WorldWideScience

Sample records for cr coatings sprayed

  1. Effects of Bond Coating on NiCrBSi-Mo Composite Functional Coating Properties in Plasma Spraying NiCrBSi-Mo/Ni Coating

    OpenAIRE

    DU Ji-yu; LI Fang-yi; LU Hai-yang; SHANG Jian-tong; LI Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Nickel-based bond coating and composite functional coating were sprayed on leaf blade steel material FV520B successively by using air plasma spraying system. NiCrBSi-Mo powder deposition rate, coating porosity, bonding strength and surface hardness were tested. The results indicate that, for the NiCrBSi-Mo/Ni coating, bond coating with 180-220μm thickness can improve NiCrBSi-Mo powder deposition rate while the surface coating with lower porosity, higher bonding strength and high hardness is p...

  2. Investigation on the suitability of plasma sprayed Fe-Cr-Al coatings as tritium permeation barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, C.; Serra, E.; Benamati, G.

    1999-01-01

    Results on the fabrication of a tritium permeation barrier by spraying Fe-Cr-Al powders are described. The sprayed coatings were deposited at temperatures below the A c1 temperature of the ferritic-martensitic steel substrate and no post-deposition heat treatment was applied. The aim of the investigation was the determination of the efficiency of the coatings to act as tritium permeation barrier. Metallurgical investigations as well as hydrogen isotope permeation measurements were carried out onto the produced coatings. The depositions were performed on ferritic-martensitic steels by means of three types of spray techniques: high velocity oxy fuel, air plasma spray and vacuum plasma spray. (orig.)

  3. Research on the Properties of Thermal Sprayed Ni-Cr-Si-Fe-B Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Lukauskaitė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the flame sprayed Ni-Cr-Si-Fe-B coating on aluminum alloy substrates. Before the thermal spraying process, aluminum samples were modified applying chemical, mechanical and thermal processing pre-treatment methods. The main aluminum surface treatment was removing an oxide layer from the surface and improving the exploitation properties of nickel-based coatings. The work involved coating microstructure, porosity, adhesion and microhardness tests. The dependence of the estimated exploitation properties of flame spray coatings on aluminum surface preparation methods and technological parameters of spraying has been established.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Research on the Properties of Thermal Sprayed Ni-Cr-Si-Fe-B Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Lukauskaitė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the flame sprayed Ni-Cr-Si-Fe-B coating on aluminum alloy substrates. Before the thermal spraying process, aluminum samples were modified applying chemical, mechanical and thermal processing pre-treatment methods. The main aluminum surface treatment was removing an oxide layer from the surface and improving the exploitation properties of nickel-based coatings. The work involved coating microstructure, porosity, adhesion and microhardness tests. The dependence of the estimated exploitation properties of flame spray coatings on aluminum surface preparation methods and technological parameters of spraying has been established.Article in Lithuanian

  5. A study on erosive wear behavior of HVOF sprayed nanostructured WC-CoCr coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Lalit; Arora, Navneet

    2013-01-01

    WC-CoCr cermet coatings were deposited on stainless steel substrate using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process. The coatings were developed with two different thermal spray powders: one has WC grains of conventional micron size and the other is composed of nanosized (near-nanostructured) grains. HVOF spraying was assisted with in-flight particle temperature and velocity measurement system to control the process parameters that have resulted in quality coatings. Cavitation erosion testing was performed using a vibratory test apparatus based on ASTM standard G32-98. Surface morphology of powders and coatings was examined using the FESEM images, and phase identification was performed by XRD analysis. The erosion behavior of coatings and mechanism of material removal was discussed by examining the microstructure images of worn-out surfaces. WC-CoCr cermet coating deposited with nanosized WC grains exhibited higher cavitation erosion resistance as compared to conventional coating.

  6. A study on erosive wear behavior of HVOF sprayed nanostructured WC-CoCr coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Lalit; Arora, Navneet [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (India)

    2013-05-15

    WC-CoCr cermet coatings were deposited on stainless steel substrate using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process. The coatings were developed with two different thermal spray powders: one has WC grains of conventional micron size and the other is composed of nanosized (near-nanostructured) grains. HVOF spraying was assisted with in-flight particle temperature and velocity measurement system to control the process parameters that have resulted in quality coatings. Cavitation erosion testing was performed using a vibratory test apparatus based on ASTM standard G32-98. Surface morphology of powders and coatings was examined using the FESEM images, and phase identification was performed by XRD analysis. The erosion behavior of coatings and mechanism of material removal was discussed by examining the microstructure images of worn-out surfaces. WC-CoCr cermet coating deposited with nanosized WC grains exhibited higher cavitation erosion resistance as compared to conventional coating.

  7. Optimization of Arc-Sprayed Ni-Cr-Ti Coatings for High Temperature Corrosion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, S.; Schweizer, M.

    2013-04-01

    High Cr content Ni-Cr-Ti arc-spray coatings have proven successful in resisting the high temperature sulfidizing conditions found in black liquor recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry. The corrosion resistance of the coatings is dependent upon the coating composition, to form chromium sulfides and oxides to seal the coating, and on the coating microstructure. Selection of the arc-spray parameters influences the size, temperature and velocity of the molten droplets generated during spraying, which in turn dictates the coating composition and formation of the critical coating microstructural features—splat size, porosity and oxide content. Hence it is critical to optimize the arc-spray parameters in order to maximize the corrosion resistance of the coating. In this work the effect of key spray parameters (current, voltage, spray distance and gas atomizing pressure) on the coating splat thickness, porosity content, oxide content, microhardness, thickness, and surface profile were investigated using a full factorial design of experiment. Based on these results a set of oxidized, porous and optimized coatings were prepared and characterized in detail for follow-up corrosion testing.

  8. Characterization of plasma sprayed NiCrAlY-Yttria stabilized zirconia coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhave, V.S.; Rakhasia, R.H.; Tripathy, P.K.; Hubli, R.C.; Sengupta, P.; Bhanumurthy; Satpute, R.U.; Sreekumar, K.P.; Thiyagarajan, T.K.; Padmanabhan, P.V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Plasma sprayed coatings of yttria stabilized zirconia are used in many advanced technologies for thermal and chemical barrier applications. Development and characterization of NiCrAlY-yttria stabilized zirconia duplex coatings on Inconel substrates is reported in this paper. Plasma spraying was carried out using the 40 kW atmospheric plasma spray facility at the Laser and Plasma Technology Division, BARC. A bond coat of NiCrAlY was deposited on Inconel substrates and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was deposited over the bond coat. The coatings have been characterized by x-ray diffraction and EPMA. It is observed that the coating characteristics are affected by the input power to the torch. (author)

  9. Influence of powder and spray parameters on erosion and corrosion properties of HVOF sprayed WC-Co-Cr coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berget, John

    1998-07-01

    Thermal spraying is a generic term including various processes used to deposit coatings on surfaces. The coating material is in the form of powder or a wire and is melted or softened by means of a heat source. A gas stream accelerates the material towards a prepared surface and deposits it there to form the coating. Examples of components being maintained by application of thermal spray coatings are gate valves and ball valves for the offshore industry and turbine blades in power generations installations. Recent investigation has shown that the commonly used coating material WC-Co is not corrosion resistant. But it can be improved by the addition of Cr. The main objective of this thesis is to study the influence of spray process control variables and powder characteristics on the erosion and erosion-corrosion properties of the coatings. Spray process variables investigated include energy input, powder feed rate and spray distance. Powder characteristics studied are average size of the WC particles, relative proportions of Co and Cr in the metal phase and powder grain size distribution.

  10. Role of oxides and porosity on high temperature oxidation of liquid fuelled HVOF thermal sprayed Ni50Cr coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Song, B.; Bai, M.; Voisey, K.T.; Hussain, Tanvir

    2017-01-01

    High chromium content in Ni50Cr thermally sprayed coatings can generate a dense and protective scale at the surface of coating. Thus, the Ni50Cr coating is widely used in high temperature oxidation and corrosion applications. A commercially available gas atomized Ni50Cr powder was sprayed onto a power plant steel (ASME P92) using a liquid fuelled high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray with three processing parameters in this study. Microstructure of as-sprayed coatings was examined using...

  11. Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of CuCrAl Cold-Sprayed Coatings for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sai; Karthikeyan, J.

    2009-01-01

    The next generation of reusable launch vehicles is likely to use GRCop-84 [Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb] copper alloy combustion liners. The application of protective coatings on GRCop-84 liners can minimize or eliminate many of the environmental problems experienced by uncoated liners and significantly extend their operational lives and lower operational cost. A newly developed Cu- 23 (wt.%) Cr-5% Al (CuCrAl) coating, shown to resist hydrogen attack and oxidation in an as-cast form, is currently being considered as a protective coating for GRCop-84. The coating was deposited on GRCop-84 substrates by the cold spray deposition technique, where the CuCrAl was procured as gas-atomized powders. Cyclic oxidation tests were conducted between 773 and 1,073 K to characterize the coated substrates.

  12. Biofouling of Cr-Nickel Spray Coated Films on Steel Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kento; Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ikigai, Hajime; Kogo, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2012-01-01

    , the former showed higher antifouling properties generally. Aluminium-zinc alloy spray coated films had higher antifouling property. And the anti-property decreased in this order: Al-Zn alloy spray coating > Zinc spray coating > Aluminium spray coating > Stacked chromium/nickel spray coating. Aluminium and zinc spray coating has been evaluated high conventionally for anti-biofouling in marine environment. However, the Cr/Ni spray coating showed pretty high anti-fouling property.

  13. Tribological Properties of HVOF-Sprayed TiB2-NiCr Coatings with Agglomerated Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zichun; Li, Hui; Yang, Tianlong; Zhu, Hongbin

    2018-04-01

    Boride materials have drawn great attention in surface engineering field, owing to their high hardness and good wear resistance. In our previous work, a plasma-sprayed TiB2-based cermet coating was deposited, but the coating toughness was significantly influenced by the formation of a brittle ternary phase (Ni20Ti3B6) derived from the reaction between TiB2 and metal binder. In order to suppress such a reaction occurred in the high-temperature spraying process, the high-velocity oxygen-fuel spraying technique was applied to prepare the TiB2-NiCr coating. Emphasis was paid on the microstructure, the mechanical properties, and the sliding wearing performance of the coating. The result showed that the HVOF-sprayed coating mainly consisted of hard ceramic particles including TiB2, CrB, and the binder phase. No evidence of Ni20Ti3B6 phase was found in the coating. The mechanical properties of HVOF-sprayed TiB2-NiCr coating were comparable to the conventional Cr3C2-NiCr coating. The frictional coefficient of the TiB2-NiCr coating was lower than the Cr3C2-NiCr coating when sliding against a bearing steel ball.

  14. Tribological Properties of HVOF-Sprayed TiB2-NiCr Coatings with Agglomerated Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zichun; Li, Hui; Yang, Tianlong; Zhu, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    Boride materials have drawn great attention in surface engineering field, owing to their high hardness and good wear resistance. In our previous work, a plasma-sprayed TiB2-based cermet coating was deposited, but the coating toughness was significantly influenced by the formation of a brittle ternary phase (Ni20Ti3B6) derived from the reaction between TiB2 and metal binder. In order to suppress such a reaction occurred in the high-temperature spraying process, the high-velocity oxygen-fuel spraying technique was applied to prepare the TiB2-NiCr coating. Emphasis was paid on the microstructure, the mechanical properties, and the sliding wearing performance of the coating. The result showed that the HVOF-sprayed coating mainly consisted of hard ceramic particles including TiB2, CrB, and the binder phase. No evidence of Ni20Ti3B6 phase was found in the coating. The mechanical properties of HVOF-sprayed TiB2-NiCr coating were comparable to the conventional Cr3C2-NiCr coating. The frictional coefficient of the TiB2-NiCr coating was lower than the Cr3C2-NiCr coating when sliding against a bearing steel ball.

  15. Thermal failure of nanostructured thermal barrier coatings with cold sprayed nanostructured NiCrAlY bond coat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q.; Li, Y.; Zhang, S.L.; Wang, X.R.; Yang, G.J.; Li, C.X.; Li, C.J. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Xi' an (China)

    2008-07-01

    Nanostructured YSZ is expected to exhibit a high strain tolerability due to its low Young's modulus and consequently high durability. In this study, a porous YSZ as the thermal barrier coating was deposited by plasma spraying using an agglomerated nanostructured YSZ powder on a Ni-based superalloy Inconel 738 substrate with a cold-sprayed nanostructured NiCrAlY as the bond coat. The heat treatment in Ar atmosphere was applied to the cold-sprayed bond coat before deposition of YSZ. The isothermal oxidation and thermal cycling tests were applied to examine failure modes of plasma-sprayed nanostructured YSZ. The results showed that YSZ coating was deposited by partially melted YSZ particles. The nonmelted fraction of spray particles retains the porous nanostructure of the starting powder into the deposit. YSZ coating exhibits a bimodal microstructure consisting of nanosized particles retained from the powder and micro-columnar grains formed through the solidification of the melted fraction in spray particles. The oxidation of the bond coat occurs during the heat treatment in Ar atmosphere. The uniform oxide at the interface between the bond coat and YSZ can be formed during isothermal test. The cracks were observed at the interface between TGO/BC or TGO/YSZ after thermal cyclic test. However, the failure of TBCs mainly occurred through spalling of YSZ within YSZ coating. The failure characteristics of plasma-sprayed nanostructured YSZ are discussed based on the coating microstructure and formation of TGO on the bond coat surface. (orig.)

  16. Erosion-oxidation behavior of thermal sprayed Ni20Cr alloy and WC and Cr3C2 cermet coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Terui Kunioshi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus to conduct high temperature erosion-oxidation studies up to 850 °C and with particle impact velocities up to 15 m.s-1 was designed and constructed in the Corrosion Laboratories of IPEN. The erosion-oxidation behavior of high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF sprayed alloy and cermet coatings of Ni20Cr, WC 20Cr7Ni and Cr3C2 Ni20Cr on a steel substrate has been studied. Details of this apparatus and the erosion-oxidation behavior of these coatings are presented and discussed. The erosion-oxidation behavior of HVOF coated Cr3C2 25(Ni20Cr was better than that of WC 20Cr7Ni, and the erosion-oxidation regimes have been identified for these coatings at particle impact velocity of 3.5 m.s-1, impact angle of 90° and temperatures in the range 500 to 850 °C.

  17. Mitigating Localized Corrosion Using Thermally Sprayed Aluminum (TSA) Coatings on Welded 25% Cr Superduplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, S.; Lu, Q.; Harvey, M. D. F.

    2015-04-01

    Thermally sprayed aluminum (TSA) coating has been increasingly used for the protection of carbon steel offshore structures, topside equipment, and flowlines/pipelines exposed to both marine atmospheres and seawater immersion conditions. In this paper, the effectiveness of TSA coatings in preventing localized corrosion, such as pitting and crevice corrosion of 25% Cr superduplex stainless steel (SDSS) in subsea applications, has been investigated. Welded 25% Cr SDSS (coated and uncoated) with and without defects, and surfaces coated with epoxy paint were also examined. Pitting and crevice corrosion tests, on welded 25% Cr SDSS specimens with and without TSA/epoxy coatings, were conducted in recirculated, aerated, and synthetic seawater at 90 °C for 90 days. The tests were carried out at both the free corrosion potentials and an applied cathodic potential of -1100 mV saturated calomel electrode. The acidity (pH) of the test solution was monitored daily and adjusted to between pH 7.5 and 8.1, using dilute HCl solution or dilute NaOH, depending on the pH of the solution measured during the test. The test results demonstrated that TSA prevented pitting and crevice corrosion of 25% Cr SDSS in artificial seawater at 90 °C, even when 10-mm-diameter coating defect exposing the underlying steel was present.

  18. Cyclic oxidation behavior of plasma sprayed NiCrAlY/WC-Co/cenosphere coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathapati, Mahantayya; Ramesh M., R.; Doddamani, Mrityunjay

    2018-04-01

    Components working at elevated temperature like boiler tubes of coal and gas fired power generation plants, blades of gas and steam turbines etc. experience degradation owing to oxidation. Oxidation resistance of such components can be increased by developing protective coatings. In the present investigation NiCrAlY-WC-Co/Cenosphere coating is deposited on MDN 321 steel substrate using plasma spray coating. Thermo cyclic oxidation behavior of coating and substrate is studied in static air at 600 °C for 20 cycles. The thermo gravimetric technique is used to approximate the kinetics of oxidation. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray mapping techniques are used to characterize the oxidized samples. NiCrAlY-WC-Co/Cenosphere coating exhibited lower oxidation rate in comparison to MDN 321 steel substrate. The lower oxidation rate of coating is attributed to formation of Al2O3, Cr2O3, NiO and CoWO4 oxides on the outermost surface.

  19. Examination of Internally and Externally Coated Cr3C2 Exhaust Pipe of a Diesel Engine via Plasma Spray Method

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hazar; S. Sap

    2017-01-01

    In this experimental study; internal and external parts of an exhaust pipe were coated with a chromium carbide (Cr3C2) material having a thickness of 100 micron by using the plasma spray method. A diesel engine was used as the test engine. Thus, the results of continuing chemical reaction in coated and uncoated exhaust pipes were investigated. Internally and externally coated exhaust pipe was compared with the standard exhaust system. External heat transfer occurring as a result of coating th...

  20. Supersonic Plasma Spray Deposition of CoNiCrAlY Coatings on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliari, F. R.; Miranda, F. S.; Reis, D. A. P.; Essiptchouk, A. M.; Filho, G. P.

    2017-06-01

    Plasma spray is a versatile technology used for production of environmental and thermal barrier coatings, mainly in the aerospace, gas turbine, and automotive industries, with potential application in the renewable energy industry. New plasma spray technologies have been developed recently to produce high-quality coatings as an alternative to the costly low-pressure plasma-spray process. In this work, we studied the properties of as-sprayed CoNiCrAlY coatings deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrate with smooth surface ( R a = 0.8 μm) by means of a plasma torch operating in supersonic regime at atmospheric pressure. The CoNiCrAlY coatings were evaluated in terms of their surface roughness, microstructure, instrumented indentation, and phase content. Static and dynamic depositions were investigated to examine their effect on coating characteristics. Results show that the substrate surface velocity has a major influence on the coating properties. The sprayed CoNiCrAlY coatings exhibit low roughness ( R a of 5.7 μm), low porosity (0.8%), excellent mechanical properties ( H it = 6.1 GPa, E it = 155 GPa), and elevated interface toughness (2.4 MPa m1/2).

  1. High-Temperature Oxidation and Smelt Deposit Corrosion of Ni-Cr-Ti Arc-Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, S.; Schweizer, M.

    2013-08-01

    High Cr content Ni-Cr-Ti arc-sprayed coatings have been extensively applied to mitigate corrosion in black liquor recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry. In a previous article, the effects of key spray parameters on the coating's microstructure and its composition were investigated. Three coating microstructures were selected from that previous study to produce a dense, oxidized coating (coating A), a porous, low oxide content coating (coating B), and an optimized coating (coating C) for corrosion testing. Isothermal oxidation trials were performed in air at 550 and 900 °C for 30 days. Additional trials were performed under industrial smelt deposits at 400 and 800 °C for 30 days. The effect of the variation in coating microstructure on the oxidation and smelt's corrosion response was investigated through the characterization of the surface corrosion products, and the internal coating microstructural developments with time at high temperature. The effect of long-term, high-temperature exposure on the interaction between the coating and substrate was characterized, and the mechanism of interdiffusion was discussed.

  2. Effect of Carbide Dissolution on Chlorine Induced High Temperature Corrosion of HVOF and HVAF Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCrMoNb Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, D.; Matikainen, V.; Uusitalo, M.; Koivuluoto, H.; Vuoristo, P.

    2018-01-01

    Highly corrosion- and wear-resistant thermally sprayed chromium carbide (Cr3C2)-based cermet coatings are nowadays a potential highly durable solution to allow traditional fluidized bed combustors (FBC) to be operated with ecological waste and biomass fuels. However, the heat input of thermal spray causes carbide dissolution in the metal binder. This results in the formation of carbon saturated metastable phases, which can affect the behavior of the materials during exposure. This study analyses the effect of carbide dissolution in the metal matrix of Cr3C2-50NiCrMoNb coatings and its effect on chlorine-induced high-temperature corrosion. Four coatings were thermally sprayed with HVAF and HVOF techniques in order to obtain microstructures with increasing amount of carbide dissolution in the metal matrix. The coatings were heat-treated in an inert argon atmosphere to induce secondary carbide precipitation. As-sprayed and heat-treated self-standing coatings were covered with KCl, and their corrosion resistance was investigated with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ordinary high-temperature corrosion test at 550 °C for 4 and 72 h, respectively. High carbon dissolution in the metal matrix appeared to be detrimental against chlorine-induced high-temperature corrosion. The microstructural changes induced by the heat treatment hindered the corrosion onset in the coatings.

  3. Research Into Ni-Cr-Si-B Coating Sprayed Onto Aluminium Substrate Using the Method of Plasma Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Lukauskaitė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with Ni base coatings deposited on aluminium substrate applying the method of plasma spray. The purpose of the conducted research is to improve the physical and mechanical properties of coatings on the surface of aluminium alloy work pieces. Spraying on aluminium alloys encounters serious problems, and therefore this work analyses the ways to make the situation more favourable. Before spraying, the surfaces of substrates were modified employing chemical and mechanical pre-treatment methods. The aim of pre-treating aluminium alloys was to remove oxide layers from the aluminium surface. Coating microstructures and porosity were characterised applying optical microscopy. Differences in the roughness of pre-treated surfaces have been determined referring to profilometry. The paper investigates the influence of the adhesion of plasma spray coatings on aluminium surface pretreatment. Microhardness technique was applied for measuring the hardness of coatings. The study also describes and compares the mechanical properties of Ni base coatings deposited on different pre-treated aluminium substrates using plasma spray.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Research Into Ni-Cr-Si-B Coating Sprayed Onto Aluminium Substrate Using the Method of Plasma Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Lukauskaitė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with Ni base coatings deposited on aluminium substrate applying the method of plasma spray. The purpose of the conducted research is to improve the physical and mechanical properties of coatings on the surface of aluminium alloy work pieces. Spraying on aluminium alloys encounters serious problems, and therefore this work analyses the ways to make the situation more favourable. Before spraying, the surfaces of substrates were modified employing chemical and mechanical pre-treatment methods. The aim of pre-treating aluminium alloys was to remove oxide layers from the aluminium surface. Coating microstructures and porosity were characterised applying optical microscopy. Differences in the roughness of pre-treated surfaces have been determined referring to profilometry. The paper investigates the influence of the adhesion of plasma spray coatings on aluminium surface pretreatment. Microhardness technique was applied for measuring the hardness of coatings. The study also describes and compares the mechanical properties of Ni base coatings deposited on different pre-treated aluminium substrates using plasma spray.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Comparative examination of the microstructure and high temperature oxidation performance of NiCrBSi flame sprayed and pack cementation coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaliampalias, D.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Skolianos, S.; Chrissafis, K.; Stergioudis, G.

    2009-01-01

    Coatings formed from NiCrBSi powder were deposited by thermal spray and pack cementation processes on low carbon steel. The microstructure and morphology of the coatings were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Flame sprayed coatings exhibited high porosity and were mechanically bonded to the substrate while pack cementation coatings were more compact and chemically bonded to the substrate. The microhardness and the high temperature oxidation resistance of the coated samples were evaluated by a Vickers microhardness tester and by thermogravimetric measurements (TG), respectively. Pack cementation coatings showed higher hardness and were more protective to high temperature environments than the flame sprayed coatings.

  6. Role of Oxides and Porosity on High-Temperature Oxidation of Liquid-Fueled HVOF Thermal-Sprayed Ni50Cr Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, B.; Bai, M.; Voisey, K. T.; Hussain, T.

    2017-02-01

    High chromium content in Ni50Cr thermally sprayed coatings can generate a dense and protective scale at the surface of coating. Thus, the Ni50Cr coating is widely used in high-temperature oxidation and corrosion applications. A commercially available gas atomized Ni50Cr powder was sprayed onto a power plant steel (ASME P92) using a liquid-fueled high velocity oxy-fuel thermal spray with three processing parameters in this study. Microstructure of as-sprayed coatings was examined using oxygen content analysis, mercury intrusion porosimetry, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Short-term air oxidation tests (4 h) of freestanding coatings (without boiler steel substrate) in a thermogravimetric analyzer at 700 °C were performed to obtain the kinetics of oxidation of the as-sprayed coating. Long-term air oxidation tests (100 h) of the coated substrates were performed at same temperature to obtain the oxidation products for further characterization in detail using SEM/EDX and XRD. In all samples, oxides of various morphologies developed on top of the Ni50Cr coatings. Cr2O3 was the main oxidation product on the surface of all three coatings. The coating with medium porosity and medium oxygen content has the best high-temperature oxidation performance in this study.

  7. The effect of ion implantation on the oxidation resistance of vacuum plasma sprayed CoNiCrAlY coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Jie [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramic, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhao Huayu; Zhou Xiaming [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramic, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Tao Shunyan, E-mail: shunyantao@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramic, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Ding Chuanxian [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramic, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used ion implantation to improve the oxidation resistance of CoNiCrAlY coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxidation process of CoNiCrAlY coating at 1100 Degree-Sign C for 1000 h was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Nb ion implanted coating exhibited better oxidation resistance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influences of Nb and Al ion implantation into CoNiCrAlY coatings were evaluated. - Abstract: CoNiCrAlY coatings prepared by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) were implanted with Nb and Al ions at a fluence of 10{sup 17} atoms/cm{sup 2}. The effects of ion implantation on the oxidation resistance of CoNiCrAlY coatings were investigated. The thermally grown oxide (TGO) formed on each specimen was characterized by XRD, SEM and EDS, respectively. The results showed that the oxidation process of CoNiCrAlY coatings could be divided into four stages and the key to obtaining good oxidation resistance was to remain high enough amount of Al and promote the lateral growth of TGO. The implantation of Nb resulted in the formation of continuous and dense Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale to improve the oxidation resistance. The Al implanted coating could form Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale at the initial stage, however, the scale was soon broken and TGO transformed to non-protective spinel.

  8. Comparative characteristic and erosion behavior of NiCr coatings deposited by various high-velocity oxyfuel spray processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Hazoor Singh; Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the mechanical properties and microstructure details at the interface of high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF)-sprayed NiCr-coated boiler tube steels, namely ASTM-SA-210 grade A1, ASTM-SA213-T-11, and ASTM-SA213-T-22. Coatings were developed by two different techniques, and in these techniques liquefied petroleum gas was used as the fuel gas. First, the coatings were characterized by metallographic, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction, surface roughness, and microhardness, and then were subjected to erosion testing. An attempt has been made to describe the transformations taking place during thermal spraying. It is concluded that the HVOF wire spraying process offers a technically viable and cost-effective alternative to HVOF powder spraying process for applications in an energy generation power plant with a point view of life enhancement and to minimize the tube failures because it gives a coating having better resistance to erosion.

  9. Wear of Flame-Sprayed Ni-Cr-B-Si Powder Coating on Journal for Seal Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Sheng-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flame-sprayed techniques is used in this paper to coat Ni-Cr-B-Si powder on low-carbon steel or bearing steel materials of the journal surface. The wear tester is used to explore material properties of the binding capability, surface hardness, wear and friction within each layer depth. The normal force is applied in addition to the cladding layer by not only using bearing ball but also oil seal pieces, to explore rubber material of oil seal contact journal. In experiments to explore the material and processing conditions affect the microstructure and hardness of the cladding layer, and at the same hardness, surface roughness to affect the performance of the mill run.The results showed that spraying Ni-Cr-B-Si alloy powder in mild steel sheet to melt and run, cladding layer and the substrate has a uniform distribution of fine abrasive particles and binding effect, causing the substrate surface hardness (HRC about promotion 10 times. While, if sprayed Ni-Cr-B-Si alloy powder to steel panels bearing surface because the surface coated compact structure, can reduce the surface roughness and the coefficient of friction, and more improve the wear resistance of the cladding layer.

  10. Effects of post annealing on the microstructure, mechanical properties and cavitation erosion behavior of arc-sprayed FeNiCrBSiNbW coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jinran; Wang, Zehua; Lin, Pinghua; Cheng, Jiangbo; Zhang, Xin; Hong, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • FeNiCrBSiNbW coatings were prepared by arc spraying process. • Microstructural changes of the coatings were investigated by TEM. • As-sprayed coating had higher cavitation erosion resistance than annealed coatings. • The mechanism for annealing-induced change in cavitation erosion was discussed. - Abstract: FeNiCrBSiNbW coatings were fabricated via arc spraying process and were subsequently annealed at 450, 550 and 650 °C for 1 h to study the effect of annealing treatment on the microstructure, mechanical properties and cavitation erosion behavior. Microstructure was studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that oxides, fine crystalline particles and borides were formed after annealing at 650 °C. With increasing annealing temperature, the coatings showed reductions in porosity and fracture toughness, and an increase in microhardness. The cavitation erosion behavior of the coatings was investigated in distilled water. The results showed that the cavitation erosion resistance of the coatings decreased with increasing annealing temperature, and the as-sprayed coating exhibited the best cavitation erosion resistance among the four kinds of coatings. This was attributed to the good fracture toughness, high amorphous phase content and the absence of oxides in the as-sprayed coating

  11. Pengaruh NiCrAlY, Ni/Cr2O3/CrxCy Sebagai Variasi Bond Coat Dengan Penambahan Lapisan Al2O3 dan YSZ Pada Inconel 625 Terhadap Struktur Mikro Lapisan Menggunakan Metode Flame Spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprian Immanuel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC berfungsi untuk mengurangi temperatur substrat serta meningkatkan daya tahannya terhadap korosi dan oksidasi. Pada penelitian ini, digunakan flame spraying dari variasi bond coat (Ni-Cr-Al-Y, (Ni/CrO3/CrXCY dan tanpa bond coat serta melapisi kembali lapisan bond coat dengan Al2O3 dan ZrO2 – 8%Y2O3 sebagai Thermal Barrier Coating untuk diteliti pengaruhnya terhadap struktur mikro lapisan yang terbentuk. Hasil flame spray diamati dengan SEM pada variasi bond coat NiCrAlY ditemukan beberapa serbuk dari material top coat dengan beberapa kondisi yaitu meleleh (melted, meleleh sebagian (semi melted, dan tidak meleleh (unmelted. Ditemukan poros yang merata hampir di seluruh permukaan sampel dan munculnya pengintian retak. Perbedaan sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan ada pada persebaran setiap unsur di setiap spesimen, dan lapisan oksida yang terbentuk pada seluruh variasi bond coat

  12. Optimization of the Deposition Parameters of HVOF FeMnCrSi+Ni+B Thermally Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bavaresco Sucharski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHVOF thermal spray process produces coatings with low porosity and low oxide content, as well as high substrate adhesion. Small variations on the parameters of the HVOF process can generate coatings with different characteristics and properties, which also is chemical composition depended of the alloy. FeMnCrSi alloy is a cavitation resistant class of material with a great potential for HVOF deposition use. The main goal of this article is to study the influence of some HVOF parameters deposition, as standoff distance, powder feed rate and carrier gas pressure on three different alloys. FeMnCrSi experimental alloys with some variations in nickel and boron content were studied. Taguchi experimental design with L9 orthogonal array was used in this work. Porosity, oxide content, tensile adhesion strength and microhardness of the coatings were evaluated. The results indicated that all factors have significant influence on these properties. Chemical composition of the alloys was the most important factor, followed by the carrier gas pressure, standoff distance and powder feed rate. The addition of Ni, produces coatings with lower levels of oxide content and porosity. An experiment with improved parameters was conducted, and a great improvement on the coating properties was observed.

  13. A review of various nozzle range of wire arc spray on FeCrBMnSi metal coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, Hariyati; Rochiem, Rochman; Suchaimi, Muhammad; Jatimurti, Wikan; Wibisono, Alvian Toto; Kurniawan, Budi Agung

    2018-04-01

    Low Temperature Hot Corrosion (LTHC) is type of hot corrosion which occurred on 700-800°C and usually on turbine blades. So, as a result the material of turbine blades is crack and degredation of rotation efficiency. Hot corrosion protection with the use of barrier that separate substrate and environment is one of using metal surface coating, wire arc spray method. This study has a purpose to analyze the effect of nozzle distance and gas pressure on FeCrBMnSi coating process using wire arc spray method on thermal resistance. The parameter of nozzle distance and gas pressure are used, resulted the best parameter on distance 400 mm and gas pressure 3 bar which has the bond strength of 12,58 MPa with porosity percentage of 5,93% and roughness values of 16,36 µm. While the examination of thermal cycle which by heating and cooling continuously, on the coating surface is formed oxide compound (Fe3O4) which cause formed crack propagation and delamination. Beside that hardness of coating surface is increase which caused by precipitate boride (Fe9B)0,2

  14. Improved Thermally Grown Oxide Scale in Air Plasma Sprayed NiCrAlY/Nano-YSZ Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daroonparvar, M.; Yajid, M.A.M.; Yusof, N.M.; Hussain, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidation has been considered as one of the principal disruptive factors in thermal barrier coating systems during service. So, oxidation behavior of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems with nano structured and micro structured YSZ coatings was investigated at 1000 degree c for 24 h, 48 h, and 120 h. Air plasma sprayed nano-YSZ coating exhibited a tri modal structure. Microstructural characterization also demonstrated an improved thermally grown oxide scale containing lower spinels in nano-TBC system after 120 h of oxidation. This phenomenon is mainly related to the unique structure of the nano-YSZ coating, which acted as a strong barrier for oxygen diffusion into the TBC system at elevated temperatures. Nearly continues but thinner Al 2 O 3 layer formation at the NiCrAlY/nano-YSZ interface was seen, due to lower oxygen infiltration into the system. Under this condition, spinels formation and growth on the Al 2 O 3 oxide scale were diminished in nano-TBC system compared to normal TBC system.

  15. Mikrostruktur dan Karakterisasi Sifat Mekanik Lapisan Cr3C2-NiAl-Al2O3 Hasil Deposisi Dengan Menggunakan High Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Riyanto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface coating processing of industrial component with thermal spray coatings have been applied in many industrial fields. Ceramic matrix composite coating which consists of Cr3C2-Al2O3-NiAl had been carried out to obtain layers of material that has superior mechanical properties to enhance component performance. Deposition of CMC with High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF thermal spray coating has been employed. This study aims to determine the effect of powder particle size on the microstructure, surface roughness and hardness of the layer, by varying the NiAl powder particle size. Test results show NiAl powder particle size has an influence on the mechanical properties of CMC coating. Hardness of coating increases and surface roughness values of coating decrease with smaller NiAl particle size.  

  16. Characterization of microstructure and surface properties of hybrid coatings of WC-CoCr prepared by laser heat treatment and high velocity oxygen fuel spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shihong; Cho, Tong-Yul; Yoon, Jae-Hong; Fang, Wei; Song, Ki-O; Li Mingxi; Joo, Yun-Kon; Lee, Chan Gyu

    2008-01-01

    The microstructure and microhardness of high velocity oxygen fuel-sprayed WC-CoCr coatings were comparatively studied both before and after laser heat treatment of the coatings. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and microhardness testing were applied to investigate the microstructure, phase composition, porosity and microhardness. The results indicate that WC is still present, and W 2 C has appeared, while neither cobalt nor σ-CrCo is detectable. Co 4 W 2 C has appeared in the high velocity oxygen fuel-sprayed coating after laser heat treatment as compared to the coating before laser treatment. The relative content of the W 2 C has not increased with laser treatment, but the laser treatment has essentially eliminated the porosity almost entirely, providing a more homogeneous and densified microstructure. The laser heat treatment has effected the formation of a denser compact coating on the substrate. After laser heat treatment, the thickness of the coating has decreased from 300 μm to 225 μm. This corresponds to an average porosity in the high velocity oxygen fuel-sprayed coating that is approximately five times greater than that in the subsequently laser heat-treated coating. The laser treatment has also resulted in an increased hardness of the coating near the surface, where the average value increased from Hv 0.2 = 1262.4 in the coating before laser heat treatment to Hv 0.2 = 1818.7 after laser heat treatment

  17. Thermophysical Properties of Cold and Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Cu-Cr-X Alloys, NiAl and NiCrAlY Coatings. Part 2; Specific Heat Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    Part I of the paper discussed the temperature dependencies of the electrical resistivities, thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities and total hemispherical emissivities of several vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) and cold sprayed copper alloy monolithic coatings, VPS NiAl, VPS NiCrAlY, extruded GRCop-84 and as-cast Cu-17(wt.%)Cr-5%Al. Part II discusses the temperature dependencies of the constant pressure specific heat capacities, CP, of these coatings. The data were empirically were regression-fitted with the equation: CP = AT4 + BT3 + CT2 + DT +E where T is the absolute temperature and A, B, C, D and E are regression constants. The temperature dependencies of the molar enthalpy, molar entropy and Gibbs molar free energy determined from experimental values of molar specific heat capacity are reported. Calculated values of CP using the Neumann-Kopp (NK) rule were in poor agreement with experimental data. Instead, a modification of the Neumann-Kopp rule was found to predict values closer to the experimental data with an absolute deviation less than 6.5%. The specific molar heat capacities for all the alloys did not agree with the Dulong-Petit law, and CP is greater than 3R, where R is the universal gas constant, were measured for all the alloys except NiAl for which CP is less than 3R at all temperatures.

  18. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed AlCoCrFeNiTi High-Entropy Alloy Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li-Hui; Xiong, Wei; Liu, Chuan; Lu, Sheng; Fu, Ming

    2016-12-01

    Due to the advantages such as high strength, high hardness and good wear resistance, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) attracted more and more attentions in recent decades. However, most reports on HEAs were limited to bulk materials. Although a few of studies on atmospheric plasma-sprayed (APS) HEA coatings were carried out, the wear behavior, especially the high-temperature wear behavior of those coatings has not been investigated till now. Therefore, in this study, APS was employed to deposit AlCoCrFeNiTi high-entropy alloy coating using mechanically alloyed AlCoCrFeNiTi powder as the feedstock. The phase structure of the initial powder, the feedstock powder and the as-sprayed coating was examined by an x-ray diffractometer. The surface morphology of the feedstock powder and the microstructure of the as-sprayed coating were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The bonding strength and the microhardness of the as-sprayed coating were tested. The wear behavior of the coating at 25, 500, 700 and 900 °C was investigated by analysis of the wear surface morphology and measurements of the volume wear rate and the coefficient of friction.

  19. Study of mechanical properties and high temperature oxidation behavior of a novel cold-spray Ni-20Cr coating on boiler steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Narinder [Semiconductor Materials and Device Laboratory, Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, Seoul 100715 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, Manoj [School of Mechanical, Materials & Energy Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, Punjab (India); Sharma, Sanjeev K.; Kim, Deuk Young [Semiconductor Materials and Device Laboratory, Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, Seoul 100715 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, S.; Chavan, N.M.; Joshi, S.V. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy & New Materials (ARCI), Hyderabad 500005 (India); Singh, Narinder [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, Punjab (India); Singh, Harpreet, E-mail: harpreetsingh@iitrpr.ac.in [School of Mechanical, Materials & Energy Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, Punjab (India)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A presynthesized Ni-20Cr nanocrystalline powder was successfully deposited on T22 and SA 516 boilers steels using cold spray process. • The coatings are observed to have more than 2-folds microhardness in comparison with the base steels. • The coating was successful in reducing the weight gain of T22 and SA 516 steel by 71% and 94%. - Abstract: In the current investigation, high temperature oxidation behavior of a novel cold-spray Ni-20Cr nanostructured coating was studied. The nanocrystalline Ni-20Cr powder was synthesized by the investigators using ball milling, which was deposited on T22 and SA 516 steels by cold spraying. The crystallite size based upon Scherrer's formula for the developed coatings was found to be in nano-range for both the substrates. The accelerated oxidation testing was performed in a laboratory tube furnace at a temperature 900 °C under thermal cyclic conditions. Each cycle comprised heating for one hour at 900 °C followed by cooling for 20 min in ambient air. The kinetics of oxidation was established using weight change measurements for the bare and the coated steels. The oxidation products were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and X-ray mapping techniques. It was found from the results that the coating was successful in reducing the weight gain of SA213-T22 and SA 516-Grade 70 steel by 71% and 94%, respectively. This may be attributed to relatively denser structure, lower porosity and lower oxide content of the coating. Moreover, the developed nano-structured Ni-20Cr powder coating was found to perform better than its counterpart micron-sized Ni-20Cr powder coating, in terms of offering higher oxidation resistance and hardness.

  20. Parameter Studies on High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spraying of CoNiCrAlY Coatings Used in the Aeronautical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cabral-Miramontes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal spraying process is a surface treatment which does not adversely affect the base metal on which it is performed. The coatings obtained by HVOF thermal spray are employed in aeronautics, aerospace, and power generation industries. Alloys and coatings designed to resist oxidizing environments at high temperatures should be able to develop a surface oxide layer, which is thermodynamically stable, slowly growing, and adherent. MCrAlY type (M = Co, Ni or combination of both coatings are used in wear and corrosion applications but also provide protection against high temperature oxidation and corrosion attack in molten salts. In this investigation, CoNiCrAlY coatings were produced employing a HVOF DJH 2700 gun. The work presented here focuses on the influences of process parameters of a gas-drive HVOF system on the microstructure, adherence, wear, and oxygen content of CoNiCrAlY. The results showed that spray distance significantly affects the properties of CoNiCrAlY coatings.

  1. Plasma sprayed thermoregulating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Puzanov, A.A.; Zambrzhitskij, A.P.; Soboleva, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Shown is the possibility of plasma spraying application for thermoregulating coating formation. Given are test results of service properties of BeO, Al 2 O 2 plasma coatings on the substrates of the MA2-1 magnesium alloy. Described is a device for studying durability of coating optical parameters under ultraviolet irradiation in deep vacuum. Dynamics of absorption coefficient, growth caused by an increase in absorption centers amount under such irradiation is investigated

  2. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of FeCoCrNiMo0.2 High Entropy Coatings Prepared by Air Plasma Spray and the High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spray Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianchen Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the spherical FeCoCrNiMo0.2 high entropy alloy (HEA powders with a single FCC solid solution structure were prepared by gas atomization. Subsequently, the FeCoCrNiMo0.2 coatings with a different content of oxide inclusions were prepared by air plasma spraying (APS and high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying (HVOF, respectively. The microstructure, phase composition, mechanical properties, and tribological behaviors of these HEA coatings were investigated. The results showed that both HEA coatings showed a typical lamellar structure with low porosity. Besides the primary FCC phase, a mixture of Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and AB2O4 (A = Fe, Co, Ni, and B = Fe, Cr was identified as the oxide inclusions. The oxide content of the APS coating and HVOF coating was calculated to be 47.0% and 12.7%, respectively. The wear resistance of the APS coating was approximately one order of magnitude higher than that of the HVOF coating. It was mainly attributed to the self-lubricated effect caused by the oxide films. The mass loss of the APS coating was mainly ascribed to the breakaway of the oxide film, while the main wear mechanism of the HVOF coating was the abrasive wear.

  3. Investigations on the Behavior of HVOF and Cold Sprayed Ni-20Cr Coating on T22 Boiler Steel in Actual Boiler Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Niraj; Singh, Harpreet; Prakash, Satya; Karthikeyan, J.

    2012-01-01

    High temperature corrosion accompanied by erosion is a severe problem, which may result in premature failure of the boiler tubes. One countermeasure to overcome this problem is the use of thermal spray protective coatings. In the current investigation high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and cold spray processes have been used to deposit commercial Ni-20Cr powder on T22 boiler steel. To evaluate the performance of the coatings in actual conditions the bare as well as the coated steels were subjected to cyclic exposures, in the superheater zone of a coal fired boiler for 15 cycles. The weight change and thickness loss data were used to establish kinetics of the erosion-corrosion. X-ray diffraction, surface and cross-sectional field emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS) and x-ray mapping techniques were used to analyse the as-sprayed and corroded specimens. The HVOF sprayed coating performed better than its cold sprayed counterpart in actual boiler environment.

  4. Plasma sprayed coatings on crankshaft used steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahu, G.; Munteanu, C.; Istrate, B.; Benchea, M.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma spray coatings may be an alternative to conventional heat treatment of main journals and crankpins of the crankshaft. The applications of plasma coatings are various and present multiple advantages compared to electric arc wire spraying or flame spraying. The study examines the layers sprayed with the following powders: Cr3C2- 25(Ni 20Cr), Al2O3- 13TiO2, Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 on the surface of steels used in the construction of a crankshaft (C45). The plasma spray coatings were made with the Spray wizard 9MCE facility at atmospheric pressure. The samples were analyzed in terms of micro and morphological using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Wear tests on samples that have undergone simulates extreme working conditions of the crankshafts. In order to emphasize adherence to the base material sprayed layer, were carried out tests of microscratches and micro-indentation. Results have showed a relatively compact morphological aspect given by the successive coatings with splat-like specific structures. Following the microscratch analysis it can be concluded that Al2O3-13TiO2 coating has a higher purpose in terms of hardness compared to Cr3C2-(Ni 20Cr) and Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 powders. Thermal coatings of the deposited powders have increased the mechanical properties of the material. The results stand to confirm that plasma sprayed Al2O3-13TiO2 powder is in fact a efficient solution for preventing mechanical wear, even with a faulty lubrication system.

  5. Slurry Erosion Behavior of F6NM Stainless Steel and High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel-Sprayed WC-10Co-4Cr Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, S. Y.; Miao, Q.; Liang, W. P.; Huang, B. Z.; Ding, Z.; Chen, B. W.

    2017-02-01

    WC-10Co-4Cr coating was applied to the surface of F6NM stainless steel by high-velocity oxygen-fuel spraying. The slurry erosion behavior of the matrix and coating was examined at different rotational speeds using a self-made machine. This experiment effectively simulates real slurry erosion in an environment with high silt load. At low velocity (<6 m/s), the main failure mechanism was cavitation. Small bubbles acted as an air cushion, obstructing direct contact between sand and the matrix surface. However, at velocity above 9 m/s, abrasive wear was the dominant failure mechanism. The results indicate that WC-10Co-4Cr coating significantly improved the slurry resistance at higher velocity, because it created a thin and dense WC coating on the surface.

  6. Stresses in plasma-sprayed Cr2O3 coatings measured by neutron diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubský, Jiří; Prask, H. J.; Matějíček, Jiří; Gnäupel-Herold, T.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 75, - (2002), s. 1-3 ISSN 0947-8396. [International Conference on Neutron Scattreing. Munich, 09.08.2001-13.08.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/01/0094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma sprayed, diffraction Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.231, year: 2002

  7. Improvement of the Oxidation Resistance of CoNiCrAlY Bond Coats Sprayed by High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel onto Nickel Superalloy Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Fossati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available CoNiCrAlY powders with similar granulometry and chemical composition, but different starting reactivity toward oxygen, were sprayed onto superalloy substrates by High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel producing coatings of similar thicknesses. After spraying, samples were maintained at 1,273 K in air for different test periods of up to 5,000 hours. Morphological, microstructural, compositional and electrochemical analyses were performed on the coated samples in order to assess the high temperature oxidation resistance provided by the two different powders. The powder with higher starting reactivity towards oxygen improves the oxidation resistance of the coated samples by producing thinner and more adherent thermally grown oxide layers.

  8. Thermophysical Properties of Cold and Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Cu-Cr-X Alloys, NiAl and NiCrAlY Coatings. Part 1; Electrical and Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Diffusivity, and Total Hemispherical Emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    This two-part paper reports the thermophysical properties of several cold and vacuum plasma sprayed monolithic Cu and Ni-based alloy coatings. Part I presents the electrical and thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and total hemispherical emissivity data while Part II reports the specific heat capacity data for these coatings. Metallic copper alloys, stoichiometric NiAl and NiCrAlY coatings were fabricated by either the cold sprayed or the vacuum plasma spray deposition processes for thermal property measurements between 77 and 1223 K. The temperature dependencies of the thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities, electrical conductivities and total hemispherical emissivities of these cold and vacuum sprayed monolithic coatings are reported in this paper. The electrical and thermal conductivity data correlate reasonably well for Cu-8%Cr-1%Al, Cu-23%Cr-5%Al and NiAl in accordance with the Wiedemann-Franz (WF) law although a better fit is obtained using the Smith-Palmer relationship. The Lorentz numbers determined from the WF law are close to the theoretical value.

  9. High temperature corrosion of thermally sprayed NiCr- and amorphous Fe-based coatings covered with a KCl-K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varis, T.; Suhonen, T.; Tuurna, S.; Ruusuvuori, K.; Holmstroem, S.; Salonen, J. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Bankiewicz, D.; Yrjas, P. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland)

    2010-07-01

    New process conditions due to the requirement of higher efficiency together with the use of high-chlorine and alkali containing fuels such as biomass and waste fuels for heat and electricity production will challenge the resistance and life of tube materials. In conventional materials the addition of alloying elements to increase the corrosion resistance in aggressive combustion conditions increases costs relatively rapidly. Thermally sprayed coating offer promising, effective, flexible and cost efficient solutions to fulfill the material needs for the future. Some heat exchanger design alteractions before global commercialization have to be overcome, though. High temperature corrosion in combustion plants can occur by a variety of mechanisms including passive scale degradation with subsequent rapid scaling, loss of adhesion and scale detachment, attack by melted or partly melted deposits via fluxing reactions and intergranular-/interlamellar corrosion. A generally accepted model of the ''active oxidation'' attributes the responsibility for inducing corrosion to chlorine. The active oxidation mechanism plays a key role in the thermally sprayed coatings due to their unique lamellar structure. In this study, the corrosion behaviour of NiCr (HVOF and Wire Arc), amorphous Fe-based, and Fe13Cr (Wire Arc) thermally sprayed coatings, were tested in the laboratory under simplified biomass combustion conditions. The tests were carried out by using a KCl-K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} salt mixture as a synthetic biomass ash, which was placed on the materials and then heat treated for one week (168h) at two different temperatures (550{sup 0}C and 600 C) and in two different gas atmospheres (air and air+30%H{sub 2}O). After the exposures, the metallographic cross sections of the coatings were studied with SEM/EDX analyzer. The results showed that the coatings behaved relatively well at the lower test temperature while critical corrosion through the lamella boundaries

  10. Thermal Expansion of Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S V.; Palczer, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Metallic Cu-8%Cr, Cu-26%Cr, Cu-8%Cr-1%Al, NiAl and NiCrAlY monolithic coatings were fabricated by vacuum plasma spray deposition processes for thermal expansion property measurements between 293 and 1223 K. The corrected thermal expansion, (DL/L(sub 0) varies with the absolute temperature, T, as (DL/L(sub 0) = A(T - 293)(sup 3) + BIT - 293)(sup 2) + C(T - 293) + D, where, A, B, C and D are thermal, regression constants. Excellent reproducibility was observed for all of the coatings except for data obtained on the Cu-8%Cr and Cu-26%Cr coatings in the first heat-up cycle, which deviated from those determined in the subsequent cycles. This deviation is attributed to the presence of residual stresses developed during the spraying of the coatings, which are relieved after the first heat-up cycle. In the cases of Cu-8%Cr and NiAl, the thermal expansion data were observed to be reproducible for three specimens. The linear expansion data for Cu-8% Cr and Cu-26%Cr agree extremely well with rule of mixture (ROM) predictions. Comparison of the data for the Cu-8%Cr coating with literature data for Cr and Cu revealed that the thermal expansion behavior of this alloy is determined by the Cu-rich matrix. The data for NiAl and NiCrAlY are in excellent agreement with published results irrespective of composition and the methods used for processing the materials. The implications of these results on coating GRCop-84 copper alloy combustor liners for reusable launch vehicles are discussed.

  11. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  12. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  13. A Comparative Study of Cyclic Oxidation and Sulfates-Induced Hot Corrosion Behavior of Arc-Sprayed Ni-Cr-Ti Coatings at Moderate Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenmin; Wu, Yuping; Zhang, Jianfeng; Hong, Sheng; Chen, Liyan; Qin, Yujiao

    2015-06-01

    The cyclic oxidation and sulfates-induced hot corrosion behaviors of a Ni-43Cr-0.3Ti arc-sprayed coating at 550-750 °C were characterized and compared in this study. In general, all the oxidation and hot corrosion kinetic curves of the coating followed a parabolic law, i.e., the weight of the specimens showed a rapid growth initially and then reached the gradual state. However, the initial stage of the hot corrosion process was approximately two times longer than that of the oxidation process, indicating a longer preparation time required for the formation of a protective scale in the former process. At 650 °C, the parabolic rate constant for the hot corrosion was 7.2 × 10-12 g2/(cm4·s), approximately 1.7 times higher than that for the oxidation at the same temperature. The lower parabolic rate constant for the oxidation was mainly attributed to the formation of a protective oxide scale on the surface of corroded specimens, which was composed of a mixture of NiO, Cr2O3, and NiCr2O4. However, as the liquid molten salts emerged during the hot corrosion, these protective oxides would be dissolved and the coating was corrupted acceleratedly.

  14. Tailoring a High Temperature Corrosion Resistant FeNiCrAl for Oxy-Combustion Application by Thermal Spray Coating and HIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarkko Metsäjoki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxy-fuel combustion combined with CCS (carbon capture and storage aims to decrease CO2 emissions in energy production using fossil fuels. Oxygen firing changes power plant boiler conditions compared to conventional firing. Higher material temperatures and harsher and more variable environmental conditions cause new degradation processes that are inadequately understood at the moment. In this study, an Fe-Ni-Cr-Al alloy was developed based on thermodynamic simulations. The chosen composition was manufactured as powder by gas atomization. The powder was sieved into two fractions: The finer was used to produce thermal spray coatings by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF and the coarser to manufacture bulk specimens by hot isostatic pressing (HIP. The high temperature corrosion properties of the manufactured FeNiCrAl coating and bulk material were tested in laboratory conditions simulating oxy-combustion. The manufacturing methods and the results of high temperature corrosion performance are presented. The corrosion performance of the coating was on average between the bulk steel references Sanicro 25 and TP347HFG.

  15. Performances and reliability of WC based thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivani, A.; Rosso, M.; Salvarani, L.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal spray processes are used for a lot of traditional and innovative applications and their importance is becoming higher and higher. WC/CoCr based thermal spray coatings represent one of the most important class of coatings that find application in a wide range of industrial sectors. This paper will address a review of current applications and characteristics of this kind of coating. The most important spraying processes, namely HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel) are examined, the characterization of the coatings from the point of view of corrosion and wear resistance is considered. (author)

  16. Influence of Feedstock Materials and Spray Parameters on Thermal Conductivity of Wire-Arc-Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, H. H.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, G. H.; He, D. Y.; Bobzin, K.; Zhao, L.; Öte, M.; Königstein, T.

    2017-03-01

    To manufacture a protective coating with high thermal conductivity on drying cylinders in paper production machines, a FeCrB-cored wire was developed, and the spraying parameters for wire-arc spraying were optimized in this study. The conventional engineering materials FeCrAl and FeCrMo coatings were produced as the reference coatings under the same experimental condition. It has been shown that the oxide content in coating influences the thermal conductivity of coating significantly. The FeCrB coating exhibits a relative higher thermal conductivity due to the lower oxide content in comparison with conventional FeCrAl and FeCrMo coatings. Moreover, the oxidation of in-flight particles can be reduced by decreasing the standoff distance contributing to the increase in the thermal conductivity of coating. Total energy consumption of a papermaking machine can be significantly reduced if the coatings applied to dryer section exhibit high thermal conductivity. Therefore, the FeCrB coating developed in this study is a highly promising coating system for drying cylinders regarding the improved thermal conductivity and low operation costs in paper production industry.

  17. Effect of plasma spraying parameter on wear resistance of NiCrBSiCFe plasma coatings on austenitic stainless steel at elevated temperatures at various loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathi, N.L.; Duraiselvam, Muthukannan; Borah, Utpal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of plasma spraying parameters, especially the stand-off distance. ► Effect of microstructure and applied load on coating in sliding wear. ► The reason for maximum wear rate at 250 °C and the minimum wear at 350 °C were explained. ► The worn debris were characterised by SEM analysis and correlated with wear rate. -- Abstract: The dry sliding wear tests were carried out on AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) plasma coated with NiCrBSiCFe alloy powder under two set of plasma spraying parameters (PSP-1 and PSP-2). EN 8 medium carbon steel was used as a counterface material. The tests were carried out at loads of 20 N and 40 N with a constant sliding velocity of 1 m/s at room temperature (35°), 150 °C, 250 °C and 350 °C. Metallographic characterisation was carried out by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Between the two plasma parameters tested, stand-off distance of 125 mm was found to be more suitable for producing uniform lamellar microstructure with fewer amounts of pores which shows better wear resistance. The wear rate at 250 °C was comparatively more due to the material softening and adhesion by intermolecular bonding. The worn debris collected during sliding at 350 °C turn into oxides which further behaves like a protective and lubricative film eliminating the chances of severe material loss. SEM was used to characterise the worn track and debris to identity the wear mechanism.

  18. Interdiffusion between Co3O4 coating and the oxide scale of Fe-22Cr alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Anette Nørgaard; Friehling, Peter B.; Linderoth, Søren

    2002-01-01

    on Fe-Cr alloys. Coatings of Co3O4 were deposited on a Fe-22Cr alloy by plasma spraying and spray-painting. As-deposited samples were oxidised in air containing 1% H2O at 900C for various exposure time. During exposure the Fe-22Cr alloy forms an oxide scale, which reacts with the coating. The effects...

  19. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Properties of HVOF-Sprayed Co-Cr-W Coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houdková, Š.; Smazalová, E.; Pala, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2016), s. 546-557 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ASTM * G-65ASTM * Co-Cr-W * heat treatment * HVOF * Stellite 6 * wear Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016

  20. Dry sliding wear behavior and corrosion resistance of NiCrBSi coating deposited by activated combustion-high velocity air fuel spray process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shenglin; Zheng, Xueping; Geng, Gangqiang

    2010-01-01

    NiCrBSi is a Ni-based superalloy widely used to obtain high wear and corrosion resistant coatings. This Ni-based alloy coating has been deposited onto 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel using the AC-HVAF technique. The structure and morphologies of the Ni-based coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The wear resistance and corrosion resistance were studied. The tribological behaviors were evaluated using a HT-600 wear test rig. The wear resistance of the Ni-based coating was shown to be higher than that of the 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel because Fe 3 B, with high hardness, was distributed in the coating so the dispersion strengthening in the Ni-based coating was obvious and this increased the wear resistance of the Ni-based coating in a dry sliding wear test. Under the same conditions, the worn volume of 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel was 4.1 times greater than that of the Ni-based coating. The wear mechanism is mainly fatigue wear. A series of the electrochemical tests was carried out in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution in order to examine the corrosion behavior. The mechanisms for corrosion resistance are discussed.

  1. Combating Wear of ASTM A36 Steel by Surface Modification Using Thermally Sprayed Cermet Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Shibe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal spray coatings can be applied economically on machine parts to enhance their requisite surface properties like wear, corrosion, erosion resistance, and so forth. Detonation gun (D-Gun thermal spray coatings can be applied on the surface of carbon steels to improve their wear resistance. In the present study, alloy powder cermet coatings WC-12% Co and Cr3C2-25% NiCr have been deposited on ASTM A36 steel with D-Gun thermal spray technique. Sliding wear behavior of uncoated ASTM A36 steel and D-Gun sprayed WC-12% Co and Cr3C2-25% NiCr coatings on base material is observed on a Pin-On-Disc Wear Tester. Sliding wear performance of WC-12% Co coating is found to be better than the Cr3C2-25% NiCr coating. Wear performance of both these cermet coatings is found to be better than uncoated ASTM A36 steel. Thermally sprayed WC-12% Co and Cr3C2-25% NiCr cermet coatings using D-Gun thermal spray technique is found to be very useful in improving the sliding wear resistance of ASTM A36 steel.

  2. The change of NiCrBSi alloys’ phase composition after plasma spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dudek

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Material for investigations was NiCrBSi powder for components’ coatings which improve their corrosion resistance as well as resistance to friction wear and erosion. Plasma spraying method was used to produce a coating with thickness of 300 μm on low-alloy steel which was then remelted with the base material. Using X-ray quality analysis, phase composition was determined for: NiCrBSi powder, obtained coating and the alloyed surface layer. Crystallinity degree was also calculated for NiCrBSi layer sprayed on the base material.

  3. Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

  4. Microstructure and Wear Resistance of TIG Remelted NiCrBSi Thick Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-lu Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-fluxing NiCrBSi coatings with 800 μm thickness were prepared on the surface of AISI1045 steel substrate by plasma spraying. And the remelted coating was obtained using by the tungsten inert gas (TIG arc process. The microstructure, surface roughness, hardness, phase composition, and wear resistance of the sprayed coating and remelted coating were systematically investigated. The results demonstrate that TIG remelted treatment can significantly eliminate the microscopic defects in thick coating and improve its density. The surface roughness (Ra of the remelted coating is only 18.9% of the sprayed coating. The hardness of the remelted coating is 26.8% higher than that of the sprayed coating. The main phases in the sprayed coating are changed from γ-Ni, Cr7C3, and Cr2B to γ-Ni, Cr23C6, CrB, Ni3B, and Fe3C. The wear mass loss of the remelted coating is only 17.1% of the sprayed coating. Therefore, a Ni-based thick coating with good wear resistance can be obtained by plasma spraying and remelted technique.

  5. Thermally sprayed coatings: Aluminum on lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, S.; Czajkowski, C.J.; Zatorski, R.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the feasibility of thermally spraying aluminum on a lead substrate was initiated in support of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) Project for the US Department of Energy. The program consisted of two distinct parts: (1) the characterization of the thermally sprayed coatings, including microhardness testing, effects of heating, and microstructure and porosity determinations, and (2) effects of mercury doping and heat treatments on the thermally sprayed composite. The project determined that aluminum could successfully be thermally sprayed onto the lead. The coatings had a dense microstructure, with a Vicker's Pyramid Hardness (VPH) of about 60, and a maximum porosity (found in strips on the samples) of 12%

  6. Ternary ceramic thermal spraying powder and method of manufacturing thermal sprayed coating using said powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogli, Evelina; Sherman, Andrew J.; Glasgow, Curtis P.

    2018-02-06

    The invention describes a method for producing ternary and binary ceramic powders and their thermal spraying capable of manufacturing thermal sprayed coatings with superior properties. Powder contain at least 30% by weight ternary ceramic, at least 20% by weight binary molybdenum borides, at least one of the binary borides of Cr, Fe, Ni, W and Co and a maximum of 10% by weight of nano and submicro-sized boron nitride. The primary crystal phase of the manufactured thermal sprayed coatings from these powders is a ternary ceramic, while the secondary phases are binary ceramics. The coatings have extremely high resistance against corrosion of molten metal, extremely thermal shock resistance and superior tribological properties at low and at high temperatures.

  7. Combating Wear of ASTM A36 Steel by Surface Modification Using Thermally Sprayed Cermet Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Shibe, Vineet; Chawla, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Thermal spray coatings can be applied economically on machine parts to enhance their requisite surface properties like wear, corrosion, erosion resistance, and so forth. Detonation gun (D-Gun) thermal spray coatings can be applied on the surface of carbon steels to improve their wear resistance. In the present study, alloy powder cermet coatings WC-12% Co and Cr3C2-25% NiCr have been deposited on ASTM A36 steel with D-Gun thermal spray technique. Sliding wear behavior of uncoated ASTM A36 ste...

  8. The corrosion and mechanical behaviour of Al, FeCrAlY, and CoCrAlY coatings in aggressive environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; Geerdink, Bert; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical and chemical behaviours of aluminide coatings applied by pack cementation, FeCrAlY coatings applied by plasma spraying and CoCrAlY coatings applied by electrodeposition were studied. The coatings were pretreated for 0.5 h in argon at 1373 K to improve the adhesion and structural

  9. The oxidation behaviour of sprayed MCrAlY coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, W.; Toma, D.; Krueger, J.

    1996-01-01

    Turbine blades are protected against high temperature oxidation by thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems, which consist of a ceramic top coating (ZrO 2 /Y 2 O 3 ) and a metal bond coating (MCrAlY, M = Ni, Co). At high temperatures and under oxidative conditions, between the MCrAlY and the ceramic top coating an oxide scale is formed, which protects the metal against further oxidation. The oxidation behaviour of the thermally sprayed MCrAlY is influenced by the coating process and the composition of the metal alloys. This work is concerned with the isothermal oxidation behaviour of vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) MCrAlY coatings. The MCrAlY powders used have different aluminium contents: 8 and 12 wt.%. The MCrAlY specimens are oxidized at 1050 C in air as well as in helium with 1% O 2 and the oxidation kinetics are determined thermogravimetrically. The microstructure, morphology and thickness of the oxide scales formed are characterized by metallography, SEM, TEM and XRD. After short time oxidation (6 h) θ-Al 2 O 3 is the main constituent of the oxide scale. Exposure times of 500 h and more lead to oxide scales consisting of α-Al 2 O 3 . Moreover, after a long time oxidation, Cr 2 O 3 and CoO (CoO on the coatings with 8 wt.% Al) are formed. The oxidation rates of both MCrAlY coatings are the same. Beneath the oxide scale an Al-depleted zone is formed and this zone is considerably thicker within the coating with 8 wt.% Al, because the amount of β-NiAl phase in this coating is lower than that in the coating with 12 wt.% Al. The oxide scale formed in He-1% O 2 consists of α-Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 on both MCrAlY coatings. (orig.)

  10. The erosion performance of cold spray deposited metal matrix composite coatings with subsequent friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peat, Tom, E-mail: tompeat12@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Galloway, Alexander; Toumpis, Athanasios [Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); McNutt, Philip [TWI Ltd., Granta Park, Cambridge CB21 6AL (United Kingdom); Iqbal, Naveed [TWI Technology Centre, Wallis Way, Catcliff, Rotherham, S60 5TZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • WC-CoCr, Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings were cold spray deposited on AA5083 and friction stir processed. • The SprayStirred WC-CoCr demonstrated a hardness increase of 100% over the cold sprayed coating. • As-deposited and SprayStirred coatings were examined under slurry erosion test conditions. • Mass and volume loss was measured following 20-min exposure to the slurry. • The WC-CoCr and Al2O3 demonstrated a reduction in volume loss of approx. 40% over the cold sprayed coating. - Abstract: This study forms an initial investigation into the development of SprayStir, an innovative processing technique for generating erosion resistant surface layers on a chosen substrate material. Tungsten carbide – cobalt chromium, chromium carbide – nickel chromium and aluminium oxide coatings were successfully cold spray deposited on AA5083 grade aluminium. In order to improve the deposition efficiency of the cold spray process, coatings were co-deposited with powdered AA5083 using a twin powder feed system that resulted in thick (>300 μm) composite coatings. The deposited coatings were subsequently friction stir processed to embed the particles in the substrate in order to generate a metal matrix composite (MMC) surface layer. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine the erosion performance of the SprayStirred surfaces and demonstrate the benefits of this novel process as a surface engineering technique. Volumetric analysis of the SprayStirred surfaces highlighted a drop of approx. 40% in the level of material loss when compared with the cold spray deposited coating prior to friction stir processing. Micro-hardness testing revealed that in the case of WC-CoCr reinforced coating, the hardness of the SprayStirred material exhibits an increase of approx. 540% over the unaltered substrate and 120% over the as-deposited composite coating. Microstructural examination demonstrated that the increase in the hardness of the

  11. Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

    2015-01-01

    There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

  12. Plasma sprayed alumina-titania coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steeper, T.J.; Rotolico, A.J.; Nerz, J.E.; Riggs, W.L. II; Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the air plasma spraying (APS) of alumina-titania powder using argon-hydrogen working gases. This powder system is being used in the fabrication of heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic testing. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical spray parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of plasma processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coatings. The coatings were characterized by hardness and electrical tests, surface profilometry, image analysis, optical metallography, and x-ray diffraction. Coating qualities are discussed with respect to dielectric strength, hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. attempts are made to correlate the features of the coatings with the changes in operating parameters

  13. Detonation wear-resistant coatings, alloy powders based on Cr-Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Г. Довгаль

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available  Coatings from composition material Cr-Si-B on steel by detonation spraying method are obtained. Composition, structure and tribotechnical characteristics of coatings in comparison with traditional materials on the basis of Ni-Cr and alloy of tungsten and cobalt are investigated.

  14. Laser treatment of plasma sprayed HA coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khor, KA; Vreeling, A; Dong, ZL; Cheang, P

    1999-01-01

    Laser treatment was conducted on plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings using a Nd-YAG pulse laser. Various laser parameters were investigated. The results showed that the HA surface melted when an energy level of greater than or equal to 2 J and a spot size of 2 mm was employed during

  15. Mechanical Properties of Plasma Sprayed Alumina Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářík, O.; Nohava, Jiří; Siegel, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2003), s. 129-145 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/01/0094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma sprayed alumina coatings, fatigue test, metalography, fractography, residual stress, microhardness, Young's modulus , four-point bending Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  16. Examining Thermally Sprayed Coats By Fluorescence Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1994-01-01

    True flaws distinquished from those induced by preparation of specimens. Fluorescence microscopy reveals debonding, porosity, cracks, and other flaws in specimens of thermally sprayed coating materials. Specimen illuminated, and dye it contains fluoresces, emitting light at different wavelength. Filters emphasize contrast between excitation light and emission light. Specimen viewed directly or photographed on color film.

  17. Fullerene monolayer formation by spray coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervenka, J.; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Many large molecular complexes are limited in thin film applications by their insufficient thermal stability, which excludes deposition via commonly used vapour phase deposition methods. Here we demonstrate an alternative way of monolayer formation of large molecules by a simple spray coating method

  18. Plasma Sprayed Coatings for RF Wave Absorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nanobashvili, S.; Matějíček, Jiří; Žáček, František; Stöckel, Jan; Chráska, Pavel; Brožek, Vlastimil

    307-311, - (2002), s. 1334-1338 ISSN 0022-3115 Grant - others: COST (XE) Euratom DV4/04(TWO) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : boron carbide, thermal spray coatings, fusion materials, RF wave absorption Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2002

  19. Fullerene monolayer formation by spray coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červenka, Jiří; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2010), 065302/1-065302/7 ISSN 0957-4484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : monolayer * spray coating * fullerene * atomic force microscopy * scanning tunnelling microscopy * electronic structure * graphite * gold Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.644, year: 2010

  20. Oxidation and thermal shock behavior of thermal barrier coated 18/10CrNi alloy with coating modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guergen, Selim [Vocational School of Transportation, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan); Diltemiz, Seyid Fehmi [Turkish Air Force1st Air Supply and Maintenance Center Command, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan); Kushan, Melih Cemal [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, substrates of 18/10CrNi alloy plates were initially sprayed with a Ni-21Cr-10Al-1Y bond coat and then with an yttria stabilized zirconia top coat by plasma spraying. Subsequently, plasma-sprayed Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were treated with two different modification methods, namely, vacuum heat treatment and laser glazing. The effects of modifications on the oxidation and thermal shock behavior of the coatings were evaluated. The effect of coat thickness on the bond strength of the coats was also investigated. Results showed enhancement of the oxidation resistance and thermal shock resistance of TBCs following modifications. Although vacuum heat treatment and laser glazing exhibited comparable results as per oxidation resistance, the former generated the best improvement in the thermal shock resistance of the TBCs. Bond strength also decreased as coat thickness increased.

  1. Damping capacity and dynamic mechanical characteristics of the plasma-sprayed coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Liming; Ma Yue; Zhou Chungen; Xu Huibin

    2005-01-01

    The damping properties and dynamic mechanical performance of NiCrAlY coating, FeCrMo ferromagnetic coating, AlCuFeCr quasicrystalline coating and nanostructured ZrO 2 ceramic coating, which were prepared by plasma-spray method, were investigated. The measuring results of the dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA) and the flexural resonance testing method show that the damping capacity (Q -1 ) of the coated sample has a notable improvement compared to the substrate, while the dynamic modulus has a dramatic decrease. The resonance frequency of the coated cantilever beam structure shifted to high-frequency, and the resonance amplitude, especially high mode resonance, was dramatically attenuated. The internal friction peaks were observed in the Q -1 -temperature spectrogram and a normal amplitude effects were shown in the coated samples damping characteristics. The damping mechanism based on the interaction between substrate and coating layer, and the microstructure of the coated sample were also discussed in this paper

  2. Cavitation Erosion of Plasma -sprayed Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. J.; Park, J. S.; Jeon, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    Tungsten Carbide, chromium carbide and chromium oxide coatings were obtained on a 304 stainless steel substrate by plasma spraying technique. The coated samples were exposed to cavitation generated in distilled water by a 20KHz ultrasonic horn. The results of investigation reveal that all the samples tested are significantly eroded even within ten minutes of exposure, indicative of a short incubation period. The eroded surfaces can be characterized as having large pits and flat smooth areas. The latter may be associated with the poor cohesive strength of the coatings, which leads to the failures between individual lamellae

  3. Microscale fracture mechanisms of a Cr3C2-NiCr HVOF coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Andrew L.; White, Ken W.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal spray coatings, often composed of heterogeneous, multiphase microstructures, may, consequently, exhibit complex fracture behavior. For such coating structures, conventional mechanical evaluation methods fail to isolate the contribution of microstructural features to the overall fracture behavior. For this reason, this study employed focused ion beam machined (FIB) microcantilever beams and FIB sectioning methods to study the fracture mechanisms important at the scale of the heterogeneous Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr thermal spray coating. We found three fracture modes, namely, intergranular matrix fracture, matrix/carbide interfacial fracture, and carbide cleavage. By comparison, microindentation-induced cracks, the frequency of crack deflection around carbides is significantly more prevalent at this much larger crack dimension. This mechanistic variation provides some insight into the specific role and limitations of the microcantilever beam technique for fracture characterization of composite microstructures.

  4. Vacuum-plasma-sprayed silicon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Herman, H.; Bancke, G.A.; Burchell, T.D.; Romanoski, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying produces well-bonded dense stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this study, silicon metal was deposited on graphite to study the feasibility of preventing corrosion and oxidation of graphite components for nuclear reactors. Operating parameters were varied in a Taguchi design of experiments to display the range of the plasma processing conditions and their effect on the measured coating characteristics. The coating attributes evaluated were thickness, porosity, microhardness and phase content. This paper discusses the influence of the processing parameters on as-sprayed coating qualities. The paper also discusses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere. The diffraction spectrum for a sample that experienced a 1600degC temperature cycle indicated that more than 99% of the coating transformed to β-SiC. The silicon coatings protected the graphite substrates from oxidation in one experiment. (orig.)

  5. Influence of Bondcoat Spray Process on Lifetime of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Markocsan, N.; Li, X.-H.; Östergren, L.

    2018-01-01

    Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) manufactured by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is of high commercial interest as SPS has been shown capable of producing highly porous columnar microstructures similar to the conventionally used electron beam-physical vapor deposition. However, lifetime of SPS coatings needs to be improved further to be used in commercial applications. The bondcoat microstructure as well as topcoat-bondcoat interface topography affects the TBC lifetime significantly. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of different bondcoat deposition processes for SPS topcoats. In this work, a NiCoCrAlY bondcoat deposited by high velocity air fuel (HVAF) was compared to commercial vacuum plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY and PtAl diffusion bondcoats. All bondcoat variations were prepared with and without grit blasting the bondcoat surface. SPS was used to deposit the topcoats on all samples using the same spray parameters. Lifetime of these samples was examined by thermal cyclic fatigue testing. Isothermal heat treatment was performed to study bondcoat oxidation over time. The effect of bondcoat deposition process and interface topography on lifetime in each case has been discussed. The results show that HVAF could be a suitable process for bondcoat deposition in SPS TBCs.

  6. Development of corrosion and wear resistant coatings by an improved HVOF spraying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Y.; Kawakita, J.; Kuroda, S. [National Inst. for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    We have developed an improved HVOF spray process called ''Gas-shrouded HVOF'' (GS-HVOF) over the past several years. By using an extension nozzle at the exit of a commercial HVOF spray gun, GS-HVOF is capable of controlling the oxidation of sprayed materials during flight as well as achieving higher velocity of sprayed particles. These features result in extremely dense and clean microstructure of the sprayed coatings. The process has been successfully applied to corrosion resistant alloys such as SUS316L, Hastelloy C, and alloy 625 as well as cermets such as WC-Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-Ni. The spray process, coatings microstructure and property evaluation will be discussed with potential industrial applications in the near future. (orig.)

  7. Thermal spray coatings replace hard chrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.; Unger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Hard chrome plating provides good wear and erosion resistance, as well as good corrosion protection and fine surface finishes. Until a few years ago, it could also be applied at a reasonable cost. However, because of the many environmental and financial sanctions that have been imposed on the process over the past several years, cost has been on a consistent upward trend, and is projected to continue to escalate. Therefore, it is very important to find a coating or a process that offers the same characteristics as hard chrome plating, but without the consequent risks. This article lists the benefits and limitations of hard chrome plating, and describes the performance of two thermal spray coatings (tungsten carbide and chromium carbide) that compared favorably with hard chrome plating in a series of tests. It also lists three criteria to determine whether plasma spray or hard chrome plating should be selected

  8. Nanostructure of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorova, E.I.; Klechkovskaya, V.V.; Bobrovsky, V.V.; Khamchukov, Yu.D.; Klubovich, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings were studied by high-resolution transmission microscopy, microdiffraction, and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Coatings were prepared by spraying hydroxyapatite targets onto copper, nickel, and chromium substrates and onto NaCl and BaF 2 single crystals in an argon plasma at a gas pressure of ∼1 Pa; the sputter power was about 200 W; and the RF-generator frequency was 13.56 MHz. Under the conditions used, thin layers of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite were formed regardless of the nature of the substrate

  9. Suspension plasma sprayed composite coating using amorphous powder feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dianying; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 composite coatings were deposited by the suspension plasma spray process using molecularly mixed amorphous powders. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the as-sprayed coating is composed of α-Al 2 O 3 and tetragonal ZrO 2 phases with grain sizes of 26 nm and 18 nm, respectively. The as-sprayed coating has 93% density with a hardness of 9.9 GPa. Heat treatment of the as-sprayed coating reveals that the Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 phases are homogeneously distributed in the composite coating

  10. Direct morphological comparison of vacuum plasma sprayed and detonation gun sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings for orthopaedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, H C; Turner, I G; Doyle, C

    1999-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates were produced using two thermal spray techniques vacuum plasma spraying and detonation gun spraying. X-ray diffraction was used to compare crystallinity and residual stresses in the coatings. Porosity was measured using optical microscopy in conjunction with an image analysis system. Scanning electron microscopy and surface roughness measurements were used to characterise the surface morphologies of the coatings. The vacuum plasma sprayed coatings were found to have a lower residual stress, a higher crystallinity and a higher level of porosity than the detonation gun coatings. It is concluded that consideration needs to be given to the significance of such variations within the clinical context.

  11. Microstructure and corrosive wear resistance of plasma sprayed Ni-based coatings after TIG remelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianshun, Dong; Xiukai, Zhou; Guolu, Li; Li, Liu; Ran, Wang

    2018-02-01

    Ni based coatings were prepared on steel substrate by means of plasma spraying, and were remelted by TIG (tungsten inert gas arc) method subsequently. The microstructure, microhardness, electrochemical corrosion and corrosive wear resistance under PH = 4, PH = 7 and PH = 10 conditions of the coatings before and after remelting were investigated. The results showed that the TIG remelting obviously reduced the defects and dramatically decreased the coating’s porosity from 7.2% to 0.4%. Metallurgical bonding between the remelted coating and substrate was achieved. Meanwhile, the phase compositions of as-sprayed coating were γ-Ni, Mn5Si2 and Cr2B, while the phase compositions of the remelting coating were Fe3Ni, Cr23C6, Cr2B and Mn5Si2. The microhardness of the coating decreased from 724 HV to 608 HV, but the fracture toughness enhanced from 2.80 MPa m1/2 to 197.3 MPa m1/2 after remelting. After corrosive wear test, the average wear weight loss and 3D morphology of wear scar of two coatings indicated that the wear resistance of the remelted coating was remarkably higher than that of as-sprayed coating. Therefore, TIG remelting treatment was a feasible method to improve the coating’s microstructure and enhance its corrosive wear resistance.

  12. Coating Properties of WC-Ni Cold Spray Coating for the Application in Secondary Piping System of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, JeongWon; Kim, Seunghyun; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As a result of FAC(flow accelerated corrosion), severe accidents, failure of carbon steel like a Mihama Unit-3 occurred. Chemical composition change of carbon steel or coating to inner surface is one of methods to improve corrosion properties. Among them, thermal spray coating is convenient solution to apply at industry. Powder is melted at blast furnace and ejected to substrate. After adhesion, substrate and coating layer is cooled down and coated layer protects steel from corrosion finally. However high thermal energy is transferred to substrate and coating layer so it leads high thermal residual stress in coating procedure. Besides, high temperature for melting powder makes unexpected chemical reaction of powder like an oxidation or carburization. Whereas, cold spray uses low temperature comparing with other thermal spray. Thermal energy is used for not melting powder but high kinetic energy of powder and plastic deformation during collision. Therefore, fuel such as oxygen-acetylene gas is not needed. It needs carrier gas, compressed air, nitrogen or helium, to increase kinetic energy of powder and move powder to substrate. Comparing cold spray with high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF), one of thermal spray, cold spray coating layer contains only WC and Co. One of other problem about WC is brittleness during coating. To improve deformability of WC, binder metal is added. For example, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Al, Fe or etc. Additionally, binder metal lowering melting temperature of composite powder increases coating properties. Among them, Co which is widely used as binder metal maintains mechanical properties like a hardness and improves corrosion properties. Therefore Co is not suitable for binder metal of WC coating. In contrast, Ni has better corrosion resistance to alkaline environment and makes lower melting temperature. Moreover, in a view of cold spray, FCC structure has better deformability than BCC or HCP, and BCC has lowest deformability. WC is BCC structure so it

  13. A comparative study of tribological behavior of plasma and D-gun sprayed coatings under different wear modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, G.; Rao, D.S.; Prasad, K.U.M.; Joshi, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, thermal sprayed protective coatings have gained widespread acceptance for a variety of industrial applications. A vast majority of these applications involve the use of thermal sprayed coatings to combat wear. While plasma spraying is the most versatile variant of all the thermal spray processes, the detonation gun (D-gun) coatings have been a novelty until recently because of their proprietary nature. The present study is aimed at comparing the tribological behavior of coatings deposited using the two above techniques by focusing on some popular coating materials that are widely adopted for wear resistant applications, namely, WC-12% Co, Al 2 O 3 , and Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr. To enable a comprehensive comparison of the above indicated thermal spray techniques as well as coating materials, the deposited coatings were extensively characterized employing microstructural evaluation, microhardness measurements, and XRD analysis for phase constitution. The behavior of these coatings under different wear modes was also evaluated by determining their tribological performance when subjected to solid particle erosion tests, rubber wheel sand abrasion tests, and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests. Among all the coating materials studied, D-gun sprayed WC-12% Co, in general, yields the best performance under different modes of wear, whereas plasma sprayed Al 2 O 3 shows least wear resistance to every wear mode

  14. Microstructure formation and corrosion behaviour in HVOF-sprayed Inconel 625 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.; Harris, S.J.; McCartney, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    The nickel-based alloy Inconel 625 was thermally sprayed by two different variants of the high velocity oxy-fuel process. In this study, coatings deposited by a liquid-fuelled gun were compared with those produced by a gas-fuelled system; in general, the former generates higher particle velocities but lower particle temperatures. Investigations into the microstructural evolution of the coatings, using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, are presented along with results on their aqueous corrosion behaviour, obtained from salt spray and potentiodynamic tests. It is inferred from coating microstructures that, during spraying, powder particles generally comprised three separate zones as follows: fully melted regions; partially melted zones; and an unmelted core. However, the relative proportions formed in an individual powder particle depended on its size, trajectory through the gun, the gas dynamics (velocity/temperature) of the thermal spray gun and the type of gun employed. Cr 2 O 3 was the principal oxide phase formed during spraying and the quantity appeared to be directly related to the degree to which particles were melted. The salt spray test provides a sensitive means of determining the presence of interconnected porosity in coatings and those produced with the liquid-fuelled gun exhibited reduced interconnected porosity and increased corrosion resistance compared with deposits obtained from the gas-fuelled system. In addition, potentiodynamic tests revealed that passive current densities are 10-20 times lower in liquid-fuel coatings than in those sprayed with the gas-fuelled gun

  15. Influence of spray parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas-tunnel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morks, M.F.; Kobayashi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    For biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by using a gas tunnel type plasma spraying process. The influences of spraying distances and plasma arc currents on the microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of HA coatings were investigated. Microstructure observation by SEM showed that HA coatings sprayed at low plasma power have a porous structure and poor hardness. HA coatings sprayed at high plasma power and short spraying distance are characterized by good adhesion and low porosity with dense structure. Hardness increased for HA coatings sprayed at shorter spraying distance and higher plasma power, mainly due to the formation of dense coatings

  16. Creep behavior of the titanium alloy with zirconia plasma sprayed coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, D.A.P.; Moura Neto, C.; Couto, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The proposal of this research has been the study of the plasma spayed coating on creep of the Ti-6Al-4V, focusing on the determination of the experimental parameters related to the first and second creep stages. Yttria (8 wt %) stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (Metco 204B-NS) with CoNiCrAlY ( AMDRY 995C) has been plasma sprayed coated on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. Creep tests with constant load had been done on Ti-6Al-4V coated samples, the stress level was from 250 to 319 MPa at 600 deg C. Highest values of t p and the decrease of the second stage rate had shown a better creep resistance on coated sample. Results indicate that the coated sample was greater than uncoated sample, thus the plasma sprayed coating prevent the sample oxidation efficiently. (author)

  17. Efficient spray-coated colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.; Minor, James C.; Moreno-Bautista, Gabriel; Rollny, Lisa R.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Kopilovic, Damir; Thon, Susanna; Carey, Graham H.; Chou, Kang Wei; Zhitomirsky, David; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, E. H.

    2014-01-01

    (Figure Presented). A colloidal quantum dot solar cell is fabricated by spray-coating under ambient conditions. By developing a room-temperature spray-coating technique and implementing a fully automated process with near monolayer control - an approach termed as sprayLD - an electronic defect is eliminated resulting in solar cell performance and statistical distribution superior to prior batch-processed methods along with a hero performance of 8.1%.

  18. Efficient spray-coated colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2014-11-10

    (Figure Presented). A colloidal quantum dot solar cell is fabricated by spray-coating under ambient conditions. By developing a room-temperature spray-coating technique and implementing a fully automated process with near monolayer control - an approach termed as sprayLD - an electronic defect is eliminated resulting in solar cell performance and statistical distribution superior to prior batch-processed methods along with a hero performance of 8.1%.

  19. Model of the macrostructure formation of plasma sprayed coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnedovets, A.G.; Kalita, V.I.

    2007-01-01

    A 3D discrete ballistic model of plasma sprayed coatings structure formation is presented. The effect of a spraying angle on porous macrostructure of coatings is investigated by numerical computations.Computer simulation results as well as experimental data show that at a sputtering angle less than 45 deg the mechanism of surface relief formation is changed and the relief consists of valleys and ridges under such conditions of plasma spraying [ru

  20. High Temperature Behavior of Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings in the Actual Coal-Fired Boiler Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Sidhu, Hazoor Singh; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2015-03-01

    Erosion-corrosion is a serious problem observed in steam-powered electricity generation plants, and industrial waste incinerators. In the present study, four compositions of Cr3C2-(Ni-20Cr) alloy coating powder were deposited by high-velocity oxy-fuel spray technique on T-91 boiler tube steel. The cyclic studies were performed in a coal-fired boiler at 1123 K ± 10 K (850 °C ± 10 °C). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis and elemental mapping analysis techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. All the coatings deposited on T-91 boiler tube steel imparted hot corrosion resistance. The 65 pctCr3C2 -35 pct (Ni-20Cr)-coated T-91 steel sample performed better than all other coated samples in the given environment.

  1. Assessment of thermal spray coatings for wear and abrasion resistance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karode, Ishaan Nitin

    Thermal spray cermet and metallic coatings are extensively used for wear, abrasion and corrosion control in a variety of industries. The first part of the thesis focuses mainly on testing of sand erosion resistance of thermal spray coatings on carbon composites used in the manufacture of helicopter rotor blades. The test set-up employed is a sand blasting machine and is an effort to duplicate the in-flight conditions especially those encountered in hot arid conditions. The technique adopted follows the Department of Defence test method standard. Carbon Composites have excellent stiffness, strength and low weight/density. The strength to weight ratio is high. Hence, these are used in aerospace applications to a large extent. However, the biggest problem encountered with carbon composites is its low abrasion resistance as its surface is very weak. Hence, thermal spray coatings are used to improve the surface properties of CFRP. Zinc bond coats and WC-Co coatings were tested. However, high amount of thermal stresses were developed between the substrate and the coating due to large differences in the CTE's of the both, leading to high mass losses within two minutes and just 130 grams of sand sprayed on to the coatings with the sand blasting machine built; and hence the coatings with CC as a substrate could not qualify for the application. The second part of the thesis focuses on the assessment of different thermal spray coatings used for manufacture of mechanical seals in pumps and analyze the best coating material for the wear resistance application through detail quantification of material loss by block-on-ring test set-up. A machine based on Block-on-ring test set-up following ASTM G77 (Measurement of Adhesive wear resistance of thermal spray coatings) standards was built to duplicate the pump conditions. Thermally sprayed coated materials were tested in different conditions (Load, time, abrasive). WC-Co had the highest wear resistance (lower volume losses) and

  2. Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollis, Kendall J.; Pena, Maria I.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The structure of the plasma sprayed coating was shown to vary with transferred arc current during deposition. The structure of ESD coatings was shown to vary with the capacitance of the deposition equipment.

  3. Influences of spray parameters on the structure and corrosion resistance of stainless steel layers coated on carbon steel by plasma spray treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, Kyong An; Lee, Sang Dong; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Shur, Dong Soo; Kim, Joung Soo

    1996-01-01

    Stainless steel powders were sprayed on the grit-blasted SM45C carbon steel substrates using a plasma spray method. The influences of the spray parameters on the structure and corrosion resistance of the layers coated on the carbon steel were investigated. Corrosion behavior of the layers were analyzed by the anodic polarization tests in deaerated 0.1 M NaCl + 0.01 M NaOH solution at 80 deg C. The surface roughness and porosity were observed to decrease with decreasing the particle size. The surface hardness of the coating was always higher than that of the matrix, SM45C, implying that the higher resistance of the coating to erosion-corrosion than that of matrix, and increased as the spray power and the spray distance increase. Stainless steel coats showed more corrosion resistance than the carbon steel did, due to their passivity. The corrosion resistance of the coats, however, were inferior to that of the bulk stainless steels due to the inherent defects formed in the coats. The defects such as rough surface and pores provided the occluded sites favorable for the initiation of localized corrosion, resulting in the conclusion that finer the powder is, higher the corrosion resistance is. And the Cr oxides formation resulting in Cr depletion around the oxides reduced the corrosion resistance of the coats. (author)

  4. Investigation about the Chrome Steel Wire Arc Spray Process and the Resulting Coating Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilden, J.; Bergmann, J. P.; Jahn, S.; Knapp, S.; van Rodijnen, F.; Fischer, G.

    2007-12-01

    Nowadays, wire-arc spraying of chromium steel has gained an important market share for corrosion and wear protection applications. However, detailed studies are the basis for further process optimization. In order to optimize the process parameters and to evaluate the effects of the spray parameters DoE-based experiments had been carried out with high-speed camera shoots. In this article, the effects of spray current, voltage, and atomizing gas pressure on the particle jet properties, mean particle velocity and mean particle temperature and plume width on X46Cr13 wire are presented using an online process monitoring device. Moreover, the properties of the coatings concerning the morphology, composition and phase formation were subject of the investigations using SEM, EDX, and XRD-analysis. These deep investigations allow a defined verification of the influence of process parameters on spray plume and coating properties and are the basis for further process optimization.

  5. Microstructural Characteristics and Tribological Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed Novel Fe-Based Alloy Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Milanti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermally-sprayed Fe-based coatings have shown their potential for use in wear applications due to their good tribological properties. In addition, these kinds of coatings have other advantages, e.g., cost efficiency and positive environmental aspects. In this study, the microstructural details and tribological performances of Fe-based coatings (Fe-Cr-Ni-B-C and Fe-Cr-Ni-B-Mo-C manufactured by High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF thermal spray process are evaluated. Traditional Ni-based (Ni-Cr-Fe-Si-B-C and hard-metal (WC-CoCr coatings were chosen as references. Microstructural investigation (field-emission scanning electron microscope FESEM and X-Ray diffractometry XRD reveals a high density and low oxide content for HVOF Fe-based coatings. Particle melting and rapid solidification resulted in a metastable austenitic phase with precipitates of mixed carbides and borides of chromium and iron which lead to remarkably high nanohardness. Tribological performances were evaluated by means of the ball on-disk dry sliding wear test, the rubber-wheel dry particle abrasion test, and the cavitation erosion wear test. A higher wear resistance validates Fe-based coatings as a future alternative to the more expensive and less environmentally friendly Ni-based alloys.

  6. Wear Resistant Thermal Sprayed Composite Coatings Based on Iron Self-Fluxing Alloy and Recycled Cermet Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki SARJAS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal spray and WC-Co based coatings are widely used in areas subjected to abrasive wear. Commercial  cermet thermal spray powders for HVOF are relatively expensive. Therefore applying these powders in cost-sensitive areas like mining and agriculture are hindered. Nowadays, the use of cheap iron based self-fluxing alloy powders for thermal spray is limited. The aim of this research was to study properties of composite powders based on self-fluxing alloys and recycled cermets and to examine the properties of thermally sprayed (HVOF coatings from composite powders based on iron self-fluxing alloy and recycled cermet powders (Cr3C2-Ni and WC-Co. To estimate the properties of  recycled cermet powders, the sieving analysis, laser granulometry and morphology were conducted. For deposition of coatings High Velocity Oxy-Fuel spray was used. The structure and composition of powders and coatings were estimated by SEM and XRD methods. Abrasive wear performance of coatings was determined and compared with wear resistance of coatings from commercial powders. The wear resistance of thermal sprayed coatings from self-fluxing alloy and recycled cermet powders at abrasion is comparable with wear resistance of coatings from commercial expensive spray powders and may be an alternative in tribological applications in cost-sensitive areas.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1338

  7. Development & characterization of alumina coating by atmospheric plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Jobin; Scaria, Abyson; Kurian, Don George

    2018-03-01

    Ceramic coatings are applied on metals to prevent them from oxidation and corrosion at room as well as elevated temperatures. The service environment, mechanisms of protection, chemical and mechanical compatibility, application method, control of coating quality and ability of the coating to be repaired are the factors that need to be considered while selecting the required coating. The coatings based on oxide materials provides high degree of thermal insulation and protection against oxidation at high temperatures for the underlying substrate materials. These coatings are usually applied by the flame or plasma spraying methods. The surface cleanliness needs to be ensured before spraying. Abrasive blasting can be used to provide the required surface roughness for good adhesion between the substrate and the coating. A pre bond coat like Nickel Chromium can be applied on to the substrate material before spraying the oxide coating to avoid chances of poor adhesion between the oxide coating and the metallic substrate. Plasma spraying produces oxide coatings of greater density, higher hardness, and smooth surface finish than that of the flame spraying process Inert gas is often used for generation of plasma gas so as to avoid the oxidation of the substrate material. The work focuses to develop, characterize and optimize the parameters used in Al2O3 coating on transition stainless steel substrate material for minimizing the wear rate and maximizing the leak tightness using plasma spray process. The experiment is designed using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. The parameters that are to be optimized are plasma voltage, spraying distance and the cooling jet pressure. The characterization techniques includes micro-hardness and porosity tests followed by Grey relational analysis of the results.

  8. Superhydrophobic Ceramic Coatings by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuxuan

    Superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit superior water repellent properties, and they have remarkable potential to improve current energy infrastructure. Substantial research has been performed on the production of superhydrophobic coatings. However, superhydrophobic coatings have not yet been adopted in many industries where potential applications exist due to the limited durability of the coating materials and the complex and costly fabrication processes. Here presented a novel coating technique to manufacture ceramic superhydrophobic coatings rapidly and economically. A rare earth oxide (REO) was selected as the coating material due to its hydrophobic nature and strong mechanical properties, and deposited on stainless steel substrates by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS). The as-sprayed coating demonstrated a hierarchically structured coating topography, which closely resembles superhydrophobic surfaces in nature. Compared to smooth REO surfaces, the SPPS superhydrophobic coating improved the water contact angle by as much as 65° after vacuum treatment at 1 Pa for 48 hours.

  9. Microscale fracture mechanisms of a Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr HVOF coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Andrew L., E-mail: Andrew.robertson99987@gmail.com; White, Ken W.

    2017-03-14

    Thermal spray coatings, often composed of heterogeneous, multiphase microstructures, may, consequently, exhibit complex fracture behavior. For such coating structures, conventional mechanical evaluation methods fail to isolate the contribution of microstructural features to the overall fracture behavior. For this reason, this study employed focused ion beam machined (FIB) microcantilever beams and FIB sectioning methods to study the fracture mechanisms important at the scale of the heterogeneous Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr thermal spray coating. We found three fracture modes, namely, intergranular matrix fracture, matrix/carbide interfacial fracture, and carbide cleavage. By comparison, microindentation-induced cracks, the frequency of crack deflection around carbides is significantly more prevalent at this much larger crack dimension. This mechanistic variation provides some insight into the specific role and limitations of the microcantilever beam technique for fracture characterization of composite microstructures.

  10. Development of Cold Spray Coatings for Accident-Tolerant Fuel Cladding in Light Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Benjamin; Yeom, Hwasung; Johnson, Greg; Dabney, Tyler; Walters, Jorie; Romero, Javier; Shah, Hemant; Xu, Peng; Sridharan, Kumar

    2018-02-01

    The cold spray coating process has been developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison for the deposition of oxidation-resistant coatings on zirconium alloy light water reactor fuel cladding with the goal of improving accident tolerance during loss of coolant scenarios. Coatings of metallic (Cr), alloy (FeCrAl), and ceramic (Ti2AlC) materials were successfully deposited on zirconium alloy flats and cladding tube sections by optimizing the powder size, gas preheat temperature, pressure and composition, and other process parameters. The coatings were dense and exhibited excellent adhesion to the substrate. Evaluation of the samples after high-temperature oxidation tests at temperatures up to 1300°C showed that the cold spray coatings significantly mitigate oxidation kinetics because of the formation of thin passive oxide layers on the surface. The results of the study indicate that the cold spray coating process is a viable near-term option for developing accident-tolerant zirconium alloy fuel cladding.

  11. Porosity and wear resistance of flame sprayed tungsten carbide coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarto, Winarto; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Rooscote, Didi

    2017-06-01

    Thermal-sprayed coatings offer practical and economical solutions for corrosion and wear protection of components or tools. To improve the coating properties, heat treatment such as preheat is applied. The selection of coating and substrate materials is a key factor in improving the quality of the coating morphology after the heat treatment. This paper presents the experimental results regarding the effect of preheat temperatures, i.e. 200°C, 300°C and 400°C, on porosity and wear resistance of tungsten carbide (WC) coating sprayed by flame thermal coating. The powders and coatings morphology were analyzed by a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (FE-SEM/EDS), whereas the phase identification was performed by X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD). In order to evaluate the quality of the flame spray obtained coatings, the porosity, micro-hardness and wear rate of the specimens was determined. The results showed that WC coating gives a higher surface hardness from 1391 HVN up to 1541 HVN compared to that of the non-coating. Moreover, the wear rate increased from 0.072 mm3/min. to 0.082 mm3/min. when preheat temperature was increased. Preheat on H13 steel substrate can reduce the percentage of porosity level from 10.24 % to 3.94% on the thermal spray coatings.

  12. Surface Microstructure of Nanoaluminized CoCrAlY Coating Irradiated by HCPEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermal sprayed CoCrAlY coating was prepared by air plasma spray on the surface of Ni-based superalloy GH4169; then, a nanoscale aluminum film was deposited with electron beam vacuum deposition on it. The coatings irradiated by high-current pulsed electron beam were investigated. After HCPEB treatment, the Al film was remelted into the bond coat. XRD result shows that Al and Al2O3 phase were recorded in the irradiated and aluminized coatings, while Co-based oxides which originally existed in the initial samples disappeared. Microstructure observations reveal that the original coating with porosity, cavities, and inclusions was significantly changed after HCPEB treatment as compact appearance of interconnected bulged nodules. Moreover, the grains on the irradiated coating were very refined and homogeneously dispersed on the surface, which could effectively inhibit the corrosive gases and improve the coating oxidation resistance.

  13. Plasma sprayed alumina coatings for radiation detector development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A mechanical as well as metallurgical bonding is necessary. 3. Applications ... Here the feasibility of using metallic components that were plasma spray- ... To study the electrical insulation, integrity of ceramic coating etc, tests were carried out.

  14. Research into Thermal Sprayed Coatings with Ultrasonic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justinas Gargasas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on thermal sprayed coatings with ultrasonic methods is the main object of this thesis. Metal surface coating was applied to modify its mechanical and physical-chemical properties and resistance to external impact and improve aesthetics. Spraying was carried out by scanning the rotating sample of 30 cm/s speed. Surface microstructure, ultrasonic thickness, porosity, micro hardness and surface modulus tests performed. Conclusions were formulated.Article in Lithuanian

  15. Thermal Spray Coating of Tungsten for Tokamak Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xianliang; Gitzhofer, F; Boulos, M I

    2006-01-01

    Thermal spray, such as direct current (d.c.) plasma spray or radio frequency induced plasma spray, was used to deposit tungsten coatings on the copper electrodes of a tokamak device. The tungsten coating on the outer surface of one copper electrode was formed directly through d.c. plasma spraying of fine tungsten powder. The tungsten coating/lining on the inner surface of another copper electrode could be formed indirectly through induced plasma spraying of coarse tungsten powder. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the cross section and the interface of the tungsten coating. Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-ray (EDAX) was used to analyze the metallic elements attached to a separated interface. The influence of the particle size of the tungsten powder on the density, cracking behavior and adhesion of the coating is discussed. It is found that the coarse tungsten powder with the particle size of 45 ∼ 75 μm can be melted and the coating can be formed only by using induced plasma. The coating deposited from the coarse powder has much higher cohesive strength, adhesive strength and crack resistance than the coating made from the fine powder with a particle size of 5 μm

  16. Plasma spraying of Fe-Cr-Al alloy powder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voleník, Karel; Leitner, J.; Kolman, Blahoslav Jan; Písačka, Jan; Schneeweiss, Oldřich

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2008), s. 17-25 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1041404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Fe-Cr-Al alloy powder * plasma spraying * oxidation * vaporization * composition changes Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2007

  17. Influence of a powder feed rate on the properties of the plasma sprayed chromium carbide- 25% nickel chromium coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo R. Mrdak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The plasma spray process is a leading technology of powder depositing in the production of coatings widely used in the aerospace industry for the protection of new parts and for the repair of worn ones. Cermet 75Cr3C2 - 25Ni(Cr coatings based on Cr3C2 carbides are widely used to protect parts as they retain high values of hardness, strength and resistance to wear up to a temperature of 850°C. This paper discusses the influence of the parameters of the plasma spray deposition of 75Cr3C2 - 25Ni(Cr powder on the structure and mechanical properties of the coating. The powder is deposited using plasma spraying at atmospheric pressure (APS. The plasma gas is He, which is an inert gas and does not react with the powder; it produces dense plasma with lower heat content and less incorporated ambient air in the plasma jet thus reducing temperature decomposition and decarburization of Cr3C2 carbide.. In this study, three groups of coatings were deposited with three different powder feed rates of: 30, 45 and 60 g/min. The  coating with the best properties was deposited on the inlet flange parts of the turbo - jet engine TV2-117A to reduce the influence of vibrations and wear. The structures and the mechanical properties of 75Cr3C2 - 25Ni(Cr coatings are analyzed in accordance with the Pratt & Whitney standard. Studies have shown that powder feed rates have an important influence on the mechanical properties and structures of 75Cr3C2 - 25Ni(Cr coatings

  18. Investigating Tribological Characteristics of HVOF Sprayed AISI 316 Stainless Steel Coating by Pulsed Plasma Nitriding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindivan, H.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, surface modification of aluminum alloy using High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray and pulsed plasma nitriding processes was investigated. AISI 316 stainless steel coating on 1050 aluminum alloy substrate by HVOF process was pulsed plasma nitrided at 793 K under 0.00025 MPa pressure for 43200 s in a gas mixture of 75 % N2 and 25 % H2. The results showed that the pulse plasma nitriding process produced a surface layer with CrN, iron nitrides (Fe3N, Fe4N) and expanded austenite (γN). The pulsed plasma nitrided HVOF-sprayed coating showed higher surface hardness, lower wear rate and coefficient of friction than the untreated HVOF-sprayed one.

  19. Plasma Spray and Pack Cementation Process Optimization and Oxidation Behaviour of Novel Multilayered Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng

    The hot section components in gas turbines are subjected to a harsh environment with the temperature being increased continuously. The higher temperature has directly resulted in severe oxidation of these components. Monolithic coatings such as MCrAIY and aluminide have been traditionally used to protect the components from oxidation; however, increased operating temperature quickly deteriorates the coatings due to accelerated diffusion of aluminum in the coatings. To improve the oxidation resistance a group of multilayered coatings are developed in this study. The multilayered coatings consist of a Cr-Si co-deposited layer as the diffusion barrier, a plasma sprayed NiCrA1Y coating as the middle layer and an aluminized top layer. The Cr-Si and aluminized layers are fabricated using pack cementation processes and the NiCrA1Y coatings are produced using the Mettech Axial III(TM) System. All of the coating processes are optimized using the methodology of Design of Experiments (DOE) and the results are analyzed using statistical method. The optimal processes are adopted to fabricate the multilayered coatings for oxidation tests. The coatings are exposed in air at 1050°C and 1150°C for 1000 hr. The results indicate that a Cr layer and a silicon-rich barrier layer have formed on the interface between the Cr-Si coating and the NiCrA1Y coating. This barrier layer not only prevents aluminum and chromium from diffusing into the substrate, but also impedes the diffusion of other elements from the substrate into the coating. The results also reveal that, for optimal oxidation resistance at 1050°C, the top layer in a multilayered coating should have at least Al/Ni ratio of one; whereas the multilayered coating with the All Ni ratio of two in the top layer exhibits the best oxidation resistance at 1150°C. The DOE methodology provides an excellent means for process optimization and the selection of oxidation test matrix, and also offers a more thorough understanding of the

  20. Process optimization of ultrasonic spray coating of polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Sanjukta; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    is developed for statistical analysis which identifies the distance between nozzle and substrate as the most significant parameter. Depending on the drying of the sprayed droplets on the substrate, we define two broad regimes, "dry" and "wet". The optimum condition of spraying lies in a narrow window between...... these two regimes, where we obtain a film of desired quality. Both with increasing nozzle-substrate distance and temperature, the deposition moves from a wet state to a dry regime. Similar results are also achieved for solvents with low boiling points. Finally, we study film formation during spray coating......In this work we have performed a detailed study of the influence of various parameters on spray coating of polymer films. Our aim is to produce polymer films of uniform thickness (500 nm to 1 μm) and low roughness compared to the film thickness. The coatings are characterized with respect...

  1. HIGH TEMPERATURE EROSION WEAR OF CERMET PARTICLES REINFORCED SELF-FLUXING ALLOY MATRIX HVOF SPRAYED COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Surzhenkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the resistance of high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF sprayed TiC-NiMo and Cr3C2-Ni cermet particles reinforced NiCrSiB self-fluxing alloy matrix coatings to high temperature erosion wear is studied. Microstructure of the coatings was examined by SEM, phase composition was determined by XRD. A four-channel centrifugal particle accelerator was applied to study the high temperature erosion wear of the coatings. The impact angles were 30 and 90 degrees, initial particle velocity was 50 m/s, temperature of the test - 650 degrees. Volume wear of the coatings was calculated and compared to the respective values of the reference materials. Wear mechanisms were studied by SEM.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7617

  2. Development of Cr3C2-25(Ni20Cr) nanostructured coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Cecilio Alvares da

    2012-01-01

    This study is divided in two parts. The first part is about the preparation of nanostructured Cr 3 C 2 -25(Ni20Cr) powders by high energy milling followed by characterization of the milled and the as received powder. Analyses of some of the data obtained were done using a theoretical approach. The second part of this study is about the preparation and characterization of coatings prepared with the nanostructured as well as the as received Cr 3 C 2 -25(Ni20Cr) powders. The high temperature erosion-oxidation (E-O) behavior of the coatings prepared with the two types of powders has been compared based on a technological approach. The average crystallite size of the Cr 3 C 2 -25(Ni20Cr) powder decreased rapidly from 145 nm to 50 nm in the initial stages of milling and thereafter decreased slowly to a steady state value of around 10 nm with further increase in milling time. This steady state corresponds to the beginning of a dynamic recovery process. The maximum lattice strain (ε = 1,17%) was observed in powders milled for 16 hours, and this powders critical crystallite size was 28 nm. In contrast, the lattice parameter attained a minimum for powders milled for 16 hours. Upon reaching the critical crystallite size, the dislocation density attained a steady state regime and all plastic deformation introduced in the material there after was in the form of events occurring at the grain boundaries, due mainly to grain boundary sliding. The deformation energy stored in the crystal lattice of the Cr 3 C 2 -25(Ni20Cr) powders milled for different times was determined from enthalpy variation measurements. These results indicated that the maximum enthalpy variation (δH = 722 mcal) also occurred for powders milled for 16 hours. In a similar manner, the maximum specific heat variation (δC p = 0,278 cal/gK) occurred for powders milled for 16 hours. The following mechanical properties of Cr 3 C 2 -25(Ni20Cr) coatings prepared using the HVOF thermal spray process were determined

  3. DURABILITY AND TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THERMALLY SPRAYED WC CERMET COATING IN LUBRICATED ROLLING WITH SLIDING CONTACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Durability and tribological properties of thermally sprayed WC-Cr-Ni cermet coating were investigated experimentally in lubricated rolling with sliding contact conditions. By means of the high energy type flame spraying (Hi-HVOF method, the coating was formed onto the axially ground and circumferentially ground roller specimens made of a thermally refined carbon steel. In the experiments, the WC cermet coated steel roller was mated with the carburized hardened steel roller without coating in line contact condition. The coated roller was mated with the smooth non-coated roller under a contact pressure of 1.0 or 1.2 GPa, and it was mated with the rough non-coated roller under a contact pressure of 0.6 or 0.8 GPa. As a result, it was found that in general, the coating on the circumferentially ground substrate shows a lower durability compared with that on the axially ground substrate and this difference appears more distinctly for the higher contact pressure for both smooth mating surface and rough mating surface. It was also found that there are significant differences in the tribological properties of WC cermet coating depending on the contact pressure. In addition, depending on the smooth or rough mating surface, remarkable differences in the tribological properties were found.

  4. Thermal Conductivity and Wear Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed Fe-Based Amorphous Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Yao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To protect aluminum parts in vehicle engines, metal-based thermal barrier coatings in the form of Fe59Cr12Nb5B20Si4 amorphous coatings were prepared by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF spraying under two different conditions. The microstructure, thermal transport behavior, and wear behavior of the coatings were characterized simultaneously. As a result, this alloy shows high process robustness during spraying. Both Fe-based coatings present dense, layered structure with porosities below 0.9%. Due to higher amorphous phase content, the coating H-1 exhibits a relatively low thermal conductivity, reaching 2.66 W/(m·K, two times lower than the reference stainless steel coating (5.85 W/(m·K, indicating a good thermal barrier property. Meanwhile, the thermal diffusivity of amorphous coatings display a limited increase with temperature up to 500 °C, which guarantees a steady and wide usage on aluminum alloy. Furthermore, the amorphous coating shows better wear resistance compared to high carbon martensitic GCr15 steel at different temperatures. The increased temperature accelerating the tribological reaction, leads to the friction coefficient and wear rate of coating increasing at 200 °C and decreasing at 400 °C.

  5. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Glass, Robert S.; Lee, Tae H.

    2002-01-01

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  6. Plasma transferred arc surface modification of atmospheric plasma sprayed ceramic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulutan, Mustafa; Kilicay, Koray; Kaya, Esad; Bayar, Ismail [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, a 90MnCrV8 steel surface was coated with aluminum oxide and chromium oxide powders through the Atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and Plasma transferred arc (PTA) methods. The effects of PTA surface melting on the microstructure, hardness, and wear behavior were investigated. The microstructures of plasma-sprayed and modified layers were characterized by Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The dry-sliding wear properties of the samples were determined through the ball-on-disk wear test method. Voids, cracks, and nonhomogeneous regions were observed in the microstructure of the APS ceramic-coated surface. These microstructure defects were eliminated by the PTA welding process. The microhardness of the samples was increased. Significant reductions in wear rate were observed after the PTA surface modification. The wear resistance of ceramic coatings increased 7 to 12 times compared to that of the substrate material.

  7. Simulation of the coating film appearance for spray application

    OpenAIRE

    Seeler, Fabian; Hager, Christian; Schneider, Matthias; Tiedje, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The coating film topography depends on the substrate structure, the application parameters and the coating material’s levelling properties. Substrates consisting of several materials with different surface structures and differently inclined areas make a homogenous coating film structure difficult. By means of simulations, the paint film structure is intended to be controlled so that the theoretical optimum is reached and the experimental effort can be reduced. The focus is on spray applicati...

  8. Effects of variations in coating materials and process conditions on the thermal cycle properties of NiCrAlY/YSZ thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Feng [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: ftang@ucdavis.edu; Ajdelsztajn, Leonardo [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Kim, George E. [Perpetual Technologies, Montreal, Que., H3E 1T8 (Canada); Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Schoenung, Julie M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Thermal cycle tests were conducted on a variety of thermal barrier coating (TBC) specimens with bond coats that had been prepared in different ways. Variables include: (1) different thermal spray processes (high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray and low pressure plasma spray (LPPS)) (2) different feedstock powder (gas-atomized and cryomilled) (3) the introduction of nano-sized alumina additives (particles and whiskers) and (4) with and without a post-spray vacuum heat treatment. The results show that the cryomilling of the NiCrAlY powder and the post-spray heat treatment in vacuum can both lead to significant improvement in the thermal cycle lifetime of the TBCs. The TBC specimens with LPPS bond coats also generally showed longer lifetimes than those with HVOF bond coats. In contrast, the intentional dispersion of alumina particles or whiskers in the NiCrAlY powders during cryomilling did not result in the further improvement of the lifetime of the TBCs. Microstructural evolution, including the thermally grown oxide (TGO) formation, the distribution of the dispersoids in the bond coat, the internal oxidation of the bond coat, the bond coat shrinkage during the thermal cycle tests and the reduction of the ZrO{sub 2} in the top coat during the heat treatment in vacuum, was investigated.

  9. Cr-Ni ALLOY ELECTRODEPOSITION AND COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL PURE Cr COATING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moniruzzaman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cr coating is widely used as the outer surface of precision parts due to its attractive appearance and superior corrosion resistance properties. It is obtained by electrodeposition via a conventional bath with hexavalent Cr ions. This manufacturing technique has many drawbacks, such as very low efficiency and high operating temperature and it is hazardous to health. In this work, we studied a Cr-Ni alloy deposition technique and compared the alloy coating properties to those with conventional Cr coating. Sequential two-step alloy electrodeposition was also compared. We took varying concentrations of Cr, Ni and complexing agents for the electrodeposition of Cr-Ni alloy and sequential Cr-Ni alloy coating on mild steel. Operating parameters, i.e. current density and temperature, were varied to examine their effects on the coating properties. The coatings thus obtained were characterized by visual observation, corrosion test, microhardness measurement, morphology and chemical analysis. The Cr-Ni alloy coating was found to be more corrosion resistant in 5% NaCl solution and harder than the pure Cr coating obtained by conventional electrodeposition. Toxic gas was produced in a much lower extent in the alloy coating than the conventional Cr coating technique. Again, the two-step Cr-Ni alloy coating was found better in terms of corrosion resistance as well as hardness compared to the Cr-Ni alloy coating. The process was also found to be much more environmentally friendly.

  10. Evaluation of Plasma Spray hydroxy Apatite Coatings on Metallic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Take, S.; Mitsul, K.; Kasahara, M.; Sawal, R.; Izawa, S.; Nakayama, M.; Itoi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Biocompatible Hydroxy apatite (HAp) coatings on metallic substrate by plasma spray techniques have been developed. Long-term credibility of plasma spray HAp coatings has been evaluated in physiological saline by electrochemical measurements. It was found that the corrosion resistance of SUS316L based HAp/Ti combined coatings was excellent even after more than 10 weeks long-term immersion. It was shown that postal heat treatment improved both the crystallinity and corrosion resistance of HAp. By lowering cooling rate during heat treatment process, less cracks produced in HAp coating layer, which lead to higher credibility of HAp during immersion in physiological saline. The ICP results showed that the dissolution level of substrate metallic ions was low and HAp coatings produced in this research can be acceptable as biocompatible materials. Also, the concentration of dissolved ions from HAp coatings with postal heat treatment was lower compared to those from samples without postal heat treatment. The adherence of HAp coatings with Ti substrate and other mechanical properties were also assessed by three-point bending test. The poor adhesion of HAp coating to titanium substrate can be improved by introducing a plasma spray titanium intermediate layer

  11. Synthesis and characterization of binder-free Cr3C2 coatings on nickel-based alloys for molten fluoride salt corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brupbacher, Michael C.; Zhang, Dajie; Buchta, William M.; Graybeal, Mark L.; Rhim, Yo-Rhin; Nagle, Dennis C.; Spicer, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Under various conditions, chromium carbides appear to be relatively stable in the presence of molten fluoride salts and this suggests that their use in corrosion resistant coatings for fluoride salt environments could be beneficial. One method for producing these coatings is the carburization of sprayed Cr coatings using methane-containing gaseous precursors. This process has been investigated for the synthesis of binder-free chromium carbide coatings on nickel-based alloy substrates for molten fluoride salt corrosion resistance. The effects of the carburization process on coating microstructure have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both plasma-sprayed and cold-sprayed Cr coatings have been successfully converted to Cr 3 C 2 , with the mechanism of conversion being strongly influenced by the initial porosity in the as-deposited coatings

  12. Cold-Sprayed AZ91D Coating and SiC/AZ91D Composite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging coating building technique, cold spraying has many advantages to elaborate Mg alloy workpieces. In this study, AZ91D coatings and AZ91D-based composite coatings were deposited using cold spraying. Coatings were prepared using different gas temperatures to obtain the available main gas temperature. Compressed air was used as the accelerating gas, and although magnesium alloy is oxidation-sensitive, AZ91D coatings with good performance were obtained. The results show that dense coatings can be fabricated until the gas temperature is higher than 500 °C. The deposition efficiency increases greatly with the gas temperature, but it is lower than 10% for all coating specimens. To analyze the effects of compressed air on AZ91D powder particles and the effects of gas temperature on coatings, the phase composition, porosity, cross-sectional microstructure, and microhardness of coatings were characterized. X-ray diffraction and oxygen content analysis clarified that no phase transformation or oxidation occurred on AZ91D powder particles during cold spraying processes with compressed air. The porosity of AZ91D coatings remained between 3.6% and 3.9%. Impact melting was found on deformed AZ91D particles when the gas temperature increased to 550 °C. As-sprayed coatings exhibit much higher microhardness than as-casted bulk magnesium, demonstrating the dense structure of cold-sprayed coatings. To study the effects of ceramic particles on cold-sprayed AZ91D coatings, 15 vol % SiC powder particles were added into the feedstock powder. Lower SiC content in the coating than in the feedstock powder means that the deposition efficiency of the SiC powder particles is lower than the deposition efficiency of AZ91D particles. The addition of SiC particles reduces the porosity and increases the microhardness of cold-sprayed AZ91D coatings. The corrosion behavior of AZ91D coating and SiC reinforced AZ91D composite coating were examined. The Si

  13. Structure and corrosion properties of PVD Cr-N coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C; Ziegele, H; Leyland, A; Matthews, A

    2002-01-01

    PVD Cr-N coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are increasingly used for mechanical and tribological applications in various industrial sectors. These coatings are particularly attractive for their excellent corrosion resistance, which further enhances the lifetime and service quality of coated components. PVD Cr-N coated steels in an aqueous solution are usually corroded by galvanic attack via through-coating 'permeable' defects (e.g., pores). Therefore, the corrosion performance of Cr-N coated steel is determined by a number of variables of the coating properties and corrosive environment. These variables include: (i) surface continuity and uniformity; (ii) through-coating porosity; (iii) film density and chemical stability; (iv) growth stresses; (v) interfacial and intermediate layers; (vi) coating thickness; (vii) coating composition; and (viii) substrate properties. In this article, PVD Cr-N coatings were prepared, by electron-beam PVD and sputter deposition, with different compositions, t...

  14. Thermal spray deposition and evaluation of low-Z coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seals, R.D.; Swindeman, C.J.; White, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Thermally sprayed low-Z coatings of B 4 C on Al substrates were investigated as candidate materials for first-wall reactor protective surfaces. Comparisons were made to thermally sprayed coatings of B, MgAl 2 O 4 , Al 2 O 3 , and composites. Graded bond layers were applied to mitigate coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch. Microstructures, thermal diffusivity before and after thermal shock loading, steel ball impact resistance, CO 2 pellet cleaning and erosion tolerance, phase content, stoichiometry by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and relative tensile strengths were measured

  15. High temperature tribological properties of plasma-sprayed metallic coatings containing ceramic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallaire, S.; Legoux, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    For sealing a moving metal component with a dense silica-based ceramic pre-heated at 800 C, coatings with a low coefficient of friction and moderate wear loss are required. As reported previously, plasma-sprayed coatings containing solid lubricants could reduce sliding wear in high-temperature applications. Plasma-sprayed metal-based coatings containing ceramic particles have been considered for high temperature sealing. Selected metal powders (NiCoCrAlY, CuNi, CuNiIn, Ag, Cu) and ceramic particles (boron nitride, Zeta-B ceramic) were agglomerated to form suitable spray powders. Plasma-sprayed composite coatings and reference materials were tested in a modified pin-on-disc apparatus in which the stationary disc consisted of a dense silica-based ceramic piece initially heated at 800 C and allowed to cool down during tests. The influence of single exposure and repeated contacts with a dense silica-based ceramic material pre-heated to 800 C on the coefficient of friction, wear loss and damage to the ceramic piece was evaluated. Being submitted to a single exposure at high temperature, coatings containing malleable metals such as indium, silver and copper performed well. The outstanding tribological characteristics of the copper-Zeta-B ceramic coating was attributed to the formation of a glazed layer on the surface of this coating which lasted over exposures to high temperature. This glazed layer, composed of fine oxidation products, provided a smooth and polished surface and helped maintaining the coefficient of friction low

  16. Cold spray copper coatings for used fuel containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keech, P. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vo, P.; Poirier, D.; Legoux, J-G [National Research Council, Boucherville QC, (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Recently, the Nuclear Waste Management Organization has been developing copper coatings as a method of protecting steel used fuel containers (UFCs) from corrosion within a deep geological repository. The corrosion barrier design is based on the application of a copper coating bonded directly to the exterior surface of the UFC structural core. Copper coating technologies amendable to supply of pre-coated UFC vessel components and application to the weld zone following UFC closure within the radiological environment have been investigated. Copper cold spray has been assessed for both operations; this paper outlines the research and development to date of this technique. (author)

  17. Improved bonding strength of bioactive cermet Cold Gas Spray coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardon, M; Concustell, A; Dosta, S; Cinca, N; Cano, I G; Guilemany, J M

    2014-12-01

    The fabrication of cermet biocompatible coatings by means Cold Gas Spray (CGS) provides prosthesis with outstanding mechanical properties and the required composition for enhancing the bioactivity of prosthetic materials. In this study, hydroxyapatite/Titanium coatings were deposited by means of CGS technology onto titanium alloy substrates with the aim of building-up well-bonded homogeneous coatings. Powders were blended in different percentages and sprayed; as long as the amount of hydroxyapatite in the feedstock increased, the quality of the coating was reduced. Besides, the relation between the particle size distribution of ceramic and metallic particles is of significant consideration. Plastic deformation of titanium particles at the impact eased the anchoring of hard hydroxyapatite particles present at the top surface of the coating, which assures the looked-for interaction with the cells. Coatings were immersed in Hank's solution for 1, 4 and 7 days; bonding strength value was above 60 MPa even after 7 days, which enhances common results of HAp coatings obtained by conventional thermal spray technologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) of Ceramics for Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Bryan J.; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    In order to generate advanced multilayer thermal and environmental protection systems, a new deposition process is needed to bridge the gap between conventional plasma spray, which produces relatively thick coatings on the order of 125-250 microns, and conventional vapor phase processes such as electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) which are limited by relatively slow deposition rates, high investment costs, and coating material vapor pressure requirements. The use of Plasma Spray - Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) processing fills this gap and allows thin (deposited and multilayer coatings of less than 100 microns to be generated with the flexibility to tailor microstructures by changing processing conditions. Coatings of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were applied to NiCrAlY bond coated superalloy substrates using the PS-PVD coater at NASA Glenn Research Center. A design-of-experiments was used to examine the effects of process variables (Ar/He plasma gas ratio, the total plasma gas flow, and the torch current) on chamber pressure and torch power. Coating thickness, phase and microstructure were evaluated for each set of deposition conditions. Low chamber pressures and high power were shown to increase coating thickness and create columnar-like structures. Likewise, high chamber pressures and low power had lower growth rates, but resulted in flatter, more homogeneous layers

  19. The Tribological Performance of Hardfaced/ Thermal Sprayed Coatings for Increasing the Wear Resistance of Ventilation Mill Working Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vencl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During the coal pulverizing, the working parts of the ventilation mill are being worn by the sand particles. For this reason, the working parts are usually protected with materials resistant to wear (hardfaced/thermal sprayed coatings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tribological performance of four different types of coatings as candidates for wear protection of the mill’s working parts. The coatings were produced by using the filler materials with the following nominal chemical composition: NiFeBSi-WC, NiCrBSiC, FeCrCTiSi, and FeCrNiCSiBMn, and by using the plasma arc welding and flame and electric arc spraying processes. The results showed that Ni-based coatings exhibited higher wear resistance than Fe-based coatings. The highest wear resistance showed coating produced by using the NiFeBSi-WC filler material and plasma transferred arc welding deposition process. The hardness was not the only characteristic that affected the wear resistance. In this context, the wear rate of NiFeBSi-WC coating was not in correlation with its hardness, in contrast to other coatings. The different wear performance of NiFeBSi-WC coating was attributed to the different type and morphological features of the reinforcing particles (WC.

  20. BEHAVIOR OF THERMAL SPRAY COATINGS AGAINST HYDROGEN ATTACK

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Fabio; Latorre, Guillermo; Uribe, Iván

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of nickel and chrome alloys applied as thermal spray coatings to be used as protection against embrittlement by hydrogen is studied. Coatings were applied on a carbon steel substrate, under conditions that allow obtain different crystalline structures and porosity levels, in order to determine the effect of these variables on the hydrogen permeation kinetics and as a protection means against embrittlement caused this element. In order to establish behaviors as barriers and protec...

  1. Corrosion resistance and characterization of metallic coatings deposited by thermal spray on carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sá Brito, V.R.S.; Bastos, I.N.; Costa, H.R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Five combinations of metallic coatings and intermediate bonds were deposited on carbon steels. ► High strength was reached in adhesion tests. ► Epoxy sealing of coatings improves corrosion resistance. -- Abstract: Carbon steels are not resistant to corrosion and several methods are used in surface engineering to protect them from aggressive environments such as marine. The main objective of this work is the evaluation of mechanical and metallurgical properties of five metallic coatings produced by thermal spray on carbon steel. Five chemical compositions were tested in order to give a large panel of possibility. Coatings were characterized by several methods to result in a screening of their performance. At first, the assessment of microstructural morphology by optical microscopy (OM) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was made. OM and SEM results showed uniformity of deposited layer, low amount of oxides and porosity. The physical properties of coatings were also evaluated by microhardness measurement, adhesion and porosity quantification. The corrosion resistance was analyzed in salt spray and electrochemical polarization tests. In the polarization test, as well as in the salt spray, all sealed conditions presented low corrosion. A new intermediate 78.3Ni20Cr1.4Si0.3Fe alloy was studied in order to reduce pores and microcracks that are frequently found in ordinary 95Ni5Al alloy. Based on the performed characterizations, the findings suggested that the FeCrCo deposition, with an epoxy sealing, is suitable to be used as an efficient coating of carbon steel in aggressive marine environments.

  2. Rare earth effect on microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of CoCrW coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenyu; Lu Xinchun; Han Baolei; Luo Jianbin

    2007-01-01

    Eight different CoCrW coatings doped with rare earth oxide were deposited by supersonic plasma spraying (SPS). Environmental scanning electron microscopy, microhardness tester, X-ray diffractometer, and self-developed tribometer for high temperature were employed to investigate the properties of sprayed coatings. The results show that rare earth can refine the microstructure effectively, and make the element distribution uniform, which leads to the increase of average microhardness and the corresponding decrease of fluctuation range of sectioned surface of SPS coatings. Furthermore, the rare earth can reduce the friction coefficient between the SPS coating and glass during the sliding process at about 973 K largely, and the mechanism of anti-friction is also discussed

  3. Nonlinear Stress-Strain Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nohava, Jiří; Kroupa, František

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2005), s. 251-262 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma spraying * ceramic coatings * Young’s modulus * nonlinear behavior * microcracks Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  4. Bond strength of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings on phosphate steels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, P.; Mastný, L.; Sýkora, V.; Pala, Zdeněk; Brožek, Vlastimil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2015), s. 411-414 ISSN 0543-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : phosphating * plasma spraying * ceramic coatings * corrosion * bond strength Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  5. Interface bonding of NiCrAlY coating on laser modified H13 tool steel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, M. S.; Aqida, S. N.; Ismail, I.

    2016-06-01

    Bonding strength of thermal spray coatings depends on the interfacial adhesion between bond coat and substrate material. In this paper, NiCrAlY (Ni-164/211 Ni22 %Cr10 %Al1.0 %Y) coatings were developed on laser modified H13 tool steel surface using atmospheric plasma spray (APS). Different laser peak power, P p, and duty cycle, DC, were investigated in order to improve the mechanical properties of H13 tool steel surface. The APS spraying parameters setting for coatings were set constant. The coating microstructure near the interface was analyzed using IM7000 inverted optical microscope. Interface bonding of NiCrAlY was investigated by interfacial indentation test (IIT) method using MMT-X7 Matsuzawa Hardness Tester Machine with Vickers indenter. Diffusion of atoms along NiCrAlY coating, laser modified and substrate layers was investigated by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) using Hitachi Tabletop Microscope TM3030 Plus. Based on IIT method results, average interfacial toughness, K avg, for reference sample was 2.15 MPa m1/2 compared to sample L1 range of K avg from 6.02 to 6.96 MPa m1/2 and sample L2 range of K avg from 2.47 to 3.46 MPa m1/2. Hence, according to K avg, sample L1 has the highest interface bonding and is being laser modified at lower laser peak power, P p, and higher duty cycle, DC, prior to coating. The EDXS analysis indicated the presence of Fe in the NiCrAlY coating layer and increased Ni and Cr composition in the laser modified layer. Atomic diffusion occurred in both coating and laser modified layers involved in Fe, Ni and Cr elements. These findings introduce enhancement of coating system by substrate surface modification to allow atomic diffusion.

  6. Stress analysis of thermal sprayed coatings using a semi-destructive hole-drilling strain gauge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolhof, V.; Musil, J.; Cepera, M.; Zeman, J.

    1995-01-01

    Residual stress is an important parameter in coating technology since it often relates to the maximum coating thickness which can be deposited without spallation, and this applies to coatings produced by different thermal spray and thin film technologies. Indeed, the mechanisms by which residual stress is built up or locked into a coating depends markedly on the deposition process and coating structure (growth structure, phase composition) in the same way too. Methods for determining residual stresses in materials include both destructive and non-destructive methods. This contribution describes semi-destructive hole-drilling strain gauge method modified for measurement of residual stresses in thermal sprayed coatings. This method of stress analysis was used for determination of stress levels in thermal sprayed WC-17% Co coatings onto 13% Cr steel substrates. Results show that deposition conditions and final coating structure influence directly the residual stress level in the coatings. It is proved that semi-destructive hole-tube drilling measurement is effective reproducible method of coating stress analysis and good solution for optimization of deposition process

  7. Scratch induced failure of plasma sprayed alumina based coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, S; Bandyopadhyay, P.P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Scratch induced failure of alumina based coatings including nanostructured is reported. ► Ceramic is deposited on bond coat instead of steel, emulating a realistic situation. ► Lateral force data is supplemented with microscopy to observe coating failure. ► The failure mechanism during scratching has been identified. ► Critical load of failure has been calculated for each bond-top coat combination. -- Abstract: A set of plasma sprayed coatings were obtained from three alumina based top coat and two bond coat powders. Scratch test was undertaken on these coatings, under constant and linearly varying load. Test results include the lateral force data and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Failure occurred by large area spallation of the top coat and in most cases tensile cracks appeared on the exposed bond coat. The lateral force showed an increasing trend with an increase in normal load up to a certain point and beyond this, it assumed a steady average value. The locations of coating spallation and occurrence of maximum lateral force did not coincide. A bond coat did not show a significant role in determining the scratch adhesion strength.

  8. Microstructural Analysis and Transport Properties of Thermally Sprayed Multiple-Layer Ceramic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Haynes, J. Allen; Porter, Wallace D.; England, Roger D.; Hays, Michael; Dwivedi, Gopal; Sampath, Sanjay

    2018-02-01

    Multilayer, graded ceramic/metal coatings were prepared by an air plasma spray method on Ti-6Al-4V, 4140 steel and graphite substrates. The coatings were designed to provide thermal barriers for diesel engine pistons to operate at higher temperatures with improved thermal efficiency and cleaner emissions. A systematic, progressive variation in the mixture of yttria-stabilized zirconia and bondcoat alloys (NiCoCrAlYHfSi) was designed to provide better thermal expansion match with the substrate and to improve thermal shock resistance and cycle life. Heat transfer through the layers was evaluated by a flash diffusivity technique based on a model of one-dimensional heat flow. The aging effect of the as-sprayed coatings was captured during diffusivity measurements, which included one heating and cooling cycle. The hysteresis of thermal diffusivity due to aging was not observed after 100-h annealing at 800 °C. The measurements of coatings on substrate and freestanding coatings allowed the influence of interface resistance to be evaluated. The microstructure of the multilayer coating was examined using scanning electron microscope and electron probe microanalysis.

  9. Erosion resistance and adhesion of composite metal/ceramic coatings produced by plasma spraying

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm , D.; Hutchings , I.; Clyne , T.

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic coatings can exhibit greater erosion resistance than most metallic coatings. Such coatings are conveniently produced by thermal spraying. Unfortunately, thermally sprayed ceramic coatings often exhibit poor adhesion, partly as a consequence of the development of residual stresses during spraying and subsequent cooling. Composite coatings have been studied using aluminium/alumina deposits on steel substrates. The incorporation of ceramics within a ductile matrix has potential for sharp...

  10. Computational homogenisation for thermoviscoplasticity: application to thermally sprayed coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Rolf; Denzer, Ralf; Oppermann, Philip; Menzel, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Metal forming processes require wear-resistant tool surfaces in order to ensure a long life cycle of the expensive tools together with a constant high quality of the produced components. Thermal spraying is a relatively widely applied coating technique for the deposit of wear protection coatings. During these coating processes, heterogeneous coatings are deployed at high temperatures followed by quenching where residual stresses occur which strongly influence the performance of the coated tools. The objective of this article is to discuss and apply a thermo-mechanically coupled simulation framework which captures the heterogeneity of the deposited coating material. Therefore, a two-scale finite element framework for the solution of nonlinear thermo-mechanically coupled problems is elaborated and applied to the simulation of thermoviscoplastic material behaviour including nonlinear thermal softening in a geometrically linearised setting. The finite element framework and material model is demonstrated by means of numerical examples.

  11. High-Performance Molybdenum Coating by Wire–HVOF Thermal Spray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Satish; Modi, Ankur; Modi, S. C.

    2018-04-01

    Coating deposition on many industrial components with good microstructural, mechanical properties, and better wear resistance is always a challenge for the thermal spray community. A number of thermal spray methods are used to develop such promising coatings for many industrial applications, viz. arc spray, flame spray, plasma, and HVOF. All these processes have their own limitations to achieve porous free, very dense, high-performance wear-resistant coatings. In this work, an attempt has been made to overcome this limitation. Molybdenum coatings were deposited on low-carbon steel substrates using wire-high-velocity oxy-fuel (W-HVOF; WH) thermal spray system (trade name HIJET 9610®). For a comparison, Mo coatings were also fabricated by arc spray, flame spray, plasma spray, and powder-HVOF processes. As-sprayed coatings were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy for phase, and microstructural analysis, respectively. Coating microhardness, surface roughness, and porosity were also measured. Adhesion strength and wear tests were conducted to determine the mechanical and wear properties of the as-sprayed coatings. Results show that the coatings deposited by W-HVOF have better performance in terms of microstructural, mechanical, and wear resistance properties, in comparison with available thermal spray process (flame spray and plasma spray).

  12. Standard guide for metallographic preparation of thermal sprayed coatings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers recommendations for sectioning, cleaning, mounting, grinding, and polishing to reveal the microstructural features of thermal sprayed coatings (TSCs) and the substrates to which they are applied when examined microscopically. Because of the diversity of available equipment, the wide variety of coating and substrate combinations, and the sensitivity of these specimens to preparation technique, the existence of a series of recommended methods for metallographic preparation of thermal sprayed coating specimens is helpful. Adherence to this guide will provide practitioners with consistent and reproducible results. Additional information concerning standard practices for metallographic preparation can be found in Practice E 3. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitatio...

  13. Computational image analysis of Suspension Plasma Sprayed YSZ coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalak Monika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the computational studies of microstructure- and topography- related features of suspension plasma sprayed (SPS coatings of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ. The study mainly covers the porosity assessment, provided by ImageJ software analysis. The influence of boundary conditions, defined by: (i circularity and (ii size limits, on the computed values of porosity is also investigated. Additionally, the digital topography evaluation is performed: confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM and scanning electron microscope (SEM operating in Shape from Shading (SFS mode measure surface roughness of deposited coatings. Computed values of porosity and roughness are referred to the variables of the spraying process, which influence the morphology of coatings and determines the possible fields of their applications.

  14. Design and optimization of coating structure for the thermal barrier coatings fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying via finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first prerequisite for fabricating the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with excellent performance is to find an optimized coating structure with high thermal insulation effect and low residual stress. This paper discusses the design and optimization of a suitable coating structure for the TBCs prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS using the finite element method. The design and optimization processes comply with the rules step by step, as the structure develops from a simple to a complex one. The research results indicate that the suitable thicknesses of the bond-coating and top-coating are 60–120 μm and 300–420 μm, respectively, for the single ceramic layer YSZ/NiCoCrAlY APS-TBC. The embedded interlayer (50 wt.%YSZ + 50 wt.%NiCoCrAlY will further reduce the residual stress without sacrificing the thermal insulation effect. The double ceramic layer was further considered which was based on the single ceramic layer TBC. The embedded interlayer and the upper additional ceramic layer will have a best match between the low residual stress and high thermal insulation effect. Finally, the optimized coating structure was obtained, i.e., the La2Ce2O7(LC/YSZ/Interlayer/NiCoCrAlY coating structure with appropriate layer thickness is the best choice. The effective thermal conductivity of this optimized LC/YSZ/IL/BL TBC is 13.2% lower than that of the typical single ceramic layer YSZ/BL TBC.

  15. Development and Application of Binary Suspensions in the Ternary System Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 for S-HVOF Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Annegret; Kratzsch, Robert; Barbosa, Maria; Kulissa, Nick; Kunze, Oliver; Toma, Filofteia-Laura

    2018-04-01

    Compositions in the system Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 are among the most used ceramic materials for thermally sprayed coating solutions. Cr2O3 coatings present good sliding wear resistance; Al2O3 coatings show excellent insulation behavior and TiO2 striking corrosion properties. In order to combine these properties, coatings containing more than one oxide are highly interesting. The conventional spraying process is limited to the availability of binary feedstock powders with defined compositions. The use of suspensions offers the opportunity for tailor-made chemical compositions: within the triangle of Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3, each mixture of oxides can be created. Criteria for the selection of raw materials as well as the relevant aspects for the development of binary suspensions in the Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 system to be used as feedstock for thermal spraying are presented. This formulation of binary suspensions required the development of water-based single-oxide suspensions with suitable behavior; otherwise, the interaction between the particles while mixing could lead up to a formation of agglomerates, which affect both the stability of the spray process and the coating properties. For the validation of this formulation procedure, binary Cr2O3-TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2 suspensions were developed and sprayed using the S-HVOF process. The binary coatings were characterized and discussed in terms of microstructure and microhardness.

  16. Development and Application of Binary Suspensions in the Ternary System Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 for S-HVOF Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Annegret; Kratzsch, Robert; Barbosa, Maria; Kulissa, Nick; Kunze, Oliver; Toma, Filofteia-Laura

    2018-03-01

    Compositions in the system Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 are among the most used ceramic materials for thermally sprayed coating solutions. Cr2O3 coatings present good sliding wear resistance; Al2O3 coatings show excellent insulation behavior and TiO2 striking corrosion properties. In order to combine these properties, coatings containing more than one oxide are highly interesting. The conventional spraying process is limited to the availability of binary feedstock powders with defined compositions. The use of suspensions offers the opportunity for tailor-made chemical compositions: within the triangle of Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3, each mixture of oxides can be created. Criteria for the selection of raw materials as well as the relevant aspects for the development of binary suspensions in the Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 system to be used as feedstock for thermal spraying are presented. This formulation of binary suspensions required the development of water-based single-oxide suspensions with suitable behavior; otherwise, the interaction between the particles while mixing could lead up to a formation of agglomerates, which affect both the stability of the spray process and the coating properties. For the validation of this formulation procedure, binary Cr2O3-TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2 suspensions were developed and sprayed using the S-HVOF process. The binary coatings were characterized and discussed in terms of microstructure and microhardness.

  17. Kinematic Optimization of Robot Trajectories for Thermal Spray Coating Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Sihao; Liang, Hong; Cai, Zhenhua; Liao, Hanlin; Montavon, Ghislain

    2014-12-01

    Industrial robots are widely used in the field of thermal spray nowadays. Due to their characteristics of high-accuracy and programmable flexibility, spraying on complex geometrical workpieces can be realized in the equipped spray room. However, in some cases, the robots cannot guarantee the process parameters defined by the robot movement, such as the scanning trajectory, spray angle, relative speed between the torch and the substrate, etc., which have distinct influences on heat and mass transfer during the generation of any thermally sprayed coatings. In this study, an investigation on the robot kinematics was proposed to find the rules of motion in a common case. The results showed that the motion behavior of each axis of robot permits to identify the motion problems in the trajectory. This approach allows to optimize the robot trajectory generation in a limited working envelop. It also minimizes the influence of robot performance to achieve a more constant relative scanning speed which is represented as a key parameter in thermal spraying.

  18. Anisotropic Thermal Diffusivities of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoshima, Megumi; Takahashi, Satoru

    2017-09-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used to shield the blades of gas turbines from heat and wear. There is a pressing need to evaluate the thermal conductivity of TBCs in the thermal design of advanced gas turbines with high energy efficiency. These TBCs consist of a ceramic-based top coat and a bond coat on a superalloy substrate. Usually, the focus is on the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction of the TBC because heat tends to diffuse from the surface of the top coat to the substrate. However, the in-plane thermal conductivity is also important in the thermal design of gas turbines because the temperature distribution within the turbine cannot be ignored. Accordingly, a method is developed in this study for measuring the in-plane thermal diffusivity of the top coat. Yttria-stabilized zirconia top coats are prepared by thermal spraying under different conditions. The in-plane and cross-plane thermal diffusivities of the top coats are measured by the flash method to investigate the anisotropy of thermal conduction in a TBC. It is found that the in-plane thermal diffusivity is higher than the cross-plane one for each top coat and that the top coats have significantly anisotropic thermal diffusivity. The cross-sectional and in-plane microstructures of the top coats are observed, from which their porosities are evaluated. The thermal diffusivity and its anisotropy are discussed in detail in relation to microstructure and porosity.

  19. Plasma sprayed rutile titania-nanosilver antibacterial coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jinjin [Key Lab of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhao, Chengjian [National Key Laboratory of Human Factors Engineering, Department of ECLSS, China Astronaut Researching and Training Center, Beijing, 100094 (China); Zhou, Jingfang [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, SA, 5095 (Australia); Li, Chunxia [National Key Laboratory of Human Factors Engineering, Department of ECLSS, China Astronaut Researching and Training Center, Beijing, 100094 (China); Shao, Yiran; Shi, Chao [Key Lab of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhu, Yingchun, E-mail: yzhu@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Lab of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/Ag feedstock powders containing 1–10,000 ppm silver nanoparticles were double sintered and deposited by plasma spray. • TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings were composed of pure rutile phase and homogeneously-distributed metallic silver. • TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings with more than 10 ppm silver nanoparticles exhibited strong antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. - Abstract: Rutile titania (TiO{sub 2}) coatings have superior mechanical properties and excellent stability that make them preferential candidates for various applications. In order to prevent infection arising from bacteria, significant efforts have been focused on antibacterial TiO{sub 2} coatings. In the study, titania-nanosilver (TiO{sub 2}/Ag) coatings with five different kinds of weight percentages of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by plasma spray. The feedstock powders, which had a composition of rutile TiO{sub 2} powders containing 1–10,000 ppm AgNPs, were double sintered and deposited on stainless steel substrates with optimized spraying parameters. X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to analysize the phase composition and surface morphology of TiO{sub 2}/Ag powders and coatings. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were employed to examine the antibacterial activity of the as-prepared coatings by bacterial counting method. The results showed that silver existed homogeneously in the TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings and no crystalline changed happened in the TiO{sub 2} structure. The reduction ratios on the TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings with 10 ppm AgNPs were as high as 94.8% and 95.6% for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively, and the TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings with 100–1000 ppm AgNPs exhibited 100% bactericidal activity against E. coli and S. aureus, which indicated the TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings with more than 10 ppm AgNPs had strong antibacterial activity. Moreover, the main factors influencing the

  20. Plasma sprayed rutile titania-nanosilver antibacterial coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jinjin; Zhao, Chengjian; Zhou, Jingfang; Li, Chunxia; Shao, Yiran; Shi, Chao; Zhu, Yingchun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO_2/Ag feedstock powders containing 1–10,000 ppm silver nanoparticles were double sintered and deposited by plasma spray. • TiO_2/Ag coatings were composed of pure rutile phase and homogeneously-distributed metallic silver. • TiO_2/Ag coatings with more than 10 ppm silver nanoparticles exhibited strong antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. - Abstract: Rutile titania (TiO_2) coatings have superior mechanical properties and excellent stability that make them preferential candidates for various applications. In order to prevent infection arising from bacteria, significant efforts have been focused on antibacterial TiO_2 coatings. In the study, titania-nanosilver (TiO_2/Ag) coatings with five different kinds of weight percentages of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by plasma spray. The feedstock powders, which had a composition of rutile TiO_2 powders containing 1–10,000 ppm AgNPs, were double sintered and deposited on stainless steel substrates with optimized spraying parameters. X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to analysize the phase composition and surface morphology of TiO_2/Ag powders and coatings. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were employed to examine the antibacterial activity of the as-prepared coatings by bacterial counting method. The results showed that silver existed homogeneously in the TiO_2/Ag coatings and no crystalline changed happened in the TiO_2 structure. The reduction ratios on the TiO_2/Ag coatings with 10 ppm AgNPs were as high as 94.8% and 95.6% for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively, and the TiO_2/Ag coatings with 100–1000 ppm AgNPs exhibited 100% bactericidal activity against E. coli and S. aureus, which indicated the TiO_2/Ag coatings with more than 10 ppm AgNPs had strong antibacterial activity. Moreover, the main factors influencing the antibacterial properties of TiO_2/Ag coatings were discussed with

  1. Corrosion Behavior of Detonation Gun Sprayed Fe-Al Type Intermetallic Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderowski, Cezary; Chodala, Michal; Bojar, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The detonation gun sprayed Fe-Al type coatings as an alternative for austenitic valve steel, were investigated using two different methods of testing corrosion resistance. High temperature, 10-hour isothermal oxidation experiments at 550, 750, 950 and 1100 °C show differences in the oxidation behavior of Fe-Al type coatings under air atmosphere. The oxide layer ensures satisfying oxidation resistance, even at 950 and 1100 °C. Hematite, α-Al2O3 and metastable alumina phases were noticed on the coatings top surface, which preserves its initial thickness providing protection to the underlying substrate. In general, only negligible changes of the phase composition of the coatings were noticed with simultaneous strengthening controlled in the micro-hardness measurements, even after 10-hours of heating at 1100 °C. On the other hand, the electrochemical corrosion tests, which were carried out in 200 ppm Cl− (NaCl) and pH ~4 (H2SO4) solution to simulate the acid-rain environment, reveal higher values of the breakdown potential for D-gun sprayed Fe-Al type coatings than the ones for the bulk Fe-Al type alloy and Cr21Mn9Ni4 austenitic valve steel. This enables these materials to be used in structural and multifunctional applications in aggressive environments, including acidic ones. PMID:28787991

  2. An electrothermal chemical technology for thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, S.; Appelbaum, G.; Alimi, R.; Rabani, L.; Zoler, D.; Zhitomirsky, V.; Factor, M.; Roman, I.

    1998-01-01

    A new spray technology for producing hard-coatings, has been developed at the SOREQ Nuclear Research Center. The concept is based on the extensive experience accumulated at SOREQ in the course of the development of Electrothermal (ET), Electrothermal-Chemical (ETC) and Solid-Propellant Electrothermal-Chemical (SPETC) guns(r). High quality coatings may be obtained by thermal spraying powder particles onto a variety of substrates. Mature state-of-the-art technologies such as plasma spray, high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) and detonation gun (D-Gun) are widely used for many applications. As each method has its own drawbacks there is a need for a combination of several parameters which cannot be achieved by any existing individual commercial technology. The method presented is oriented toward a high-quality, multi-step, high-throughput, easily programmable continuous coating process and relatively inexpensive technology. The combustion products of a solid or liquid propellant accelerate the powder particles of the coating material. A pulsed-plasma jet, provided by a confined capillary discharge, ignites the propellant and controls the combustion process. The powder particles are accelerated to velocities over 1000 m/s. Due to the very high carrier gas density, high velocity, high throughput and high powder consumption efficiency are obtained. The plasma jet enables control of the gas temperature and consequently influences the powder temperature

  3. Characterizing Suspension Plasma Spray Coating Formation Dynamics through Curvature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram Seshadri, Ramachandran; Dwivedi, Gopal; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) enables the production of variety of microstructures with unique mechanical and thermal properties. In SPS, a liquid carrier (ethanol/water) is used to transport the sub-micrometric feedstock into the plasma jet. Considering complex deposition dynamics of SPS technique, there is a need to better understand the relationships among spray conditions, ensuing particle behavior, deposition stress evolution and resultant properties. In this study, submicron yttria-stabilized zirconia particles suspended in ethanol were sprayed using a cascaded arc plasma torch. The stresses generated during the deposition of the layers (termed evolving stress) were monitored via the change in curvature of the substrate measured using an in situ measurement apparatus. Depending on the deposition conditions, coating microstructures ranged from feathery porous to dense/cracked deposits. The evolving stresses and modulus were correlated with the observed microstructures and visualized via process maps. Post-deposition bi-layer curvature measurement via low temperature thermal cycling was carried out to quantify the thermo-elastic response of different coatings. Lastly, preliminary data on furnace cycle durability of different coating microstructures were evaluated. This integrated study involving in situ diagnostics and ex situ characterization along with process maps provides a framework to describe coating formation mechanisms, process parametrics and microstructure description.

  4. Elaboration, characterization of CrN- based coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlili, B.; Nouveau, C.; Guillemot, G.

    2011-01-01

    Cr, CrN and CrAlN monolayers were synthesized by RF dual magnetron sputtering on AISI4140 steel and silicon substrates at 200 deg. C. Multilayers coatings based on the three mono-layers such as CrN/CrAlN and Cr/CrN/CrAlN were also synthesized only on Si. The physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the layers were determined by AFM, SEM+WDS, stress, roughness and nanoindentation measurements. The influence of the thickness on the mechanical properties of the monolayers stresses has been studied and as a consequence we compared the mono and multilayers stress state.

  5. Thermal spray coating for corrosion under insulation (CUI) prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, Mohd Fazril Irfan Ahmad; Razak, Khalil Abdul; Alias, Nur Hashimah; Othman, Nur Hidayati; Lah, Nik Khairul Irfan Nik Ab

    2017-12-01

    Corrosion under insulation (CUI) is one of the predominant issues affecting process of Oil and Gas and Petrochemical industries. CUI refers to external corrosion, but it is difficult to be detected as the insulation cover masks the corrosion problem. One of the options to prevent CUI is by utilizing the protective coating systems. Thermal spray coating (TSC) is an advanced coating system and it shows promising performance in harsh environment, which could be used to prevent CUI. However, the application of TSC is not attractive due to the high initial cost. This work evaluates the potential of TSC based on corrosion performance using linear polarization resistance (LPR) method and salt spray test (SST). Prior to the evaluation, the mechanical performance of TSC was first investigated using adhesion test and bend test. Microstructure characterization of the coating was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The LPR test results showed that low corrosion rate of 0.05 mm/years was obtained for TSC in compared to the bare steel especially at high temperature of 80 °C, where usually normal coating would fail. For the salt spray test, there was no sign of corrosion products especially at the center (fully coated region) was observed. From SEM images, no corrosion defects were observed after 336 hours of continuous exposure to salt fog test. This indicates that TSC protected the steel satisfactorily by acting as a barrier from a corrosive environment. In conclusion, TSC can be a possible solution to minimize the CUI in a long term. Further research should be done on corrosion performance and life cycle cost by comparing TSC with other conventional coating technology.

  6. Thermal Diffusivity Measurement for Thermal Spray Coating Attached to Substrate Using Laser Flash Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoshima, Megumi; Tanaka, Takashi; Endo, Satoshi; Baba, Tetsuya; Harada, Yoshio; Kojima, Yoshitaka; Kawasaki, Akira; Ono, Fumio

    2011-11-01

    Ceramic-based thermal barrier coatings are used as heat and wear shields of gas turbine blades. There is a strong need to evaluate the thermal conductivity of coating for thermal design and use. The thermal conductivity of a bulk material is obtained as the product of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and density above room temperature in many cases. Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity are unique for a given material because they are sensitive to the structure of the material. Therefore, it is important to measure them in each sample. However it is difficult to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of coatings because coatings are attached to substrates. In order to evaluate the thermal diffusivity of a coating attached to the substrate, we have examined the laser flash method with the multilayer model on the basis of the response function method. We carried out laser flash measurements in layered samples composed of a CoNiCrAlY bond coating and a 8YSZ top coating by thermal spraying on a Ni-based superalloy substrate. It was found that the procedure using laser flash method with the multilayer model is useful for the thermal diffusivity evaluation of a coating attached to a substrate.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of nanostructure multilayer CrN/Cr coatings on titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecinski, Piotr; Smolik, Jerzy; Garbacz, Halina; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J.

    2011-01-01

    Five different nanostructured, multilayer coatings (CrN/Cr)x8 with different thickness ratio of Cr and CrN layers were deposited by PAPVD (Plasma Assisted Physical Vapour Deposition) vacuum arc method on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. The microstructure, chemical and phase composition of the CrN and Cr sub-layers were characterized by SEM with EDX and Cs-corrected dedicated STEM on cross-sections prepared by focus ion beam. Besides, hardness and Young's modulus of the (Cr/CrN)x8 coatings has been measured. The adhesion has been tested by scratch test method. The obtained (CrN/Cr) multilayer coatings, 5-6 μm in thickness, have homogeneous and nanocrystalline structure, free of pores and cracks. The microstructures of Cr and CrN layers consist of columnar grains below 100 nm in diameter. The hardness and Young's modulus of these coatings depend linearly on thickness ratio of Cr and CrN layers. The decrease of the thickness ratio Cr/CrN 0.81 to 0.15 results in the increase of hardness from 1275 HV to 1710 HV and Young's modulus from 260 GPa to 271 GPa.

  8. Molybdenum plasma spray powder, process for producing said powder, and coating made therefrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafferty, W.D.; Cheney, R.F.; Pierce, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma spray powders of molybdenum particles containing 0.5 to 15 weight percent oxygen and obtained by reacting molybdenum particles with oxygen or oxides in a plasma, form plasma spray coatings exhibiting hardness comparable to flame sprayed coatings formed from molybdenum wire and plasma coatings of molybdenum powders. Such oxygen rich molybdenum powders may be used to form wear resistant coatings, such as for piston rings. (author)

  9. Crack growth in thermally sprayed ceramic coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, František; Náhlík, Luboš; Knésl, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2004), s. 149-168 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP106/04/P084; GA ČR GA101/03/0331 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : ceramic coatings, fracture mechanics, crack extension Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  10. Improved methods for testing bond and intrinsic strength and fatigue of thermally sprayed metallic and ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, K.K.; Ziehl, M.H.; Schwaminger, C.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional bond strength tests for thermally sprayed coatings represent only a rough means of obtaining overall strength values, with no differentiation between adhesion at the interface and intrinsic coating properties. In order to obtain information about the influence of substrate surface preparation on the adhesion of a Tribaloy T700 coating, tensile bond strength and modified crack-opening displacement (COD) specimens were tested by deliberate crack initiation at the interface. Crack initiation was achieved by weakening of the interface at the outer diameter in the case of bond strength specimens or at the notch root in the case of COD specimens. This made it possible to look at the influence of surface roughness and grit contamination on the coating adhesion separately. Modified COD specimens with the notch in the centre of the coating were used to determine crack-opening energies and critical stress intensity factors of atmospheric plasma-sprayed NiAl and low pressure plasma-sprayed CoNiCrAlY bond coatings and a ZrO 2 7Y 2 O 3 thermal barrier coating (TBC). Additionally, bond strength specimens were stressed dynamically, and it could be demonstrated that Woehler (S/N) diagrams can be established for a metallic NiAl bond coating and even for a ceramic ZrO 2 7Y 2 O 3 TBC. (orig.)

  11. An evaluation of the electric arc spray and (HPPS) processes for the manufacturing of high power plasma spraying MCrAIY coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacriste, D.; Goubot, N.; Dhers, J.; Ducos, M.; Vardelle, A.

    2001-06-01

    The high power plasma torch (PlazJet) can be used to spray refractory ceramics with high spray rates and deposition efficiency. It can provide dense and hard coating with high bond strengths. When manufacturing thermal barrier coatings, the PlazJet gun is well adapted to spraying the ceramic top coat but not the MCrAIY materials that are used as bond coat. Arc spraying can compete with plasma spraying for metallic coatings since cored wires can be used to spray alloys and composites. In addition, the high production rate of arc spraying enables a significant decrease in coating cost. This paper discusses the performances of the PlazJet gun, and a twin-wire are spray system, and compares the properties and cost of MCrAIY coatings made with these two processes. For arc spraying, the use of air or nitrogen as atomizing gas is also investigated.

  12. Sealing of hard CrN and DLC coatings with atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, Emma; Kolev, Ivan; Díaz, Belén; Swiatowska, Jolanta; Maurice, Vincent; Seyeux, Antoine; Marcus, Philippe; Fenker, Martin; Toth, Lajos; Radnoczi, György; Vehkamäki, Marko; Ritala, Mikko

    2014-02-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a thin film deposition technique that is based on alternating and saturating surface reactions of two or more gaseous precursors. The excellent conformality of ALD thin films can be exploited for sealing defects in coatings made by other techniques. Here the corrosion protection properties of hard CrN and diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on low alloy steel were improved by ALD sealing with 50 nm thick layers consisting of Al2O3 and Ta2O5 nanolaminates or mixtures. In cross sectional images the ALD layers were found to follow the surface morphology of the CrN coatings uniformly. Furthermore, ALD growth into the pinholes of the CrN coating was verified. In electrochemical measurements the ALD sealing was found to decrease the current density of the CrN coated steel by over 2 orders of magnitude. The neutral salt spray (NSS) durability was also improved: on the best samples the appearance of corrosion spots was delayed from 2 to 168 h. On DLC coatings the adhesion of the ALD sealing layers was weaker, but still clear improvement in NSS durability was achieved indicating sealing of the pinholes.

  13. Wear resistance of Fe-Nb-Cr-W, Nb, AISI 1020 and AISI 420 coatings produced by thermal spray wire arc; Resistencia al desgaste de recubrimientos Fe-Nb-Cr-W, Nb, AISI 1020 y AISI 420 producidos por proyeccion termica por arco electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Covaleda, E. A.; Mercado-Veladia, J. L.; Olaya-Florez, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    The commercial materials 140MXC (with iron, tungsten, chrome, niobium), 530AS (AISI 1015 steel) and 560AS (AISI 420 steel) on AISI 4340 steel were deposited using thermal spray with arc. The aim of work was to evaluate the best strategy abrasive wear resistance of the system coating-substrate using the following combinations: (1) homogeneous coatings and (2) coatings depositing simultaneously 140MXC + 530AS and 140MXC + 560AS. The coatings microstructure was characterized using Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy and Laser con focal microscopy. The wear resistance was evaluated through dry sand rubber wheel test (DSRW). We found that the wear resistance depends on the quantity of defects and the mechanical properties like hardness. For example, the softer coatings have the biggest wear rates and the failure mode was characterized by plastic deformation caused by particles indentation, and the other hand the failure mode at the harder materials was grooving. The details and wear mechanism of the coatings produced are described in this investigation. (Author)

  14. Behaviour of plasma spray coatings under disruption simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossa, F.; Rigon, G.; Looman, B.

    1988-01-01

    The behaviour of metallic and ceramic protective coatings under disruption simulations was studied correlating the damage with their physical and structural parameters. Plasma Spray (PS) and Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) were the techniques used for the production of the coatings. W-5% Re was selected for divertor plates, and TiC, TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , low-Z ceramic materials for the first wall protection on 316 SS, Cu and Al as substrates. An electron beam gun was used to simulate the plasma disruptions. The tests were carried out from 0.6 to 6 MJ/m 2 . The thermal effects were studied by metallographic and EDXA analysis. The damage was observed comparing the degree of protection provided by each coating to discover the minimum thickness necessary to prevent the underlying material from melting. Good protective coatings must have a high melting point, great porosity and low thermal conductivity. Such coatings act as thermal barriers, increasing the surface temperature and radiating back large parts of the energy. (orig.)

  15. Sea water Corrosion of Nickel based Plasma Spray Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, M.; Nanda, S. P.; Bhuyan, S. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    Different types of erosion resistant coatings are applied/deposited on aero components, depending on the operating/working temperatures. Nickel based coating are applied on the air craft (compressor) components, which can sustain up to working temperature of 650°C. In the present investigation, to improve the compatibility between substrate (i.e. the machine component) and the top coat, application of bond coat is there. The application of Nickel based coating by thermal plasma spray technique has proven to be a satisfactory means of producing acceptable sealing surface with excellent abradability. Before the corrosion study, coated sample is subjected to hardness, thickness and porosity testing. Hence the result is being evaluated. The corrosion behavior of coating was studied by sea water immersion with a time period of 16 weeks. It is observed that, up to 9 weeks increase in weight of coating occurs in a sharp trend and then takes a decreasing trend. The weight gain of the samples has varied from 37.23% (with one week immersion in sea water) to a maximum of about 64.36% for six weeks immersion. Coating morphology and composition analysis of the coatings are studied using SEM and EDS. This behavior shows adsorption/deposition of the foreign particles with polygonal shape on the coating surface by sea water interaction. Foreign particles with polygonal shape deposited on the coating and with increase in immersion/treatment time, washing out of the deposited materials starts, which reflects the decreasing trend of weight gain of the specimen.

  16. Advanced Microstructural Study of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesak, Harry; Pawlowski, Lech; D'Haese, Romain; Laureyns, Jacky; Lampke, Thomas; Bellayer, Severine

    2010-03-01

    Fine, home-synthesized, hydroxyapatite powder was formulated with water and alcohol to obtain a suspension used to plasma spray coatings onto a titanium substrate. The deposition process was optimized using statistical design of 2 n experiments with two variables: spray distance and electric power input to plasma. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine quantitatively the phase composition of obtained deposits. Raman microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) enabled localization of the phases in different positions of the coating cross sections. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) study associated with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) enabled visualization and analysis of a two-zone microstructure. One zone contained crystals of hydroxyapatite, tetracalcium phosphate, and a phase rich in calcium oxide. This zone included lamellas, usually observed in thermally sprayed coatings. The other zone contained fine hydroxyapatite grains that correspond to nanometric and submicrometric solids from the suspension that were agglomerated and sintered in the cold regions of plasma jet and on the substrate.

  17. Microstructural evolution and growth kinetics of thermally grown oxides in plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoju Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation of thermally grown oxide (TGO during high temperature is a key factor to the degradation of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs applied on hot section components. In the present study both the CoNiCrAlY bond coat and ZrO2-8 wt.% Y2O3 (8YSZ ceramic coat of TBCs were prepared by air plasma spraying (APS. The composition and microstructure of TGO in TBCs were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The growth rate of TGO for TBC and pure BC were gained after isothermal oxidation at 1100 °C for various times. The results showed that as-sprayed bond coat consisted of β and γ/γ′phases, β phase reducesd as the oxidation time increased. The TGO comprised α-Al2O3 formed in the first 2 h. CoO, NiO, Cr2O3 and spinel oxides appeared after 20 h of oxidation. Contents of CoO and NiO reduced while that of Cr2O3 and spinel oxides increased in the later oxidation stage. The TGO eventually consisted of a sub-Al2O3 layer with columnar microstructure and the upper porous CS clusters. The TGO growth kinetics for two kinds of samples followed parabolic laws, with oxidation rate constant of 0.344 μm/h0.5 for TBCs and 0.354 μm/h0.5 for pure BCs.

  18. Oxidation study of Cr-Ru hard coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yung-I, E-mail: yichen@mail.ntou.edu.tw; Kuo, Yu-Chu; Chen, Sin-Min

    2012-01-01

    Cr-Ru alloy coatings with Cr content ranging from 47 to 83 at.% were deposited at 400 Degree-Sign C by direct current magnetron co-sputtering with a Ti interlayer on silicon substrates. With a total input power of 300 W, the Cr content in the Cr-Ru coatings increased linearly with the increasing input power of Cr. The intermetallic compound phase Cr{sub 2}Ru with columnar structure was identified for the as-deposited Cr{sub 56}Ru{sub 44} and Cr{sub 65}Ru{sub 35} coatings, resulting in an increase of hardness up to 15-16 GPa. To evaluate the performance of Cr-Ru coatings as a protective coating on glass molding dies, the annealing treatment was conducted at 600 Degree-Sign C in a 50 ppm O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} atmosphere. The outward diffusion and preferential oxidization of Cr in the Cr-Ru coatings resulted in the variations of the crystalline structure, chemical composition distribution, and surface hardness after annealing. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) proved that an oxide scale consisting of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed on the free surface. Scanning electron microscopy and TEM observed the surface morphology and structural variation. The chemical composition depth profiles were analyzed by Auger electron microscopy, verifying the presence of a Cr-depleted zone beneath the oxide scale. The hardness of Cr{sub 56}Ru{sub 44} and Cr{sub 65}Ru{sub 35} coatings decreased to 11-12 GPa after annealing, accompanied by the replacement of the Cr{sub 2}Ru phase by the Ru phase. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared crystalline Cr-Ru alloy coatings by direct current magnetron sputtering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr-Ru coatings were annealed at 600 Degree-Sign C for 2 h in a 50 ppm O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr diffused outwardly and oxidized to form a stable and protective oxide scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The original columnar grains recrystallized to polycrystalline grains.

  19. Cr13Ni5Si2-Based Composite Coating on Copper Deposited Using Pulse Laser Induction Cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Hailin; Zhu, Guangzhi; Zhu, Xiao

    2017-02-10

    A Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating was successfully deposited on copper by pulse laser induction hybrid cladding (PLIC), and its high-temperature wear behavior was investigated. Temperature evolutions associated with crack behaviors in PLIC were analyzed and compared with pulse laser cladding (PLC) using the finite element method. The microstructure and present phases were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Compared with continuous laser induction cladding, the higher peak power offered by PLIC ensures metallurgical bonding between highly reflective copper substrate and coating. Compared with a wear test at room temperature, at 500 °C the wear volume of the Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating increased by 21%, and increased by 225% for a NiCr/Cr3C2 coating deposited by plasma spray. This novel technology has good prospects for application with respect to the extended service life of copper mold plates for slab continuous casting.

  20. Cyclic oxidation behaviour of different treated CoNiCrAlY coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marginean, G. [University of Applied Sciences Gelsenkirchen, Neidenburger Str. 43, 45877 Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Utu, D., E-mail: dutu@eng.upt.ro [University ' Politehnica' Timisoara, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Blv. Mihai Viteazu 1, 300222 Timisoara (Romania)

    2012-08-01

    High velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying method was used in order to obtain very dense and good adhesive CoNiCrAlY-coatings deposited onto nickel-based alloy. The coatings were differently treated (preoxidized, vacuum treated or electron beam irradiated) before their exposure to cyclic oxidation tests in air at 1000 Degree-Sign C for periods up to 5 h. Changes of the coatings morphology and structure were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction technique (XRD). The surface temperature of the samples was measured during cooling, between the oxidation cycles, and finally was associated with the thickness of the grown protective oxide scale on the CoNiCrAlY-surface. The experimental results demonstrated that depending on the thickness respectively on the different structures of the grown oxide scale, the cooling rate of the sample surface will be different as well.

  1. Structure and corrosion properties of PVD Cr-N coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Bi, Q.; Ziegele, H.; Leyland, A.; Matthews, A.

    2002-01-01

    PVD Cr-N coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are increasingly used for mechanical and tribological applications in various industrial sectors. These coatings are particularly attractive for their excellent corrosion resistance, which further enhances the lifetime and service quality of coated components. PVD Cr-N coated steels in an aqueous solution are usually corroded by galvanic attack via through-coating 'permeable' defects (e.g., pores). Therefore, the corrosion performance of Cr-N coated steel is determined by a number of variables of the coating properties and corrosive environment. These variables include: (i) surface continuity and uniformity; (ii) through-coating porosity; (iii) film density and chemical stability; (iv) growth stresses; (v) interfacial and intermediate layers; (vi) coating thickness; (vii) coating composition; and (viii) substrate properties. In this article, PVD Cr-N coatings were prepared, by electron-beam PVD and sputter deposition, with different compositions, thicknesses, and surface roughnesses, by changing the N 2 flow rate, applying multilayering techniques and changing the substrate finish prior to coating. The microstructure of such coatings is investigated by various analytical techniques such as glancing angle x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, which are also correlated with the corrosion performance of the coated steel. Both dc polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy were employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of Cr-N coated steel in a 0.5N NaCl solution. It has been found that the N 2 flow rate during reactive deposition strongly determines the microstructure of Cr-N coatings (due to the changing nitrogen content in the film) and can thus affect the corrosion resistance of coated systems. The surface finish of the steel substrate also affects the uniformity and coverage of PVD coatings; grooves and inclusions on the original substrate can raise the susceptibility of coated

  2. Structure Analysis Of Corrosion Resistant Thermal Sprayed Coatings On Low Alloy Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaliampalias, D.; Vourlias, G.; Pistofidis, N.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergiou, A.; Stergioudis, G.; Polychroniadis, E. K.

    2007-04-01

    Metallic coatings have been proved to reduce the rate of corrosion of steel in various atmospheres. In this work the structure of Al, Cu-Al and Zn thermal sprayed coatings is examined. The as formed coatings are extremely rough, and they are composed of several phases which increase corrosion resistance as it was determined Salt Spray Chamber tests.

  3. Demonstration of Thermally Sprayed Metal and Polymer Coatings for Steel Structures at Fort Bragg, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ER D C/ CE RL T R- 17 -3 0 DoD Corrosion Prevention and Control Program Demonstration of Thermally Sprayed Metal and Polymer Coatings...and Polymer Coatings for Steel Structures at Fort Bragg, NC Final Report on Project F07-AR10 Larry D. Stephenson, Alfred D. Beitelman, Richard G...5 2.1.2 Thermoplastic polymer coating (flame spray

  4. Structurally Integrated, Damage-Tolerant, Thermal Spray Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vackel, Andrew; Dwivedi, Gopal; Sampath, Sanjay

    2015-07-01

    Thermal spray coatings are used extensively for the protection and life extension of engineering components exposed to harsh wear and/or corrosion during service in aerospace, energy, and heavy machinery sectors. Cermet coatings applied via high-velocity thermal spray are used in aggressive wear situations almost always coupled with corrosive environments. In several instances (e.g., landing gear), coatings are considered as part of the structure requiring system-level considerations. Despite their widespread use, the technology has lacked generalized scientific principles for robust coating design, manufacturing, and performance analysis. Advances in process and in situ diagnostics have provided significant insights into the process-structure-property-performance correlations providing a framework-enhanced design. In this overview, critical aspects of materials, process, parametrics, and performance are discussed through exemplary studies on relevant compositions. The underlying connective theme is understanding and controlling residual stresses generation, which not only addresses process dynamics but also provides linkage for process-property relationship for both the system (e.g., fatigue) and the surface (wear and corrosion). The anisotropic microstructure also invokes the need for damage-tolerant material design to meet future goals.

  5. Microstructure and Tribological Performance of TiB2-NiCr Composite Coating Deposited by APS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel chromium (NiCr powders with different titanium diboride (TiB2 additions (20, 40 and 60 wt % were prepared with a mechanical alloying method and then sprayed using an air plasma spraying technology. The microstructure and phase composite of the powders and the cross-sections of deposited coatings were analyzed with a scanning electronic microscope and X-ray diffraction. The tribological performance of the coatings was studied using a pin-on-disk tribometer at room temperature. The weight loss of the as-sprayed coating was measured by using a high accuracy weighing balance. Cr3C2-25NiCr coating was produced and tested for comparison. The morphologies of the worn surface were then investigated. Parts of debris with some scratches were found, presenting typical signs of abrasive wear and showing slight adhesive wear on the surface. The 20 wt % additive TiB2 coating demonstrated the highest microhardness and the lowest coefficient of friction. The wear resistance of the metal-ceramic composites coatings was enhanced with the addition of TiB2.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Calcium Phosphate Powders for Biomedical Applications by Plasma Spray Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Sasidharan Pillai, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This PhD work mainly focus on the synthesis and characterization of calcium phosphate powders for plasma spray coating. The preparation of high temperature phase stabilized βTCP and HA/βTCP powders for plasma spray coating applications has been the topic of investigation. Nowadays plasma sprayed coatings are widely used for biomedical applications especially in the dental and orthopaedic implantation field. Previously Ti based alloys were widely used for the orthopaedic and dental implant ap...

  7. Overview on Recent Developments of Bondcoats for Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, D.; Pillai, R.; Chyrkin, A.; Quadakkers, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    The performance of MCrAlY (M = Ni, Co) bondcoats for atmospheric plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (APS-TBCs) is substantially affected by the contents of Co, Ni, Cr, and Al as well as minor additions of Y, Hf, Zr, etc., but also by manufacturing-related properties such as coating thickness, porosity, surface roughness, and oxygen content. The latter properties depend in turn on the exact technology and set of parameters used for bondcoat deposition. The well-established LPPS process competes nowadays with alternative technologies such as HVOF and APS. In addition, new technologies have been developed for bondcoats manufacturing such as high-velocity APS or a combination of HVOF and APS for application of a flashcoat. Future developments of the bondcoat systems will likely include optimization of thermal spraying methods for obtaining complex bondcoat roughness profiles required for extended APS-TBC lifetimes. Introduction of the newest generation single-crystal superalloys possessing low Cr and high Al and refractory metals (Re, Ru) contents will require definition of new bondcoat compositions and/or multilayered bondcoats to minimize interdiffusion issues. The developments of new bondcoat compositions may be substantially facilitated using thermodynamic-kinetic modeling, the vast potential of which has been demonstrated in recent years.

  8. Photoelectrode Fabrication of Dye-Sensitized Nanosolar Cells Using Multiple Spray Coating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chih Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a spray coating technique for fabricating nanoporous film of photoelectrode in dye-sensitized nanosolar cells (DSSCs. Spray coating can quickly fabricate nanoporous film of the photoelectrode with lower cost, which can further help the DSSCs to be commercialized in the future. This paper analyzed photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs using spray coated photoelectrode in comparison with the photoelectrode made with the doctor blade method. Spray coating can easily control transmittance of the photoelectrode through the multiple spray coating process. This work mainly used a dispersant with help of ultrasonic oscillation to prepare the required nano-TiO2 solution and then sprayed it on the ITO glasses. In this work, a motor-operated conveyor belt was built to transport the ITO glasses automatically for multiple spray coating and drying alternately. Experiments used transmittance of the photoelectrode as a fabrication parameter to analyze photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs. The influencing factors of the photoelectrode transmittance during fabrication are the spray flow rate, the spray distance, and the moving speed of the conveyor belt. The results show that DSSC with the photoelectrode transmittance of ca. 68.0 ± 1.5% and coated by the spray coating technique has the best photoelectric conversion efficiency in this work.

  9. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Bare, Cr3C2-(NiCr) and Cr3C2-(NiCr) + 0.2wt.%Zr Coated SuperNi 718 at 900 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgal, Deepa; Singh, Surendra; Prakash, Satya

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion in incinerators, power plants, and chemical industries are frequently encountered due to the presence of salts containing sodium, sulphur, and chlorine. To obviate this problem, bare and coated alloys were tested under environments simulating the conditions present inside incinerators and power plants. 0.2 wt.% zirconium powder was incorporated in the Cr3C2-(NiCr) coating powder. The original powder and Zr containing powder was sprayed on Superni 718 alloy by D-gun technique. The bare and coated alloys were tested under Na2SO4 + K2SO4 + NaCl + KCl and Na2SO4 + NaCl environment. The corrosion rate of specimens was monitored using weight change measurements. Characterization of the corrosion products has been done using FE-SEM/EDS and XRD techniques. Bare and coated alloys showed very good corrosion resistance under given molten salt environments. Addition of 0.2wt.%Zr in Cr3C2-25%(NiCr) coating further greatly reduced the oxidation rate as well as improved the adherence of oxide scale to the coating surface during the time of corrosion.

  10. Laser Processing of Multilayered Thermal Spray Coatings: Optimal Processing Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Mahder; Zhang, Tao; Lee, Hwasoo; Sampath, Sanjay; Hwang, David; Longtin, Jon

    2017-12-01

    Laser processing offers an innovative approach for the fabrication and transformation of a wide range of materials. As a rapid, non-contact, and precision material removal technology, lasers are natural tools to process thermal spray coatings. Recently, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) was fabricated using thermal spray and laser processing. The TEG device represents a multilayer, multimaterial functional thermal spray structure, with laser processing serving an essential role in its fabrication. Several unique challenges are presented when processing such multilayer coatings, and the focus of this work is on the selection of laser processing parameters for optimal feature quality and device performance. A parametric study is carried out using three short-pulse lasers, where laser power, repetition rate and processing speed are varied to determine the laser parameters that result in high-quality features. The resulting laser patterns are characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electrical isolation tests between patterned regions. The underlying laser interaction and material removal mechanisms that affect the feature quality are discussed. Feature quality was found to improve both by using a multiscanning approach and an optional assist gas of air or nitrogen. Electrically isolated regions were also patterned in a cylindrical test specimen.

  11. The corrosion resistance of 140MXC, 530AS and 560AS coatings produced by thermal spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Alexis López Covaleda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three commercial materials were deposited using electric arc thermal spraying: 140MXC (with Fe, W, Cr, Nb, 530AS (AISI 1015 steel and 560AS (AISI 420 steel on AISI 4340 steel. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the best strategy for improving a coating-substrate system’s corrosion resistance, using the following combinations: homogeneous single coatings, bilayers consisting of 530AS or 560AS under 140MXC and 140MXC + 530AS and 140MXC + 560AS coatings deposited simultaneously. The coatings were characterised using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion resistance was evaluated through potentiodynamic polarisation and hardness by using the Vickers test. Corrosion resistance depends on the amount of microstructure defects, the deposition strategy and the alloy elements. However, corrosion resistance was similar in single coatings of 140MXC and bilayers, having -630 V corrosion potential and 708 nA corrosion current. The details and corrosion mechanism of the coatings so produced are described in this paper.

  12. Erosion protection of carbon-epoxy composites by plasma-sprayed coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, F.; Fagoaga, I.; Oregui, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the production of plasma-sprayed erosion-resistant coatings on carbon-fibre - epoxy composites, and the study of their erosion behaviour. The heat sensitivity of the composite substrate requires a specific spraying procedure in order to avoid its degradation. In addition, several bonding layers were studied to allow spraying of the protective coatings. Two different functional coatings were sprayed onto an aluminium-glass bonding layer, a WC-12Co cermet and an Al 2 O 3 ceramic oxide. The microstructure and properties of these coatings were studied and their erosion behaviour determined experimentally in an erosion-testing device. (orig.)

  13. Investigation of Plasma Spray Coatings as an Alternative to Hard Chrome Plating on Internal Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Legg, Keith O; Sartwell, Bruce D; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel; Nestler, Montia; Dambra, Christopher; Wang, Daming; Quets, John; Natishan, Paul; Bretz, Philip; Devereaux, Jon

    2006-01-01

    .... This document constitutes the final report on an investigation of deposition of coatings using miniature plasma spray guns that could replace hard chromium on internal surfaces where conventional...

  14. Optimization and Characterization of High Velocity Oxy-fuel Sprayed Coatings: Techniques, Materials, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Oksa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work High Velocity Oxy-fuel (HVOF thermal spray techniques, spraying process optimization, and characterization of coatings are reviewed. Different variants of the technology are described and the main differences in spray conditions in terms of particle kinetics and thermal energy are rationalized. Methods and tools for controlling the spray process are presented as well as their use in optimizing the coating process. It will be shown how the differences from the starting powder to the final coating formation affect the coating microstructure and performance. Typical properties of HVOF sprayed coatings and coating performance is described. Also development of testing methods used for the evaluation of coating properties and current status of standardization is presented. Short discussion of typical applications is done.

  15. Sintering of Fine Particles in Suspension Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Latka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying is a process that enables the production of finely grained nanometric or submicrometric coatings. The suspensions are formulated with the use of fine powder particles in water or alcohol with some additives. Subsequently, the suspension is injected into plasma jet and the liquid additives evaporate. The remaining fine solids are molten and subsequently agglomerate or remain solid, depending on their trajectory in the plasma jet. The coating’s microstructure results from these two groups of particles arriving on a substrate or previously deposited coating. Previous experimental studies carried out for plasma sprayed titanium oxide and hydroxyapatite coatings enabled us to observe either a finely grained microstructure or, when a different suspension injection mode was used, to distinguish two zones in the microstructure. These two zones correspond to the dense zone formed from well molten particles, and the agglomerated zone formed from fine solid particles that arrive on the substrate in a solid state. The present paper focuses on the experimental and theoretical analysis of the formation process of the agglomerated zone. The experimental section establishes the heat flux supplied to the coating during deposition. In order to achieve this, calorimetric measurements were made by applying experimental conditions simulating the real coatings’ growth. The heat flux was measured to be in the range from 0.08 to 0.5 MW/m2,depending on the experimental conditions. The theoretical section analyzes the sintering during the coating’s growth, which concerns the fine particles arriving on the substrate in the solid state. The models of volume, grain boundary and surface diffusion were analyzed and adapted to the size and chemistry of the grains, temperature and time scales corresponding to the suspension plasma spraying conditions. The model of surface diffusion was found to best describe the sintering during suspension

  16. A preparation method and effects of Al–Cr coating on NdFeB sintered magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jingwu; Lin, Min; Xia, Qingping

    2012-01-01

    A 50 μm Al–Cr coating on NdFeB sintered magnets was prepared through dipping in solution, shaking dry and heating at 300 °C. The morphology and composition of the Al–Cr coating were investigated with scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion resistance of NdFeB sintered magnets with and without the Al–Cr coating was analyzed by normal salt spray, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The magnetic properties were measured with a hysteresis loop tracer. The results show that the Al–Cr coating forms an overlapping structure and Al flakes lie nearly parallel to the substrate, which improves the anticorrosion and increases normal salt spray test from 10 to 100 h. The corrosion potential of NdFeB sintered magnets with and without the Al–Cr coating moves positively from −0.67 to −0.48 V, which is in accordance with Nyquist and Bode plots. The Al–Cr coating has little influence on the magnetic properties of the NdFeB sintered magnets. - Highlights: ► The Al–Cr coating can be prepared by dipping in solution, shaking dry and heating. ► The coating morphology shows to be an intense overlapping structure. ► The barrier effect combines with passivation and cathodic protection. ► The anticorrosion abilities improve while magnetic properties change little. ► Compared with other surface treatments, this method is convenient and low cost.

  17. A preparation method and effects of Al-Cr coating on NdFeB sintered magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jingwu [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Lin, Min, E-mail: linm@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering Chinese Academy of Science, 519 Road Zhuangshi, District Zhenghai, Ningbo 315201, People' s Republic of China (China); Xia, Qingping [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2012-11-15

    A 50 {mu}m Al-Cr coating on NdFeB sintered magnets was prepared through dipping in solution, shaking dry and heating at 300 Degree-Sign C. The morphology and composition of the Al-Cr coating were investigated with scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion resistance of NdFeB sintered magnets with and without the Al-Cr coating was analyzed by normal salt spray, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The magnetic properties were measured with a hysteresis loop tracer. The results show that the Al-Cr coating forms an overlapping structure and Al flakes lie nearly parallel to the substrate, which improves the anticorrosion and increases normal salt spray test from 10 to 100 h. The corrosion potential of NdFeB sintered magnets with and without the Al-Cr coating moves positively from -0.67 to -0.48 V, which is in accordance with Nyquist and Bode plots. The Al-Cr coating has little influence on the magnetic properties of the NdFeB sintered magnets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Al-Cr coating can be prepared by dipping in solution, shaking dry and heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating morphology shows to be an intense overlapping structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The barrier effect combines with passivation and cathodic protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anticorrosion abilities improve while magnetic properties change little. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared with other surface treatments, this method is convenient and low cost.

  18. Characteristics and heat treatment of cold-sprayed Al-Sn binary alloy coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, Xian-Jin; Kim, Jin-Hong; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Changhee

    2009-01-01

    In this study, Al-Sn binary alloy coatings were prepared with Al-5 wt.% Sn (Al-5Sn) and Al-10 wt.% Sn (Al-10Sn) gas atomized powders by low pressure and high pressure cold spray process. The microstructure and microhardness of the coatings were characterized. To understand the coarsening of tin in the coating, the as-sprayed coatings were annealed at 150, 200, 250 and 300 o C for 1 h, respectively. The effect of annealing on microstructure and the bond strength of the coatings were investigated. The results show that Al-5Sn coating can be deposited by high pressure cold spray with nitrogen while Al-10Sn can only be deposited by low pressure cold spray with helium gas. Both Al-5Sn and Al-10Sn coatings present dense structures. The fraction of Sn in as-sprayed coatings is consistent with that in feed stock powders. The coarsening and/or migration of Sn phase in the coatings were observed when the annealing temperature exceeds 200 deg. C. Furthermore, the microhardness of the coatings decreased significantly at the annealing temperature of 250 deg. C. EDXA analysis shows that the heat treatment has no significant effect on fraction of Sn phase in Al-5Sn coatings. Bonding strength of as-sprayed Al-10Sn coating is slightly higher than that of Al-5Sn coating. Annealing at 200 o C can increase the bonding strength of Al-5Sn coatings.

  19. Systematic Investigation on the Influence of Spray Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, Markus; Mauer, Georg; Mücke, Robert; Guillon, Olivier; Vaßen, Robert

    2018-04-01

    In the atmospheric plasma spray (APS) process, micro-sized ceramic powder is injected into a thermal plasma where it is rapidly heated and propelled toward the substrate. The coating formation is characterized by the subsequent impingement of a large number of more or less molten particles forming the so-called splats and eventually the coating. In this study, a systematic investigation on the influence of selected spray parameters on the coating microstructure and the coating properties was conducted. The investigation thereby comprised the coating porosity, the elastic modulus, and the residual stress evolution within the coating. The melting status of the particles at the impingement on the substrate in combination with the substrate surface condition is crucial for the coating formation. Single splats were collected on mirror-polished substrates for selected spray conditions and evaluated by identifying different types of splats (ideal, distorted, weakly bonded, and partially molten) and their relative fractions. In a previous study, these splat types were evaluated in terms of their effect on the above-mentioned coating properties. The particle melting status, which serves as a measure for the particle spreading behavior, was determined by in-flight particle temperature measurements and correlated to the coating properties. It was found that the gun power and the spray distance have a strong effect on the investigated coating properties, whereas the feed rate and the cooling show minor influence.

  20. Parametric Study of Slurry-Erosion of Hydroturbine Steels with and without Detonation Gun Spray Coatings using Taguchi Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Harpreet Singh; Bhandari, Sanjeev; Singh, Harpreet

    2012-09-01

    WC-Co-Cr coatings were deposited on some hydroturbine 13Cr4Ni and 16Cr5Ni steels by the detonation-gun spray process. An in-depth characterization of the as-sprayed coating was done using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. Microhardness and porosity measurements were also made. The coating was found to have a typical splat-like morphology with some indications of unmelted carbide particles. The XRD results showed the presence of WC as the primary phase along with W2C and Co6W6C as secondary phases. Furthermore, the slurry erosion behavior of the coatings was investigated to ascertain the usefulness of the coatings to reduce the slurry erosion of the steels. The effect of four operating factors viz. the velocity, impact angle, concentration, and particle size on the slurry erosion of coated and bare steels has been studied using a high-speed jet-type test rig. The sand used as an erodent was collected from a power plant to replicate the actual turbine conditions. It has been observed that the given cermet coating can enhance the erosion resistance of the steel. Velocity was found to be the most significant factor affecting the erosion behavior of the coating, whereas it was the erodent particle size in the case of uncoated steel. As evidenced from the SEM images, the platelet mechanism of erosion seemed to be the prominent one, causing the removal of material from the surface of the steel, whereas for the coating, the formation and interlinking of cracks resulted in the removal of material.

  1. A new method for thermal spraying of Zn-Al coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlach, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of the thermal spraying system built on the principles of the high velocity air flame (HVAF) process. HVAF sprayed coatings showed considerably higher bond strength than coatings obtained by the conventional methods, indicating the advantage of this method in areas where the adhesion strength is critically important. The highly dense structure of the coating obtained with HVAF eliminates a need for a top paint coat, which is typically applied on metal sprayed coatings to extend service life. The thermal sprayed coatings were characterized by the standard techniques, such as light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, salt spray and bond strength tests. The results show that thermal sprayed coatings have a dense structure, low presence of oxides and high resistance to corrosion. High spray rate and good coating quality make the HVAF thermal spray method a viable alternative to the conventional thermal spraying technologies, such as Wire Flame and Twin-Wire Arc.

  2. Comparison of W–TiC composite coatings fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying and supersonic atmospheric plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Qing Yu; Luo, Lai Ma; Huang, Zhen Yi; Wang, Ping; Ding, Ting Ting; Wu, Yu Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • W–TiC composite coatings were fabricated by APS and SAPS technologies. • TiC had filling effect on pores and coating/fixing effect on un-melted particles. • Porosity and oxygen content in SAPS coating were lower than that in APS coating. • Thermal conductivity of SAPS coating was higher than that of APS coating. • SAPS coating has better ability to resist to elastic fracture than APS coating does. - Abstract: Tungsten coatings with 1.5 wt.% TiC (W/TiC) were fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) and supersonic atmospheric plasma spraying (SAPS) techniques, respectively. The results showed that the typical lamellar structure of plasma spraying and columnar crystalline grains formed in the coatings. Pores located mainly at lamellar gaps in association with oxidation were also observed. TiC phase, distributed at lamellar gaps filled the gaps; and that distributed around un-melted tungsten particles and splashed debris coated the particles or debris that were linked with the TiC at lamellar gaps. The coating and linking of the retained TiC phase prevented the tungsten particles to come off from the coatings. The porosity and the oxygen content of the SAPS-W/TiC were lower than those of the APS-W/TiC coating. The mechanical response of the coatings was strongly dependent on the H/E* ratio (H and E* are the hardness and effective Young’s modulus, respectively). The SAPS-W/TiC coating with a higher H/E* ratio had a better ability to resist to elastic fracture and better fracture toughness as compared with the APS-W/TiC coating with a smaller H/E* ratio. The thermal conductivity of the SAPS-W/TiC coating was greater than that of the APS-W/TiC coating.

  3. Ceramic plasma-sprayed coating of melting crucibles for casting metal fuel slugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Chong Tak; Lee, Chan Bock; Fielding, R.S.; Kennedy, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal cycling and melt reaction studies of ceramic coatings plasma-sprayed on Nb substrates were carried out to evaluate the performance of barrier coatings for metallic fuel casting applications. Thermal cycling tests of the ceramic plasma-sprayed coatings to 1450 °C showed that HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y 2 O 3 coating had good cycling characteristics with few interconnected cracks even after 20 cycles. Interaction studies by 1550 °C melt dipping tests of the plasma-sprayed coatings also indicated that HfN and Y 2 O 3 do not form significant reaction layer between U–20 wt.% Zr melt and the coating layer. Plasma-sprayed Y 2 O 3 coating exhibited the most promising characteristics among HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y 2 O 3 coating

  4. Fatigue Crack Growth in Bodies with Thermally Sprayed Coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářík, O.; Haušild, P.; Medřický, Jan; Tomek, L.; Siegl, J.; Mušálek, Radek; Curry, N.; Björklund, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, 1-2 (2016), s. 311-320 ISSN 1059-9630. [ITSC 2015: International Thermal Spray Conference and Exposition. Long Beach, California, 11.05.2015-14.05.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Thermal barrier coating * fatigue * crack growth * digital image correlation * digital image correlation Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11666-015-0329-9

  5. Aspects of fretting wear of sprayed cermet coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivers, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Two experimental fretting programmes which investigated aspects of fretting wear of sprayed cermet coatings are reviewed. These programmes were conducted in support of components used in the advanced gas-cooled reactor. It is speculated that the results from these programmes are compatible with a simple two-stage wear model. This model assumes that an initial wear process occurs which is dominated by an interlocking and removal of asperities. Such a phase will be dependent on the superficial contact areas and possibly the interfacial load, but the latter aspect is not considered. This initial wear is of very short duration and is followed by a mild, oxidative, wear mode. Coatings data are also compared with those for structural steels. In short-term low temperature tests it appears that structural steels have comparable performance with the cermet coatings but it is argued that this is an artefact of the wear process. However, at high temperatures (600 0 C) wear of stainless steel could not be determined, the specimens showing a net weight gain. It is concluded that for in-reactor fretting applications cermet coatings will have advantages over structural steels at low temperatures. Even in high temperature regions some operation at low temperatures is experienced and consequently cermet coatings may be useful here also. (orig.)

  6. Quality control of thermal spray coatings in diesel engines; Qualitaetskontrolle an thermisch gespritzten Beschichtungen in Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carstensen, Jesper Vejloe [MAN Diesel and Turbo, Copenhagen (Denmark). Material Technology and Research Dept.; Lindegren, Maria [Struers A/S, Ballerup (Denmark). Application Dept.

    2013-06-01

    Thermal spraying is a method, which is suitable for coating of large components. The coatings can e.g. improve the wear, friction and/or corrosion properties of components so that they can withstand the increased loads. The quality of the coatings is essential to ensure reliable operation of the components. However, quality control of thermally sprayed coatings is indeed nontrivial and sample preparation is a key issue. This paper shows examples of thermal spray coated components in large diesel engines and provides insight into the methods used in preparing samples for quality control. (orig.)

  7. Measurement of residual stress in plasma-sprayed composite coatings with graded and uniform compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, O.; Suresh, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Matejicek, J.; Sampath, S.

    1999-10-01

    Residual stresses in plasma sprayed composite coatings were studied experimentally by both curvature and neutron diffraction measurements. Graded and uniform composite coatings, consisting of nickel + alumina and NiCrAlY + yttria-stabilized zirconia, were investigated. This paper briefly summarizes our recent work dealing with the effects of coating thickness, composition, and material properties on the evolution of residual stresses in coatings. Analysis of the results allowed in some cases the separation of the quenching stress and thermal stress contributions to the final residual stress, as well as the determination of the through-thickness stress profile from measurements of different thickness specimens. In the ceramic-metal composites, it was found that the thermal mismatch stress plays a dominant role in the ceramic phase, whereas the stress in the metallic phase is mostly dominated by quenching stress. The residual stress measurement methods employed here were found to be complementary, in that each can provide unique information about the stress state. Through-thickness stress profiles in graded coatings were determined with high spatial resolution by the curvature method, and determination of the stress in each separate phase of a composite was made by neutron diffraction. (orig.) 14 refs.

  8. Measurement of residual stress in plasma-sprayed metallic, ceramic and composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, O.; Suresh, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Matejicek, J.; Sampath, S. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Inst. for Mathematical Sciences; Gnaeupel-Herold, T.; Brand, P.C.; Prask, H.J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1998-12-15

    Residual stresses in plasma-sprayed coatings were studied by three experimental techniques: curvature measurements, neutron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. Two distinct material classes were investigated: (1) single-material coatings (molybdenum) and (2) bi-material composites (nickel+alumina and NiCrAlY+yttria-stabilized zirconia), with and without graded layers. This paper deals with the effects of coating thickness and material properties on the evolution of residual stresses as a function of composition and thickness in both homogeneous and graded coatings. Mathematical analysis of the results allowed in some cases the separation of the quenching stress and thermal stress contributions to the final residual stress, as well as the determination of the through-thickness stress profile from measurements of different thickness specimens. In the ceramic-metal composites, it was found that the quenching stress plays a dominant role in the metallic phase, whereas the stress in the ceramic phase is mostly dominated by thermal mismatch. The respective thermal expansion coefficients and mechanical properties are the most important factors determining the stress sign and magnitude. The three residual stress measurement methods employed here were found to be complementary, in that each can provide unique information about the stress state. The most noteworthy outcomes are the determination of the through-thickness stress profile in graded coatings with high spatial resolution (curvature method) and determination of stress in each phase of a composite separately (neutron diffraction). (orig.) 25 refs.

  9. Properties of arc-sprayed coatings from Fe-based cored wires for high-temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobov, Yu. S.; Nevezhin, S. V.; Filiрpov, M. A.; Makarov, A. V.; Malygina, I. Yu.; Fantozzi, D.; Milanti, A.; Koivuluoto, H.; Vuoristo, P.

    2017-12-01

    Equipment of a thermal power plant is subjected to high temperature oxidation and wear. This raises operating costs through frequent repair of worn parts and high metal consumption. The paper proposes a possible solution to this problem through arc spraying of protective coatings. Cored wires of the Fe-Cr-C basic alloying system are used as a feedstock. Additional alloying by Al, B, Si, Ti and Y allows one to create wear- and heat-resistant coatings, which are an attractive substitute of more expensive Co- and Ni-based materials.

  10. Application of thermal spray coatings for jet engines. Kokuki sangyo eno yosha no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, Y [All Nippon Airways Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-10-31

    Application condition of spray coating on jet engine parts and characteristics of spray reparing process are explained. Spray coating used for jet engine is classified as recovery of dimension, crevice adjustment, improvement of resistance to friction, improvement of fretting resistance and heat resistance. Titanium alloy having better adhesion and acid resistance, is used as coating for dimensional recovery, where as nickel-crome-aluminium coating is used for the improvement of heat resistance of stainless steel, etc. Crevice adjustment coatings are used in rotating parts of jet engines, and they are of two types are; gel-double coating of aluminium, nickel-aluminium, etc., abrasive coating of aluminium oxide. Tungsten carbide and cobalt are used as coatings for the friction improvement. Nickel and indium, etc., are used as fretting resistance coating. Various types of ceramics together with heat resistance steels like HS-188 are used as coating for heat resistance improvement. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Optical study of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings deposited at different spray distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belka, R.; Kowalski, S.; Żórawski, W.

    2017-08-01

    Series of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings deposited on titanium substrate at different spray (plasma gun to workpiece) distance were investigated. The optical methods as dark field confocal microscopy, Raman/PL and UV-VIS spectroscopy were used for study the influence of deposition process on structural degradation of HA precursor. The hydroxyl group concentration was investigated by study the OH mode intensity in the Raman spectra. Optical absorption coefficients at near UV region were analyzed by Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy. PL intensity observed during Raman measurement was also considered as relation to defects concentration and degradation level. It was confirmed the different gunsubstrate distance has a great impact on structure of deposited HA ceramics.

  12. Evaluation of mechanical properties of Aluminum-Copper cold sprayed and alloy 625 wire arc sprayed coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashirzadeh, Milad

    This study examines microstructural-based mechanical properties of Al-Cu composite deposited by cold spraying and wire arc sprayed nickel-based alloy 625 coating using numerical modeling and experimental techniques. The microhardness and elastic modulus of samples were determined using the Knoop hardness technique. Hardness in both transverse and longitudinal directions on the sample cross-sections has been measured. An image-based finite element simulation algorithm was employed to determine the mechanical properties through an inverse analysis. In addition mechanical tests including, tensile, bending, and nano-indentation tests were performed on alloy 625 wire arc sprayed samples. Overall, results from the experimental tests are in relatively good agreement for deposited Al-Cu composites and alloy 625 coating. However, results obtained from numerical simulation are significantly higher in value than experimentally obtained results. Examination and comparison of the results are strong indications of the influence of microstructure characteristics on the mechanical properties of thermally spray deposited coatings.

  13. Fracture toughness and sliding properties of magnetron sputtered CrBC and CrBCN coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianzhi; Zhou, Fei; Ma, Qiang; Callisti, Mauro; Polcar, Tomas; Yan, Jiwang

    2018-06-01

    CrBC and CrBCN coatings with low and high B contents were deposited on 316L steel and Si wafers using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. Mechanical properties including hardness (H), elastic modulus (E) and fracture toughness (KIc) as well as residual stresses (σ) were quantified. A clear correlation between structural, mechanical and tribological properties of coatings was found. In particular, structural analyses indicated that N incorporation in CrBC coatings with high B content caused a significant structural evolution of the nanocomposite structure (crystalline grains embedded into an amorphous matrix) from nc-CrB2/(a-CrBx, a-BCx) to nc-CrN/(a-BCx, a-BN). As a result, the hardness of CrBC coating with high B content decreased from 23.4 to 16.3 GPa but the fracture toughness was enhanced. Consequently, less cracks initiated on CrBCN coatings during tribological tests, which combined with the shielding effect of a-BN on wear debris, led to a low friction coefficient and wear rate.

  14. High level waste forms: glass marbles and thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Oma, K.H.; Slate, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    A process that converts high-level waste to glass marbles and then coats the marbles has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The process consists of a joule-heated glass melter, a marble-making device based on a patent issued to Corning Glass Works, and a coating system that includes a plasma spray coater and a marble tumbler. The process was developed under the Alternative Waste Forms Program which strived to improve upon monolithic glass for immobilizing high-level wastes. Coated glass marbles were found to be more leach-resistant, and the marbles, before coating were found to be very homogeneous, highly impact resistant, and conductive to encapsulation in a metal matric for improved heat transfer and containment. Marbles are also ideally suited for quality assurance and recycling. However, the marble process is more complex, and marbles require a larger number of canisters for waste containment and have a higher surface area than do glass monoliths

  15. Deposition of Coating to Protect Waste Water Reservoir in Acidic Solution by Arc Thermal Spray Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion characteristics of 304 stainless steel (SS and titanium (Ti coatings deposited by the arc thermal spray process in pH 4 solution were assessed. The Ti-sprayed coating exhibits uniform, less porous, and adherent coating morphology compared to the SS-sprayed coating. The electrochemical study, that is, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, revealed that as exposure periods to solution were increased, the polarization resistance (Rp decreased and the charge transfer resistance (Rct increased owing to corrosion of the metallic surface and simultaneously at the same time the deposition of oxide films/corrosion on the SS-sprayed surface, while Ti coating transformed unstable oxides into the stable phase. Potentiodynamic studies confirmed that both sprayed coatings exhibited passive tendency attributed due to the deposition of corrosion products on SS samples, whereas the Ti-sprayed sample formed passive oxide films. The Ti coating reduced the corrosion rate by more than six times compared to the SS coating after 312 h of exposure to sulfuric acid- (H2SO4- contaminated water solution, that is, pH 4. Scanning electron microscope (SEM results confirmed the uniform and globular morphology of the passive film on the Ti coating resulting in reduced corrosion. On the other hand, the corrosion products formed on SS-sprayed coating exhibit micropores with a net-like microstructure. X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed the presence of the composite oxide film on Ti-sprayed samples and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH on the SS-coated surface. The transformation of TiO and Ti3O into TiO2 (rutile and anatase and Ti3O5 after 312 h of exposure to H2SO4 acid reveals the improved corrosion resistance properties of Ti-sprayed coating.

  16. Plasma-Sprayed LSM Protective Coating on Metallic Interconnect of SOFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Wei Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a (La0.8Sr0.20.98MnO3 protective layer was prepared on the C276, Crofer22 APU, SUS304, and SUS430 alloys by the atmospheric plasma spraying technique (APS. The oxidation behavior and electrical property of these metal alloys have been investigated isothermally at 800 °C in air for up to 300 h. Results showed that the ferritic steels transform into MnCr2O4 spinels and a Cr2O3 layer during isothermal oxidation. The C276 alloy formed NiCr2O4 and FeCr2O4 layers; these are protective and act as an effective barrier against chromium migration into the outer oxide layer, and the alloy demonstrated good oxidation resistance and a reasonable match to the coefficient of thermal expansion of the substrate and a low-oxide scale area-specific resistance. The ASR effects on the formation of oxide scale have been investigated, and the ASR of coated samples was below 0.024 Ω·cm2. It has good electrical conductivity for SOFC in long-term use.

  17. Wear Micro-Mechanisms of Composite WC-Co/Cr - NiCrFeBSiC Coatings. Part I: Dry Sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kekes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the cermet fraction in cermet/ metal composite coatings developed by High-Velocity Oxyfuel Flame (HVOF spraying on their tribological behaviour was studied. Five series of coatings, each one containing different proportion of cermet-metal components, prepared by premixing commercially available feedstocks of NiCrFeBSiC metallic and WC-Co/Cr cermet powders were deposited on AISI 304 stainless steel substrate. The microstructure of as-sprayed coatings was characterized by partial decomposition of the WC particles, lamellar morphology and micro-porosity among the solidified splats. Tribological behavior was studied under sliding friction conditions using a Si3N4 ball as counterbody and the friction coefficient and volume loss were determined as a function of the cermet fraction. Microscopic examinations of the wear tracks and relevant cross sections identified the wear mechanisms involved. Coatings containing only the metallic phase were worn out through a combination of ploughing, micro-cracking and splat exfoliation, whilst those containing only the cermet phase primarily by micro-cracking at the individual splat scale. The wear mechanisms of the composite coatings were strongly affected by their randomly stratified structure. In-depth cracks almost perpendicular to the coating/ substrate interface occurring at the wear track boundaries resulted in cermet trans-splat fracture.

  18. 40 CFR 63.5755 - How do I demonstrate compliance with the aluminum recreational boat surface coating spray gun...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the aluminum recreational boat surface coating spray gun cleaning work practice standards? 63.5755... surface coating spray gun cleaning work practice standards? You must demonstrate compliance with the aluminum coating spray gun cleaning work practice standards by meeting the requirements of paragraph (a) or...

  19. Modeling of Thickness and Profile Uniformity of Thermally Sprayed Coatings Deposited on Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanjun, Zhang; Wenbo, Li; Dayu, Li; Jinkun, Xiao; Chao, Zhang

    2018-02-01

    In thermal spraying processes, kinematic parameters of the robot play a decisive role in the coating thickness and profile. In this regard, some achievements have been made to optimize the spray trajectory on flat surfaces. However, few reports have focused on nonholonomic or variable-curvature cylindrical surfaces. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the coating profile, coating thickness, and scanning step, which is determined by the radius of curvature and scanning angle. A mathematical simulation model was developed to predict the thickness of thermally sprayed coatings. Experiments were performed on cylinders with different radiuses of curvature to evaluate the predictive ability of the model.

  20. Influence of coating defects on the corrosion behavior of cold sprayed refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Rao, A. Arjuna

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Long duration immersion tests reveal inhomogeneous weight losses. • The weight loss for different coatings are well corroborated with the coating defects. • Chemical and micro structural analysis elucidates the reason behind the in homogeneous performance of different type of cold sprayed coatings. • In cold sprayed titanium, formation of oxide along the inter-splat boundary hinders the aggressive attack of the medium. - Abstract: The defects in the cold sprayed coatings are critical in the case of corrosion performances of the coatings in aggressive conditions. To understand the influence of coating defects on corrosion, immersion tests have been carried out in HF solution for the cold sprayed and heat treated Titanium, Tantalum and Niobium coatings. Long duration immersion tests reveal inhomogeneous weight losses of the samples prepared at different heat treatment conditions. The weight loss for different coatings has been well corroborated with the coating defects and microstructures. Chemical and micro structural analysis elucidates the reason behind the inhomogeneous performance of different type of cold sprayed coatings in corrosion medium. In the case of cold sprayed titanium, formation of stable oxide along the inter-splat boundary hinders the aggressive attack of the corrosion medium which is not so in other cases.

  1. Development of Cr cold spray–coated fuel cladding with enhanced accident tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ševeček

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Accident-tolerant fuels (ATFs are currently of high interest to researchers in the nuclear industry and in governmental and international organizations. One widely studied accident-tolerant fuel concept is multilayer cladding (also known as coated cladding. This concept is based on a traditional Zr-based alloy (Zircaloy-4, M5, E110, ZIRLO etc. serving as a substrate. Different protective materials are applied to the substrate surface by various techniques, thus enhancing the accident tolerance of the fuel. This study focuses on the results of testing of Zircaloy-4 coated with pure chromium metal using the cold spray (CS technique. In comparison with other deposition methods, e.g., Physical vapor deposition (PVD, laser coating, or Chemical vapor deposition techniques (CVD, the CS technique is more cost efficient due to lower energy consumption and high deposition rates, making it more suitable for industry-scale production. The Cr-coated samples were tested at different conditions (500°C steam, 1200°C steam, and Pressurized water reactor (PWR pressurization test and were precharacterized and postcharacterized by various techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, or nanoindentation; results are discussed. Results of the steady-state fuel performance simulations using the Bison code predicted the concept's feasibility. It is concluded that CS Cr coating has high potential benefits but requires further optimization and out-of-pile and in-pile testing. Keywords: Accident-Tolerant Fuel, Chromium, Cladding, Coating, Cold Spray, Nuclear Fuel

  2. Role of process conditions on the microstructure, stoichiometry and functional performance of atmospheric plasma sprayed La(Sr)MnO3 coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su Jung; Chen, Yikai; Sampath, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    Strontium doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) perovskite coatings were produced via atmospheric plasma spray technique to examine their applicability as electrically conductive coatings to protect chromium-poisoning of cathode side metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells. Various plasma spray process conditions were manipulated including plasma power, total gas flow and content of H2 in the plasma gas in order to understand their effects on coating properties as well as efficacy as a protectant against Cr-poisoning. In-flight temperatures and velocities of spray particles were monitored for the various plasma spray conditions enabling assessment of thermal and kinetic energies of LSM particles. As anticipated, coating density improves with increasing thermal and/or kinetic energies of the LSM particles. However, the LSM particles also experienced significant phase decomposition at higher thermal exposure and longer residence time conditions. Due to preferential loss of oxygen and manganese, La2O3 phase is also formed under certain processing regimes. The resultant mixed-phase coating is ineffective both from electrical transport and as a protective coating for the metallic interconnect. Concomitantly, coatings with limited decomposition show excellent conductivity and protection characteristics demonstrating the need for mechanism driven process optimization for these functional oxide coatings.

  3. Ultrasonic technique for measuring porosity of plasma-sprayed alumina coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathi, S.; Tittmann, B. R.; Onesto, E. J.

    1997-12-01

    Porosity is an important factor in plasma-sprayed coatings, especially ceramic coatings. Excessive poros-ity can adversely affect the performance of the coated component in various ways. An ultrasonic nonde-structive measurement technique has been developed to measure porosity in plasma-sprayed alumina coatings. The technique is generic and can be extended to other ceramic coating systems. To test the tech-nique, freestanding alumina coatings with varying levels of porosity were fabricated via plasma spray. Samples with varying porosity, obtained through innovative fabrication techniques, were used to gener-ate a calibration curve. The ultrasonic velocity in the low-frequency range was found to be dependent on the density of freestanding coatings (measured via Archimedian techniques). This dependence is the basis of the development of a technique to measure the density of coatings.

  4. Erosion resistance and adhesion of composite metal/ceramic coatings produced by plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, D.A.J.; Hutchings, I.M.; Clyne, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic coatings can exhibit greater erosion resistance than most metallic coatings. Such coatings are conveniently produced by thermal spraying. Unfortunately, thermally sprayed ceramic coatings often exhibit poor adhesion, partly as a consequence of the development of residual stresses during spraying and subsequent cooling. Composite coatings have been studied using aluminium/alumina deposits on steel substrates. The incorporation of ceramics within a ductile matrix has potential for sharply reducing the erosive wear at high erodent impact angles, whilst retaining the good erosion resistance of ceramics at low angles. It is shown that the proportion of metal and ceramic at the free surface can be specified so as to optimise the erosion resistance. Experiments have also been carried out on the resistance of the coatings to debonding during four-point bending of the coated substrate. Progress is being made towards the tailoring of composition profiles in graded coatings so as to optimise the combination of erosion resistance and adhesion. (orig.)

  5. The erosion performance of particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings produced by co-deposition cold gas dynamic spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Tom; Galloway, Alexander; Toumpis, Athanasios; McNutt, Philip; Iqbal, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    This work reports on the erosion performance of three particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings, co-deposited with an aluminium binder via cold-gas dynamic spraying. The deposition of ceramic particles is difficult to achieve with typical cold spray techniques due to the absence of particle deformation. This issue has been overcome in the present study by simultaneously spraying the reinforcing particles with a ductile metallic binder which has led to an increased level of ceramic/cermet particles deposited on the substrate with thick (>400 μm) coatings produced. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the erosion performance of the co-deposited coatings within a slurry environment. The study also incorporated standard metallographic characterisation techniques to evaluate the distribution of reinforcing particles within the aluminium matrix. All coatings exhibited poorer erosion performance than the uncoated material, both in terms of volume loss and mass loss. The Al2O3 reinforced coating sustained the greatest amount of damage following exposure to the slurry and recorded the greatest volume loss (approx. 2.8 mm3) out of all of the examined coatings. Despite the poor erosion performance, the WC-CoCr reinforced coating demonstrated a considerable hardness increase over the as-received AA5083 (approx. 400%) and also exhibited the smallest free space length between adjacent particles. The findings of this study reveal that the removal of the AA5083 matrix by the impinging silicon carbide particles acts as the primary wear mechanism leading to the degradation of the coating. Analysis of the wear scar has demonstrated that the damage to the soft matrix alloy takes the form of ploughing and scoring which subsequently exposes carbide/oxide particles to the impinging slurry.

  6. Determination of parameters for successful spray coating of silicon microneedle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Marie G; Vrdoljak, Anto; O'Mahony, Conor; Oliveira, Jorge C; Moore, Anne C; Crean, Abina M

    2011-08-30

    Coated microneedle patches have demonstrated potential for effective, minimally invasive, drug and vaccine delivery. To facilitate cost-effective, industrial-scale production of coated microneedle patches, a continuous coating method which utilises conventional pharmaceutical processes is an attractive prospect. Here, the potential of spray-coating silicon microneedle patches using a conventional film-coating process was evaluated and the key process parameters which impact on coating coalescence and weight were identified by employing a fractional factorial design to coat flat silicon patches. Processing parameters analysed included concentration of coating material, liquid input rate, duration of spraying, atomisation air pressure, gun-to-surface distance and air cap setting. Two film-coating materials were investigated; hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). HPMC readily formed a film-coat on silicon when suitable spray coating parameter settings were determined. CMC films required the inclusion of a surfactant (1%, w/w Tween 80) to facilitate coalescence of the sprayed droplets on the silicon surface. Spray coating parameters identified by experimental design, successfully coated 280μm silicon microneedle arrays, producing an intact film-coat, which follows the contours of the microneedle array without occlusion of the microneedle shape. This study demonstrates a novel method of coating microneedle arrays with biocompatible polymers using a conventional film-coating process. It is the first study to indicate the thickness and roughness of coatings applied to microneedle arrays. The study also highlights the importance of identifying suitable processing parameters when film coating substrates of micron dimensions. The ability of a fractional factorial design to identify these critical parameters is also demonstrated. The polymer coatings applied in this study can potentially be drug loaded for intradermal drug and vaccine delivery

  7. Preliminary Microstructural and Microscratch Results of Ni-Cr-Fe and Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings on Magnesium Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istrate, B.; Munteanu, C.; Lupescu, S.; Benchea, M.; Vizureanu, P.

    2017-06-01

    Thermal coatings have a large scale application in aerospace and automotive field, as barriers improving wear mechanical characteristics and corrosion resistance. In present research, there have been used two types of coatings, Ni-Cr-Fe, respectively Cr3C2-NiCr which were deposited on magnesium based alloys (pure magnesium and Mg-30Y master alloy). There have been investigated the microstructural aspects through scanning electronic microscopy and XRD analysis and also a series of mechanical characteristics through microscratch and indentation determinations. The results revealed the formation of some adherent layers resistant to the penetration of the metallic indenter, the coatings did not suffer major damages. Microstructural analysis highlighted the formation of Cr3C2, Cr7C3, Cr3Ni2, Cr7Ni3, FeNi3, Cr-Ni phases. Also, the apparent coefficient of friction for Ni-Cr-Fe coatings presents superior values than Cr3C2-NiCr coatings.

  8. Ceramic Materials Selection of Fuel Crucibles based on Plasma Spray Coating for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jonghwan; Kim, Hyungtae; Ko, Youngmo; Woo, Yoonmyung; Oh, Seokjin; Kim, Kihwan; Lee, Chanbock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The plasma-sprayed coating can provide the crucible with a denser, more friable coating layer, compared with the more friable coating layer formed by slurry-coating, which was used to prevent the interaction between melt and crucibles. Plasma-sprayed coatings are consolidated by mechanical interlocking of the molten particles impacting on the substrate and are dense by the heat applied by the plasma. The increased coating density is advantageous because it should not require frequent re coating and U-Zr melt penetration through the protective layer is more difficult in a dense coating than in a porous coating. In this study, we used Vacuum Plasma Spray method to investigate permanent coatings for re-usable crucibles for melting and casting of metallic fuel onto niobium substrates. Niobium was selected as a substrate because of its refractory nature and the coefficient of thermal expansion is similar to that of many of the candidate materials. After the HfC, ZrC, TiC, TaC, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 8% YSZ coatings were applied the resulting microstructure and chemical compositions was characterized to find the optimum process conditions for coating. Thermal plasma-sprayed coatings of refractory materials can be applied to develop a re-usable crucible coating for metallic fuel, such as the U-Zr alloy proposed for sodium cooled fast reactors.

  9. Influência da refusão por plasma na microestrutura de um revestimento Fe-Mn-Cr-Si depositado por aspersão térmica arco elétrico sobre aço inoxidável ASTM A743-CA6NM Influence of plasma remelting on the microstructure of Fe-Mn-Cr-Si arc thermal spray coating deposited on ASTM A743-CA6NM stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Geraldo Marenda Pukasiewicz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ASTM A743-CA6NM é um aço inoxidável martensítico muito utilizado na fabricação de turbinas hidráulicas devido a sua elevada tenacidade, entretanto apresenta restrições com relação à regiões recuperadas por soldagem. Diferentes técnicas de deposição tem sido aplicadas com o intuito de reduzir ou eliminar a tensão residual. A deposição de revestimentos resistentes a cavitação é outra forma importante de aumentar a vida útil destes componentes. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a influência do tipo e intensidade de corrente de refusão por plasma na microestrutura, composição química e microdureza de um revestimento Fe-Mn-Cr-Si resistente a cavitação depositado por aspersão térmica arco elétrico sobre aço ASTMA743-CA6NM. Observou-se que a adoção de menores valores de corrente média, assim como a utilização de corrente pulsada reduziram a formação de ferrita δ e a espessura final da ZTA, possibilitando a formação do revestimento com menores alterações na microestrutura do metal base. Verificou-se que a microestrutura e microdureza dos revestimentos refundidos não se mostraram muito sensível a variações na diluição do metal base. A utilização de corrente contínua promoveu um alinhamento da estrutura dendrítica no sentido da movimentação da tocha, entretanto este comportamento não foi observado em revestimentos refundidos com corrente pulsada.ASTM A743-CA6NM martensitic stainless steel have been used in hydraulic turbines manufacturing, but show some restrictions in welded recovered areas. Different techniques have been applied in order to reduce or eliminate residual stress, with life increase. The deposition of cavitation resistant coatings is another important way to increase the service life of these components. The objective of this study is evaluate the influence of type and intensity of plasma remelting current on the microstructure, chemical composition and microhardness of the Fe-Cr

  10. Indentation creep behavior of cold sprayed aluminum amorphous/nano-crystalline coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, P. Suresh [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Balapur, Hyderabad 500005, Andhra Pradesh (India); Nanomechanics and Nanotribology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Jha, R.; Guzman, M. [Nanomechanics and Nanotribology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Sundararajan, G. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Balapur, Hyderabad 500005, Andhra Pradesh (India); Agarwal, Arvind, E-mail: agarwala@fiu.edu [Nanomechanics and Nanotribology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    In this study, we report room temperature creep properties of cold sprayed aluminum amorphous/nanocrystalline coating using nanoindentation technique. Creep experiments were also performed on heat treated coatings to study the structural stability and its influence on the creep behavior. The peak load and holding time were varied from 1000 to 4000 µN and 0 to 240 s respectively. Stress exponent value (n) vary from 5.6 to 2.3 in as-sprayed (AS) coatings and 7.2–4.8 in heat treated (HT) coatings at peak load of 1000–4000 µN at 240 s hold time. Higher stress exponent value indicates heat treated coatings have more resistance to creep deformation than as-sprayed coatings. Relaxed, partially crystallized structure with less porosity, and stronger inter-splat boundaries restrict the deformation in heat treated coatings as compared to greater free volume generation in amorphous as-sprayed coatings. The computed activation volume of heat treated coatings is twice of as-sprayed coatings indicating greater number of atom participation in shear band formation in heat treated coatings. The proposed mechanism was found to be consistent with the stress exponent values.

  11. Spallation of oxide scales from NiCrAlY overlay coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strawbridge, A.; Evans, H.E.; Ponton, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    A common method of protecting superalloys from aggressive environments at high temperatures is by plasma spraying MCrAlY (M = Fe, Ni and/or Co) to form an overlay coating. Oxidation resistance is then conferred through the development of an alumina layer. However, the use of such coatings is limited at temperatures above about 1100 C due to rapid failure of the protective oxide scales. In this study, the oxidation behaviour of air-plasma-sprayed NiCrAlY coatings has been investigated at 1200 C in 1 atm air. A protective alumina layer develops during the early stages, but breakaway oxidation occurs after prolonged exposure. The results suggest that the critical temperature drop to initiate failure is inversely proportional to the scale thickness, and an analytical model is put forward to explain this behaviour. Local surface curvature of the coating can lead to delamination within the oxide during cooling and it is shown that the largest individual pore in a spall region is the critical flaw for oxide fracture. (orig.)

  12. MICROSTRUCTURE OF CR2O3 COATINGS ON STEEL AND THE EFFECT OF SILICON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBURG, M; DEHOSSON, JTM; Burg, M. van den

    This paper concentrates on the microstructural features of steel containing 22 wt.% Cr, coated with Cr2O3 by laser processing. It turned out that after laser coating the Cr2O3 powder has completely transformed to Fe0.3Cr2.7O4 having the tetragonal distorted spinel structure. Dispersed in the coating

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed Ultrafine Chromium Oxide Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Feng; Jiang Xianliang; Yu Yueguang; Zeng Keli; Ren Xianjing; Li Zhenduo

    2007-01-01

    Ultrafine chromium oxide coatings were prepared by plasma spraying with ultrafine feedstock. Processing parameters of plasma spraying were optimized. Optical microscope (OM) was used to observe the microstructure of the ultrafine chromium oxide coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology and particle size of ultrafine powder feedstock as well as to examine the microstructure of the chromium oxide coating. In addition, hardness and bonding strength of the ultrafine chromium oxide coatings were measured. The results showed that the optimized plasma spraying parameters were suitable for ultrafine chromium oxide coating and the properties and microstructure of the optimized ultrafine chromium oxide coating were superior compared to conventional chromium oxide wear resistant coatings

  14. Mehanička svojstva i mikrostruktura vakuum plazma naprskane Cr3C2 - 25(Ni20Cr prevlake / Mechanical properties and microstructure of vacuum plasma sprayed Cr3C2 – 25(Ni20Cr coatings / Механические свойства и микроструктура покрытия Cr3C2 - 25(Ni20Cr нанесенного методом вакуумного плазменного напыления

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo R. Mrdak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available U radu je analizirana vakuum plazma sprej prevlaka VPS – Cr3C2 - 25(Ni20Cr. Upotrebljen je komercijalni prah oznake Sulzer Metco Woka 7205. Prah je deponovan sa plazma pištoljem F4 na odstojanju substrata od 340 mm. Glavni cilj rada bio je da se na smanjenom pritisku inertnog gasa Ar eliminiše razgradnja primarnog karbida Cr3C2 u karbid Cr23C6 koji bitno umanjuje mikrotvrdoću i mehaničke karakteristike prevlake. Prevlaka je deponovana debljine od 100 do 120 µm na čeličnom substratu. Mikrotvrdoća prevlake ispitana je metodom HV0.3. Vrednosti mikrotvrdoće bile su u rasponu od 1248 do 1342 HV0.3. Čvrstoća spoja prevlake ispitana je metodom na zatezanje. Utvrđeno je da čvrstoća spoja između substrata i prevlake ima vrednost 89 MPa. Mikrostruktura prevlake ispitana je tehnikom svetlosne mikroskopije. Struktura prevlake sastoji se od osnove NiCr legure sa dominantnom primarnom karbidnom fazom Cr3C2. Pored Cr3C2 faze prisutna je i faza Cr7C3. Nagrizanje prevlake urađeno je reagensom 1HNO3: 4HCl: 4H2O koji prvenstveno rastvara Ni da bi se videla raspodela karbidne faze u prevlaci. Nagrizanjem prevlake reagensom utvrđeno je da je u slojevima prevlake u velikom udelu prisutna primarna nerazgrađena karbidna faza Cr3C2 koja prevlaci daje visoke vrednosti mikrotvrdoće. / This paper analyzes vacuum plasma spray VPS - Cr3C2 - 25(Ni20Cr coatings. Commercial powder marked Sulzer Metco Woka 7205 is used. The powder is deposited with a plasma gun F4 at a distance of 340 mm from the substrate. The main objective of the study was to eliminate, at the reduced pressure of inert gas Ar, the degradation of primary Cr3C2 carbide into Cr23C6 carbide which significantly reduces the microhardness and mechanical properties of the coating. The coating is deposited with a thickness of 100 - 120 µm on a steel substrate. The microhardness of the coating was tested by HV0.3. The microhardness values were in the range of 1248 - 1342 HV0.3. The bond strength

  15. Formation of hydrotalcite coating on the aluminum alloy 6060 in spray system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Roefzaad, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Coatings with the composition of Li-Al-NO3 hydrotalcite were formed on the Al alloy 6060 using a spray system. The coatings consist of crystals with a typical hydrotalcite structure. Dense, uniform and blade-like flakes cover completely the surface of the Al substrate. The coatings display a multi......-layer structure with average thickness of ∼1000 nm. The hydrotalcite-coated samples performed better than those without coatings in salt-spray and filiform-corrosion tests, and further treatment involving sealing with a Mg acetate solution and dipping in a H2O2 + Ce-based solution improved the corrosion...

  16. Sprayed and Spin-Coated Multilayer Antireflection Coating Films for Nonvacuum Processed Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Uzum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the simple and cost-effective methods, spin-coated ZrO2-polymer composite/spray-deposited TiO2-compact multilayer antireflection coating film was introduced. With a single TiO2-compact film on the surface of a crystalline silicon wafer, 5.3% average reflectance (the reflectance average between the wavelengths of 300 nm and 1100 nm was observed. Reflectance decreased further down to 3.3% after forming spin-coated ZrO2 on the spray-deposited TiO2-compact film. Silicon solar cells were fabricated using CZ-Si p-type wafers in three sets: (1 without antireflection coating (ARC layer, (2 with TiO2-compact ARC film, and (3 with ZrO2-polymer composite/TiO2-compact multilayer ARC film. Conversion efficiency of the cells improved by a factor of 0.8% (from 15.19% to 15.88% owing to the multilayer ARC. Jsc was improved further by 2 mA cm−2 (from 35.3 mA cm−2 to 37.2 mA cm−2 when compared with a single TiO2-compact ARC.

  17. Microstructural Evolution of NiCoCrAlHfYSi and NiCoCrAlTaY Coatings Deposited by AC-HVAF and APS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yujun; Chen, Hongfei; Gao, Dong; Yang, Guang; Liu, Bin; Chu, Yajie; Fan, Jinkai; Gao, Yanfeng

    2017-12-01

    The chemical composition of NiCoCrAlHfYSi with a suitable particle size, deposited using an activated combustion-high velocity air fuel (AC-HVAF) spray, is a potentially promising process because dense, continuous and pure alumina can be formed on the surface of the MCrAlY metallic coatings after isothermal oxidation exposure. The NiCoCrAlHfYSi (Amdry386) and NiCoCrAlTaY (Amdry997) coatings were produced using AC-HVAF and APS, respectively. Isothermal oxidation was subsequently conducted at 1050 °C in air for 200 h. This paper compares the characteristics of four coated samples, including the surface roughness, elastic modulus, hardness, oxide content, microstructural characteristics and phase evolution of thermally grown oxides (TGO). The growth of both the TGO and alumina scales in the TGO of the HVAF386 coating was relatively rapid. The θ- to α-alumina phase transformation was strongly determined by the Hf and Si dopants in the HVAF386 coating. Finally, the extent of grain refinement and deformation storage energy in the HVAF997 coatings were determined to be significantly crucial for the θ- to α-alumina phase transformation.

  18. Corrosion performance of atmospheric plasma sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy under immersion environment

    OpenAIRE

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy; K. Shanmugam; V. Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are successfully used in many industrial applications, where high wear and corrosion resistance with thermal insulation are required. The alumina powders were plasma sprayed on AZ31B magnesium alloy with three different plasma spraying parameters. In the present work, the influence of plasma spray parameters on the corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated. The corrosion behavior of the coated samples was evaluated by immersion corrosion test in 3.5 w...

  19. New generation of plasma-sprayed mullite coatings on silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1995-01-01

    Mullite is promising as a protective coating for silicon-based ceramics in aggressive high-temperature environments. Conventionally plasma-sprayed mullite on SiC tends to crack and debond on thermal cycling. It is shown that this behavior is due to the presence of amorphous mullite in the conventionally sprayed mullite. Heating the SiC substrate during the plasma spraying eliminated the amorphous phase and produced coatings with dramatically improved properties. The new coating exhibits excellent adherence and crack resistance under thermal cycling between room temperature and 1000 to 1400 C. Preliminary tests showed good resistance to Na2CO3-induced hot corrosion.

  20. Two feasible approaches to enhance the wear behaviors of NiCrBSi coating in atmosphere and aqueous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuwei; Wang, Chunting; Zheng, Wenru; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Yongxin; Li, Xiaogang

    2017-09-01

    NiCrBSi coating was deposited successfully on the surface of 316 stainless steel substrate by means of plasma spraying. The microstructures and mechanical property were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and a Vickers hardness tester. The wear performances of the coatings sliding against the GCr15 ball under ambient air and water conditions were investigated, and two feasible approaches (tungsten carbide (WC)-doping and heat treatment) were used to improve the tribological performance. Results showed that the hardness of the NiCrBSi coating increased by 12.5% and 28.5% and the porosity decreased by 26.1% and 47.8%, respectively, after WC-doping and heat treatment. During dry friction, the friction coefficient and wear rate of the NiCrBSi coating were about 0.47 and 1.4  ×  10-5 mm3 N-1 m-1, respectively. These values were higher than those obtained on other coatings. In water conditions, all coatings showed a lower friction and wear rate than that in ambient air, which was as a result of the lubrication effect of water. Significantly, with WC-doping and heat treatment, the friction coefficients of both coatings were about 18.5% and 36.7%, respectively, lower than that of the NiCrBSi coating. Furthermore, the wear rates of both coatings were about 20% and 70%, respectively, lower than that of the NiCrBSi coating.

  1. An assessment of thermal spray coating technologies for high temperature corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, G.R.; Heimgartner, P.; Gustafsson, S.; Irons, G.; Miller, R.

    1997-01-01

    The use of thermally sprayed coatings in combating high temperature corrosion continues to grow in the major industries of chemical, waste incineration, power generation and pulp and paper. This has been driven partially by the development of corrosion resistant alloys, improved knowledge and quality in the thermal spray industry and continued innovation in thermal spray equipment. There exists today an extensive range of thermal spray process options, often with the same alloy solution. In demanding corrosion applications it is not sufficient to just specify alloy and coating method. For the production of reliable coatings the whole coating production envelope needs to be considered, including alloy selection, spray parameters, surface preparation, base metal properties, heat input etc. Combustion, arc-wire, plasma, HVOF and spray+fuse techniques are reviewed and compared in terms of their strengths and limitations to provide cost-effective solutions for high temperature corrosion protection. Arc wire spraying, HP/HVOF and spray+fuse are emerging as the most promising techniques to optimise both coating properties and economic/practical aspects. (orig.)

  2. Oxide scale formation of modified FeCrAl coatings exposed to liquid lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetzer, Renate, E-mail: renate.fetzer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Weisenburger, Alfons; Jianu, Adrian; Mueller, Georg [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified FeCrAl coatings show oxide scale formation when exposed to liquid lead. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of thin Al-rich oxide scales is promoted by the presence of Y. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FeCrAlY with at least 8 wt.% Al forms thin Al-rich oxide scales. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For low Al content, thick multilayer Fe-based oxide scales are found. - Abstract: Modified FeCrAl coatings were studied with respect to their capability to form a thin protective oxide scale in liquid lead environment. They were manufactured by low pressure plasma spraying and GESA surface melting, thereby tuning the Al content. The specimens were exposed for 900 h to liquid lead containing 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -8} wt.% oxygen, respectively, at various temperatures from 400 to 550 Degree-Sign C. Threshold values for an Al content that guarantees the formation of thin protective Al-rich oxide scales are determined, dependent on the respective chromium content, on the presence of yttrium in the modified coating, and on the exposure conditions.

  3. Physical properties of pyrolytically sprayed tin-doped indium oxide coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haitjema, H.; Elich, J.J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The optical and electrical properties of tin-doped indium oxide coatings obviously depend on a number of production parameters. This dependence has been studied to obtain a more general insight into the relationships between the various coating properties. The coatings have been produced by spray

  4. Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Fe Based Coatings by HVOF Sprayed on Gray Cast-Iron for Automotive Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Priyan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, commercially available FeSiNiCr and FeBCr alloy powders were designed with suitable compositions, gas atomized and then coated on gray cast-iron substrate. The microstructures of the feed stock Fe based alloy powders and the coatings were investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. In the present study, both the coating materials experienced two-body wear mechanisms. The results showed that for loads of 0.05 N, 0.1 N and 0.2 N, the wear resistance of FeBCr coating was less than FeSiNiCr by 44 %, 40 % and 31 %, respectively. The results indicated that the coated substrates exhibited lower corrosion current densities and lower corrosion rates, when placed in 20 wt.% H2SO4 solutions. In addition, the use of optimal spraying parameters/conditions gave improvements to the corrosion resistance of the substrates that had been treated with the crystalline coating.

  5. Protection of 310l Stainless Steel from Wear at Elevated Temperatures using Conicraly Thermal Spray Coatings with and without Sic Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Li, Kaiyang; Li, Dongyang

    2017-10-01

    Due to its high oxidation resistance, 310L stainless steel is often used for thermal facilities working at high-temperatures. However, the steel may fail prematurely at elevated temperatures when encounter surface mechanical attacks such as wear. Thermal spray coatings have been demonstrated to be effective in protecting the steel from wear at elevated temperatures. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of high velocity oxy-fuel(HVOF) spraying CoNiCrAlY/SiC coatings in resisting wear of 310L stainless steel at elevated temperature using a pin-on-disc wear tester. In order to further improve the performance of the coating, 5%SiC was added to the coating. It was demonstrated that the CoNiCrAlY/SiC coating after heat treatment markedly suppressed wear. However, the added SiC particles did not show benefits to the wear resistance of the coating. Microstructures of CoNiCrAlY coatings with and without the SiC addition were characterized in order to understand the mechanism responsible for the observed phenomena.

  6. Performance of vacuum plasma spray and HVOF bond coatings at 900° and 1100 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance, Michael J. [ORNL; Haynes, James A. [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A. [ORNL

    2017-12-01

    The effects of Ti and B additions to a vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coating on thermal barrier coating (TBC) performance were studied at 1100 °C and 900 °C and compared to high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) bond coatings. Using alloy 247 substrates and air plasma sprayed Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 top coatings, additions of B or Ti + B did not improve the average TBC lifetime in 1-h cycles at 1100 °C in air with 10% H2O. The addition of Ti resulted in a decrease in lifetime. Photo-stimulated luminescence spectroscopy was used to map residual stresses in the thermally-grown Al2O3 scale. At 900 °C, closer to a typical land based turbine operating bond coating temperature, specimens were examined after ten 500-h cycles in laboratory air and air with 10%H2O to study the effect of H2O. The addition of water vapor had little effect on the measured parabolic rate constants at 900 °C and a comparison of the oxide microstructures in both environments is reported.

  7. Testing of Flame Sprayed Al2O3 Matrix Coatings Containing TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czupryński A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the properties of flame sprayed ceramic coatings using oxide ceramic materials coating of a powdered aluminium oxide (Al2O3 matrix with 3% titanium oxide (TiO2 applied to unalloyed S235JR grade structural steel. A primer consisting of a metallic Ni-Al-Mo based powder has been applied to plates with dimensions of 5×200×300 mm and front surfaces of Ø40×50 mm cylinders. Flame spraying of primer coating was made using a RotoTec 80 torch, and an external coating was made with a CastoDyn DS 8000 torch. Evaluation of the coating properties was conducted using metallographic testing, phase composition research, measurement of microhardness, substrate coating adhesion (acc. to EN 582:1996 standard, erosion wear resistance (acc. to ASTM G76-95 standard, and abrasive wear resistance (acc. to ASTM G65 standard and thermal impact. The testing performed has demonstrated that flame spraying with 97% Al2O3 powder containing 3% TiO2 performed in a range of parameters allows for obtaining high-quality ceramic coatings with thickness up to ca. 500 µm on a steel base. Spray coating possesses a structure consisting mainly of aluminium oxide and a small amount of NiAl10O16 and NiAl32O49 phases. The bonding primer coat sprayed with the Ni-Al-Mo powder to the steel substrate and external coating sprayed with the 97% Al2O3 powder with 3% TiO2 addition demonstrates mechanical bonding characteristics. The coating is characterized by a high adhesion to the base amounting to 6.5 MPa. Average hardness of the external coating is ca. 780 HV. The obtained coatings are characterized by high erosion and abrasive wear resistance and the resistance to effects of cyclic thermal shock.

  8. Physical chemistry of WC-12 %Co coatings deposited by thermal spraying at different standoff distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Ahmed, Furqan; Anwar, Muhammad Yousaf; Ali, Liaqat; Ajmal, Muhammad [Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Lahore (Pakistan); Khan, Aamer Nusair [Institute of Industrial and Control System, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2015-09-15

    In the present research, WC-12 %Co cermet coatings were deposited on AISI-321 stainless steel substrate using air plasma spraying. During the deposition process, the standoff distance was varied from 80 to 130 mm with 10 mm increments. Other parameters such as current, voltage, time, carrier gas flow rate and powder feed rate etc. were kept constant. The objective was to study the effects of spraying distance on the microstructure of as-sprayed coatings. The microscopic analyses revealed that the band of spraying distance ranging from 90 to 100 mm was the threshold distance for optimum results, provided that all the other spraying parameters were kept constant. In this range of threshold distance, minimum percentages of porosity and defects were observed. Further, the formation of different phases, at six spraying distances, was studied using X-ray diffraction, and the phase analysis was correlated with hardness results.

  9. On the evaluation of residual stress and mechanical properties of FeCrBSi coatings by nanoindentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lina; Xu Binshi; Wang Haidou; Wang Chengbiao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ni/Al coating can reduce the mismatch degree between the coating and substrate. ► No obvious pile-up is observed for the nanoindents of the FeCrBSi coating. ► The higher the tensile residual stress, the lower the hardness and elastic modulus. - Abstract: In this paper, the residual stress in the plasma-sprayed FeCrBSi coating was determined by nanoindentation and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results showed that tensile residual stress was generated in the FeCrBSi coating, and the through-thickness values range between 40 MPa and 112 MPa. The residual stress measured by nanoindentation is 753 MPa. The difference between the XRD and nanoindentation results was discussed. It is found that the factors limiting the nanoindentation measurement of residual stress include the ‘sink-in’ deformation around the indenter, the roughness of the FeCrBSi coating, and the use of reference sample without residual stress. The above three factors lead to the over-prediction of residual stress by nanoindentation.

  10. Oxidation resistance of CrN/(Cr,V)N hard coatings deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panjan, P., E-mail: peter.panjan@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drnovšek, A.; Kovač, J.; Gselman, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Bončina, T. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Paskvale, S.; Čekada, M.; Kek Merl, D.; Panjan, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-09-30

    In recent years vanadium-doped hard coatings have become available as possible candidates for self-lubrication at high temperatures. Their low coefficient of friction has mainly been attributed to the formation of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase. However, the formation of vanadium oxides must be controlled by the out-diffusion of vanadium in order to achieve the combination of a low coefficient of friction and good mechanical properties for the protective coatings. In this work the application of a nanolayer of CrN/(Cr,V)N hard coating was proposed as a way to better control the out-diffusion of vanadium, while the topmost chromium oxide layer acts as barrier for the vanadium diffusion. However, the aim of this investigation was not only to focus on the formation of the oxide layer. Special attention was given to the oxidation process that takes place at the growth defects, where we observed a strong diffusion of vanadium taking place. The CrN/(Cr,V)N nanolayer coatings were deposited by DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering in an CC800/9 (CemeCon) industrial unit. The vanadium concentration in the (Cr,V)N layers was varied in the range 1.0–11.5 at.%. - Highlights: • Oxidation processes of CrN/(Cr,V)N nanolayers with vanadium content were investigated. • The CrN/(Cr,V)N hard layers were oxidized at high temperature in O2 atm. • The top chromium oxide layer acts as a diffusion barrier for vanadium ions during oxidation. • Important role of growth defects during the oxidation process is demonstrated.

  11. Oxidation resistance of CrN/(Cr,V)N hard coatings deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panjan, P.; Drnovšek, A.; Kovač, J.; Gselman, P.; Bončina, T.; Paskvale, S.; Čekada, M.; Kek Merl, D.; Panjan, M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years vanadium-doped hard coatings have become available as possible candidates for self-lubrication at high temperatures. Their low coefficient of friction has mainly been attributed to the formation of the V_2O_5 phase. However, the formation of vanadium oxides must be controlled by the out-diffusion of vanadium in order to achieve the combination of a low coefficient of friction and good mechanical properties for the protective coatings. In this work the application of a nanolayer of CrN/(Cr,V)N hard coating was proposed as a way to better control the out-diffusion of vanadium, while the topmost chromium oxide layer acts as barrier for the vanadium diffusion. However, the aim of this investigation was not only to focus on the formation of the oxide layer. Special attention was given to the oxidation process that takes place at the growth defects, where we observed a strong diffusion of vanadium taking place. The CrN/(Cr,V)N nanolayer coatings were deposited by DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering in an CC800/9 (CemeCon) industrial unit. The vanadium concentration in the (Cr,V)N layers was varied in the range 1.0–11.5 at.%. - Highlights: • Oxidation processes of CrN/(Cr,V)N nanolayers with vanadium content were investigated. • The CrN/(Cr,V)N hard layers were oxidized at high temperature in O2 atm. • The top chromium oxide layer acts as a diffusion barrier for vanadium ions during oxidation. • Important role of growth defects during the oxidation process is demonstrated.

  12. Plasma spraying of hard magnetic coatings based on Sm-Co alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Siberian State Aerospace University named after Academician M.F. Reshetnev 31 KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" >Saunin, V N; KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Siberian State Aerospace University named after Academician M.F. Reshetnev 31 KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" >Telegin, S V

    2015-01-01

    Our research is focused on the formation of hard magnetic coatings by plasma spraying an arc-melted Sm-Co powder. We have studied basic magnetic characteristics depending on the components ratio in the alloy. A sample with a 40 wt.% Sm coating exhibits the highest coercive force (63 kOe) as compared to near-to-zero coercive force in the starting powder. X-ray structure analysis of the starting alloy and the coating reveals that the amount of SmCo 5 phase in the sprayed coating increases occupying up to 2/3 of the sample. We have also studied temperature dependence of the coating and have been able to obtain plasma sprayed permanent magnets operating within the temperature range from -100 to +500 °C. The technique used does not involve any additional thermal treatment and allows a coating to be formed right on the magnetic conductor surface irrespective of the conductor geometry

  13. Stress gradients in CrN coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Visser, C.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    Stress in hard films is the net sum of tensile stress generated at the grain boundaries, compressive stress due to ion peening, and thermal stress due to the difference in thermal expansion of the coating and substrate. The tensile part due to grain boundaries is thickness dependent. The other two

  14. Spray-coating process in preparing PTFE-PPS composite super-hydrophobic coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Weng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of a liquid-floated rotor micro-gyroscope, the resistance of the moving interface between the rotor and the floating liquid must be reduced. Hydrophobic treatment can reduce the frictional resistance between such interfaces, therefore we proposed a method to prepare a poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE-poly-phenylene sulphide (PPS composite super-hydrophobic coating, based on a spraying process. This method can quickly prepare a continuous, uniform PTFE-PPS composite super-hydrophobic surface on a 2J85 material. This method can be divided into three steps, namely: pre-treatment; chemical etching; and spraying. The total time for this is around three hours. When the PTFE concentration is 4%, the average contact angle of the hydrophobic coating surface is 158°. If silicon dioxide nanoparticles are added, this can further improve the adhesion and mechanical strength of the super-hydrophobic composite coating. The maximum average contact angle can reach as high as 164° when the mass fraction of PTFE, PPS and silicon dioxide is 1:1:1.

  15. Spray-coating process in preparing PTFE-PPS composite super-hydrophobic coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Rui; Zhang, Haifeng; Liu, Xiaowei

    2014-03-01

    In order to improve the performance of a liquid-floated rotor micro-gyroscope, the resistance of the moving interface between the rotor and the floating liquid must be reduced. Hydrophobic treatment can reduce the frictional resistance between such interfaces, therefore we proposed a method to prepare a poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-poly-phenylene sulphide (PPS) composite super-hydrophobic coating, based on a spraying process. This method can quickly prepare a continuous, uniform PTFE-PPS composite super-hydrophobic surface on a 2J85 material. This method can be divided into three steps, namely: pre-treatment; chemical etching; and spraying. The total time for this is around three hours. When the PTFE concentration is 4%, the average contact angle of the hydrophobic coating surface is 158°. If silicon dioxide nanoparticles are added, this can further improve the adhesion and mechanical strength of the super-hydrophobic composite coating. The maximum average contact angle can reach as high as 164° when the mass fraction of PTFE, PPS and silicon dioxide is 1:1:1.

  16. Replacement of Chromium Electroplating on Gas Turbine Engine Components Using Thermal Spray Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sartwell, Bruce D; Legg, Keith O; Schell, Jerry; Bondaruk, Bob; Alford, Charles; Natishan, Paul; Lawrence, Steven; Shubert, Gary; Bretz, Philip; Kaltenhauser, Anne

    2005-01-01

    .... This document constitutes the final report on a project to qualify high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) and plasma thermal spray coatings as a replacement for hard chrome plating on gas turbine engine components...

  17. The Properties of Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Coatings on Armor-Grade Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Adamiak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an examination of the properties of arc-sprayed aluminum on alloyed armor-grade steel. Thermal arc spraying was conducted with a EuTronic Arc Spray 4 wire arc sprayer. Aluminum wire 1.6 mm in diameter was used to produce dense, abrasion- and erosion-resistant coatings approx. 1.0 mm thick with and without nickel/5% aluminum-buffered subcoating. Aluminum coatings were characterized in accordance with ASTM G 65-00 abrasion resistance test, ASTM G 76-95 erosion resistance tests, ASTM C 633-01 adhesion strength, HV0.1 hardness tests and metallographic analyses. Results demonstrate properties of arc-sprayed aluminum and aluminum-nickel material coatings that are especially promising in industrial applications where erosion-, abrasion- and corrosion-resistant coating properties are required.

  18. Correlations between operating conditions, microstructure and mechanical properties of twin wire arc sprayed steel coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandin, G.; Liao, H.; Feng, Z.Q.; Coddet, C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental design matrix was set up in which carbon steel coatings were deposited with a twin wire arc spray gun (TAFA 9000 TM ), using either compressed air or nitrogen as spraying gas. The coating's mechanical properties were studied. Some correlations were made between these properties, spraying conditions and the microstructure of the deposits. Young's modulus was estimated by the single beam method using finite element modeling. Results show that direct relationships do exist between spray conditions, oxide content in the coating and microhardness. Young's modulus of the coatings depends on the lamella thickness and the oxide content. When increasing the compressed air flow rate, Young's modulus increases at first because smaller particles and finer lamellae were made and it decreases later because of a higher oxide content. The increase of nitrogen flow rate lowers the oxide content and increases Young's modulus

  19. Corrosion resistance of Ni-50Cr HVOF coatings on 310S alloy substrates in a metal dusting atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saaedi, J. [Centre for Advanced Coating Technologies, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arabi, H.; Mirdamadi, S.; Ghorbani, H. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Coyle, T.W. [Centre for Advanced Coating Technologies, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Metal dusting attack has been examined after three 168 h cycles on two Ni-50Cr coatings with different microstructures deposited on 310S alloy substrates by the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal-spray process. Metal dusting in uncoated 310S alloy specimens was found to be still in the initiation stage after 504 h of exposure in the 50H{sub 2}:50CO gas environment at 620 C. Dense Ni-50Cr coatings offered suitable resistance to metal dusting. Metal dusting was observed in the 310S substrates adjacent to pores at the interface between the substrate and a porous Ni-50Cr coating. The porosity present in the as-deposited coatings was shown to introduce a large variability into coating performance. Carbon formed by decomposition of the gaseous species accumulated in the surface pores and resulted in the dislodgement of surface splats due to stresses generated by the volume changes. When the corrosive gas atmosphere was able to penetrate through the interconnected pores and reach the coating-substrate interface, the 310S substrate was carburized, metal dusting attack occurred, and the resulting formation of coke in the pores led to local failure of the coating. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Microstructure, mechanical and tribological characterization of CrN/DLC/Cr-DLC multilayer coating with improved adhesive wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xudong; Liu, Jinyu; Zhang, Shuaituo; Yang, Jun; Hao, Junying

    2018-05-01

    Adhesive wear is one of the major reasons for the failure of components during various tribological application, especially for rubbing with viscous materials. This study presents CrN/DLC/Cr-DLC multilayer composite coatings prepared on a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) device with the close field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating (CFUBMSIP) technique. SEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy were used to determine the structure of multilayer coatings. It was found that the multilayer coatings are composed by the alternating CrN and DLC layers. Compared with the single CrN coatings, the friction coefficient of the CrN/DLC/Cr-DLC multilayer coating decreases about more than seven times after sliding a distance of 500 m. This helps to reduce the adhesive wear of multilayer coatings. Compared with the single CrN and DLC coating, the wear rate of the CrN/DLC/Cr-DLC multilayer coating is reduced by an order of magnitude to 7.10 × 10-17 (sliding with AISI 440C) and 2.64 × 10-17 (sliding with TC4) m3/(N m). The improved tribological performance of multilayer coatings mainly attributes to the introduction of lubricant DLC and hard support CrN layers, the enhancement of crack propagation inhibition, and the increment of elastic recovery value We (71.49%) by multilayer design method.

  1. Preparation and characterization of molybdenum disilicide coating on molybdenum substrate by air plasma spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Non-ferrous Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Hunan Province for Metallurgy and Material Processing of Rare Metals, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang, Dezhi, E-mail: dzwang68@163.com [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Non-ferrous Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Hunan Province for Metallurgy and Material Processing of Rare Metals, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yan, Jianhui [Advanced Materials Synthesis and Application Technology Laboratory, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Sun, Aokui [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Non-ferrous Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Hunan Province for Metallurgy and Material Processing of Rare Metals, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2013-11-01

    MoSi{sub 2} oxidation protective coatings on molybdenum substrate were prepared by air plasma spraying technique (APS). Microstructure, phase composition, porosity, microhardness and bonding strength of the coatings were investigated and determined. Oxidation behavior of the coating at high temperature was also examined. Results show that composition of the coatings is constituted with MoSi{sub 2} and Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, the surface morphology is described as flattened lamellar features, insufficiently flattened protuberance with some degree of surface roughness, a certain quantity of spherical particles, microcracks and pores. Testing results reveal that microhardness and bonding strength of the coatings increase, and porosity decreases with increasing power or decreasing Ar gas flow rate. Moreover, with decreasing the porosity, the microhardness of the coatings increases. The bonding strength of the coatings also increases with increasing spray distance. The MoSi{sub 2} coated Mo substrate exhibited a good oxidation resistance at 1200 °C.

  2. Preparation and characterization of molybdenum disilicide coating on molybdenum substrate by air plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Dezhi; Yan, Jianhui; Sun, Aokui

    2013-01-01

    MoSi 2 oxidation protective coatings on molybdenum substrate were prepared by air plasma spraying technique (APS). Microstructure, phase composition, porosity, microhardness and bonding strength of the coatings were investigated and determined. Oxidation behavior of the coating at high temperature was also examined. Results show that composition of the coatings is constituted with MoSi 2 and Mo 5 Si 3 , the surface morphology is described as flattened lamellar features, insufficiently flattened protuberance with some degree of surface roughness, a certain quantity of spherical particles, microcracks and pores. Testing results reveal that microhardness and bonding strength of the coatings increase, and porosity decreases with increasing power or decreasing Ar gas flow rate. Moreover, with decreasing the porosity, the microhardness of the coatings increases. The bonding strength of the coatings also increases with increasing spray distance. The MoSi 2 coated Mo substrate exhibited a good oxidation resistance at 1200 °C.

  3. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of plasma-sprayed bioactive akermanite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Deliang; Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang; Ma, Xubing; Ji, Heng; Zheng, Xuebin

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive ceramic coatings on titanium (Ti) alloys play an important role in orthopedic applications. In this study, akermanite (Ca 2 MgSi 2 O 7 ) bioactive coatings are prepared through a plasma spraying technique. The bonding strength between the coatings and Ti-6Al-4V substrates is around 38.7–42.2 MPa, which is higher than that of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings reported previously. The prepared akermanite coatings reveal a distinct apatite-mineralization ability in simulated body fluid. Furthermore, akermanite coatings support the attachment and proliferation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The proliferation rate of BMSCs on akermanite coatings is obviously higher than that on HA coatings. (paper)

  4. Synthesis of mullite-based coatings from alumina and zircon powder mixtures by plasma spraying and laser remelting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, S.; Das, J.; Bandyopadhyay, P.P.

    2015-01-01

    A mechanical mixture of alumina and pulverized zircon sand in 3:2 M ratio has been plasma sprayed to obtain mullite coating. Thereafter, the top layer of the coating has been remelted using laser. The presence of a mullite phase in the as-sprayed and laser remelted coatings has been confirmed qualitatively using X-ray diffraction. Both as-sprayed and laser remelted coatings have been characterized for their microstructure, hardness and porosity. The ultrafine grain structure of the coating produced by rapid quenching has been analyzed using transmission electron microscope. Presence of a mullite phase in the coatings has also been confirmed using small angle electron diffraction. Laser remelting has resulted in an appreciable reduction in porosity and increase in hardness in the coatings. - Highlights: • Mullite has been produced by plasma spraying of alumina–zircon powder mixture. • As sprayed coating shows good integrity. • Laser remelting reduced porosity and increased coating hardness

  5. Synthesis of mullite-based coatings from alumina and zircon powder mixtures by plasma spraying and laser remelting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazra, S. [Integrated Test Range, Chandipur, Balasore, Odisha 756025 (India); Das, J. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Bandyopadhyay, P.P., E-mail: ppb@mech.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, 721302 (India)

    2015-03-15

    A mechanical mixture of alumina and pulverized zircon sand in 3:2 M ratio has been plasma sprayed to obtain mullite coating. Thereafter, the top layer of the coating has been remelted using laser. The presence of a mullite phase in the as-sprayed and laser remelted coatings has been confirmed qualitatively using X-ray diffraction. Both as-sprayed and laser remelted coatings have been characterized for their microstructure, hardness and porosity. The ultrafine grain structure of the coating produced by rapid quenching has been analyzed using transmission electron microscope. Presence of a mullite phase in the coatings has also been confirmed using small angle electron diffraction. Laser remelting has resulted in an appreciable reduction in porosity and increase in hardness in the coatings. - Highlights: • Mullite has been produced by plasma spraying of alumina–zircon powder mixture. • As sprayed coating shows good integrity. • Laser remelting reduced porosity and increased coating hardness.

  6. D. C. plasma-sprayed coatings of nano-structured alumina-titania-silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xianliang

    2002-01-01

    nano-crystalline powders of ω(Al 2 O 3 ) = 95%, ω(TiO 2 ) = 3%, and ω(SiO 2 ) = 2%, were reprocessed into agglomerated particles for plasma spraying, by using consecutive steps of ball milling, slurry forming, spray drying, and heat treatment. D.C. plasma was used to spray the agglomerated nano-crystalline powders, and resultant coatings were deposited on the substrate of stainless steel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the morphology of the agglomerated powders and the cross section of the alumina-titania-silica coatings. Experimental results show that the agglomerated nano-crystalline particles are spherical, with a size from (10-90) μm. The flow ability of the nano-crystalline powders is greatly improved after the reprocessing. The coatings deposited by the plasma spraying are mainly of nano-structure. Unlike conventional plasma-sprayed coatings, no laminar layer could be found in the nano-structured coatings. Although the nano-structured coatings have a lower microhardness than conventional microstructured coatings, the toughness of the nano-structured ceramic coatings is significantly improved

  7. Sealing of thermally-sprayed stainless steel coatings against corrosion using nickel electroplating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathaipat Koiprasert

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc spraying (EAS is one of the thermal spray techniques used for restoration and to providecorrosion resistance. It can be utilized to build up coatings to thicknesses of several millimeters, It is easy to use on-site. Most importantly, the cost of this technique is lower than other thermal spraying techniques thatmay be suitable for part restoration. A major disadvantage associated with the electric arc sprayed coating is its high porosity, which can be as high as 3-8% making it not appropriate for use in immersion condition. This work was carried out around the idea of using electroplating to seal off the pore of the EAS coating, with an aim to improve the corrosion resistance of the coating in immersion condition. This research compared the corrosion behavior of a stainless steel 316 electric arc sprayed coating in 2M NaOH solution at 25oC. It was found that the Ni plating used as sealant can improve the corrosion resistance of the EAS coating. Furthermore, the smoothened and plated stainless steel 316 coating has a better corrosion resistance than the plated EAS coating that was not ground to smoothen the surface before plating.

  8. In vitro fatigue behaviour of vacuum plasma and detonation gun sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, H C; Turner, I G; Doyle, C

    2001-06-01

    The fatigue behaviour of vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) and detonation gun sprayed (DGUN) hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates has been compared in air and in buffered Ringer's solution. There was an increase in the surface microcracking and bulk porosity of both types of coating tested in air. After 1 million cycles in Ringer's solution the VPS coatings had completely delaminated from their substrates. In contrast the DGUN coatings retained their integrity when tested up to 10 million cycles but were beginning to show signs of delamination at the interface.

  9. Preparation of high critical temperature YBa2Cu3O7 superconducting coatings by thermal spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacombe, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is the elaboration of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 superconducting coatings by thermal spray. These coatings must have a high adherence, a high cohesion, and the best possible electrical characteristics. The author first briefly presents physical-chemical characteristics of this ceramic, and proposes a bibliographical synthesis on thick coatings prepared by thermal spray. In the next parts, he studies and describes conditions of elaboration of poly-granular coatings of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , and their structural and electric characteristics [fr

  10. Structure of Biocompatible Coatings Produced from Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles by Detonation Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, Valentyna; Strutynska, Nataliia; Vorona, Igor; Zatovsky, Igor; Dzhagan, Volodymyr; Lemishko, Sergiy; Epple, Matthias; Prymak, Oleg; Baran, Nikolai; Ishchenko, Stanislav; Slobodyanik, Nikolai; Prylutskyy, Yuriy; Klyui, Nickolai; Temchenko, Volodymyr

    2015-12-01

    Detonation-produced hydroxyapatite coatings were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The source material for detonation spraying was a B-type carbonated hydroxyapatite powder. The coatings consisted of tetracalcium phosphate and apatite. The ratio depended slightly on the degree of crystallinity of the initial powder and processing parameters of the coating preparation. The tetracalcium phosphate phase was homogeneous; the apatite phase contained defects localized on the sixfold axis and consisted of hydroxyapatite and oxyapatite. Technological factors contributing to the transformation of hydroxyapatite powder structure during coating formation by detonation spraying are discussed.

  11. Studies on Nanocrystalline TiN Coatings Prepared by Reactive Plasma Spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yanchun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium nitride (TiN coatings with nanostructure were prepared on the surface of 45 steel (Fe-0.45%C via reactive plasma spraying (denoted as RPS Ti powders using spraying gun with self-made reactive chamber. The microstructural characterization, phases constitute, grain size, microhardness, and wear resistance of TiN coatings were systematically investigated. The grain size was obtained through calculation using the Scherrer formula and observed by TEM. The results of X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction indicated that the TiN is main phase of the TiN coating. The forming mechanism of the nano-TiN was characterized by analyzing the SEM morphologies of surface of TiN coating and TiN drops sprayed on the surface of glass, and observing the temperature and velocity of plasma jet using Spray Watch. The tribological properties of the coating under nonlubricated condition were tested and compared with those of the AISI M2 high-speed steel and Al2O3 coating. The results have shown that the RPS TiN coating presents better wear resistance than the M2 high-speed steel and Al2O3 coating under nonlubricated condition. The microhardness of the cross-section and longitudinal section of the TiN coating was tested. The highest hardness of the cross-section of TiN coating is 1735.43HV100 g.

  12. Performance Testing of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced with Varied Suspension Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying has become an emerging technology for the production of thermal barrier coatings for the gas turbine industry. Presently, though commercial systems for coating production are available, coatings remain in the development stage. Suitable suspension parameters for coating production remain an outstanding question and the influence of suspension properties on the final coatings is not well known. For this study, a number of suspensions were produced with varied solid loadings, powder size distributions and solvents. Suspensions were sprayed onto superalloy substrates coated with high velocity air fuel (HVAF -sprayed bond coats. Plasma spray parameters were selected to generate columnar structures based on previous experiments and were maintained at constant to discover the influence of the suspension behavior on coating microstructures. Testing of the produced thermal barrier coating (TBC systems has included thermal cyclic fatigue testing and thermal conductivity analysis. Pore size distribution has been characterized by mercury infiltration porosimetry. Results show a strong influence of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the microstructure of the produced coatings.

  13. Effect of substrate preheating temperature and coating thickness on residual stress in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Dapei

    2015-01-01

    A thermal-mechanical coupling model was developed based on thermal-elastic- plastic theory according the special process of plasma spraying Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating upon Ti-6Al-4V substrate. On the one hand, the classical Fourier transient heat conduction equation was modified by introducing the effect item of deformation on temperature, on the other hand, the Johnson-Cook model, suitable for high temperature and high strain rate conditions, was used as constitutive equation after considering temperature softening effect, strain hardening effect and strain rate reinforcement effect. Based on the above coupling model, the residual stress field within the HA coating was simulated by using finite element method (FEM). Meanwhile, the substrate preheating temperature and coating thickness on the influence of residual stress components were calculated, respectively. The failure modes of coating were also preliminary analyzed. In addition, in order to verify the reliability of calculation, the material removal measurement technique was applied to determine the residual stress of HA coating near the interface. Some important conclusions are obtained. (paper)

  14. Study for prevention of sucker rods failures though NiCr coating; Estudo para prevencao de falhas de hastes de bombeio de petroleo atraves de aplicacao de revestimento NiCr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Brunno S.L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Araujo, Paulo M.M. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Figueiredo, Renan T.; Cavalcanti, Eliane B. [Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The use of common materials, as carbon steel, in sucker rods motivated by its low cost, in mature oil wells located on Sergipe, Alagoas, Bahia and Rio Grande do Norte states, which are subjected to tractive-compressive-abrasive like combined loads, added to aggressive environment (oil production in the presence of water, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, salinity, etc..), leads to the materials drastic degeneration and even its rupture. The substitution of common materials by those which have better resistance o failure is, therefore, limited by high cost. A much cheaper alternative is to modify the surface of common materials used in the subsurface equipment, by applying a protective coating in order to assure the system's performance, durability or better economic viability. In the present work it was studied the use of thermal sprayed NiCr coating in sucker rods. It was studied three thermal spray processes: flame spray, arc spray and HVOF (high velocity oxy fuel). (author)

  15. Wear Micro-Mechanisms of Composite WC-Co/Cr - NiCrFeBSiC Coatings. Part II: Cavitation Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kekes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite coatings with five different proportions of WC-Co/Cr and NiCrFeBSiC components were deposited on stainless steel by HVOF spraying. Cavitation erosion tests were performed and the material removal micro-mechanisms were identified by SEM of both the eroded areas and the specimens’ cross-sections. Waves’ propagation and deflection at the weak interfaces within the coatings resulted in local tensile stresses perpendicular to the interface direction that eventually led to material removal. Such weak interfaces are the boundaries of the carbide particles with the metal binder within the same splat, those between splats along the same layer and those between successively deposited layers.

  16. 3D-simulation of residual stresses in TBC plasma sprayed coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundas, S.; Kashko, T.; Hurevich, V.E.; Lugscheider, E.; Hayn, G. von; Ilyuschenko, A.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are used in gas turbine technology in order to protect against overheating of the nickel alloy turbine blades. This coatings allows to increase turbine inlet temperatures and improve their efficiency. Plasma spraying processes are widely used since several years in thermal barrier coating technology. Although the plasma spraying process of TBC's is largely successful, a fundamental understanding of the process parameters influencing the TBC microstructure and mechanical properties is necessary. But this investigation has received much less attention so they could lead to considerable advances in performance of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings. The main reason of this mate is difficulties in experimental investigation of high temperature and high velocity process. One of the most effective ways to accelerate the process optimization is the application of computer simulation for the modeling of plasma spraying. This enables the achievement of a maximum of information about the investigated process by carrying out a minimum number of experiments. The main problem of plasma spray TBC coatings is crack information during the deposition process and coating cooling. The reasons for this are quenched and residual stresses in the coating-substrate system, and peculiarities of TBC coating properties. The problem of deposition and solidification of plasma sprayed coatings have received little attention to date and remains one of the unintelligible parts of process. A fundamental understanding of heat transfer in the coating-substrate system and particles deformation processes are, however, critical for the prediction of the microstructural characteristics of the deposited coatings, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in formation of thermal stresses and defects (cracks, debonding etc.). (author)

  17. Behavior of tungsten coatings on CuCrZr heat sink with the different interlayers under high heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, F.L.; Chen, J.L.; Li, J.G.; Zheng, X.B.; Hu, D.Y.; Ding, C.X.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, tungsten coated CuCrZr by means of vacuum plasma spraying technology was studied at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). Plasma spraying technology is a good integration way of armor material and heat sink, which overcomes the disadvantage of heavy weight and poor workability of tungsten, and offers the ability to coat large area, even complex shapes and in situ repair of damaged parts. But tungsten coated CuCrZr is a challenge due to the larger mismatch of their thermal expansion coefficients (CTE), which will induce the stress concentration on the joint interface of plasma facing component. In order to enhance the adhesion of W coating on CuCrZr substrate and avoid the thermal stress concentration, it is necessary to use a compliant interlayer. At present, titanium (Ti), nickel-chromium-aluminum (NiCrAl) alloys and W/Cu mixtures were chosen as the compliant layers to insert between W coating and CuCrZr substrate. The adhesion strength was performed at RT. The behaviors of W/Cu mock up under high heat flux were carried out by means of the electron beam facility with actively cooling. The results indicated that the mock-ups with the interlayer architectures can withstand the higher heat flux compared to that with the sharp interface, which exhibited the effect of interlayers on reducing the maximum stress and enhancing the properties of resistant heat flux load, though the maximum surface temperature increased due to inserting the interlayers. Among three interlayers, W/Cu interlayer was much better due to its good heat removal capability and flexible W/Cu ratios. Meanwhile, the behaviors of W/Cu mock-ups with the different interlayers were analyzed and optimized by ANSYS finite element code. (authors)

  18. Development of Copper Canister through Cold Sprayed Coating Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Jong Won; Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Sung Ki; Cho, Dong Keun

    2007-12-15

    General thickness of a copper canister is 5 cm for a underground disposal application. The lower limit of a thickness is determined by a forging technology. But many experts in this area agrees that the thickness 1 cm is enough at the underground disposal for the life time of 1,000,000 years. Thus new technology is suggested for the making 1 cm thickness copper canister, that is a cold spray coating method(CSC). In this report, the CSC is examined and the technical possibility for making copper canister is measured. The overview of CSC and its characteristics are discussed. Various copper particles for the CSC are analyzed and the formed coating layers are examined to find their porosity and uniformity. A Tafa copper particle and Chang-sung copper particle are selected for making 1 cm thick test specimen. Using the CSC specimens, tensile test and XRD analysis are performed. As a corrosion evaluation, a electrochemical test such as a polarization test is done, together with humid corrosion test and chloric acid immersion test. Through the corrosion tests, it is tried to confirm that the CSC is valuable method for making a copper canister. Consequently, it is confirmed that the CSC method is very usful for making 1 cm thick copper canister. the porosity of CSC layer is very low at 0.3 in case of Tafa copper layer. In corrosion tests, the CSC layers are very stable in active environments. It is hard to say that the difference of processing method but the purity of copper is important for the corrosion rate evaluation. The CSC method is very effective method for making 1 cm thick copper canister, It is hoped that the CSC method is applied in a HLW underground disposal system in the future.

  19. Development of Copper Canister through Cold Sprayed Coating Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Jong Won; Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Sung Ki; Cho, Dong Keun

    2007-12-01

    General thickness of a copper canister is 5 cm for a underground disposal application. The lower limit of a thickness is determined by a forging technology. But many experts in this area agrees that the thickness 1 cm is enough at the underground disposal for the life time of 1,000,000 years. Thus new technology is suggested for the making 1 cm thickness copper canister, that is a cold spray coating method(CSC). In this report, the CSC is examined and the technical possibility for making copper canister is measured. The overview of CSC and its characteristics are discussed. Various copper particles for the CSC are analyzed and the formed coating layers are examined to find their porosity and uniformity. A Tafa copper particle and Chang-sung copper particle are selected for making 1 cm thick test specimen. Using the CSC specimens, tensile test and XRD analysis are performed. As a corrosion evaluation, a electrochemical test such as a polarization test is done, together with humid corrosion test and chloric acid immersion test. Through the corrosion tests, it is tried to confirm that the CSC is valuable method for making a copper canister. Consequently, it is confirmed that the CSC method is very usful for making 1 cm thick copper canister. the porosity of CSC layer is very low at 0.3 in case of Tafa copper layer. In corrosion tests, the CSC layers are very stable in active environments. It is hard to say that the difference of processing method but the purity of copper is important for the corrosion rate evaluation. The CSC method is very effective method for making 1 cm thick copper canister, It is hoped that the CSC method is applied in a HLW underground disposal system in the future

  20. Oxidation behavior of HVOF sprayed Ni-5Al coatings deposited on Ni- and Fe-based superalloys under cyclic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesh, R.A.; Jayaganthan, R.; Prakash, S.

    2008-01-01

    Ni-5Al coating was obtained on three superalloy substrates viz. Superni 76, Superni 750 and Superfer 800 using high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray process. Oxidation studies were carried out on both bare and coated superalloy substrates in air at 900 deg. C for 100 cycles. The weight change was measured at the end of each cycle and observed that the weight gain was high in Superni 750 alloy when compared to Superni 76 and Superfer 800. A nearly parabolic oxidation behavior was observed for Ni-5Al coated Superni 750 and Superfer 800 alloys but a Ni-5Al coated Superni 76 substrate showed a slight deviation. The scale was analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The coating increased the oxidation resistance for all the alloy substrates at 900 deg. C. Among the three-coated superalloys, Superfer 800 substrate has shown the best resistance to oxidation. The protective nature of the Ni-5Al coated superalloys was due to the formation of protective oxide scales such as NiO, Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3

  1. Arc-Sprayed Fe-Based Coatings from Cored Wires for Wear and Corrosion Protection in Power Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobov Yury

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High wear and corrosion of parts lead to an increase in operating costs at thermal power plants. The present paper shows a possible solution to this problem through the arc spraying of protective coatings. Cored wires of the base alloying system Fe-Cr-C were used as a feedstock. Rise of wear- and heat-resistance of the coatings was achieved by additional alloying with Al, B, Ti, and Y. The wear and heat resistance of the coatings were tested via a two-body wear test accompanied by microhardness measurement and the gravimetric method, respectively. A high-temperature corrosion test was performed at 550 °C under KCl salt deposition. The porosity and adhesion strengths of the coatings were also evaluated. The microstructure was investigated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM unit equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX microanalyzer, and the phase composition was assessed by X-ray diffractometry. The test results showed the positive influence of additional alloying with Y on the coating properties. A comparison with commercial boiler materials showed that the coatings have the same level of heat resistance as austenite steels and are an order of magnitude higher than that of pearlite and martensite-ferrite steels. The coatings can be applied to wear- and heat-resistant applications at 20–700 °C.

  2. One-step spray-coating process for the fabrication of colorful superhydrophobic coatings with excellent corrosion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wu, Runni; Jing, Zhijiao; Yan, Long; Zha, Fei; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-10-06

    A simple method was used to generate colorful hydrophobic stearate particles via chemical reactions between inorganic salts and sodium stearate. Colored self-cleaning superhydrophobic coatings were prepared through a facile one-step spray-coating process by spraying the stearate particle suspensions onto stainless steel substrates. Furthermore, the colorful superhydrophobic coating maintains excellent chemical stability under both harsh acidic and alkaline circumstances. After being immersed in a 3.5 wt % NaCl aqueous solution for 1 month, the as-prepared coatings remained superhydrophobic; however, they lost their self-cleaning property with a sliding angle of about 46 ± 3°. The corrosion behavior of the superhydrophobic coatings on the Al substrate was characterized by the polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical corrosion test results indicated that the superhydrophobic coatings possessed excellent corrosion resistance, which could supply efficient and long-term preservation for the bare Al substrate.

  3. Determination of elastic modulus and residual stress of plasma-sprayed tungsten coating on steel substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, J.H.; Hoeschen, T.; Lindig, S.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed tungsten, which is a candidate material for the first wall armour, shows a porous, heterogeneous microstructure. Due to its characteristic morphology, the properties are significantly different from those of its dense bulk material. Measurements of the elastic modulus of this coating have not been reported in the literature. In this work Young's modulus of highly porous plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings deposited on steel (F82H) substrates was measured. For the fabrication of the coating system the vacuum plasma-spray process was applied. Measurements were performed by means of three-point and four-point bending tests. The obtained modulus values ranged from 53 to 57 GPa. These values could be confirmed by the test result of a detached coating strip, which was 54 GPa. The applied methods produced consistent results regardless of testing configurations and specimen sizes. The errors were less than 1%. Residual stress of the coating was also estimated

  4. Determination of elastic modulus and residual stress of plasma-sprayed tungsten coating on steel substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, J. H.; Höschen, T.; Lindig, S.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed tungsten, which is a candidate material for the first wall armour, shows a porous, heterogeneous microstructure. Due to its characteristic morphology, the properties are significantly different from those of its dense bulk material. Measurements of the elastic modulus of this coating have not been reported in the literature. In this work Young's modulus of highly porous plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings deposited on steel (F82H) substrates was measured. For the fabrication of the coating system the vacuum plasma-spray process was applied. Measurements were performed by means of three-point and four-point bending tests. The obtained modulus values ranged from 53 to 57 GPa. These values could be confirmed by the test result of a detached coating strip, which was 54 GPa. The applied methods produced consistent results regardless of testing configurations and specimen sizes. The errors were less than 1%. Residual stress of the coating was also estimated.

  5. Establishment of Wear Resistant HVOF Coatings for 50CrMo4 Chromium Molybdenum Alloy Steel as an Alternative for Hard Chrome Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppasamy, S.; Sivan, V.; Natarajan, S.; Kumaresh Babu, S. P.; Duraiselvam, M.; Dhanuskodi, R.

    2018-05-01

    High cost imported components of seamless steel tube manufacturing plants wear frequently and need replacement to ensure the quality of the product. Hard chrome plating, which is time consuming and hazardous, is conventionally used to restore the original dimension of the worn-out surface of the machine components. High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings with NiCrBSi super alloy powder and Cr3C2 NiCr75/25 alloy powder applied on a 50CrMo4 (DIN-1.7228) chromium molybdenum alloy steel, the material of the wear prone machine component, were evaluated for use as an alternative for hard chrome plating in this present work. The coating characteristics are evaluated using abrasive wear test, sliding wear test and microscopic analysis, hardness test, etc. The study results revealed that the HVOF based NiCrBSi and Cr3C2NiCr75/25 coatings have hardness in the range of 800-900 HV0.3, sliding wear rate in the range of 50-60 µm and surface finish around 5 microns. Cr3C2 NiCr75/25 coating is observed to be a better option out of the two coatings evaluated for the selected application.

  6. Comparative of the Tribological Performance of Hydraulic Cylinders Coated by the Process of Thermal Spray HVOF and Hard Chrome Plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Castro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the necessity of obtaining a surface that is resistant to wear and oxidation, hydraulic cylinders are typically coated with hard chrome through the process of electroplating process. However, this type of coating shows an increase of the area to support sealing elements, which interferes directly in the lubrication of the rod, causing damage to the seal components and bringing oil leakage. Another disadvantage in using the electroplated hard chromium process is the presence of high level hexavalent chromium Cr+6 which is not only carcinogenic, but also extremely contaminating to the environment. Currently, the alternative process of high-speed thermal spraying (HVOF - High Velocity Oxy-Fuel, uses composite materials (metal-ceramic possessing low wear rates. Research has shown that some mechanical properties are changed positively with the thermal spray process in industrial applications. It is evident that a coating based on WC has upper characteristics as: wear resistance, low friction coefficient, with respect to hard chrome coatings. These characteristics were analyzed by optical microscopy, roughness measurements and wear test.

  7. Residual stress in sprayed Ni+5%Al coatings determined by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Matejicek, J; Gnaeupel-Herold, T; Prask, H J

    2002-01-01

    Coatings of nickel-based alloys are used in numerous high-performance applications. Their properties and lifetimes are influenced by factors such as residual stress. Neutron diffraction is a powerful tool for nondestructive residual stress determination. In this study, through-thickness residual stress profiles in Ni+5%Al coatings on steel substrates were determined. Two examples of significantly different spraying techniques - plasma spraying and cold spraying - are highlighted. Different stress-generation mechanisms are discussed with respect to process parameters and material properties. (orig.)

  8. Mechanical Performance of Cold-Sprayed A357 Aluminum Alloy Coatings for Repair and Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petráčková, K.; Kondás, J.; Guagliano, M.

    2017-12-01

    Cold-sprayed coatings made of A357 aluminum alloy, a casting alloy widely used in aerospace, underwent set of standard tests as well as newly developed fatigue test to gain an information about potential of cold spray for repair and additive manufacturing of loaded parts. With optimal spray parameters, coating deposition on substrate with smooth surface resulted in relatively good bonding, which can be further improved by application of grit blasting on substrate's surface. However, no enhancement of adhesion was obtained for shot-peened surface. Process temperature, which was set either to 450 or 550 °C, was shown to have an effect on adhesion and cohesion strength, but it does not influence residual stress in the coating. To assess cold spray perspectives for additive manufacturing, flat tensile specimens were machined from coating and tested in as-sprayed and heat-treated (solution treatment and aging) condition. Tensile properties of the coating after the treatment correspond to properties of the cast A357-T61 aluminum alloy. Finally, fatigue specimen was proposed to test overall performance of the coating and coating's fatigue limit is compared to the results obtained on cast A357-T61 aluminum alloy.

  9. Development of Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) nanostructured coatings; Desenvolvimento de revestimentos nanostruturados de Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Cecilio Alvares da

    2012-07-01

    This study is divided in two parts. The first part is about the preparation of nanostructured Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) powders by high energy milling followed by characterization of the milled and the as received powder. Analyses of some of the data obtained were done using a theoretical approach. The second part of this study is about the preparation and characterization of coatings prepared with the nanostructured as well as the as received Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) powders. The high temperature erosion-oxidation (E-O) behavior of the coatings prepared with the two types of powders has been compared based on a technological approach. The average crystallite size of the Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) powder decreased rapidly from 145 nm to 50 nm in the initial stages of milling and thereafter decreased slowly to a steady state value of around 10 nm with further increase in milling time. This steady state corresponds to the beginning of a dynamic recovery process. The maximum lattice strain ({epsilon} = 1,17%) was observed in powders milled for 16 hours, and this powders critical crystallite size was 28 nm. In contrast, the lattice parameter attained a minimum for powders milled for 16 hours. Upon reaching the critical crystallite size, the dislocation density attained a steady state regime and all plastic deformation introduced in the material there after was in the form of events occurring at the grain boundaries, due mainly to grain boundary sliding. The deformation energy stored in the crystal lattice of the Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) powders milled for different times was determined from enthalpy variation measurements. These results indicated that the maximum enthalpy variation ({delta}H = 722 mcal) also occurred for powders milled for 16 hours. In a similar manner, the maximum specific heat variation ({delta}C{sub p} = 0,278 cal/gK) occurred for powders milled for 16 hours. The following mechanical properties of Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25(Ni20Cr) coatings

  10. Development of an oxidation resistant glass-ceramic composite coating on Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbo; Zhu, Shenglong; Chen, Minghui; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Fuhui

    2014-02-01

    Three glass-ceramic composite coatings were prepared on Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy by air spraying technique and subsequent firing. The aim of this work is to study the reactions between glass matrix and inclusions and their effects on the oxidation resistance of the glass-ceramic composite coating. The powders of alumina, quartz, or both were added into the aqueous solution of potassium silicate (ASPS) to form slurries used as the starting materials for the composite coatings. The coating formed from an ASPS-alumina slurry was porous, because the reaction between alumina and potassium silicate glass resulted in the formation of leucite (KAlSi2O6), consuming substantive glass phase and hindering the densification of the composite coating. Cracks were observed in the coating prepared from an ASPS-quartz slurry due to the larger volume shrinkage of the coating than that of the alloy. In contrast, an intact and dense SiO2-Al2O3-glass coating was successfully prepared from an ASPS-alumina-silica slurry. The oxidation behavior of the SiO2-Al2O3-glass composite coating on Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy was studied at 900 °C. The SiO2-Al2O3-glass composite coating acted as an oxygen diffusion barrier, and prevented the inward diffusion of the oxygen from the air to the coating/alloy interface, therefore, decreasing the oxidation rate of the Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy significantly.

  11. ZrO2 coatings on stainless steel by aerosol thermal spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giampaolo, A.R.; Reveron, H.; Ruiz, H.; Poirier, T.; Lira, J.

    1998-01-01

    Zirconia coatings, with a wide range of thickness (1 to 80 μ) have been obtained by spraying a ZrO 2 sol with an oxyacetylenic flame, on stainless steel substrates. The sol was prepared by mixing Zr-n-propoxide and acetic acid in order to obtain a zirconium oxyacetate precipitate, which was filtrated, washed with 1-propanol, dryed and subjected to an hydrothermal treatment. A new sol-gel based ceramic deposition process , aerosol thermal spraying was developed based on previous thermal spray work. A compressed air spray gun was used to produce a fine aerosol flow which was injected in the flame of the thermal spray torch and deposited on polished and sand blasted substrates. This original technique allows simultaneous spraying, drying and partial sintering of the zirconia nanometric particles. The maximum working temperature necessary to yield a resistant coating is 1000 deg C. This method produced crack-free homogeneous layers of monoclinic ZrO 2 with good adhesion to the substrate and low porosity, as shown by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Oxidation test, carried out by heat treatments in air atmosphere at 800 deg C indicated good protection, mainly for low thickness coatings deposited in polished substrates. This original deposition technique offers several advantages when compared with classical thermal spraying techniques, such as plasma spraying. Copyright (1998) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  12. Properties of tungsten coating deposited onto copper by high-speed atmospheric plasma spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Jianjun, E-mail: huangjj@szu.edu.cn [Applied Low Temperature Plasma Laboratory, College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Wang Fan; Liu Ying; Jiang Shishou; Wang Xisheng; Qi Bing; Gao Liang [Applied Low Temperature Plasma Laboratory, College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2011-07-01

    Tungsten (W) coatings were fabricated on copper (Cu) by high-speed atmospheric plasma spray (HAPS) technique. The properties of the porosity, oxygen content, bonding strength and microhardness were measured. The results obtained indicated that the HAPS-W coating showed good properties particularly in terms of porosity and oxygen content. The porosity of the HAPS-W coating was 2.3% and the distribution of pore size diameter was mainly concentrated in the range of 0.01-1 {mu}m. The oxygen content of the coating measured by means of Nitrogen/Oxygen Determinator was about 0.10 wt.%. These initial results suggest that the HAPS-W coating has achieved the reported properties of the vacuum plasma spray (VPS) W coating. Compared with VPS, HAPS-W technique could provide a convenient and low cost way to obtain adequate W coatings for fusion applications.

  13. Influence of Oxidation Treatments and Surface Finishing on the Electrochemical Behavior of Ni-20Cr HVOF Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Luna, H.; Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Alvarado-Orozco, J. M.; Mora-García, A. G.; Martinez-Gomez, L.; Trápaga-Martínez, L. G.; Muñoz-Saldaña, J.

    2017-12-01

    The low-temperature electrochemical behavior of HVOF Ni-20Cr coatings was assessed. The coatings were evaluated in different conditions including as-sprayed, as-ground, and heat-treated in air and argon atmospheres. A detailed analysis of the coatings was carried out by means of XRD, SEM, and EPMA, prior and after the corrosion test. The corrosion rate was analyzed in a NaCl solution saturated with CO2. Results demonstrate that the use of a low-oxygen partial pressure favors the formation of a Cr2O3 layer on the surface of the coatings. According to the electrochemical results, the lower corrosion rates were obtained for the heat-treated coatings irrespective of the surface finishing, being the ground and argon heat-treated condition that shows the best corrosion performance. This behavior is due to the synergistic effect of the low-pressure heat treatment and the grinding processes. The grinding promotes a more homogeneous reaction area without surface heterogeneities such as voids, and the pre-oxidation treatment decreases the porosity content of the coating and also allows the growing of a Cr-rich oxide scale which acts as a barrier against the ions of the aqueous solution.

  14. Effect of bond coat and preheat on the microstructure, hardness, and porosity of flame sprayed tungsten carbide coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarto, Winarto; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Rooscote, Didi

    2017-06-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings are used to improve the surface properties of tool steel materials. Bond coatings are commonly used as intermediate layers deposited on steel substrates (i.e. H13 tool steel) before the top coat is applied in order to enhance a number of critical performance criteria including adhesion of a barrier coating, limiting atomic migration of the base metal, and corrosion resistance. This paper presents the experimental results regarding the effect of nickel bond coat and preheats temperatures (i.e. 200°C, 300°C and 400°C) on microstructure, hardness, and porosity of tungsten carbide coatings sprayed by flame thermal coating. Micro-hardness, porosity and microstructure of tungsten carbide coatings are evaluated by using micro-hardness testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that nickel bond coatings reduce the susceptibility of micro crack formation at the bonding area interfaces. The percentage of porosity level on the tungsten carbide coatings with nickel bond coat decreases from 5.36 % to 2.78% with the increase of preheat temperature of the steel substrate of H13 from 200°C to 400°C. The optimum hardness of tungsten carbide coatings is 1717 HVN in average resulted from the preheat temperature of 300°C.

  15. Note: Automatic layer-by-layer spraying system for functional thin film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongmin; Lee, Sangmin; Park, Yong Tae

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have constructed an automatic spray machine for producing polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing various functional materials on wide substrates via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The proposed machine exhibits advantages in terms of automation, process speed, and versatility. Furthermore, it has several features that allow a fully automated spraying operation, such as various two-dimensional spraying paths, control of the flow rate and operating speed, air-assist fan-shaped twin-fluid nozzles, and an optical display. The robot uniformly sprays aqueous mixtures containing complementary (e.g., oppositely charged, capable of hydrogen bonding, or capable of covalent bonding) species onto a large-area substrate. Between each deposition of opposite species, samples are spray-rinsed with deionized water and blow-dried with air. The spraying, rinsing, and drying areas and times are adjustable by a computer program. Twenty-bilayer flame-retardant thin films were prepared in order to compare the performance of the spray-assisted LbL assembly with a sample produced by conventional dipping. The spray-coated film exhibited a reduction of afterglow time in vertical flame tests, indicating that the spray-LbL technique is a simple method to produce functional thin film coatings.

  16. Tribological Behavior of Coating Cr Layer on 40Cr after Surface Electron Beam Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. J.; Wang, J.; Jiang, P.; Xu, H. B.; Li, H.; Hou, T. F.

    2017-12-01

    In this study,the friction and wear behavior of PVD coatings which were treated by 5 different processes,based on gear material-40Cr. Analyzing the effects of treating the gear material with electron beam in combination with magnetron sputtering on it,for dry friction and wear properties.The result showed that the electron beam pretreated substrate was useful to improve the tribological performance of coating material.Furthermore, the surface roughness of coating, the bonding force between substrate and coating as well as the load are the main factors affecting the tribological performance of this coating. Most importantly, the contribution of plowing effect on friction coefficient should be considered when the surface roughness is high.

  17. Effects of spray parameters on the microstructure and property of Al2O3 coatings sprayed by a low power plasma torch with a novel hollow cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Changjiu; Sun Bo

    2004-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 coating is deposited using a low power plasma torch with a novel hollow cathode through axial powder injection under a plasma power up to several kilowatts. The effects of the main processing parameters including plasma arc power, operating gas flow and spray distance on particle velocity during spraying, and the microstructure and property of the coating are investigated. The microstructure of the Al 2 O 3 coating is examined using optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The property of the coating is characterized by dry rubber wheel abrasive wear test. The velocity of in-flight particle is measured using a velocity/temperature measurement system for spray particle based on thermal radiation from the particle. The dependency of the microstructure and property of the coating on spray particle conditions are examined by comparing the particle velocity, and microstructure and abrasive wear weight loss of subsequent coating deposited by low power plasma spray with those of the coating by conventional plasma spray at a power one order higher. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating revealed that Al 2 O 3 particles during low power plasma spraying reach to sufficiently melting state prior to impact on the substrate with a velocity comparable to that in conventional plasma spraying. The experiment results have shown that processing parameters have significant influence on the particle conditions and performance of deposited Al 2 O 3 coating. The coating of comparable microstructure and properties to that deposited by conventional plasma spray can be produced under a power one order lower. From the present study, it can be suggested that a comparable coating can be produced despite plasma power level if the comparable particle velocity and molten state are achieved

  18. HVOF-Sprayed Nano TiO2-HA Coatings Exhibiting Enhanced Biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R. S.; Dimitrievska, S.; Bureau, M. N.; Marple, B. R.; Petit, A.; Mwale, F.; Antoniou, J.

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical thermal spray coatings produced via high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) from nanostructured titania (n-TiO2) and 10 wt.% hydroxyapatite (HA) (n-TiO2-10wt.%HA) powders have been engineered as possible future alternatives to HA coatings deposited via air plasma spray (APS). This approach was chosen due to (i) the stability of TiO2 in the human body (i.e., no dissolution) and (ii) bond strength values on Ti-6Al-4V substrates more than two times higher than those of APS HA coatings. To explore the bioperformance of these novel materials and coatings, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured from 1 to 21 days on the surface of HVOF-sprayed n-TiO2 and n-TiO2-10 wt.%HA coatings. APS HA coatings and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V substrates were employed as controls. The profiles of the hMSCs were evaluated for (i) cellular proliferation, (ii) biochemical analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, (iii) cytoskeleton organization (fluorescent/confocal microscopy), and (iv) cell/substrate interaction via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The biochemical analysis indicated that the hMSCs cultured on n-TiO2-10 wt.%HA coatings exhibited superior levels of bioactivity than hMSCs cultured on APS HA and pure n-TiO2 coatings. The cytoskeleton organization demonstrated a higher degree of cellular proliferation on the HVOF-sprayed n-TiO2-10wt.%HA coatings when compared to the control coatings. These results are considered promising for engineering improved performance in the next generation of thermally sprayed biomedical coatings.

  19. Influence of gas detonation spraying conditions on the quality of Fe-Al intermetallic protective coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senderowski C.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present generalized research results and analyses of the quality of coatings produced with self decomposing Fe-Al intermetallic powders deposited on 1045 steel in the gas detonation spraying (GDS. A number of GDS experiments has been carried out with significantly changed operational spraying parameters (the volume of the fuel gas, carrier gas, distance and the frequency of spraying which define the process energy level directly influencing the quality of the coating. On the basis of the initial results the choice of the process parameters has been made to obtain the most advantageous set of geometrical and physical-mechanical properties of the coating material and substrate. The quality of the coatings was considered by taking into account the grain morphology, chemical content, phase inhomogeneity, cohesive porosity, as well as adhesive porosity in the substrate coating joint. The coating roughness was also considered. It was found that all GDS coatings produced are built with lamellar splats which result from the GDS process transformed (changed plasticity and geometry powder particles forming the deposit. The result of the GDS spraying parameters optimization is the lack of signs of melting of the material (even in microareas while the geometry of the deposited grains is considerably changed. This phenomenon has been considered as a proof of high plasticity of the GDS formed Fe-Al intermetallic coatings.

  20. Characterisation of WC-12Co thermal spray powders and HPHVOF wear resistant coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lovelock, HDL

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available were selected for the deposition of thermal spray coatings using the JP 5000 high pressure high velocity oxyfuel (HPHVOF) system. Dry sand rubber wheel abrasion tests were performed on the coatings in order to determine the effect of powder...

  1. A mechanical and tribological study of Cr/CrN multilayer coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, D.F., E-mail: diegomas@gmail.com [Grupo GEMA, Universidad Católica de Pereira, Pereira (Colombia); Gómez, A. [Laboratório de Fenômenos de Superficie, Escola Politécnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali (Colombia); Vélez, J.M. [Escuela de Ingeniería de Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellín (Colombia); Souza, R.M. [Laboratório de Fenômenos de Superficie, Escola Politécnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Olaya, J.J. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Mecatrónica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2015-06-15

    Multilayer Cr/CrN coatings with different periodicities were grown on silicon substrates by means of a magnetron sputtering technique. Thin films with only Cr or CrN were also grown, in order to use them as reference samples. Structural, morphological, mechanical and tribological characterization were carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), nanohardness and nanoscratch techniques, respectively. The characterization results were analyzed as a function of the bilayer thickness (period). In general, the multilayer hardness value increased with the decrease in period. In addition, the validity of the Hall-Petch relationship was confirmed for grain sizes and period values greater than 146 nm and 333 nm, respectively. The coefficient of friction (COF) increased with increasing load, which indicates the contribution of the adhesion to the COF. - Highlights: • Multilayer Cr/CrN coatings with layer thickness between 200 and 1000 nm were grown. • Neither bias voltage not temperature were applied during deposition. • The hardness improves with the increase of the number of bilayers. • The wear rate decreases with the increase of the number of bilayers.

  2. Development of cold sprayed Cu coating for canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Kang, Yoon Ha

    2010-01-01

    Cold sprayed Cu deposition was studied for the application of outer part of canister for high level nuclear waste. Five commercially available pure Cu powders were analyzed and sprayed by high pressure cold spray system. Electrochemical corrosion test using potentiostat in 3.5% NaCl solution was conducted as well as microstructural analysis including hardness and oxygen content measurements. Overall evaluation of corrosion performance of cold sprayed Cu deposition is inferior to forged and extruded Cu plates, but some of Cu depositions are comparable to Cu plates. The simulated corrosion test in 200m underground cave is still in progress. The effect of cold spray process parameters was also studied and the results show that the type of nozzle is the most important other than powder feed rate, spray distance, and scan speed. 1/10 scale miniature of canister was manufactured confirming that the production of full scale canister is possible

  3. Plasma-sprayed titanium coating to polyetheretherketone improves the bone-implant interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, William R; Bertollo, Nicky; Christou, Chrisopher; Schaffner, Dominik; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2015-05-01

    Rapid and stable fixation at the bone-implant interface would be regarded as one of the primary goals to achieve clinical efficacy, regardless of the surgical site. Although mechanical and physical properties of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) provide advantages for implant devices, the hydrophobic nature and the lack of direct bone contact remains a limitation. To examine the effects of a plasma-sprayed titanium coated PEEK on the mechanical and histologic properties at the bone-implant interface. A preclinical laboratory study. Polyetheretherketone and plasma-sprayed titanium coated PEEK implants (Ti-bond; Spinal Elements, Carlsbad, CA, USA) were placed in a line-to-line manner in cortical bone and in a press-fit manner in cancellous bone of adult sheep using an established ovine model. Shear strength was assessed in the cortical sites at 4 and 12 weeks, whereas histology was performed in cortical and cancellous sites at both time points. The titanium coating dramatically improved the shear strength at the bone-implant interface at 4 weeks and continued to improve with time compared with PEEK. Direct bone ongrowth in cancellous and cortical sites can be achieved using a plasma-sprayed titanium coating on PEEK. Direct bone to implant bonding can be achieved on PEEK in spite of its hydrophobic nature using a plasma-sprayed titanium coating. The plasma-sprayed titanium coating improved mechanical properties in the cortical sites and the histology in cortical and cancellous sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. D. C. plasma-sprayed coatings of nano-structured alumina-titania-silica

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang Xian Liang

    2002-01-01

    nano-crystalline powders of omega(Al sub 2 O sub 3) = 95%, omega(TiO sub 2) = 3%, and omega(SiO sub 2) = 2%, were reprocessed into agglomerated particles for plasma spraying, by using consecutive steps of ball milling, slurry forming, spray drying, and heat treatment. D.C. plasma was used to spray the agglomerated nano-crystalline powders, and resultant coatings were deposited on the substrate of stainless steel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the morphology of the agglomerated powders and the cross section of the alumina-titania-silica coatings. Experimental results show that the agglomerated nano-crystalline particles are spherical, with a size from (10-90) mu m. The flow ability of the nano-crystalline powders is greatly improved after the reprocessing. The coatings deposited by the plasma spraying are mainly of nano-structure. Unlike conventional plasma-sprayed coatings, no laminar layer could be found in the nano-structured coatings. Although the nano-structured coatings have a lo...

  5. Synthesis of Cr-doped CaTiSiO5 ceramic pigments by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubenova, T. Stoyanova; Matteucci, F.; Costa, A.L.; Dondi, M.; Ocana, M.; Carda, J.

    2009-01-01

    Cr-doped CaTiSiO 5 was synthesized by spray drying and conventional ceramic method in order to assess its potential as ceramic pigment. The evolution of the phase composition with thermal treatment was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and thermal analyses (DTA-TGA-EGA). Powder morphology and particle size distribution were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser diffraction, respectively. The color efficiency of pigments was evaluated by optical spectroscopy (UV-vis-NIR) and colorimetric analysis (CIE Lab). Results proved that spray drying is an efficient procedure to prepare highly reactive pigment precursors. The spray-dried powders consist of hollow spherical particles with aggregate size in the 1-10 μm range, developing a brown coloration. Optical spectra reveal the occurrence of Cr(III) and Cr(IV), both responsible for the brown color of this pigment. The former occupies the octahedral site of titanite, in substitution of Ti(IV), while the latter is located at the tetrahedral site, where replaces Si(IV)

  6. Structure and Corrosion Behavior of Arc-Sprayed Zn-Al Coatings on Ductile Iron Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonabi, Salar Fatoureh; Ashrafizadeh, Fakhreddin; Sanati, Alireza; Nahvi, Saied Mehran

    2018-02-01

    In this research, four coatings including pure zinc, pure aluminum, a double-layered coating of zinc and aluminum, and a coating produced by simultaneous deposition of zinc and aluminum were deposited on a cast iron substrate using electric arc-spraying technique. The coatings were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDS map and spot analyses. Adhesion strength of the coatings was evaluated by three-point bending tests, where double-layered coating indicated the lowest bending angle among the specimens, with detection of cracks at the coating-substrate interface. Coatings produced by simultaneous deposition of zinc and aluminum possessed a relatively uniform distribution of both metals. In order to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coatings, cyclic polarization and salt spray tests were conducted. Accordingly, pure aluminum coating showed susceptibility to pitting corrosion and other coatings underwent uniform corrosion. For double-layered coating, SEM micrographs revealed zinc corrosion products as flaky particles in the pores formed by pitting on the surface, an indication of penetration of corrosion products from the lower layer (zinc) to the top layer (aluminum). All coatings experienced higher negative corrosion potentials than the iron substrate, indicative of their sacrificial behavior.

  7. The Influence of Spray Parameters on the Characteristics of Hydroxyapatite In-Flight Particles, Splats and Coatings by Micro-plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-mei; He, Ding-yong; Wang, Yi-ming; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Guo-hong; Tan, Zhen; Wang, Zeng-jie

    2018-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the most important bioceramic materials used in medical implants. The structure of HA coatings is closely related to their manufacturing process. In the present study, HA coatings were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by micro-plasma spraying. Results show that three distinct HA coatings could be obtained by changing the spraying power from 0.5 to 1.0 kW and spraying stand-off distance from 60 to 110 mm: (1) high crystallinity (93.3%) coatings with porous structure, (2) high crystallinity coatings (86%) with columnar structure, (3) higher amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP, 50%) coatings with dense structure. The in-flight particles melting state and splat topography was analyzed to better understand the formation mechanism of three distinct HA coatings. Results show that HA coatings sprayed at low spraying power and short stand-off distance exhibit high crystallinity and porosity is attributed to the presence of partially melted particles. High crystallinity HA coatings with (002) crystallographic texture could be deposited due to the complete melting of the in-flight particles and low cooling rate of the disk shape splats under higher spraying power and shorter SOD. However, splashed shape splats with relative high cooling can be provided by increasing SOD, which leads to the formation of ACP.

  8. Cr13Ni5Si2-Based Composite Coating on Copper Deposited Using Pulse Laser Induction Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating was successfully deposited on copper by pulse laser induction hybrid cladding (PLIC, and its high-temperature wear behavior was investigated. Temperature evolutions associated with crack behaviors in PLIC were analyzed and compared with pulse laser cladding (PLC using the finite element method. The microstructure and present phases were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Compared with continuous laser induction cladding, the higher peak power offered by PLIC ensures metallurgical bonding between highly reflective copper substrate and coating. Compared with a wear test at room temperature, at 500 °C the wear volume of the Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating increased by 21%, and increased by 225% for a NiCr/Cr3C2 coating deposited by plasma spray. This novel technology has good prospects for application with respect to the extended service life of copper mold plates for slab continuous casting.

  9. Mechanical and Microstructural Behavior of Cold-Sprayed Titanium- and Nickel-Based Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, P.; Silvello, A.

    2015-12-01

    Cold spraying is a coating technology that can deposit materials with unique properties. The coating forms through intensive plastic deformation of particles impacting on a substrate at temperature well below the melting point of the sprayed material. Recently, various studies have been published regarding the microstructural and mechanical evolution of metal-matrix composite coatings produced by cold spraying. Herein, we describe the principal results of the available literature in the field of cold-sprayed composites. It is shown that more research is required to solve various questions in this field, for example, the different deformation modes of the material exhibited for various processing conditions, the reinforcing percentage of different material combinations, and the mechanical properties resulting from these complex systems. In the present study, this issue is approached and described for cold-sprayed Ni- and Ti-based composites. Materials were produced with varying ceramic phase (BN and TiAl3) fraction. The variation of the grain size, adhesion strength, porosity, and hardness of the deposits as a function of the ceramic phase fraction and processing parameters (impacting particle speed) is described. The interaction mechanisms between the cold-sprayed particles and the metal matrix during the coating process are presented and described. The results demonstrate a beneficial effect on grain size and porosity with increasing reinforcing phase percentage, as well as narrow processing parameter ranges to achieve the optimal properties with respect to the pure parent materials.

  10. Spray-coated ligand-free Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticle thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Murthy, Swathi; Kofod, Guggi

    We have fabricated Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films from spray-coating ligand-free nanoparticle inks. The as-synthesized CZTS nanoparticles were inherently ligand-free [1], which allows the use of polar solvents, such as water and ethanol. Another advantage of these particles is that user- and environ......We have fabricated Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films from spray-coating ligand-free nanoparticle inks. The as-synthesized CZTS nanoparticles were inherently ligand-free [1], which allows the use of polar solvents, such as water and ethanol. Another advantage of these particles is that user......- and environmentally-friendly alkali metal chloride salts can be directly dissolved in controllable amounts. The homogeneous distribution of alkali metals in the ink allows uniform grain growth within the deposited absorber layer as a result of liquid phase assisted sintering. We find that particularly beneficial...... as an unquantifiable amount of ZnS. A Sono-tek spray-coating system is used which utilizes ultrasonic atomization. We investigate the effect of different binders, ink concentration, and spray-coating conditions, i.e. spray power, flow rate from syringe pump, distance between spray nozzle and the substrate, and time...

  11. Plasma sprayed TiC coatings for first wall protection in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, P.; Laan, J.G. van der; Laas, L.; Mack, M.; Dvorak, M.

    1989-01-01

    For protection of plasma facing components in nuclear fusion devices thick titanium carbide coatings are being developed. Coatings have been produced by plasma spraying at atmospheric pressure (APS) and low pressure (LPPS) and analyzed with respect to microstructure and chemical composition. Thermo-mechanical evaluation has been performed by applying short pulse laser heat flux tests. The influence of coating thickness and porosity on the resistance to spalling by thermal shocks appears to be more important than aspects of chemical composition. (author)

  12. Structure of Biocompatible Coatings Produced from Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles by Detonation Spraying

    OpenAIRE

    Nosenko, Valentyna; Strutynska, Nataliia; Vorona, Igor; Zatovsky, Igor; Dzhagan, Volodymyr; Lemishko, Sergiy; Epple, Matthias; Prymak, Oleg; Baran, Nikolai; Ishchenko, Stanislav; Slobodyanik, Nikolai; Prylutskyy, Yuriy; Klyui, Nickolai; Temchenko, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    Detonation-produced hydroxyapatite coatings were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The source material for detonation spraying was a B-type carbonated hydroxyapatite powder. The coatings consisted of tetracalcium phosphate and apatite. The ratio depended slightly on the degree of crystallinity of the initial powder and processing parameters of the coating preparation. The t...

  13. Correlation of microstructure and wear resistance of molybdenum blend coatings fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Byoungchul; Lee, Sunghak; Ahn, Jeehoon

    2004-01-01

    The correlation of microstructure and wear resistance of various molybdenum blend coatings applicable to automotive parts was investigated in this study. Five types of spray powders, one of which was pure molybdenum powder and the others were blends of brass, bronze, and aluminum alloy powders with molybdenum powder, were deposited on a low-carbon steel substrate by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). Microstructural analysis of the coatings showed that they consisted of a curved lamellar structure formed by elongated splats, with hard phases that formed during spraying being homogeneously distributed in the molybdenum matrix. The wear test results revealed that the blend coatings showed better wear resistance than the pure molybdenum coating because they contained a number of hard phases. In particular, the molybdenum coating blended with bronze and aluminum alloy powders and the counterpart material showed an excellent wear resistance due to the presence of hard phases, such as CuAl 2 and Cu 9 Al 4 . In order to improve overall wear properties for the coating and the counterpart material, appropriate spray powders should be blended with molybdenum powders to form hard phases in the coatings

  14. Hot Corrosion of Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Deposited by Air Plasma Spray on a Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, N. Diaz; Sanchez, O.; Caicedo, J. C.; Aperador, W.; Zambrano, G.

    In this research, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel analysis were utilized to study the hot corrosion performance at 700∘C of air plasma-sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings with a NiCrAlY bond coat grown by high velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), deposited on an INCONEL 625 substrate, in contact with corrosive solids salts as vanadium pentoxide V2O5 and sodium sulfate Na2SO4. The EIS data were interpreted based on proposed equivalent electrical circuits using a suitable fitting procedure performed with Echem AnalystTM Software. Phase transformations and microstructural development were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), with Rietveld refinement for quantitative phase analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determinate the coating morphology and corrosion products. The XRD analysis indicated that the reaction between sodium vanadate (NaVO3) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) produces yttrium vanadate (YVO4) and leads to the transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia phase.

  15. Composite coating containing WC/12Co cermet and Fe-based metallic glass deposited by high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terajima, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Fumiya; Nakata, Kazuhiro; Adachi, Shinichiro; Nakashima, Koji; Igarashi, Takanori

    2010-01-01

    A composite coating containing WC/12Co cermet and Fe 43 Cr 16 Mo 16 C 15 B 10 metallic glass was successfully deposited onto type 304 stainless steel by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying, and the microstructure and tribological properties were investigated. The microstructure of the coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy/electron probe micro-analysis (SEM/EPMA) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The hardness, adhesion strength and tribological properties of the coating were tested with a Vickers hardness tester, tensile tester and reciprocating wear tester, respectively. The composite coating, in which flattened WC/12Co was embedded in amorphous Fe 43 Cr 16 Mo 16 C 15 B 10 layers, exhibited high hardness, good wear resistance and a low friction coefficient compared to the monolithic coating. The addition of 8% WC/12Co to the Fe 43 Cr 16 Mo 16 C 15 B 10 matrix increased the cross-sectional hardness from 660 to 870 HV and reduced the friction coefficient from 0.65 to 0.5. WC/12Co reinforcement plays an important role in improving the tribological properties of the Fe 43 Cr 16 Mo 16 C 15 B 10 coating.

  16. Corrosion characteristics of several thermal spray cermet-coating/alloy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashary, A.A.; Tucker, R.C. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The corrosion characteristics of a thermal spray multiphase cermet coating can be quite complex. Factors such as porosity and galvanic effects between different phases in the coating and the substrate, as well as the inherent general and localized corrosion resistance of each phase, can play an important role. The present paper describes the corrosion of several cermet-coating/alloy systems as studied by a potentiodynamic cyclic polarization technique. The corrosion of these coating systems was found to be most often dominated by corrosion of the metallic phases in the coating or of the substrate alloy. (orig.)

  17. Oxidation Behavior of FeCrAl -coated Zirconium Cladding prepared by Laser Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Choi, Byung-Kwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Seon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    From the recent research trends, the ATF cladding concepts for enhanced accident tolerance are divided as follows: Mo-Zr cladding to increase the high temperature strength, cladding coating to increase the high temperature oxidation resistance, FeCrAl alloy and SiC/SiCf material to increase the oxidation resistance and strength at high temperature. To commercialize the ATF cladding concepts, various factors are considered, such as safety under normal and accident conditions, economy for the fuel cycle, and developing development challenges, and schedule. From the proposed concepts, it is known that the cladding coating, FeCrAl alloy, and Zr-Mo claddings are considered as a near/mid-term application, whereas the SiC material is considered as a long-term application. Among them, the benefit of cladding coating on Zr-based alloys is the fuel cycle economy regarding the manufacturing, neutron cross section, and high tritium permeation characteristics. However, the challenge of cladding coating on Zr-based alloys is the lower oxidation resistance and mechanical strength at high-temperature than other concepts. Another important point is the adhesion property between the Zr-based alloy and coating materials. A laser coating method supplied with FeCrAl powders was developed to decrease the high-temperature oxidation rate in a steam environment through a systematic study for various coating parameters, and a FeCrAl-coated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube of 100 mm in length to the axial direction can be successfully manufactured.

  18. A novel method to predict the highest hardness of plasma sprayed coating without micro-defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yukun; Ye, Fuxing; Wang, Feng

    2018-04-01

    The plasma sprayed coatings are stacked by splats, which are regarded generally as the elementary units of coating. Many researchers have focused on the morphology and formation mechanism of splat. However, a novel method to predict the highest hardness of plasma sprayed coating without micro-defects is proposed according to the nanohardness of splat in this paper. The effectiveness of this novel method was examined by experiments. Firstly, the microstructure of splats and coating, meanwhile the 3D topography of the splats were observed by SEM (SU1510) and video microscope (VHX-2000). Secondly, the nanohardness of splats was evaluated by nanoindentation (NHT) in order to be compared with microhardness of coating measured by microhardness tester (HV-1000A). The results show that the nanohardness of splats with diameter of 70 μm, 100 μm and 140 μm were in the scope of 11∼12 GPa while the microhardness of coating were in the range of 8∼9 GPa. Because the splats had not micro-defects such as pores and cracks in the nanohardness evaluated nano-zone, the nanohardness of the splats can be utilized to predict the highest hardness of coating without micro-defects. This method indicates the maximum of sprayed coating hardness and will reduce the test number to get high hardness coating for better wear resistance.

  19. Hydroxyapatite-Coated Magnesium-Based Biodegradable Alloy: Cold Spray Deposition and Simulated Body Fluid Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorakma, Abdullah C. W.; Zuhailawati, Hussain; Aishvarya, V.; Dhindaw, B. K.

    2013-10-01

    A simple modified cold spray process in which the substrate of AZ51 alloys were preheated to 400 °C and sprayed with hydroxyapatite (HAP) using high pressure cold air nozzle spray was designed to get biocompatible coatings of the order of 20-30 μm thickness. The coatings had an average modulus of 9 GPa. The biodegradation behavior of HAP-coated samples was tested by studying with simulated body fluid (SBF). The coating was characterized by FESEM microanalysis. ICPOES analysis was carried out for the SBF solution to know the change in ion concentrations. Control samples showed no aluminum corrosion but heavy Mg corrosion. On the HAP-coated alloy samples, HAP coatings started dissolving after 1 day but showed signs of regeneration after 10 days of holding. All through the testing period while the HAP coating got eroded, the surface of the sample got deposited with different apatite-like compounds and the phase changed with course from DCPD to β-TCP and β-TCMP. The HAP-coated samples clearly improved the biodegradability of Mg alloy, attributed to the dissolution and re-precipitation of apatite showed by the coatings as compared to the control samples.

  20. Enhanced ductility in thermally sprayed titania coating synthesized using a nanostructured feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R.S.; Marple, B.R.

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured and conventional titania (TiO 2 ) feedstock powders were thermally sprayed via high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF). The microstructure, porosity, Vickers hardness, crack propagation resistance, bond strength (ASTM C633), abrasion behavior (ASTM G65) and the wear scar characteristics of these two types of coatings were analyzed and compared. The coating made from the nanostructured feedstock exhibited a bimodal microstructure, with regions containing particles that were fully molten (conventional matrix) and regions with embedded particles that were semi-molten (nanostructured zones) during the thermal spraying process. The bimodal coating also exhibited higher bond strength and higher wear resistance when compared to the conventional coating. By comparing the wear scars of both coatings (via scanning electron microscopy and roughness measurements) it was observed that when the coatings were subjected to the same abrasive conditions the wear scar of the bimodal coating was smoother, with more plastically deformed regions than the conventional coating. It was concluded that this enhanced ductility of the bimodal coating was caused by its higher toughness. The results suggest that nanostructured zones randomly distributed in the microstructure of the bimodal coating act as crack arresters, thereby enhancing toughness and promoting higher critical depth of cut, which provides a broader plastic deformation range than that exhibited by the conventional coating. This work provides evidence that the enhanced ductility of the bimodal coating is a nanostructured-related property, not caused by any other microstructural artifact

  1. Plasma-Sprayed ZnO/TiO2 Coatings with Enhanced Biological Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Peng, Chao; You, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Surface chemical composition and topography are two key factors in the biological performance of implants. The aim of this work is to deposit ZnO/TiO2 composite coatings on the surface of titanium substrates by plasma spraying technique. The effects of the amount of ZnO doping on the microstructure, surface roughness, corrosion resistance, and biological performance of the TiO2 coatings were investigated. The results indicated that the phase composition of the as-sprayed TiO2 coating was mainly rutile. Addition of 10% ZnO into TiO2 coating led to a slight shift of the diffraction peaks to lower angle. Anatase phase and Zn2TiO4 were formed in 20%ZnO/TiO2 and 30%ZnO/TiO2 coatings, respectively. Doping with ZnO changed the topography of the TiO2 coatings, which may be beneficial to enhance their biological performance. All coatings exhibited microsized surface roughness, and the corrosion resistance of ZnO/TiO2 coatings was improved compared with pure TiO2 coating. The ZnO/TiO2 coatings could induce apatite formation on their surface and inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureus, but these effects were dose dependent. The 20%ZnO/TiO2 coating showed better biological performance than the other coatings, suggesting potential application for bone implants.

  2. Wear resistance of nano- and micro-crystalline diamond coatings onto WC-Co with Cr/CrN interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polini, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, Rome, 00133 (Italy); Barletta, Massimiliano, E-mail: barletta@ing.uniroma2.i [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico, 1, Rome, 00133 (Italy); Cristofanilli, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, Rome, 00133 (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    Cr/CrN bi-layers have been used recently to promote the growth of high quality Hot Filament Chemical Vapour Deposition (HFCVD) diamond coatings onto Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-6 wt.%Co) substrates. In the present investigation, the influence of the crystalline size of the diamond coatings on their wear endurance is looked into. Nano- (NDC) and micro-crystalline Diamond Coatings (MDC) were deposited by HFCVD onto untreated and Fluidized Bed (FB) treated Cr/CrN interlayers. NDCs, characterized by a cauliflower-like morphology, showed improved wear resistance. However, the superimposition of NDCs onto Cr/CrN interlayers micro-corrugated by FB treatment was found to be the most promising choice, leading to the formation of highly adherent and wear resistant coatings.

  3. Influence of Plasma Transferred Arc Process Parameters on Structure and Mechanical Properties of Wear Resistive NiCrBSi-WC/Co Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitvydas GRUZDYS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-fluxing NiCrBSi and related coatings received considerable interest due to their good wear as well as corrosion resistance at moderate and elevated temperatures. Hard tungsten carbide (WC particles can be included in NiCrBSi for further increase of the coating hardness and abrasive wear resistance. Flame spray technique is widely used for fabrication of NiCrBSi films. However, in such a case, subsequent remelting of the deposited coatings by flame, arc discharge or high power laser beam is necessary. In present study NiCrBSi-WC/Co coatings were formed using plasma transferred arc process. By adjusting plasma parameters, such as current, plasma gas flow, shielding gas flow, a number of coatings were formed on steel substrates. Structure of the coatings was investigated using X-ray diffractometry. Microstructure of cross-sectioned coatings was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Hardness of the coating was evaluated by means of the Vickers hardness tests. Wear tests were also performed on specimens to determine resistance to abrasive wear. Acquired results allowed estimating the influence of the deposition process parameters on structure and mechanical properties of the coatings.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.482

  4. Development and evaluation of suspension plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia coatings as thermal barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Every, Kent J.

    The insulating effects from thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in gas turbine engines allow for increased operational efficiencies and longer service lifetimes. Consequently, improving TBCs can lead to enhanced gas turbine engine performance. This study was conducted to investigate if yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings, the standard industrial choice for TBCs, produced from nano-sized powder could provide better thermal insulation than current commericial YSZ coatings generated using micron-sized powders. The coatings for this research were made via the recently developed suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process. With SPS, powders are suspended in a solvent containing dispersing agents; the suspension is then injected directly into a plasma flow that evaporates the solvent and melts the powder while transporting it to the substrate. Although related to the industrial TBC production method of air plasma spraying (APS), SPS has two important differences---the ability to spray sub-micron diameter ceramic particles, and the ability to alloy the particles with chemicals dissolved in the solvent. These aspects of SPS were employed to generate a series of coatings from suspensions containing ˜100 nm diameter YSZ powder particles, some of which were alloyed with neodymium and ytterbium ions from the solvent. The SPS coatings contained columnar structures not observed in APS TBCs; thus, a theory was developed to explain the formation of these features. The thermal conductivity of the coatings was tested to evaluate the effects of these unique microstructures and the effects of the alloying process. The results for samples in the as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions were compared to conventional YSZ TBCs. This comparison showed that, relative to APS YSZ coatings, the unalloyed SPS samples typically exhibited higher as-sprayed and lower heat-treated thermal conductivities. All thermal conductivity values for the alloyed samples were lower than conventional YSZ TBCs

  5. Design Optimization of Liquid Fueled High Velocity Oxy- Fuel Thermal Spraying Technique for Durable Coating for Fossil Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Love, Norman [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2016-11-04

    High-velocity oxy–fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying was developed in 1930 and has been commercially available for twenty-five years. HVOF thermal spraying has several benefits over the more conventional plasma spray technique including a faster deposition rate which leads to quicker turn-around, with more durable coatings and higher bond strength, hardness and wear resistance due to a homogeneous distribution of the sprayed particles. HVOF thermal spraying is frequently used in engineering to deposit cermets, metallic alloys, composites and polymers, to enhance product life and performance. HVOF thermal spraying system is a highly promising technique for applying durable coatings on structural materials for corrosive and high temperature environments in advanced ultra-supercritical coal- fired (AUSC) boilers, steam turbines and gas turbines. HVOF thermal spraying is the preferred method for producing coatings with low porosity and high adhesion. HVOF thermal spray process has been shown to be one of the most efficient techniques to deposit high performance coatings at moderate cost. Variables affecting the deposit formation and coating properties include hardware characteristics such as nozzle geometry and spraying distance and process parameters such as equivalence ratio, gas flow density, and powder feedstock. In the spray process, the powder particles experience very high speeds combined with fast heating to the powder material melting point or above. This high temperature causes evaporation of the powder, dissolution, and phase transformations. Due to the complex nature of the HVOF technique, the control and optimization of the process is difficult. In general, good coating quality with suitable properties and required performance for specific applications is the goal in producing thermal spray coatings. In order to reach this goal, a deeper understanding of the spray process as a whole is needed. Although many researchers studied commercial HVOF thermal spray

  6. Identifying the optimal HVOF spray parameters to attain minimum porosity and maximum hardness in iron based amorphous metallic coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vignesh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Flow based Erosion – corrosion problems are very common in fluid handling equipments such as propellers, impellers, pumps in warships, submarine. Though there are many coating materials available to combat erosion–corrosion damage in the above components, iron based amorphous coatings are considered to be more effective to combat erosion–corrosion problems. High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF spray process is considered to be a better process to coat the iron based amorphous powders. In this investigation, iron based amorphous metallic coating was developed on 316 stainless steel substrate using HVOF spray technique. Empirical relationships were developed to predict the porosity and micro hardness of iron based amorphous coating incorporating HVOF spray parameters such as oxygen flow rate, fuel flow rate, powder feed rate, carrier gas flow rate, and spray distance. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to identify the optimal HVOF spray parameters to attain coating with minimum porosity and maximum hardness.

  7. Induction plasma-sprayed photocatalytically active titania coatings and their characterisation by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burlacov, I.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Muller, M.; Heimann, R. B.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 201, 1-2 (2006), s. 255-264 ISSN 0257-8972 Grant - others:European Communities(XE) EVKI-2002-30025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : titania (anatase) coatings * induction plasma spraying * suspension plasma spraying * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.559, year: 2006

  8. The role of nano-particles in the field of thermal spray coating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmann, Stephan; Leparoux, Marc; Rohr, Lukas

    2005-06-01

    Nano-particles play not only a key role in recent research fields, but also in the public discussions about health and safety in nanotechnology. Nevertheless, the worldwide activities in nano-particles research increased dramatically during the last 5 to 10 years. There are different potential routes for the future production of nano-particles at large scale. The main directions envisaged are mechanical milling, wet chemical reactions or gas phase processes. Each of the processes has its specific advantages and limitations. Mechanical milling and wet chemical reactions are typically time intensive and batch processes, whereas gas phase productions by flames or plasma can be carried out continuously. Materials of interest are mainly oxide ceramics, carbides, nitrides, and pure metals. Nano-ceramics are interesting candidates for coating technologies due to expected higher coating toughness, better thermal shock and wear resistance. Especially embedded nano-carbides and-nitrides offer homogenously distributed hard phases, which enhance coatings hardness. Thermal spraying, a nearly 100 years old and world wide established coating technology, gets new possibilities thanks to optimized, nano-sized and/or nano-structured powders. Latest coating system developments like high velocity flame spraying (HVOF), cold gas deposition or liquid suspension spraying in combination with new powder qualities may open new applications and markets. This article gives an overview on the latest activities in nano-particle research and production in special relation to thermal spray coating technology.

  9. Fabrication of samarium strontium aluminate ceramic and deposition of thermal barrier coatings by air plasma spray process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran T

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal barrier coatings (TBC with the metallic NiCrAlY bond coat are often used in many aircraft engines to protect superalloy components from high-temperature corrosion thereby to improve the life of gas turbine components. The search for new TBC material has been intensified in recent years due to lack of thermo-physical properties of conventionally used Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ TBCs. Recently, the rare earth containing Samarium Strontium Aluminate (SSA based ceramic was proposed as a new TBC material due to its matching thermo-physical properties with the substrate. The present work focused on the synthesis of SSA ceramics for TBCs application and its coatings development on Ni-based superalloy Inconel 718 substrate by air plasma spray process. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS result confirmed the formation of single phase SSA ceramic after synthesis. The surface morphology of SSA TBCs is mainly composed of melted splats, semi and un-melted particles. The cross-sectional SEM micrographs did not show any spallation at the interface which indicated good mechanical interlocking between the bond coat and ceramic top coat. The Young’s modulus and hardness of SSA TBCs were found to be 80 and 6.1 GPa, respectively. The load-depth curve of SSA TBC showed good elastic recovery about 47 %.

  10. Plasma sprayed coatings on mild steel split moulds for uranium casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Padmanaban, P.V.A.; Venkatramani, N.; Singh, S.P.; Saha, D.P.; Date, V.G.

    2002-01-01

    High velocity high temperature plasma jets are used to deposit metals and ceramics on metallic substrates for oxidation and corrosion protection applications. Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings on metallic substrates are also used to prevent its reaction with molten metals. Metal-alumina duplex coatings on mild steel split moulds have been developed and successfully used for casting of uranium. Techno-economics of the coated moulds against the conventional graphite moulds are a major advantage. Mild steel moulds of 600 mm long and 75 mm in diameter have been plasma spray coated with alumina over a bond coat of molybdenum. In-plant tests showed an increase in number of castings per mould compared to the commonly used graphite moulds. (author)

  11. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Jensen, Alexander C. Ø.; Kling, Kirsten I.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO2)-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm ...

  12. Stainless steel coatings produced through atmospheric plasma spraying study of in flight powder behavior and coating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denoirjean, A.; Denoirjean, P.; Fauchais, P.; Labbe, J.C.; Khan, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Stainless Steel coatings deposited through Atmospheric Plasma Spraying over mild steel surface present an interest from commercial point of view, especially for the applications where corrosion resistance or inertness towards severe environment is required. Atmospheric Plasma Spraying is fast and relatively less expensive choice as compared to Vacuum Plasma Spraying, the only limitation being the extremely reactive nature of metallic powders used. A study of the behaviour of metallic powders within an Atmospheric Plasma Jet is presented in view of better understanding and eventual improvement in coating properties. Metallic powder particles show very interesting features when individual particles are collected after passing them through a DC Blown Arc Thermal Plasma Jet under Atmospheric Pressure. The spraying was carried out under air which makes the significance of these results even more interesting from the industrial point of view. Proper control of Spraying Parameters can help produce Stainless Steel coatings of reasonably low porosity and a typical lamellar microstructure. The results of SEM, AFM and XRD are discussed. A strange oxidation phenomenon under highly non equilibrium conditions is observed. (author)

  13. Tribological Properties of Ti(Al,O)/Al2O3 Composite Coating by Thermal Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Asma; Gabbitas, Brian; Cao, Peng; Zhang, Deliang

    The use of thermal spray coatings provides protection to the surfaces operating in severe environments. The main goal of the current work is to investigate the possibility of using a high velocity air fuel (HVAF) thermally sprayed wear resistant Ti(Al,O)/Al2O3 coating on tool steel (H13) which is used for making dies for aluminium high pressure die casting and dummy blocks aluminium extrusion. A feedstock of Ti(Al,O)/Al2O3 composite powder was produced from a mixture of Al and TiO2 powders by high energy mechanical milling, followed by a thermal reaction process. The feedstock was then thermally sprayed using a high velocity air-fuel (HVAF) technique onto H13 steel substrates to produce a composite coating. The present study describes and compares the tribological properties such as friction and sliding wear rate of the coating both at room and high temperature (700°C). The wear resistance of the coating was investigated by a tribometer using a spherical ended alumina pin as a counter body under dry and lubricating conditions. The results showed that composite coating has lower wear rate at high temperature than at room temperature without using lubricant. The composite coating was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). This paper reports the experimental observations and discusses the wear resistance performance of the coatings at room and high temperatures.

  14. Supplementary Microstructural Features Induced During Laser Surface Melting of Thermally Sprayed Inconel 625 Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nauman; Voisey, K. T.; McCartney, D. G.

    2014-02-01

    Laser surface melting of thermally sprayed coatings has the potential to enhance their corrosion properties by incorporating favorable microstructural changes. Besides homogenizing the as-sprayed structure, laser melting may induce certain microstructural modifications (i.e., supplementary features) in addition to those that directly improve the corrosion performance. Such features, being a direct result of the laser treatment process, are described in this paper which is part of a broader study in which high velocity oxy-fuel sprayed Inconel 625 coatings on mild-steel substrates were treated with a diode laser and the modified microstructure characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The laser treated coating features several different zones, including a region with a microstructure in which there is a continuous columnar dendritic structure through a network of retained oxide stringers.

  15. Optimization of laser cladding of cold spray coatings with B4C and Ni powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, V. M.; Golyshev, A. A.; Malikov, A. G.; Orishich, A. M.; Filippov, A. A.; Ryashin, N. S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, a combined method is considered for the production of a metal-matrix composite coating based on Ni and B4C. The coating is created by consistently applied methods: cold spray and laser cladding. The conditions of obtaining cermet layers are investigated depending on the parameters of laser cladding and cold spray. It is shown that the laser track structure significantly changes in accordance to the size of ceramic particles ranging 3-75 µm and its concentration. It is shown that the most perspective layers for additive manufacturing could be obtain from cold spray coatings with ceramic concentrations more than 50% by weight treated in the heat-conductivity laser mode.

  16. Protection of Reinforced Concrete Structures of Waste Water Treatment Reservoirs with Stainless Steel Coating Using Arc Thermal Spraying Technique in Acidified Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Waste water treatment reservoirs are contaminated with many hazardous chemicals and acids. Reservoirs typically comprise concrete and reinforcement steel bars, and the main elements responsible for their deterioration are hazardous chemicals, acids, and ozone. Currently, a variety of techniques are being used to protect reservoirs from exposure to these elements. The most widely used techniques are stainless steel plating and polymeric coating. In this study, a technique known as arc thermal spraying was used. It is a more convenient and economical method for protecting both concrete and reinforcement steel bar from deterioration in waste water treatment reservoirs. In this study, 316L stainless steel coating was applied to a concrete surface, and different electrochemical experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of coatings in different acidic pH solutions. The coating generated from the arc thermal spraying process significantly protected the concrete surface from corrosion in acidic pH solutions, owing to the formation of a double layer capacitance—a mixture of Cr3+ enriched with Cr2O3 and Cr-hydroxide in inner and Fe3+ oxide on the outer layer of the coating. The formation of this passive film is defective owing to the non-homogeneous 316L stainless steel coating surface. In the pH 5 solution, the growth of a passive film is adequate due to the presence of un-dissociated water molecules in the aqueous sulfuric acid solution. The coated surface is sealed with alkyl epoxide, which acts as a barrier against the penetration of acidic solutions. This coating exhibits higher impedance values among the three studied acidic pH solutions.

  17. Coating by the Cold Spray Process: a state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Guagliano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of cold spray coating process is presented. This paper intends to review some the previous works which are mostly about the influences of the cold spray parameters, mostly the surface ofthe substrate, on the deposition efficiency (DE. Almost all the important parameters, with more focus on the roughness of the substrate, on increasing the DE are briefly studied; this review also includes a description of application of cold spray and of some important effect of this method on substrate properties.On this basis, some possible development in this field of research are drawn and discussed.

  18. Metallic coating deposited by Cold Gas Spray onto Light alhoys

    OpenAIRE

    Villa Vidaller, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the use of Cold Gas Spray technology (CGS) to spray different nature powders onto light alloys with the aim of increasing their wear resistance. The growing industrial interest for costs reduction (fuel consumption, machinery lifetime, or personal security) has emphasized the necessity to investigate the potential applications that light alloys can offer. Weight reduction is a reason why light metals and its alloys have been associated with strong industries a...

  19. Comparative study of the friction and wear behavior of plasma sprayed conventional and nanostructured WC-12%Co coatings on stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoqin; Zhou Huidi; Chen Jianmin

    2006-01-01

    Conventional and nanostructured WC-12%Co coatings were deposited on 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel substrate using air plasma spraying. The hardness of the coatings was measured, while their friction and wear behavior sliding against Si 3 N 4 at room temperature and elevated temperatures up to 400 deg. C was comparatively studied. The microstructures and worn surface morphologies of the coatings were comparatively analyzed as well by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). It was found that the as-sprayed WC-12%Co coatings were composed of WC as the major phase and W 2 C, WC 1-x , and W 3 Co 3 C as the minor phases. The plasma sprayed nanostructured WC-12%Co coating had much higher hardness and refined microstructures than the conventional WC-12%Co coating. This largely accounted for the better wear resistance of the nanostructured WC-12%Co coating than the conventional coating. Besides, the two types of WC-12%Co coatings showed minor differences in friction coefficients, though the nanostructured WC-12%Co coating roughly had slightly smaller friction coefficient than the conventional coating under the same sliding condition. Moreover, both the conventional and nanostructured WC-12%Co coatings recorded gradually increased wear rate with increasing temperature, and the nanostructured coating was less sensitive to the temperature rise in terms of the wear resistance. The worn surfaces of the conventional WC-12%Co coating at different sliding conditions showed more severe adhesion, microfracture, and peeling as compared to the nanostructured WC-12%Co coating, which well conformed to the corresponding wear resistance of the two types of coatings. The nanostructured WC-12%Co coating with a wear rate as small as 1.01 x 10 -7 mm 3 /Nm at 400 deg. C could be promising candidate coating for the surface-modification of some sliding components subject to harsh working conditions involving elevated

  20. Essential Factors Influencing the Bonding Strength of Cold-Sprayed Aluminum Coatings on Ceramic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drehmann, R.; Grund, T.; Lampke, T.; Wielage, B.; Wüstefeld, C.; Motylenko, M.; Rafaja, D.

    2018-02-01

    The present work summarizes the most important results of a research project dealing with the comprehensive investigation of the bonding mechanisms between cold-sprayed Al coatings and various poly- and monocrystalline ceramic substrates (Al2O3, AlN, Si3N4, SiC, MgF2). Due to their exceptional combination of properties, metallized ceramics are gaining more and more importance for a wide variety of applications, especially in electronic engineering. Cold spray provides a quick, flexible, and cost-effective one-step process to apply metallic coatings on ceramic surfaces. However, since most of the existing cold-spray-related publications focus on metallic substrates, only very little is known about the bonding mechanisms acting between cold-sprayed metals and ceramic substrates. In this paper, the essential factors influencing the bonding strength in such composites are identified. Besides mechanical tensile strength testing, a thorough analysis of the coatings and especially the metal/ceramic interfaces was conducted by means of HRTEM, FFT, STEM, EDX, EELS, GAXRD, and EBSD. The influence of substrate material, substrate temperature, and particle size is evaluated. The results suggest that, apart from mechanical interlocking, the adhesion of cold-sprayed metallic coatings on ceramics is based on a complex interplay of different mechanisms such as quasiadiabatic shearing, static recrystallization, and heteroepitaxial growth.

  1. Nanosilver conductive lines made by spray coating and aerosol jet printing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeminski, Jakub; Wroblewski, Grzegorz; Dybowska-Sarapuk, Lucja; Lepak, Sandra; Jakubowska, Malgorzata

    2017-08-01

    Printing electronics even though the printing techniques are known for a long time, are gaining in importance. The possibility of making the electronic circuits on flexible, big-area substrates with efficient and cheap technology make it attractive for the electronic industry. Spray coating, as a one of printing methods, additionally provide the chance to print on the non-flat, complicated shaped substrates. Despite the spray coating is mostly used to print a big pads, it is reachable to spray the separate conductive lines both as a quickly-produced prototype and as a fully manufactured circuit. Our work presents the directly printed lines with spray coating technique. For the printing process self-made ink was used. We tested three different approaches to line formation and compare them in the terms of line edge, resistivity and thickness. Line profiles provide the information about the roughness and the line size. In the end we showed the aerosol jet printed meander to give an overview of this similar to spray coating but more sophisticated technique.

  2. XPS investigations of tribofilms formed on CrN coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandrino, Djordje, E-mail: djordje.mandrino@imt.si; Podgornik, Bojan

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Formation of tribofilms from lubricant additives on CrN surfaces during tribological contact confirmed by XPS. • Chemistry & chemical state of tribofilms obtained by XPS. • Thin sulphate film forms at the top of sulphide tribofilm. • Final type of sulphide in tribolayer depends on additive chemistry and testing temperature. - Abstract: Action of lubrication additives in the case of uncoated steel surfaces, including the type and mechanism of tribofilm formation is well known and understood. However, contact type of tribofilms which might form under the tribological contact between CrN coated surfaces, remains more or less unexplored. The aim of this investigation was to study the type of tribofilms formed on the CrN coated steel samples subjected to lubricated reciprocating sliding contact under different contact conditions Contact surface and tribofilms formed were studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Sample surfaces were first imaged by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine areas of tribofilm formation as well as areas not affected by tribological contact. In these areas survey and high resolution (HR) XPS measurements were performed to obtain information about surface chemistry and oxidation states of the constituent elements. It was found that differences between different samples, observed by the XPS measurements, may reflect differences in chemistry of tribofilms formed under different contact conditions.

  3. Corrosion characteristics of thermal sprayed coating of stainless alloys in chloride solution; Taishoku gokin yosha himaku no enkabutsu yoekichu ni okeru fushoku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Ishikawa, K. [Tokyo Metallikon Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kitamura, Y. [Kitamura Technical Consultant Office, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1994-12-15

    With an objective to develop a thermal sprayed coating of environment interruption type that can be sprayed at sites, electrochemical discussions, SEM observation, and EPMA surface analysis were performed on corrosion characteristics in chloride solution of coatings of SUS 304, 316 and Hastelloy C thermally sprayed onto test pieces made of structural steel SS400, as well as the effect of improvement in corrosion resistance by means of a coating reforming treatment. The following conclusions were obtained: the degradation in corrosion resistance of the coatings is attributable to increase in anodic solubility due to appearance of innumerable crevices as a result of deposited particles forming porous structure and due to drop of Cr content in the matrix caused by generation of oxides on the surface of the crevices, by which the corrosion progresses in the form of crevice corrosion; and denseness of the passive coating is lost on the surface of the deposited particles, accelerating the cathodic reaction. A suitable means that could be used practically in chloride solution would be a method to use a material with less crevice susceptibility such as Hastelloy C as a base material, and seal the crevice structure with epoxy resin, etc. 7 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Isothermal oxidation behaviour of thermal barrier coatings with CoCrAlY bond coat irradiated by high-current pulsed electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Guan, Qingfeng, E-mail: guanqf@mail.ujs.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Hou, Xiuli [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Zhiping; Su, Jingxin; Han, Zhiyong [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • The original coarse surface was re-melted by pulsed electron beam irradiation. • Very fine grains were homogeneously dispersed on the irradiated coat surface. • A compact Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale was formed in irradiated TBCs at the onset of oxidation. • The selective oxidation of Al element avoided the formation of other oxides. • The irradiated coating has a much higher oxidation resistance. - Abstract: Thermal sprayed CoCrAlY bond coat irradiated by high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) and thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) prepared with the irradiated bond coat and the ceramic top coat were investigated. The high temperature oxidation resistance of these specimens was tested at 1050 °C in air. Microstructure observations revealed that the original coarse surface of the as-sprayed bond coat was significantly changed as the interconnected bulged nodules with a compact appearance after HCPEB irradiation. Abundant Y-rich alumina particulates and very fine grains were dispersed on the irradiated surface. After high temperature oxidation test, the thermally grown oxide (TGO) in the initial TBCs grew rapidly and was comprised of two distinct layers: a large percentage of mixed oxides in the outer layer and a relatively small portion of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the inner layer. Severe local internal oxidation and extensive cracks in the TGO layer were discovered as well. Comparatively, the irradiated TBCs exhibited thinner TGO layer, slower TGO growth rate, and homogeneous TGO composition (primarily consisting of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The results indicate that TBCs with the irradiated bond coat have a much higher oxidation resistance.

  5. CrCuAgN PVD nanocomposite coatings: Effects of annealing on coating morphology and nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingguang, E-mail: xingguangliu1@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Iamvasant, Chanon, E-mail: ciamvasant1@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Liu, Chang, E-mail: chang.liu@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Matthews, Allan, E-mail: allan.matthews@manchester.ac.uk [Pariser Building - B24 ICAM, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Leyland, Adrian, E-mail: a.leyland@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Coatings with nitrogen content up to 16 at.% exhibit a metallic Cr solid solution, even after post-coat annealing at 300 °C and 500 °C. • At higher N/Cr atomic ratios (approaching Cr{sub 2}N stoichiometry), chromium was still inclined to exist in solid solution with nitrogen, rather than as a ceramic nitride phase, even after annealing at 500 °C. • Transportation of Cu and Ag to the surface depends on annealing temperature, annealing duration, nitrogen concentration and ‘global’ Cu + Ag concentration. • Incorporation of copper appears to be a powerful strategy to enhance Ag mobility at low concentration (∼3 at.% Ag in this study) under moderately high service temperature. • A significant decrease in friction coefficient was obtained at room temperature after annealing, or during sliding wear testing at elevated temperature. - Abstract: CrCuAgN PVD nanocomposite coatings were produced using pulsed DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering. This investigation focuses on the effects of post-coat annealing on the surface morphology, phase composition and nanostructure of such coatings. In coatings with nitrogen contents up to 16 at.%, chromium exists as metallic Cr with N in supersaturated solid solution, even after 300 °C and 500 °C post-coat annealing. Annealing at 300 °C did not obviously change the phase composition of both nitrogen-free and nitrogen-containing coatings; however, 500 °C annealing resulted in significant transformation of the nitrogen-containing coatings. The formation of Ag aggregates relates to the (Cu + Ag)/Cr atomic ratio (threshold around 0.2), whereas the formation of Cu aggregates relates to the (Cu + Ag + N)/Cr atomic ratio (threshold around 0.5). The primary annealing-induced changes were reduced solubility of Cu, Ag and N in Cr, and the composition altering from a mixed ultra-fine nanocrystalline and partly amorphous phase constitution to a coarser, but still largely nanocrystalline structure. It was also

  6. Production of Babbitt Coatings by High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A. R. C.; Ettouil, F. B.; Moreau, C.; Savoie, S.; Schulz, R.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents HVOF as an alternative means to produce dense Babbitt coatings by thermal spray. A radial injection setup and low fuel flow rates were used to minimize heat transfer to the low melting point alloy. In-flight particle diagnostic systems were used to correlate spray parameters with the changes in particle velocity and thermal radiation intensity. The use of particles with larger diameters resulted in higher deposition efficiencies. It was shown that HVOF Babbitt coatings combine a dense structure and a fine distribution of intermetallic phases when compared to more traditional babbitting techniques.

  7. Thermophysical properties of YSZ and YCeSZ suspension plasma sprayed coatings having different microstructures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokołowski, P.; Björklund, S.; Mušálek, Radek; Candidato, Jr., R.T.; Pawłowski, L.; Nait-Ali, B.; Smith, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 318, May (2017), s. 28-38 ISSN 0257-8972. [International Meeting on Thermal Spraying (RIPT)/7./. Limoges, 09.12.2015-11.12.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-12145S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) * Suspension Plasma Spraying * Thermal conductivity * Specific heat * Thermal dilatation * Response function method Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0257897217302086

  8. An electron microscopy study of the effect of Ce on plasma sprayed bronze coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensheng, Li; Wang, S. C.; Ma, Chao; Zhiping, Wang

    2012-07-01

    The Cu-Al eutectoid alloy is an excellent material for mould due to its superior low friction. The conventional sand casting technique, however, is not feasible to fabricate high Al bronze because of high hardness and brittleness. Plasma arc spray has been used to produce high Al/Fe bronze coatings for mould. The inherent impurities such as H, O, N, S during the spray, however, may affect the coating's mechanical strength. One approach is to utilise the active rare earth Ce to clean up these impurities. The study is to investigate the effect of Ce on the microstructure, which has few reported in the literature.

  9. Fundamental Study on the Effect of Spray Parameters on Characteristics of P3HT:PCBM Active Layers Made by Spray Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to elucidate the effects of the important spray characteristics on the surface morphology and light absorbance of spray-on P3HT:PCBM thin-films, used as an active layer in polymer solar cells (PSCs. Spray coating or deposition is a viable scalable technique for the large-scale, fast, and low-cost fabrication of solution-processed solar cells, and has been widely used for device fabrication, although the fundamental understanding of the underlying and controlling parameters, such as spray characteristics, droplet dynamics, and surface wettability, is still limited, making the results on device fabrication not reproducible and unreliable. In this paper, following the conventional PSC architecture, a PEDOT:PSS layer is first spin-coated on glass substrates, followed by the deposition of P3HT:PCBM using an automatic ultrasonic spray coating system, with a movable nozzle tip, to mimic an industrial manufacturing process. To gain insight, the effects of the spray carrier air pressure, the number of spray passes, the precursor flow rate, and precursor concentration are studied on the surface topography and light absorbance spectra of the spray-on films. Among the results, it is found that despite the high roughness of spray-on films, the light absorbance of the film is satisfactory. It is also found that the absorbance of spray-on films is a linear function of the number of spray passes or deposition layers, based on which an effective film thickness is defined for rough spray-on films. The effective thickness of a rough spray-on P3HT:PCBM film was found to be one-quarter of that of a flat film predicted by a simple mass balance.

  10. Oxidation-resistant Ge-doped silicide coating on Cr-Cr2Nb alloys by pack cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yirong

    1997-01-01

    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on Cr-Cr 2 Nb alloys in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the pack composition and processing schedule and also on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi 2 and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. Under cyclic and isothermal oxidation conditions, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation and from pesting by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. (orig.)

  11. Assessment of properties thermal sprayed coatings realised using cermet blend powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brezinová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the assessment of selected properties of plasma sprayed coatings based on ZrSiO4 doped with different volume fractions of metal dopant (Ni. Mixed powders are cermet blends. Aim of the work consists of verificating the possibility to replace the application of Ni interlayer by adding Ni directly to the ceramic powder and apply them together in a single technological operation. The coatings were studied from point of view of their structure, porosity, adhesion of the coatings in relation to the volume of dopant added and wear resistance. The best properties reached composite coating doped with 12 % Ni.

  12. Structure and wear behavior of AlCrSiN-based coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chengdu Tool Research Institute Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610500 (China); Du, Hao [School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Chen, Ming, E-mail: mchen@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yang, Jun [Chengdu Tool Research Institute Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610500 (China); Xiong, Ji [School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhao, Haibo [The Analysis and Testing Centre, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • AlCrSiN based coating showed amorphous structure. • AlCrSiN/Me{sub x}N coatings obtained better wear resistance. • Molybdenum and niobium increased the coating hardness and wear resistance. - Abstract: AlCrN, AlCrSiCN, AlCrSiN/MoN, and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings have been deposited on high-polished WC–Co cemented carbide substrate and tools by mid-frequency magnetron sputtering in Ar/N{sub 2} mixtures. Al{sub 0.6}Cr{sub 0.4}, Al{sub 0.6}Cr{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.1}, and C/Mo/Nb targets were used during the deposition. The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-deposited coatings were investigated. Investigations of the wear behaviors of coated tools were also performed. The results showed that cubic structure was formed in the coatings. Broader CrAlN (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) peaks without SiN{sub x} peak were formed in the AlCrSiN/Me{sub x}N coatings, which showed a nanocomposited structure. Meanwhile, according to SEM micrographs, AlCrN exhibited a columnar structure, while, AlCrSiCN, AlCrSiN/MoN, and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings showed nanocrystalline morphology. The nano-multilayered coatings performed higher hardness, H/E, and H{sup 3}/E{sup 2} ratios compared with AlCrN coating. Through the Rockwell adhesion test, all the coatings exhibited adhesion strength quality HF1. After turning Inconel 718 under dry condition, the nano-multilyered coatings showed better wear resistance than AlCrN coating. Due to the molybdenum and niobium in the coating, AlCrSiN/MoN and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings showed the best wear resistance.

  13. High temperature oxidation and corrosion in marine environments of thermal spray deposited coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaliampalias, D.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergioudis, G.; Skolianos, S.; Chrissafis, K.

    2008-01-01

    Flame spraying is a widely used technique for depositing a great variety of materials in order to enforce the mechanical or the anticorrosion characteristics of the substrate. Its high rate application is due to the rapidity of the process, its effectiveness and its low cost. In this work, flame-sprayed Al coatings are deposited on low carbon steels in order to enhance their anticorrosion performance. The main adhesion mechanism of the coating is mechanical anchorage, which can provide the necessary protection to steel used in several industrial and constructive applications. To evaluate the corrosion resistance of the coating, the as-coated samples are subjected in a salt spray chamber and in elevated temperature environments. The examination and characterization of the corroded samples is done by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The as-formed coatings are extremely rough and have a lamellic homogeneous morphology. It is also found that Al coatings provide better protection in marine atmospheres, while at elevated temperatures a thick oxide layer is formed, which can delaminate after long oxidation periods due to its low adherence to the underlying coating, thus eliminating the substrate protection

  14. Thermal Conductivity Analysis and Lifetime Testing of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying (SPS has become an interesting method for the production of thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine components. The development of the SPS process has led to structures with segmented vertical cracks or column-like structures that can imitate strain-tolerant air plasma spraying (APS or electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD coatings. Additionally, SPS coatings can have lower thermal conductivity than EB-PVD coatings, while also being easier to produce. The combination of similar or improved properties with a potential for lower production costs makes SPS of great interest to the gas turbine industry. This study compares a number of SPS thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with vertical cracks or column-like structures with the reference of segmented APS coatings. The primary focus has been on lifetime testing of these new coating systems. Samples were tested in thermo-cyclic fatigue at temperatures of 1100 °C for 1 h cycles. Additional testing was performed to assess thermal shock performance and erosion resistance. Thermal conductivity was also assessed for samples in their as-sprayed state, and the microstructures were investigated using SEM.

  15. Characterization of Fe-based alloy coating deposited by supersonic plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, Zhong-yu; Xu, Bin-shi; Wang, Hai-dou; Wen, Dong-hui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe-based coating exhibited few oxides, high density and bond strength. • Amorphous/nanocrystalline phases were found in the coating. • Formation mechanism of excellent coating was investigated. -- Abstract: The objective of the present study is to characterize the Fe-based alloy coating deposited by the supersonic plasma spraying process. The condition of the melting particles was in situ monitored. The microstructure of the coating was examined by scanning electron microscope and high resolution transmission electron microscope. The phase composition was examined by X-ray diffraction. The microhardness and porosity were also measured, respectively. Results show the prepared coatings have excellent properties, such as few oxides, high microhardness and a low porosity amount. At the same time, a mass of amorphous/nanocrystalline phases was found in the coating. The mechanism of the formation of amorphous/nanocrystalline phases was investigated. The appropriate material composition of spraying material and flash set process of plasma spraying are the key factors. Moreover, the mechanism for oxidation resistance is also investigated, where the separation between melting metal and oxygen by the formation of SiO 2 films is the key factor

  16. The Influence of Nanodispersed Modifiers on the Structure and Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Smirnov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Currently, plasma-sprayed coatings are widely used to protect machine parts operating under conditions of high loads and temperatures, abrasive wear and exposure to corrosive media. Objective. The aim of the paper is to improve the physico-mechanical characteristics of plasma-sprayed coatings by modification of nano-sized particles of TiO2 oxides compounds. Methods. Experimental studies of corrosion resistance, microhardness, adhesion strength and residual stresses of plasma-sprayed coatings based on the oxide aluminum ceramic powder with the addition of nanodisperse TiO2 powder were conducted. Results. It is found that addition of TiO2 nanodisperse modifier to the oxide aluminum ceramic powder composition leads to corrosion resistance increase 2.8 times in a 10 % hydrochloric acid solution. The adhesive strength of ceramic nanomodified coatings is increased by 15–20 %. Conclusions. The positive influence of nanodispersed powders on the physico-mechanical and tribological characteristics of plasma-sprayed coatings is established.

  17. Synthesis and Deposition of TiC-Fe Coatings by Oxygen-acetylene Flame Spraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A simpler and more convenient method for producing wear-resistant, TiC-reinforced coatings were investigated in this study. It consists of the simultaneous synthesis and deposition of TiC-Fe materials by oxyacetylene flame spraying.Solid reagents bound together to form a single particle are injected into the flame stream where an in-situ reaction occurs. The reaction products are propelled onto a substrate to form a coating. Microstructural analyses reveal that TiC and Fe are the dominant phases in the coatings. The reaction between Ti and C happens step by step along with the reactive spray powder flight, and TiC-Fe materials were mainly synthesized where the spray distance is 125~170 mm. The TiC-Fe coatings are composed of alternate TiC-rich and TiC-poor lamellae with different microhardness of 11.9~13.7 and 3.0~6.0 Gpa, respectively. Submicron and round TiC particles are dispersed within a ductile metal matrix. The peculiar microstructure is thought to be responsible for its good wear resistance, which is better nearly five times than WC-reinforced cermet coatings obtained by traditional oxyacetylene flame spray.

  18. Experimental Verification of Statistically Optimized Parameters for Low-Pressure Cold Spray Coating of Titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damilola Isaac Adebiyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cold spray coating process involves many process parameters which make the process very complex, and highly dependent and sensitive to small changes in these parameters. This results in a small operational window of the parameters. Consequently, mathematical optimization of the process parameters is key, not only to achieving deposition but also improving the coating quality. This study focuses on the mathematical identification and experimental justification of the optimum process parameters for cold spray coating of titanium alloy with silicon carbide (SiC. The continuity, momentum and the energy equations governing the flow through the low-pressure cold spray nozzle were solved by introducing a constitutive equation to close the system. This was used to calculate the critical velocity for the deposition of SiC. In order to determine the input temperature that yields the calculated velocity, the distribution of velocity, temperature, and pressure in the cold spray nozzle were analyzed, and the exit values were predicted using the meshing tool of Solidworks. Coatings fabricated using the optimized parameters and some non-optimized parameters are compared. The coating of the CFD-optimized parameters yielded lower porosity and higher hardness.

  19. Electrochemical Behavior and Hydrophobic Properties of CrN and CrNiN Coatings in Simulated Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Jie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The CrN and CrNiN coatings were prepared on the surface of 304 stainless steel by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering.X ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the coatings.The electrochemical corrosion properties under the simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cell(PEMFC environment, interfacial contact resistance and hydrophobic properties of the two kinds of different coatings were investigated by electrochemical methods,contact resistance test and hydrophobic test,respectively.The results indicate that CrN coating mainly consists of CrN and Cr2N phase,CrN and Cr2N phases in the CrNiN coating are less compared to CrN film, and Ni exist as element in CrNiN coating; dynamic polarization tests show the coating is of better corrosion resistance,whereas the corrosion resistance of CrNiN coating is worse than that of CrN coating,constant potential polarization test shows the corrosion current density of CrN and CrNiN coatings are equivalent; CrN and CrNiN coatings significantly reduce the interfacial contact resistance of the 304 stainless steel,among which CrN coating has the smallest contact resistance; and CrNiN coating which has better hydrophobicity than that of CrN coating is more beneficial for the water management in proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

  20. Study on Metal Microfilter Coated with Ceramics by Using Plasma Thermal Spray Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, In Gyu; Shin, Hyun Myung; Choi, Hae Woon; Lee, Young Min

    2011-01-01

    This research was performed on a microfilter made of a hybrid material (ceramic + metal) that was coated with ceramics on the metal-filter surface by using the thermal spray method. The ceramic powders used were Al 2 O 3 +40TiO 2 powder with a particle size of 20 μm and Al 2 O 3 (98%+)powder with a particle size of 45 μm. The metal filters were filter-grade 20 μm, 30 μm, and 50 μm sintered metal powder filters (SIKA-R 20 IS, 30 IS, 50 IS: Sinter Metals Filters) and filter-grade 75 μm sintered mesh filter with five layers. Ceramic-coated filters that were coated using the thermal spray method had a great influence on powder material, particle size, and coating thickness. However, these filters showed a fine performance when used as micro-filters

  1. Modulating drug release from gastric-floating microcapsules through spray-coating layers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li Lee

    Full Text Available Floating dosage forms with prolonged gastric residence time have garnered much interest in the field of oral delivery. However, studies had shown that slow and incomplete release of hydrophobic drugs during gastric residence period would reduce drug absorption and cause drug wastage. Herein, a spray-coated floating microcapsule system was developed to encapsulate fenofibrate and piroxicam, as model hydrophobic drugs, into the coating layers with the aim of enhancing and tuning drug release rates. Incorporating fenofibrate into rubbery poly(caprolactone (PCL coating layer resulted in a complete and sustained release for up to 8 h, with outermost non-drug-holding PCL coating layer serving as a rate-controlling membrane. To realize a multidrug-loaded system, both hydrophilic metformin HCl and hydrophobic fenofibrate were simultaneously incorporated into these spray-coated microcapsules, with metformin HCl and fenofibrate localized within the hollow cavity of the capsule and coating layer, respectively. Both drugs were observed to be completely released from these coated microcapsules in a sustained manner. Through specific tailoring of coating polymers and their configurations, piroxicam loaded in both the outer polyethylene glycol and inner PCL coating layers was released in a double-profile manner (i.e. an immediate burst release as the loading dose, followed by a sustained release as the maintenance dose. The fabricated microcapsules exhibited excellent buoyancy in simulated gastric fluid, and provided controlled and sustained release, thus revealing its potential as a rate-controlled oral drug delivery system.

  2. Characterization of gas tunnel type plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite-nanostructure titania composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugeswaran, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Ucisik, A. Hikmet; Subramanian, B.

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be coated onto metal implants as a ceramic biocompatible coating to bridge the growth between implants and human tissue. Meanwhile many efforts have been made to improve the mechanical properties of the HA coatings without affecting its bioactivity. In the present study, nanostructure titania (TiO2) was mixed with HA powder and HA-nanostructure TiO2 composite coatings were produced by gas tunnel type plasma spraying torch under optimized spraying conditions. For this purpose, composition of 10 wt% TiO2 + 90 wt% HA, 20 wt% TiO2 + 80 wt% HA and 30 wt% TiO2 + 70 wt% HA were selected as the feedstock materials. The phase, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coatings were characterized. The obtained results validated that the increase in weight percentage of nanostructure TiO2 in HA coating significantly increased the microhardness, adhesive strength and wear resistance of the coatings. Analysis of the in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were done using conventional simulated body fluid (c-SBF) solution and cultured green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled marrow stromal cells (MSCs) respectively. The bioactivity results revealed that the composite coating has bio-active surface with good cytocompatibility.

  3. Study of thermal and electrical parameters of workpieces during spray coating by electrolytic plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khafizov, A A; Shakirov, Yu I; Valiev, R A; Valiev, R I; Khafizova, G M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the results are presented of thermal and electrical parameters of products in the system bottom layer - intermediate layer when applying protective coatings of ferromagnetic powder by plasma spray produced in an electric discharge with a liquid cathode, on steel samples. Temperature distribution and gradients in coating and intermediate coating were examined. Detailed descriptions of spray coating with ferromagnetic powder by plasma jet obtained in electrical discharge with liquid cathode and the apparatus for obtaining thereof is provided. Problem has been solved by using of Fourier analysis. Initial data for calculations is provided. Results of numerical analysis are provided as temporal functions of temperature in contiguity between coating and intermediate coating as well as temporal function of the value Q=q-φ; where q is density of heat current directed to the free surface of intermediate coating, φ is density of heat current in contiguity between coating and intermediate coating. The analysis of data given shows that in the systems of contact heat exchange bottom layer-intermediate layer with close values of the thermophysical characteristics of constituting materials is observed a slow increase of the temperature of the contact as a function of time. (paper)

  4. Microstructure and wear behaviour of silicon doped Cr-N nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao Mingdong, E-mail: bmingd@yahoo.com.c [School of mechanical engineering, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo 315016 (China); Yu Lei; Xu Xuebo [School of mechanical engineering, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo 315016 (China); He Jiawen [State Key Lab. for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Sun Hailin [Teer Coatings Ltd., Berry Hill Industrial Estate, Droitwich Worcestershire WR9 9AS (United Kingdom); Zhejiang Huijin-Teer Coatings Technolgy Co., Ltd., Lin' an 311305 (China); Teer, D.G. [Teer Coatings Ltd., Berry Hill Industrial Estate, Droitwich Worcestershire WR9 9AS (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Hard Cr-N and silicon doped Cr-Si-N nanocomposite coatings were deposited using closed unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating system. Coatings doped with various Si contents were synthesized by changing the power applied on Si targets. Composition of the films was analyzed using glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES). Microstructure and properties of the coatings were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nano-indentation. The harnesses and the elastic modulus of Cr-Si-N coatings gradually increased with rising of silicon content and exhibited a maximum at silicon content of 4.1 at.% and 5.5 at.%. The maximum hardness and elastic modulus of the Cr-Si-N nanocomposite coatings were approximately 30 GPa and 352 GPa, respectively. Further increase in the silicon content resulted in a decrease in the hardness and the elastic modulus of the coatings. Results from XRD analyses of CrN coatings indicated that strongly preferred orientations of (111) were detected. The diffraction patterns of Cr-Si-N coatings showed a clear (220) with weak (200) and (311) preferred orientations, but the peak of CrN (111) was decreased with the increase of Si concentration. The XRD data of single-phase Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} was free of peak. The peaks of CrN (111) and (220) were shifted slightly and broadened with the increase of silicon content. SEM observations of the sections of Cr-Si-N coatings with different silicon concentrations showed a typical columnar structure. It was evident from TEM observation that nanocomposite Cr-Si-N coatings exhibited nano-scale grain size. Friction coefficient and specific wear rate (SWR) of silicon doped Cr-N coatings from pin-on-disk test were significantly lower in comparison to that of CrN coatings.

  5. Thermal Fatigue Behavior of Air-Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating with Bond Coat Species in Cyclic Thermal Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungyu Paik

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the bond coat species on the delamination or fracture behavior in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs was investigated using the yclic thermal fatigue and thermal-shock tests. The interface microstructures of each TBC showed a good condition without cracking or delamination after flame thermal fatigue (FTF for 1429 cycles. The TBC with the bond coat prepared by the air-plasma spray (APS method showed a good condition at the interface between the top and bond coats after cyclic furnace thermal fatigue (CFTF for 1429 cycles, whereas the TBCs with the bond coats prepared by the high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF and low-pressure plasma spray (LPPS methods showed a partial cracking (and/or delamination and a delamination after 780 cycles, respectively. The TBCs with the bond coats prepared by the APS, HVOF and LPPS methods were fully delaminated (>50% after 159, 36, and 46 cycles, respectively, during the thermal-shock tests. The TGO thickness in the TBCs was strongly dependent on the both exposure time and temperature difference tested. The hardness values were found to be increased only after the CFTF, and the TBC with the bond coat prepared by the APS showed the highest adhesive strength before and after the FTF.

  6. Mechanical matching and microstructural evolution at the coating/substrate interfaces of cold-sprayed Ni, Al coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.; Lee, S.; Shin, H.; Ko, K.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of mechanical hard/soft matching of raw powder and substrate in the cold gas dynamic spraying process (CDSP) on the formation of intermetallic compounds was examined. Instead of pre-alloyed materials, pure Al and Ni were selected as a soft and a hard material, respectively, and post-annealing was used for compound formation. Most of the aluminide layers were observed in the coated layer, but not in the substrate, along with the entire original interface for both Al coating on a Ni substrate and vice versa. Thickening of the compound layer depended mainly on the creation of defects during spraying and intrinsic diffusivity of atoms moving toward the coating side. When Ni was coated, the compound layer was made thicker by fast diffusion of Al, while the thickness was limited in soft Al coating on hard Ni substrate. However, the composition of the compound can be affected by relative transfer of diffusing atoms toward both the coating and the substrate. So, for Ni coating on an Al substrate, most of the intermetallic compound formed was Ni-rich and conversion of the Al-rich compound was observed after post-annealing above 500 deg. C.

  7. Applications in the Nuclear Industry for Thermal Spray Amorphous Metal and Ceramic Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Blink, J.; Farmer, J.; Choi, J.; Saw, C.

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous metal and ceramic thermal spray coatings have been developed with excellent corrosion resistance and neutron absorption. These coatings, with further development, could be cost-effective options to enhance the corrosion resistance of drip shields and waste packages, and limit nuclear criticality in canisters for the transportation, aging, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Iron-based amorphous metal formulations with chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten have shown the corrosion resis...

  8. Method and Process Development of Advanced Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas; Gruner, Heiko; Thomas, Georg; Dzur, Birger

    2012-06-01

    Over the last few years, global economic growth has triggered a dramatic increase in the demand for resources, resulting in steady rise in prices for energy and raw materials. In the gas turbine manufacturing sector, process optimizations of cost-intensive production steps involve a heightened potential of savings and form the basis for securing future competitive advantages in the market. In this context, the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been optimized. A constraint for the optimization of the APS coating process is the use of the existing coating equipment. Furthermore, the current coating quality and characteristics must not change so as to avoid new qualification and testing. Using experience in APS and empirically gained data, the process optimization plan included the variation of e.g. the plasma gas composition and flow-rate, the electrical power, the arrangement and angle of the powder injectors in relation to the plasma jet, the grain size distribution of the spray powder and the plasma torch movement procedures such as spray distance, offset and iteration. In particular, plasma properties (enthalpy, velocity and temperature), powder injection conditions (injection point, injection speed, grain size and distribution) and the coating lamination (coating pattern and spraying distance) are examined. The optimized process and resulting coating were compared to the current situation using several diagnostic methods. The improved process significantly reduces costs and achieves the requirement of comparable coating quality. Furthermore, a contribution was made towards better comprehension of the APS of ceramics and the definition of a better method for future process developments.

  9. Microstructural evolution of cold-sprayed Inconel 625 superalloy coatings on low alloy steel substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Atanu; Raghupathy, Y.; Srinivasan, Dheepa; Suwas, Satyam; Srivastava, Chandan

    2017-01-01

    This study illustrates microstructural evolution of INCONEL 625 superalloy coatings cold-sprayed on a 4130 chrome alloy steel with medium carbon content. INCONEL 625 powder (5–25 μm) were successfully cold sprayed without any oxidation. The comprehensive microstructure analysis of the as-sprayed coatings and of the substrate-coating interface was carried out using EBSD, TEM, and XRD. The coating microstructure at the substrate-coating interface was markedly different from the microstructure away from the interface. The coating microstructure at steel-coating interface consisted of a fine layer of small grains. The microstructure beyond this fine layer can be divided into splats, inter splat and intra splat boundaries. Both splat and splat boundaries exhibited deformation induced dislocations. Dynamic recovery of dislocations-ridden regions inside the splat was responsible for the development of sub grain structure inside a splat with both low and high angle grain boundaries. Splat-splat (inter splat) boundary consisted of a relatively high density of dislocations and shear bands as a result of adiabatic shear flow localisation. This flow instability is believed to enhance the microstructural integrity by eliminating porosity at splat-splat boundaries. Based on the microstructural analysis using electron microscopy, a plausible mechanism for the development of microstructure has been proposed in this work. Cold spray technique can thus be deployed to develop high quality coatings of commercial importance. - Graphical abstract: Schematics of the evolution of microstructure at the 4130 steel substrate close to interface. i) initial deformation close to interface. ii) Accumulation of dislocation in the substrate. iii) Formation of cell structure due to dislocation tangling and arrangement. iv) Dislocation rearrangement and subgrain formation. v.a) Formation HAGB from dislocation accumulation into LAGB. v.b) HAGB formation through DRX by progressive lattice rotation

  10. Characterization of laboratory and industrial CrN/CrCN/diamond-like carbon coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, F.J.G., E-mail: francisco.silva@eu.ipp.pt [Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica do Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Martinho, R.P. [Departamento de Engenharia da Escola Superior de Estudos Industriais e de Gestão do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua D. Sancho I, 981, 4480-876 Vila do Conde (Portugal); Baptista, A.P.M. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica da Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    This work reports on laboratorial and experimental wear behaviour studies about a multi-layered film deposited by PVD (Physical Vapour Deposition) unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The film consists of three different layers: CrN in the bottom, CrCN as intermediate layer and DLC (diamond-like carbon) on the top. Film characterization was done using techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Scratch-tests, nanoindentation analysis and ball-cratering wear tests were used in order to measure the adhesion critical load, hardness and wear coefficient, respectively. Experimental tests were developed letting one to realise the suitability of this film for mould cavities used on injection moulding machines that produce automotive parts in polypropylene reinforced with 30% (wt.) glass fibres, because this composite material performs severe abrasion on injection moulding which brings important challenges to surface wear resistance. Experimental tests revealed that, after 135,000 injection cycles, multi-layer coating improved significantly the performance previously revealed by uncoated samples. The good results achieved by this film can be partially assigned to DLC top layer due to its low friction coefficient. This paper discusses these results, comparing them with some other PVD coatings already tested in the same conditions. - Highlights: • This coating presents a very good adhesion to the P20 steel substrate. • Surface wear performance is largely improved by the use of this coating. • Coating wear resistance is about 58.2 times higher than the uncoated substrate. • This film presents high suitability for application in mould cavities.

  11. Corrosion and Wear Behaviors of Cr-Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S.; Mohan, L.; Bera, Parthasarathi; Kumar, V. Praveen; Barshilia, Harish C.; Anandan, C.

    2017-08-01

    A combination of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and magnetron sputtering techniques has been employed to deposit chromium-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on stainless steel, silicon and glass substrates. The concentrations of Cr in the coatings are varied by changing the parameters of the bipolar pulsed power supply and the argon/acetylene gas composition. The coatings have been studied for composition, morphology, surface nature, nanohardness, corrosion resistance and wear resistance properties. The changes in I D / I G ratio with Cr concentrations have been obtained from Raman spectroscopy studies. Ratio decreases with an increase in Cr concentration, and it has been found to increase at higher Cr concentration, indicating the disorder in the coating. Carbide is formed in Cr-doped DLC coatings as observed from XPS studies. There is a decrease in sp 3/ sp 2 ratios with an increase in Cr concentration, and it increases again at higher Cr concentration. Nanohardness studies show no clear dependence of hardness on Cr concentration. DLC coatings with lower Cr contents have demonstrated better corrosion resistance with better passive behavior in 3.5% NaCl solution, and corrosion potential is observed to move toward nobler (more positive) values. A low coefficient of friction (0.15) at different loads is observed from reciprocating wear studies. Lower wear volume is found at all loads on the Cr-doped DLC coatings. Wear mechanism changes from abrasive wear on the substrate to adhesive wear on the coating.

  12. Evaluating microhardness of plasma sprayed Al2O3 coatings using Vickers indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Zhijian; Tao Shunyan; Zhou Xiaming; Ding Chuanxian

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the microhardness of plasma sprayed Al 2 O 3 coatings was evaluated using the Vickers indentation technique, and the effects of measurement direction, location and applied loads were investigated. The measured data sets were then statistically analysed employing the Weibull distribution to evaluate their variability within the coatings. It was found that the Vickers hardness (VHN) increases with decreasing applied indenter load, which can be explained in terms of Kick's law and the Meyer index k of 1.93, as well as relating to the microstructural characteristics of plasma sprayed coatings and the elastic recovery taking place during indentation. In addition, VHN, measured on the cross section of coatings, was obviously higher than that on its top surface. The obtained Weibull modulus and variation coefficient indicate that the VHN was less variable when measured at a higher applied load and on the cross section of coating. The obvious dependence of the VHN on the specific indentation location within through-thickness direction was also realized. These phenomena described above in this work were related to the special microstructure and high anisotropic behaviour of plasma sprayed coatings

  13. Oxidation Behavior of Titanium Carbonitride Coating Deposited by Atmospheric Plasma Spray Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; He, Jining; Yan, Dianran; Liao, Hanlin; Zhang, Nannan

    2017-10-01

    As a high-hardness and anti-frictional material, titanium carbonitride (TiCN) thick coatings or thin films are increasingly being used in many industrial fields. In the present study, TiCN coatings were obtained by atmospheric plasma spray synthesis or reactive plasma spray. In order to promote the reaction between the Ti particles and reactive gases, a home-made gas tunnel was mounted on a conventional plasma gun to perform the spray process. The oxidation behavior of the TiCN coatings under different temperatures in static air was carefully investigated. As a result, when the temperature was over 700 °C, the coatings suffered from serious oxidation, and finally they were entirely oxidized to the TiO2 phase at 1100 °C. The principal oxidation mechanism was clarified, indicating that the oxygen can permeate into the defects and react with TiCN at high temperatures. In addition, concerning the use of a TiCN coating in high-temperature conditions, the microhardness of the oxidized coatings at different treatment temperatures was also evaluated.

  14. Tribology and Microstructure of PS212 with a Cr2O3 Seal Coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Benoy, Patricia A.; Korenyi-Both, Andras; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    PS212 is a plasma sprayed metal bonding chrome carbide coating with solid lubricant additives which has lubricating properties at temperatures up to about 900 deg C. The coating is diamond ground to achieve an acceptable tribological surface. But, as with many plasma spray coatings, PS212 is not fully-dense. In this study, a chromium oxide base seal coating is used in an attempt to seal any porosity that is open to the surface of the PS212 coating, and to study the effect of the sealant on the tribological properties of PS212. The results indicate that the seal coating reduces friction and wear when it is applied and then diamond ground leaving a thin layer of seal coating which fills in the surface pits of the PS212 coating.

  15. Residual stress measurements of 2-phase sprayed coating layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Masayuki; Hanabusa, Takao

    1997-01-01

    In a series of the already reported single phase metal and ceramic melt sprayed films, on two phase melt sprayed films, their stress and thermal stress changes due to their bending load are tried to test. In order to prepare two phase state, austenitic stainless steel wire is used by a laser melt spraying method. In this method, CO 2 laser is used for a thermal source, and proceeding direction of its laser is selected to cross melt spraying direction. As a result, the following facts can be elucidated. The stress values at α- and γ-phase in the stainless steel film are linearly responsive to the bending load, and the stress change in α-phase is smaller than that in γ-phase. In a heat and cool cycle, α-phase shows a trend of extension with increasing temperature but γ-phase shows a trend of compression inversely. And, stress behavior at α- and γ-phases in the stainless steel film does not agree with a mixing rule in common two-phase materials. (G.K.)

  16. Post-treatment of Plasma-Sprayed Amorphous Ceramic Coatings by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chraska, T.; Pala, Z.; Mušálek, R.; Medřický, J.; Vilémová, M.

    2015-04-01

    Alumina-zirconia ceramic material has been plasma sprayed using a water-stabilized plasma torch to produce free standing coatings. The as-sprayed coatings have very low porosity and are mostly amorphous. The amorphous material crystallizes at temperatures above 900 °C. A spark plasma sintering apparatus has been used to heat the as-sprayed samples to temperatures above 900 °C to induce crystallization, while at the same time, a uniaxial pressure of 80 MPa has been applied to their surface. After such post-treatment, the ceramic samples are crystalline and have very low open porosity. The post-treated material exhibits high hardness and significantly increased flexural strength. The post-treated samples have a microstructure that is best described as nanocomposite with the very small crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix.

  17. Mueller matrix polarimetry on plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings for porosity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, David A; Barraza, Enrique T; Kudenov, Michael W

    2017-12-10

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the most widely used material for thermal plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) used to protect gas turbine engine parts in demanding operation environments. The superior material properties of YSZ coatings are related to their internal porosity level. By quantifying the porosity level, tighter control on the spraying process can be achieved to produce reliable coatings. Currently, destructive measurement methods are widely used to measure the porosity level. In this paper, we describe a novel nondestructive approach that is applicable to classify the porosity level of plasma sprayed YSZ TBCs via Mueller matrix polarimetry. A rotating retarder Mueller matrix polarimeter was used to measure the polarization properties of the plasma sprayed YSZ coatings with different porosity levels. From these measurements, it was determined that a sample's measured depolarization ratio is dependent on the sample's surface roughness and porosity level. To this end, we correlate the depolarization ratio with the samples' surface roughness, as measured by a contact profilometer, as well as the total porosity level, in percentage measured using a micrograph and stereological analysis. With the use of this technique, a full-field and rapid measurement of porosity level can be achieved.

  18. Wet Slurry Abrasion Tests of Ceramic Coatings Deposited by Water-Stabilized Plasma Spraying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nohava, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2003), s. 203-214 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/01/0094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma spraying, wear resistence, ceramic coating Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  19. Bone response adjacent to calcium phosphate electrostatic spray deposition coated implants: an experimental study in goats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, P.J.D.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A new technique to deposit calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings onto titanium substrates has been developed recently. This electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique seems to be very promising. It appears to have clinical advantages such as an inexpensive and simple set-up, high

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, HVLP COATING EQUIPMENT, SHARPE MANUFACTURING COMPANY PLATINUM 2012 HVLP SPRAY GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the results of the verification test of the Sharpe Platinum 2013 high-volume, low-pressure gravity-feed spray gun, hereafter referred to as the Sharpe Platinum, which is designed for use in automotive refinishing. The test coating chosen by Sharpe Manufacturi...

  1. Plasma Sprayed Tungsten-based Coatings and their Usage in Edge Plasma Region of Tokamaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Dufková, Edita; Piffl, Vojtěch; Peřina, Vratislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2006), s. 179-191 ISSN 0001-7043 Grant - others:Evropská unie EFDA Task TW-5-TVM-PSW (EU – Euratom) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : plasma sprayed coatings * fusion * plasma facing components * tungsten * tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  2. Thermal interaction between WC-Co coating and steel substrate in process of HVOF spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilemany, J.M.; Sobolev, V.V.; Nutting, J.; Dong, Z.; Calero, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The WC-Co powders can be used to produce good adhesive and wear resistant HVOF thermal spray coatings on steel and light alloys substrates. In order to understand the properties of this kind of coating, the phases which are present in the coatings and structure changes during post heat treatments have been investigated. Although the coating properties depend very much on the structure developed in the substrate-coating interfacial region it has not been yet investigated in detail. The present study is devoted to the experimental and theoretical analysis of this interfacial region. The structure characterization has been performed mainly through the use of transmission electron microscopy. To provide a theoretical investigation a realistic prediction model of the process has been developed and on its base the mathematical simulation of the substrate-coating thermal interaction has been undertaken

  3. Influence of Starting Powders on Hydroxyapatite Coatings Fabricated by Room Temperature Spraying Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Seok; Lee, Jong Kook; Hwang, Kyu Hong; Hahn, Byung Dong; Yoon, Seog Young

    2015-08-01

    Three types of raw materials were used for the fabrication of hydroxyapatite coatings by using the room temperature spraying method and their influence on the microstructure and in vitro characteristics were investigated. Starting hydroxyapatite powders for coatings on titanium substrate were prepared by a heat treatment at 1100 °C for 2 h of bovine bone, bone ash, and commercial hydroxyapatite powders. The phase compositions and Ca/P ratios of the three hydroxyapatite coatings were similar to those of the raw materials without decomposition or formation of a new phase. All hydroxyapatite coatings showed a honeycomb structure, but their surface microstructures revealed different features in regards to surface morphology and roughness, based on the staring materials. All coatings consisted of nano-sized grains and had dense microstructure. Inferred from in vitro experiments in pure water, all coatings have a good dissolution-resistance and biostability in water.

  4. Mechanical properties of nanodiamond-reinforced hydroxyapatite composite coatings deposited by suspension plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuyong; Zhang, Botao; Gong, Yongfeng; Zhou, Ping; Li, Hua

    2018-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings suffer from poor mechanical properties, which can be enhanced via incorporation of secondary bioinert reinforcement material. Nanodiamond (ND) possesses excellent mechanical properties to play the role as reinforcement for improving the mechanical properties of brittle HA bioceramic coatings. The major persistent challenge yet is the development of proper deposition techniques for fabricating the ND reinforced HA coatings. In this study, we present a novel deposition approach by plasma spraying the mixtures of ND suspension and micron-sized HA powder feedstock. The effect of ND reinforcement on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the coatings such as hardness, adhesive strength and friction coefficient were examined. The results showed that the ND-reinforced HA coatings display lower porosity, fewer unmelted particles and uniform microstructure, in turn leading to significantly enhanced mechanical properties. The study presented a promising approach to fabricate ND-reinforced HA composite coatings on metal-based medical implants for potential clinical application.

  5. Resistance to Corrosion of Zirconia Coatings Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis in Nitrided Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, G. I.; Olaya, J. J.; Bethencourt, M.; Cifredo, G.; Blanco, G.

    2013-10-01

    Coatings of zirconium oxide were deposited onto three types of stainless steel, AISI 316L, 2205, and tool steel AISI D2, using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The effect of the flux ratio on the process and its influence on the structure and morphology of the coatings were investigated. The coatings obtained, 600 nm thick, were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The resistance to corrosion of the coatings deposited over steel (not nitrided) and stainless steel nitrided (for 2 h at 823 K) in an ammonia atmosphere was evaluated. The zirconia coating enhances the stainless steel's resistance to corrosion, with the greatest increase in corrosion resistance being observed for tool steel. When the deposition is performed on previously nitrided stainless steel, the morphology of the surface improves and the coating is more homogeneous, which leads to an improved corrosion resistance.

  6. Comparison of performance coatings thermally sprayed subject to testing adhesive wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marangoni, G.F.; Arnt, A.B.C.; Rocha, M.R. da

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microstructural changes and wear resistance adhesive coatings obtained from powders thermally sprayed by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) were evaluated. Based coatings chrome-nickel and tungsten-cobalt are applied in conditions subject to intense wear especially abrasive. With the aim of evaluate the performance of these coatings under conditions of adhesive wear, these coatings samples were tested by the standard ASTM G99. As test parameters were used: Tungsten carbide pin (SAE 52100) with 6 mm diameter, normal load of 50N and a tangential velocity of 0.5 m / s. The worn surfaces of the coatings were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results indicate that the performance front wear is related to the conditions of adhesion and uniformity of the coating applied. (author)

  7. Tungsten oxide coatings deposited by plasma spray using powder and solution precursor for detection of nitrogen dioxide gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao, E-mail: zhangc@yzu.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Wang, Jie [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Geng, Xin [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China)

    2016-05-25

    Increasing attention has been paid on preparation methods for resistive-type gas sensors based on semiconductor metal oxides. In this work, tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) coatings were prepared on alumina substrates and used as gas sensitive layers. The coatings were deposited by atmospheric plasma spray using powder, solution precursor, or a combination of both. Tungsten oxide powder through a powder port and ammonium tungstate aqueous solution through a liquid port were injected into plasma stream respectively or together to deposit WO{sub 3} coatings. Phase structures in the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction analyzer. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy images confirmed that the coatings were in microstructure, nanostructure or micro-nanostructure. The sensing properties of the sensors based on the coatings exposed to 1 ppm nitrogen dioxide gas were characterized in a home-made instrument. Sensing properties of the coatings were compared and discussed. The influences of gas humidity and working temperature on the sensor responses were further studied. - Highlights: • Porous gas sensitive coatings were deposited by plasma spray using powder and solution precursor. • Crystallized WO{sub 3} were obtained through hybrid plasma spray plus a pre-conditioned step. • Plasma power had an important influence on coating microstructure. • The particle size of atmospheric plasma-sprayed microstructured coating was stable. • Solution precursor plasma-sprayed WO{sub 3} coatings had nanostructure and showed good responses to 1 ppm NO{sub 2}.

  8. Tribological properties of thermally sprayed TiAl-Al2O3 composite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, A.; Gabbitas, B.; Li, J.; Zhang, D.

    2009-08-01

    The use of thermal spray coatings provides protection to the surfaces operating in severe environments. The main goal of the current work is to investigate the possibility of using a high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) thermally sprayed wear resistant TiAl/Al2O3 coating on tool steel (H13) which is used for making dies for aluminium high pressure die casting. A feedstock of TiAl/Al2O3 composite powder was produced from a mixture of Al and TiO2 powders by high energy mechanical milling, followed by a thermal reaction process. The feedstock was then thermally sprayed using a high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) technique onto H13 steel substrates to produce a composite coating. The present study describes and compares the tribological properties such as friction and sliding wear rate of the coating both at room and high temperature (700°C). The results showed that the composite coating has lower wear rate at high temperature (700°C) than the uncoated H13 sample. At Room temperature without using lubricant there is no much significant difference between the wear rate of the coated and uncoated samples. The experimental results showed that the composite coating has great potential for high temperature application due to its lower wear rate at high temperature in comparison with the uncoated sample at the same temperature. The composite coating was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). This paper reports the experimental observations and discusses the wear resistance performance of the coatings at room and high temperatures.

  9. Tribological properties of thermally sprayed TiAl-Al2O3 composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A; Gabbitas, B; Zhang, D; Li, J

    2009-01-01

    The use of thermal spray coatings provides protection to the surfaces operating in severe environments. The main goal of the current work is to investigate the possibility of using a high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) thermally sprayed wear resistant TiAl/Al 2 O 3 coating on tool steel (H13) which is used for making dies for aluminium high pressure die casting. A feedstock of TiAl/Al 2 O 3 composite powder was produced from a mixture of Al and TiO 2 powders by high energy mechanical milling, followed by a thermal reaction process. The feedstock was then thermally sprayed using a high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) technique onto H13 steel substrates to produce a composite coating. The present study describes and compares the tribological properties such as friction and sliding wear rate of the coating both at room and high temperature (700 deg. C). The results showed that the composite coating has lower wear rate at high temperature (700deg. C) than the uncoated H13 sample. At Room temperature without using lubricant there is no much significant difference between the wear rate of the coated and uncoated samples. The experimental results showed that the composite coating has great potential for high temperature application due to its lower wear rate at high temperature in comparison with the uncoated sample at the same temperature. The composite coating was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). This paper reports the experimental observations and discusses the wear resistance performance of the coatings at room and high temperatures.

  10. Microstructure, Wear Behavior and Corrosion Resistance of WC-FeCrAl and WC-WB-Co Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Brezinová

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on investigating the quality of two grades of thermally sprayed coatings deposited by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF technology. One grade contains WC hard particles in an environmentally progressive Ni- and Co-free FeCrAl matrix, while the second coating contains WC and WB hard particles in a cobalt matrix. The aim of the experimental work was to determine the effect of thermal cyclic loading on the coatings’ resistance to adhesive, abrasive and erosive wear. Abrasive wear was evaluated using abrasive cloth of two grit sizes, and erosive wear was evaluated by a dry-pot wear test in a pin mill at two sample angles. Adhesion wear resistance of the coatings was determined by a sliding wear test under dry friction conditions and in a 1 mol water solution of NaCl. Corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization tests. Metallographic cross-sections were used for measurement of the microhardness and thickness and for line energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis. The tests proved the excellent resistance of both coatings against adhesive, abrasive, and erosive wear, as well as the ability of the WC-WB-Co coating to withstand alternating temperatures of up to 600 °C. The “green carbide” coating (WC-FeCrAl can be recommended as an environmentally friendly replacement for Ni- and Co-containing coatings, but its operating temperature is strictly limited to 500 °C in air.

  11. CrAlN coatings deposited by cathodic arc evaporation at different substrate bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, J.; Gomez, M.A.; Esteve, J.; Montala, F.; Carreras, L.; Grifol, M.; Lousa, A.

    2006-01-01

    CrAlN is a good candidate as an alternative to conventional CrN coatings especially for high temperature oxidation-resistance applications. Different CrAlN coatings were deposited on hardened steel substrates by cathodic arc evaporation (CAE) from chromium-aluminum targets in a reactive nitrogen atmosphere at negative substrate bias between - 50 and - 400 V. The negative substrate bias has important effects on the deposition growth rate and crystalline structure. All our coatings presented hardness higher than conventional CrN coatings. The friction coefficient against alumina and tungsten carbide balls was around 0.6. The sliding wear coefficient of the CrAlN coatings was very low while an important wear was observed in the balls before a measurable wear were produced in the coatings. This effect was more pronounced as the negative substrate bias was increased

  12. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Ni-Alloy/CrN Nanolayered Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Hsiang Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ni-alloy/CrN nanolayered coatings, Ni-Al/CrN and Ni-P/CrN, were deposited on (100 silicon wafer and AISI 420 stainless steel substrates by dual-gun sputtering technique. The influences of the layer microstructure on corrosion behavior of the nanolayered thin films were investigated. The bilayer thickness was controlled approximately 10 nm with a total coating thickness of 1m. The single-layer Ni-alloy and CrN coatings deposited at 350∘C were also evaluated for comparison. Through phase identification, phases of Ni-P and Ni-Al compounds were observed in the single Ni-alloy layers. On the other hand, the nanolayered Ni-P/CrN and Ni-Al/CrN coatings showed an amorphous/nanocrystalline microstructure. The precipitation of Ni-Al and Ni-P intermetallic compounds was suppressed by the nanolayered configuration of Ni-alloy/CrN coatings. Through Tafel analysis, the corr and corr values ranged from –0.64 to –0.33 V and 1.42×10−5 to 1.14×10−6 A/cm2, respectively, were deduced for various coating assemblies. The corrosion mechanisms and related behaviors of the coatings were compared. The coatings with a nanolayered Ni-alloy/CrN configuration exhibited a superior corrosion resistance to single-layer alloy or nitride coatings.

  13. The structure and physical-mechanical properties of the heat-resistant Ni-Co-Cr-Al-Y intermetallic coating obtained using rebuilt plasma equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Yu. P.; Tsareva, I. N.; Berdnik, O. B.; Fel, Ya. A.; Kuzmin, V. I.; Mikhalchenko, A. A.; Kartaev, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Results of a study of the structure, physico-mechanical properties, and the resistance to heat of Ni-Co-Cr-Al-Y intermetallic coatings obtained by powder spraying on the standard UPU-3D plasma spray facility (plasmatron with self-establishing arc length) and on the rebuilt facility equipped with the enhanced-power PNK-50 plasmatron with sectionalized inter-electrode insert, are reported. Coatings of higher density ( ρ = 7.9 g/cm3) and higher microhardness (H μ = 770 kg-force/mm2) with lower porosity values ( P = 5.7 %, P c = 5.1 %, and P 0 = 0.6 %) and high resistance to heat ((M - M0)/M0 = 1.2) were obtained. The developed coating is intended for protection of the working surfaces of turbine engine blades in gas-turbine power plants.

  14. Polyurethane spray coating of aluminum wire bonds to prevent corrosion and suppress resonant oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Izen, Joseph; The ATLAS collaboration; Kurth, Matthew Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Unencapsulated aluminum wedge wire bonds are common in particle-physics pixel and strip detectors. Industry-favored bulk encapsulation is eschewed due to the range of operating temperatures and radiation. Wire bond failures are a persistent, source of tracking detector failure Unencapsulated bonds are vulnerable to condensation-induced corrosion, particularly when halides are present. Oscillations from periodic Lorenz forces are documented as another source of wire bond failure. Spray application of polyurethane coatings, performance of polyurethane-coated wire bonds after climate chamber exposure, and resonant properties of PU-coated wire bonds and their resistance to periodic Lorenz forces will be described.

  15. The corrosion resistance of HVOF sprayed coatings with intermetallic phases in aggressive environments

    OpenAIRE

    B. Formanek; J. Cizner; B. Szczucka-Lasota; R. Przeliorz

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The cyclic corrosion behavior of coatings with intermetallic matrix ( FeAl, NiAl and FeAl-TiAl) was investigated in aggressive gases.Design/methodology/approach: The composite coatings strengthened by a fine dispersive Al2O3 and other ceramic phases were thermally sprayed by HVOF method in Jet Kote 2 system. A kinetics test was carried out by periodic method for exposure times of up to 500 hours. Mass changes of the studied coatings during the corrosion test are presented. The surfac...

  16. XPS and bioactivity study of the bisphosphonate pamidronate adsorbed onto plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, Kate; Kumar, Sunil; Smart, Roger St.C.; Dutta, Naba; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Anderson, Gail I.; Sekel, Ron

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate bisphosphonate (BP) adsorption onto plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings commonly used for orthopaedic implants. BPs exhibit high binding affinity for the calcium present in HA and hence can be adsorbed onto HA-coated implants to exploit their beneficial properties for improved bone growth at the implant interface. A rigorous XPS analysis of pamidronate, a commonly used nitrogenous BP, adsorbed onto plasma sprayed HA-coated cobalt-chromium substrates has been carried out, aimed at: (a) confirming the adsorption of this BP onto HA; (b) studying the BP diffusion profile in the HA coating by employing the technique of XPS depth profiling; (c) confirming the bioactivity of the adsorbed BP. XPS spectra of plasma sprayed HA-coated discs exposed to a 10 mM aqueous BP solution (pamidronate) for periods of 1, 2 and 24 h showed nitrogen and phosphorous photoelectron signals corresponding to the BP, confirming its adsorption onto the HA substrate. XPS depth profiling of the 2 h BP-exposed HA discs showed penetration of the BP into the HA matrix to depths of at least 260 nm. The bioactivity of the adsorbed BP was confirmed by the observed inhibition of osteoclast (bone resorbing) cell activity. In comparison to the HA sample, the HA sample with adsorbed BP exhibited a 25-fold decrease in primary osteoclast cells

  17. Thermo-mechanical modeling of laser treatment on titanium cold-spray coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, V.; Rubino, F.; Tucci, F.; Astarita, A.; Carlone, P.

    2018-05-01

    Titanium coatings are very attractive to several industrial fields, especially aeronautics, due to the enhanced corrosion resistance and wear properties as well as improved compatibility with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) materials. Cold sprayed titanium coatings, among the others deposition processes, are finding a widespread use in high performance applications, whereas post-deposition treatments are often used to modify the microstructure of the cold-sprayed layer. Laser treatments allow one to noticeably increase the superficial properties of titanium coatings when the process parameters are properly set. On the other hand, the high heat input required to melt titanium particles may result in excessive temperature increase even in the substrate. This paper introduces a thermo-mechanical model to simulate the laser treatment effects on a cold sprayed titanium coating as well as the aluminium substrate. The proposed thermo-mechanical finite element model considers the transient temperature field due to the laser source and applied boundary conditions using them as input loads for the subsequent stress-strain analysis. Numerical outcomes highlighted the relevance of thermal gradients and thermally induced stresses and strains in promoting the damage of the coating.

  18. Study on modernization processes in the coating metal surfaces (plain bearings by thermal spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IRIMIE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge accumulated within the metal coating through thermal spraying allows the understanding of aspects related to the coat structure phenomena, in this case of the routs that need to be followed in order to create strong and stabile connections between the coats subsided through thermal spraying, between the particles that compose those coats, respectively. However, all this knowledge does not ensure the understanding of some practical situations that are apparently paradoxes, as for instance the absence of tin bronze adherence to ignobly steel holders, the perfect adherence of bronze to the aluminum on the same types of holders, in the context in which both elements, tin and aluminum, respectively are found in equal quantity in the two type of bonze that maintain them in solid solutions (below 10%.The parallel study in the sinter antifriction domain has offered information regarding the optimal correlation between the composition of antifriction material and the required type of application, the optimal pinches level and the way that this morphological characteristic may be influenced. By experimental research it is necessary to determine the conditions under which such coverage can be obtained by thermal spraying of the metal coatings.

  19. Phase Formation Control in Plasma Sprayed Alumina–Chromia Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubský, Jiří; Chráska, Pavel; Kolman, Blahoslav Jan; Stahr, C.Ch.; Berger, L.-M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2011), s. 294-300 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1240 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Alumina * Chromia * Plasma spraying * Phase stabilization Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.382, year: 2011 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2011/2011_03_294.htm

  20. Process Optimization for Spray Coating of Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Sanjukta; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    of drying of the spray on the substrate. The depositions can be broadly classified into a dry state, a wet state and an optimized condition in between. The profilometer scan in fig. 3 and the microscope images in fig.4 show the surface for a distance between the nozzle and the substrate of (a) 100mm, (b) 70......mm and (c) 90mm respectively. The further the nozzle is away from the substrate the faster the deposited polymer film dries. Spraying with a distance of 100mm gives rise to the dry state (fig. 3a) with avg. roughness (Ra) 158nm. When the distance between nozzle and substrate decreases to 70mm i...... a compromise between the dry and the wet state where Ra is 76nm but there are no edge peaks as shown before. With an increase in temperature (fig. 5a, b and c) the deposition moves from the wet to dry state were roughness increases due to rapid drying of the sprayed drops. Same dry state is observed...

  1. Enhancement of low pressure cold sprayed copper coating adhesion by laser texturing on aluminum substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Wolfgang; Gillet, Vincent; Courant, Bruno; Aubignat, Emilie; Costil, Sophie; Langlade, Cécile

    2017-02-01

    Surface pre-treatment is fundamental in thermal spraying processes to obtain a sufficient bonding strength between substrate and coating. Different pre-treatments can be used, mostly grit-blasting for current industrial applications. This study is focused on Cu-Al2O3 coatings obtained by Low Pressure Cold Spray on AW5083 aluminum alloy substrate. Bonding strength is measured by tensile adhesion test, while deposition efficiency is measured. Substrates are textured by laser, using a pattern of equally spaced grooves with almost constant diameter and variations of depth. Results show that bonding strength is improved up to +81% compared to non-treated substrate, while deposition efficiency remains constant. The study of the samples after rupture reveals a modification of the failure mode, from mixed failure to cohesive failure. A modification of crack propagation is also noticed, the shape of laser textured grooves induces a deviation of cracks inside the coating instead of following the interface between the layers.

  2. Thermal fatigue behavior of thermal barrier coatings by air plasma spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Sang; Kim, Eui Hyun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Hyuk [Korea Plant Service and Engineering Co. Ltd., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Effects of top coat morphology and thickness on thermal fatigue behavior of Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) were investigated in this study. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted on three coating specimens with different top coat morphology and thickness, and then the test data were compared via microstructures, cycles to failure, and fracture surfaces. In the air plasma spray specimens (APS1, APS2), top coat were 200 and 300 {mu}m respectively. The thickness of top coat was about 700 {mu}m in the Perpendicular Cracked Specimen (PCS). Under thermal fatigue condition at 1,100 .deg. C, the cycles to top coat failure of APS1, APS2, and PCS were 350, 560 and 480 cycles, respectively. The cracks were initiated at the interface of top coat and Thermally Grown Oxide (TGO) and propagated into TGO or top coat as the number of thermal fatigue cycles increased. For the PCS specimen, additive cracks were initiated and propagated at the starting points of perpendicular cracks in the top coat. Also, the thickness of TGO and the decrease of aluminium concentration in bond coat do not affect the cycles to failure.

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of plasma sprayed Al2O3 – 13%TiO2 Ceramic Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahab Juyana A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focused on the effect of deposition conditions on the microstructural and mechanical properties of the ceramic coating. In this study, Al2O3 – 13%TiO2 coated mild steel were prepared by using atmospheric plasma spray technology with different plasma power ranging from 25 kW to 40 kW. The as-sprayed coatings consist of γ-Al2O3 phase as the major phase and small amount of the titania phase existed in the coating structure. High degree of fully melted region was observed in the surface morphology for the coating sprayed with high plasma power, which lead to the high hardness and low percentage of porosity. In this study, nanoindentation test was carried out to investigate mechanical properties of the coating and the results showed that the coatings possess high elastic behaviour, which beneficial in engineering practice.

  4. Investigation on the Cathodic Protection Effect of Low Pressure Cold Sprayed AlZn Coating in Seawater via Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guosheng Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold spray can deposit a composite coating simply by spraying mechanically-mixed Al and Zn powders, while no quantitative data has been reported on the anti-corrosion performance of different composite cold-sprayed coatings. In the present work, the finite element method was used to estimate the cathodic protection effect by simulating the potential distribution on a damaged cold-sprayed AlZn coating on Q235 steel. The results indicate that AlZn coating can only provide a limiting cathodic protection for substrate, because it can only polarize a very narrow zone negative to −0.78 V (vs. SCE, saturated calomel electrode. The remaining area of the steel substrate still has a very high residual corrosion rate. Computational methods can be used to predict the corrosion rate of AlZn coating, and the simulation results were validated by the results of a weight loss experiment.

  5. Hierarchically rough, mechanically durable and superhydrophobic epoxy coatings through rapid evaporation spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simovich, Tomer; Wu, Alex H.; Lamb, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    A mechanically durable and scalable superhydrophobic coating was fabricated by combining the advantages of both bottom-up and top-down approaches into a one-pot, one-step application method. This is achieved by spray coating a solution consisting of silica nanoparticles, which are embedded within epoxy resin, onto a heated substrate to rapidly drive both solvent evaporation and curing simultaneously. By maintaining a high substrate temperature, the arrival of spray-delivered micrometer-sized droplets are rapidly cured onto the substrate to form surface microroughness, while simultaneously, rapid solvent evaporation within each droplet results in the formation of a nanoporous structure. SEM, dual-beam FIB, and cross-sectional TEM/EDAX elemental mapping were used to confirm both the chemistry and the requisite micro- and nano-porosity within the coating structure requisite for superhydrophobicity. The resultant coatings exhibit contact angles greater than 150° (153.8° ± 0.8°) and roll-off angles of 8° ± 2°, with a coating hardness of 6H on the pencil hardness scale, and a rating of 5 on an ASTM crosshatch test. - Highlights: • A highly superhydrophobic coating was fabricated utilizing epoxy and nanoparticles. • The coating was demonstrated to be very durable and abrasion resistant. • The fabrication involves a novel, scalable one-pot synthesis technique

  6. Hierarchically rough, mechanically durable and superhydrophobic epoxy coatings through rapid evaporation spray method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simovich, Tomer; Wu, Alex H.; Lamb, Robert N., E-mail: rnlamb@unimelb.edu.au

    2015-08-31

    A mechanically durable and scalable superhydrophobic coating was fabricated by combining the advantages of both bottom-up and top-down approaches into a one-pot, one-step application method. This is achieved by spray coating a solution consisting of silica nanoparticles, which are embedded within epoxy resin, onto a heated substrate to rapidly drive both solvent evaporation and curing simultaneously. By maintaining a high substrate temperature, the arrival of spray-delivered micrometer-sized droplets are rapidly cured onto the substrate to form surface microroughness, while simultaneously, rapid solvent evaporation within each droplet results in the formation of a nanoporous structure. SEM, dual-beam FIB, and cross-sectional TEM/EDAX elemental mapping were used to confirm both the chemistry and the requisite micro- and nano-porosity within the coating structure requisite for superhydrophobicity. The resultant coatings exhibit contact angles greater than 150° (153.8° ± 0.8°) and roll-off angles of 8° ± 2°, with a coating hardness of 6H on the pencil hardness scale, and a rating of 5 on an ASTM crosshatch test. - Highlights: • A highly superhydrophobic coating was fabricated utilizing epoxy and nanoparticles. • The coating was demonstrated to be very durable and abrasion resistant. • The fabrication involves a novel, scalable one-pot synthesis technique.

  7. Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxylapatite-Based Coatings: Chemical, Mechanical, Microstructural, and Biomedical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Robert B.

    2016-06-01

    This contribution discusses salient properties and functions of hydroxylapatite (HA)-based plasma-sprayed coatings, including the effect on biomedical efficacy of coating thickness, phase composition and distribution, amorphicity and crystallinity, porosity and surface roughness, cohesion and adhesion, micro- and nano-structured surface morphology, and residual coating stresses. In addition, it will provide details of the thermal alteration that HA particles undergo in the extremely hot plasma jet that leads to dehydroxylated phases such as oxyhydroxylapatite (OHA) and oxyapatite (OA) as well as thermal decomposition products such as tri-(TCP) and tetracalcium phosphates (TTCP), and quenched phases such as amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). The contribution will further explain the role of ACP during the in vitro interaction of the as-deposited coatings with simulated body fluid resembling the composition of extracellular fluid (ECF) as well as the in vivo responses of coatings to the ECF and the host tissue, respectively. Finally, it will briefly describe performance profiles required to fulfill biological functions of osteoconductive bioceramic coatings designed to improve osseointegration of hip endoprostheses and dental root implants. In large parts, the content of this contribution is a targeted review of work done by the author and his students and coworkers over the last two decades. In addition, it is considered a stepping stone toward a standard operation procedure aimed at depositing plasma-sprayed bioceramic implant coatings with optimum properties.

  8. Hidroxyapatite Coating on CoCrMo Alloy Titanium Nitride Coated Using Biomimetic Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlena; Sukaryo, S.G.; Fajar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Bone implants is a way to cure broken bones which is being developed. The implants can be made of metals, ceramics and polymers. Metallic materials commonly used are titanium (Ti), stainless steel, and metal alloys. This study used Co-based alloys, i.e. CoCrMo coated with titanium nitride (TiN) which was then coated on hidroxyapatite (HAp). The HAp coating on the surface of CoCrMo alloy was done by biomimetic methods, first by soaking the metal alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for 18, 24, and 36 hours. The immersion in the SBF solution produced white coat on the surface of the metal alloy. The layers formed were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). Based on the SEM results of 36 hours treatment, the morphology of apatite crystal formed fine grains. According to XRD result, there were HAp peaks at angles 2θ 31.86, 32.25, dan 39.48. However, there were also CaCO 3 peaks at angles 2θ 29.46, 36.04, and 46.79. It indicated the pure HAp is not yet formed. (paper)

  9. Hidroxyapatite Coating on CoCrMo Alloy Titanium Nitride Coated Using Biomimetic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlena; Sukaryo, S. G.; Fajar, M.

    2016-11-01

    Bone implants is a way to cure broken bones which is being developed. The implants can be made of metals, ceramics and polymers. Metallic materials commonly used are titanium (Ti), stainless steel, and metal alloys. This study used Co-based alloys, i.e. CoCrMo coated with titanium nitride (TiN) which was then coated on hidroxyapatite (HAp). The HAp coating on the surface of CoCrMo alloy was done by biomimetic methods, first by soaking the metal alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for 18, 24, and 36 hours. The immersion in the SBF solution produced white coat on the surface of the metal alloy. The layers formed were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). Based on the SEM results of 36 hours treatment, the morphology of apatite crystal formed fine grains. According to XRD result, there were HAp peaks at angles 2θ 31.86, 32.25, dan 39.48. However, there were also CaCO3 peaks at angles 2θ 29.46, 36.04, and 46.79. It indicated the pure HAp is not yet formed.

  10. Fabrication of CIS Absorber Layers with Different Thicknesses Using A Non-Vacuum Spray Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chen Diao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new thin-film deposition process, spray coating method (SPM, was investigated to deposit the high-densified CuInSe2 absorber layers. The spray coating method developed in this study was a non-vacuum process, based on dispersed nano-scale CuInSe2 precursor and could offer a simple, inexpensive, and alternative formation technology for CuInSe2 absorber layers. After spraying on Mo/glass substrates, the CuInSe2 thin films were annealed at 550 °C by changing the annealing time from 5 min to 30 min in a selenization furnace, using N2 as atmosphere. When the CuInSe2 thin films were annealed, without extra Se or H2Se gas used as the compensation source during the annealing process. The aim of this project was to investigate the influence of annealing time on the densification and crystallization of the CuInSe2 absorber layers to optimize the quality for cost effective solar cell production. The thickness of the CuInSe2 absorber layers could be controlled as the volume of used dispersed CuInSe2-isopropyl alcohol solution was controlled. In this work, X-ray diffraction patterns, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and Hall parameter measurements were performed in order to verify the quality of the CuInSe2 absorber layers obtained by the Spray Coating Method.

  11. High temperature tribological performance of CrAlYN/CrN nanoscale multilayer coatings deposited on ?-TiAl

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, J.C.; Ross, I.M.; Reinhard, C.; Rainforth, W.M.; Hovsepian, P.Eh.

    2009-01-01

    This paper details the effect of temperature on the frictional behaviour of highly novel CrAlYN/CrN multilayer coatings, deposited by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) on a Titanium Aluminide alloy used as fan blade material in the aerospace and a turbo-charger wheel in the automotive industries. The work was the first to discover the high temperature oxide 'glaze' layer formation which occurred on CrN multilayer-type coatings at higher temperatures and has received significant...

  12. LaCrO3 composite coatings for AISI 444 stainless steel solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Acchar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Doped lanthanum chromite-based ceramics are the most widely used interconnector material in solid fuel cells (SOFC since they exhibit significant electrical and thermal conductivity, substantial corrosion resistance and adequate mechanical strength at ambient and high temperatures. The disadvantage of this material is its high cost and poor ductility. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanical and oxidation behavior of a stainless steel (AISI 444 with a LaCrO3 deposition on its surface obtained through spray pyrolisis. Coated and pure AISI 444 materials were characterized by mechanical properties, oxidation behavior, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. Results indicated that the coated material displays better oxidation behavior in comparison to pure stainless steel, but no improvement in mechanical strength. Both materials indicate that deformation behavior depends on testing temperatures.

  13. Effect of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Columnar Microstructure and Bond Coat Surface Preparation on Thermal Barrier Coating Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Benjamin; Quet, Aurélie; Bianchi, Luc; Schick, Vincent; Joulia, Aurélien; Malié, André; Rémy, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is identified as promising for the enhancement of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems used in gas turbines. Particularly, the emerging columnar microstructure enabled by the SPS process is likely to bring about an interesting TBC lifetime. At the same time, the SPS process opens the way to a decrease in thermal conductivity, one of the main issues for the next generation of gas turbines, compared to the state-of-the-art deposition technique, so-called electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). In this paper, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings presenting columnar structures, performed using both SPS and EB-PVD processes, were studied. Depending on the columnar microstructure readily adaptable in the SPS process, low thermal conductivities can be obtained. At 1100 °C, a decrease from 1.3 W m-1 K-1 for EB-PVD YSZ coatings to about 0.7 W m-1 K-1 for SPS coatings was shown. The higher content of porosity in the case of SPS coatings increases the thermal resistance through the thickness and decreases thermal conductivity. The lifetime of SPS YSZ coatings was studied by isothermal cyclic tests, showing equivalent or even higher performances compared to EB-PVD ones. Tests were performed using classical bond coats used for EB-PVD TBC coatings. Thermal cyclic fatigue performance of the best SPS coating reached 1000 cycles to failure on AM1 substrates with a β-(Ni,Pt)Al bond coat. Tests were also performed on AM1 substrates with a Pt-diffused γ-Ni/γ'-Ni3Al bond coat for which more than 2000 cycles to failure were observed for columnar SPS YSZ coatings. The high thermal compliance offered by both the columnar structure and the porosity allowed the reaching of a high lifetime, promising for a TBC application.

  14. Metastable phases in yttrium oxide plasma spray deposits and their effect on coating properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourlaouen, V.; Schnedecker, G.; Boncoeur, M.; Lejus, A.M.; Collongues, R.

    1993-01-01

    Yttrium oxide coatings were obtained by plasma spray. Structural investigations on these deposits show that, due to the drastic conditions of this technique, a minor monoclinic B phase is formed in the neighborhood of the major cubic C form. The authors discuss here the influence of different plasma spray parameters on the amount of the B phase formed. They describe also the main properties of Y 2 O 3 B and C phases in these deposits such as structural characteristics, thermal stability and mechanical behavior

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLEX EQUIPMENT FOR PLASMA SPRAY CERAMIC COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Okovity

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Develop a set equipment for plasma forming ceramic coatings. The article presents characteristics and parameters of the developed complex equipment for formation of plasma ceramic coatings as well as results of its testing. Methods of research is based on studies of structural elements composite plasma coatings system ZrO2 – Y2O3  obtained  using  developed complex equipment. One of the most effective ways to protect the components from high temperature corrosion and oxidation is formation on the surface of plasma thermal barrier coatings. For thermal barrier coating has very strict requirements: сharacterized by a smooth change of physico-mechanical properties (porosity, microhardness, elastic modulus in the cross section of the metal substrate to the outer ceramic layer; to withstand multiple cycles of thermal cycling from room temperature to the operating temperature; to maintain gastightness under operating conditions and thus ensure a sufficiently high level of adhesive strength. For realization of new technological schemes applying thermal barrier coatings with high operational characteristics was developed, patented and manufactured a range of new equipment. The experiments show that authors developed PBG-1 plasmatron and powder feeder PPBG-04 have at least 2–3 times the service life during the deposition of ceramic materials compared to the standard equipment of the company "Plasma-Technik", by changing the structure of the cathode-anode plasma torch assembly and construction of the delivery unit of the feeder to facilitate the uniform supply of the powder into the plasma jet and the best of his penetration. The result is better plasma coatings with improved operational characteristics: adhesion strength is increased to 1.3–2 times, material utilization in 1.5–1.6 times microhardness 1.2–1.4 times the porosity is reduced by 2–2.5 times.

  16. Thick CrN/NbN multilayer coating deposited by cathodic arc technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Juliano Avelar; Tschiptschin, Andre Paulo; Souza, Roberto Martins, E-mail: antschip@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Lima, Nelson Batista de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    The production of tribological nanoscale multilayer CrN/NbN coatings up to 6 μm thick by Sputtering/HIPIMS has been reported in literature. However, high demanding applications, such as internal combustion engine parts, need thicker coatings (>30 μm). The production of such parts by sputtering would be economically restrictive due to low deposition rates. In this work, nanoscale multilayer CrN/NbN coatings were produced in a high-deposition rate, industrial-size, Cathodic Arc Physical Vapor Deposition (ARC-PVD) chamber, containing three cathodes in alternate positions (Cr/ Nb/Cr). Four 30 μm thick NbN/CrN multilayer coatings with different periodicities (20, 10, 7.5 and 4 nm) were produced. The coatings were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The multilayer coating system was composed of alternate cubic rock salt CrN and NbN layers, coherently strained due to lattice mismatch. The film grew with columnar morphology through the entire stratified structure. The periodicities adopted were maintained throughout the entire coating. The 20 nm periodicity coating showed separate NbN and CrN peaks in the XRD patterns, while for the lower periodicity (≤10nm) coatings, just one intermediate lattice (d-spacing) was detected. An almost linear increase of hardness with decreasing bilayer period indicates that interfacial effects can dominate the hardening mechanisms. (author)

  17. High Rate Deposition of Thick CrN and Cr2N Coatings Using Modulated Pulse Power (MPP) Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    AISI 440C steel using a microtribometer (Center for Tribology , Inc) in an ambient air atmosphere without a lubricant (a relative humidity of 251...that the CTE for the 440 C stainless steel substrate is 10.2x10 -6 o C -1 [37],while the CTE values for the CrN and Cr2N coatings are 2.3x10 -6...increased scratch critical load (Fig. 12) as the coating thickness was increased. Since the coating is much harder than the stainless steel substrate

  18. Evaluation of bond strength of isothermally aged plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Jin; Lee, Dong Hoon; Koo, Jae Mean; Song, Sung Jin; Seok, Chang Sung [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mun Young [Korea Plant Service and Engineering Co., Ltd., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    In this study, disk type of thermal barrier coating system for gas turbine blade was isothermally aged in the furnace changing exposure time and temperature. For each aging condition, bond tests for three samples were conducted for evaluating degradation of adhesive or cohesive strength of thermal barrier coating system. For as-sprayed condition, the location of fracture in the bond test was in the middle of epoxy which have bond strength of 57 MPa. As specimens are degraded by thermal aging, bond strength gradually decreased and the location of failure was also changed from within top coat at the earlier stage of thermal aging to the interface between top coat and TGO at the later stage due to the delamination in the coating.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Osseointegration of Dental Endodontic Implants with and without Plasma- Sprayed Hydroxy apatite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosavi SB

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone osseointegration around dental implant can cause earlier stabilization and fixation of implant and reduce healing time. Hydroxyapatite coating can affect bone osseointegration and enhance its rates. The aim of this study was comparison of osseointegration between plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coated and uncoated dental implants in cats. Four endodontic implants including, vitallium and two stainless steel with and without hydroxyapatite coating were prepared and placed in mandibular canines of 20 cats after completion of root canal treatment and osseous preparation. After a healing period of 4 months, investigation by scanning electron microscopy showed significant difference in ossointegration between coated and uncoated dental implants and average bone osseointegration of coated implants was more than uncoated implants.

  20. Simultaneous aluminizing and chromizing of steels to form (Fe,Cr){sub 3}Al coatings and Ge-doped silicide coatings of Cr-Zr base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, M.; He, Y.R.; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-01

    A halide-activated cementation pack involving elemental Al and Cr powders has been used to achieve surface compositions of approximately Fe{sub 3}Al plus several percent Cr for low alloy steels (T11, T2 and T22) and medium carbon steel (1045 steel). A two-step treatment at 925 C and 1150 C yields the codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium to form dense and uniform ferrite coatings of about 400 {micro}m thickness, while preventing the formation of a blocking chromium carbide at the substrate surfaces. Upon cyclic oxidation in air at 700 C, the coated steel exhibits a negligible 0.085 mg/cm{sup 2} weight gain for 1900 one-hour cycles. Virtually no attack was observed on coated steels tested at ABB in simulated boiler atmospheres at 500 C for 500 hours. But coatings with a surface composition of only 8 wt% Al and 6 wt% Cr suffered some sulfidation attack in simulated boiler atmospheres at temperatures higher than 500 C for 1000 hours. Two developmental Cr-Zr based Laves phase alloys (CN129-2 and CN117(Z)) were silicide/germanide coated. The cross-sections of the Ge-doped silicide coatings closely mimicked the microstructure of the substrate alloys. Cyclic oxidation in air at 1100 C showed that the Ge-doped silicide coating greatly improved the oxidation resistance of the Cr-Zr based alloys.

  1. Characterization of thermally sprayed coatings for high-temperature wear-protection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.C.

    1980-03-01

    Under normal high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating conditions, faying surfaces of metallic components under high contact pressure are prone to friction, wear, and self-welding damage. Component design calls for coatings for the protection of the mating surfaces. Anticipated operating temperatures up to 850 to 950 0 C (1562 to 1742 0 F) and a 40-y design life require coatings with excellent thermal stability and adequate wear and spallation resistance, and they must be compatible with the HTGR coolant helium environment. Plasma and detonation-gun (D-gun) deposited chromium carbide-base and stabilized zirconia coatings are under consideration for wear protection of reactor components such as the thermal barrier, heat exchangers, control rods, and turbomachinery. Programs are under way to address the structural integrity, helium compatibility, and tribological behavior of relevant sprayed coatings. In this paper, the need for protection of critical metallic components and the criteria for selection of coatings are discussed. The technical background to coating development and the experience with the steam cycle HTGR (HTGR-SC) are commented upon. Coating characterization techniques employed at General Atomic Company (GA) are presented, and the progress of the experimental programs is briefly reviewed. In characterizing the coatings for HTGR applications, it is concluded that a systems approach to establish correlation between coating process parameters and coating microstructural and tribological properties for design consideration is required

  2. Superhydrophobic ceramic coating: Fabrication by solution precursor plasma spray and investigation of wetting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengyun; Coyle, Thomas W; Pershin, Larry; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2018-03-16

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are often created by fabricating suitable surface structures from low-surface-energy organic materials using processes that are not suitable for large-scale fabrication. Rare earth oxides (REO) exhibit hydrophobic behavior that is unusual among oxides. Solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) deposition is a rapid, one-step process that can produce ceramic coatings with fine scale columnar structures. Manipulation of the structure of REO coatings through variation in deposition conditions may allow the wetting behavior to be controlled. Yb 2 O 3 coatings were fabricated via SPPS. Coating structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, digital optical microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The static water contact angle and roll-off angle were measured, and the dynamic impact of water droplets on the coating surface recorded. Superhydrophobic behavior was observed; the best coating exhibited a water contact angle of ∼163°, a roll-off angle of ∼6°, and complete droplet rebound behavior. All coatings were crystalline Yb 2 O 3 , with a nano-scale roughness superimposed on a micron-scale columnar structure. The wetting behaviors of coatings deposited at different standoff distances were correlated with the coating microstructures and surface topographies. The self-cleaning, water flushing and water jetting tests were conducted and further demonstrated the excellent and durable hydrophobicity of the coatings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of coating density on oxidation resistance and Cr vaporization from solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talic, Belma; Falk-Windisch, Hannes; Venkatachalam, Vinothini

    2017-01-01

    •Protective action of dense and porous spinel coatings on Crofer 22 APU was compared. •Reduction and re-oxidation produces denser coatings than heat treating in air only. •Coating density has minor influence on oxidation resistance at 800 °C in air. •Dense coating resulted in three times lower Cr...... evaporation rate than porous coating....

  4. In vitro performance of ceramic coatings obtained by high velocity oxy-fuel spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, H; Garcia-Giralt, N; Fernández, J; Díez-Pérez, A; Guilemany, J M

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings obtained by plasma-spraying have been used for many years to improve biological performance of bone implants, but several studies have drawn attention to the problems arising from high temperatures and the lack of mechanical properties. In this study, plasma-spraying is substituted by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray, with lower temperatures reached, and TiO2 is added in low amounts to hydroxyapatite in order to improve the mechanical properties. Four conditions have been tested to evaluate which are those with better biological properties. Viability and proliferation tests, as well as differentiation assays and morphology observation, are performed with human osteoblast cultures onto the studied coatings. The hydroxyapatite-TiO2 coatings maintain good cell viability and proliferation, especially the cases with higher amorphous phase amount and specific surface, and promote excellent differentiation, with a higher ALP amount for these cases than for polystyrene controls. Observation by SEM corroborates this excellent behaviour. In conclusion, these coatings are a good alternative to those used industrially, and an interesting issue would be improving biological behaviour of the worst cases, which in turn show the better mechanical properties.

  5. Practical Aspects of Suspension Plasma Spray for Thermal Barrier Coatings on Potential Gas Turbine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Ruggiero, P.

    2018-04-01

    Suspension plasma spray (SPS) process has attracted extensive efforts and interests to produce fine-structured and functional coatings. In particular, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) applied by SPS process gain increasing interest due to its potential for superior thermal protection of gas turbine hot sections as compared to conventional TBCs. Unique columnar architectures and nano- and submicrometric grains in the SPS-TBC demonstrated some advantages of thermal shock durability, low thermal conductivity, erosion resistance and strain-tolerant microstructure. This work aimed to look into some practical aspects of SPS processing for TBC applications before it becomes a reliable industry method. The spray capability and applicability of SPS process to achieve uniformity thickness and microstructure on curved substrates were emphasized in designed spray trials to simulate the coating fabrication onto industrial turbine parts with complex configurations. The performances of the SPS-TBCs were tested in erosion, falling ballistic impact and indentational loading tests as to evaluate SPS-TBC performances in simulated turbine service conditions. Finally, a turbine blade was coated and sectioned to verify SPS sprayability in multiple critical sections. The SPS trials and test results demonstrated that SPS process is promising for innovative TBCs, but some challenges need to be addressed and resolved before it becomes an economic and capable industrial process, especially for complex turbine components.

  6. High Temperature Multilayer Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited Via Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Bryan James; Zhu, Dongming; Schmitt, Michael P.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Si-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments to avoid rapid material loss. Candidate EBC materials have use temperatures only marginally above current technology, but the addition of a columnar oxide topcoat can substantially increase the durability. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) allows application of these multilayer EBCs in a single process. The PS-PVD technique is a unique method that combines conventional thermal spray and vapor phase methods, allowing for tailoring of thin, dense layers or columnar microstructures by varying deposition conditions. Multilayer coatings were deposited on CMC specimens and assessed for durability under high heat flux and load. Coated samples with surface temperatures ranging from 2400-2700F and 10 ksi loads using the high heat flux laser rigs at NASA Glenn. Coating morphology was characterized in the as-sprayed condition and after thermomechanical loading using electron microscopy and the phase structure was tracked using X-ray diffraction.

  7. Fabrication and Microstructure of Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Zirconia by Room Temperature Spray Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Seok; Chae, Hak Cheol; Lee, Jong Kook

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings were fabricated on zirconia substrates by a room temperature spray process and were investigated with regards to their microstructure, composition and dissolution in water. An initial hydroxyapatite powder was prepared by heat treatment of bovine-bone derived powder at 1100 °C for 2 h, while dense zirconia substrates were fabricated by pressing 3Y-TZP powder and sintering it at 1350 °C for 2 h. Room temperature spray coating was performed using a slit nozzle in a low pressure-chamber with a controlled coating time. The phase composition of the resultant hydroxyapatite coatings was similar to that of the starting powder, however, the grain size of the hydroxyapatite particles was reduced to about 100 nm due to their formation by particle impaction and fracture. All areas of the coating had a similar morphology, consisting of reticulated structure with a high surface roughness. The hydroxyapatite coating layer exhibited biostability in a stimulated body fluid, with no severe dissolution being observed during in vitro experimentation.

  8. Plasma sprayed manganeseecobalt spinel coatings: Process sensitivity on phase, electrical and protective performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Han Jung, S.; Pala, Zdeněk; Sampath, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 304, February (2016), s. 234-243 ISSN 0378-7753 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Interconnect protection * Cr-poisoning * Manganese cobalt spinel * Electrical conductivity * Plasma spray Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 6.395, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378775315305383

  9. Validation of HVOF WC/Co Thermal Spray Coatings as a Replacement for Hard Chrome Plating on Aircraft Landing Gear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sartwell, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    .... This document constitutes the final report on a project to quality high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray WC/Co coatings as a replacement for hard chrome plating on landing gear components...

  10. Unlubricated Gross Slip Fretting Wear of Metallic Plasma Sprayed Coatings for Ti6A14V Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hager, Jr., Carl H; Sanders, Jeffrey H; Sharma, Shashi K

    2006-01-01

    ... to simulate cold engine startup. Alternative coatings such as plasma sprayed molybdenum and nickel were also evaluated because of their potential for reducing fretting wear under certain simulated engine conditions...

  11. The use of electrochemical measurement techniques towards quality control and optimisation of corrosion properties of thermal spray coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreijling, M.P.W.; Hofman, R.; Westing, E.P.M. van; Ferrari, G.M.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    1998-01-01

    Metal spray coatings are ever more recognised as a possible superior means of corrosion protection in many environments. Extended service life combined with little or no maintenance provides interesting opportunities for both environmentalists and corrosion engineers. Although many successful

  12. Microstructural Evolution of AlCoCrFeNiSi High-Entropy Alloy Powder during Mechanical Alloying and Its Coating Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lihui; Fu, Ming; Xiong, Wei

    2018-02-23

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are promising structural materials due to their excellent comprehensive performances. The use of mechanically alloyed powders to deposit HEA coatings through atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is an effective approach that can broaden the application areas of the HEAs. In this paper, a ductility-brittleness AlCoCrFeNiSi system was chosen as an object of study, and the detailed evolution of the surface morphology, particle size distribution, and microstructure of the powder during mechanical alloying was investigated. An AlCoCrFeNiSi HEA coating was deposited using powder milled for 10 h, which can be used as an ideal feedstock for APS. The surface morphology, microstructure, microhardness, and wear behavior of the coating at room temperature were investigated. The results showed that as the milling time increased, the particle size first increased, and then decreased. At the milling time of 10 h, simple body-centered cubic (BCC) and face-centered cubic (FCC) solid solution phases were formed. After spraying, the lamellar structure inside a single particle disappeared. An ordered BCC phase was detected, and the diffraction peaks of the Si element also disappeared, which indicates that phase transformation occurred during plasma spraying. A transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that nanometer crystalline grains with a grain size of about 30 nm existed in the APS coating. For the coating, an average microhardness of 612 ± 41 HV was obtained. Adhesive wear, tribo-oxidation wear, and slight abrasion wear took place during the wear test. The coating showed good wear resistance, with a volume wear rate of 0.38 ± 0.08 × 10 -4 mm³·N -1 ·m -1 , which makes it a promising coating for use in abrasive environments.

  13. Elastic moduli and elastic anisotropy of cold sprayed metallic coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seiner, Hanuš; Cizek, J.; Sedlák, Petr; Huang, R.; Cupera, J.; Dlouhý, I.; Landa, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, April (2016), s. 342-347 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13616S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-35890S Grant - others:NETME Centre Plus - národní program udržitelnosti(CZ) LO1202 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : kinetic spray * CGDS * elastic properties * metals and alloys * deposition * resonant ultrasound spectroscopy Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0257897216301165/1-s2.0-S0257897216301165-main.pdf?_tid=1083617a-017f-11e6-92e7-00000aacb361&acdnat=1460555773_2e80d3df20843f3af649bf3ac71c8844

  14. Effect of Perovskite coating on oxide scale growth on Fe-22Cr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Åsa; Mikkelsen, Lars; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2006-01-01

    A coating consisting of La0.85Sr0.15MnO3 (LSM) was deposited onto two Fe 22 wt % Cr alloys Crofer 22APU and Sandvik lC44Mo20. The evolution of the oxide layers developing underneath the coatings during oxidation was investigated. The effect of the LSM coating on oxidation rate and microstructure ...

  15. Wear and Adhesive Failure of Al2O3 Powder Coating Sprayed onto AISI H13 Tool Steel Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanov, Auezhan; Pyun, Young-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, an alumina (Al2O3) ceramic powder was sprayed onto an AISI H13 hot-work tool steel substrate that was subjected to sanding and ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) treatment processes. The significance of the UNSM technique on the adhesive failure of the Al2O3 coating and on the hardness of the substrate was investigated. The adhesive failure of the coating sprayed onto sanded and UNSM-treated substrates was investigated by a micro-scratch tester at an incremental load. It was found, based on the obtained results, that the coating sprayed onto the UNSM-treated substrate exhibited a better resistance to adhesive failure in comparison with that of the coating sprayed onto the sanded substrate. Dry friction and wear property of the coatings sprayed onto the sanded and UNSM-treated substrates were assessed by means of a ball-on-disk tribometer against an AISI 52100 steel ball. It was demonstrated that the UNSM technique controllably improved the adhesive failure of the Al2O3 coating, where the critical load was improved by about 31%. Thus, it is expected that the application of the UNSM technique to an AISI H13 tool steel substrate prior to coating may delay the adhesive failure and improve the sticking between the coating and the substrate thanks to the modified and hardened surface.

  16. Roll-to-roll production of spray coated N-doped carbon nanotube electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Mehmet; Zhu, Jingyi; Raghavendra, Achyut J.; Podila, Ramakrishna; Parler, Samuel G.; Kaplan, James P.; Rao, Apparao M.

    2014-12-01

    Although carbon nanomaterials are being increasingly used in energy storage, there has been a lack of inexpensive, continuous, and scalable synthesis methods. Here, we present a scalable roll-to-roll (R2R) spray coating process for synthesizing randomly oriented multi-walled carbon nanotubes electrodes on Al foils. The coin and jellyroll type supercapacitors comprised such electrodes yield high power densities (˜700 mW/cm3) and energy densities (1 mW h/cm3) on par with Li-ion thin film batteries. These devices exhibit excellent cycle stability with no loss in performance over more than a thousand cycles. Our cost analysis shows that the R2R spray coating process can produce supercapacitors with 10 times the energy density of conventional activated carbon devices at ˜17% lower cost.

  17. Silica Coated Paper Substrate for Paper-Spray Analysis of Therapeutic Drugs in Dried Blood Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiping; Xu, Wei; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Cooks, R. Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Paper spray is a newly developed ambient ionization method that has been applied for direct qualitative and quantitative analysis of biological samples. The properties of the paper substrate and spray solution have a significant impact on the release of chemical compounds from complex sample matrices, the diffusion of the analytes through the substrate, and the formation of ions for mass spectrometry analysis. In this study, a commercially available silica-coated paper was explored in an attempt to improve the analysis of therapeutic drugs in dried blood spots (DBS). The dichloromethane/isopropanol solvent has been identified as an optimal spray solvent for the analysis. The comparison was made with paper spray using chromatography paper as substrate with methanol/water as solvent for the analysis of verapamil, citalopram, amitriptyline, lidocaine and sunitinib in dried blood spots. It has been demonstrated the efficiency of recovery of the analytes was notably improved with the silica coated paper and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) for the drug analysis was 0.1 ng mL−1 using a commercial triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The use of silica paper substrate also resulted in a sensitivity improvement of 5-50 fold in comparison with chromatography papers, including the Whatmann ET31 paper used for blood card. Analysis using a handheld miniature mass spectrometer Mini 11 gave LOQs of 10~20 ng mL−1 for the tested drugs, which is sufficient to cover the therapeutic ranges of these drugs. PMID:22145627

  18. Hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by liquid precursor plasma spraying: controlled dense and porous microstructures and osteoblastic cell responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yi; Song Lei; Liu Xiaoguang; Xiao Yanfeng; Wu Yao; Chen Jiyong; Wu Fang; Gu Zhongwei

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrates by a novel plasma spraying process, the liquid precursor plasma spraying (LPPS) process. X-ray diffraction results showed that the coatings obtained by the LPPS process were mainly composed of hydroxyapatite. The LPPS process also showed excellent control on the coating microstructure, and both nearly fully dense and highly porous hydroxyapatite coatings were obtained by simply adjusting the solid content of the hydroxyapatite liquid precursor. Scanning electron microscope observations indicated that the porous hydroxyapatite coatings had pore size in the range of 10-200 μm and an average porosity of 48.26 ± 0.10%. The osteoblastic cell responses to the dense and porous hydroxyapatite coatings were evaluated with human osteoblastic cell MG-63, in respect of the cell morphology, proliferation and differentiation, with the hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process as control. The cell experiment results indicated that the heat-treated LPPS coatings with a porous structure showed the best cell proliferation and differentiation among all the hydroxyapatite coatings. Our results suggest that the LPPS process is a promising plasma spraying technique for fabricating hydroxyapatite coatings with a controllable microstructure, which has great potential in bone repair and replacement applications.

  19. Surface roughness reduction using spray-coated hydrogen silsesquioxane reflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Pranov, Henrik; Kofod, Guggi

    2013-01-01

    Surface roughness or texture is the most visible property of any object, including injection molded plastic parts. Roughness of the injection molding (IM) tool cavity directly affects not only appearance and perception of quality, but often also the function of all manufactured plastic parts. So...... called “optically smooth” plastic surfaces is one example, where low roughness of a tool cavity is desirable. Such tool surfaces can be very expensive to fabricate using conventional means, such as abrasive diamond polishing or diamond turning. We present a novel process to coat machined metal parts...... are reduced 10 and 3 times respectively. We completed more than 10,000 injection molding cycles without detectable degradation of the HSQ coating. This result opens new possibilities for molding of affordable plastic parts with perfect surface finish....

  20. Composite Coatings of Alumina-based Ceramics and Stainless Steel Manufactured by Plasma Spraying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Ageorges, H.; Neufuss, Karel; Zahálka, F.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2009), s. 108-114 ISSN 1392-1320 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200430560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Cermet * plasma spraying * microstructure * elastic modulus * wear resistance Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.299, year: 2009 http://internet.ktu.lt/en/science/journals/medz/medz0-97.html#Composite_Coatings_

  1. Through-thickness Residual Stress Measurement by Neutron Diffraction in Cu+W Plasma Spray Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luzin, V.; Matějíček, Jiří; Gnäupel-Herold, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 652, č. 652 (2010), s. 50-56 ISSN 1662-9752. [International Conference on Mechanical Stress Evaluation by Neutrons and Synchrotron Radiation/5th./. Mito, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : fusion materials * plasma sprayed coatings * residual stress * neutron diffraction Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy http://www.scientific.net/MSF.652.50

  2. Evaluation of thermal sprayed metallic coatings for use on the structures at Launch Complex 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    The current status of the evaluation program is presented. The objective was to evaluate the applicability of Thermal Sprayed Coatings (TSC) to protect the structures in the high temperature acid environment produced by exhaust of the Solid Rocket Boosters during the launches of the Shuttle Transportation System. Only the relatively low cost aluminum TSC which provides some cathodic protection for steel appears to be a practical candidate for further investigation.

  3. Development of suspension plasma sprayed alumina coatings with high enthalpy plasma torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Tomáš; Mušálek, Radek; Medřický, Jan; Kotlan, Jiří; Lukáč, František; Pala, Zdeněk; Ctibor, Pavel; Chráska, Tomáš; Houdková, Š.; Rimal, V.; Curry, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 325, September (2017), s. 277-288 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-12145S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Suspension plasma spraying * Aluminium oxide * Mechanical properties * Hardness * Adhesion * Wear resistance Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0257897217306424

  4. Microstructure and sliding wear properties of HVOF sprayed, laser remelted and laser clad Stellite 6 coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houdková, Š.; Pala, Zdeněk; Smazalová, E.; Vostřák, M.; Česánek, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 318, May (2017), s. 129-141 ISSN 0257-8972. [International Meeting on Thermal Spraying (RIPT)/7./. Limoges, 09.12.2015-11.12.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Stellite 6 * HVOF * Laser remelting * Laser clad * Wear * Phase transformation Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article /pii/S0257897216308817

  5. CMAS Interactions with Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited via Plasma Spray- Physical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, B. J.; Wiesner, V. L.; Zhu, D.; Johnson, N. S.

    2017-01-01

    Materials for advanced turbine engines are expected to have temperature capabilities in the range of 1370-1500C. At these temperatures the ingestion of sand and dust particulate can result in the formation of corrosive glass deposits referred to as CMAS. The presence of this glass can both thermomechanically and thermochemically significantly degrade protective coatings on metallic and ceramic components. Plasma Spray- Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) was used to deposit advanced environmental barrier coating (EBC) systems for investigation on their interaction with CMAS compositions. Coatings were exposed to CMAS and furnace tested in air from 1 to 50 hours at temperatures ranging from 1200-1500C. Coating composition and crystal structure were tracked with X-ray diffraction and microstructure with electron microscopy.

  6. Constrained sintering of an air-plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocks, A.C.F.; Fleck, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    A micromechanical model is presented for the constrained sintering of an air-plasma-sprayed, thermal barrier coating upon a thick superalloy substrate. The coating comprises random splats with intervening penny-shaped cracks. The crack faces make contact at asperities, which progressively sinter in-service by interfacial diffusion, accommodated by bulk creep. Diffusion is driven by the reduction in interfacial energy at the developing contacts and by the local asperity contact stress. At elevated operating temperature, both sintering and creep strains accumulate within the plane of the coating. The sensitivities of sintering rate and microstructure evolution rate to the kinetic parameters and thermodynamic driving forces are explored. It is demonstrated that the sintering response is governed by three independent timescales, as dictated by the material and geometric properties of the coating. Finally, the role of substrate constraint is assessed by comparing the rate of constrained sintering with that for free sintering.

  7. Ceria based protective coatings for steel interconnects prepared by spray pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczewska, Dagmara; Molin, Sebastian; Chen, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Stainless steels can be used in solid oxide fuel/electrolysis stacks as interconnects. For successful long term operation they require protective coatings, that lower the corrosion rate and block chemical reactions between the interconnect and adjacent layers of the oxygen or the hydrogen electrode....... One of the promising coating materials for the hydrogen side is ceria. Using standard sintering techniques, ceria sinters at around 1400°C which even for a very short exposure would destroy the interconnect. Therefore in this paper a low temperature deposition method, i.e. spray pyrolysis, is used...

  8. Yb2Si2O7 Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited by Various Thermal Spray Techniques: A Preliminary Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Emine; Marcano, Diana; Zhou, Dapeng; Sohn, Yoo Jung; Mauer, Georg; Vaßen, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Dense, crack-free, uniform, and well-adhered environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) are required to enhance the environmental durability of silicon (Si)-based ceramic matrix composites in high pressure, high gas velocity combustion atmospheres. This paper represents an assessment of different thermal spray techniques for the deposition of Yb2Si2O7 EBCs. The Yb2Si2O7 coatings were deposited by means of atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), suspension plasma spraying (SPS), and very low-pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS) techniques. The initial feedstock, as well as the deposited coatings, were characterized and compared in terms of their phase composition. The as-sprayed amorphous content, microstructure, and porosity of the coatings were further analyzed. Based on this preliminary investigation, the HVOF process stood out from the other techniques as it enabled the production of vertical crack-free coatings with higher crystallinity in comparison with the APS and SPS techniques in atmospheric conditions. Nevertheless, VLPPS was found to be the preferred process for the deposition of Yb2Si2O7 coatings with desired characteristics in a controlled-atmosphere chamber.

  9. Plasma-spraying synthesis of high-performance photocatalytic TiO2 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yasuo; Maeda, Masakatsu; Ohmori, Akira; Shibata, Yoshitaka; Miyano, Yasuyuki; Murai, Kensuke

    2014-01-01

    Anatase (A-) TiO 2 is a photocatalytic material that can decompose air-pollutants, acetaldehyde, bacteria, and so on. In this study, three kinds of powder (A-TiO 2 without HAp, TiO 2 + 10mass%HAp, and TiO 2 +30mass%HAp, where HAp is hydroxyapatite and PBS is polybutylene succinate) were plasma sprayed on biodegradable PBS substrates. HAp powder was mixed with A-TiO 2 powder by spray granulation in order to facilitate adsorption of acetaldehyde and bacteria. The crystal structure was almost completely maintained during the plasma spray process. HAp enhanced the decomposition of acetaldehyde and bacteria by promoting adsorption. A 10mass% HAp content was the most effective for decomposing acetaldehyde when plasma preheating of the PBS was not carried out before the plasma spraying. The plasma preheating of PBS increased the yield rate of the spray process and facilitated the decomposition of acetaldehyde by A-TiO 2 coatings without HAp. HAp addition improved photocatalytic sterilization when plasma preheating of the PBS was performed

  10. Fabrication and evaluation of atmospheric plasma spraying WC-Co-Cu-MoS2 composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jianhui; Zhu Yingchun; Zheng Xuebing; Ji Heng; Yang Tao

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Protective WC-Co-based coatings containing solid lubricant Cu and MoS 2 used in wear applications were investigated in this study. → It was found that the MoS 2 composition in the feed powder was kept in WC-Co-Cu-MoS 2 coatings, and the decomposition and decarburization of WC in APS process were improved. → Combining the wear resistance of WC with the lubricating properties of Cu and MoS 2 has an extremely beneficial effect on improving the tribological performance of the resulting coating. - Abstract: Protective WC-Co-based coatings containing solid lubricant Cu and MoS 2 used in wear applications were investigated in this study. These coatings were deposited on mild steel substrates by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The feedstock powders were prepared by mechanically mixing the solid lubricant powders and WC-Co powder, followed by sintering and crushing the mixtures to avoid different particle flighting trajectories at plasma. The tribological properties of the coatings against stainless steel balls were examined by ball-on-disk (BOD) tribometer under normal atmospheric condition. The microstructure of the coatings was studied by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the MoS 2 composition in the feed powder was kept in WC-Co-Cu-MoS 2 coatings, and the decomposition and decarburization of WC in APS process were improved, which were attributed to the protection of Cu around them. The friction and wear behaviors of all the WC-Co-Cu-MoS 2 coatings were superior to that of WC-Co coating. Such behavior was associated to different wear mechanisms operating for WC-Co coating and the WC-Co-Cu-MoS 2 coatings.

  11. Correlation of splat state with deposition characteristics of cold sprayed niobium coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Ramakrishna, M.; Chavan, N.M.; Joshi, S.V.

    2017-01-01

    The cold spray technique has a great potential to deposit refractory metals for a variety of potential applications. Cold spraying of different metals have been addressed comprehensively to understand the deposition characteristics of the coatings. Since there is no available data on the deposition characteristics of cold sprayed Niobium, impact behavior of splats at different deposition conditions were simulated and numerically analyzed using Finite Element Modeling (FEM) and correlated with the experimental observations that highlight the role of the velocity and temperature of the particle upon impact on the bonding features. The increase in temperature of the splat drastically reduces the flow stress at the interface leading to best inter-splat bonding state. The synergistic effect of the temperature and the velocity leads to the formation of very dense, defect free niobium coating associated with deformation localization including interface melting. Formation of nanocrystalline grains at the inter-splat boundary was confirmed through TEM and compared with the FEM findings. Finally, understanding the deformation and deposition behavior of refractory metal such as niobium will be helpful to engineer the coatings for potential applications. - Graphical abstract: ▪

  12. WC-Co coatings deposited by the electro-thermal chemical spray method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhitomirsky, V.N. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Faculty of Engineering; Wald, S.; Rabani, L.; Zoler, D. [Propulsion Physics Division, SOREQ NRC, 81800, Yavne (Israel); Factor, M.; Roman, I. [School of Applied Sciences, The Hebrew University, 91904, Jerusalem (Israel); Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, 69978, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2000-10-02

    A novel thermal spray technology - an electro-thermal chemical spray (ETCS) for producing hard coatings is presented. The experimental coating apparatus consists of a machine gun barrel, a cartridge containing the coating material in powder form, a solid propellant, and a plasma ignition system. The plasma ignition system produces plasma in pulsed mode to ignite the solid propellant. On ignition, the drag force exerted by the combustion gases accelerates the powder particles towards the substrate. Using the ETCS technique, the process of single-shot WC-Co coating deposition on stainless steel substrate was studied. The influence of process parameters (plasma energy, mass of the solid propellant and the coated powder, distance between the gun muzzle and the substrate) on the coating structure and some of its properties were investigated. It was shown that ECTS technique effectively deposited the WC-Co coating with deposition thicknesses of 100-200 {mu}m per shot, while deposition yield of {proportional_to}70% was attained. The WC-Co coatings consisted of carbide particles distributed in amorphous matrix. The powder particle velocity was found to depend on the solid propellant mass and was weakly dependent on the plasma energy, while the particle processing temperature was strongly dependent on the plasma energy and almost independent of the solid propellant mass. Whilst increasing the solid propellant mass from 5 to 7 g, the deposition rate and yield correspondingly increased. When increasing the plasma energy, the temperature of the powder particles increased, the average carbide particle size decreased and their shape became more rounded. The deposition yield and microhardness at first increased and then achieved saturation by increasing the plasma energy. (orig.)

  13. Effect of Load on Friction-Wear Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed WC-12Co Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yifu, Jin; Weicheng, Kong; Tianyuan, Sheng; Ruihong, Zhang; Dejun, Kong

    2017-07-01

    A WC-12Co coating was sprayed on AISI H13 hot work mold steel using a high-velocity oxygen fuel. The morphologies, phase compositions, and distributions of chemical elements of the obtained coatings were analyzed using a field emission scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive spectroscope (EDS), respectively. The friction-wear behaviors under different loads were investigated using a reciprocating wear tester; the morphologies and distributions of the chemical elements of worn tracks were analyzed using a SEM and its configured EDS, respectively. The results show the reunited grains of WC are held together by the Co binder; the primary phases of the coating are WC, Co, and a small amount of W2C and W, owing to the oxidation and decarburization of WC. Inter-diffusion of Fe and W between the coating and the substrate is shown, which indicates a good coating adhesion. The values of the average coefficient of friction under the loads of 40, 80, and 120 N are 0.29, 0.31, and 0.49, respectively. The WC grains are pulled out of the coating during the sliding wear test, but the coating maintains its integrity, suggesting that the coating is intact and continuously protects the substrate from wearing.

  14. Characterization of boride-based powders and detonation gun sprayed cermet coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keraenen, J.; Stenberg, T.; Maentylae, T.

    1995-01-01

    Detonation gun sprayed (DGS) cermet coatings containing complex ternary transition metal boride as hard particles dispersed in a stainless steel or nickel based superalloy matrix have been characterized. Microstructure of the coatings, as well as powders, were studied with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM). X-ray microanalysis of the coatings were carried out using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) attached to the SEM and AEM. Moreover, abrasion wear resistance of the coatings was evaluated with a rubber wheel abrasion test equipment. The general microstructure of studied coatings appeared to be heterogeneous in the terms of the distribution, size and crystallographic nature of the phases. Nonetheless, very low porosities were obtained and in the coatings the oxide phase as well as the unmelted particles and the formation of oxide phase were avoided by optimization of DGS parameters. So far the abrasive wear resistance of boride-based cermet coatings is not so good as that of the WC-12Co coatings

  15. Cold Spray for Repair of Magnesium Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Readiness Center East GM General Motors He helium hex-Cr hexavalent chromium HP-Al High Purity Aluminum HVOF High Velocity Oxygen Fuel ID inner...process is the hexavalent chromium (hex-Cr) permissible exposure limit (PEL) as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...project related to replacement of hard chrome plating on helicopter dynamic components using HVOF thermal spray coatings. FRC-E has a thermal spray

  16. Effect of thermal spray processing techniques on the microstructure and properties of Ni-based amorphous coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.M.; Moon, B.M.; Fleury, E.; Ahn, H.S.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, W.T.; Sordelet, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Metallic amorphous materials have been widely developed thanks to the outstanding properties including high chemical stability, mechanical strength, and magnetic properties. However, with the exception of a few compositions, the limiting factor is the critical cooling rate for the formation of the amorphous phase. For many applications, it is only the contact surface properties that are important, thus the use, of coating techniques such as thermal sprayings has several attractive features. In this paper, we present the microstructure of Ni-based amorphous coatings prepared by laser cladding and vacuum plasma spraying. The utilization of plasma spraying to deposit atomized powder enabled the formation of fully amorphous coating, laser cladding resulted in mostly crystallized structures. Glass forming ability and wear properties of the coatings were discussed as a function of the coating microstructure. (orig.)

  17. Preliminary study of mechanical behavior for Cr coated Zr-4 Fuel Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Hak-Sung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyo-Chan; Yang, Yong-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    To decrease the oxidation rate of Zr-based alloy components, many concepts of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) such as Mo-Zr cladding, SiC/SiCf cladding and iron-based alloy cladding are under development. One of the promised concept is the coated cladding which can remarkably increase the corrosion and wear resistance. Recently, KAERI is developing the Cr coated Zircaloy cladding as accident tolerance cladding. To coat the Cr powder on the Zircaloy, 3D laser coating technology has been employed because it is possible to make a coated layer on the tubular cladding surface by controlling the 3-diminational axis. Therefore, for this work, the mechanical integrity of Cr coated Zircaloy should be evaluated to predict the safety of fuel cladding during the operating or accident of nuclear reactor. In this work, the mechanical behavior of the Cr coated Zircaloy cladding has been studied by using finite element analysis (FEA). The ring compression test (RCT) of fuel cladding was simulated to evaluate the validity of mechanical properties of Zr-4 and Cr, which were referred from the literatures and experimental reports. In this work, the mechanical behavior of the Cr coated Zircaloy cladding has been studied by using finite element analysis (FEA). The ring compression test (RCT) of fuel cladding was simulated to evaluate the validity of mechanical properties of Zr-4 and Cr. The pellet-clad mechanical interaction (PCMI) properties of Cr coated Zr-4 cladding were investigated by thermo-mechanical finite element analysis (FEA) simulation. The mechanical properties of Zr-4 and Cr was validated by simulation of ring compression test (RCT) of fuel cladding.

  18. Laser Remelting of Plasma-Sprayed Tungsten Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Holub, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2014), s. 750-754 ISSN 1059-9630 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Grant - others:European Project ExtreMat(XE) NMP-CT-2004-500253 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : functionally graded coatings * laser remelting * plasma facing materials * thermal conductivity * water stabilized plasma Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11666-014-0067-4

  19. Wear and Corrosion Properties of 316L-SiC Composite Coating Deposited by Cold Spray on Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Ma, Bing; Liu, Guang; Song, Hui; Wu, Jinming; Cui, Lang; Zheng, Ziyun

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the wear and corrosion resistance of commonly used magnesium alloys, 316L stainless steel coating and 316L-SiC composite coating have been deposited directly on commercial AZ80 magnesium alloy using cold spraying technology (CS). The microstructure, hardness and bonding strength of as-sprayed coatings were studied. Their tribological properties sliding against Si3N4 and GCr15 steel under unlubricated conditions were evaluated by a ball-on-disk tribometer. Corrosion behaviors of coated samples were also evaluated and compared to that of uncoated magnesium alloy substrate in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by electrochemical measurements. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the corresponding wear tracks and corroded surfaces to determine wear and corrosion mechanisms. The results showed that the as-sprayed coatings possessed higher microhardness and more excellent wear resistance than magnesium alloy substrate. Meanwhile, 316L and 316L-SiC coating also reduced the corrosion current density of magnesium alloy and the galvanic corrosion of the substrates was not observed after 200-h neutral salt spray exposure, which demonstrated that corrosion resistance of a magnesium alloy substrate could be greatly improved by cold-sprayed stainless steel-based coatings.

  20. Characterization of commercially cold sprayed copper coatings and determination of the effects of impacting copper powder velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakupi, P. [Western University, Dept. of Chemistry, London Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Keech, P.G. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, 22 St. Clair Ave. E., Toronto Ontario, M4T 2S3 (Canada); Barker, I. [Western University, Dept. of Earth Sciences, London Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Ramamurthy, S.; Jacklin, R.L. [Western University, Surface Science Western, 999 Collip Circle, LL31 (Lower), London, Ontario, N6G OJ3 (Canada); Shoesmith, D.W., E-mail: dwshoesm@uwo.ca [Western University, Surface Science Western, 999 Collip Circle, LL31 (Lower), London, Ontario, N6G OJ3 (Canada); Moser, D.E. [Western University, Dept. of Earth Sciences, London Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Copper coated steel containers are being developed for the disposal of high level nuclear waste using processes such as cold spray and electrodeposition. Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction has been used to determine the microstructural properties and the quality of the steel-copper coating interface. The influence of the nature of the cold-spray carrier gas as well as its temperature and pressure (velocity) on the coating's plastic strain and recrystallization behaviour have been investigated, and one commercially-produced electrodeposited coating characterized. The quality of the coatings was assessed using the coincident site lattice model to analyse the properties of the grain boundaries. For cold spray coatings the grain size and number of coincident site lattice grain boundaries increased, and plastic strain decreased, with carrier gas velocity. In all cases annealing improved the quality of the coatings by increasing texture and coincidence site-lattices, but also increased the number of physical voids, especially when a low temperature cold spray carrier gas was used. Comparatively, the average grain size and number of coincident site-lattices was considerably larger for the strongly textured electrodeposited coating. Tensile testing showed the electrodeposited coating was much more strongly adherent to the steel substrate.

  1. Characterization of commercially cold sprayed copper coatings and determination of the effects of impacting copper powder velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakupi, P.; Keech, P. G.; Barker, I.; Ramamurthy, S.; Jacklin, R. L.; Shoesmith, D. W.; Moser, D. E.

    2015-11-01

    Copper coated steel containers are being developed for the disposal of high level nuclear waste using processes such as cold spray and electrodeposition. Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction has been used to determine the microstructural properties and the quality of the steel-copper coating interface. The influence of the nature of the cold-spray carrier gas as well as its temperature and pressure (velocity) on the coating's plastic strain and recrystallization behaviour have been investigated, and one commercially-produced electrodeposited coating characterized. The quality of the coatings was assessed using the coincident site lattice model to analyse the properties of the grain boundaries. For cold spray coatings the grain size and number of coincident site lattice grain boundaries increased, and plastic strain decreased, with carrier gas velocity. In all cases annealing improved the quality of the coatings by increasing texture and coincidence site-lattices, but also increased the number of physical voids, especially when a low temperature cold spray carrier gas was used. Comparatively, the average grain size and number of coincident site-lattices was considerably larger for the strongly textured electrodeposited coating. Tensile testing showed the electrodeposited coating was much more strongly adherent to the steel substrate.

  2. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coating of additively manufactured porous CoCr implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, Carl [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Xia, Wei, E-mail: wei.xia@angstrom.uu.se [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Engqvist, Håkan [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Snis, Anders [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Arcam AB, Krokslätts Fabriker 27 A, SE-431 37 Mölndal (Sweden); Lausmaa, Jukka [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås (Sweden); Palmquist, Anders [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Biomaterials, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • A route for coating complex shaped electron beam melted implants is presented. • Biomimetic HA coatings were deposited on CoCr alloys using a solution method. • Deposited biomimetic coating was partially crystalline, slightly calcium deficient. • Coating morphology was plate-like with crystallites forming roundish flowers. • Present coating procedure could be useful for porous implants made by EBM. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to study the feasibility to use a biomimetic method to prepare biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on CoCr substrates with short soaking times and to characterize the properties of such coatings. A second objective was to investigate if the coatings could be applied to porous CoCr implants manufactured by electron beam melting (EBM). The coating was prepared by immersing the pretreated CoCr substrates and EBM implants into the phosphate-buffered solution with Ca{sup 2+} in sealed plastic bottles, kept at 60 °C for 3 days. The formed coating was partially crystalline, slightly calcium deficient and composed of plate-like crystallites forming roundish flowers in the size range of 300–500 nm. Cross-section imaging showed a thickness of 300–500 nm. In addition, dissolution tests in Tris–HCl up to 28 days showed that a substantial amount of the coating had dissolved, however, undergoing only minor morphological changes. A uniform coating was formed within the porous network of the additive manufactured implants having similar thickness and morphology as for the flat samples. In conclusion, the present coating procedure allows coatings to be formed on CoCr and could be used for complex shaped, porous implants made by additive manufacturing.

  3. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coating of additively manufactured porous CoCr implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, Carl; Xia, Wei; Engqvist, Håkan; Snis, Anders; Lausmaa, Jukka; Palmquist, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A route for coating complex shaped electron beam melted implants is presented. • Biomimetic HA coatings were deposited on CoCr alloys using a solution method. • Deposited biomimetic coating was partially crystalline, slightly calcium deficient. • Coating morphology was plate-like with crystallites forming roundish flowers. • Present coating procedure could be useful for porous implants made by EBM. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to study the feasibility to use a biomimetic method to prepare biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on CoCr substrates with short soaking times and to characterize the properties of such coatings. A second objective was to investigate if the coatings could be applied to porous CoCr implants manufactured by electron beam melting (EBM). The coating was prepared by immersing the pretreated CoCr substrates and EBM implants into the phosphate-buffered solution with Ca"2"+ in sealed plastic bottles, kept at 60 °C for 3 days. The formed coating was partially crystalline, slightly calcium deficient and composed of plate-like crystallites forming roundish flowers in the size range of 300–500 nm. Cross-section imaging showed a thickness of 300–500 nm. In addition, dissolution tests in Tris–HCl up to 28 days showed that a substantial amount of the coating had dissolved, however, undergoing only minor morphological changes. A uniform coating was formed within the porous network of the additive manufactured implants having similar thickness and morphology as for the flat samples. In conclusion, the present coating procedure allows coatings to be formed on CoCr and could be used for complex shaped, porous implants made by additive manufacturing.

  4. Cold spray deposition of Ti{sub 2}AlC coatings for improved nuclear fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Benjamin R. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Hauch, Benjamin [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Olson, Luke C.; Sindelar, Robert L. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Sridharan, Kumar, E-mail: kumar@engr.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Coatings of Ti{sub 2}AlC MAX phase compound have been successfully deposited on Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) test flats, with the goal of enhancing the accident tolerance of LWR fuel cladding. Low temperature powder spray process, also known as cold spray, has been used to deposit coatings ∼90 μm in thickness using powder particles of <20 μm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the phase-content of the deposited coatings to be identical to the powders indicating that no phase transformation or oxidation had occurred during the coating deposition process. The coating exhibited a high hardness of about 800 H{sub K} and pin-on-disk wear tests using abrasive ruby ball counter-surface showed the wear resistance of the coating to be significantly superior to the Zry-4 substrate. Scratch tests revealed the coatings to be well-adhered to the Zry-4 substrate. Such mechanical integrity is required for claddings from the standpoint of fretting wear resistance and resisting wear handling and insertion. Air oxidation tests at 700 °C and simulated LOCA tests at 1005 °C in steam environment showed the coatings to be significantly more oxidation resistant compared to Zry-4 suggesting that such coatings can potentially provide accident tolerance to nuclear fuel cladding. - Highlights: • Deposited Ti{sub 2}AlC coatings on Zircaloy-4 substrates with a low pressure powder spray process, also known as cold spray. • Coatings have high hardness and wear resistance for both damage resistance during rod insertion and fretting wear resistance. • The oxidation resistance of Ti{sub 2}AlC coated Zircaloy-4 at 700 °C and 1005 °C was significantly superior to uncoated Zircaloy. • Cold spray of Ti{sub 2}AlC demonstrates considerable promise as a near-term solution for accident tolerant Zr-alloy fuel claddings.

  5. Effects of isothermal treatment on microstructure and scratch test behavior of plasma sprayed zirconia coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veloso Guilherme

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of the petroleum cost in the last decades revitalized the interest for lighter and more economic vehicles. Simultaneously, the demand for safe and unpolluted transports grows. The application of thermal barriers coatings (TBC on combustion chamber and on flat surface of pistons reduces the thermal losses of the engines, resulting in higher temperatures in the combustion chamber. This fact contributes to the improvement of the thermal efficiency (performance and for the reduction of incomplete combustion. Supported on these initial ideas, thermal barriers coatings constituted by CaO partially stabilized zirconia were produced and their microstructure examined. This coating still presents some drawbacks associated with thermal stresses and permeability to oxidizing gases, which will, eventually, lead to failure of the TBC by spallation. The failure may, in general, be associated to one of three factors: oxide growth at the ceramic-metal interface, formed during thermal cycling; stress build-up due to thermal cycling; and metal-oxide interface segregation, mainly of S. However, it is also relevant to understand the behavior of TBC's under isothermal oxidation. Therefore, this paper investigates the effect of oxidation on the adherence of thermal sprayed coatings. The adherence was measured by linear scratching tests, widely used for thin coatings. Plasma sprayed calcia partially stabilized zirconia was used as TBC and Ni-5%Al as bond coat, with Al substrates. Coated samples were submitted to heat treatments at 500 °C, for 50 h. The microstructures were examined by optical light microscopy, X-ray diffraction, profilometry and SEM.

  6. Improving Erosion Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic Coatings by Elevating the Deposition Temperature Based on the Critical Bonding Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shu-Wei; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2018-01-01

    Interlamellar bonding within plasma-sprayed coatings is one of the most important factors dominating the properties and performance of coatings. The interface bonding between lamellae significantly influences the erosion behavior of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings. In this study, TiO2 and Al2O3 coatings with different microstructures were deposited at different deposition temperatures based on the critical bonding temperature concept. The erosion behavior of ceramic coatings was investigated. It was revealed that the coatings prepared at room temperature exhibit a typical lamellar structure with numerous unbonded interfaces, whereas the coatings deposited at the temperature above the critical bonding temperature present a dense structure with well-bonded interfaces. The erosion rate decreases sharply with the improvement of interlamellar bonding when the deposition temperature increases to the critical bonding temperature. In addition, the erosion mechanisms of ceramic coatings were examined. The unbonded interfaces in the conventional coatings act as pre-cracks accelerating the erosion of coatings. Thus, controlling interlamellar bonding formation based on the critical bonding temperature is an effective approach to improve the erosion resistance of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings.

  7. The effect of YBa2Cu3O7-x powder characteristics on thick coatings prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiopoulos, E.; Tsetsekou, A.

    2000-01-01

    The development of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x plasma sprayed coatings on metal substrates can be very useful for applications such as targets for thin-film deposition techniques (sputtering, laser ablation, ion assisted deposition) or magnetic shielding, due to the brittle nature of bulk superconductors. The plasma spraying technique is very flexible and can be used for manufacturing components with a large variety of geometries. This technique requires the use of powders with good rheological characteristics. In this study, YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x powders were produced by using the conventional solid-state reaction route and also by spray drying a solution of nitrate precursors. Both powders, as well as mixtures of them, were plasma sprayed to develop coatings on stainless-steel substrates, with the aim of studying the effect of the feedstock powder characteristics on the coating properties. It was found that by optimizing the plasma spraying conditions, good quality coatings could be obtained. However, the powder morphology and homogeneity significantly affect the coating quality. More homogeneous powders lead to better results, the spray-dried powder being the best because of its enhanced rheological properties and good morphology. (author)

  8. Study of different biocomposite coatings on Ti alloy by a subsonic thermal spraying technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Muqin [Provincial Key Laboratory of Biomaterials, Jiamusi University, Heilongjiang Province, 154007 (China); Zhang Rui [College of Stomatology, Jiamusi University, Heilongjiang Province, 154003 (China); Wang Jianping [College of Stomatology, Jiamusi University, Heilongjiang Province, 154003 (China); Yang Shiqin [State Key Laboratory Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 (China)

    2007-03-01

    A subsonic thermal spraying technique (STS) was used to make different biocomposite coatings on titanium alloys for preparing three kinds of implants: 8Ti2G, HA and 8H2B, respectively. The implants were embedded in a region of jaw of dogs whose teeth were pulled out three months previously. The dogs, in two groups, were killed 30 days and 90 days, respectively, after they were operated on. Osteointegration between the implants and host bone was investigated by x-ray, histology and the SEM technique. The results showed that the three kinds of coatings all exhibited good biocompatibility and synostosis, but their osteointegration capability showed a difference and decreased in the sequence of 8H2B, HA and 8Ti2G. The activity of coating, which promoted the reactions between implants and bone tissue, was further increased by the addition of bioglass in the 8H2B coating. Subsequently, chemical bonding was formed, and the osteointegration strength was increased. The study provided a new approach to prepare biocomposite coatings. The 8H2B implants, which formed an integral functional biocomposite coating on Ti alloys, showed a better osteointegration capability with bioactivity and pore gradient variation. A theoretical base was provided for the biocomposite coating application.

  9. Wear behaviour of plasma-sprayed AlSi/B4C composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarikaya, Ozkan; Anik, Selahaddin; Celik, Erdal; Okumus, S. Cem; Aslanlar, Salim

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the wear behaviour of AlSi/B 4 C composite coatings with 0-25 wt% B 4 C particles for diesel engine motors. These coatings were successfully fabricated on AlSi substrates using an atmospheric plasma spray technique. The produced samples were characterized by means of an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and microhardness tester. The obtained results pointed out that an increase of B 4 C particles in AlSi coatings was caused on the rising of the microhardness values and the decrease of the thermal expansion coefficient of the coatings. The friction and wear experiments were performed under dry conditions using a ball-on-dics configuration against WC/Co counter material for different loads. It was concluded that wear resistance of the coatings produced using B 4 C powders is greatly improved compared with the substrate material. The highest wear resistance of the coatings were also determined in the 20% B 4 C coating

  10. Microstructures Evolution and Micromechanics Features of Ni-Cr-Si Coatings Deposited on Copper by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilei Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Three Ni-Cr-Si coatings were synthesized on the surface of copper by laser cladding. The microstructures of the coatings were characterized by optical microscopy (OM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. According to the analysis results of phase compositions, Gibbs free energy change and microstructures, the phases of three coatings appeared were Cr3Si+γ-Ni+Cuss (Coating 1, Ni-26Cr-29Si, Cr6Ni16Si7+Ni2Si+Cuss (Coating 2, Ni-10Cr-30Si and Cr3Ni5Si2+Cr2Ni3+Cuss (Coating 3, Ni-29Cr-16Si. The crystal growth in the solidification process was analyzed with a modified model, which is a combination of Kurz-Giovanola-Trivedi (KGT and Lipton-Kurz-Trivedi (LKT models. The dendrite tip undercooling in Coating 2 was higher than those of Coating 1 and Coating 3. Well-developed dendrites were found in Coating 2. A modification of Hunt’s model was adopted to describe the morphological differences in the three coatings. The results show that Coating 1 was in the equiaxed dendrite region, while Coatings 2 and 3 were in the columnar dendrite region. The average friction coefficients of the three coatings were 0.45, 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. Obvious plastic deformation could be found in the subsurface zone of Coatings 2 and 3.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF YTTRIA AND MAGNESIA PARTIALLY STABILIZED ZIRCONIA BIOCOMPATIBLE COATINGS DEPOSITED BY PLASMA SPRAYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roşu R. A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Zirconia (ZrO2 is a biocompatible ceramic material which is successfully used in medicine to cover the metallic implants by various methods. In order to avoid the inconvenients related to structural changes which may appear because of the temperature treatment while depositing the zirconia layer over the metallic implant, certain oxides are added, the most used being Y2O3, MgO and CaO. This paper presents the experimental results regarding the deposition of yttria (Y2O3 and magnesia (MgO partially stabilized zirconia layers onto titanium alloy substrate by plasma spraying method. X ray diffraction investigations carried out both on the initial powders and the coatings evidenced the fact that during the thermal spraying process the structure has not been significantly modified, consisting primarily of zirconium oxide with tetragonal structure. Electronic microscopy analyses show that the coatings are dense, uniform and cracks-free. Adherence tests performed on samples whose thickness ranges between 160 and 220 μm showed that the highest value (23.5 MPa was obtained for the coating of ZrO2 - 8 wt. % Y2O3 with 160 μm thickness. The roughness values present an increasing tendency with increasing the coatings thickness.

  12. Thermal response of plasma sprayed tungsten coating to high heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Yang, L.; Tamura, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Yoshida, N.; Noda, N.; Xu, Z.

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the thermal response of tungsten coating on carbon and copper substrates by vacuum plasma spray (VPS) or inert gas plasma spray (IPS), annealing and cyclic heat load experiments of these coatings were conducted. It is indicated that the multi-layered tungsten and rhenium interface of VPS-W/CFC failed to act as a diffusion barrier at elevated temperature and tungsten carbides were developed after 1 h incubation time when annealing temperature was higher than 1600 deg. C. IPS-W/Cu and W/C without an intermediate bonding layer were failed by the detachment of the tungsten coating at 900 and 1200 deg. C annealing for several hours, respectively. Cyclic heat load of electron beam with 35 MW/m 2 and 3-s pulse duration indicated that IPS-W/Cu samples failed with local detachment of the tungsten coating within 200 cycles and IPS-W/C showed local cracks by 300 cycles, but VPS-W/CFC withstood 1000 cycles without visible damages. However, crack creation and propagation in VPS-W/CFC were also observed under higher heat load

  13. Tribological Characteristics of Tungsten Carbide Reinforced Arc Sprayed Coatings using Different Carbide Grain Size Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tillmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide reinforced coatings play an important role in the field of surface engineering to protect stressed surfaces against wear. For thermally sprayed coatings, it is already shown that the tribological properties get mainly determined by the carbide grain size fraction. Within the scope of this study, the tribological characteristics of iron based WC-W2C reinforced arc sprayed coatings deposited using cored wires consisting of different carbide grain size fractions were examined. Microstructural characteristics of the produced coatings were scrutinized using electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses. Ball-on-disk test as well as Taber Abraser and dry sand rubber wheel test were employed to analyze both the dry sliding and the abrasive wear behavior. It was shown that a reduced carbide grain size fraction as filling leads to an enhanced wear resistance against sliding. In terms of the Taber Abraser test, it is also demonstrated that a fine carbide grain size fraction results in an improved wear resistant against abrasion. As opposed to that, a poorer wear resistance was found within the dry sand rubber wheel tests. The findings show that the operating mechanisms for both abrasion tests affect the stressed surface in a different way, leading either to microcutting or microploughing.

  14. Study on Metal Microfilter Coated with Ceramics by Using Plasma Thermal Spray Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, In Gyu; Shin, Hyun Myung; Choi, Hae Woon [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Min [Korea Polytechincs VI, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    This research was performed on a microfilter made of a hybrid material (ceramic + metal) that was coated with ceramics on the metal-filter surface by using the thermal spray method. The ceramic powders used were Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}+40TiO{sub 2} powder with a particle size of 20 {mu}m and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (98%+)powder with a particle size of 45 {mu}m. The metal filters were filter-grade 20 {mu}m, 30 {mu}m, and 50 {mu}m sintered metal powder filters (SIKA-R 20 IS, 30 IS, 50 IS: Sinter Metals Filters) and filter-grade 75 {mu}m sintered mesh filter with five layers. Ceramic-coated filters that were coated using the thermal spray method had a great influence on powder material, particle size, and coating thickness. However, these filters showed a fine performance when used as micro-filters.

  15. An analytical methodology to predict the coating characteristics of plasma-sprayed ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies have been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to investigate gas, particle, and coating dynamics in the plasma spray process. Nine experiments were conducted using a Taguchi statistical parametric approach. The thermal plasma produced by the commercial plasma spray torch and the related plasma/particle interaction were then numerically modeled from the cathode tip to varied standoff distances in the free plume for the nine experiments, which ranged in power from 28 to 43 kW. The flow and temperature fields in the plasma were solved using the governing conservation equations with suitable boundary conditions. This information was then used as boundary conditions to solve the plasma/particle interaction problem for the nine experiments. The particle dynamics (10- to 75-μm particles) for a yttria-stabilized zirconia powder were then simulated by computer. Particle morphology is discussed with respect to the changes in the process parameters. The predicted temperature and velocity of the zirconia particles were then used as initial conditions to a coating dynamics code. The code predicts the thickness and porosity of the zirconia coatings for the specific process parameters. The predicted coating characteristics exhibit reasonable correlation with the actual characteristics obtained from the Taguchi experimental studies. 12 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Titanium dioxide antireflection coating for silicon solar cells by spray deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, W.; Tracy, E.

    1980-01-01

    A high-speed production process is described for depositing a single-layer, quarter-wavelength thick antireflection coating of titanium dioxide on metal-patterned single-crystal silicon solar cells for terrestrial applications. Controlled atomization spraying of an organotitanium solution was selected as the most cost-effective method of film deposition using commercial automated equipment. The optimal composition consists of titanium isopropoxide as the titanium source, n-butyl acetate as the diluent solvent, sec-butanol as the leveling agent, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to render the material uniformly depositable. Application of the process to the coating of circular, large-diameter solar cells with either screen-printed silver metallization or with vacuum-evaporated Ti/Pd/Ag metallization showed increases of over 40% in the electrical conversion efficiency. Optical characteristics, corrosion resistance, and several other important properties of the spray-deposited film are reported. Experimental evidence indicates a wide tolerance in the coating thickness upon the overall efficiency of the cell. Considerations pertaining to the optimization of AR coatings in general are discussed, and a comprehensive critical survey of the literature is presented.

  17. Uticaj brzine depozicije praha na mehaničke karakteristike i strukturu APS-NiCr/Al prevlake / Effect of the powder deposition rate on the mechanical properties and the structure of the APS-NiCr/Al coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo R. Mrdak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazani rezultati ispitivanja atmosferskih plazma-sprej prevlaka APS-NiCr/Al. Kompozitni prah NiCr/Al koji se sastoji od NiCr čestica obloženih finim česticama Al u procesu depozicije omogućuje egzotermnu reakciju. Reakcija ovih metala dovodi do formiranja samovezujućih NiCrAl prevlaka koje poseduju jedinstvene kombinacije osobina. Radi dobijanja najboljih strukturnih i mehaničkih karakteristika izvršena je optimizacija parametara depozicije. U ovom istraživanju urađene su tri grupe uzoraka prevlake NiCrAl sa različitim brzinama depozicije praha da bi se dobili depoziti velike čvrstoće i žilavosti. Kod prve grupe uzoraka brzina depozicije praha bila je 50 g/min, kod druge 40 g/min, a kod treće 30 g/min. Procena osobina depozita rađena je ispitivanjem mikrotvrdoće metodom HV0.3 i čvrstoće spoja ispitivanjem na zatezanje. Metalografska procena strukture rađena je tehnikom svetlosne mikroskopije. Verifikovane prevlake primenjene su za zaštitu i revitalizaciju delova turbomlaznih motora izloženih oksidaciji na povišenim temperaturama. / The paper presents the results of the examination of atmospheric plasma spraying of APS-NiCr/Al coatings. Composite NiCr/Al powders, composed of NiCr particles coated with fine Al particles, enable an exothermic reaction during the deposition process. The exothermic reaction of these metals results in the formation of selfbonding NiCrAl coatings with a unique combination of properties. For the purpose of obtaining excellent structural and mechanical properties, the deposition parameters were optimized. In this study, three groups of NiCrAl coating samples with different powder deposition rate were made to get deposits of greater strength and toughness. In the first group of samples, the deposition rate was 50g/min, in the second group the powder deposition rate was 40 g/ min. while in the third group it was 30 g/min. The assessment of the properties of deposits was made by the HV0

  18. Evaluation of microstructure and micro-hardness of 410L SS coatings fabricated using laser assisted cold