Rhyzobius lophantae (Blaisdell, Oenopia conglobata (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Aphytis melinus DeBach ve Comperiella bifasciata (Coleoptera: Aphelinidae’ dır. Çalışmada ayrıca zararlı iki cicadellid türü ile A. floccosus, A. aurantii, P. pergandii, C. capitata‘nın ve doğal düşmanlardan C. carnea’nın, coccinellidlerin, A. melinus ve E. citrina

  9. INTERACCIÓN ENTRE DOS ÁCAROS DEPREDADORES DE Tetranychus urticae KOCH (ACARIFORMES: TETRANYCHIDAE EN LABORATORIO Interaction Between Two Predator Mites of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acariformes: Tetranychidae in Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGÉLICA ARGÜELLES R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae es una de las principales plagas de cultivos ornamentales, entre las especies más utilizadas para su control se encuentran Neoseiulus californicus y Phytoseiulus persimilis (Parasitiformes: Phytoseiidae. En el presente trabajo se propone el manejo de la plaga mediante el empleo de liberaciones simultáneas de los dos fitoseidos. Se evaluaron varias situaciones, por un lado se estudiaron las interacciones cuando un depredador se encuentra en una densidad baja mientras que el otro depredador se presenta en alta densidad (esta situación se analizó tanto en presencia como en ausencia de la presa. Por otro lado, se evaluaron las interacciones cuando los P. persimilis y N. californicus dos están presentes en igual densidad y en presencia de T. urticae. Cuando uno de los depredadores está en mayor densidad y hay presencia de la presa, se observa que al incrementar la edad del depredador que tiene menor densidad, aumenta también la interferencia en el consumo de presas por parte de los depredadores que están en mayor densidad. Además cuando disminuye el consumo de T. urticae se incrementa el consumo intraguilda. Phytoseiulus persimilis en ausencia de T. urticae y en presencia de N. californicus adopta un comportamiento de depredación intraguilda sobre todos los estados de desarrollo de su conespecifico, mientras que N. californicus únicamente consume larvas de conespecíficos en ausencia del fitófago y en presencia de P. persimilis. Cuando se encontraban los dos depredadores en el mismo montaje y la misma densidad de población, no se observó un mayor consumo de T. urticae que cuando cada depredador es empleado por separado.Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae is an important pest of ornamental crops. A species of predatory mite used for its control is Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae. This research proposes the use of joint releases of the two cited predators for the control of the pest. Several situations leading to interaction were evaluated: High density of one predator and low density of the other one, being the prey present or absent. The scenario with predators in equal densities and in presence of the prey was also evaluated. When a predator is in higher density and the prey present, the predator with the lower density increases the interference with the comsumption of preys by the predator with higher density. On the other hand, when the comsumption of T. urticae reduces, intraguild predation increases. P. persimilis shows intraguild predation behaviour when T. urticae is absent and N. californicus is present, consuming all developmental stages of its conspecific. Instead, N. californicus only feed on conspecific larvae, when the fitofagous was absent and P. persimilis was present. When the two predators were present in the same assemblage and with the same population density, the quantity of T. urticae consumed by both of them was not higher than the consumed one when each predator was present in separate way.

  10. Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae two-host life-cycle on Viperidae snakes Ciclo dioxênico em Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidaeparasitando serpentes da família Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sobreira Rodrigues

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma rotundatum is an ixodid tick that infests ectothermic animals and reproduces exclusively by parthenogenesis. This tick has been frequently reported to infest reptiles and amphibians, under natural conditions and sometimes in captivity. It was described in Brazil and several other countries of South, Central and North America. Although many studies have reported aspects of its biology, none of them has used regularly either ophidian as hosts, or controlled temperature, humidity and luminosity for parasitic stages. The objective of this experiment was to study the life cycle of A. rotundatum feeding on Viperidae snakes under room controlled conditions at 27 ± 1 ºC temperature, 85 ± 10% relative humidity and 12:12 hours photoperiod for parasitic stages, and under B.O.D incubator conditions at 27 ± 1 ºC temperature, 85 ± 10% relative humidity and scotophase for non-parasitic stages. The total duration of the life cycle ranged from 56 to 163 days (mean of 105 days. Two-host life cycle was observed for most of the ixodid population studied.Amblyomma rotundatum é um carrapato da família Ixodidae, parasito de animais pecilotérmicos, e que se reproduz exclusivamente por partenogênese. Este carrapato é frequentemente relatado infestando répteis e anfíbios em condições naturais e, às vezes, em animais de cativeiro. Ele já foi relatado no Brasil e em vários outros países das Américas do Sul, Central e do Norte. Embora muitos estudos sobre sua biologia tenham sido publicados, nunca foram utilizados ofídios como hospedeiros e, tão pouco, foram realizados ensaios com os estádios parasitários sob condições controladas de temperatura, umidade e iluminação. O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar o ciclo biológico de A. rotundatum se alimentando em serpentes da família Viperidae sob condições ambientais controladas a 27 ± 1 ºC de temperatura, 85 ± 10% de umidade relativa do ar e 12:12 horas de fotoperíodo para estágios parasitários; assim como sob condições iguais a 27 ± 1 ºC de temperatura, 85 ± 10% de umidade relativa do ar e escotofase em estufas de germinação para estádios não parasitários. A duração total do ciclo de vida variou de 56 a 163 dias (média de 105 dias. Observou-se ciclo dioxênico para a a maior parte da população dos ixodídeos em estudo.

  11. Ilves : mässueelnõu tehti viha, mitte õigluse ajel / Tuuli Koch ; kommenteerinud Ignar Fjuk, Ken-Marti Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2009-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves otsustas jätta põhiseaduse vastasuse tõttu välja kuulutamata Riigikogus 15. juunil 2009 vastu võetud "Karistusseadustiku, avaliku teenistuse seaduse, välismaalaste seaduse, kodakondsuse seaduse, kohaliku omavalitsuse volikogu valimise seaduse ja kriminaalmenetluse seadustiku muutmise seaduse". Vt. samas: President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese põhjendused; Ignar Fjuk: President käitus mehiselt. Presidendile saadetud protestikirja ühe allakirjutanu, arhitekti ja endise poliitiku seisukoht; Ken-Marti Vaher: Ilvese argumendid on absurd. Riigikogu õiguskomisjoni esimehe seisukoht

  12. IRL püsib tänu Laari ja Partsi sõprusele / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2010-01-01

    Isamaa ja Res Publica Liidu suurkogul hääletati erakonna esimeheks taas Mart Laar. Erakonna liikmed peavad lõhenenud partei püsimise võtmeks kahe endise peaministri Juhan Partsi ja Mart Laari head läbisaamist

  13. Valitsusparteid trumpavad üksteist üle / Tuuli Koch ; kommenteerinud Tõnis Saarts, Urmo Kübar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Reformierakond hakkab arutama valimisreformi ettevalmistava delegatsiooni moodustamist konsultatsioonideks teiste erakondadega. Tulevikus on kavas viia Riigikogu ja kohalike volikogude valimised ühele päevale. Skeem

  14. "To rid oneself of the uninvited guest": Robert Koch, Sergei Winogradsky and competing styles of practice in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, Frederick Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Does an infectious disease have one, singular pathogenic cause, or many interacting causes? In the discipline of medical microbiology, there is no definitive theoretical answer to this question: there, the conditions of aetiological possibility exist in a curious tension. Ever since the late 19th century, the “germ theory of disease”–“one disease, one cause”– has co-existed with a much less well known theory of “multifactorality”–“one disease, many interacting causes”. And yet, in practice, it is always a singular and never a multifactorial aetiology that emerges once the pathogenic world is brought into the field of medical perception. This paper seeks to understand why. Performing a detailed, genealogical reading of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, it foregrounds a set of links that connect the practical diagnostic tools at work within contemporary, 21st century laboratories to the philosophical assumptions at work within late-19th century understandings of the “germ theory of disease”.

  15. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982 at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA and Teucrium stocksianum (CST had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.

  16. Poliitikute soodsad majaostud jätavad jõuministrid külmaks / Tuuli Koch, Priit Rajalo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    Peaminister Andrus Ansipi ja justiitsministri Rein Langi suhtumisest majandusminister Edgar Savisaare Keila-Joa krundi ostusse. 500 000 krooni eest ostis kinnistu Keila-Joal ka ärimees Raimo Kägule kuuluv firma OÜ Marriot. Lisa: Savisaare küsitavad tehingud. Vt. samas: Politseimaja rent toob Oliver Kruudale miljoneid. Kommenteerib ASi Kalev Real Estate Company nõukogu liige Oliver Kruuda

  17. Region-building and security: The multiple borders of the Baltic Sea region after EU enlargement / Katharina Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Artikkel käsitleb Läänemere riikide (sh Eesti) piire, täpsemalt, kuidas piiride rajamine ja nende kaotamine mõjutab riikidevahelist koostööd, aluseks enam kui 20 antud teemat käsitleva dokumendi analüüs

  18. Region-building and security: The multiple borders of the Baltic Sea region after EU enlargement / Katharina Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Artikkel käsitleb Läänemere riikide (sh Eesti) piire, täpsemalt, kuidas piiride rajamine ja nende kaotamine mõjutab riikidevahelist koostööd, aluseks enam kui 20 antud teemat käsitleva dokumendi analüüs

  19. Res Publica jäi järjekordselt ilma mitmest nimekast liikmest / Tuuli Koch, Kärt Anvelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    Oma lahkumiset Res Publicast teatasid erakonna esimene esimees Rein Taagepera, tema abikaasa Mare Taagepera, akadeemik Jaan Einasto ja 2002. aastal erakonna esimeheks kandideerinud Lauri Aaspõllu. Rein Taagepera põhjendas otsust Res Publica liikumisega paremtsentrist paremäärmusse. Lisa: Tuntud inimesi, kes seni Res Publicast lahkunud. Vt. samas lühiintervjuud Jaan Einastoga: Res Publica peab tegema koostööd

  20. Gaasitoru rajaja Nord Stream : jätkame läbirääkimisi Soomega / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Eesti valitsuse otsus mitte anda Nord Streamile uurimisluba tekitas Soome keskkonnaametnikes pahameelt. Nord Stream AG esindaja Jens D. Mülleri sõnul jätkatakse torujuhtme projekti. Välispoliitika Instituudi direktori Andres Kasekampi arvates laskis Eesti käest kaasarääkimise õiguse

  1. Contact sensitization to fragrances in the general population: a Koch's approach may reveal the burden of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Menné, T; Linneberg, A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact sensitization to fragrance mix (FM) I and Myroxylon pereirae (MP) is common among European patients with dermatitis. Recently, FM II was included in the European baseline series as an additional marker of fragrance sensitization. OBJECTIVES: This literature review aims to asse...

  2. Una nueva especie ibérica de Ferulago Koch (Apiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Solanas, José Luis; Crespo, Manuel B.; García Martín, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    Ferulago ternatifolia Solanas, M.B. Crespo & García Martín, sp. nov., is described from populations found in the littoral zones of Alicante Province (Puigcampana and Vall de Gallinera), and the Sierra de Moratalla (Pico Revolcadores) of Murcia Province. Morphological and structural characters defining the new species are analysed, and the diagnostic differences with other Iberian taxa are also established.Se describe Ferulago ternatifolia Solanas, M.B. Crespo & García Martín, sp. nov., a part...

  3. Muusikamaailm : Viini pidunädalad algavad. Kammermuusika Wittenis. Ooper shostakovitshist. Erland von Koch ئ 90 / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Festivalist "Wiener Festwochen" 12.05-18.06. Saksamaal toimunud nüüdismuusikafestivalist "Tage für Neue Kammermusik Witten". Leipzigi Ooperis tuli maailmaesiettekandele L. Lombardi ooper "Dmitri", mis räägib D. shostakovitshi elust. E. von Kochi tegevusest

  4. John Kjaer : Nõukogude Liitu ja euroliitu seob vaid sõna "liit" / John Kjaer ; interv. Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kjaer, John

    2003-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni delegatsiooni juht Eestis John Kjaer vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Edgar Savisaare kõnet Keskerakonna kongressil, kus ta võrdles NSV Liitu Euroopa Liiduga; peamisi erinevusi EL-i ja totalitaarriigi vahel, otsuste langetamise põhimõtteid EL-is

  5. Edgar Savisaar : poliitilistel kolleegidel läheb tarvis rohkem paksu nahka / Edgar Savisaar ; interv. Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savisaar, Edgar, 1950-

    2007-01-01

    Keskerakonna esimees vastab enne Riigikogu valimisi küsimustele, mis puudutavad valimisvõitlust, valitsuse moodustamist, peaministriks olemist, hinnangut peaminister Andrus Ansipile, koostööd Reformierakonna ja Rahvaliiduga, Keskerakonna valimislubadusi ja -programmi ning uusliikmeid, teiste parteide poliitikat. Lisa: Keskerakonna valimislubadusi; 3 küsimust

  6. Edgar Savisaar : pronkssõduri tüli õhutavad poliitilised äpud / Edgar Savisaar ; interv. Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savisaar, Edgar, 1950-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 8. juuni lk. 5. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Edgar Savisaar leiab, et pronkssõduri äraviimine Tõnismäelt vaid teravdaks probleeme vene kogukonnaga. Kommenteerivad: peaminister Andrus Asnip ja keskkonnaminister Villu Reiljan

  7. Vene rünnak pronkssõduri kaitseks jätab Eesti külmaks / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 18. jaan. 2007, lk. 2. Venemaa võimude reaktsioon Tõnismäelt pronkssõduri äraviimist võimaldavale seadusele jätab seaduseloojad ükskõikseks. Poliitikute arvamusi. Vene Riigiduuma väliskomisjoni kommentaar. Kommenteerivad: Mihhail Gorbatsov, Sergei Lavrov, Andrei Filatov

  8. Morpho-anatomical, allelopathic and cyto-embryological features of Himantoglossum caprinum (Bieb. C. Koch in connection with micotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Yu. Lysyakova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Negative correlation between mycotrophy of Himantoglossum caprinum plants and their morphometric parameters are revealed. The criteria of allelopathic interactions have exposed between an orchid and mycorrhiza-former fungi.

  9. Savisaare julgeolekuoht seisnes mõjuvõimuga kauplemises / Tuuli Koch ; kommenteerinud Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Andrus Ansip, Vladimir Velman ...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Keskerakonna esimehe Edgar Savisaare sidemetest Venemaa Raudtee presidendi ja endise KGB kõrge ohvitseri Vladimir Jakuniniga, rahatehingutest ning Edgar Savisaare võimalikust ohust riigi julgeolekule

  10. Edgar Savisaar : poliitilistel kolleegidel läheb tarvis rohkem paksu nahka / Edgar Savisaar ; interv. Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savisaar, Edgar, 1950-

    2007-01-01

    Keskerakonna esimees vastab enne Riigikogu valimisi küsimustele, mis puudutavad valimisvõitlust, valitsuse moodustamist, peaministriks olemist, hinnangut peaminister Andrus Ansipile, koostööd Reformierakonna ja Rahvaliiduga, Keskerakonna valimislubadusi ja -programmi ning uusliikmeid, teiste parteide poliitikat. Lisa: Keskerakonna valimislubadusi; 3 küsimust

  11. Edgar Savisaar : pronkssõduri tüli õhutavad poliitilised äpud / Edgar Savisaar ; interv. Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savisaar, Edgar, 1950-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 8. juuni lk. 5. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Edgar Savisaar leiab, et pronkssõduri äraviimine Tõnismäelt vaid teravdaks probleeme vene kogukonnaga. Kommenteerivad: peaminister Andrus Asnip ja keskkonnaminister Villu Reiljan

  12. Antigenic stability of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] proteins: effects of thermal treatments and in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Teuber, Suzanne S; Peterson, W Rich; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2006-02-22

    Rabbit polyclonal antibody-based inhibition ELISA as well as immunoblotting analyses of proteins extracted from variously processed pecans (cv. Desirable) indicate that pecan proteins are antigenically stable. Pecan antigens were more sensitive to moist heat than dry heat processing treatments. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis of the native and heat-denatured proteins that were previously subjected to in vitro simulated gastric fluid digestions indicate that stable antigenic peptides were produced. Both enzyme-to-substrate ratio and digestion time were influential in determining the stability of pecan polypeptides. The stable antigenic polypeptides may serve as useful markers in developing assays suitable for the detection of trace amounts of pecans in foods.

  13. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] kernel cake extracts obtained by sequential extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block, Jane Mara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of different Pecan kernel cake extracts (ether, acetone, alcohol and distilled water were estimated and their antioxidant activities were evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and ß-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Color variations of the Pecan kernel cake were determined through an instrumental analysis using the CIE Lab system. Significantly higher levels (p El contenido de taninos condensado y fenoles totales de diferentes extractos de tortas de almendra de pecana (éter, acetona, alcohol y agua destilada fueron estimados y sus actividades antioxidantes fueron evaluadas mediantes los métodos con ABTS, DPPH y el sistema ß-caroteno/ácido linoleico. Las variaciones de color de la torta de almendra de pecana fueron determinadas mediante análisis instrumental usando el sistema CIE Lab. Los contenidos de fenoles totales, taninos condensados y actividad antioxidante, medida mediante los métodos con ABTS Y DPPH (30 min y 24 h, fueron significativamente más altos (p < 0.05 con el extracto de acetona (16.4 mg GAE/g; 31.2 mg CE/g; 235.3 μmol TEAC/g and 68.6 and 100.3 mg TEAC/g, respectivamente. El porcentaje de inhibición de la oxidación en el sistema ß-caroteno/ ácido linoleico vario desde 37.9 a 93.1% con el extracto de acetona a 300 ppm, mostrando resultados significativamente superiores. Las muestras con una mayor tendencia a tonos rojos presento los niveles más altos de taninos condensados.

  14. Res Publica jäi järjekordselt ilma mitmest nimekast liikmest / Tuuli Koch, Kärt Anvelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    Oma lahkumiset Res Publicast teatasid erakonna esimene esimees Rein Taagepera, tema abikaasa Mare Taagepera, akadeemik Jaan Einasto ja 2002. aastal erakonna esimeheks kandideerinud Lauri Aaspõllu. Rein Taagepera põhjendas otsust Res Publica liikumisega paremtsentrist paremäärmusse. Lisa: Tuntud inimesi, kes seni Res Publicast lahkunud. Vt. samas lühiintervjuud Jaan Einastoga: Res Publica peab tegema koostööd

  15. Muusikamaailm : Viini pidunädalad algavad. Kammermuusika Wittenis. Ooper shostakovitshist. Erland von Koch ئ 90 / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Festivalist "Wiener Festwochen" 12.05-18.06. Saksamaal toimunud nüüdismuusikafestivalist "Tage für Neue Kammermusik Witten". Leipzigi Ooperis tuli maailmaesiettekandele L. Lombardi ooper "Dmitri", mis räägib D. shostakovitshi elust. E. von Kochi tegevusest

  16. INTERACCIÓN ENTRE DOS ÁCAROS DEPREDADORES DE Tetranychus urticae KOCH (ACARIFORMES: TETRANYCHIDAE EN LABORATORIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGÉLICA ARGÜELLES R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae es una de las principales plagas de cultivos ornamentales, entre las especies más utilizadas para su control se encuentran Neoseiulus californicus y Phytoseiulus persimilis (Parasitiformes: Phytoseiidae. En el presente trabajo se propone el manejo de la plaga mediante el empleo de liberaciones simultáneas de los dos fitoseidos. Se evaluaron varias situaciones, por un lado se estudiaron las interac- ciones cuando un depredador se encuentra en una densidad baja mientras que el otro depredador se presenta en alta densidad (esta situación se analizó tanto en presencia como en ausencia de la presa. Por otro lado, se evaluaron las interacciones cuando los P. persimilis y N. californicus dos están presentes en igual densidad y en presencia de T. urticae. Cuando uno de los depredadores está en mayor densidad y hay presencia de la presa, se observa que al incrementar la edad del depredador que tiene menor densidad, aumenta también la interferencia en el consumo de presas por parte de los depre- dadores que están en mayor densidad. Además cuando disminuye el consumo de T. urticae se incrementa el consumo intraguilda. Phytoseiulus persimilis en ausencia de T. urticae y en presencia de N. californicus adopta un comportamiento de depredación intraguilda sobre todos los estados de desarrollo de su conespecifico, mientras que N. californicus únicamente consume larvas de conespecíficos en ausencia del fitófago y en presencia de P. persimilis. Cuando se encontraban los dos depredadores en el mismo montaje y la misma densidad de población, no se observó un mayor consumo de T. urticae que cuando cada depredador es empleado por separado.

  17. John Kjaer : Nõukogude Liitu ja euroliitu seob vaid sõna "liit" / John Kjaer ; interv. Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kjaer, John

    2003-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni delegatsiooni juht Eestis John Kjaer vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Edgar Savisaare kõnet Keskerakonna kongressil, kus ta võrdles NSV Liitu Euroopa Liiduga; peamisi erinevusi EL-i ja totalitaarriigi vahel, otsuste langetamise põhimõtteid EL-is

  18. Dynamic headspace-gas-chromatography-olfactometry analysis of different anatomical parts of lovage (Levisticum officinale Koch.) at eight growing stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bylaite, E.; Roozen, J.P.; Legger, A.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Posthumus, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Volatiles of five different parts of lovage (leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, and roots) were isolated by dynamic headspace (DHS) method and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-olfactometry (GC-O) techniques. In total, 98 compounds were identified in the samples, of which 41 are reported as lovage volatiles for

  19. Gaasitoru rajaja Nord Stream : jätkame läbirääkimisi Soomega / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Eesti valitsuse otsus mitte anda Nord Streamile uurimisluba tekitas Soome keskkonnaametnikes pahameelt. Nord Stream AG esindaja Jens D. Mülleri sõnul jätkatakse torujuhtme projekti. Välispoliitika Instituudi direktori Andres Kasekampi arvates laskis Eesti käest kaasarääkimise õiguse

  20. Traditional Knowledge, Agave Inaequidens (Koch) Conservation, and the Charro Lariat Artisans of San Miguel Cuyutlán, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valenzuela-Zapata, Ana G; Lopez-Muraira, Irma; Gaytán, Marie Sarita

    2011-01-01

    .... In the last ten years, there has been a significant decline in the A. inaequidens population in the Cerro Viejo mountain range of the central-western Mexican state of Jalisco, putting the financial...

  1. Traditional Knowledge, Agave Inaequidens (Koch Conservation, and the Charro Lariat Artisans of San Miguel Cuyutlán, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G. Valenzuela-Zapata

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican sport of charrería, or Mexican rodeo, developed in post-conquest Mexico as a way of preserving and celebrating traditional cowboy riding and livestock handling skills. Today, charrería is considered the national sport of Mexico and the charro (cowboy is also a celebrated icon of Mexicanness. Special handcrafted ropes used in charrería, known as sogas finas, or charro lariats, are made from the fibers of the Agave inaequidens. The manufacture of charro ropes is an artisinal practice that requires both cultural and botanical knowlege. In the last ten years, there has been a significant decline in the A. inaequidens population in the Cerro Viejo mountain range of the central-western Mexican state of Jalisco, putting the financial wellbeing of local lariat artisans at risk. Drawing on fieldwork and laboratory analysis conducted from 2002 through 2010, we discuss the socio-cultural significance of charro lariats, detail the harvesting of A. inaequidens in relation to lariat craftsmanship, document the physical characteristics of the A. inaequidens from this region, and describe the relationship between traditional knowledge and the local economy. The goal of this research is two-fold: 1 to stimulate feedback between producers and consumers in an attempt to leverage the existing business cluster based on traditional knowledge and 2 to initiate dialogue concerning conservation, domestication, and sustainable management of the wild A. inadequidens population.

  2. An analysis of potential resistance of the phytophagous mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae to four botanical pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia, S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Synthetic acaricides have been widely used to manage Tetranychus urticae. Due to the excessive use of biocide and the associated problems of pesticide resistance and environmental pollution, there is an increasing demand for sustainable, environmentally-friendly control methods. Among the current alternative strategies aimed at decreasing the pest populations, the pesticides based on plant extracts are currently one of the most promising methods. Essential oils with acaricidal properties have been categorized as green pesticides because they are biodegradable and predominantly non-toxic to vertebrates. Objectives. With an aim to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides, they represent a promising approach for eco-chemical control of mites. Method. The aim of the present work was to analyze the risk of resistance emergence of T. urticae to repeated treatments with four plant extracts: Deverra scoparia Coss. & Durieu (Araliales: Apiaceae, Hertia cheirifolia (L. Kuntze (Asterales: Ateraceae, Santolina africana Jord. & Fourr. (Asterales: Asteraceae essential oils and garlic distillate Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae after 20 generations. Results. Repeated treatments with S. africana essential oil during 20 generations did not provoke an emergence of resistance while a low development of resistance was observed with H. cheirifolia, A. sativum and D. scoparia extracts. Conclusions. The efficacy of these extracts against the two spotted spider mite and their low development of resistance make them a promising use for pest management.

  3. Traditional Knowledge, Agave Inaequidens (Koch) Conservation, and the Charro Lariat Artisans of San Miguel Cuyutlán, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ana G. Valenzuela-Zapata; Irma Lopez-Muraira; Marie Sarita Gaytán

    2011-01-01

    The Mexican sport of charrería, or Mexican rodeo, developed in post-conquest Mexico as a way of preserving and celebrating traditional cowboy riding and livestock handling skills. Today, charrería is considered the national sport of Mexico and the charro (cowboy) is also a celebrated icon of Mexicanness. Special handcrafted ropes used in charrería, known as sogas finas, or charro lariats, are made from the fibers of the Agave inaequidens. The manufacture of charro ropes is an artisinal practi...

  4. Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mite and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; James, D G; Lee, J C; Gent, D H

    2011-12-01

    The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera: Aphididae). A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the recommended commercial use of MeSA in hop yards in Oregon. Slow-release MeSA dispensers were stapled to supporting poles in 0.5 ha plots and these plots were compared to a paired non-treated plot on each of three farms in 2008 and 2009. Across both years, there was a trend for reduced (range 40-91%) mean seasonal numbers of T. urticae in five of the six MeSA-baited plots. Stethorus spp., key spider mite predators, tended to be more numerous in MeSA-baited plots compared to control plots on a given farm. Mean seasonal densities of hop aphid and other natural enemies (e.g., Orius spp. and Anystis spp.) were similar between MeSA-treated and control plots. Variability among farms in suppression of two-spotted spider mites and attraction of Stethorus spp. suggests that the use of MeSA to enhance CBC of spider mites in commercial hop yards may be influenced by site-specific factors related to the agroecology of individual farms or seasonal effects that require further investigation. The current study also suggests that CBC of hop aphid with MeSA in this environment may be unsatisfactory.

  5. Aphids (Homoptera, Aphidodea inhabiting the shrubs of Pinus mugo Turra in the green areas of Lublin. Part I. The population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożenna Jaśkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted on the shrubs of mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra in the years 1999-2001. Observations were performed on the plants growing in the green areas of Lublin in two sites: a street site (A and a park one (B. The purpose of the studies was to establish the species composition and the population dynamics of aphids inhabiting dwarf mountain pine. The studies on the shrubs of the mountain pine found out the presence of four species of aphids: Cinara pini L., Schizolachnus pineti F., Eulachnus rileyi (Will. and Pineus pini (Ratz.. Among those, only C. pini occurred in both sites in each of the studied years. Weather conditions had an effect on the development of aphid population. A delayed period of vegetation, air temperatures above 30°C as well as stormy rainfalls considerably limited the population of aphids.

  6. The jacoona assemblage of the genus Dundubia Amyot & Serville (Homoptera: Cicadidae): a taxonomic study of its species and a discussion of its phylogenetic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuk, Paul L.Th.

    1996-01-01

    The species of Orientopsaltria with unicolorous opercula and three related species of Platylomia are transferred to the genus Dundubia and allocated in the ‘Dundubia jacoona assemblage’ pending further investigation. The assemblage comprises eleven species in total; all are found in the

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of native and introduced Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) from China and India based on mtCOI DNA sequencing and host plant comparisons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Baoli; Susan A. Coats; Ren Shunxiang; Ali M. Idris; Xu Caixia; Judith K. Brown

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships for Bemisia tabaci were reconstructed by analysis of a ~ 780 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase Ⅰ (mtCOI) gene with an emphasis on geographic range and distribution among eight eudicot plant families that are common hosts of B. tabaci worldwide to elucidate key phylogeographic linkages between populations extant in China (n = 31 ) and India ( n = 34). Bootstrap values for the Maximum Parsimony tree were highly robust for all major nodes involving the major Asian clade, subgroups, and sister groups within, at 92%-100%. Between-clade distances for the Southeast Asia and three other major clades, e.g.from sub-Sahara Africa, North Africa-Mediterranean, and the Americas, were approximately > 16 % divergent. Two major Asian subgroups (Ⅰ, Ⅱ) were resolved, which represented populations indigenous to the region, comprising two (Ⅰ a, Ⅰ b) and five (Ⅱ a-e) sister groups, respectively, which diverged by 11%. Two distinct populations from sunflower in Hyderabad grouped separately within the two Asian subgroups. All other populations grouped uniquely within Asian subgroup Ⅱ or Ⅰ. The "B" biotype was identified in 23 collections from China at 97.3 %-99.5 % nucleotide identity with "B" biotype reference sequences; it was not identified in collections from India.The majority of haplotypes were associated with 3-4 plant families, with one exception that for sister group Ⅱd (sesame, India), it might be monophagous. Thus, B. tabaci from the southeastern and near eastern regions of the Asian continent comprise of a large number of ancestral, richly divergent, mostly polyphagous populations. This region is therefore hypothesized to constitute an important Old World center of diversification for the B. tabaci complex, together with sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Herencia de la resistencia al daño mecánico causado por Tagosodes orizicolus (Muir (Homoptera-Delphacidae en arroz Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas P. Federico

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In Colombia all rice varieties developed are reported as resistant to Tagosodes orizicolus. Given the narrow genetic base of the resistant sources, this study was undertaken to identify the resistant parents or donors more oftenly used in Latin America. The materials were characterized as resistant (Mudgo, Amistad 82, IRAT 120, IRAT 124, Makalioka or susceptible based on the free chosen test and non chosen test and on the survival and oviposition of the insect (Chianan 8, Colombia 1, Bluebonnet 50, IR 8 (lCA, IR 8 (IRRI, Tetep and Cica 8. The damage was associated with insect survival, oviposition and eggs eclotion. To determine heritability two parents (Makalioka and Mudgo, were crossed with IR 8 F1 and F3 populations were also evaluated based on the free chosen test.

     

     

    En Colombia las variedades de arroz desarrolladas se consideran como resistentes a Tagosodes orizicolus. Dada la estrechez genética de las fuentes de resistencia, se inició este estudio para identificar los progenitores donantes de resistencia usados con mayor frecuencia en América Latina. Los materiales se caracterizaron como resistentes (Mudgo, Amistad 82, IRAT, 120, IRAT 124 Y Makalioka o susceptibles (Chianan 8, Colombia 1, Bluebonnet 50, IR 8 (lCA, IR (IRRI, Tetep y Cica 8, con base en las pruebas de libre escogencia, no escogencia, sobre vivencia y oviposición. El daño estuvo asociado con la supervivencia, oviposición y eclosión de huevos del insecto. Para la determinación de la herencia se cruzaron los progenitores Makalioka y Mudgo con IR8. En la Progenie F1 del cruzamiento resistente x resistente el 111% de las plantas fueron susceptibles; Mudgo y Makalioka segregaron 23 y 41% de plantas susceptibles.

  9. Effects of plant protease inhibitors, oryzacystatin I and soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor, on the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Homoptera, Aphididae) and its parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, H; Cherqui, A; Campan, E D M; Rahbé, Y; Duport, G; Jouanin, L; Kaiser, L; Giordanengo, P

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic plants expressing protease inhibitors (PIs) have emerged in recent years as an alternative strategy for pest control. Beneficial insects such as parasitoids may therefore be exposed to these entomotoxins either via the host or by direct exposure to the plant itself. With the objective of assessing the effects of PIs towards aphid parasitoids, bioassays using soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor (SbBBI) or oryzacystatin I (OCI) on artificial diet were performed on Macrosiphum euphorbiae-Aphelinus abdominalis system. OCI significantly reduced nymphal survival of the potato aphid M. euphorbiae and prevented aphids from reproducing. This negative effect was much more pronounced than with other aphid species. On the contrary, SbBBI did not affect nymphal viability but significantly altered adult demographic parameters. Enzymatic inhibition assays showed that digestive proteolytic activity of larvae and adults of Aphelinus abdominalis predominantly relies on serine proteases and especially on chymotrypsin-like activity. Immunoassays suggested that OCI bound to aphid proteins and accumulated in aphid tissues, whereas SbBBI remained unbound in the gut. Bioassays using M. euphorbiae reared on artificial diets supplemented with both OCI and SbBBI showed a fitness impairment of Aphelinus abdominalis that developed on intoxicated aphids. However, only SbBBI was detected in parasitoid larvae, while no PI could be detected in adult parasitoids that emerged from PI-intoxicated aphids. The potential impact of PI-expressing plants on aphid parasitoids and their combined efficiency for aphid control are discussed.

  10. Within-plant distribution and sampling of single and mixed infestations of Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in winter tomato crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnó, Judit; Albajes, Ramon; Gabarra, Rosa

    2006-04-01

    In several areas of Spain, the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), and the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), coexist in tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller. For integrated pest management decision-making, it is important to know the abundance of each species, because they exhibit different abilities to transmit viruses, are susceptible to different biological control agents, and have different responses to insecticides. This study was conducted to provide information on the vertical distribution of T. vaporariorumn and B. tabaci in tomato plants grown in greenhouses in winter and to determine the optimal sampling unit and the sample size for estimating egg and nymphal densities of both whitefly species. Eggs of T. vaporariorum were mainly located on the top stratum of the plant, whereas B. tabaci eggs were mainly found on the middle stratum. Nymphs of both species mainly concentrated in the bottom stratum of the plant. When pest abundance and low relative variation were considered, the bottom stratum was selected as the most convenient for sampling nymphs of both whitefly species. Conversely, the same two criteria indicated that either the top or the middle strata could be used when sampling T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci eggs. Several different sampling units were compared to optimize the estimation of nymphal and egg densities in terms of cost efficiency. One disk (1.15 cm in diameter) per leaflet collected from the top stratum of the tomato plant was the most efficient sampling unit for simultaneously estimating the egg densities of the two whitefly species.

  11. Effect of silver reflective mulch and a summer squash trap crop on densities of immature Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on organic bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H A; Koenig, R L; McAuslane, H J; McSorley, R

    2000-06-01

    Polyethylene mulch with a reflective silver stripe and a yellow summer squash, Cucurbita pepo L., trap crop were tested alone and in combination as tactics to reduce densities of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring eggs and nymphs, and incidence of bean golden mosaic geminivirus on snap bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Egg densities were consistently higher on squash than on bean, but egg densities and virus incidence were not lower on bean grown with squash than on bean grown in monoculture. Silver reflective mulch reduced egg densities compared with bean grown on bare ground during the first week after crop emergence for 2 of the 3 yr that the study was conducted. However, egg suppression by silver mulch was not enhanced by the presence of a squash trap crop when both tactics were combined. The obstacles to suppressing B. argentifolii through the use of trap crops are discussed.

  12. Reproducción de cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Homóptera: Dactylopiidae Reproduction of wild cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo Flores-Hernández

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Por sus características, la cochinilla silvestre ofrece perspectivas de aprovechamiento como fuente de carmín y para el mejoramiento genético de la grana fina. Por lo anterior, se estableció una multiplicación y crianza de cochinilla silvestre, proveniente de la zona árida del norte de México para caracterizarla, utilizando como hospedero a Opuntia megacantha Salm Dyck. Los resultados indican que la especie silvestre pertenece al género-especie Dactylopius opuntia. Se determinó la presencia de partenogénesis en hembras. La duración de los estadios biológicos depende del sexo del insecto; el adulto hembra permaneció durante 38.4 días y 4.2 días para machos, los primeros estadios ninfales fueron similares en duración (18.1-19.8 días. El ciclo biológico de las hembras fue de 77 días mientras que el de los machos fue de 43 días. Para las hembras se estimó un periodo de preoviposición de 18.8 días, manteniéndose en oviposición durante 21 días con un promedio de 131 insectos por hembra. La proporción sexual hembras: machos fue 1:1. El tipo de reproducción fue predominantemente sexual, aunque hubo hembras partenogénicas. Este es el primer reporte de Dactylopius opuntiae como cochinilla silvestre asociada a la zona árida del noreste de México, específicamente en el Bolsón de Mapimí, Durango, México.Wild cochineal has characteristics that offer advantage as a source of carmine and for fine cochineal improvement. To characterize wild cochineal, we initiated a breeding effort raising wild cochineal from the arid zone of the north oh Mexico, using as a host organism Opuntia megacantha Salm dick. The results indicate that the wild specie is Dactylopius opuntiae. The presence of parthenogenesis in females was determined. The duration of ontogenetic stages depends on the sex of the insect. The adult female lasted 38.4 days and 4.2 days for males, the first stage nymphs were similar in duration (18-19.8 days. The complete biological cycle of the females was 77 days, and in the males 43 days. A period of preoviposition of 18.8 days for the females was found, laying eggs during 21 days with an average of 131 insects per female. The sex ratio female: male was 1:1. The reproduction generally was sexual although there were parthenogenetic females. This is the first report of Dactylopius opuntiae as a source of wild cochineal in the arid zone of North, Central and Norwest of Mexico specifically in the Bolson of Mapimí, Durango, Mexico.

  13. Estudios sobre la transmisión por "moscas blancas" (Homoptera: aleyrodidae de virus asociados con el "cuero de sapo" en yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel S. Juan C.

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudios realizados en la zona endémica al "cuero de sapo" (Quilcacé, Cauca, encaminados a determinar la presencia de vectores de la enfermedad mostraron la existencia de dos virus asociados con "moscas blancas". El primero denominado "agente mosaico" fue transmitido por Bemisia tuberculata, el segundo asintomático, por Aleurotrachelus socialis. El 3.3% de la población de B. tuberculata utilizada transmitió el "agente mosaico" al clón M Col 2063 (Secundina y no a M Col 113: el 2.4 % de A. socialis transmitió el asintomático al clón Secundina y el 4.7% a M Col 113. El "agente mosaico", no fue identificado, pero si se demostró que el asintomático presente era CsXV; este sería el primer registro de un potexvirus transmitido por "moscas blancas". El papel de los dos virus en la etiología del “cuero de sapo” continúa en estudio.Whiteflies collected from a frogskin infested field in Quilcacé (Cauca were caged individually on M Col 2063 (Secundina and M Col 113 plants. It was possible to identify the species (Aleurotrachelus socialis, Trialeurodes variabilis and Bemisia tuberculata from pupae present on over 50% of the plants. A. socialis was found most f frequently and B. tuberculata the least com mom of the species. A. socialis was associated with the transmission of both CsXV and a serologically related strain, identified on the basis of symptoms produced on Nicotiana bentamiana, B. tuberculata was associated with the transmission of a mosaic agent to Secundina. The identify of the mosaic agent is unknown.

  14. Resistance and susceptibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to the aphid Therioaphis maculata (Homoptera:Aphididae): insect biology and cultivar evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALEXANDRE DE ALMEIDA E SILVA; ELENICE MOURO VARANDA; JOS(E) RICARDO BAROSELA

    2006-01-01

    Biology of the aphid Therioaphis maculata was studied on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), including four resistant (Mesa-Sirsa, CUF101, Baker and Lahontan) and two susceptible (ARC and Caliverde) alfalfa cultivars, and one of the most cropped Brazilian cultivars, Crioula. Under controlled conditions, antibiosis (i.e., reduced longevity, fecundity and increased mortality of the aphid) was observed mainly on the resistant alfalfa cultivars,except on Lahontan. Crioula seemed to be tolerant to aphids. Present data support geographic limitation usage of cultivars, and we suggest Baker and Mesa-Sirsa as sources of antibiosis,and provide biological information of a tropical T. maculata biotype on alfalfa.

  15. A reliable bioassay procedure to evaluate per os toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains against the rice delphacid, Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Mora

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A reliable bioassay procedure was developed to test ingested Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins on the rice delphacid Tagosodes orizicolus. Initially, several colonies were established under greenhouse conditions, using rice plants to nurture the insect. For the bioassay, an in vitro feeding system was developed for third to fourth instar nymphs. Insects were fed through Parafilm membranes on sugar (10 % sucrose and honey bee (1:48 vol/vol solutions, observing a natural mortality of 10-15 % and 0-5 %, respectively. Results were reproducible under controlled conditions during the assay (18±0.1 °C at night and 28±0.1 °C during the day, 80 % RH and a 12:12 day:light photoperiod. In addition, natural mortality was quantified on insect colonies, collected from three different geographic areas of Costa Rica, with no significant differences between colonies under controlled conditions. Finally, bioassays were performed to evaluate the toxicity of a Bt collection on T. orizicolus. A preliminary sample of twenty-seven Bt strains was evaluated on coarse bioassays using three loops of sporulated colonies in 9 ml of liquid diet, the strains that exhibited higher percentages of T. orizicolus mortality were further analyzed in bioassays using lyophilized spores and crystals (1 mg/ml. As a result, strains 26-O-to, 40-X-m, 43S-d and 23-O-to isolated from homopteran insects showed mortalities of 74, 96, 44 and 82 % respectively while HD-137, HD-1 and Bti showed 19, 83 and 95 % mortalities. Controls showed mortalities between 0 and 10 % in all bioassays. This is the first report of a reliable bioassay procedure to evaluate per os toxicity for a homopteran species using Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 373-383. Epub 2007 June, 29.Se desarrolló una metodología de bioensayo para evaluar toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt ingeridas por Tagosodes orizicolus, plaga del arroz y vector del virus de la hoja blanca. Se establecieron colonias del insecto en condiciones de invernadero usando plantas de arroz como alimento. Para el bioensayo, se desarrolló un sistema de alimentación in vitro para ninfas de tercer y cuarto estadío. Los insectos se alimentaron de soluciones de miel de abeja (1:48 vol/vol y sacarosa (10 % a través de membranas de Parafilm. Se observaron mortalidades del 10-15 % y 0-5 %, respectivamente, en ambas dietas. Los resultados fueron reproducibles en condiciones controladas de humedad y temperatura (18±0.1 °C de noche y 28±0.1 °C de día, 80 % H.R y a 12:12 fotoperíodo día:noche. Asimismo, se analizó la mortalidad natural de los insectos según su procedencia, sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias significativas en condiciones controladas. Finalmente, se elaboraron bioensayos para evaluar la toxicidad de una colección de cepas de Bt contra T. orizicolus. Se evaluó preliminarmente, una submuestra de 27 cepas de Bt en bioensayos burdos usando tres asadas como inóculo para 9 ml de dieta líquida. Posteriormente, las cepas que mostraron los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad se evaluaron en bioensayos usando esporas y cristales liofilizados (1 mg/ml. Como resultado, las cepas aisladas a partir de homópteros 26-O-to, 40-X-m, 43-S-d y 23-O-to mostraron mortalidades de 74, 96, 44 y 82 % respectivamente, mientras que las HD-137, HD-1 y Bti mostraron 19, 83 y 95 % de mortalidad. Los controles presentaron mortalidades de 0 y 10 % en los bioensayos. Este es el primer informe de un bioensayo para evaluar la toxicidad de cepas de Bt utilizando la especie T. orizicolus.

  16. Review of the genus Oncopsis Burmeister, 1838 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) of Russia and adjacent countries with description of a new species from Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2017-01-11

    Illustrated descriptions and data on host plants and distribution for 21 species of Oncopsis of Russia and adjacent countries are given, and O. abdykulovi sp. n. from Central Asia is described. Conspecificity of O. planiscuta from East Siberia and Sakhalin,of O. tristis from Moscow Area, Alati Mts., and Sakhalin, and of O. burjatica from East Siberia and Sakhalin is corroborated by male calling signal analysis.

  17. Effect of temperature on life history and population growth parameters of Planococcus citri (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae on coleus [Solenostemon scutellarioides (L. Codd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldasteh Shila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development, life history, reproduction, and population growth parameters of Planococcus citri Risso on coleus [Solenostemon scutellarioides (L. Codd.] were studied at various temperatures ranging from 10 to 37ºC, 70±10% RH, and photoperiod length of 16: 8 h (L: D. Females and males successfully developed into adults at from 15 to 32ºC and 18 to 32ºC, respectively. All first instars died at 10, 12, and 37ºC. Lower temperatures (10, 12, and 15ºC caused higher egg mortality than did higher temperatures (32, 35, and 37ºC. At all temperatures (except 15ºC, the highest percentage of nymphal mortality was observed in the first instar. The sex ratio was female-biased between 15 and 30ºC, but there was a slightly higher number of males at 32ºC. The highest adult longevities of females and males were obtained at 18 and 25°C, respectively. The pre-oviposition, oviposition, and post-oviposition periods were significantly different at various temperatures. The highest fecundity was observed at 23ºC. The shortest and longest oviposition periods occurred at 32 and 18ºC, respectively. Maximum values of the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm, net reproduction rate (R0, and finite rate of increase (λ and the shortest mean generation time (T and doubling time (DT were obtained at 25ºC. Our findings showed citrus mealybug performances to be highly affected by temperature.

  18. 山西杉苞蚧的研究(同翅目:蚧总科:蚧科)%A STUDY ON PHYSOKERMES SHANXIENSIS TANG (HOMOPTERA: COCCOIDEA: COCCIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武三安; 尉万葱

    2000-01-01

    山西杉苞蚧Physokermes shanxiensis Tang是一种新发现的园林害虫.在山西中部严重危害白□Picea meyeri Rehd. et Wils.为害轻者树势衰弱,重者整株枯死.本文首次描述和图示了各幼虫期虫态和雄成虫的形态特征,重描了雌成虫的形态.同时也观察了其生物学特性,结果表明:该虫在山西中部1年发生1代,以2龄若虫在1年生枝条和针叶上越冬;取食为害高峰在4月上旬至5月中旬;行两性生殖,每雌产卵15~1143粒,平均602.3粒;天敌主要有异色瓢虫Harmonia oxyridis(Pallas)的十八斑变型和二星瓢虫Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus).此外,本文还提出了有效的防治措施.

  19. Faunistic Analysis on Bamboo Scale Insects of China (Homoptera :Coccoidea)%中国竹子蚧虫区系分析(同翅目:蚧总科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴永生; 徐洪儒; 武三安

    2004-01-01

    以中国竹亚科植物上蚧虫6科40属127种为基础,分析了竹蚧的寄主广度、寄生部位和地理分布.结果表明:竹类蚧虫的寄主专化性程度较强,寄生在叶片上蚧虫种类最多,在国内各动物地理区的种类丰富度依次为:华南区>华中区>西南区>华北区>蒙新区>青藏区>东北区;3/4的种类起源于东方区系.

  20. The study and analysis of the mating behavior and sound production of male cicada Psalmocharias alhageos (Kol.) (Homoptera:Cicadidae) to make disruption in mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, H; Mehdipour, M; Ghaemi, N

    2008-09-01

    Psalmocharias alhageos is an important pest of vine in most parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, southern areas of Russia, Turkey and Iraq. This cicada is spread in most provinces in Iran such as Esfahan, Hamedan, Qazvin, Markazi, Lorestan, Qom, Kerman, Tehran and Kordestan. In addition to vine, this insect damages some other fruit trees, such as apple, sour cherry, quince, peach, pomegranate and pear trees and some non-fruit trees, namely white poplar, ash, elm, eglantine, silk and black poplar trees. The nymphs of cicada damage the trees by feeding on root, adult insects on young bud and by oviposition under branch barks. Nourishing root by nymph leads to the weakness of the tree and hinder its growth. The high density oviposition of adult insects inside young barks causes withering of branches. The resulted damage on vine products is 40% which is one of the most important factors in product reduction in vineyard. This research was conducted in Takestan in Qazvin. It was conducted for the first time to study the behaviors of the mates of this vine cicada in order to manage it. Two systems were used to record the sound of male cicada called analog voice-recorder and digital voice recorder. To analyze the recorded sound of the male cicada we used of spectrum analyzer, digital storage oscilloscope and protens 7 computer softwares. We could call the attention of natural enemies an disturb the male insect's attracting sound by producing natural and artificial sound in the range of 1-6 kHz in two different ripeness status of the fruits and could prevent mating and oviposition of female cicadas.

  1. The Effect of Ultraviolet-A Radiation Exposure on the Reproductive Ability, Longevity, and Development of the Dialeurodes citri (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) F1 Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Kaleem; Noor, Mah; Saeed, Shafqat; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has been used worldwide to monitor and trap insect pests. Whitefly adults show conspicuous positive phototactic behavior toward UV light stimuli; however, knowledge of the effect of UV light exposure on various life-history parameters of Dialeurodes citri remains limited. The present research aimed to investigate the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UV-A; long-wave) exposure on the reproduction and longevity of D. citri adults as well as the development of immature (eggs, larvae, and pupae) flies in the F1 generation. Paired D. citri adults were exposed to UV-A radiation for different periods (0, 1, 4, and 7 h/d) until the end of their life. The results of the experiment revealed that fecundity and oviposition rates increased when adults were irradiated for 1 and 4 h/d, but interestingly, both were significantly decreased compared with those of the controls after the longest exposure time (7 h/d). The longevity of adults of both sexes and the cumulative survival of F1 immatures were decreased with increased exposure time. Exposure to UV-A radiation prolonged the developmental time of immature stages, and a positive correlation was observed with exposure time. Exposure to UV light significantly inhibited egg hatching, larval development, pupation, and adult emergence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing the effect of UV radiation on a homopteran insect pest. This research may provide a foundation for the scientific community to use UV light in the field as an integrated pest management strategy to control this devastating agricultural pest.

  2. Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) could compromise the sustainability of malaria vector control strategies in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnankiné, Olivier; Bassolé, Imael H N; Chandre, Fabrice; Glitho, Isabelle; Akogbeto, Martin; Dabiré, Roch K; Martin, Thibaud

    2013-10-01

    Insecticides from the organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PY) chemical families, have respectively, been in use for 50 and 30 years in West Africa, mainly against agricultural pests, but also against vectors of human disease. The selection pressure, with practically the same molecules year after year (mainly on cotton), has caused insecticide resistance in pest populations such as Bemisia tabaci, vector of harmful phytoviruses on vegetables. The evolution toward insecticide resistance in malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae sensus lato (s.l.) is probably related to the current use of these insecticides in agriculture. Thus, successful pest and vector control in West Africa requires an investigation of insect susceptibility, in relation to the identification of species and sub species, such as molecular forms or biotypes. Identification of knock down resistance (kdr) and acetylcholinesterase gene (Ace1) mutations modifying insecticide targets in individual insects and measure of enzymes activity typically involved in insecticide metabolism (oxidase, esterase and glutathion-S-transferase) are indispensable in understanding the mechanisms of resistance. Insecticide resistance is a good example in which genotype-phenotype links have been made successfully. Insecticides used in agriculture continue to select new resistant populations of B. tabaci that could be from different biotype vectors of plant viruses. As well, the evolution of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae threatens the management of malaria vectors in West Africa. It raises the question of priority in the use of insecticides in health and/or agriculture, and more generally, the question of sustainability of crop protection and vector control strategies in the region. Here, we review the susceptibility tests, biochemical and molecular assays data for B. tabaci, a major pest in cotton and vegetable crops, and An. gambiae, main vector of malaria. The data reviewed was collected in Benin and Burkina Faso between 2008 and 2010 under the Corus 6015 research program. This review aims to show: (i) the insecticide resistance in B. tabaci as well as in An. gambiae; and (ii) due to this, the impact of selection of resistant populations on malaria vector control strategies. Some measures that could be beneficial for crop protection and vector control strategies in West Africa are proposed.

  3. Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera : Culicidae) could compromise the sustainability of malaria vector control strategies in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Insecticides from the organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PY) chemical families, have respectively, been in use for 50 and 30 years in West Africa, mainly against agricultural pests, but also against vectors of human disease. The selection pressure, with practically the same molecules year after year (mainly on cotton), has caused insecticide resistance in pest populations such as Bemisia tabaci, vector of harmful phytoviruses on vegetables. The evolution toward insecticide resistance in mal...

  4. [Effect of the length of the stay of the male on the reproduction of the olive psylla Euphyllura olivina Costa (Homoptera, Psyllidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taktak, A

    1984-01-01

    We have studied, in Euphyllura olivina Costa, 1839, the incidence that the absence or presence of males can have on the fecundity of females their longevity, the duration of spawning and other biotic parameters... So we have pointed out that: In all the cases, from beginning of experimental infestations of olive--tree sprouts to the beginning of eggs releasing, there is a preovipositional time of very variable duration. Virgins, isolated from imago emergence, have a trifling spawning and the eggs cannot have parthenogenetic development. Fecundity of a female by one male induces important spawnings. These increase with more and more prolonged cohabitation (2, 4, 8 and 16 days stay). When one female is in the presence of two males we have noted a very hight variability of fecundity of the female. However it appears that the most important spawnings occur when the two males and the female are left together during 8 days.

  5. Toxicity of Diphenyl-pentenone Against Three Aphids(Homoptera:Aphididae) and Its Effects on the Esterases and Glutathione S-transferase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Ping(高平); Gan Mingzhe; Liu Shigui

    2004-01-01

    The most provocative aspect of this study is its original findings on the toxicity of diphenyl-pentenone(1,5-diphenyl-2-penten-1-one, DP) against the three kinds of aphids (Macrosiphum granarium Kirby, Lipaphis erysimi(kaltenbach), Schizaphis aurantiae(Fosc.)and the inhibitory effects of DP against detoxification enzyme system of the aphid (S aurantiae). The result of bioassay in the laboratory shows that the product has strong contact activity and very good antifeeding activity, with higher efficacy than anabasine and nicotine, two botanical aphidicides. The median lethal concentrations of the three products against the apterous adult (M granarium) are 175.85, 217.23 and 245.22 mg/L, respectively, at 24 h of pest treatment. DP is inferior to methomyl in contact assay but superior in antifeeding activity assay against the three aphides. DP has strong inhibitory effects on nonspecific esterases, carboxylesterase of aphid (S aurantiae), but it can not inhibit AchE. DP also has strong inhibitory effects on glutathione S-transferase of the aphid.

  6. Impact of Vermicompost on Growth and Development of Cabbage, Brassica oleracea Linn. and their Sucking Pest, Brevicoryne brassicae Linn. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulusew Getnet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to produce vermicompost from organic solid wastes by using red earth worm, Eisenia fetida and to check growth promoting and pest suppression properties on cabbage, Brassica oleracea. The mass of 100 kg of various organic waste sources were collected from Gondar and used to prepare vermicompost. The vermicompost was prepared in the month of June-August 2011 and tested on cabbage, B. oleracea from October 2011 to February 2012. Vermicompost was applied at the rate of 25, 50, 100 and 200 gm/plant individually. Each application 10 plants were selected and vermicompost application was continued on bimonthly basis. Totally 40 plants were used for control group in which 10 plants were selected randomly. Total number of leaves per plant; leaf length and width; plant stand height and root length; cabbage head round distance and weight and aphid population built-up were the parameters studied in experimental and control cabbage plants. Significant differences (p<0.05; LSD were observed in the growth and development and pest infestation level between vermicompost applied and control plants. The number of plant stand height, cabbage head, leaves of cabbage were also significantly different (p<0.05; LSD in experimental cabbage compared to control. Maximum number of cabbage plant was infested by aphid in control than experimental groups. In conclusion vermicompost have significant impact on cabbage growth promotion and reduce the aphid infestation. In future using vermicompost to all kinds of crops and adopting it as commercial fertilizer may create job opportunity to small scale farming society. Also, in this ever escalating cost of chemical fertilizers, the use of vermicompost seems to be quite reasonable in agro-management and should be inclusive as one of the elements of poverty alleviation strategies in such as Ethiopian context.

  7. Dispersal of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae, a biological control agent of Opuntia stricta (Haworth. Haworth. (Cactaceae in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Foxcroft

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical control efforts, the introduction of Cactoblastis cactorum and attempted releases of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell into the expanding infestation of Opuntia stricta in the Skukuza region of the Kruger National Park (KNP have had limited suc- cess in preventing the spread and densification of 0. stricta. To boost the biological control component, a new strain of D. opuntiae was introduced into KNP during 1997. The new strain established readily and has destroyed large clumps of plants in the vicin- ity of the release site. A large-scale redistribution programme with D. opuntiae is now needed to exploit this biological control agent to the full. In order to match the frequency of manual releases with the natural rates of spread of the insects, surveys were conducted under field conditions to determine the dispersal abilities ofD. opuntiae, with regard to rate and direction of movement. Dispersal of D. opuntiae was found to be slow and restricted and that the insects need to be redistributed by placing them onto plants at approximately 10 m intervals to ensure that they become quickly and evenly distributed on the weed. This information will be crucial in the revision of the integrated management plan for 0. stricta in the KNP, in integrating the cochineal and other control mechanisms.

  8. Experimental epizootiology of Zoophthora anhuiensis (Entomophthorales) against Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) with a description of a modified Gompertz model for aphid epizootics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ming-Guang; Li, Hui-Ping

    2003-11-01

    Epizootiological features of Zoophthora anhuiensis, a fungal pathogen specific to aphids in southern China, were studied in six aptera colonies of Myzus persicae at 16 regimes of temperature (T = 10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C) and relative humidity (H = 90%, 95%, 98% and 100% RH) with initially infected proportion (Ip) of 0.5 in experiment (Expt) 1 or at a fixed regime of 15 degrees C and 100% RH with a variable Ip of 0.17-1.00 in Expt 2. Mycosis-caused mortalities (Mp) varied with aphid densities (D) over time after colony initiation (t) were well fitted to a Gompertz growth model modified to include the variables T, H, Ip and D in the form of Mp = 91.72exp[-5.282exp[-(0.0095T + 0.0128H/T-0.5407D2/H)t

  9. Reproducción de cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Homóptera: Dactylopiidae) Reproduction of wild cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Por sus características, la cochinilla silvestre ofrece perspectivas de aprovechamiento como fuente de carmín y para el mejoramiento genético de la grana fina. Por lo anterior, se estableció una multiplicación y crianza de cochinilla silvestre, proveniente de la zona árida del norte de México para caracterizarla, utilizando como hospedero a Opuntia megacantha Salm Dyck. Los resultados indican que la especie silvestre pertenece al género-especie Dactylopius opuntia. Se determinó la presencia d...

  10. FOUR NEW SPECIES OF CICADELLIDAE(HOMOPTERA:CICADELLOIDEA)%叶蝉科四新种(同翅目:叶蝉总科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡平; 陆庆光

    1998-01-01

    本文记述采自我国西北地区以及土库曼斯坦叶蝉科昆虫4新种:葛氏片角叶蝉Idiocerus kuohi Cai,新疆环茎叶蝉Circulifer xinjiangensis Cai,柽柳大片叶蝉Megalopsius tamaricius Cai,褐尾柽柳叶蝉Tamaricella fuscula Cai,该4新种分别采自柽柳属植物、沙枣和盐生草上,它们以刺吸汁液的方式为害以上植物.模式标本保存在安徽农业大学昆虫标本室.

  11. [Phagodeterrent activity of the plants Tithonia diversifolia and Montanoa hibiscifolia (Asteraceae) on adults of the pest insect Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnarello, Gina; Hilje, Luko; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Cartín, Victor; Calvo, Marco

    2009-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a polyphagous, cosmopolitan and worldwide relevant pest, mainly acting as a virus vector on many crops. A sound preventive approach to deal with it would be the application of repellent or deterrent substances hopefully present in tropical plants, which in turn may contribute to take advantage of the remarkable rich Mesoamerican biodiversity. Therefore, extracts of two wild plants belonging to family Asteraceae, titonia (Tithonia diversifolia) and "tora" (Montanoa hibiscifolia), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults. The crude leaf extract of each one, as well as four fractions thereof (hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) were tested under greenhouse conditions; in addition, the extracts were submitted to a phytochemical screening to determine possible metabolites causing phagodeterrence. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments were conducted. In the former ones, each fraction was tested at four doses (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v), which were compared with four control treatments: distilled water, endosulfan, an agricultural oil (Aceite Agricola 81 SC), and the emulsifier Citowett. Tomato plants were sprayed and placed inside sleeve cages, where 50 B. tabaci adults were released. The criterion to appraise phagodeterrence was the number of landed adults on plants at 48h. For the unrestricted-choice experiments, only the two highest doses (1.0 and 1.5%) of the crude extracts of each species were tested, and compared to distilled water and the agricultural oil. The titonia and "tora" crude extracts caused phagodeterrence, and for both plant species the methanol fraction stood out. Results suggest that metabolites causing phagodeterrence are several sesquiterpenic lactones, polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins) and saponins.

  12. Female-induced increase of host-plant volatiles enhance specific attraction of aphid male Dysaphis plantaginea (Homoptera: Aphididae) to the sex pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Helsen, H.H.M.; Griepink, F.C.; Kogel, de W.J.

    2009-01-01

    All aphid species studied so far share the same sex pheromone components, nepetalactol and nepetalactone. Variation by different enantiomers and blends of the two components released by different aphid species are limited and can only partially explain species-specific attraction of males to

  13. Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on cotton grown in open-top field chambers enriched with CO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G.D. Jr.; Kimball, B.A.; Mauney, J.R.

    1985-02-01

    Atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels are anticipated to rise from the current ambient level of ca. 350 ..mu..l/liter to 500-600 ..mu..l/liter in the next 50 to 75 years. Plant scientists are artificially enhancing the CO/sub 2/ environment of crop plants to increase photosynthesis, which is currently limited by inadequate levels of CO/sub 2/. It is not known how increases of CO/sub 2/ might affect consumers in the food chain. Population levels of sweet potato whitefly (SPWF), Bermisiaa tabaci (Gennadius), were assessed with sticky traps placed in a field experiment wherein cotton was grown in open-top field chambers that were enriched with CO/sub 2/ at levels approaching 200% ambient concentration levels. Although trapping started at the first of June, only an occasional SPWF was caught until early August. At that time populations began to increase at an exponential rate similar to that observed in commercial cotton fields in Arizona and California in previous years. There was no difference in rate of buildup of SPWF in ambient and CO/sub 2/-enriched chambers in either wet or dry irrigation treatment. Thus, it seems that raised CO/sub 2/ levels, either natural or artificial, do not affect SPWF populations.

  14. Effects of double-stranded RNA on virulence of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes against the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci strain B (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristiane Souza Azevedo

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Bands of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA were detected in three out of twelve isolates of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Identity of these bands was confirmed by RNAse, DNAse and S1 nuclease treatments. The cure of dsRNA for one isolate (P92 was successfully carried out for a single conidium subculture. Isogenic strains, with or without dsRNA, were submitted to virulence tests against the whitefly Bemisia tabaci strain B. In contrast to findings for some phytopathogenic fungi, these dsRNA fragments did not cause hypovirulence in P. fumosoroseus.Bandas de dsRNA foram detectadas em três dos doze isolados de Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. A identidade destas bandas foi provada através de tratamentos com RNAse, DNAse e S1 nuclease. A cura do dsRNA para um dos isolados (P92 foi obtida através do isolamento de colônias monospóricas. Linhagens isogênicas, com e sem dsRNA, foram submetidas ao teste de virulência contra a mosca branca Bemisia tabaci biotipo B. Ao contrário do que ocorre para vários fungos fitopatogênicos, os fragmentos de dsRNA não causaram hipovirulência em P. fumosoroseus.

  15. [Micromorphology of leaf epidermis of some Venezuelan rice cultivars (Poaceae) associated with the mechanical damage of Sogata T. orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Salazar, Rosalia; Diamont, Diego

    2014-06-01

    Rice cultivars are affected directly and indirectly by the insect sogata. The mechanical damage or direct loss, is produced after feeding and ovoposition on the young leaves tissues, while the indirect damage is produced after the transmission of the Rice hoja blanca virus. We studied the morpho-anatomic structures associated with the resistance of the mechanical damage produced by the insect, in six rice cultivars, including controls for resistance and susceptibility (Makalioka and Bluebonnet 50), during August 2011, in Fundacion Danac, Venezuela. Samples were taken from leaf 3, where cuticle thickness, presence of macrohair, microhair and silica bodies in the second third of the leaf was evaluated. A significant difference to thickness of the cuticle, the presence of microhair in the leaves, and presence of silica bodies was observed among cultivars, determining a significant correlation among the number of macrohair and microhair in the adaxial leaf blade with the presence of silica bodies, and thickness of the cuticle and number of posed insects. Thickness of the cuticle and presence of silica bodies in the intercostals space of microhair and macrohair showed to be the variables most related to mechanical damage and resistance mechanism.

  16. Transgenic Cabbage Expressing Cry1Ac1 Does Not Affect the Survival and Growth of the Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Harn, Chee Hark; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera), a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g-1 dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g-1 dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders. PMID:27055120

  17. 外场下Koch曲线上Ising模型的临界性质%Critical Phenomena of the Ising Model on Koch Curves in External Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彤; 张锋; 孔祥木

    2005-01-01

    利用重整化群变换的方法,研究了一族Koch曲线上Ising模型的临界性质,求得了系统的临界指数,发现临界指数只与Koch曲线的分形维数有关. 这是对相变普适类规律一个很好的验证.

  18. Acute Oral Mammalian Toxicity and Effect of Solvents on Efficacy of Maerua edulis (Gilg. & Ben. De Wolf against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus Koch, 1844 (Acarina: Ixodidae, Tick Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel T. Nyahangare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy and toxicity of aqueous and organic solvents extracts of Maerua edulis against ticks and mice, respectively, were determined. Ground leaves were extracted separately using cold water, cold water plus surfactant (1% v/v liquid soap, hot water plus surfactant, hexane, or methanol to make 25% w/v stock solutions from which serial dilutions of 5, 10, 20, and 25% were made. For each concentration, 20 Rhipicephalus decoloratus tick larvae were put in filter papers impregnated with extracts and incubated for 48 h at 27°C and 85–90% RH for mortality observation after 24 h and 48 h. In the toxicity experiment, hot water plus surfactant treatments of 5, 10, 20, and 25% (w/v M. edulis were administered in suspension per os to sexually mature Balb/C mice and observed for clinical signs and mortality for 72 h. Larvae mortality was highest (>98% in methanol-extracted M. edulis treatments (20 and 25%, which was not different from the amitraz-based control (Tickbuster®. Mortality was also higher in the hot water than in cold water plus surfactant treatments (P<0.05. No postadministration adverse health effects were observed in the mice. These results suggest that M. edulis is an effective tick remedy best extracted using methanol or hot water plus surfactant.

  19. A new chromosome nomenclature system for oat (Avena sativa L. and A. byzantina C. Koch) based on FISH analysis of monosomic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M J; Jellen, E N; Loarce, Y; Irigoyen, M L; Ferrer, E; Fominaya, A

    2010-11-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with multiple probes was used to analyze mitotic and meiotic chromosome spreads of Avena sativa cv 'Sun II' monosomic lines, and of A. byzantina cv 'Kanota' monosomic lines from spontaneous haploids. The probes used were A. strigosa pAs120a (a repetitive sequence abundant in A-genome chromatin), A. murphyi pAm1 (a repetitive sequence abundant in C-genome chromatin), A. strigosa pITS (internal transcribed spacer of rDNA) and the wheat rDNA probes pTa71 (nucleolus organizer region or NOR) and pTa794 (5S). Simultaneous and sequential FISH employing pairs of these probes allowed the identification and genome assignation of all chromosomes. FISH mapping using mitotic and meiotic metaphases facilitated the genomic and chromosomal identification of the monosome in each line. Of the 17 'Sun II' lines analyzed, 13 distinct monosomic lines were found, corresponding to four monosomes of the A-genome, five of the C-genome and four of the D-genome. In addition, 12 distinct monosomic lines were detected among the 20 'Kanota' lines examined, corresponding to six monosomes of the A-genome, three of the C-genome and three of the D-genome. The results show that 19 chromosomes out of 21 of the complement are represented by monosomes between the two genetic backgrounds. The identity of the remaining chromosomes can be deduced either from one intergenomic translocation detected on both 'Sun II' and 'Kanota' lines, or from the single reciprocal, intergenomic translocation detected among the 'Sun II' lines. These results permit a new system to be proposed for numbering the 21 chromosome pairs of the hexaploid oat complement. Accordingly, the A-genome contains chromosomes 8A, 11A, 13A, 15A, 16A, 17A and 19A; the C-genome contains chromosomes 1C, 2C, 3C, 4C, 5C, 6C and 7C; and the D-genome consists of chromosomes 9D, 10D, 12D, 14D, 18D, 20D and 21D. Moreover, the FISH patterns of 16 chromosomes in 'Sun II' and 15 in 'Kanota' suggest that these chromosomes could be involved in intergenomic translocations. By comparing the identities of individually translocated chromosomes in the two hexaploid species with those of other hexaploids, we detected different types of intergenomic translocations.

  20. Kantselei juht : me palkame Rüütli kõrvale vaid oskajaid ja lojaalseid / Tarmo Mänd ; interv. Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mänd, Tarmo, 1950-

    2001-01-01

    Presidendi kantselei direktor Tarmo Mänd kantselei igapäevatööst, kantselei personalist, presidendi kohtumistest ministrite ja opositsiooni esindajatega, akadeemilise nõukogu täiendamisest, riigikaitsenõukogust, välisekspertide nõukogust, kaastundeavaldusest Itaalia presidendile