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Sample records for coxiella type iv

  1. Effector protein translocation by the Coxiella burnetii Dot/Icm type IV secretion system requires endocytic maturation of the pathogen-occupied vacuole.

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    Hayley J Newton

    Full Text Available The human pathogen Coxiella burnetii encodes a type IV secretion system called Dot/Icm that is essential for intracellular replication. The Dot/Icm system delivers bacterial effector proteins into the host cytosol during infection. The effector proteins delivered by C. burnetii are predicted to have important functions during infection, but when these proteins are needed during infection has not been clearly defined. Here, we use a reporter system consisting of fusion proteins that have a β-lactamase enzyme (BlaM fused to C. burnetii effector proteins to study protein translocation by the Dot/Icm system. Translocation of BlaM fused to the effector proteins CBU0077, CBU1823 and CBU1524 was not detected until 8-hours after infection of HeLa cells, which are permissive for C. burnetii replication. Translocation of these effector fusion proteins by the Dot/Icm system required acidification of the Coxiella-containing vacuole. Silencing of the host genes encoding the membrane transport regulators Rab5 or Rab7 interfered with effector translocation, which indicates that effectors are not translocated until bacteria traffic to a late endocytic compartment in the host cell. Similar requirements for effector translocation were discerned in bone marrow macrophages derived from C57BL/6 mice, which are primary cells that restrict the intracellular replication of C. burnetii. In addition to requiring endocytic maturation of the vacuole for Dot/Icm-mediated translocation of effectors, bacterial transcription was required for this process. Thus, translocation of effector proteins by the C. burnetii Dot/Icm system occurs after acidification of the CCV and maturation of this specialized organelle to a late endocytic compartment. This indicates that creation of the specialized vacuole in which C. burnetii replicates represents a two-stage process mediated initially by host factors that regulate endocytic maturation and then by bacterial effectors delivered into

  2. Rapid typing of Coxiella burnetii.

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    Heidie M Hornstra

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii has the potential to cause serious disease and is highly prevalent in the environment. Despite this, epidemiological data are sparse and isolate collections are typically small, rare, and difficult to share among laboratories as this pathogen is governed by select agent rules and fastidious to culture. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, some of this knowledge gap has been overcome by the development of genotyping schemes, however many of these methods are cumbersome and not readily transferable between institutions. As comparisons of the few existing collections can dramatically increase our knowledge of the evolution and phylogeography of the species, we aimed to facilitate such comparisons by extracting SNP signatures from past genotyping efforts and then incorporated these signatures into assays that quickly and easily define genotypes and phylogenetic groups. We found 91 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels among multispacer sequence typing (MST loci and designed 14 SNP-based assays that could be used to type samples based on previously established phylogenetic groups. These assays are rapid, inexpensive, real-time PCR assays whose results are unambiguous. Data from these assays allowed us to assign 43 previously untyped isolates to established genotypes and genomic groups. Furthermore, genotyping results based on assays from the signatures provided here are easily transferred between institutions, readily interpreted phylogenetically and simple to adapt to new genotyping technologies.

  3. COXIELLA BURNETII PATHOGENICITY MOLECULAR BASIS

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    Yu. A. Panferova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterial pathogen, an ethiological agent of Q-fever, a zoonotic disease, elapsing as an acute (mostly atypical pneumonia or a chronic (mostly endocarditis form. The host range is represented by wide range of mammal, avian and arthropod species, but the main source of human infection are farm animals. The main route of infection is aerosolic. In case of contact with organism pathogen binds with phagocytal monocytic-macrophagal cell line. C. burnetii promotes maturation of specific phagolysosome-like compartment in host cell, called coxiella-containing vacuole, within this vacuole pathogen becames metabolically activated and actively replicates. Coxiella persists as metabolically inactive spore-like form in environment. Internalisation of C. burnetii occurs using actin-mediated phagocytosis and zipper mechanism. After internalization of bacteria maturation of phagolysosome-like compartment and large coxiella-containing vacuole formation occure, and vacuole can occupy nearly the whole cytoplasm of the host cell. Survivance of infected cells is important for chronic infection with C. burnetii. C. burnetii elongate the viability of host cell by two ways: it actively inhibits apoptotic signal cascades and induce pro-survival factors. Exceptthat C. burnetii involves autophagic pathway during coxiella-containing vacuole formation, and induction of autophagy promotes pathogen replication. During infection C. burnetii translocates effector substrates from bacterial cytosole to euca ryotic host cell cytosole using type IV secretion system, where effectors modulate host cell proteins. Overall approximately 130 secreted effectors of type IV transport system, but function of most of them remains unknown to date. Specific sec reted proteins for variety of strains and isolates were identified, confirmed that certain pathotypes of C. burnetii can exist. Identification and

  4. Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendroth-Asmussen, Lisa; Aksglaede, Lise; Gernow, Anne B

    2016-01-01

    molecular genetic analyses confirmed glycogen storage disease Type IV with the finding of compound heterozygosity for 2 mutations (c.691+2T>C and c.1570C>T, p.R524X) in the GBE1 gene. We conclude that glycogen storage disease Type IV can cause early miscarriage and that diagnosis can initially be made...

  5. Changes in buoyant density relationships of two cell types of Coxiella burneti phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, R.F.; Briggs, G.P.; Gangemi, J.D.; Pedersen, C.E. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Coxiella burneti phase I, purified from a formalin-inactivated yolk-sac vaccine, was separated into two bands of morphologically distinct cell types when subjected to sucrose gradient centrifugation. Recycling of the less dense, rod-shaped cells in unbuffered sucrose gradients (pH 5.5 to 6.0) resulted in the formation of bands having the location and appearance of the original two bands. Recycling of the denser band of larger ovoid-shaped cells yielded a single band, suggesting that the larger cell type arose from the smaller cell. In contrast to vaccine-derived rickettsiae, live, cell culture-propagated phase I organisms formed a single band in unbuffered sucrose gradients, at the same density as the upper band of the vaccine preparation. Centrifugation of cell culture-derived rickettsiae for 26 to 48 h in sucrose gradients of pH 5.5 resulted in the formation of a second band, at the same density as the lower band of the vaccine preparation. This did not occur in gradients of pH 7.0. Treatment of cell culture-propagated rickettsiae with formalin or germicidal ultraviolet radiation induced a total shift of the less dense cell population to a zone of higher density when centrifuged isopycnically in CsCl gradients. This density change did not occur in sucrose gradients, suggesting a difference in the effect of these treatments on the permeability of the cell membrane to sucrose and CsCl

  6. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Glycogen storage disease type IV Glycogen storage disease type IV Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV) is an ...

  7. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    . In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant......This document is created as part of the EaseWind project. The goal of this project is to develop and investigate new control features for primary response provided by wind power plants. New control features as inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping are of interest to EaseWind...... project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level...

  8. Eight new genomes and synthetic controls increase the accessibility of rapid melt-MAMA SNP typing of Coxiella burnetii.

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    Edvin Karlsson

    Full Text Available The case rate of Q fever in Europe has increased dramatically in recent years, mainly because of an epidemic in the Netherlands in 2009. Consequently, there is a need for more extensive genetic characterization of the disease agent Coxiella burnetii in order to better understand the epidemiology and spread of this disease. Genome reference data are essential for this purpose, but only thirteen genome sequences are currently available. Current methods for typing C. burnetii are criticized for having problems in comparing results across laboratories, require the use of genomic control DNA, and/or rely on markers in highly variable regions. We developed in this work a method for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP typing of C. burnetii isolates and tissue samples based on new assays targeting ten phylogenetically stable synonymous canonical SNPs (canSNPs. These canSNPs represent previously known phylogenetic branches and were here identified from sequence comparisons of twenty-one C. burnetii genomes, eight of which were sequenced in this work. Importantly, synthetic control templates were developed, to make the method useful to laboratories lacking genomic control DNA. An analysis of twenty-one C. burnetii genomes confirmed that the species exhibits high sequence identity. Most of its SNPs (7,493/7,559 shared by >1 genome follow a clonal inheritance pattern and are therefore stable phylogenetic typing markers. The assays were validated using twenty-six genetically diverse C. burnetii isolates and three tissue samples from small ruminants infected during the epidemic in the Netherlands. Each sample was assigned to a clade. Synthetic controls (vector and PCR amplified gave identical results compared to the corresponding genomic controls and are viable alternatives to genomic DNA. The results from the described method indicate that it could be useful for cheap and rapid disease source tracking at non-specialized laboratories, which requires accurate

  9. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV

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    Germain Dominique P

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS, is an inherited connective tissue disorder defined by characteristic facial features (acrogeria in most patients, translucent skin with highly visible subcutaneous vessels on the trunk and lower back, easy bruising, and severe arterial, digestive and uterine complications, which are rarely, if at all, observed in the other forms of EDS. The estimated prevalence for all EDS varies between 1/10,000 and 1/25,000, EDS type IV representing approximately 5 to 10% of cases. The vascular complications may affect all anatomical areas, with a tendency toward arteries of large and medium diameter. Dissections of the vertebral arteries and the carotids in their extra- and intra-cranial segments (carotid-cavernous fistulae are typical. There is a high risk of recurrent colonic perforations. Pregnancy increases the likelihood of a uterine or vascular rupture. EDS type IV is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait that is caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene coding for type III procollagen. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, non-invasive imaging, and the identification of a mutation of the COL3A1 gene. In childhood, coagulation disorders and Silverman's syndrome are the main differential diagnoses; in adulthood, the differential diagnosis includes other Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis can be considered in families where the mutation is known. Choriocentesis or amniocentesis, however, may entail risk for the pregnant woman. In the absence of specific treatment for EDS type IV, medical intervention should be focused on symptomatic treatment and prophylactic measures. Arterial, digestive or uterine complications require immediate hospitalisation, observation in an intensive care unit. Invasive imaging techniques are contraindicated. Conservative approach is usually recommended when caring for a vascular

  10. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Dominique P

    2007-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS), is an inherited connective tissue disorder defined by characteristic facial features (acrogeria) in most patients, translucent skin with highly visible subcutaneous vessels on the trunk and lower back, easy bruising, and severe arterial, digestive and uterine complications, which are rarely, if at all, observed in the other forms of EDS. The estimated prevalence for all EDS varies between 1/10,000 and 1/25,000, EDS type IV representing approximately 5 to 10% of cases. The vascular complications may affect all anatomical areas, with a tendency toward arteries of large and medium diameter. Dissections of the vertebral arteries and the carotids in their extra- and intra-cranial segments (carotid-cavernous fistulae) are typical. There is a high risk of recurrent colonic perforations. Pregnancy increases the likelihood of a uterine or vascular rupture. EDS type IV is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait that is caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene coding for type III procollagen. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, non-invasive imaging, and the identification of a mutation of the COL3A1 gene. In childhood, coagulation disorders and Silverman's syndrome are the main differential diagnoses; in adulthood, the differential diagnosis includes other Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis can be considered in families where the mutation is known. Choriocentesis or amniocentesis, however, may entail risk for the pregnant woman. In the absence of specific treatment for EDS type IV, medical intervention should be focused on symptomatic treatment and prophylactic measures. Arterial, digestive or uterine complications require immediate hospitalisation, observation in an intensive care unit. Invasive imaging techniques are contraindicated. Conservative approach is usually recommended when caring for a vascular complication in a patient suffering

  11. Collagen type IV at the fetal-maternal interface

    OpenAIRE

    Oefner, C M; Sharkey, A; Gardner, L; Critchley, H; Oyen, M; Moffett, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Extracellular matrix proteins play a crucial role in influencing the invasion of trophoblast cells. However the role of collagens and collagen type IV (col-IV) in particular at the implantation site is not clear. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the distribution of collagen types I, III, IV and VI in endometrium and decidua during the menstrual cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. Expression of col-IV alpha chains during the reproductive cycle ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enzymes, GAGs accumulate within cells, specifically inside the lysosomes . Lysosomes are compartments in the cell that break down ... that cause molecules to build up inside the lysosomes are called lysosomal storage disorders. In MPS IV, ...

  13. Collagen type IV at the fetal-maternal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oefner, C M; Sharkey, A; Gardner, L; Critchley, H; Oyen, M; Moffett, A

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins play a crucial role in influencing the invasion of trophoblast cells. However the role of collagens and collagen type IV (col-IV) in particular at the implantation site is not clear. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the distribution of collagen types I, III, IV and VI in endometrium and decidua during the menstrual cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. Expression of col-IV alpha chains during the reproductive cycle was determined by qPCR and protein localisation by immunohistochemistry. The structure of col-IV in placenta was examined using transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the expression of col-IV alpha chain NC1 domains and collagen receptors was localised by immunohistochemistry. Col-IV alpha chains were selectively up-regulated during the menstrual cycle and decidualisation. Primary extravillous trophoblast cells express collagen receptors and secrete col-IV in vitro and in vivo, resulting in the increased levels found in decidua basalis compared to decidua parietalis. A novel expression pattern of col-IV in the mesenchyme of placental villi, as a three-dimensional network, was found. NC1 domains of col-IV alpha chains are known to regulate tumour cell migration and the selective expression of these domains in decidua basalis compared to decidua parietalis was determined. Col-IV is expressed as novel forms in the placenta. These findings suggest that col-IV not only represents a structural protein providing tissue integrity but also influences the invasive behaviour of trophoblast cells at the implantation site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Degradation of type IV collagen by neoplastic human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheela, S.; Barrett, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An assay for the degradation of type IV (basement membrane) collagen was developed as a biochemical marker for neoplastic cells from chemically transformed human skin fibroblasts. Type IV collagen was isolated from basement membrane of Syrian hamster lung and type I collagen was isolated from rat tails; the collagens were radioactively labelled by reductive alkylation. The abilities of normal (KD) and chemically transformed (Hut-11A) human skin fibroblasts to degrade the collagens were studied. A cell-associated assay was performed by growing either normal or transformed cells in the presence of radioactively labelled type IV collagen and measuring the released soluble peptides in the medium. This assay also demonstrated that KD cells failed to synthesize an activity capable of degrading type IV collagen whereas Hut-11A cells degraded type IV collagen in a linear manner for up to 4 h. Human serum at very low concentrations, EDTA and L-cysteine inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas protease inhibitors like phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride, N-ethyl maleimide or soybean trypsin inhibitor did not inhibit the enzyme from Hut-11A cells. These results suggest that the ability to degrade specifically type IV collagen may be an important marker for neoplastic human fibroblasts and supports a role for this collagenase in tumor cell invasion

  15. DNA Delivery and Genomic Integration into Mammalian Target Cells through Type IV A and B Secretion Systems of Human Pathogens

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    Dolores L. Guzmán-Herrador

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We explore the potential of bacterial secretion systems as tools for genomic modification of human cells. We previously showed that foreign DNA can be introduced into human cells through the Type IV A secretion system of the human pathogen Bartonella henselae. Moreover, the DNA is delivered covalently attached to the conjugative relaxase TrwC, which promotes its integration into the recipient genome. In this work, we report that this tool can be adapted to other target cells by using different relaxases and secretion systems. The promiscuous relaxase MobA from plasmid RSF1010 can be used to deliver DNA into human cells with higher efficiency than TrwC. MobA also promotes DNA integration, albeit at lower rates than TrwC. Notably, we report that DNA transfer to human cells can also take place through the Type IV secretion system of two intracellular human pathogens, Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii, which code for a distantly related Dot/Icm Type IV B secretion system. This suggests that DNA transfer could be an intrinsic ability of this family of secretion systems, expanding the range of target human cells. Further analysis of the DNA transfer process showed that recruitment of MobA by Dot/Icm was dependent on the IcmSW chaperone, which may explain the higher DNA transfer rates obtained. Finally, we observed that the presence of MobA negatively affected the intracellular replication of C. burnetii, suggesting an interference with Dot/Icm translocation of virulence factors.

  16. Prophylaxis after Exposure to Coxiella burnetii

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. David Swerdlow discusses prophylaxis after exposure to Coxiella burnetii. It is important to know who should be treated and how they should be treated after an intentional release with possible bioterrorism agents, including Coxiella burnetii.

  17. [Mucolipidoses type IV in a patient with mapuche ancestry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Ch, Marta; Méndez C, José Ignacio; Concha G, María José; Huete L, Isidro; González B, Sergio; Durán S, Gloria P

    2008-07-01

    We report a 7 year-old girl with mapuche ancestors, diagnosed as a cerebral palsy since infancy and on active rehabilitation. She acquired motor and cognitive skills at 3 years of age. At 5 years of age, a slow neurological deterioration started, associated to visual impairment. Optic atrophy was added to the typical neurological exam of ataxic cerebral palsy and the diagnosis was re-considered. Neuroimaging showed a slow and progressive atrophy of intracerebral structures and ultramicroscopy revealed intracytoplasmatic inclusions in conjunctiva and skin, compatible with mucolipidoses type IV (ML-IV). ML-IV must be included in the differential diagnosis of cerebral palsy associated with loss of acquired skills and progressive visual impairment. Electron microscopy of skin or conjunctiva is a useful diagnostic test. Suspicion of ML-IV must not be restricted to Ashkenazi Jewish population.

  18. Evolutionary origin of type IV classical cadherins in arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Mizuki; Akiyama-Oda, Yasuko; Oda, Hiroki

    2017-06-17

    Classical cadherins are a metazoan-specific family of homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecules that regulate morphogenesis. Type I and type IV cadherins in this family function at adherens junctions in the major epithelial tissues of vertebrates and insects, respectively, but they have distinct, relatively simple domain organizations that are thought to have evolved by independent reductive changes from an ancestral type III cadherin, which is larger than derived paralogs and has a complicated domain organization. Although both type III and type IV cadherins have been identified in hexapods and branchiopods, the process by which the type IV cadherin evolved is still largely unclear. Through an analysis of arthropod genome sequences, we found that the only classical cadherin encoded in chelicerate genomes was the type III cadherin and that the two type III cadherin genes found in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum genome exhibited a complex yet ancestral exon-intron organization in arthropods. Genomic and transcriptomic data from branchiopod, copepod, isopod, amphipod, and decapod crustaceans led us to redefine the type IV cadherin category, which we separated into type IVa and type IVb, which displayed a similar domain organization, except type IVb cadherins have a larger number of extracellular cadherin (EC) domains than do type IVa cadherins (nine versus seven). We also showed that type IVa cadherin genes occurred in the hexapod, branchiopod, and copepod genomes whereas only type IVb cadherin genes were present in malacostracans. Furthermore, comparative characterization of the type IVb cadherins suggested that the presence of two extra EC domains in their N-terminal regions represented primitive characteristics. In addition, we identified an evolutionary loss of two highly conserved cysteine residues among the type IVa cadherins of insects. We provide a genomic perspective of the evolution of classical cadherins among bilaterians, with a focus on the Arthropoda

  19. Sequence Domain Harmonic Modeling of Type-IV Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guest, Emerson; Jensen, Kim Høj; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2017-01-01

    -sampled pulsewidth modulation and an analysis of converter generated voltage harmonics due to compensated dead-time. The decoupling capabilities of the proposed the SD harmonic model are verified through a power quality (PQ) assessment of a 3MW Type-IV wind turbine. The assessment shows that the magnitude and phase...... of low-order odd converter generated voltage harmonics are dependent on the converter operating point and the phase of the fundamental component of converter current respectively. The SD harmonic model can be used to make PQ assessments of Type-IV wind turbines or incorporated into harmonic load flows...... for computation of PQ in wind power plants....

  20. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV and orthopaedic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W; Guinot, A; Marleix, S; Chapuis, M; Fraisse, B; Violas, P

    2013-11-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN-IV) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of unexplained fever, extensive anhidrosis, total insensitivity to pain, hypotonia, and mental retardation. The most frequent complications of this disease are corneal scarring, multiple fractures, joint deformities, osteomyelitis, and disabling self-mutilations. We reported the case of a 12-year-old boy. The goal was to discuss our decision-making and compare this case with cases described in the literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. [Diagnostic values of serum type III procollagen N-terminal peptide in type IV gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, S; Fujiki, T; Kanda, Y; Kumai, R; Yoshida, S

    1985-04-01

    Since increased synthesis of collagen has been demonstrated in tissue of type IV gastric cancer, we attempted to distinguish type IV gastric cancer from other cancers by measuring serum levels of type III procollagen N-terminal peptide (type III-N-peptide). Mean serum levels in type IV gastric cancer patients without metastasis were found to be elevated above normal values and developed a tendency to be higher than those in types I, II and III gastric cancer patients without metastasis. Highly positive ratios were found in patients with liver diseases including hepatoma and colon cancer, biliary tract cancer, and esophageal cancer patients with liver, lung or bone metastasis, but only 2 out of 14 of these cancer patients without such metastasis showed positive serum levels of type III-N-peptide. Positive cases in patients with type IV gastric cancer were obtained not only in the group with clinical stage IV but also in the groups with clinical stages II and III. In addition, high serum levels of type III-N-peptide in patients with type IV gastric cancer were seen not only in the cases with liver, lung or bone metastasis but also in cases with disseminated peritoneal metastasis alone. These results suggest that if the serum level of type III-N-peptide is elevated above normal values, type IV gastric cancer should be suspected after ruling out liver diseases, myelofibrosis and liver, lung or bone metastasis.

  2. Coxiella burnetii in pregnant goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.

    2013-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. Since it was first recognised as a disease in the 1930s, knowledge about the agent and the disease itself has increased, although knowledge gaps are still present. Therefore the name Q(uery) fever still holds true.

  3. Interventional therapy of hilar cholangiocarcinoma in type III and IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Weijun; Wu Peihong; Zhang Liang; Huang Jinhua; Zhang Fujun; Gu Yangkui; Zhao Ming; Huang Xianglong; Guo Changyu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of synthetic interventional therapy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma in type III and IV. Methods: Twenty-one patients with obstructive cholestasis were pathological confirmed as cholangioadenocarcinoma, and they were classified as type III and IV cholangioadenocarcinoma by CT, MRCP, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with internal and external drainage (PTCD), multipolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation, biliary stent endoprosthesis, and interventional adjuvant chemotherapy were applied sequentially. Results: All masses presented with density diminution in CT one month after RF ablation, in which 13 masses had about 30% reduction in size, 4 masses had about 20% reduction in size, and 4 masses remained unchanged. All the masses presented with size reduction with an average of 37% in follow-up CT after 6 months, and the most remarkable size reduction was 60%. The direct and indirect bilirubin levels prompt returned to normal range in 17 cases one month after synthetic interventional therapy and returned to normal range in all cases 6 months later. All patients survived with the follow-up period ranging from 9 to 24 months, with the mean survival time of 14 months. Conclusion: Synthetic interventional therapy is a micro-invasive and effective treatment for type III and IV cholangiocarcinoma. (authors)

  4. The survival of Coxiella burnetii in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneeva, A. S.; Ul'Yanova, T. Yu.; Tarasevich, I. V.

    2007-05-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a pathogen of Q-fever—a widespread zoonosis. The effective adaptation of C. burnetii to intracellular existence is in contrast with its ability to survive in the environment outside the host cells and its resistance to chemical and physical agents. Its mechanism of survival remains unknown. However, its survival appears to be related to the developmental cycle of the microorganism itself, i.e., to the formation of its dormant forms. The survival of Coxiella burnetii was studied for the first time. The pathogenic microorganism was inoculated into different types of soil and cultivated under different temperatures. The survival of the pathogen was verified using a model with laboratory animals (mice). Viable C. burnetii were found in the soil even 20 days after their inoculation. The relationship between the organic carbon content in the soils and the survival of C. burnetii was revealed. Thus, the results obtained were the first to demonstrate that the soil may serve as a reservoir for the preservation and further spreading of the Q-fever pathogen in the environment, on the one hand, and reduce the risk of epidemics, on the other.

  5. Significance of combinative determination of urinary type IV collagen and trace albumin in type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Libin

    2004-01-01

    In order to evaluate the diagnostic value of combinative determination of urinary trace albumin(Alb) and urinary type IV collagen (C-IV) for early damage of renal function in type 2 diabetics, 24-hr urine was collected each from 30 normal subjects and 165 type 2 diabetics, and RIA was carried out to determine simultaneously Alb and C-IV (concentration method). The results showed: (1) the content of Alb in 24-hr urine of normal subjects was 6.45±2.04 mg/24 hrs, and that of C-IV was 86.68 ± 11.98 μg/L; (2) The type 2 diabetics were divided into A and B groups according to their Alb content in 24-hr urine. In group A(n=130) the Alb content was ≥30 mg/24 hrs and their C-IV was 120.03 ± 34.02 μg/L, whereas in group B(n=35) the corresponding values were < 30 mg/24 hrs and 97.14 ± 24.93 μg/L, respectively. Conclusion: When the Alb content of type 2 diabetics is still within the normal upper limit, the level of C-IV has already been elevated in part of them, indicating C-IV level can be more able to reflect early damage of renal function in type 2 diabetics than Alb content does. (authors)

  6. Audiological findings in children with mucopolysaccharidoses type i-iv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Gamarra, María F; de Paula-Vernetta, Carlos; Vitoria Miñana, Isidro; Ibañez-Alcañiz, Isabel; Cavallé-Garrido, Laura; Alamar-Velazquez, Agustín

    The aim of our study is to reflect hearing impairment of 23children diagnosed with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) typeI, II, III and IV. Retrospective study of the clinical, audiological and treatment (medical vs surgical) findings of 23children diagnosed with MPS typeI, II, III or IV followed at a Tertiary Referral Hospital between 1997 and 2015. Six cases of MPSI, 8 of MPSII, 4 of MPSIII and 5 of MPSIV were reviewed. 71.2% of patients had secretory otitis media (SOM) and 54% of patients had some type of hearing loss (HL). The behaviour of hearing loss was variable in each of the subgroups of MPS, finding greater involvement and variability in typesI and II. Children with MPS have a high risk of hearing loss. A significant percentage of transmissive HL progressing to mixed or sensorineural HL was observed. This was more common in typesI and II. Periodic follow up of these patients is mandatory because of hearing impairment and consequences for their development and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  7. Adult presentation of Bartter syndrome type IV with erythrocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman; Tótoli, Cláudia; Calado, Joaquim Tomaz

    2015-01-01

    Bartter syndrome comprises a group of rare autosomal-recessive salt-losing disorders with distinct phenotypes, but one unifying pathophysiology consisting of severe reductions of sodium reabsorption caused by mutations in five genes expressed in the thick ascending limb of Henle, coupled with increased urinary excretion of potassium and hydrogen, which leads to hypokalemic alkalosis. Bartter syndrome type IV, caused by loss-of-function mutations in barttin, a subunit of chloride channel CLC-Kb expressed in the kidney and inner ear, usually occurs in the antenatal-neonatal period. We report an unusual case of late onset presentation of Bartter syndrome IV and mild phenotype in a 20 years-old man who had hypokalemia, deafness, secondary hyperparathyroidism and erythrocytosis.

  8. Horizontally Acquired Biosynthesis Genes Boost Coxiella burnetii's Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Abraham S; Millar, Jess A; Bonazzi, Matteo; Beare, Paul A; Raghavan, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii , the etiologic agent of acute Q fever and chronic endocarditis, has a unique biphasic life cycle, which includes a metabolically active intracellular form that occupies a large lysosome-derived acidic vacuole. C. burnetii is the only bacterium known to thrive within such an hostile intracellular niche, and this ability is fundamental to its pathogenicity; however, very little is known about genes that facilitate Coxiella 's intracellular growth. Recent studies indicate that C. burnetii evolved from a tick-associated ancestor and that the metabolic capabilities of C. burnetii are different from that of Coxiella -like bacteria found in ticks. Horizontally acquired genes that allow C. burnetii to infect and grow within mammalian cells likely facilitated the host shift; however, because of its obligate intracellular replication, C. burnetii would have lost most genes that have been rendered redundant due to the availability of metabolites within the host cell. Based on these observations, we reasoned that horizontally derived biosynthetic genes that have been retained in the reduced genome of C. burnetii are ideal candidates to begin to uncover its intracellular metabolic requirements. Our analyses identified a large number of putative foreign-origin genes in C. burnetii , including tRNA Glu 2 that is potentially required for heme biosynthesis, and genes involved in the production of lipopolysaccharide-a virulence factor, and of critical metabolites such as fatty acids and biotin. In comparison to wild-type C. burnetii , a strain that lacks tRNA Glu 2 exhibited reduced growth, indicating its importance to Coxiella 's physiology. Additionally, by using chemical agents that block heme and biotin biosyntheses, we show that these pathways are promising targets for the development of new anti- Coxiella therapies.

  9. Thermal characteristics during hydrogen fueling process of type IV cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Chan [Department of Fire and Disaster Prevention, Kyungil University, 33, Buhori, Hayang, Kyungsan 712-701 (Korea); Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoon, Kee Bong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Ang University, 221, Huksuk, Dongjak, Seoul 156-756 (Korea)

    2010-07-15

    Temperature increase during hydrogen fueling process is a significant safety concern of a high pressure hydrogen vessel. Hence, thermal characteristics of a Type IV cylinder during hydrogen filling process need to be understood. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted to quantify the temperature change of the cylinder during hydrogen filling to 35 MPa. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was also conducted to simulate the conditions of the experiments. The results predicted by the CFD analysis show reasonable agreement with the experiments and the discrepancy between the CFD results and experimental results decrease with higher initial gas pressures. The upper and the lower parts of the vessel showed a temperature difference in the vertical direction. The upper gas temperature was higher than that of the lower part due to the buoyancy effect in the vessel. The maximum gas temperature was higher than the maximum temperature allowed in the ISO safety code (85 C) for the case in which the vessel was pressurized from 0 MPa to 35 MPa. This work contributes to the understanding of the thermal flow characteristics of the hydrogen filling process and notes that additional efforts should be made to guarantee the safety of a type IV cylinder during the hydrogen fueling process. (author)

  10. Prophylaxis after Exposure to Coxiella burnetii

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. David Swerdlow discusses prophylaxis after exposure to Coxiella burnetii. It is important to know who should be treated and how they should be treated after an intentional release with possible bioterrorism agents, including Coxiella burnetii.  Created: 10/2/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  11. Hoge resolutie typering van Coxiella burnetii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, I.; Bossers, A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Rotterdam, van B.

    2011-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft het onderzoek wat uitgevoerd is in het kader van het project ‘Hoge Resolutie Typering Coxiella burnetii’’. Het doel van dit project was om de genoomsequenties van een aantal Nederlandse isolaten van de bacterie Coxiella burnetii, de veroorzaker van Q-koorts, in kaart te

  12. Role of type IV pili in predation by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Chanyi

    Full Text Available Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, as an obligate predator of Gram-negative bacteria, requires contact with the surface of a prey cell in order to initiate the life cycle. After attachment, the predator penetrates the prey cell outer membrane and enters the periplasmic space. Attack phase cells of B. bacteriovorus have polar Type IV pili that are required for predation. In other bacteria, these pili have the ability to extend and retract via the PilT protein. B. bacteriovorus has two pilT genes, pilT1 and pilT2, that have been implicated in the invasion process. Markerless in-frame deletion mutants were constructed in a prey-independent mutant to assess the role of PilT1 and PilT2 in the life cycle. When predation was assessed using liquid cocultures, all mutants produced bdelloplasts of Escherichia coli. These results demonstrated that PilT1 and PilT2 are not required for invasion of prey cells. Predation of the mutants on biofilms of E. coli was also assessed. Wild type B. bacteriovorus 109JA and the pilT1 mutant decreased the mass of the biofilm to 35.4% and 27.9% respectively. The pilT1pilT2 mutant was able to prey on the biofilm, albeit less efficiently with 50.2% of the biofilm remaining. The pilT2 mutant was unable to disrupt the biofilm, leaving 92.5% of the original biofilm after predation. The lack of PilT2 function may impede the ability of B. bacteriovorus to move in the extracellular polymeric matrix and find a prey cell. The role of Type IV pili in the life cycle of B. bacteriovorus is thus for initial recognition of and attachment to a prey cell in liquid cocultures, and possibly for movement within the matrix of a biofilm.

  13. Identification of Anaplasma marginale type IV secretion system effector proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Lockwood

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale, an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in the order Rickettsiales, is a tick-borne pathogen and the leading cause of anaplasmosis in cattle worldwide. Complete genome sequencing of A. marginale revealed that it has a type IV secretion system (T4SS. The T4SS is one of seven known types of secretion systems utilized by bacteria, with the type III and IV secretion systems particularly prevalent among pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The T4SS is predicted to play an important role in the invasion and pathogenesis of A. marginale by translocating effector proteins across its membrane into eukaryotic target cells. However, T4SS effector proteins have not been identified and tested in the laboratory until now.By combining computational methods with phylogenetic analysis and sequence identity searches, we identified a subset of potential T4SS effectors in A. marginale strain St. Maries and chose six for laboratory testing. Four (AM185, AM470, AM705 [AnkA], and AM1141 of these six proteins were translocated in a T4SS-dependent manner using Legionella pneumophila as a reporter system.The algorithm employed to find T4SS effector proteins in A. marginale identified four such proteins that were verified by laboratory testing. L. pneumophila was shown to work as a model system for A. marginale and thus can be used as a screening tool for A. marginale effector proteins. The first T4SS effector proteins for A. marginale have been identified in this work.

  14. Type IV neonatal Bartter syndrome complicated with congenital chloride diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakallı, Hale; Bucak, Hakan İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Pseudo-Bartter syndrome encompasses a heterogenous group of disorders similar to Bartter syndrome. Sometimes a few status may be nested, as in our case presented here. An 8-month-old boy was referred to our hospital with of intractable diarrhea, polyuria, persistent hypokalemia, abdominal distension and failure to thrive. He was born in the 34 6/7 gestational week (GW) to consanguineous parents. In the 30(th) GW polyhydramnios was verified by ultrasonography. The laboratory results showed hypokalemic-hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyponatremia, and increased urinary loss of chloride, potassium and calcium. An audiogram test revealed complete sensorineural deafness. Ultrasonography revealed medullary nephrocalcinosis in both kidneys. Elevated plasma renin activity and aldosterone were found and a provisional diagnosis of type-IV neonatal Bartter syndrome was made. Treatment with indomethacin, spironolactone and additional intake of NaCl/KCl was initiated. Despite these therapies, the child's diarrhea persisted but serum potassium concentration normalized, and hypercalciuria and urine output reduced. After determining the high fecal chloride concentration, there was an immediate decompensation of the disease on indomethacin withdrawal, thus a diagnosis of type IV neonatal Bartter syndrome complicated with congenital chloride diarrhea was considered. Indomethacin, spironolactone and supplementary therapies with NaCl/KCl were continued, which resulted in the normalization of serum electrolytes as well as his physical development, but high contents of chloride in urine and faeces and nephrocalcinosis remains unchanged during 1-year follow-up. Because of the clinical and laboratory simulations between the various diseases that lead to hypokalemic-hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, patients must be evaluated carefully.

  15. Coxiella burnetii shedding by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guatteo, Raphaël; Beaudeau, François; Joly, Alain; Seegers, Henri

    2007-01-01

    While shedding routes of Coxiella burnetii are identified, the characteristics of Coxiella shedding are still widely unknown, especially in dairy cattle. However, this information is crucial to assess the natural course of Coxiella burnetii infection within a herd and then to elaborate strategies to limit the risks of transmission between animals and to humans. The present study aimed at (i) describing the characteristics of Coxiella burnetii shedding by dairy cows (in milk, vaginal mucus, faeces) in five infected dairy herds, and at (ii) investigating the possible relationships between shedding patterns and serological responses. A total of 145 cows were included in a follow-up consisting of seven concomitant samplings of milk, vaginal mucus, faeces and blood (Day 0, D7, D14, D21, D28, D63, D90). Detection and quantification of Coxiella burnetii titres were performed in milk, vaginal mucus and faeces samples using real-time PCR assay, while antibodies against Coxiella were detected using an ELISA technique. For a given shedding route, and a given periodicity (weekly or monthly), cows were gathered into different shedding kinetic patterns according to the sequence of PCR responses. Distribution of estimated titres in Coxiella burnetii was described according to shedding kinetic patterns. Coxiella burnetii shedding was found scarcely and sporadically in faeces. Vaginal mucus shedding concerned almost 50% of the cows studied and was found intermittently or sporadically, depending on the periodicity considered. Almost 40% of cows were detected as milk shedders, with two predominant shedding patterns: persistent and sporadic, regardless of the sampling periodicity. Significantly higher estimated titres in Coxiella burnetii were observed in cows with persistent shedding patterns suggesting the existence of heavy shedder cows. These latter cows were mostly, persistently highly-seropositive, suggesting that repeated serological testings could be a reliable tool to screen

  16. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelrod Felicia B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating. Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III, which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive.

  17. Borrmann type IV adenocarcinoma versus gastric lymphoma : spiral CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Bo Kyoung; Kim, Yun Hwan; Shin, Kue Hee; Hong, Suk Joo; Kim, Hong Weon; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Cho, Hyun Deuk

    1999-01-01

    To distinguish the spiral CT findings of Borrmann type IV adenocarcinoma from those of gastric lymphoma with diffuse gastric wall thickening. We retrospectively reviewed the spiral CT scans of 30 patients with Borrmann type IV adenocarcinoma and nine with gastric lymphoma with diffuse gastric wall thickening. In all patients the respective condition was pathologically confirmed by gastrectomy. CT scanning was performed after peroral administration of 500-700ml of water. A total of 120-140 ml bolus of nonionic contrast material was administered intravenously at a flow rate of 3 ml/sec and two-phase images were obtained at 35-45 sec(early phase) and 180 sec(delayed phase) after the start of bolus injection. Spiral CT was performed with 10mm collimation, 10mm/sec table feed and 10mm reconstruction. We evaluated the degree and homogeneity of enhancement of thickened entire gastric wall, and the enhancement pattern of gastric inner layer, as seen on early-phase CT scans. On early and delayed views, the thickness of gastric wall and the presence of perigastric fat infiltration were determined. The enhancement patterns of gastric inner layer were classified as either continuous or discontinuous thick enhancement, thin enhancement, or nonenhancement. The thickness of gastric wall was 1.2-3.5cm(mean 2.2cm) in cases of adenocarcinoma and 1.2-7.6cm(mean 4cm) in lymphoma. Perigastric fat infiltration was seen in 24 patients with adenocarcinoma(80%) and four with lymphoma(44%). In those with adenocarcinoma, the degree of enhancement of entire gastric wall was hyperdense in fifteen patients(50%) and isointense in eleven (37%). Seven patients with lymphoma(78%)showed hypodensity. In those with adenocarcinoma, continuous thick enhancement of gastric inner layer was seen in 18 patients(60%) and discontinuous thick enhancement in nine(30%). In lymphoma cases, no thick enhancement was observed. Thin enhancement of gastric inner layer was demonstrated in three patients with

  18. Evidence of the presence of a functional Dot/Icm type IV-B secretion system in the fish bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Gómez

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is a fish bacterial pathogen that has severely challenged the sustainability of the Chilean salmon industry since its appearance in 1989. As this Gram-negative bacterium has been poorly characterized, relevant aspects of its life cycle, virulence and pathogenesis must be identified in order to properly design prophylactic procedures. This report provides evidence of the functional presence in P. salmonis of four genes homologous to those described for Dot/Icm Type IV Secretion Systems. The Dot/Icm System, the major virulence mechanism of phylogenetically related pathogens Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii, is responsible for their intracellular survival and multiplication, conditions that may also apply to P. salmonis. Our results demonstrate that the four P. salmonis dot/icm homologues (dotB, dotA, icmK and icmE are expressed both during in vitro tissue culture cells infection and growing in cell-free media, suggestive of their putative constitutive expression. Additionally, as it happens in other referential bacterial systems, temporal acidification of cell-free media results in over expression of all four P. salmonis genes, a well-known strategy by which SSTIV-containing bacteria inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion to survive. These findings are very important to understand the virulence mechanisms of P. salmonis in order to design new prophylactic alternatives to control the disease.

  19. The Coxiella Burnetii type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) component DotA is released/secreted during infection of host cells and during in vitro growth in a T4BSS-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedtke, Brandon E; Mahapatra, Saugata; Lutter, Erika I; Shaw, Edward I

    2017-06-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen and is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever. To cause disease, C. burnetii requires a functional type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) to transfer effector proteins required for the establishment and maintenance of a membrane-bound parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and further modulation of host cell process. However, it is not clear how the T4BSS interacts with the PV membrane since neither a secretion pilus nor an extracellular pore forming apparatus has not been described. To address this, we used the acidified citrate cysteine medium (ACCM) along with cell culture infection and immunological techniques to identify the cellular and extracellular localization of T4BSS components. Interestingly, we found that DotA and IcmX were secreted/released in a T4BSS-dependent manner into the ACCM. Analysis of C. burnetii-infected cell lines revealed that DotA colocalized with the host cell marker CD63 (LAMP3) at the PV membrane. In the absence of bacterial protein synthesis, DotA also became depleted from the PV membrane. These data are the first to identify the release/secretion of C. burnetii T4BSS components during axenic growth and the interaction of a T4BSS component with the PV membrane during infection of host cells. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Analytical solutions of hypersonic type IV shock - shock interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Michael John

    An analytical model has been developed to predict the effects of a type IV shock interaction at high Mach numbers. This interaction occurs when an impinging oblique shock wave intersects the most normal portion of a detached bow shock. The flowfield which develops is complicated and contains an embedded jet of supersonic flow, which may be unsteady. The jet impinges on the blunt body surface causing very high pressure and heating loads. Understanding this type of interaction is vital to the designers of cowl lips and leading edges on air- breathing hypersonic vehicles. This analytical model represents the first known attempt at predicting the geometry of the interaction explicitly, without knowing beforehand the jet dimensions, including the length of the transmitted shock where the jet originates. The model uses a hyperbolic equation for the bow shock and by matching mass continuity, flow directions and pressure throughout the flowfield, a prediction of the interaction geometry can be derived. The model has been shown to agree well with the flowfield patterns and properties of experiments and CFD, but the prediction for where the peak pressure is located, and its value, can be significantly in error due to a lack of sophistication in the model of the jet fluid stagnation region. Therefore it is recommended that this region of the flowfield be modeled in more detail and more accurate experimental and CFD measurements be used for validation. However, the analytical model has been shown to be a fast and economic prediction tool, suitable for preliminary design, or for understanding the interactions effects, including the basic physics of the interaction, such as the jet unsteadiness. The model has been used to examine a wide parametric space of possible interactions, including different Mach number, impinging shock strength and location, and cylinder radius. It has also been used to examine the interaction on power-law shaped blunt bodies, a possible candidate for

  1. Effect of collagen type IV, MMPs and TIMPs on remodeling of radiation pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao Ruiying; Song Liangwen; Wang Shaoxia; Yin Jiye

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of collagen type IV, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs(TIMPs) on early remodeling after radiation pulmonary injury. Methods: Right lungs of rats were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays at a dose of 20 Gy to induce radiation pulmonary injury, and the lung specimens were taken at weeks 1, 2, 4 after irradiation. Quantitative analysis was performed on pulmonary collagen type IV, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-2, TIMP-1 at the level of gene expression and protein synthesis using real-time PCR or immunohistochemistry. Results: Gene detection using real-time PCR: gene expression of collagen type IV increased at week 1 and decreased at week 2 after irradiation; MMP-2 reached peak at week 2 in which an opposed alteration trend was displayed; MMP-9 appeared a significant trend of elevation, then decrease and elevation again which was similar to those of collagen type IV; expression of TIMP-1 was lower, and there was no marked difference among all time points; TIMP-2 displayed a trend of slight elevation, then decrease and elevation again, which was opposed to MMP-2. Immunohistochemistry-image analysis: Pulmonary collagen type IV obviously increased at week 1, and began to decrease at week 2; MMP-2 decreased at week 2 and then increased; an opposed alteration trend to that of collagen type IV was displayed; alteration trend of MMP-9 was similar to that of collagen type IV but the extent was higher; gene expression of TIMP-1 slightly increased at 2 week and an opposed trend to of MMP-9 was displayed. Conclusions: Collagen type IV, MMP-2, MMP-9 and their tissue inhibitors were involved in ineffective remodeling in the early radiation pulmonary injury; MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in degradation of collagen type IV; Disturbance of collagen type IV degradation might have relationship with the initiation of pulmonary fibrosis. (authors)

  2. A Comprehensive Functional Analysis of NTRK1 Missense Mutations Causing Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type IV (HSAN IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Samiha S; Chen, Ya-Chun; Halsall, Sally-Anne; Nahorski, Michael S; Omoto, Kiyoyuki; Young, Gareth T; Phelan, Anne; Woods, Christopher Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a complete lack of pain perception and anhidrosis. Here, we studied a cohort of seven patients with HSAN IV and describe a comprehensive functional analysis of seven novel NTRK1 missense mutations, c.1550G >A, c.1565G >A, c.1970T >C, c.2096T >C, c.2254T >A, c.2288G >C, and c.2311C >T, corresponding to p.G517E, p.G522E, p.L657P, p.I699T, p.C752S, p.C763S, and p.R771C, all of which were predicted pathogenic by in silico analysis. The results allowed us to assess the pathogenicity of each mutation and to gain novel insights into tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TRKA) downstream signaling. Each mutation was systematically analyzed for TRKA glycosylation states, intracellular and cell membrane expression patterns, nerve growth factor stimulated TRKA autophosphorylation, TRKA-Y496 phosphorylation, PLCγ activity, and neurite outgrowth. We showed a diverse range of functional effects: one mutation appeared fully functional, another had partial activity in all assays, one mutation affected only the PLCγ pathway and four mutations were proved null in all assays. Thus, we conclude that complete abolition of TRKA kinase activity is not the only pathogenic mechanism underlying HSAN IV. By corollary, the assessment of the clinical pathogenicity of HSAN IV mutations is more complex than initially predicted and requires a multifaceted approach. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  3. Distribution of Basement Membrane Molecules, Laminin and Collagen Type IV, in Normal and Degenerated Cartilage Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Toh, Wei Seong; Gomoll, Andreas H; Olsen, Bjørn Reino; Spector, Myron

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of 2 basement membrane (BM) molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in healthy and degenerative cartilage tissues. Normal and degenerated tissues were obtained from goats and humans, including articular knee cartilage, the intervertebral disc, and meniscus. Normal tissue was also obtained from patella-tibial enthesis in goats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-laminin and anti-collagen type IV antibodies. Human and goat skin were used as positive controls. The percentage of cells displaying the pericellular presence of the protein was graded semiquantitatively. When present, laminin and collagen type IV were exclusively found in the pericellular matrix, and in a discrete layer on the articulating surface of normal articular cartilage. In normal articular (hyaline) cartilage in the human and goat, the proteins were found co-localized pericellularly. In contrast, in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage, collagen type IV but not laminin was found in the pericellular region. Nonpathological fibrocartilaginous tissues from the goat, including the menisci and the enthesis, were also positive for both laminin and collagen type IV pericellularly. In degenerated fibrocartilage, including intervertebral disc, as in degenerated hyaline cartilage only collagen type IV was found pericellularly around chondrocytes but with less intense staining than in non-degenerated tissue. In calcified cartilage, some cells were positive for laminin but not type IV collagen. We report differences in expression of the BM molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in normal and degenerative cartilaginous tissues from adult humans and goats. In degenerative tissues laminin is depleted from the pericellular matrix before collagen type IV. The findings may inform future studies of the processes underlying cartilage degeneration and the functional roles of these 2 extracellular matrix proteins

  4. Distribution of Basement Membrane Molecules, Laminin and Collagen Type IV, in Normal and Degenerated Cartilage Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Wei Seong; Gomoll, Andreas H.; Olsen, Bjørn Reino; Spector, Myron

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of 2 basement membrane (BM) molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in healthy and degenerative cartilage tissues. Design: Normal and degenerated tissues were obtained from goats and humans, including articular knee cartilage, the intervertebral disc, and meniscus. Normal tissue was also obtained from patella-tibial enthesis in goats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-laminin and anti–collagen type IV antibodies. Human and goat skin were used as positive controls. The percentage of cells displaying the pericellular presence of the protein was graded semiquantitatively. Results: When present, laminin and collagen type IV were exclusively found in the pericellular matrix, and in a discrete layer on the articulating surface of normal articular cartilage. In normal articular (hyaline) cartilage in the human and goat, the proteins were found co-localized pericellularly. In contrast, in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage, collagen type IV but not laminin was found in the pericellular region. Nonpathological fibrocartilaginous tissues from the goat, including the menisci and the enthesis, were also positive for both laminin and collagen type IV pericellularly. In degenerated fibrocartilage, including intervertebral disc, as in degenerated hyaline cartilage only collagen type IV was found pericellularly around chondrocytes but with less intense staining than in non-degenerated tissue. In calcified cartilage, some cells were positive for laminin but not type IV collagen. Conclusions: We report differences in expression of the BM molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in normal and degenerative cartilaginous tissues from adult humans and goats. In degenerative tissues laminin is depleted from the pericellular matrix before collagen type IV. The findings may inform future studies of the processes underlying cartilage degeneration and the functional

  5. Metachronous Bilateral Posterior Tibial Artery Aneurysms in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Bonatti, Hugo; Sabri, Saher; Arslan, Bulent; Harthun, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is a life-threatening genetic connective tissue disorder. We report a 24-year-old woman with EDS-IV who presented with metachronous bilateral aneurysms/pseudoaneurysms of the posterior tibial arteries 15 months apart. Both were treated successfully with transarterial coil embolization from a distal posterior tibial approach.

  6. Influence of shelf life on the setting time of type IV gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapsari, M. L.; Irawan, B.; Damiyanti, M.

    2017-08-01

    Although expired materials can exhibit a deterioration in their properties, expired type IV gypsum can still be found on the market. In order to evaluate the influence of the shelf life on its setting time, two groups of type IV gypsum (GC Fuji rock EP) with different expiration dates were used in this research. The setting time tests were done in a mold using a Vicat Needle apparatus. The results of the statistical analysis showed a significant difference (pshelf life did influence the setting time of the type IV gypsum.

  7. viking: identification and characterization of a second type IV collagen in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasothornsrikul, S; Davis, W J; Cramer, G; Kimbrell, D A; Dearolf, C R

    1997-10-01

    We have taken an enhancer trap approach to identify genes that are expressed in hematopoietic cells and tissues of Drosophila. We conducted a molecular analysis of two P-element insertion strains that have reporter gene expression in embryonic hemocytes, strain 197 and vikingICO. This analysis has determined that viking encodes a collagen type IV gene, alpha2(IV). The viking locus is located adjacent to the previously described DCg1, which encodes collagen alpha1(IV), and in the opposite orientation. The alpha2(IV) and alpha1(IV) collagens are structurally very similar to one another, and to vertebrate type IV collagens. In early development, viking and DCg1 are transcribed in the same tissue-specific pattern, primarily in the hemocytes and fat body cells. Our results suggest that both the alpha1 and alpha2 collagen IV chains may contribute to basement membranes in Drosophila. This work also provides the foundation for a more complete genetic dissection of collagen type IV molecules and their developmental function in Drosophila.

  8. The extracellular matrix of Gadus morhua muscle contains types III, V, VI and IV collagens in addition to type I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Lawson, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Confocal microscopy and immuno‐histochemistry were used to examine collagens in the extracellular matrix of cod Gadus morhua swimming muscle. In addition to the well known presence of type I fibrous collagen, types III and VI were also found in the myocommata and the endomysium. The beaded collagen......, type VI, was found in the endomysium and the network forming collagen, type IV, was found in the basement membrane. This is the first report of type V collagen in cod muscle and of types II, IV and VI in the muscle of a teleost....

  9. An optimal set of features for predicting type IV secretion system effector proteins for a subset of species based on a multi-level feature selection approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhila Esna Ashari

    Full Text Available Type IV secretion systems (T4SS are multi-protein complexes in a number of bacterial pathogens that can translocate proteins and DNA to the host. Most T4SSs function in conjugation and translocate DNA; however, approximately 13% function to secrete proteins, delivering effector proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. Upon entry, these effectors manipulate the host cell's machinery for their own benefit, which can result in serious illness or death of the host. For this reason recognition of T4SS effectors has become an important subject. Much previous work has focused on verifying effectors experimentally, a costly endeavor in terms of money, time, and effort. Having good predictions for effectors will help to focus experimental validations and decrease testing costs. In recent years, several scoring and machine learning-based methods have been suggested for the purpose of predicting T4SS effector proteins. These methods have used different sets of features for prediction, and their predictions have been inconsistent. In this paper, an optimal set of features is presented for predicting T4SS effector proteins using a statistical approach. A thorough literature search was performed to find features that have been proposed. Feature values were calculated for datasets of known effectors and non-effectors for T4SS-containing pathogens for four genera with a sufficient number of known effectors, Legionella pneumophila, Coxiella burnetii, Brucella spp, and Bartonella spp. The features were ranked, and less important features were filtered out. Correlations between remaining features were removed, and dimensional reduction was accomplished using principal component analysis and factor analysis. Finally, the optimal features for each pathogen were chosen by building logistic regression models and evaluating each model. The results based on evaluation of our logistic regression models confirm the effectiveness of our four optimal sets of

  10. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and

  11. Struggling with a Gastric Volvulus Secondary to a Type IV Hiatal Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafnomilis George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Type IV hiatal hernias are characterized by herniation of the stomach along with associated viscera such as the spleen, colon, small bowel, and pancreas through the esophageal hiatus. They are relatively rare, representing only about 5%–7% of all hernias, and can be associated with severe complications. We report a 71-year-old veteran wrestler who presented to our department with a type IV paraesophageal hernia containing a gastric volvulus and treated successfully with emergency operation.

  12. AtlA Functions as a Peptidoglycan Lytic Transglycosylase in the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Type IV Secretion System▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler, Petra L.; Hamilton, Holly L.; Cloud-Hansen, Karen; Dillard, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    Type IV secretion systems require peptidoglycan lytic transglycosylases for efficient secretion, but the function of these enzymes is not clear. The type IV secretion system gene cluster of Neisseria gonorrhoeae encodes two peptidoglycan transglycosylase homologues. One, LtgX, is similar to peptidoglycan transglycosylases from other type IV secretion systems. The other, AtlA, is similar to endolysins from bacteriophages and is not similar to any described type IV secretion component. We chara...

  13. Modulation of type I immediate and type IV delayed immunoreactivity using direct suggestion and guided imagery during hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariae, R; Bjerring, P; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    1989-11-01

    Cutaneous reactivity against histamine skin prick test (Type I) and purified tuberculin protein derivative (Mantoux reaction, Type IV) was studied in eight volunteers under hypnosis. Types I and IV immunoreactivity were modulated by direct suggestion (Type I) and guided imagery (Type IV). The volunteers were highly susceptible subjects, selected by means of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A. When the volunteers underwent hypnotic suggestion to decrease the cutaneous reaction to histamine prick test, a significant (P less than 0.02) reduction of the flare reaction (area of erythema) was observed compared with control histamine skin prick tests. The wheal reaction did not respond to hypnotic suggestion. Neither wheal nor flare reaction could be increased in size by hypnotic suggestion compared with control histamine skin prick tests. A hypnotic suggestion of increasing the Type IV reaction on one arm and decreasing the reaction on the other revealed a significant difference in both erythema size (P less than 0.02) and palpable induration (P less than 0.01). In two cases the reactions were monitored by laser doppler blood flowmetry and skin thickness measurement by ultrasound. The difference between the suggested increased and decreased reaction was 19% for the laser doppler bloodflow (in favor of the augmented side), and 44% for the dermal infiltrate thickness. This study objectively supports the numerous uncontrolled case reports of modulation of immunoreactivity in allergic diseases involving both Type I and Type IV skin reactions following hypnotic suggestions.

  14. Type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A Surgical Emergency? A Case of Massive Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Stephen G; Pedro, Patrick; Yu, Mihae; Takanishi, Danny M

    2011-01-01

    Retroperitoneal hemorrhagic bleeding is a known manifestation of Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome that is caused by loss-of-function mutations of the pro-alpha-1 chains of type III pro-collagen (COL3A1) resulting in vascular fragility. A number of previous reports describe futile surgical intervention for retroperitoneal bleeding in Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome with high post-operative mortality, although the rarity of retroperitoneal bleeding associated with Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome precludes an evidence-based approach to clinical management. We report a 23-year-old male with history of Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome who presented with severe abdominal pain and tachycardia following an episode of vomiting. Further work-up of his abdominal pain revealed massive retroperitoneal bleeding by CT-scan of the abdomen. Given numerous cases of catastrophic injury caused by surgical intervention in Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, the patient was treated non-operatively, and the patient made a full recovery. This case suggests that even in cases of large retroperitoneal hemorrhages associated with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, it may not truly represent a surgical emergency. PMID:21966332

  15. On the Directivity of Low-Frequency Type IV Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Cairns, I. H.

    2016-01-01

    An intense type IV radio burst was observed by the STEREO Behind (STB) spacecraft located about 144 deg. behind Earth. The burst was associated with a large solar eruption that occurred on the backside of the Sun (N05E151) close to the disk center in the STB view. The eruption was also observed by the STEREO Ahead (STA) spacecraft (located at 149 deg. ahead of Earth) as an eruption close to the west limb (N05W60) in that view. The type IV burst was complete in STB observations in that the envelope reached the lowest frequency and then receded to higher frequencies. The burst was partial viewed from STA, revealing only the edge coming down to the lowest frequency. The type IV burst was not observed at all near Earth because the source was 61 deg. behind the east limb. The eruption was associated with a low-frequency type II burst observed in all three views, although it was not very intense. Solar energetic particles were also observed at both STEREOs and at SOHO, suggesting that the shock was much extended, consistent with the very high speed of the CME (2048 km/s). These observations suggest that the type IV emission is directed along a narrow cone above the flare site. We confirm this result statistically using the type IV bursts of solar cycle 23.

  16. Type IV collagen is a novel DEJ biomarker that is reduced by radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, J D; Gorski, J P; Dusevich, V; Wang, Y; Walker, M P

    2014-10-01

    The dental basement membrane (BM) is composed of collagen types IV, VI, VII, and XVII, fibronectin, and laminin and plays an inductive role in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during tooth development. The BM is degraded and removed during later-stage tooth morphogenesis; however, its original position defines the location of the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) in mature teeth. We recently demonstrated that type VII collagen is a novel component of the inner enamel organic matrix layer contiguous with the DEJ. Since it is frequently co-expressed with and forms functional complexes with type VII collagen, we hypothesized that type IV collagen should also be localized to the DEJ in mature human teeth. To identify collagen IV, we first evaluated defect-free erupted teeth from various donors. To investigate a possible stabilizing role, we also evaluated extracted teeth exposed to high-dose radiotherapy--teeth that manifest post-radiotherapy DEJ instability. We now show that type IV collagen is a component within the morphological DEJ of posterior and anterior teeth from individuals aged 18 to 80 yr. Confocal microscopy revealed that immunostained type IV collagen was restricted to the 5- to 10-µm-wide optical DEJ, while collagenase treatment or previous in vivo tooth-level exposure to > 60 Gray irradiation severely reduced immunoreactivity. This assignment was confirmed by Western blotting with whole-tooth crown and enamel extracts. Without reduction, type IV collagen contained macromolecular α-chains of 225 and 250 kDa. Compositionally, our results identify type IV collagen as the first macromolecular biomarker of the morphological DEJ of mature teeth. Given its network structure and propensity to stabilize the dermal-epidermal junction, we propose that a collagen-IV-enriched DEJ may, in part, explain its well-known fracture toughness, crack propagation resistance, and stability. In contrast, loss of type IV collagen may represent a biochemical rationale for the DEJ

  17. Diversity, assembly and regulation of archaeal type IV pili-like and non-type-IV pili-like surface structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassak, Kerstin; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2012-01-01

    Archaea have evolved fascinating surface structures allowing rapid adaptation to changing environments. The archaeal surface appendages display such diverse biological roles as motility, adhesion, biofilm formation, exchange of genetic material and species-specific interactions and, in turn, increase fitness of the cells. Intriguingly, despite sharing the same functions with their bacterial counterparts, the assembly mechanism of many archaeal surface structures is rather related to assembly of bacterial type IV pili. This review summarizes our state-of-the-art knowledge about unique structural and biochemical properties of archaeal surface appendages with a particular focus on archaeal type IV pili-like structures. The latter comprise not only widely distributed archaella (formerly known as archaeal flagella), but also different highly specialized archaeal pili, which are often restricted to certain species. Recent findings regarding assembly mechanisms, structural aspects and physiological roles of these type IV pili-like structures will be discussed in detail. Recently, first regulatory proteins involved in transition from both planktonic to sessile lifestyle and in assembly of archaella were identified. To conclude, we provide novel insights into regulatory mechanisms underlying the assembly of archaeal surface structures. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Minimally invasive reconstruction of acute type IV and Type V acromioclavicular separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsenis, Dimitris L; Stamoulis, Dimitris; Begkas, Dimitris; Tsamados, Stamatis

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the midterm radiologic, clinical, and functional results of the early reconstruction of the severe acromioclavicular joint dislocation using the flipptack fixation button technique. Between December 2006 and December 2009, one hundred thirty-five consecutive patients with acromioclavicular joint separations were admitted to the authors' institution. Fifty patients were included in the study. According to Rockwood classification, 29 (58%) dislocations were type IV and 21 (42%) were type V. Surgery was performed at an average of 4.2 days (range, 0-12 days) after dislocation. All dislocations were treated with the flipptack fixation button technique. All patients were evaluated at a final postoperative follow-up of 42 months (range, 36-49 months). The clinical outcome was assessed using the Constant score. The functional limitation was assessed using the bother index of the short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment. Radiographs taken immediately postoperatively and at the final follow-up assessed acromioclavicular joint reduction, coracoclavicular distance, and joint arthrosis. At the final follow-up, mean Constant score was 93.04 (range, 84-100). The average (±SD) short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment bother index was 20.88±8.95 (range, 2.0-49). No statistically significant difference was found between the acromioclavicular joint dislocation type and the clinical result (P=.227; chi-square, 6.910, Kruskal Wallis test). The regression of the coracoclavicular distance at final follow-up was not statistically significant (P=.276; chi-square, 6.319, Kruskal Wallis test). The flipptack fixation button technique is an effective alternative for the treatment of severe acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Because all objectives of the treatment were obtained, the results do not deteriorate over time. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Type IV carbonic anhydrase is present in the gills of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, K M; Bayaa, M; Kenney, L; McNeill, B; Perry, S F

    2007-01-01

    Physiological and biochemical studies have provided indirect evidence for a membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoform, similar to mammalian type IV CA, in the gills of dogfish (Squalus acanthias). This CA isoform is linked to the plasma membrane of gill epithelial cells by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and oriented toward the plasma, such that it can catalyze the dehydration of plasma HCO(3)(-) ions. The present study directly tested the hypothesis that CA IV is present in dogfish gills in a location amenable to catalyzing plasma HCO(3)(-) dehydration. Homology cloning techniques were used to assemble a 1,127 base pair cDNA that coded for a deduced protein of 306 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that this protein was a type IV CA. For purposes of comparison, a second cDNA (1,107 base pairs) was cloned from dogfish blood; it encoded a deduced protein of 260 amino acids that was identified as a cytosolic CA through phylogenetic analysis. Using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization, mRNA expression for the dogfish type IV CA was detected in gill tissue and specifically localized to pillar cells and branchial epithelial cells that flanked the pillar cells. Immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody raised against rainbow trout type IV CA revealed a similar pattern of CA IV immunoreactivity and demonstrated a limited degree of colocalization with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity. The presence and localization of a type IV CA isoform in the gills of dogfish is consistent with the hypothesis that branchial membrane-bound CA with an extracellular orientation contributes to CO(2) excretion in dogfish by catalyzing the dehydration of plasma HCO(3)(-) ions.

  20. The Role of Type IV Collagen in Developing Lens in Mouse Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jalali

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sExtracellular matrix (ECM and basement membrane (BM play important roles in many developmental processes during development and after birth. Among the components of the BM, collagen fibers specially type IV are the most important parts. The aim of this study was to determine the time when collagen type IV appears in the BM of lens structure during mouse embryonic development.Materials and MethodsIn this experimental study, 22 female Balb/C mice were randomly selected and were kept under normal condition, finding vaginal plug was assumed as day zero of pregnancy. From embryonic day 10 to 20, all specimens were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and their heads were fixed, serially sectioned and immunohistochemistry study for tracing collagen type IV in lens were carried out.ResultsOur data revealed that collagen type IV appeared at the early stage of gestation day 12 in BM of anterior epithelial lens cells and the amount of this protein gradually increased until days 15-17 in ECM and posterior capsule epithelium. After this period, severe reaction was not observed in any part of the lens.ConclusionThese findings establish the important role of collagen IV in developing optic cup and any changes during critical period of pregnancy may be result in severe visual system defect

  1. Spontaneous Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in the Type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Gyun; Cho, Won-Sang; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun

    2014-02-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited connective disease. Among several subgroups, type IV EDS is frequently associated with spontaneous catastrophic bleeding from a vascular fragility. We report on a case of carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a patient with type IV EDS. A 46-year-old female presented with an ophthalmoplegia and chemosis in the right eye. Subsequently, seizure and cerebral infarction with micro-bleeds occurred. CCF was completely occluded with transvenous coil embolization without complications. Thereafter, the patient was completely recovered. Transvenous coil embolization can be a good treatment of choice for spontaneous CCF with type IV EDS. However, every caution should be kept during invasive procedure.

  2. Spontaneous Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in the Type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Gyun; Cho, Won-Sang; Kim, Jeong Eun

    2014-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited connective disease. Among several subgroups, type IV EDS is frequently associated with spontaneous catastrophic bleeding from a vascular fragility. We report on a case of carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a patient with type IV EDS. A 46-year-old female presented with an ophthalmoplegia and chemosis in the right eye. Subsequently, seizure and cerebral infarction with micro-bleeds occurred. CCF was completely occluded with transvenous coil embolization without complications. Thereafter, the patient was completely recovered. Transvenous coil embolization can be a good treatment of choice for spontaneous CCF with type IV EDS. However, every caution should be kept during invasive procedure. PMID:24653803

  3. Polyvalent type IV sensitizations to multiple fragrances and a skin protection cream in a metal worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Zita; Shab, Arna; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Weisshaar, Elke

    2009-06-01

    Fragrances are very common in everyday products. A metalworker with chronic hand eczema and previously diagnosed type IV sensitizations to epoxy resin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix and fragrance mix II was diagnosed with additional type IV sensitizations to geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, lilial, tree moss, oak moss absolute, citral, citronellol, farnesol, Lyral, fragrance mix II and fragrance mix (with sorbitan sesquioleate). In addition, a type IV sensitization to the skin protection cream containing geraniol and citronellol used at the workplace was detected, and deemed occupationally relevant in this case. The patient could have had contact to fragrances through private use of cosmetics and detergents. On the other hand, the fragrance-containing skin protection cream supports occupational exposure. This case report demonstrates that fragrance contact allergy has to be searched for and clarified individually, which requires a thorough history and a detailed analysis of the work place.

  4. Clinical application of antenatal genetic diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Li, Song; Xu, YeYe; Cong, Lin

    2015-04-02

    Clinical analysis and genetic testing of a family with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV were conducted, aiming to discuss antenatal genetic diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type IV. Preliminary genotyping was performed based on clinical characteristics of the family members and then high-throughput sequencing was applied to rapidly and accurately detect the changes in candidate genes. Genetic testing of the III5 fetus and other family members revealed missense mutation in c.2746G>A, pGly916Arg in COL1A2 gene coding region and missense and synonymous mutation in COL1A1 gene coding region. Application of antenatal genetic diagnosis provides fast and accurate genetic counseling and eugenics suggestions for patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV and their families.

  5. The Prognostic and Predictive Value of Soluble Type IV Collagen in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolff, Hans Christian; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Vainer, Ben

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the prognostic and predictive biomarker value of type IV collagen in colorectal cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Retrospective evaluation of two independent cohorts of patients with colorectal cancer included prospectively in 2004-2005 (training set) and 2006-2008 (validation....... RESULTS: High levels of type IV collagen showed independent prognostic significance in both cohorts with hazard ratios (HRs; for a one-unit change on the log base 2 scale) of 2.25 [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.78-2.84; P ... and validation set, respectively. The prognostic impact was present both in patients with metastatic and nonmetastatic disease. The predictive value of the marker was investigated in stage II and III patients. In the training set, type IV collagen was prognostic both in the subsets of patients receiving...

  6. A Solar Stationary Type IV Radio Burst and Its Radiation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Chen, Yao; Cho, Kyungsuk; Feng, Shiwei; Vasanth, Veluchamy; Koval, Artem; Du, Guohui; Wu, Zhao; Li, Chuanyang

    2018-04-01

    A stationary Type IV (IVs) radio burst was observed on September 24, 2011. Observations from the Nançay RadioHeliograph (NRH) show that the brightness temperature (TB) of this burst is extremely high, over 10^{11} K at 150 MHz and over 108 K in general. The degree of circular polarization (q) is between -60% ˜ -100%, which means that it is highly left-handed circularly polarized. The flux-frequency spectrum follows a power-law distribution, and the spectral index is considered to be roughly -3 ˜ -4 throughout the IVs. Radio sources of this event are located in the wake of the coronal mass ejection and are spatially dispersed. They line up to present a formation in which lower-frequency sources are higher. Based on these observations, it is suggested that the IVs was generated through electron cyclotron maser emission.

  7. Clinical significance of determination of serum collagen type IV (IV-C) and transforming growth factor beta1(TGF-β1) levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongfang; Peng Liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of determination of serum collagen type IV (IV-C) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β 1 ) levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Serum IV-C levels ( with RIA) and TGF-β 1 levels (with ELISA) were determined in 30 controls and 105 patients with type II diabetis mellitus (45 with diabetic nephropathy and 60 without nephropathy). Results: The serum levels of IV-C and TGF-β 1 in diabetic patients with nephropathy were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IV-C and TGF-β 1 , levels increased gradually as the diabetic nephropathy got more severe, they could be used as sensitive markers for early diagnosis of development of diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  8. Cardiac arrest after anesthetic management in a patient with hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Ergül

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV is a rare disorder with an autosomal recessive transmission and characterized by self-mutilation due to a lack in pain and heat sensation. Recurrent hyperpyrexia and anhydrosis are seen in patients as a result of a lack of sweat gland innervation. Self-mutilation and insensitivity to pain result in orthopedic complications and patients undergone recurrent surgical interventions with anesthesia. However, these patients are prone to perioperative complications such as hyperthermia, hypothermia, and cardiac complications like bradycardia and hypotension. We report a 5-year-old boy with hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV, developing hyperpyrexia and cardiac arrest after anesthesia.

  9. Cardiac arrest after anesthetic management in a patient with hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergül, Yakup; Ekici, Bariş; Keskin, Sabiha

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV is a rare disorder with an autosomal recessive transmission and characterized by self-mutilation due to a lack in pain and heat sensation. Recurrent hyperpyrexia and anhydrosis are seen in patients as a result of a lack of sweat gland innervation. Self-mutilation and insensitivity to pain result in orthopedic complications and patients undergone recurrent surgical interventions with anesthesia. However, these patients are prone to perioperative complications such as hyperthermia, hypothermia, and cardiac complications like bradycardia and hypotension. We report a 5-year-old boy with hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV, developing hyperpyrexia and cardiac arrest after anesthesia.

  10. Two type IV pili of Vibrio parahaemolyticus play different roles in biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shime-Hattori, Akiko; Iida, Tetsuya; Arita, Michiko; Park, Kwon-Sam; Kodama, Toshio; Honda, Takeshi

    2006-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633 has two sets of type IV-A pilus genes. One set is similar to that found in other Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae (chitin-regulated pilus; ChiRP), and Vibrio vulnificus. The other is homologous to the genes for the mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) pilus. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the deletions in the pilin genes for each type IV pilus (the ChiRP and the MSHA pilus) on biofilm formation. Although the MSHA pilin mutant formed aggregates, the number of bacteria that attached directly to the coverslip was reduced, suggesting that this pilus contributes to the bacterial attachment to the surface of the coverslip. In contrast, the ChiRP mutant attached to the surface of the coverslip, but did not form aggregates, suggesting that ChiRP plays a role in bacterial agglutination during biofilm formation. These results suggest that the two type IV pili of V. parahaemolyticus contribute to biofilm formation in different ways. Both mutants showed a lower fitness for adsorption onto chitin particles than that of the wild type. Collectively, these data suggest that the use of two type IV pili is a refined strategy of V. parahaemolyticus for survival in natural environments.

  11. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors: a promising new therapeutic approach for the management of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, Carolyn F; Holst, Jens J

    2005-01-01

    of appetite. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is, however, extremely rapidly inactivated by the serine peptidase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, so that the native peptide is not useful clinically. A new approach to utilise the beneficial effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 in the treatment of type 2 diabetes has been...... the development of orally active dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that this approach is effective in enhancing endogenous levels of glucagon-like peptide-1, resulting in improved glucose tolerance in glucose-intolerant and diabetic animal models. In recent studies of 3......-12 months duration in patients with type 2 diabetes, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors have proved efficacious, both as monotherapy and when given in combination with metformin. Fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations were reduced, leading to reductions in glycosylated haemoglobin levels, while...

  12. Different assembly of type IV collagen on hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrata alters endothelial cells interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NM Coelho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the structural role of type IV collagen (Col IV in the assembly of the basement membrane (BM and the perspective of mimicking its organization for vascular tissue engineering purposes, we studied the adsorption pattern of this protein on model hydrophilic (clean glass and hydrophobic trichloro(octadecylsilane (ODS surfaces known to strongly affect the behavior of other matrix proteins. The amount of fluorescently labeled Col IV was quantified showing saturation of the surface for concentration of the adsorbing solution of about 50μg/ml, but with approximately twice more adsorbed protein on ODS. AFM studies revealed a fine – nearly single molecular size – network arrangement of Col IV on hydrophilic glass, which turns into a prominent and growing polygonal network consisting of molecular aggregates on hydrophobic ODS. The protein layer forms within minutes in a concentration-dependent manner. We further found that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC attach less efficiently to the aggregated Col IV (on ODS, as judged by the significantly altered cell spreading, focal adhesions formation and the development of actin cytoskeleton. Conversely, the immunofluorescence studies for integrins revealed that the fine Col IV network formed on hydrophilic substrata is better recognized by the cells via both α1 and α2 heterodimers which support cellular interaction, apart from these on hydrophobic ODS where almost no clustering of integrins was observed.

  13. Dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV inhibition augments postprandial lipid mobilization and oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschmann, M.; Engeli, S.; Dobberstein, K.; Budziarek, P.; Strauss, A.; Boehnke, J.; Sweep, F.C.; Luft, F.C.; He, Y.; Foley, J.E.; Jordan, J.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV (DPP-4) inhibition increases endogenous GLP-1 activity, resulting in improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The metabolic response may be explained in part by extrapancreatic mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that DPP-4

  14. Sensing of Bacterial Type IV Secretion via the Unfolded Protein Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maarten F.; Starr, Tregei; Winter, Maria G.; den Hartigh, Andreas B.; Child, Robert; Knodler, Leigh A.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Celli, Jean; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2013-01-01

    Host cytokine responses to Brucella abortus infection are elicited predominantly by the deployment of a type IV secretion system (T4SS). However, the mechanism by which the T4SS elicits inflammation remains unknown. Here we show that translocation of the T4SS substrate VceC into host cells induces

  15. Tibial lengthening for unilateral Crowe type-IV developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Tibial lengthening may effectively correct gait and satisfactorily improve body image in young patients with unilateral Crowe type-IV DDH. Mono-lateral external fixator allows for accelerated postoperative rehabilitation and optimal preservation of ankle movements. Lengthening along with intramedullary nails may significantly reduce the external fixation time and the risk of fixator-related complications.

  16. Elective reconstruction of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm type IV by transabdominal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA type IV represents an aortic dilatation from the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus to the iliac arteries branches, including visceral branches of the aorta. In the traditional procedure of TAAA type IV repair, the body is opened using thoractomy and laparotomy in order to provide adequate exposure of the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta for safe aortic reconstruction. Case report. We reported a 71-yearold man with elective reconstruction of the TAAA type IV performed by transabdominal approach. Computed tomography scans angiography revealed a TAAA type IV with diameter of 62 mm in the region of celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery branching, and the largest diameter of 75 mm in the infrarenal aortic level. The patient comorbidity included a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypertension, therefore he was treated for a prolonged period. In preparation for the planned aortic reconstruction asymptomatic carotid disease (occlusion of the left internal carotid artery and subtotal stenosis of the right internal carotid artery was diagnosed. Within the same intervention percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement in right internal carotid artery was made. In general, under endotracheal anesthesia and epidural analgesia, with transabdominal approach performed aortic reconstruction with tubular dakron graft 24 mm were, and reimplantation of visceral aortic branches into the graft performed. Postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the postoperative day 17. Control computed tomography scan angiography performed three months after the operation showed vascular state of the patient to be in order. Conclusion. Complete transabdominal approach to TAAA type IV represents an appropriate substitute for thoracoabdominal approach, without compromising safety of the patient. This approach is less traumatic, especially in patients with impaired

  17. The nebular spectra of the transitional Type Ia Supernovae 2007on and 2011iv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzali, P. A.; Ashall, C.; Pian, E.

    2018-01-01

    The nebular-epoch spectrum of the rapidly declining, 'transitional' Type Ia supernova (SN) 2007on showed double emission peaks, which have been interpreted as indicating that the SN was the result of the direct collision of two white dwarfs. The spectrum can be reproduced using two distinct...... be expected for the bolometric luminosity of the SN. This is the case for both SNe 2007on and 2011iv, also a transitional SN Ia that exploded in the same elliptical galaxy, NGC1404. Although SN 2011iv does not show double-peaked emission line profiles, the width of its emission lines is such that a two...

  18. Immunotherapy using regulatory T cells in cancer suggests more flavors of hypersensitivity type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan, Nafiseh; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) profoundly affect tumor microenvironment and exert dominant suppression over antitumor immunity in response to self-antigen expressed by tumor. Immunotherapy targeting Tregs lead to a significant improvement in antitumor immunity. Intradermal injection of tumor antigen results in negative delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) type IV. However, anti-Tregs treatment/use of adjuvant along with tumor antigens turns DTH to positive. Considering Tregs as the earliest tumor sensor/responders, tumor can be regarded as Treg-mediated type IV hypersensitivity and negative DTH to tumor antigen is due to anti-inflammatory action of Tregs to tumor antigens at the injection site. Such a view would help us in basic and clinical situations to testify a candidate vaccine via dermal administration and evaluation of Treg proportion at injection site.

  19. Coxiella burnetii Lipopolysaccharide: What Do We Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnave, Prasad; Muracciole, Xavier; Ghigo, Eric

    2017-01-01

    A small gram-negative bacterium, Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii), is responsible for a zoonosis called Q fever. C. burnetii is an intracellular bacterium that can survive inside microbicidal cells like monocytes and macrophages by hijacking several functions of the immune system. Among several virulence factors, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of C. burnetii is one of the major factors involved in this immune hijacking because of its atypical composition and structure. Thus, the aim of this mini-review is to summarize the repressive effects of C. burnetii LPS on the antibacterial immunity of cells. PMID:29168790

  20. Coxiella burnetii Lipopolysaccharide: What Do We Know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Abnave

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A small gram-negative bacterium, Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii, is responsible for a zoonosis called Q fever. C. burnetii is an intracellular bacterium that can survive inside microbicidal cells like monocytes and macrophages by hijacking several functions of the immune system. Among several virulence factors, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS of C. burnetii is one of the major factors involved in this immune hijacking because of its atypical composition and structure. Thus, the aim of this mini-review is to summarize the repressive effects of C. burnetii LPS on the antibacterial immunity of cells.

  1. The Recent Evolution of a Maternally-Inherited Endosymbiont of Ticks Led to the Emergence of the Q Fever Pathogen, Coxiella burnetii.

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    Olivier Duron

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a highly infectious disease with a worldwide distribution. Its causative agent, the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii, infects a variety of vertebrate species, including humans. Its evolutionary origin remains almost entirely unknown and uncertainty persists regarding the identity and lifestyle of its ancestors. A few tick species were recently found to harbor maternally-inherited Coxiella-like organisms engaged in symbiotic interactions, but their relationships to the Q fever pathogen remain unclear. Here, we extensively sampled ticks, identifying new and atypical Coxiella strains from 40 of 58 examined species, and used this data to infer the evolutionary processes leading to the emergence of C. burnetii. Phylogenetic analyses of multi-locus typing and whole-genome sequencing data revealed that Coxiella-like organisms represent an ancient and monophyletic group allied to ticks. Remarkably, all known C. burnetii strains originate within this group and are the descendants of a Coxiella-like progenitor hosted by ticks. Using both colony-reared and field-collected gravid females, we further establish the presence of highly efficient maternal transmission of these Coxiella-like organisms in four examined tick species, a pattern coherent with an endosymbiotic lifestyle. Our laboratory culture assays also showed that these Coxiella-like organisms were not amenable to culture in the vertebrate cell environment, suggesting different metabolic requirements compared to C. burnetii. Altogether, this corpus of data demonstrates that C. burnetii recently evolved from an inherited symbiont of ticks which succeeded in infecting vertebrate cells, likely by the acquisition of novel virulence factors.

  2. Effect of shelf life on compressive strength of type iv gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumastuti, K. S.; Irawan, B.; Damiyanti, M.

    2017-08-01

    Type IV gypsum, as a dental material for an indirect restoration’s working model, should have strength and abrasive-resistant properties. These properties depend on the product’s shelf life and its proper storage, which sometimes are easily missed by sellers. The aim of this research was to observe the effect of shelf life on the compressive strength of type IV gypsum with different production dates. Twenty cylindrical specimens were separated into two groups with different production dates and tested with a universal testing with the crosshead speed of 1 mm per minute and a load of 2,500 kgf. The data were analyzed with independent t-tests. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the compressive strength between the two groups with an increase in compressive strength seen in the gypsum that was stored longer.

  3. Radioheliograph observations of a pulsating structure associated with a moving type IV burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pick, M.; Trottet, G.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of a pulsating structure with the Mark II Nancay Radioheliograph are reported. These fluctuations are found to occur early in the development of a moving type IV burst. It is confirmed that the source of these fluctuations is of small extent and that it is embedded in the moving type IV continuum, plausibly at the top of an expanding arch. The observations suggest that the pulsating structure consists of recurrent enhanced pulses (mean recurrency time 1.7 s) followed by trains of periodic pulses (mean periodicity 0.37 s). The intensity of the mean enhanced pulses has a damping time of about 5 s. It is shown that previous interpretation of the pulsating structure by Rosenberg (1970) cannot account for the present observations. (Auth.)

  4. Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein Activity Is Required for Coxiella burnetii Growth in Human Macrophages.

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    Punsiri M Colonne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes human Q fever, an acute flu-like illness that can progress to chronic endocarditis and liver and bone infections. Humans are typically infected by aerosol-mediated transmission, and C. burnetii initially targets alveolar macrophages wherein the pathogen replicates in a phagolysosome-like niche known as the parasitophorous vacuole (PV. C. burnetii manipulates host cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA signaling to promote PV formation, cell survival, and bacterial replication. In this study, we identified the actin regulatory protein vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP as a PKA substrate that is increasingly phosphorylated at S157 and S239 during C. burnetii infection. Avirulent and virulent C. burnetii triggered increased levels of phosphorylated VASP in macrophage-like THP-1 cells and primary human alveolar macrophages, and this event required the Cα subunit of PKA. VASP phosphorylation also required bacterial protein synthesis and secretion of effector proteins via a type IV secretion system, indicating the pathogen actively triggers prolonged VASP phosphorylation. Optimal PV formation and intracellular bacterial replication required VASP activity, as siRNA-mediated depletion of VASP reduced PV size and bacterial growth. Interestingly, ectopic expression of a phospho-mimetic VASP (S239E mutant protein prevented optimal PV formation, whereas VASP (S157E mutant expression had no effect. VASP (S239E expression also prevented trafficking of bead-containing phagosomes to the PV, indicating proper VASP activity is critical for heterotypic fusion events that control PV expansion in macrophages. Finally, expression of dominant negative VASP (S157A in C. burnetii-infected cells impaired PV formation, confirming importance of the protein for proper infection. This study provides the first evidence of VASP manipulation by an intravacuolar bacterial pathogen via activation of PKA

  5. Irradiation Alters MMP-2/TIMP-2 System and Collagen Type IV Degradation in Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hee [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States); Warrington, Junie P.; Sonntag, William E. [Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Lee, Yong Woo, E-mail: ywlee@vt.edu [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of the major consequences of radiation-induced normal tissue injury in the central nervous system. We examined the effects of whole-brain irradiation on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the brain. Methods and Materials: Animals received either whole-brain irradiation (a single dose of 10 Gy {gamma}-rays or a fractionated dose of 40 Gy {gamma}-rays, total) or sham-irradiation and were maintained for 4, 8, and 24 h following irradiation. mRNA expression levels of MMPs and TIMPs in the brain were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functional activity of MMPs was measured by in situ zymography, and degradation of ECM was visualized by collagen type IV immunofluorescent staining. Results: A significant increase in mRNA expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was observed in irradiated brains compared to that in sham-irradiated controls. In situ zymography revealed a strong gelatinolytic activity in the brain 24 h postirradiation, and the enhanced gelatinolytic activity mediated by irradiation was significantly attenuated in the presence of anti-MMP-2 antibody. A significant reduction in collagen type IV immunoreactivity was also detected in the brain at 24 h after irradiation. In contrast, the levels of collagen type IV were not significantly changed at 4 and 8 h after irradiation compared with the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates for the first time that radiation induces an imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels and suggests that degradation of collagen type IV, a major ECM component of BBB basement membrane, may have a role in the pathogenesis of brain injury.

  6. Irradiation Alters MMP-2/TIMP-2 System and Collagen Type IV Degradation in Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Hee; Warrington, Junie P.; Sonntag, William E.; Lee, Yong Woo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of the major consequences of radiation-induced normal tissue injury in the central nervous system. We examined the effects of whole-brain irradiation on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the brain. Methods and Materials: Animals received either whole-brain irradiation (a single dose of 10 Gy γ-rays or a fractionated dose of 40 Gy γ-rays, total) or sham-irradiation and were maintained for 4, 8, and 24 h following irradiation. mRNA expression levels of MMPs and TIMPs in the brain were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functional activity of MMPs was measured by in situ zymography, and degradation of ECM was visualized by collagen type IV immunofluorescent staining. Results: A significant increase in mRNA expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was observed in irradiated brains compared to that in sham-irradiated controls. In situ zymography revealed a strong gelatinolytic activity in the brain 24 h postirradiation, and the enhanced gelatinolytic activity mediated by irradiation was significantly attenuated in the presence of anti-MMP-2 antibody. A significant reduction in collagen type IV immunoreactivity was also detected in the brain at 24 h after irradiation. In contrast, the levels of collagen type IV were not significantly changed at 4 and 8 h after irradiation compared with the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates for the first time that radiation induces an imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels and suggests that degradation of collagen type IV, a major ECM component of BBB basement membrane, may have a role in the pathogenesis of brain injury.

  7. Atypical hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV with neither mental retardation nor pain insensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chae Lim; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Byoung Joon; Lee, Jong-Hyuck; Sung, Ki-Sun; Kim, Jong-Won; Park, Youn-Soo

    2013-12-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe mental retardation and self-mutilation-related complications. Recently, we investigated a 16-year-old Korean boy with normal intelligence. He had preserved pain sensation but was suspected of having hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV because of the recurrent bone fractures and painless joint destruction in the absence of any predisposing medical conditions. Genetic analysis of the NTRK1 gene revealed compound heterozygous mutations including c.851-33T>A and c.2303C>T (p.Pro768Leu) in the NTRK1 gene. The p.Pro768Leu mutation has been identified in 2 Japanese patients with a mild phenotype. Therefore, although it is rare, hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV should be considered in patients with recurrent bone fractures and painless joint destruction who do not have any predisposing conditions even when they do not have typical clinical features such as mental retardation or pain insensitivity.

  8. Design of fractional order differentiator using type-III and type-IV discrete cosine transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an interpolation method based on discrete cosine transform (DCT is employed for digital finite impulse response-fractional order differentiator (FIR-FOD design. Here, a fractional order digital differentiator is modeled as finite impulse response (FIR system to get an optimized frequency response that approximates the ideal response of a fractional order differentiator. Next, DCT-III and DCT-IV are utilized to determine the filter coefficients of FIR filter that compute the Fractional derivative of a given signal. To improve the frequency response of the proposed FIR-FOD, the filter coefficients are further modified using windows. Several design examples are presented to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method. The simulation results have also been compared with the existing FIR-FOD design methods such as DFT interpolation, radial basis function (RBF interpolation, DCT-II interpolation and DST interpolation methods. The result reveals that the proposed FIR-FOD design technique using DCT-III and DCT-IV outperforms DFT interpolation, RBF interpolation, DCT-II interpolation and DST interpolation methods in terms of magnitude error.

  9. Placental histopathology after Coxiella burnetii infection during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munster, J. M.; Leenders, A. C. A. P.; Hamilton, C. J. C. M.; Hak, E.; Aarnoudse, J. G.; Timmer, A.

    Symptomatic and asymptomatic Coxiella burnetii infection during pregnancy have been associated with obstetric complications. We described placental histopathology and clinical outcome of five cases with asymptomatic C burnetii infection during pregnancy and compared these cases with four symptomatic

  10. Hoge resolutie typering van Coxiella burnetii : Definitieve versie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse I; Bossers A; Roest HJ; van Rotterdam B; LZO; cib

    2011-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is een intracellulaire bacterie die Q-koorts veroorzaakt. De genoomsequenties van een aantal isolaten die verkregen werden tijdens de Nederlandse Q-koorts uitbraak werden opgehelderd. Deze genoomsequenties dienen als basis voor verbeterde typeringsmethodes die nauwkeurigere

  11. Alogliptin, a potent and selective dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, Carolyn F

    2008-01-01

    Takeda San Diego Inc is developing alogliptin, a small-molecule, orally available dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitor, for the potential treatment of type 2 diabetes. In January 2008, Takeda announced that an NDA for alogliptin had been submitted to the FDA.......Takeda San Diego Inc is developing alogliptin, a small-molecule, orally available dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitor, for the potential treatment of type 2 diabetes. In January 2008, Takeda announced that an NDA for alogliptin had been submitted to the FDA....

  12. Bowel perforation in type IV vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Masri, H; Loong, T-H; Meurette, G; Podevin, J; Zinzindohoue, F; Lehur, P-A

    2018-05-01

    Spontaneous gastrointestinal (GI) perforation is a well-known complication occurring in patients suffering from Type IV vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS IV). The aim of the present study was to review the current literature on spontaneous GI perforation in EDS IV and illustrate the surgical management and outcome when possible. A systematic review of all the published data on EDS IV patients with spontaneous GI perforation between January 2000 and December 2015 was conducted using three major databases PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trails. References of the selected articles were screened to avoid missing main articles. Twenty-seven published case reports and four retrospective studies, including 31 and 527 cases, respectively, matched the search criteria. A case from our institution was added. Mean age was 26 years (range 6-64 years). The most frequent site of perforation was the colon, particularly the sigmoid, followed by small bowel, upper rectum, and finally stomach. The majority of cases were initially managed with Hartmann's procedure. In recurrent perforations, total colectomy was performed. The reperforation rate was considerably higher in the "partial colectomy with anastomosis" group than in the Hartmann group. Colonic perforation is the most common spontaneous GI perforation in EDS IV patients. An unexpected fragility of the tissues should raise the possibility of a connective tissue disorder and prompt further investigation with eventual management of these high-risk patients with a multidisciplinary team approach in dedicated centres. In the emergency setting, a Hartmann procedure should be performed.

  13. Molecular methods routinely used to detect Coxiella burnetii in ticks cross-react with Coxiella-like bacteria

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    Jourdain Elsa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Q fever is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. Ticks may act as vectors, and many epidemiological studies aim to assess C. burnetii prevalence in ticks. Because ticks may also be infected with Coxiella-like bacteria, screening tools that differentiate between C. burnetii and Coxiella-like bacteria are essential. Methods: In this study, we screened tick specimens from 10 species (Ornithodoros rostratus, O. peruvianus, O. capensis, Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. decoloratus, R. geigy, O. sonrai, O. occidentalis, and Amblyomma cajennense known to harbor specific Coxiella-like bacteria, by using quantitative PCR primers usually considered to be specific for C. burnetii and targeting, respectively, the IS1111, icd, scvA, p1, and GroEL/htpB genes. Results: We found that some Coxiella-like bacteria, belonging to clades A and C, yield positive PCR results when screened with primers initially believed to be C. burnetii-specific. Conclusions: These results suggest that PCR-based surveys that aim to detect C. burnetii in ticks by using currently available methods must be interpreted with caution if the amplified products cannot be sequenced. Future molecular methods that aim at detecting C. burnetii need to take into account the possibility that cross-reactions may exist with Coxiella-like bacteria.

  14. AtlA functions as a peptidoglycan lytic transglycosylase in the Neisseria gonorrhoeae type IV secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Petra L; Hamilton, Holly L; Cloud-Hansen, Karen; Dillard, Joseph P

    2007-08-01

    Type IV secretion systems require peptidoglycan lytic transglycosylases for efficient secretion, but the function of these enzymes is not clear. The type IV secretion system gene cluster of Neisseria gonorrhoeae encodes two peptidoglycan transglycosylase homologues. One, LtgX, is similar to peptidoglycan transglycosylases from other type IV secretion systems. The other, AtlA, is similar to endolysins from bacteriophages and is not similar to any described type IV secretion component. We characterized the enzymatic function of AtlA in order to examine its role in the type IV secretion system. Purified AtlA was found to degrade macromolecular peptidoglycan and to produce 1,6-anhydro peptidoglycan monomers, characteristic of lytic transglycosylase activity. We found that AtlA can functionally replace the lambda endolysin to lyse Escherichia coli. In contrast, a sensitive measure of lysis demonstrated that AtlA does not lyse gonococci expressing it or gonococci cocultured with an AtlA-expressing strain. The gonococcal type IV secretion system secretes DNA during growth. A deletion of ltgX or a substitution in the putative active site of AtlA severely decreased DNA secretion. These results indicate that AtlA and LtgX are actively involved in type IV secretion and that AtlA is not involved in lysis of gonococci to release DNA. This is the first demonstration that a type IV secretion peptidoglycanase has lytic transglycosylase activity. These data show that AtlA plays a role in type IV secretion of DNA that requires peptidoglycan breakdown without cell lysis.

  15. Inactivation of Coxiella burnetti by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.H.; McCaul, T.F.; Williams, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The gamma radiation inactivation kinetics for Coxiella burnetii at - 79 C were exponential. The radiation dose needed to reduce the number of infective C. burnetii by 90% varied from 0-64 to 1.2 kGy depending on the phase of hte micro-organism, purity of the culture and composition of suspending menstruum. The viability of preparations containing C. burnetti was completely abolished by 10 kGy without diminishing antigenicity or ability to elicit a protective immune response in vaccinated mice. Immunocytochemical examinations using monoclonal antibodies and electron microscopy demonstrated that radiation doses of 20 kGy did not alter cell-wall morphology or cell-surface antigenic epitopes.

  16. Inactivation of Coxiella burnetii by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.H.; McCaul, T.F. (Army Medical Research Inst. of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD (USA)); Williams, J.C. (National Inst. of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The gamma radiation inactivation kinetics for Coxiella burnetii at - 79{sup 0}C were exponential. The radiation dose needed to reduce the number of infective C. burnetii by 90% varied from 0.64 to 1.2 kGy depending on the phase of the micro-organism, purity of the culture and composition of suspending menstruum. The viability of preparations containing 10{sup 11} C. burnetii ml{sup -1} was completely abolished by 10 kGy without diminishing antigenicity or ability to elicit a protective immune response in vaccinated mice. Immunocytochemical examinations using monoclonal antibodies and electron microscopy demonstrated that radiation doses of 20 kGy did not alter cell-wall morphology or cell-surface antigenic epitopes. (author).

  17. Inactivation of Coxiella burnetii by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, G.H.; McCaul, T.F.; Williams, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The gamma radiation inactivation kinetics for Coxiella burnetii at - 79 0 C were exponential. The radiation dose needed to reduce the number of infective C. burnetii by 90% varied from 0.64 to 1.2 kGy depending on the phase of the micro-organism, purity of the culture and composition of suspending menstruum. The viability of preparations containing 10 11 C. burnetii ml -1 was completely abolished by 10 kGy without diminishing antigenicity or ability to elicit a protective immune response in vaccinated mice. Immunocytochemical examinations using monoclonal antibodies and electron microscopy demonstrated that radiation doses of 20 kGy did not alter cell-wall morphology or cell-surface antigenic epitopes. (author)

  18. Endovascular Treatment of a Carotid Dissecting Pseudoaneurysm in a Patient with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV with Fatal Outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Siok Ping; Duddy, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    We present a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV (EDS IV) with a carotid dissecting pseudoaneurysm causing severe carotid stenosis. This lesion was treated endovascularly. Unfortunately, the patient died of remote vascular catastrophes (intracranial hemorrhage and abdominal aortic rupture). This unique case illustrates the perils of endovascular treatment of EDS IV patients and the need for preoperative screening for concomitant lesions. It also shows that a dissecting pseudoaneurysm can feasibly be treated with a covered stent and that closure is effective using Angioseal in patients with EDS IV

  19. Percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation in the management of unresectable Bismuth types III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Cui, Wei; Fan, Wenzhe; Zhang, Yingqiang; Yao, Wang; Huang, Kunbo; Li, Jiaping

    2016-08-16

    To assess the feasibility and safety of percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for unresectable Bismuth types III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Percutaneous intraductal RFA combined with metal stent placement was successful in all patients without any technical problems; the technical success rate was 100%. Chemotherapy was administered to two patients. After treatment, serum direct bilirubin levels were notably decreased. Six patients died during the follow-up period. Median stent patency from the time of the first RFA and survival from the time of diagnosis were 100 days (95% confidence interval (CI), 85-115 days) and 5.3 months (95% CI, 2.5-8.1 months), respectively. No acute pancreatitis, bile duct bleeding and perforation, bile leakage, or other severe complications occurred. Four cases of procedure-related cholangitis, three cases of postoperative abdominal pain, and five cases of asymptomatic transient increase in serum amylase were observed. One patient who presented with stent blockage 252 days' post-procedure underwent repeat ablation. Between September 2013 and May 2015, nine patients with unresectable Bismuth types III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma who were treated with percutaneous intraductal RFA combined with metal stent placement after the percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage were included in the retrospective analysis. Procedure-related complications, stent patency, and survival after treatment were investigated. Percutaneous intraductal RFA combined with metal stent placement is a technically safe and feasible therapeutic option for the palliative treatment of unresectable Bismuth types III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Its long-term efficacy and safety is promising, but needs further study via randomized and prospective trials that include a greater number of patients.

  20. The gonococcal genetic island and type IV secretion in the pathogenic Neisseria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E Ramsey

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Eighty percent of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains and some Neisseria meningitidis strains encode a 57 kb gonococcal genetic island (GGI. The GGI was horizontally acquired and is inserted in the chromosome at the replication terminus. The GGI is flanked by direct repeats, and site-specific recombination at these sites results in excision of the GGI and may be responsible for its original acquisition. Although the role of the GGI in N. meningitidis is unclear, the GGI in N. gonorrhoeae encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS. Type IV secretion systems are versatile multi-protein complexes and include both conjugation systems as well as effector systems that translocate either proteins or DNA-protein complexes. In N. gonorrhoeae, the T4SS secretes single-stranded chromosomal DNA into the extracellular milieu in a contact-independent manner. Importantly, the DNA secreted through the T4SS is effective in natural transformation and therefore contributes to the spread of genetic information through Neisseria populations. Mutagenesis experiments have identified genes for DNA secretion including those encoding putative structural components of the apparatus, peptidoglycanases which may act in assembly, and relaxosome components for processing the DNA and delivering it to the apparatus. The T4SS may also play a role in infection by N. gonorrhoeae. During intracellular infection, N. gonorrhoeae requires the Ton complex for iron acquisition and survival. However, N. gonorrhoeae strains that do not express the Ton complex can survive intracellularly if they express structural components of the T4SS. These data provide evidence that the T4SS is expressed during intracellular infection and suggest that the T4SS may provide an advantage for intracellular survival. Here we review our current understanding of how the GGI and type IV secretion affect natural transformation and pathogenesis in N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis.

  1. [Longitudinal preputial pedicled flap urethroplasty for chordee of Donnahoo type IV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Li; Shan, Wei; Yuan, Miao; Huang, Guizhen; Huang, Lugang

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of longitudinal preputial pedicled flap urethroplasty for chordee of Donnahoo IV type. Between June 1994 and October 2011, 30 patients with chordee (Donnahoo type IV) underwent longitudinal preputial pedicled flap urethroplasty. The patients' age ranged from 2 to 16 years (mean, 5.8 years). The morphology of the balanus-navicular fossa-external urethral orifice ranged normal; the penis length was 2.5-6.8 cm (mean, 4.3 cm); the penis bending angle was 35-70 degrees (mean, 40.1 degrees). Primary and secondary operation was 27 cases and 3 cases, respectively. The size of flap ranged from 1.5 cm x 1.3 cm to 4.0 cm x 2.0 cm. After correction, the penis length was 3.0-8.5 cm (mean, 6.6 cm); the penis bending angle was 0-10 degrees (mean, 1.2 degrees). All patients were followed up 6 months to 12 years (mean, 33 months). No recurrence, stabbing pain of the balanus, or foreign body sensation occurred during follow-up. Of them, 4 patients (13.33%) had urinary fistular, they had satisfactory results after the second operation; 2 patients (6.67%) had urethral stricture 1 month after operation, they also had satisfactory results after arethral dilatation. The other patients showed no scattering urinary flow and good direction without complication. Six patients had satisfactory sexual function after puberty without erection disorder, pain, or dyspareunia. Longitudinal preputial pedicled flap urethroplasty can achieve maximum utilization of prepuce and aesthetic and functional improvement with less complication, so it is a relatively ideal mean for treating chordee of Donnahoo type IV.

  2. [Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV: a report on two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouri, E; Gribaa, M; Bouguila, J; Haddad, S; Souayeh, N; Saad, A; Essoussi, A S

    2011-04-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of unexplained fever, extensive anhidrosis, total insensitivity to pain, hypotonia, and mental retardation. The absence of urticarial reaction to intradermal injection of histamine is a sign of great diagnostic value, but this is common to all types of HSAN. The most frequent complications of this disease are corneal scarring, multiple fractures, joint deformities, osteomyelitis, and disabling self-mutilations. Malignant hyperthermia and sepsis are major causes of mortality. We relate the first observations of two Tunisian children with genetically confirmed HSAN IV. Our goal is to review the clinical aspects of this mysterious neuropathy and to emphasize the peculiarities of its management. These two patients are brothers from 1st-degree consanguineous parents (cousins) with no particular medical history. The 1st patient, the family's 1st child, presented in the 1st h of life with hypotonia and persistent fever, which was refractory to antipyretics. At the age of 8 months, the patient presented recurrent febrile seizures and developed significant self-mutilations of the fingers and tongue. He died 3 months later in a context of multivisceral failure from sepsis and malignant hyperthermia. The 2nd patient, currently aged 4 years, was born after a normal sister. He consulted in the neonatal period for a high fever. The diagnosis of HSAN IV was rapidly suspected and genetically confirmed. In fact, this patient is homozygous for the NTRK1 gene, whereas his sister and both parents are heterozygous. Special predispositions have been taken to improve the course of the disease such as air conditioning to control hyperthermia, a dental tray to reduce the injuries resulting from self-mutilation, regular moistening of the eyes to avoid corneal drying, and chlorpromazine to control hyperactivity and reduce injuries. The good progression

  3. Identification of capsule, biofilm, lateral flagellum, and type IV pili in Vibrio mimicus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercero-Alburo, J J; González-Márquez, H; Bonilla-González, E; Quiñones-Ramírez, E I; Vázquez-Salinas, C

    2014-11-01

    Vibrio mimicus is a bacterium that causes gastroenteritis; it is closely related to Vibrio cholerae, and can cause acute diarrhea like cholera- or dysentery-type diarrhea. It is distributed worldwide. Factors associated with virulence (such as hemolysins, enterotoxins, proteases, phospholipases, aerobactin, and hemagglutinin) have been identified; however, its pathogenicity mechanism is still unknown. In pathogenic Vibrio species such as V. cholerae, Vibrio. parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, capsule, biofilms, lateral flagellum, and type IV pili are structures described as essential for pathogenicity. These structures had not been described in V. mimicus until this work. We used 20 V. mimicus strains isolated from water (6), oyster (9), and fish (5) samples and we were able to identify the capsule, biofilm, lateral flagellum, and type IV pili through phenotypic tests, electron microscopy, PCR, and sequencing. In all tested strains, we observed and identified the presence of capsular exopolysaccharide, biofilm formation in an in vitro model, as well as swarming, multiple flagellation, and pili. In addition, we identified homologous genes to those described in other bacteria of the genus in which these structures have been found. Identification of these structures in V. mimicus is a contribution to the biology of this organism and can help to reveal its pathogenic behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamic Analysis of an Impulsively Controlled Predator-Prey Model with Holling Type IV Functional Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhen Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of a predator-prey model with Holling type IV functional response is investigated with respect to impulsive control strategies. The model is analyzed to obtain the conditions under which the system is locally asymptotically stable and permanent. Existence of a positive periodic solution of the system and the boundedness of the system is also confirmed. Furthermore, numerical analysis is used to discover the influence of impulsive perturbations. The system is found to exhibit rich dynamics such as symmetry-breaking pitchfork bifurcation, chaos, and nonunique dynamics.

  5. Chaos in periodically forced Holling type IV predator-prey system with impulsive perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuwen; Tan Dejun; Chen Lansun

    2006-01-01

    The effect of periodic forcing and impulsive perturbations on predator-prey model with Holling type IV functional response is investigated. The periodic forcing is affected by assuming a periodic variation in the intrinsic growth rate of the prey. The impulsive perturbations are affected by introducing periodic constant impulsive immigration of predator. The dynamical behavior of the system is simulated and bifurcation diagrams are obtained for different parameters. The results show that periodic forcing and impulsive perturbation can easily give rise to complex dynamics, including (1) quasi-periodic oscillating, (2) period doubling cascade, (3) chaos, (4) period halfing cascade

  6. Apolipoprotein(a) Kringle-IV Type 2 Copy Number Variation Is Associated with Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sticchi, Elena; Magi, Alberto; Kamstrup, Pia R

    2016-01-01

    (a), including the kringle-IV type 2 (KIV-2) size polymorphism. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of LPA gene KIV-2 size polymorphism and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1853021, rs1800769, rs3798220, rs10455872) in modulating VTE susceptibility. Five hundred and sixteen patients with VTE...... without hereditary and acquired thrombophilia and 1117 healthy control subjects, comparable for age and sex, were investigated. LPA KIV-2 polymorphism, rs3798220 and rs10455872 SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan technology. Concerning rs1853021 and rs1800769 SNPs, PCR-RFLP assay was used. LPA KIV-2 repeat...

  7. Atlas of fine structures of dynamic spectra of solar type IV-dm and some type II radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slottje, C.

    1982-01-01

    The author presents an atlas of spectral fine structures of solar radio bursts of types IV and II around 1 m wavelength, as obtained with a multichannel spectrograph at Dwingeloo. The structures form largely a collection of observations of these events during late 1968 through 1974, thus covering almost entirely the declining branch of solar cycle 20. The spectrograph has an extra enhanced contrast output with properties quite different from those of the commonly used swept frequency spectrographs. The corresponding instrumental characteristics and effects are discussed. A classification of fine structures and an analysis of their statistical properties and of those of the pertinent radio events are also given. (Auth.)

  8. Systemic Correction of Murine Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV by an AAV-Mediated Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Haiqing; Zhang, Quan; Brooks, Elizabeth D; Yang, Chunyu; Thurberg, Beth L; Kishnani, Priya S; Sun, Baodong

    2017-03-01

    Deficiency of glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) causes glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV), which is characterized by the accumulation of a less branched, poorly soluble form of glycogen called polyglucosan (PG) in multiple tissues. This study evaluates the efficacy of gene therapy with an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector in a mouse model of adult form of GSD IV (Gbe1 ys/ys ). An AAV serotype 9 (AAV9) vector containing a human GBE expression cassette (AAV-GBE) was intravenously injected into 14-day-old Gbe1 ys/ys mice at a dose of 5 × 10 11 vector genomes per mouse. Mice were euthanized at 3 and 9 months of age. In the AAV-treated mice at 3 months of age, GBE enzyme activity was highly elevated in heart, which is consistent with the high copy number of the viral vector genome detected. GBE activity also increased significantly in skeletal muscles and the brain, but not in the liver. The glycogen content was reduced to wild-type levels in muscles and significantly reduced in the liver and brain. At 9 months of age, though GBE activity was only significantly elevated in the heart, glycogen levels were significantly reduced in the liver, brain, and skeletal muscles of the AAV-treated mice. In addition, the AAV treatment resulted in an overall decrease in plasma activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and creatine kinase, and a significant increase in fasting plasma glucose concentration at 9 months of age. This suggests an alleviation of damage and improvement of function in the liver and muscles by the AAV treatment. This study demonstrated a long-term benefit of a systemic injection of an AAV-GBE vector in Gbe1 ys/ys mice.

  9. Internal carotid artery dissection in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Nasser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS type IV, also known as vascular EDS, is an inherited connective tissue disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1/100,000 to 1/250,000. In EDS type IV, vascular complications may affect all anatomical areas, with a preference for large- and medium-sized arteries. Dissections of the vertebral and carotid arteries in their extra- and intra-cranial segments are typical. The authors report the case of a patient with EDS type IV for whom the diagnosis was established based on clinical signs and who developed internal carotid artery dissection at the age of 44 years. In the absence of a specific treatment for EDS type IV, medical interventions should focus on symptomatic relief, prophylactic measures, and genetic counseling. Invasive imaging techniques are contraindicated, and a conservative approach to vascular complications is usually recommended.

  10. Open angle glaucoma in a case of Type IV Ehler Danlos syndrome: a rarely reported association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Arijit; Ramakrishnan, R; Kader, Mohideen Abdul

    2014-08-01

    A 26-year-old male presented to us with defective vision in the left eye. He had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of hand movement (HM) in right eye and 6/9 in left eye. He had ptosis with ectropion in both eyes and relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) in right eye. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was 46 and 44 mmHg in right and left eye, respectively. Fundus showed glaucomatous optic atrophy (GOA) in right eye and cup disc ratio (CDR) of 0.75 with bipolar rim thinning in left eye. Systemic examination showed hyperextensible skin and joints, acrogeria, hypodontia, high arched palate, and varicose veins. He gave history of easy bruising and tendency to fall and history of intestinal rupture 5 years ago for which he had undergone surgery. He was diagnosed as a case of Type IV Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) with open angle glaucoma. He underwent trabeculectomy in both eyes. This is a rare case that shows glaucoma in a patient of EDS Type IV. Very few such cases have been reported in literature.

  11. Open angle glaucoma in a case of Type IV Ehler Danlos syndrome: A rarely reported association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old male presented to us with defective vision in the left eye. He had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA of hand movement (HM in right eye and 6/9 in left eye. He had ptosis with ectropion in both eyes and relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD in right eye. Intraocular pressure (IOP was 46 and 44 mmHg in right and left eye, respectively. Fundus showed glaucomatous optic atrophy (GOA in right eye and cup disc ratio (CDR of 0.75 with bipolar rim thinning in left eye. Systemic examination showed hyperextensible skin and joints, acrogeria, hypodontia, high arched palate, and varicose veins. He gave history of easy bruising and tendency to fall and history of intestinal rupture 5 years ago for which he had undergone surgery. He was diagnosed as a case of Type IV Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS with open angle glaucoma. He underwent trabeculectomy in both eyes. This is a rare case that shows glaucoma in a patient of EDS Type IV. Very few such cases have been reported in literature.

  12. Methods to Improve Osseointegration of Dental Implants in Low Quality (Type-IV Bone: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan S. Alghamdi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, dental implants have become more common treatment for replacing missing teeth and aim to improve chewing efficiency, physical health, and esthetics. The favorable clinical performance of dental implants has been attributed to their firm osseointegration, as introduced by Brånemark in 1965. Although the survival rate of dental implants over a 10-year observation has been reported to be higher than 90% in totally edentulous jaws, the clinical outcome of implant treatment is challenged in compromised (bone conditions, as are frequently present in elderly people. The biomechanical characteristics of bone in aged patients do not offer proper stability to implants, being similar to type-IV bone (Lekholm & Zarb classification, in which a decreased clinical fixation of implants has been clearly demonstrated. However, the search for improved osseointegration has continued forward for the new evolution of modern dental implants. This represents a continuum of developments spanning more than 20 years of research on implant related-factors including surgical techniques, implant design, and surface properties. The methods to enhance osseointegration of dental implants in low quality (type-IV bone are described in a general manner in this review.

  13. Earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae mediates natural transformation within the host egg capsules using type IV pili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEANA Kelyn DAVIDSON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dense microbial communities commonly associated with plants and animals should offer many opportunities for horizontal gene transfer (HGT through described mechanisms of DNA exchange including natural transformation. However, studies of the significance of natural transformation have focused primarily on pathogens. The study presented here demonstrates highly efficient DNA exchange by natural transformation in a common symbiont of earthworms. The obligate bacterial symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae is a member of a microbial consortium of the earthworm Eisenia fetida that is transmitted into the egg capsules to colonize the embryonic worms. In the study presented here, by testing for transformants under different conditions in culture, we demonstrate that V. eiseniae can incorporate free DNA from the environment, that competency is regulated by environmental factors, and that it is sequence specific. Mutations in the type IV pili of V. eiseniae resulted in loss of DNA uptake, implicating the type IV pilus (TFP apparatus in DNA uptake. Furthermore, injection of DNA carrying antibiotic-resistance genes into egg capsules resulted in transformants within the capsule, demonstrating the relevance of DNA uptake within the earthworm system. The ability to take up species-specific DNA from the environment may explain the maintenance of the relatively large, intact genome of this long-associated obligate symbiont, and provides a mechanism for acquisition of foreign genes within the earthworm system.

  14. Methods to Improve Osseointegration of Dental Implants in Low Quality (Type-IV) Bone: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Hamdan S

    2018-01-13

    Nowadays, dental implants have become more common treatment for replacing missing teeth and aim to improve chewing efficiency, physical health, and esthetics. The favorable clinical performance of dental implants has been attributed to their firm osseointegration, as introduced by Brånemark in 1965. Although the survival rate of dental implants over a 10-year observation has been reported to be higher than 90% in totally edentulous jaws, the clinical outcome of implant treatment is challenged in compromised (bone) conditions, as are frequently present in elderly people. The biomechanical characteristics of bone in aged patients do not offer proper stability to implants, being similar to type-IV bone (Lekholm & Zarb classification), in which a decreased clinical fixation of implants has been clearly demonstrated. However, the search for improved osseointegration has continued forward for the new evolution of modern dental implants. This represents a continuum of developments spanning more than 20 years of research on implant related-factors including surgical techniques, implant design, and surface properties. The methods to enhance osseointegration of dental implants in low quality (type-IV) bone are described in a general manner in this review.

  15. Type IV collagen as marker of fibrosis in nonalcoholic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvina Alvina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH are medical problems associated with the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia, usually designated as the metabolic syndrome associated with insulin resistance. One study demonstrated an increase in NAFLD prevalence of around 17-33% and in NASH prevalence of 5.7-16.5%. NAFLD comprises a range of mild to severe conditions, from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. The diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis is important for prognosis, stratification for treatment, and monitoring of treatment efficacy. Ultrasonography (USG is a simple method for detecting fatty infiltrates in the liver. USG has a sensitivity of 82-89% and a specificity of 93%, but cannot differentiate between hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. The gold standard for evaluation of hepatic fibrosis is liver biopsy, which however is a painful and invasive procedure. Currently determination of serum type IV collagen has been suggested as an alternative to liver biopsy among the non-invasive methods for evaluation of hepatic fibrosis, as its serum concentration is closely correlated with advanced hepatic fibrosis in NASH. Type IV collagen is one of the components of basement membrane and its serum concentration is indicative of degradation of the extracellular matrix.

  16. Type IV collagen as marker of fibrosis in nonalcoholic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH are medical problems associated with the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia, usually designated as the metabolic syndrome associated with insulin resistance. One study demonstrated an increase in NAFLD prevalence of around 17-33% and in NASH prevalence of 5.7-16.5%. NAFLD comprises a range of mild to severe conditions, from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. The diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis is important for prognosis, stratification for treatment, and monitoring of treatment efficacy. Ultrasonography (USG is a simple method for detecting fatty infiltrates in the liver. USG has a sensitivity of 82-89% and a specificity of 93%, but cannot differentiate between hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. The gold standard for evaluation of hepatic fibrosis is liver biopsy, which however is a painful and invasive procedure. Currently determination of serum type IV collagen has been suggested as an alternative to liver biopsy among the non-invasive methods for evaluation of hepatic fibrosis, as its serum concentration is closely correlated with advanced hepatic fibrosis in NASH. Type IV collagen is one of the components of basement membrane and its serum concentration is indicative of degradation of the extracellular matrix.

  17. Digenic mutations involving both the BSND and GJB2 genes detected in Bartter syndrome type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Han; Feng, Yong; Li, Hai-Bo; Wu, Hong; Mei, Ling-Yun; Wang, Xing-Wei; Jiang, Lu; He, Chu-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Bartter syndrome type IV, characterized by salt-losing nephropathies and sensorineural deafness, is caused by mutations of BSND or simultaneous mutations of both CLCNKA and CLCNKB. GJB2 is the primary causative gene for non-syndromic sensorineural deafness and associated with several syndromic sensorineural deafness. Owing to the rarity of Bartter syndrome, only a few mutations have been reported in the abovementioned causative genes. To investigate the underlying mutations in a Chinese patient with Bartter syndrome type IV, genetic analysis of BSND, CLCNKA, CLCNKB and GJB2 were performed by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Finally, double homozygous mutations c.22C > T (p.Arg8Trp) and c.127G > A (Val43Ile) were detected in exon 1 of BSND. Intriguingly, compound heterozygous mutations c.235delC (p.Leu79CysfsX3) and c.109G > A (p.Val37Ile) were also revealed in exon 2 of GJB2 in the same patient. No pathogenic mutations were found in CLCNKA and CLCNKB. Our results indicated that the homozygous mutation c.22C > T was the key genetic reason for the proband, and a digenic effect of BSND and GJB2 might contributed to sensorineural deafness. To our knowledge, it was the first report showing that the GJB2 gene mutations were detected in Bartter syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Distinct activities of Bartonella henselae type IV secretion effector proteins modulate capillary-like sprout formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, F; Ellner, Y; Guye, P; Rhomberg, T A; Weber, H; Augustin, H G; Dehio, C

    2009-07-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bh) can lead to vasoproliferative tumour lesions in the skin and inner organs known as bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis. The knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in this pathogen-triggered angiogenic process is confined by the lack of a suitable animal model and a physiologically relevant cell culture model of angiogenesis. Here we employed a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay of collagen gel-embedded endothelial cell (EC) spheroids to study the angiogenic properties of Bh. Spheroids generated from Bh-infected ECs displayed a high capacity to form sprouts, which represent capillary-like projections into the collagen gel. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system and a subset of its translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) were found to profoundly modulate this Bh-induced sprouting activity. BepA, known to protect ECs from apoptosis, strongly promoted sprout formation. In contrast, BepG, triggering cytoskeletal rearrangements, potently inhibited sprouting. Hence, the here established in vitro model of Bartonella- induced angiogenesis revealed distinct and opposing activities of type IV secretion system effector proteins, which together with a VirB/VirD4-independent effect may control the angiogenic activity of Bh during chronic infection of the vasculature.

  19. Diagnosis of Coxiella burnetii infection: comparison of a whole blood interferon-gamma production assay and a Coxiella ELISPOT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teske Schoffelen

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of ongoing or past infection with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, relies heavily on serology: the measurement of C. burnetii-specific antibodies, reflecting the host's humoral immune response. However, cell-mediated immune responses play an important, probably even more relevant, role in infections caused by the intracellular C. burnetii bacterium. Recent studies have investigated interferon-gamma (IFN-γ based assays, including a whole-blood IFN-γ production assay and a Coxiella enzyme-linked immunospot (Coxiella ELISPOT, as potential diagnostic tools for Q fever diagnosis. Both are in-house developed assays using stimulating antigens of different origin. The main objective of this study was to compare the test performance of the IFN-γ production assay and the Coxiella ELISPOT for detecting a cellular immune response to C. burnetii in Q fever patients, and to assess the correlation between both assays. To that end, both tests were performed in a well-defined patient group of chronic Q fever patients (n = 16 and a group of healthy seronegative individuals (n = 17. Among patients, both the Coxiella ELISPOT and the IFN-γ production assay detected positive response in 14/16. Among controls, none were positive in the Coxiella ELISPOT, whereas the IFN-γ production assay detected positive results in 1/17 and 3/17, when using Henzerling and Nine Mile as stimulating antigens, respectively. These results suggest the Coxiella ELISPOT has a somewhat higher specificity than the IFN-γ production assay when Nine Mile is used as antigen stimulus. The assays showed moderate correlation: the Spearman correlation coefficient r ranged between 0.37-0.60, depending on the antigens used. Further investigation of the diagnostic potential for C. burnetii infection of both assays is warranted.

  20. Delusional disorder-jealous type: how inclusive are the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Judith A; Shackelford, Todd K; Schipper, Lucas D

    2008-03-01

    Delusional disorder-jealous type is a new diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) in which delusions concerning a partner's infidelity must be present. Therefore, patients who experience a jealousy disorder, but do not experience delusions will not fit the diagnostic criteria. Using a database of 398 case histories of jealousy disorders reported in the literature from 1940-2002, we examined the percentage of these cases that met the diagnostic criteria for delusional disorder-jealous type. Only 4% of the cases met all diagnostic criteria. This is the first systematic comparison of the prevalence of these disorders. The results provide evidence that the diagnostic criteria are not inclusive, as most individuals suffering with a jealousy disorder were excluded from the diagnosis.

  1. Amplified QCM biosensor for type IV collagenase based on collagenase-cleavage of gold nanoparticles functionalized peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zong-Mu; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Guang-Chao

    2018-05-30

    The present study develops a rapid, simple and efficient method for the determination of type IV collagenase by using a specific peptide-modified quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). A small peptide (P1), contains a specific sequence (Pro-Gly) and a terminal cysteine, was synthetized and immobilized to the surface of QCM electrode via the reaction between Au and thiol of the cysteine. The peptide bond between proline and glycine can be specific hydrolyzed cleavage by type IV collagenase, which enabled the modified electrode with a high selectivity toward type IV collagenase. The cleaving process caused a frequency change of QCM to give a signal related to the concentration of type IV collagenase. The morphologies of the modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the specific hydrolyzed cleavage process was monitored by QCM. When P1 was modified with gold nanoparticles (P1-Au NPs), the signal could be amplified to further enhance the sensitivity of the designed sensor due to the high-mass of the modified Au NPs. Compared the direct unamplified assay, the values obtained for the limit of detection for type IV collagenase was 0.96 ng mL -1 , yielding about 6.5 times of magnitude improvement in sensitivity. This signal enhanced peptide based QCM biosensor for type IV collagenase also showed good selectivity and sensitivity in complex matrix. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Motion of the sources for type II and type IV radio bursts and flare-associated interplanetary disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, K.; Chao, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    Shock waves are indirectly observed as the source of type II radio bursts, whereas magnetic bottles are identified as the source of moving metric type IV radio bursts. The difference between the expansion speeds of these waves and bottles is examined during their generation and propagation near the flare regions. It is shown that, although generated in the explosive phase of flares, the bottles behave quite differently from the waves and that the bottles are generally much slower than the waves. It has been suggested that the waves are related to flare-associated interplanetary disturbances which produce SSC geomagnetic storms. These disturbances may, therefore, be identified as interplanetary shock waves. The relationship among magnetic bottles, shock waves near the sun, and flare-associated disturbances in interplanetary space is briefly discussed.

  3. Identification of a Novel Conjugative Plasmid in Mycobacteria That Requires Both Type IV and Type VII Secretion

    KAUST Repository

    Ummels, R.

    2014-09-23

    Conjugative plasmids have been identified in a wide variety of different bacteria, ranging from proteobacteria to firmicutes, and conjugation is one of the most efficient routes for horizontal gene transfer. The most widespread mechanism of plasmid conjugation relies on different variants of the type IV secretion pathway. Here, we describe the identification of a novel type of conjugative plasmid that seems to be unique for mycobacteria. Interestingly, while this plasmid is efficiently exchanged between different species of slow-growing mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it could not be transferred to any of the fast-growing mycobacteria tested. Genetic analysis of the conjugative plasmid showed the presence of a locus containing homologues of three type IV secretion system components and a relaxase. In addition, a new type VII secretion locus was present. Using transposon insertion mutagenesis, we show that in fact both these secretion systems are essential for conjugation, indicating that this plasmid represents a new class of conjugative plasmids requiring two secretion machineries. This plasmid could form a useful new tool to exchange or introduce DNA in slow-growing mycobacteria. IMPORTANCE: Conjugative plasmids play an important role in horizontal gene transfer between different bacteria and, as such, in their adaptation and evolution. This effect is most obvious in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. Thus far, conjugation of natural plasmids has been described only rarely for mycobacterial species. In fact, it is generally accepted that M. tuberculosis does not show any recent sign of horizontal gene transfer. In this study, we describe the identification of a new widespread conjugative plasmid that can also be efficiently transferred to M. tuberculosis. This plasmid therefore poses both a threat and an opportunity. The threat is that, through the acquisition of antibiotic resistance markers, this plasmid could start a rapid spread of

  4. A rationalization of the Type IV loading dependence in the Kärger-Pfeifer classification of self-diffusivities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, R.; van Baten, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Kärger and Pfeifer (1987) [1] have listed five different types of dependencies of the self-diffusivities, Di,self, on the loading, Θi, of guest molecules in zeolites. Of these five types, the Type IV dependence is particularly intriguing because it displays a maximum in the Di,self − Θi dependence

  5. Draft genome sequence of Coxiella burnetii Dog Utad, a strain isolated from a dog-related outbreak of Q fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D’amato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii Dog Utad, with a 2 008 938 bp genome is a strain isolated from a parturient dog responsible for a human familial outbreak of acute Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada. Its genotype, determined by multispacer typing, is 21; the only one found in Canada that includes Q212, which causes endocarditis. Only 107 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 16 INDELs differed from Q212, suggesting a recent clonal radiation.

  6. Hepatic Artery Resection for Bismuth Type III and IV Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Is Reconstruction Always Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai-Jie; Jin, Yan-Wen; Zhou, Rong-Xing; Shrestha, Anuj; Ma, Wen-Jie; Yang, Qin; Wang, Jun-Ke; Liu, Fei; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Li, Fu-Yu

    2018-03-06

    The objective of the study is to examine the feasibility of hepatic artery resection (HAR) without subsequent reconstruction (RCS) in specified patients of Bismuth type III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed 63 patients who underwent hepatic artery resection for Bismuth type III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. These patients were subsequently enrolled into two groups based on whether the artery reconstruction was conducted. Postoperative morbidity and mortality, and long-term survival outcome were compared between the two groups. There were 29 patients in HAR group and 34 patients in the HAR + RCS group. Patients with hepatic artery reconstruction tended to have longer operative time (545.6 ± 143.1 min vs. 656.3 ± 192.8 min; P = 0.013) and smaller tumor size (3.0 ± 1.1 cm vs. 2.5 ± 0.9 cm; P = 0.036). The R0 resection margin was comparable between the HAR group and HAR + RCS group (86.2 vs. 85.3%; P > 0.05). Twelve patients (41.4%) with 24 complications in HAR group and 13 patients (38.2%) with 25 complications in HAR + RCS group were recorded (P = 0.799). The postoperative hepatic failure rate (13.8 vs. 5.9%) and postoperative mortality rate (3.4% vs. 2.9%) were also comparable between the two groups. In the HAR group, the overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 72, 41, and 19%, respectively; while in the HAR + RCS group, the overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 79, 45, and 25%, respectively (P = 0.928). Hepatic artery resection without reconstruction is also a safe and feasible surgical procedure for highly selected cases of Bismuth type III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  7. A new multiplex PCR for easy screening of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus SCCmec types I-V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Andersen, Ina S

    2007-01-01

    A multiplex PCR with four primer-pairs was designed to identify the five main known SCCmec types. A clear and easily discriminated band pattern was obtained for all five types. The SCCmec type was identified for 98% of 312 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA......). SCCmec type IV was by far the most common SCCmec type among both hospital- and community-acquired MRSA isolates in Denmark....

  8. A model to predict the permeation of type IV hydrogen tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayle, Julien; Perreux, Dominique; Chapelle, David; Thiebaud, Frederic [MaHyTec, Dole (France); Nardin, Philippe [Franche Comte Univ. (France)

    2010-07-01

    In the frame of the certification process of the type IV hydrogen storage tanks MaHyTec aims to manufacture, this innovative SME is developing a numerical model dedicated to the study of permeation issues. Such an approach aims at avoiding complicated, time-consuming and expensive testing. Experimental results obtained under real conditions can moreover be significantly influenced by the scattering of material properties and liner dimensions. From simple testing on small-size flat membranes, the model allows to predict the gas diffusion flow through the whole structure by means of numerous parameters. On every step, theory can be compared with the results obtained from the samples. This document presents a brief review of the mathematical theory describing gas diffusion and the different aspects of the study for better understanding the proposed approach. (orig.)

  9. Type IV hiatal hernia post laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication: report of a case.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Awad, Z T

    2001-01-01

    A postoperative hiatal hernia is a rare but serious complication of fundoplication. We report herein a 62-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain and vomiting 2 years following laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. At laparotomy, the stomach and the transverse colon were intrathoracic (type IV hiatal hernia); the esophageal hiatus was markedly dilated with no evidence that they had been approximated. At 18 months follow-up, she is doing very well apart from occasional heartburn. A high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose postoperative hiatal hernias. A routine closure of the crura with nonabsorbable suture material and an avoidance of iatrogenic pneumothorax may help to reduce the occurrence of this problem.

  10. A type IV pilus mediates DNA binding during natural transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Laurenceau

    Full Text Available Natural genetic transformation is widely distributed in bacteria and generally occurs during a genetically programmed differentiated state called competence. This process promotes genome plasticity and adaptability in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Transformation requires the binding and internalization of exogenous DNA, the mechanisms of which are unclear. Here, we report the discovery of a transformation pilus at the surface of competent Streptococcus pneumoniae cells. This Type IV-like pilus, which is primarily composed of the ComGC pilin, is required for transformation. We provide evidence that it directly binds DNA and propose that the transformation pilus is the primary DNA receptor on the bacterial cell during transformation in S. pneumoniae. Being a central component of the transformation apparatus, the transformation pilus enables S. pneumoniae, a major Gram-positive human pathogen, to acquire resistance to antibiotics and to escape vaccines through the binding and incorporation of new genetic material.

  11. Urinary type IV collagen is related to left ventricular diastolic function and brain natriuretic peptide in hypertensive patients with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Masato; Yamamoto, Mitsuru; Ishiguro, Yuko S; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Ueda, Norihiro; Honjo, Haruo; Kamiya, Kaichirou

    2014-01-01

    Urinary type IV collagen is an early biomarker of diabetic nephropathy. Concomitant prediabetes (the early stage of diabetes) was associated with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and increased brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in hypertensive patients. We hypothesized that urinary type IV collagen may be related to these cardiac dysfunctions. We studied hypertensive patients with early prediabetes (HbA1c 110, n=18), those with prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4, n=98), and those with diabetes (HbA1c>6.5 or on diabetes medications, n=92). The participants underwent echocardiography to assess left atrial volume/body surface area (BSA) and the ratio of early mitral flow velocity to mitral annular velocity (E/e'). Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) was defined if patients had E/e'≥15, or E/e'=9-14 accompanied by left atrial volume/BSA≥32ml/mm(2). Urinary samples were collected for type IV collagen and albumin, and blood samples were taken for BNP and HbA1c. Urinary type IV collagen and albumin increased in parallel with the deterioration of glycemic status. In hypertensive patients with prediabetes, subjects with LVDD had higher levels of BNP and urinary type IV collagen than those without LVDD. In contrast, in hypertensive patients with diabetes, subjects with LVDD had higher urinary albumin and BNP than those without LVDD. Urinary type IV collagen correlated positively with BNP in hypertensive patients with prediabetes, whereas it correlated with HbA1c in those with diabetes. In hypertensive patients with prediabetes, urinary type IV collagen was associated with LV diastolic dysfunction and BNP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic inflammation of the prostate type IV with respect to risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Porcaro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic inflammatory infiltrate (CII might be involved in prostate cancer (PCA and benign hyperplasia (BPH; however, its significance is controversial. Chronic inflammatory prostatitis type IV is the most common non cancer diagnosis in men undergoing biopsy because of suspected PCA. Objective: To evaluate potential associations of coexistent CII and PCA in biopsy specimens after prostate assessment. Design, setting, and participants: Between January 2007 and December 2008, 415 consecutive patients who underwent prostate biopsy were retrospectively evaluated. The investigated variables included Age (years and PSA (ug/l; moreover, CII+, glandular atrophy (GA+, glandular hyperplasia (GH+, prostate Intraepithelial neoplasm (PIN+, atypical small acinar cell proliferation (ASAP+ and PCA positive cores (P+ were evaluated as categorical and continuous (proportion of positive cores. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Associations of CII+ and PCA risk were assessed by statistical methods. Results and limitations: In the patient population, a biopsy core positive for PCA was detected in 34.2% of cases and the rate of high grade PCA (HGPCA: bGS ! 8 resulted 4.82%. CII+ significantly and inversely associated with a positive biopsy core P+ (P < 0.0001; OR = 0.26 and HGPCA (P = 0.0005; OR = 0.05. Moreover, the associations indicated that patients with coexistent CII+ on needle biopsy were 74% less likely to have coexistent PCA than men without CII+ as well as 95% less likely to have HGPCA in the biopsy core than men without coexistent CII+. There were limits in our study which was single centre and included only one dedicated pathologist. Conclusions: There was an inverse association of chronic inflammation of the prostate type IV and risk of PCA; moreover, HGPCA was less likely to be detected in cancers associated with coexistent CII. In prostate microenvironment, prostate chronic inflammation may be protective; however, its role in

  13. Reassessing the role of DotF in the Legionella pneumophila type IV secretion system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly C Sutherland

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of a severe pneumonia termed Legionnaires' Disease, survives and replicates within both protozoan hosts and human alveolar macrophages. Intracellular survival is dependent upon secretion of a plethora of protein effectors that function to form a replicative vacuole, evade the endocytic pathway and subvert host immune defenses. Export of these factors requires a type IV secretion system (T4SS called Dot/Icm that is composed of twenty-seven proteins. This report focuses on the DotF protein, which was previously postulated to have several different functions, one of which centered on binding Dot/Icm substrates. In this report, we examined if DotF functions as the T4SS inner membrane receptor for Dot/Icm substrates. Although we were able to recapitulate the previously published bacterial two-hybrid interaction between DotF and several substrates, the interaction was not dependent on the Dot/Icm substrates' signal sequences as predicted for a substrate:receptor interaction. In addition, binding did not require the cytoplasmic domain of DotF, which was anticipated to be involved in recognizing substrates in the cytoplasm. Finally, inactivation of dotF did not abolish intracellular growth of L. pneumophila or translocation of substrates, two phenotypes dependent on the T4SS receptor. These data strongly suggest that DotF does not act as the major receptor for Dot/Icm substrates and therefore likely performs an accessory function within the core-transmembrane subcomplex of the L. pneumophila Dot/Icm type IV secretion system.

  14. AtlasT4SS: a curated database for type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rangel C; del Rosario Quispe Saji, Guadalupe; Costa, Maiana O C; Netto, Diogo S; Lima, Nicholas C B; Klein, Cecília C; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Nicolás, Marisa F

    2012-08-09

    The type IV secretion system (T4SS) can be classified as a large family of macromolecule transporter systems, divided into three recognized sub-families, according to the well-known functions. The major sub-family is the conjugation system, which allows transfer of genetic material, such as a nucleoprotein, via cell contact among bacteria. Also, the conjugation system can transfer genetic material from bacteria to eukaryotic cells; such is the case with the T-DNA transfer of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells. The system of effector protein transport constitutes the second sub-family, and the third one corresponds to the DNA uptake/release system. Genome analyses have revealed numerous T4SS in Bacteria and Archaea. The purpose of this work was to organize, classify, and integrate the T4SS data into a single database, called AtlasT4SS - the first public database devoted exclusively to this prokaryotic secretion system. The AtlasT4SS is a manual curated database that describes a large number of proteins related to the type IV secretion system reported so far in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as in Archaea. The database was created using the RDBMS MySQL and the Catalyst Framework based in the Perl programming language and using the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern for Web. The current version holds a comprehensive collection of 1,617 T4SS proteins from 58 Bacteria (49 Gram-negative and 9 Gram-Positive), one Archaea and 11 plasmids. By applying the bi-directional best hit (BBH) relationship in pairwise genome comparison, it was possible to obtain a core set of 134 clusters of orthologous genes encoding T4SS proteins. In our database we present one way of classifying orthologous groups of T4SSs in a hierarchical classification scheme with three levels. The first level comprises four classes that are based on the organization of genetic determinants, shared homologies, and evolutionary relationships: (i) F-T4SS, (ii) P-T4SS, (iii

  15. Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with agonists of the GLP-1 receptor or DPP-IV inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2004-01-01

    in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes, causing marked improvements in glycaemic profile, insulin sensitivity and beta-cell performance, as well as weight reduction. The hormone is metabolised rapidly by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and, therefore, cannot be easily used clinically. Instead, resistant...... with exendin have been carried out for > 6 months and have indicated efficacy in patients inadequately treated with oral antidiabetic agents. Orally active DPP-IV inhibitors, suitable for once-daily administration, have demonstrated similar efficacy. Diabetes therapy, based on GLP-1 receptor activation...

  16. Identification of novel Coxiella burnetii genotypes from Ethiopian ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga M Sulyok

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever, is a highly infectious zoonotic bacterium. Genetic information about the strains of this worldwide distributed agent circulating on the African continent is limited. The aim of the present study was the genetic characterization of C. burnetii DNA samples detected in ticks collected from Ethiopian cattle and their comparison with other genotypes found previously in other parts of the world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 296 tick samples were screened by real-time PCR targeting the IS1111 region of C. burnetii genome and from the 32 positive samples, 8 cases with sufficient C. burnetii DNA load (Amblyomma cohaerens, n = 6; A. variegatum, n = 2 were characterized by multispacer sequence typing (MST and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA. One novel sequence type (ST, the proposed ST52, was identified by MST. The MLVA-6 discriminated the proposed ST52 into two newly identified MLVA genotypes: type 24 or AH was detected in both Amblyomma species while type 26 or AI was found only in A. cohaerens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both the MST and MLVA genotypes of the present work are closely related to previously described genotypes found primarily in cattle samples from different parts of the globe. This finding is congruent with the source hosts of the analyzed Ethiopian ticks, as these were also collected from cattle. The present study provides genotype information of C. burnetii from this seldom studied East-African region as well as further evidence for the presumed host-specific adaptation of this agent.

  17. Shipment and Disposal of Solidified Organic Waste (Waste Type IV) to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, E. L; Edmiston, D. R.; O'Leary, G. A.; Rivera, M. A.; Steward, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    In April of 2005, the last shipment of transuranic (TRU) waste from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site to the WIPP was completed. With the completion of this shipment, all transuranic waste generated and stored at Rocky Flats was successfully removed from the site and shipped to and disposed of at the WIPP. Some of the last waste to be shipped and disposed of at the WIPP was waste consisting of solidified organic liquids that is identified as Waste Type IV in the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC) document. Waste Type IV waste typically has a composition, and associated characteristics, that make it significantly more difficult to ship and dispose of than other Waste Types, especially with respect to gas generation. This paper provides an overview of the experience gained at Rocky Flats for management, transportation and disposal of Type IV waste at WIPP, particularly with respect to gas generation testing. (authors)

  18. Role of 17 beta-estradiol on type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fraga, Rogerio; Dambros, Miriam; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Riccetto, Cássio Luís Zanettini; Palma, Paulo César Rodrigues

    2007-10-01

    The authors quantified the type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall of ovariectomized rats with and without estradiol replacement. This study was conducted on 40 Wistar rats (3 months old) randomly divided in 4 groups: group 1, remained intact (control); group 2, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and daily replacement 4 weeks later of 17 beta-estradiol for 12 weeks; group 3, sham operated and daily replacement 4 weeks later of sesame oil for 12 weeks; and group 4, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and killed after 12 weeks. It was used in immunohistochemistry evaluation using type IV collagen polyclonal antibody to stain the fibers on paraffin rat bladder sections. The M-42 stereological grid system was used to analyze the fibers. Ovariectomy had an increase effect on the volumetric density of the type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rat bladder wall. Estradiol replacement in castrated animals demonstrated a significative difference in the stereological parameters when compared to the castrated group without hormonal replacement. Surgical castration performed on rats induced an increasing volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall and the estradiol treatment had a significant effect in keeping a low volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall.

  19. Distinctive tomographic abnormalities of the craniocervical region in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaissi, Ali Al; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of heritable disorders of connective tissue characterized by reduced bone mass (osteopenia) with associated bone fragility. The resulting skeletal manifestations are due to a generalized deficiency in the development of both membranous and endochondral bone and include markedly thin calvarium with delayed closure of the fontanelles and the sutures and excessive Wormian bone formation. Sillence et al. developed a classification system of OI subtypes: OI type I, which is characterised by blue sclerae; perinatal lethal OI type II, also known as congenital OI; OI type III, a progressively deforming subtype with normal sclera; and OI type IV, which is characterized by a normal sclera. Levin et al. have suggested that OI subtypes could be further divided into type A and B based on the absence or presence of dentinogenesis imperfecta. Basilar impression involves the upward (vertical) migration of the odontoid process into the foramen magnum with a depression in the cranium. Basilar impression is a developmental defect and refers to the infolding of the occipital condyles, an elevation of the clivus, and the posterior cranial fossa of the skull. The soft bones of the skull base allow for progressive infolding of the dysplastic clivus and translocation of the odontoid into the posterior fossa. The combination of platybasia and basilar impression can lead to severe distortion of the spinal cord and the anterior brain stem. The specific structures that can be involved include the upper cervical cord, medulla, pons, mid-brain, cerebellum, as well as the vertebrobasilar system. (author)

  20. Distinctive tomographic abnormalities of the craniocervical region in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaissi, Ali Al; Klaushofer, Klaus, E-mail: ali.alkaissi@osteologie.a [Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology, Vienna (Austria); Grill, Franz [Orthopaedic Hospital of Speising, Vienna (Austria). Paediatric Dept.

    2010-07-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of heritable disorders of connective tissue characterized by reduced bone mass (osteopenia) with associated bone fragility. The resulting skeletal manifestations are due to a generalized deficiency in the development of both membranous and endochondral bone and include markedly thin calvarium with delayed closure of the fontanelles and the sutures and excessive Wormian bone formation. Sillence et al. developed a classification system of OI subtypes: OI type I, which is characterised by blue sclerae; perinatal lethal OI type II, also known as congenital OI; OI type III, a progressively deforming subtype with normal sclera; and OI type IV, which is characterized by a normal sclera. Levin et al. have suggested that OI subtypes could be further divided into type A and B based on the absence or presence of dentinogenesis imperfecta. Basilar impression involves the upward (vertical) migration of the odontoid process into the foramen magnum with a depression in the cranium. Basilar impression is a developmental defect and refers to the infolding of the occipital condyles, an elevation of the clivus, and the posterior cranial fossa of the skull. The soft bones of the skull base allow for progressive infolding of the dysplastic clivus and translocation of the odontoid into the posterior fossa. The combination of platybasia and basilar impression can lead to severe distortion of the spinal cord and the anterior brain stem. The specific structures that can be involved include the upper cervical cord, medulla, pons, mid-brain, cerebellum, as well as the vertebrobasilar system. (author)

  1. Clinical value of the joint measurement of serum concentrations of type IV collagen and laminin in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu; Wang Ping; Li Yongpei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study clinical value of the joint measurement of serum concentrations of type IV collagen (IV C) and laminin (LN) in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Methods: Serum concentrations of IV C, LN were measured by RIA in 35 diabetic patients with normalbuminuria (group A), 28 cases of microalbuminuria (group B), 15 cases of macroalbuminuria (group C) and 30 normal subjects as control . Results: The serum concentrations of IV C, LN in total 78 diabetic patients [(97.6 ± 19.2), (132.4 ± 31.5) μg/L] were higher than that of the controls [(77.4 ± 8.2), (101.5 ± 17.6) μg/L, P<0.05], especially in group B and C, it was remarkably higher compared with the controls (P<0.05, P<0.01). There was significant positive correlation of serum IV C, LN to diabetic duration and the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER). Conclusions: The results suggest that the joint measurement of serum levels of IV C, LN and UAER in DN patients might better evaluate the development process of DN, and be of help for early diagnosis and treatment of DN. Serum levels of IV C, LN and UAER in DN patients may become the reliable clinical markers for assessing the severity and predicting the prognosis of DN

  2. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SERVICE HISTORY AND CORROSION SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TYPE IV WASTE TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B

    2008-01-01

    Type IV waste tanks were designed and built to store waste that does not require auxiliary cooling. Each Type IV tank is a single-shell tank constructed of a steel-lined pre-stressed concrete tank in the form of a vertical cylinder with a concrete domed roof. There are four such tanks in F-area, Tanks 17-20F, and four in H-Area, Tanks 21-24H. Leak sites were discovered in the liners for Tanks 19 and 20F in the 1980's. Although these leaks were visually observed, the investigation to determine the mechanism by which the leaks had occurred was not completed at that time. Therefore, a concern was raised that the same mechanism which caused the leak sites in the Tanks in F-area may also be operable in the H-Area tanks. Data from the construction of the tanks (i.e., certified mill test reports for the steel, no stress-relief), the service history (i.e., waste sample data, temperature data), laboratory tests on actual wastes and simulants (i.e., electrochemical testing), and the results of the visual inspections were reviewed. The following observations and conclusions were made: (1) Comparison of the compositional and microstructural features indicate that the A212 material utilized for construction of the H-Area tanks are far more resistant to SCC than the A285 materials used for construction of the F-Area tanks. (2) A review of the materials of construction, temperature history, service histories concluded that F-Area tanks likely failed by caustic stress corrosion cracking. (3) The environment in the F-Area tanks was more aggressive than that experienced by the H-Area tanks. (4) Based on a review of the service history, the H-Area tanks have not been exposed to an environment that would render the tanks susceptible to either nitrate stress corrosion cracking (i.e., the cause of failures in the Type I and II tanks) or caustic stress corrosion cracking. (5) Due to the very dilute and uninhibited solutions that have been stored in Tank 23H, vapor space corrosion has

  3. c-Type cytochrome-dependent formation of U(IV nanoparticles by Shewanella oneidensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Marshall

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern approaches for bioremediation of radionuclide contaminated environments are based on the ability of microorganisms to effectively catalyze changes in the oxidation states of metals that in turn influence their solubility. Although microbial metal reduction has been identified as an effective means for immobilizing highly-soluble uranium(VI complexes in situ, the biomolecular mechanisms of U(VI reduction are not well understood. Here, we show that c-type cytochromes of a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, are essential for the reduction of U(VI and formation of extracellular UO(2 nanoparticles. In particular, the outer membrane (OM decaheme cytochrome MtrC (metal reduction, previously implicated in Mn(IV and Fe(III reduction, directly transferred electrons to U(VI. Additionally, deletions of mtrC and/or omcA significantly affected the in vivo U(VI reduction rate relative to wild-type MR-1. Similar to the wild-type, the mutants accumulated UO(2 nanoparticles extracellularly to high densities in association with an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS. In wild-type cells, this UO(2-EPS matrix exhibited glycocalyx-like properties and contained multiple elements of the OM, polysaccharide, and heme-containing proteins. Using a novel combination of methods including synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy and high-resolution immune-electron microscopy, we demonstrate a close association of the extracellular UO(2 nanoparticles with MtrC and OmcA (outer membrane cytochrome. This is the first study to our knowledge to directly localize the OM-associated cytochromes with EPS, which contains biogenic UO(2 nanoparticles. In the environment, such association of UO(2 nanoparticles with biopolymers may exert a strong influence on subsequent behavior including susceptibility to oxidation by O(2 or transport in soils and sediments.

  4. Vibrio tapetis Displays an Original Type IV Secretion System in Strains Pathogenic for Bivalve Molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela M. Dias

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Brown Ring Disease (BRD caused high mortality rates since 1986 in the Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum introduced and cultured in Western Europe from the 1970s. The causative agent of BRD is a Gram-Negative bacterium, Vibrio tapetis, which is also pathogenic to fish. Here we report the first assembly of the complete genome of V. tapetis CECT4600T, together with the genome sequences of 16 additional strains isolated across a broad host and geographic range. Our extensive genome dataset allowed us to describe the pathogen pan- and core genomes and to identify putative virulence factors. The V. tapetis core genome consists of 3,352 genes, including multiple potential virulence factors represented by haemolysins, transcriptional regulators, Type I restriction modification system, GGDEF domain proteins, several conjugative plasmids, and a Type IV secretion system. Future research on the coevolutionary arms race between V. tapetis virulence factors and host resistance mechanisms will improve our understanding of how pathogenicity develops in this emerging pathogen.

  5. Type IV Hypersensitivity to Gold Weight Upper-Eyelid Implant: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, Caroline L S; Casswell, Edward J; Imonikhe, Richard; Marjanovic, Branka

    2017-05-04

    Complications associated with gold-weight insertion for lagophthalmos are uncommon, recent reports have provided evidence to suggest that type IV hypersensitivity to gold can cause a persistent inflammatory reaction. We present a case of a 46-year-old man who experienced persistent post-operative inflammation, and summarize previously documented cases. This patient underwent uncomplicated insertion of an upper eyelid gold weight for right-sided facial nerve palsy. He had no allergies or implanted metalwork. Post-operatively erythema was noted at seven-weeks and did not resolve. The weight was removed after six-months. The histopathological findings were in keeping with type IV hypersensitivity and similar to previous cases. Although infrequent, this complication has poor outcomes. The definitive management is removal of the weight. Information regarding implanted gold, and previous reactions should be elicited pre-operatively. Type IV hypersensitivity should be considered in patients with persistent inflammation that do not respond to antibiotic or steroid therapy.

  6. Genetic analysis of a Chinese family with members affected with Usher syndrome type II and Waardenburg syndrome type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueling; Lin, Xiao-Jiang; Tang, Xiangrong; Chai, Yong-Chuan; Yu, De-Hong; Chen, Dong-Ye; Wu, Hao

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic causes of a family presenting with multiple symptoms overlapping Usher syndrome type II (USH2) and Waardenburg syndrome type IV (WS4). Targeted next-generation sequencing including the exon and flanking intron sequences of 79 deafness genes was performed on the proband. Co-segregation of the disease phenotype and the detected variants were confirmed in all family members by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. The affected members of this family had two different recessive disorders, USH2 and WS4. By targeted next-generation sequencing, we identified that USH2 was caused by a novel missense mutation, p.V4907D in GPR98; whereas WS4 due to p.V185M in EDNRB. This is the first report of homozygous p.V185M mutation in EDNRB in patient with WS4. This study reported a Chinese family with multiple independent and overlapping phenotypes. In condition, molecular level analysis was efficient to identify the causative variant p.V4907D in GPR98 and p.V185M in EDNRB, also was helpful to confirm the clinical diagnosis of USH2 and WS4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein homology network families reveal step-wise diversification of Type III and Type IV secretion systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duccio Medini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available From the analysis of 251 prokaryotic genomes stored in public databases, the 761,260 deduced proteins were used to reconstruct a complete set of bacterial proteic families. Using the new Overlap algorithm, we have partitioned the Protein Homology Network (PHN, where the proteins are the nodes and the links represent homology relationships. The algorithm identifies the densely connected regions of the PHN that define the families of homologous proteins, here called PHN-Families, recognizing the phylogenetic relationships embedded in the network. By direct comparison with a manually curated dataset, we assessed that this classification algorithm generates data of quality similar to a human expert. Then, we explored the network to identify families involved in the assembly of Type III and Type IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS. We noticed that, beside a core of conserved functions (eight proteins for T3SS, seven for T4SS, a variable set of accessory components is always present (one to nine for T3SS, one to five for T4SS. Each member of the core corresponds to a single PHN-Family, while accessory proteins are distributed among different pure families. The PHN-Family classification suggests that T3SS and T4SS have been assembled through a step-wise, discontinuous process, by complementing the conserved core with subgroups of nonconserved proteins. Such genetic modules, independently recruited and probably tuned on specific effectors, contribute to the functional specialization of these organelles to different microenvironments.

  8. Identification of type IV collagen exposure as a molecular imaging target for early detection of thoracic aortic dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Yanzhenzi; Qi, Feiran; Yu, Bingran; Li, Ping; Jia, Lixin; Li, Yulin; Xu, Fu-jian; Du, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is an aggressive and life-threatening vascular disease and there is no effective means of early diagnosis of dissection. Type IV collagen (Col-IV) is a major component of the sub-endothelial basement membrane, which is initially exposed followed by endothelial injury as early-stage event of TAD. So, we want to build a noninvasive diagnostic method to detect early dissection by identifying the exposed Col-IV via MRI. Methods: Col-IV-targeted magnetic resonance/ fluorescence dual probe (Col-IV-DOTA-Gd-rhodamine B; CDR) was synthesized by amide reaction and coordination reaction. Flow cytometry analysis was used to evaluate the cell viability of SMC treated with CDR and fluorescence assays were used to assess the Col-IV targeting ability of CDR in vitro. We then examined the sensitivity and specificity of CDR at different stages of TAD via MRI and bioluminescence imaging in vivo. Results: The localization of Col-IV (under the intima) was observed by histology images. CDR bound specifically to Col-IV-expressing vascular smooth muscle cells and BAPN-induced dissected aorta. The CDR signal was co-detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bioluminescence imaging as early as 2 weeks after BAPN administration (pre-dissection stage). The ability to detect rupture of dissected aorta was indicated by a strong normalized signal enhancement (NSE) in vivo. Moreover, NSE was negatively correlated with the time of dissection rupture after BAPN administration (r2 = 0.8482). Conclusion: As confirmed by in vivo studies, the CDR can identify the exposed Col-IV in degenerated aorta to monitor the progress of aortic dissection from the early stage to the rupture via MRI. Thus, CDR-enhanced MRI proposes a potential method for dissection screening, and for monitoring disease progression and therapeutic response. PMID:29290819

  9. Bartonella henselae and Coxiella burnetii Infection and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was reported that Bartonella henselae, B. quintana and Coxiella burnetii was not strongly associated with coronary artery disease but on the basis of geometric mean titer, C. burnetii infection might have a modest association with coronary artery disease. Serum antibodies to B. henselae from 14 patients with acute phase ...

  10. A query for Coxiella in veterinary and environmental matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin A; van Rotterdam BJ; LZO

    2011-01-01

    Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a zoonosis with a worldwide distribution that affects both humans and animals. In 2007, 2008, and 2009 large community outbreaks of Q fever were observed in the Netherlands. In 2008, several studies were started to investigate potential sources of C. burnetii

  11. Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence in Small Ruminants in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.; Roest, Hendrik-Jan; Hoek, van der W.; Goossens, B.; Secka, A.; Stegeman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram negative bacterium present worldwide. Small ruminants are considered the main reservoirs for infection of humans. This study aimed to estimate the extent of C. burnetii infection among sheep and goats in part of The Gambia.

  12. Establishment of a genotyping scheme for Coxiella burnetii.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svraka, Sanela; Toman, Rudolf; Skultety, Ludovit; Slaba, Katarina; Homan, Wieger L

    2006-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. The bacterium is highly infectious and is classified as a category B biological weapon. The tools of molecular biology are of utmost importance in a rapid and unambiguous identification of C. burnetii in naturally occurring Q fever outbreaks, or

  13. Basement Membrane Type IV Collagen and Laminin: An Overview of Their Biology and Value as Fibrosis Biomarkers of Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Ki M; Mei, Rena

    2017-08-01

    Basement membranes provide structural support to epithelium, endothelium, muscles, fat cells, Schwann cells, and axons. Basement membranes are multifunctional: they modulate cellular behavior, regulate organogenesis, promote tissue repair, form a barrier to filtration and tumor metastasis, bind growth factors, and mediate angiogenesis. All basement membranes contain type IV collagen (Col IV), laminin, nidogen, and perlecan. Col IV and laminin self-assemble into two independent supramolecular networks that are linked to nidogen and perlecan to form a morphological discernable basement membrane/basal lamina. The triple helical region, 7S domain and NCI domain of Col IV, laminin and laminin fragment P1 have been evaluated as noninvasive fibrosis biomarkers of alcoholic liver disease, viral hepatitis, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Elevated serum Col IV and laminin are related to degrees of fibrosis and severity of hepatitis, and may reflect hepatic basement membrane metabolism. But the serum assays have not been linked to disclosing the anatomical sites and lobular distribution of perisinusoidal basement membrane formation in the liver. Hepatic sinusoids normally lack a basement membrane, although Col IV is a normal matrix component of the space of Disse. In liver disease, laminin deposits in the space of Disse and codistributes with Col IV, forming a perisinusoidal basement membrane. Concomitantly, the sinusoidal endothelium loses its fenestrae and is transformed into vascular type endothelium. These changes lead to capillarization of hepatic sinusoids, a significant pathology that impairs hepatic function. Accordingly, codistribution of Col IV and laminin serves as histochemical marker of perisinusoidal basement membrane formation in liver disease. Anat Rec, 300:1371-1390, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Type IV pili in Francisella – A virulence trait in an intracellular pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emelie eNäslund Salomonsson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent intracellular human pathogen that is capable of rapid proliferation in the infected host. Mutants affected in intracellular survival and growth are highly attenuated which highlights the importance of the intracellular phase of the infection. Genomic analysis has revealed that Francisella encodes all genes required for expression of functional type IV pili (Tfp, and in this focused review we summarise recent findings regarding this system in the pathogenesis of tularemia. Tfp are dynamic adhesive structures that have been identified as major virulence determinants in several human pathogens, but it is not obvious what role these structures could have in an intracellular pathogen like Francisella. In the human pathogenic strains, genes required for secretion and assembly of Tfp and one pilin, PilA, have shown to be required for full virulence. Importantly, specific genetic differences have been identified between the different Francisella subspecies where in the most pathogenic type A variants all genes are intact while several Tfp genes are pseudogenes in the less pathogenic type B strains. This suggests that there has been a selection for expression of Tfp with different properties in the different subspecies. There is also a possibility that the genetic differences reflect adaption to different environmental niches of the subspecies and plays a role in transmission of tularemia. This is also in line with recent findings where Tfp pilins are found to be glycosylated which could reflect a role for Tfp in the environment to promote survival and transmission. We are still far from understanding the role of Tfp in virulence and transmission of tularemia, but with the genomic information and genetic tools available we are in a good position to address these issues in the future.

  16. Occurrences of flares with type II and IV radio events in interacting sunspot groups in the course of revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimes, J.; Krivsky, L.

    1984-01-01

    Using data from 11-year solar cycle No. 20, it was found that flares with type II radio bursts are more than twice as frequent and flares with type IV bursts nearly twice as frequent in sunspot groups which developed close to each other or which merged in the course of revolutions than in isolated sunspot groups. With both types the occurrence of these flares is concentrated in the revolution of the so-called sunspot group interaction (their approximation, merging). (author)

  17. Diagnosis of Coxiella burnetii infection: comparison of a whole blood interferon-gamma production assay and a Coxiella ELISPOT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelen, T.; Limonard, G.J.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Bouwman, J.J.; Meer, J.W. van der; Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.; Sprong, T.; Deuren, M. van

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of ongoing or past infection with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, relies heavily on serology: the measurement of C. burnetii-specific antibodies, reflecting the host's humoral immune response. However, cell-mediated immune responses play an important, probably even more

  18. [Type IV contact allergies in the food processing industry: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A; Schubert, S; Geier, J; Mahler, V

    2018-05-02

    The food sector is one of the high-risk areas for occupational irritative and allergic contact eczema. The present work provides an overview of the main allergens as well as sensitization frequencies and risk in various food industry occupations. The literature on type IV sensitization in the food sector is summarized. The relative risk of developing a work-related eczema in food processing is increased by more than 3 times. The comparison group was calculated on the basis of the proportion of documented cases in the IVDK (Informationsverbund Dermatologischer Kliniken) network per 100,000 working persons in relation to the average of the years 2005 and 2010. For this purpose, the average risk of all patients was set as reference to 1. Bakers, pastry chefs, cooks and meat and fish processors are mainly affected. In addition to irritant contact eczema, allergic contact eczema and protein contact dermatitis often occur. Leading haptens (main allergens) are rubber ingredients, but also disinfectants and compositae. Only a few contact allergens are responsible for the majority of job-relevant sensitizations in the food industry.

  19. Type IV pili of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans can transfer electrons from extracellular electron donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongquan; Li, Hongyu

    2014-03-01

    Studies on Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans accepting electrons from Fe(II) have previously focused on cytochrome c. However, we have discovered that, besides cytochrome c, type IV pili (Tfp) can transfer electrons. Here, we report conduction by Tfp of A. ferrooxidans analyzed with a conducting-probe atomic force microscope (AFM). The results indicate that the Tfp of A. ferrooxidans are highly conductive. The genome sequence of A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 contains two genes, pilV and pilW, which code for pilin domain proteins with the conserved amino acids characteristic of Tfp. Multiple alignment analysis of the PilV and PilW (pilin) proteins indicated that pilV is the adhesin gene while pilW codes for the major protein element of Tfp. The likely function of Tfp is to complete the circuit between the cell surface and Fe(II) oxides. These results indicate that Tfp of A. ferrooxidans might serve as biological nanowires transferring electrons from the surface of Fe(II) oxides to the cell surface. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Polarization Characteristics of Zebra Patterns in Type IV Solar Radio Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneda, K.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Obara, T.; Iwai, K.; Katoh, Y.; Masuda, S.

    2017-01-01

    The polarization characteristics of zebra patterns (ZPs) in type IV solar bursts were studied. We analyzed 21 ZP events observed by the Assembly of Metric-band Aperture Telescope and Real-time Analysis System between 2010 and 2015 and identified the following characteristics: a degree of circular polarization (DCP) in the range of 0%–70%, a temporal delay of 0–70 ms between the two circularly polarized components (i.e., the right- and left-handed components), and dominant ordinary-mode emission in about 81% of the events. For most events, the relation between the dominant and delayed components could be interpreted in the framework of fundamental plasma emission and depolarization during propagation, though the values of DCP and delay were distributed across wide ranges. Furthermore, it was found that the DCP and delay were positively correlated (rank correlation coefficient R = 0.62). As a possible interpretation of this relationship, we considered a model based on depolarization due to reflections at sharp density boundaries assuming fundamental plasma emission. The model calculations of depolarization including multiple reflections and group delay during propagation in the inhomogeneous corona showed that the DCP and delay decreased as the number of reflections increased, which is consistent with the observational results. The dispersive polarization characteristics could be explained by the different numbers of reflections causing depolarization.

  1. Polarization Characteristics of Zebra Patterns in Type IV Solar Radio Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, K.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Obara, T. [Planetary Plasma and Atmospheric Research Center, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Iwai, K. [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1, Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Katoh, Y. [Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Masuda, S., E-mail: k.kaneda@pparc.gp.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Space—Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)

    2017-06-10

    The polarization characteristics of zebra patterns (ZPs) in type IV solar bursts were studied. We analyzed 21 ZP events observed by the Assembly of Metric-band Aperture Telescope and Real-time Analysis System between 2010 and 2015 and identified the following characteristics: a degree of circular polarization (DCP) in the range of 0%–70%, a temporal delay of 0–70 ms between the two circularly polarized components (i.e., the right- and left-handed components), and dominant ordinary-mode emission in about 81% of the events. For most events, the relation between the dominant and delayed components could be interpreted in the framework of fundamental plasma emission and depolarization during propagation, though the values of DCP and delay were distributed across wide ranges. Furthermore, it was found that the DCP and delay were positively correlated (rank correlation coefficient R = 0.62). As a possible interpretation of this relationship, we considered a model based on depolarization due to reflections at sharp density boundaries assuming fundamental plasma emission. The model calculations of depolarization including multiple reflections and group delay during propagation in the inhomogeneous corona showed that the DCP and delay decreased as the number of reflections increased, which is consistent with the observational results. The dispersive polarization characteristics could be explained by the different numbers of reflections causing depolarization.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of disinfectant agents incorporated into type IV dental stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rodrigo de Paula; Lucas, Matheus Guilherme; Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Arioli Filho, João Neudenir

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of two disinfectant agents, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution (CHX) and 98% chlorhexidine hydrochloride powder (HYD), incorporated into type IV dental stone at the time of mixing. Agar diffusion test was used for the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. The specimens were grouped in: (1) dental stone mixed with sterile distilled water; (2) paper disc soaked with CHX; (3) dental stone mixed with CHX; and (4) dental stone with incorporation of HYD, in 1% proportion of the dental stone mass and mixed with sterile distilled water. The culture medium was inoculated with microbial suspensions 1 and 24 h after pouring of the dental stone. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the average diameter of microbial growth inhibition zones. The data were analysed with a nested anova (p < 0.05) and Tukey test for specific comparisons. The disinfectant agents demonstrated antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms, with the exception of C. albicans, against which the CHX was ineffective in two periods of analysis. Significant differences between disinfectants were found with all microorganisms. The disinfectant agents analysed were effective against most of the microorganisms tested, except C. albicans. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. The dynamics of a harvested predator-prey system with Holling type IV functional response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Huang, Qingdao

    2018-05-31

    The paper aims to investigate the dynamical behavior of a predator-prey system with Holling type IV functional response in which both the species are subject to capturing. We mainly consider how the harvesting affects equilibria, stability, limit cycles and bifurcations in this system. We adopt the method of qualitative and quantitative analysis, which is based on the dynamical theory, bifurcation theory and numerical simulation. The boundedness of solutions, the existence and stability of equilibrium points of the system are further studied. Based on the Sotomayor's theorem, the existence of transcritical bifurcation and saddle-node bifurcation are derived. We use the normal form theorem to analyze the Hopf bifurcation. Simulation results show that the first Lyapunov coefficient is negative and a stable limit cycle may bifurcate. Numerical simulations are performed to make analytical studies more complete. This work illustrates that using the harvesting effort as control parameter can change the behaviors of the system, which may be useful for the biological management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pseudoaneurysm Accompanied by Crowe Type IV Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotake Yo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 72-year-old woman whose pseudoaneurysm was difficult to diagnose and treat. The patient had a history of congenital dislocated hip and was undergoing anticoagulation therapy with warfarin due to the mitral valve replacement. Her chief complaint was pain and enlargement of the left buttock, and the laboratory tests revealed severe anemia. However, her elderly depression confused her chief complaint, and she was transferred to a psychiatric hospital. Two months after the onset of the symptoms, she was finally diagnosed with a pseudoaneurysm by contrast-enhanced CT and angiography. IDC coils were used for embolization. A plain CT showed hemostasis as well as a reduced hematoma at 2 months after the embolization. The possible contributing factors for the pseudoaneurysm included bleeding due to warfarin combined with an intramuscular hematoma accompanied by Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip that led to an arterial rupture by impingement between pelvis and femoral head. Since the warfarin treatment could not be halted due to the valve replacement, embolization was chosen for her treatment, and the treatment outcome was favorable.

  5. A Stochastic Proof of the Resonant Scattering Kernel and its Applications for Gen IV Reactors Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, B.; Dagan, R.; Broeders, C.H.M.; Lohnert, G.

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP are widely accepted as almost-reference for reactor analysis. The Monte Carlo Code should therefore use as few as possible approximations in order to produce 'experimental-level' calculations. In this study we deal with one of the most problematic approximations done in MCNP in which the resonances are ignored for the secondary neutron energy distribution, namely the change of the energy and angular direction of the neutron after interaction with a heavy isotope with pronounced resonances. The endeavour of exploiting the influence of the resonances on the scattering kernel goes back to 1944 where E. Wigner and J. Wilkins developed the first temperature dependent scattering kernel. However only in 1998, the full analytical solution for the double differential resonant dependent scattering kernel was suggested by W. Rothenstein and R. Dagan. An independent stochastic approach is presented for the first time to confirm the above analytical kernel with a complete different methodology. Moreover, by manipulating in a subtle manner the scattering subroutine COLIDN of MCNP, it is proven that this very subroutine is, to some extent, inappropriate as well as the relevant explanation in the MCNP manual. The impact of this improved resonance dependent scattering kernel on diverse types of reactors, in particular for the Generation IV innovative core design HTR, is shown to be significant. (authors)

  6. A novel basolateral type IV secretion model for the CagA oncoprotein of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silja Wessler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular junctions are crucial structural elements for the formation and maintenance of epithelial barrier functions to control homeostasis or protect against intruding pathogens in humans. Alterations in these complexes represent key events in the development and progression of numerous cancers as well as multiple infectious diseases. Many bacterial pathogens harbor type IV secretion systems (T4SSs, which translocate virulence factors into host cells to hijack cellular processes. The pathology of the gastric pathogen and type-I carcinogen Helicobacter pylori strongly depends on a T4SS encoded by the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI. This T4SS forms a needle-like pilus and its activity is accomplished by the pilus-associated factors CagL, CagI and CagY which target the host integrin-β1 receptor followed by injection of the CagA oncoprotein into non-polarized AGS gastric epithelial cells. The finding of a T4SS receptor, however, suggested the presence of a sophisticated control mechanism for the injection of CagA. In fact, integrins constitute a group of basolateral receptors, which are normally absent at apical surfaces of the polarized epithelium in vivo. Our new results demonstrate that T4SS-pilus formation during H. pylori infection of polarized epithelial cells occurs preferentially at basolateral sites, and not at apical membranes (Tegtmeyer et al., 2017. We propose a stepwise process how H. pylori interacts with components of intercellular tight junctions (TJs and adherens junctions (AJs, followed by contacting integrin-based focal adhesions to disrupt and transform the epithelial cell layer in the human stomach. The possible impact of this novel signaling cascade on pathogenesis during infection is reviewed.

  7. Alterations of type IV collagen alpha chains in patients with chronic acquired glomerulopathies: mRNA levels, protein expression and urinary loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Carnevali, Maria Luisa; Martorana, Davide; Cravedi, Paolo; Maggiore, Umberto; Alinovi, Rossella; Bovino, Achiropita; Mattei, Silvia; Orlandini, Guido; Gatti, Rita; Savi, Mario; Sado, Yoshikazu; Neri, Tauro M; Allegri, Landino

    2007-01-01

    Type IV collagen is a major structural component of the normal kidney glomerulus. However, its role in chronic acquired glomerulopathies has been only partially elucidated. Urinary levels of col(IV)alpha1, col(IV)alpha3 and col(IV)alpha5 collagen chains were analyzed in 107 patients with chronic acquired glomerulopathies. In a subgroup of 33 patients, tissue mRNA levels, protein expression and urinary excretion were evaluated for all col(IV)alpha chains, from col(IV)alpha1 to col(IV)alpha5. The renal specimens were examined to get a semiquantitative score of the acute and chronic activity of the histological lesions. Urines obtained from 13 healthy subjects and 10 normal renal tissue samples were used as controls. Urinary levels of col(IV)alpha1, col(IV)alpha3, col(IV)alpha5 chains were significantly higher in patients than in controls [p < 0.01 for all], while only col(IV)alpha1 and col(IV)alpha3 urinary excretion correlated with the degree of chronic histological damage [col(IV)alpha1 R = 0.44, p < 0.001; col(IV)alpha3: R = 0.47, p < 0.001]. Compared with controls, patients showed a renal expression of mRNA for col(IV)alpha5 chain significantly higher [p = 0.001], while having a significantly lower protein expression of col(IV)alpha3, col(IV)alpha4 and col(IV)alpha5 chains [p < 0.01 for all]. Patients with chronic acquired glomerulopathies show important alterations in the col(IV)alpha chain network mimicking some molecular features of the X-linked Alport's syndrome. Further studies are needed to show whether urinary levels of the col(IV)alpha chains may be used as markers for monitoring renal injury. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. [Surgical treatment for talar neck fracture of Hawkins III, IV type with compression hollow screws combined with external fixator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Xun; Wan, Chang-Tao; Yu, Li

    2017-05-25

    To investigate the clinical effects of compression hollow screws combined with external fixator in treating talar neck fracture of Hawkins III, IV type. From March 2010 to August 2014, 15 patients with talar neck fractures of Hawkins III, IV type were treated by open reduction and compression hollow screws fixation complicated with external fixator fixation. Including 9 males and 6 females, aged from 17 to 65 years old with an average of 37.5 years old. There were 9 cases of Hawkins III and 6 cases of Hawkins IV type. Postoperative radiographs and CT of ankle were used to evaluate the fracture healing and talar necrosis. The function of ankle and foot were evaluated by American Society of Ankle and Foot Surgery(AOFAS). All the patients were followed up for 8 to 55 months with an average of 23.5 months and all fractures got bone healing from 13 to 38 weeks with an average of (17.99±6.81) weeks. Traumatic arthritis occurred in 7 cases and talar necrosis in 6 cases (2 cases of type III and 4 cases of type IV) after operation. The average AOFAS score was 61.80±18.75, including excellent in 4 cases, good in 2 cases, fair in 4 cases and poor in 5 cases. Talar neck fracture with Hawkins III, IV type has large possibility to develop avascular necrosis. Hollow compression screw combined with external fixation may late weight-bearing for ankle and can sufficiently guarantee bone healing time, and achieve good results for the treatment of talar neck fracture.

  9. Expression of type IV collagen in different histological grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The results indicated that there was a direct relationship between the presence of type IV collagen and the differentiation degree of SCC cells and thus that SCC cells loose their capability to form the basement membrane as they become less differentiated.

  10. Characterization and transcriptional analysis of two gene clusters for type IV secretion machinery in Wolbachia of Armadillidium vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Félix, Christine; Pichon, Samuel; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited alpha-proteobacteria that induce feminization of genetic males in most terrestrial crustacean isopods. Two clusters of vir genes for a type IV secretion machinery have been identified at two separate loci and characterized for the first time in a feminizing Wolb...

  11. Streptocollin, a type IV lanthipeptide produced by Streptomyces collinus Tü 365

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftime, Dumitrita; Jasyk, Martin; Kulik, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Lanthipeptides are ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified microbial secondary metabolites. Here, we report the identification and isolation of streptocollin from Streptomyces collinus Tü 365, a new member of the class IV lanthipeptides. Insertion of the constitutive ermE* promoter...

  12. Inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV: a novel approach for the prevention and treatment of Type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, Carolyn F; Ahrén, Bo; Holst, Jens J

    2004-01-01

    that has warranted the design of inhibitor-based drugs. At the molecular level, DPP IV cleaves two amino acids from the N-terminus of the intact, biologically active forms of both so-called incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (formerly known......, prevent the progressive impairment of glucose metabolism in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes. DPP IV has become a focus of attention for drug design, as it has a pivotal role in the rapid degradation of at least two of the hormones released during food ingestion, a property...

  13. Agrobacterium VirB10, an ATP energy sensor required for type IV secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales, Eric; Christie, Peter J

    2004-12-07

    Bacteria use type IV secretion systems (T4SS) to translocate DNA and protein substrates to target cells of phylogenetically diverse taxa. Recently, by use of an assay termed transfer DNA immunoprecipitation (TrIP), we described the translocation route for a DNA substrate [T-DNA, portion of the Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid that is transferred to plant cells] of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/D4 T4SS in terms of a series of temporally and spatially ordered substrate contacts with subunits of the secretion channel. Here, we report that the bitopic inner membrane protein VirB10 undergoes a structural transition in response to ATP utilization by the VirD4 and VirB11 ATP-binding subunits, as monitored by protease susceptibility. VirB10 interacts with inner membrane VirD4 independently of cellular energetic status, whereas the energy-induced conformational change is required for VirB10 complex formation with an outer membrane-associated heterodimer of VirB7 lipoprotein and VirB9, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation. Under these conditions, the T-DNA substrate is delivered from the inner membrane channel components VirB6 and VirB8 to periplasmic and outer membrane-associated VirB2 pilin and VirB9. We propose that VirD4 and VirB11 coordinate the ATP-dependent formation of a VirB10 "bridge" between inner and outer membrane subassemblies of the VirB/D4 T4SS, and that this morphogenetic event is required for T-DNA translocation across the A. tumefaciens cell envelope.

  14. The Trw type IV secretion system of Bartonella mediates host-specific adhesion to erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Vayssier-Taussat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens typically infect only a limited range of hosts; however, the genetic mechanisms governing host-specificity are poorly understood. The alpha-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises 21 species that cause host-specific intraerythrocytic bacteremia as hallmark of infection in their respective mammalian reservoirs, including the human-specific pathogens Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis that cause trench fever and Oroya fever, respectively. Here, we have identified bacterial factors that mediate host-specific erythrocyte colonization in the mammalian reservoirs. Using mouse-specific Bartonella birtlesii, human-specific Bartonella quintana, cat-specific Bartonella henselae and rat-specific Bartonella tribocorum, we established in vitro adhesion and invasion assays with isolated erythrocytes that fully reproduce the host-specificity of erythrocyte infection as observed in vivo. By signature-tagged mutagenesis of B. birtlesii and mutant selection in a mouse infection model we identified mutants impaired in establishing intraerythrocytic bacteremia. Among 45 abacteremic mutants, five failed to adhere to and invade mouse erythrocytes in vitro. The corresponding genes encode components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS Trw, demonstrating that this virulence factor laterally acquired by the Bartonella lineage is directly involved in adherence to erythrocytes. Strikingly, ectopic expression of Trw of rat-specific B. tribocorum in cat-specific B. henselae or human-specific B. quintana expanded their host range for erythrocyte infection to rat, demonstrating that Trw mediates host-specific erythrocyte infection. A molecular evolutionary analysis of the trw locus further indicated that the variable, surface-located TrwL and TrwJ might represent the T4SS components that determine host-specificity of erythrocyte parasitism. In conclusion, we show that the laterally acquired Trw T4SS diversified in the Bartonella lineage

  15. Apolipoprotein(a Kringle-IV Type 2 Copy Number Variation Is Associated with Venous Thromboembolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sticchi

    Full Text Available In addition to the established association between high lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] concentrations and coronary artery disease, an association between Lp(a and venous thromboembolism (VTE has also been described. Lp(a is controlled by genetic variants in LPA gene, coding for apolipoprotein(a, including the kringle-IV type 2 (KIV-2 size polymorphism. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of LPA gene KIV-2 size polymorphism and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs1853021, rs1800769, rs3798220, rs10455872 in modulating VTE susceptibility. Five hundred and sixteen patients with VTE without hereditary and acquired thrombophilia and 1117 healthy control subjects, comparable for age and sex, were investigated. LPA KIV-2 polymorphism, rs3798220 and rs10455872 SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan technology. Concerning rs1853021 and rs1800769 SNPs, PCR-RFLP assay was used. LPA KIV-2 repeat number was significantly lower in patients than in controls [median (interquartile range 11(6-17 vs 15(9-25, p<0.0001]. A significantly higher prevalence of KIV-2 repeat number ≤7 was observed in patients than in controls (33.5% vs 15.5%, p<0.0001. KIV-2 repeat number was independently associated with VTE (p = 4.36 x10-9, as evidenced by the general linear model analysis adjusted for transient risk factors. No significant difference in allele frequency for all SNPs investigated was observed. Haplotype analysis showed that LPA haplotypes rather than individual SNPs influenced disease susceptibility. Receiver operating characteristic curves analysis showed that a combined risk prediction model, including KIV-2 size polymorphism and clinical variables, had a higher performance in identifying subjects at VTE risk than a clinical-only model, also separately in men and women.

  16. Brucella Modulates Secretory Trafficking via Multiple Type IV Secretion Effector Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeni, Sebenzile; Child, Robert; Ng, Tony W.; Kupko, John J.; Wehrly, Tara D.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Celli, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular pathogenic bacterium Brucella generates a replicative vacuole (rBCV) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum via subversion of the host cell secretory pathway. rBCV biogenesis requires the expression of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB, which is thought to translocate effector proteins that modulate membrane trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways. To date, only a few T4SS substrates have been identified, whose molecular functions remain unknown. Here, we used an in silico screen to identify putative T4SS effector candidate proteins using criteria such as limited homology in other bacterial genera, the presence of features similar to known VirB T4SS effectors, GC content and presence of eukaryotic-like motifs. Using β-lactamase and CyaA adenylate cyclase reporter assays, we identified eleven proteins translocated into host cells by Brucella, five in a VirB T4SS-dependent manner, namely BAB1_0678 (BspA), BAB1_0712 (BspB), BAB1_0847 (BspC), BAB1_1671 (BspE) and BAB1_1948 (BspF). A subset of the translocated proteins targeted secretory pathway compartments when ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, and the VirB effectors BspA, BspB and BspF inhibited protein secretion. Brucella infection also impaired host protein secretion in a process requiring BspA, BspB and BspF. Single or combined deletions of bspA, bspB and bspF affected Brucella ability to replicate in macrophages and persist in the liver of infected mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Brucella modulates secretory trafficking via multiple T4SS effector proteins that likely act coordinately to promote Brucella pathogenesis. PMID:23950720

  17. Efficacy of pulsed dye laser in cosmetically distressing facial dermatoses in skin types IV and V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandpur Sujay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulsed dye laser (PDL has revolutionized treatment of vascular dermatoses. It has been successfully employed to treat several non-vascular conditions in fair skinned individuals without producing significant pigmentary and textural complications. Aim: A preliminary study was undertaken to assess its efficacy in cosmetically distressing facial, vascular and non-vascular dermatoses in Indian patients with skin types IV and V. Materials and Methods: Nine patients of ages 7 to 55 years, with facial verruca plana (VP- 4 cases, angiofibromas (AF- 4 cases and multiple pyogenic granulomas (PG- one case were recruited. They had no systemic complaints. Laser parameters used were (spot size/fluence/wavelength/pulse duration:VP- 5mm/5.5-7.5J/585nm/0.45ms; AF-5mm/6-8.5J/585nm/0.45ms;PG- 5mm/7J/585 and 595nm alternately/1.5ms. Response was assessed clinically and photographically. Results and Conclusions: All VP lesions completely resolved after 2-4 sessions (mean 3.25 sessions, AF showed 50% regression in all cases after 2-3 sessions (mean 2.5 sessions and ≥75% subsidence after 3-7 sessions (mean 5.5 sessions and in PG, after 3 sessions, there was complete subsidence of small satellite lesions with moderate shrinkage of larger papules and complete resolution after 5 sessions. Complications included transient hyperpigmentation/hypopigmentation only. There was no recurrence during next 6 months. PDL offers significant cosmetic improvement in facial dermatoses in Indian patients.

  18. Colonoscopic perforation leading to a diagnosis of Ehlers Danlos syndrome type IV: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfe John

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Colonoscopic perforation is a rare but serious complication of colonoscopy. Factors known to increase the risk of perforation include colonic strictures, extensive diverticulosis, and friable tissues. We describe the case of a man who was found to have perforation of the sigmoid colon secondary to an undiagnosed connective tissue disorder (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV while undergoing surveillance for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Case presentation A 33-year-old Caucasian man presented to our hospital with an acute abdomen following a colonoscopy five days earlier as part of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer screening. His medical history included bilateral clubfoot. His physical examination findings suggested left iliac fossa peritonitis. A computed tomographic scan revealed perforation of the sigmoid colon and incidentally a right common iliac artery aneurysm as well. Hartmann's procedure was performed during laparotomy. The patient recovered well post-operatively and was discharged. Reversal of the Hartmann's procedure was performed six months later. This procedure was challenging because of dense adhesions and friable bowel. The histology of bowel specimens from this surgery revealed thinning and fibrosis of the muscularis externa. The patient was subsequently noted to have transparency of truncal skin with easily visible vessels. An underlying collagen vascular disorder was suspected, and genetic testing revealed a mutation in the collagen type III, α1 (COL3A1 gene, which is consistent with a diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV. Conclusions Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, the vascular type, is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene on chromosome 2q31. It is characterized by translucent skin, clubfoot, and the potentially fatal complications of spontaneous large vessel rupture, although spontaneous uterine and colonic perforations have also been reported in the

  19. Spine deformities in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, type IV - late results of surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesiorowski Maciej

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal deformities in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are usually progressive and may require operative treatment. There is limited number of studies describing late results of surgery in this disease. Methods This is a retrospective study of the records of 11 patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, treated surgically between 1990 and 2007. All patients underwent surgical treatment for spinal deformity. Duration of operation, type of instrumentation, intraoperative blood loss, complications and number of additional surgeries were noted. Radiographic measurement was performed on standing AP and lateral radiographs acquired before surgery, just after and at final follow up. Results The mean follow up period was 5.5 ± 2.9 years (range 1-10 years. The mean preoperative thoracic and lumbar curve were 109.5 ± 19.9° (range 83° - 142° and 75.6 ± 26.7° (range 40° - 108° respectively. Posterior spine fusion alone was performed on 6 patients and combined anterior and posterior fusion (one- or two stage on 5 cases. Posterior segmental spinal instrumentation was applied with use of hooks, screws and wires. The mean postoperative thoracic and lumbar curve improved to 79.3 ± 16.1° (range 56° - 105° and 58.5 ± 27.7° (range 10° - 95° respectively, with a slight loss of correction during follow up. The average thoracic and lumbar correction was 26.4 ± 14.9% (range 5.3 - 50.4% and 26.3 ± 21.2% (range 7.9 - 75%. Postoperatively, the mean kyphosis was 79.5 ± 40.3° (range 21° -170°, and lordosis was 50.8 ± 18.6° (range 20° -79°. Hyperkyphosis increased during follow up while lordosis remained stable. Mean Th12-L2 angle was -3.5 ±9.9° (range -19° - 15° postoperatively and did not change significantly during follow up. Conclusions Huge spinal deformities in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome require complex and extensive surgery. There is a big risk of sagittal imbalance in this group.

  20. Decameter Type IV Burst Associated with a Behind-the-limb CME Observed on 7 November 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, V. N.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Rucker, H. O.; Panchenko, M.; Frantsuzenko, A. V.; Shevchuk, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the results of observations of a type IV burst made by the Ukrainian Radio interferometer of the Academy of Sciences (URAN-2) in the frequency range 22 - 33 MHz. The burst is associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) initiated by a behind-the-limb active region (N05E151) and was also observed by the Nançay Decameter Array (NDA) radio telescope in the frequency band 30 - 60 MHz. The purpose of the article is the determination of the source of this type IV burst. After analysis of the observational data obtained with the URAN-2, the NDA, the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) A and B spacecraft, and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, we come to the conclusion that the source of the burst is the core of a behind-the-limb CME. We conclude that the radio emission can escape the center of the CME core at a frequency of 60 MHz and originates from the periphery of the core at a frequency of 30 MHz that is due to occultation by the solar corona at the corresponding frequencies. We find plasma densities in these regions assuming the plasma mechanism of radio emission. We show that the frequency drift of the start of the type IV burst is governed by an expansion of the CME core. The type III bursts that were observed against this type IV burst are shown to be generated by fast electrons propagating through the CME core plasma. A type II burst was registered at frequencies of 44 - 64 MHz and 3 - 16 MHz and was radiated by a shock with velocities of about 1000 km s^{-1} and 800 km s^{-1}, respectively.

  1. Implementation of GLP-1 based therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus using DPP-IV inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    GLP-1 is a peptide hormone from the intestinal mucosa. It is secreted in response to meal ingestion and normally functions in the so-called ileal brake i. e. inhibition of upper gastrointestinal motility and secretion when nutrients are present in the distal small intestine. It also induces satiety...... of the peptide is necessary because of an exceptionally rapid rate of degradation catalyzed the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV. With inhibitors of this enzyme, it is possible to protect the endogenous hormone and thereby elevate both fasting and postprandial levels of the active hormone. This leads to enhanced...... insulin secretion and glucose turnover. But will DPP-IV inhibition enhance all effects of the endogenous peptide? The mode of action of GLP-1 is complex involving also interactions with sensory neurons and the central nervous system, where a DPP-IV mediated degradation does not seem to occur. Therefore...

  2. Granulomatous response to Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever: the lessons from gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    delphine efaugaret

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of granulomas is associated with the resolution of Q fever, a zoonosis due to Coxiella burnetii; however the molecular mechanisms of granuloma formation remain poorly understood. We generated human granulomas with peripheral blood mononuclear cells and beads coated with C. burnetii, using BCG extracts as controls. A microarray analysis showed dramatic changes in gene expression in granuloma cells of which more than 50% were commonly modulated genes in response to C. burnetii and BCG. They included M1-related genes and genes related to chemotaxis. The inhibition of the chemokines, CCL2 and CCL5, directly interfered with granuloma formation. C. burnetii granulomas also expressed a specific transcriptional profile that was essentially enriched in genes associated with type I interferon response. Our results showed that granuloma formation is associated with a core of transcriptional response based on inflammatory genes. The specific granulomatous response to C. burnetii is characterized by the activation of type I interferon pathway.

  3. Structure of the type IV secretion system in different strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Khedery Basima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an intracellular organism in the Order Rickettsiales that infects diverse animal species and is causing an emerging disease in humans, dogs and horses. Different strains have very different cell tropisms and virulence. For example, in the U.S., strains have been described that infect ruminants but not dogs or rodents. An intriguing question is how the strains of A. phagocytophilum differ and what different genome loci are involved in cell tropisms and/or virulence. Type IV secretion systems (T4SS are responsible for translocation of substrates across the cell membrane by mechanisms that require contact with the recipient cell. They are especially important in organisms such as the Rickettsiales which require T4SS to aid colonization and survival within both mammalian and tick vector cells. We determined the structure of the T4SS in 7 strains from the U.S. and Europe and revised the sequence of the repetitive virB6 locus of the human HZ strain. Results Although in all strains the T4SS conforms to the previously described split loci for vir genes, there is great diversity within these loci among strains. This is particularly evident in the virB2 and virB6 which are postulated to encode the secretion channel and proteins exposed on the bacterial surface. VirB6-4 has an unusual highly repetitive structure and can have a molecular weight greater than 500,000. For many of the virs, phylogenetic trees position A. phagocytophilum strains infecting ruminants in the U.S. and Europe distant from strains infecting humans and dogs in the U.S. Conclusions Our study reveals evidence of gene duplication and considerable diversity of T4SS components in strains infecting different animals. The diversity in virB2 is in both the total number of copies, which varied from 8 to 15 in the herein characterized strains, and in the sequence of each copy. The diversity in virB6 is in the sequence of each of the 4 copies in

  4. C-peptide prevents SMAD3 binding to alpha promoters to inhibit collagen type IV synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanning; Zhong, Yan; Gong, Wenjian; Gao, Xuehan; Qi, Huanli; Liu, Kun; Qi, Jinsheng

    2018-07-01

    Activation of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFB1)/SMAD3 signaling may lead to additional synthesis of collagen type IV (COL4), which is a major contributor to extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in diabetic nephropathy (DN). C-peptide can attenuate fibrosis to have unique beneficial effects in DN. However, whether and how C-peptide affects TGFB1/SMAD3-activated COL4 synthesis is unclear. In this study, pathological changes, expression of COL4 a1-a5 chains ( Col4a1-a5 ), COL4 distribution and protein and TGFB1 and SMAD3 protein were first assessed in a rat model of diabetes. Then, rat mesangial cells were treated with high glucose (HG) and/or C-peptide to investigate the underlying mechanism. Col4a1-a5 expression, COL4 protein and secretion, TGFB1 protein, SMAD3 nuclear translocation and binding of SMAD3 to its cognate sites in the promoters of Col4a1a2 , Col4a3a4 and Col4a5 were measured. It was found that C-peptide attenuated glomerular pathological changes and suppressed renal Col4a1 -a5 mRNA expression, COL4 protein content and TGFB1 protein content. C-peptide had a dose-dependent effect to inhibit Col4a1-a5 mRNA expression, COL4 protein content and secretion, in HG-stimulated mesangial cells. In addition, the HG-induced increase in TGFB1 protein content was significantly reduced by C-peptide. Although not apparently affecting SMAD3 nuclear translocation, C-peptide prevented SMAD3 from binding to its sites in the Col4a1a2 , Col4a3a4 and Col4a5 promoters in HG-stimulated mesangial cells. In conclusion, C-peptide could prevent SMAD3 from binding to its sites in the Col4a1a2 , Col4a3a4 and Col4a5 promoters, to inhibit COL4 generation. These results may provide a mechanism for the alleviation of fibrosis in DN by C-peptide. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  5. The determination of PCBs in Rocky Flats Type IV waste sludge by gas chromatography/electron capture detection. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Postlethwait, P.D.; Boparai, A.S.; Reedy, G.T.

    1994-12-01

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E reg-sign and Oil Dri reg-sign to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a nonradioactive simulated Type 17V RFP sludge was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E). This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. In an earlier effort, a simplified method was developed for extraction, cleanup of extract, and determination of PCBs in samples of simulated sludge spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. The simplified method has now been used to determine the presence and quantities of other Aroclors in the simulated sludge, namely, Aroclors 10 1 6, 1221, 1232, 1242, and 1248. The accuracy and precision of the data for these Aroclors were found to be similar to the data for sludges spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. Since actual sludges may vary in composition, the method was also verified by analyzing another source of Type IV simulated sludge, prepared by Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W)

  6. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Ambient Air after a Large Q Fever Outbreak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Myrna M T; Borlée, Floor; Smit, Lidwien A M; de Bruin, Arnout; Janse, Ingmar; Heederik, Dick J J; Wouters, Inge M

    One of the largest Q fever outbreaks ever occurred in the Netherlands from 2007-2010, with 25 fatalities among 4,026 notified cases. Airborne dispersion of Coxiella burnetii was suspected but not studied extensively at the time. We investigated temporal and spatial variation of Coxiella burnetii in

  7. Palliative treatment with radiation-emitting metallic stents in unresectable Bismuth type III or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Guo, Jin-He; Zhu, Hai-Dong; Zhu, Guang-Yu; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Li; Wang, Chao; Pan, Tian-Fan; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The emerging data for stenting in combination with brachytherapy in unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma are encouraging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiation-emitting metallic stents (REMS) for unresectable Bismuth type III or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous placement with REMS or uncovered self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) for unresectable Bismuth type III or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma between September 2011 and April 2016 were identified into this retrospective study. Data on patient demographics and overall survival, functional success, stent patency and complications were collected at the authors' hospital. A total of 59 patients were included: 33 (55.9%) in the REMS group and 26 (44.1%) in the SEMS group. The median overall survival was 338 days in the REMS group and 141 days in the SEMS group (philar cholangiocarcinoma, and seems to prolong survival as well as patency of stent in these patients.

  8. Fatal Peritoneal Bleeding Following Embolization of a Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usinskiene, Jurgita; Mazighi, Mikael; Bisdorff, Annouk; Houdart, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old woman treated for a spontaneous carotid-cavernous fistula in a context of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV. Embolization with a transvenous approach was achieved without complications; however, the patient died 72 hr later of massive intraperitoneal bleeding. At autopsy, no lesion of the digestive arteries was identified. Possible causes of this bleeding are discussed

  9. Type IV pilins regulate their own expression via direct intramembrane interactions with the sensor kinase PilS

    OpenAIRE

    Kilmury, Sara L. N.; Burrows, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Although two-component systems are a ubiquitous means of rapid bacterial adaptation to changing environments, identification of the specific signals detected by sensor kinases can be challenging. Also, little is known about the diverse, poorly characterized family of sensor kinases that detect intramembrane signals. We show that the major type IV pilin, PilA, is an inhibitory intramembrane ligand for the PilS sensor kinase that controls pilA expression and we characterize the mechanism of sig...

  10. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of a type IV pilus probe initial stages of a force-induced conformational transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Baker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Type IV pili are long, protein filaments built from a repeating subunit that protrudes from the surface of a wide variety of infectious bacteria. They are implicated in a vast array of functions, ranging from bacterial motility to microcolony formation to infection. One of the most well-studied type IV filaments is the gonococcal type IV pilus (GC-T4P from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea. Cryo-electron microscopy has been used to construct a model of this filament, offering insights into the structure of type IV pili. In addition, experiments have demonstrated that GC-T4P can withstand very large tension forces, and transition to a force-induced conformation. However, the details of force-generation, and the atomic-level characteristics of the force-induced conformation, are unknown. Here, steered molecular dynamics (SMD simulation was used to exert a force in silico on an 18 subunit segment of GC-T4P to address questions regarding the nature of the interactions that lead to the extraordinary strength of bacterial pili. SMD simulations revealed that the buried pilin α1 domains maintain hydrophobic contacts with one another within the core of the filament, leading to GC-T4P's structural stability. At the filament surface, gaps between pilin globular head domains in both the native and pulled states provide water accessible routes between the external environment and the interior of the filament, allowing water to access the pilin α1 domains as reported for VC-T4P in deuterium exchange experiments. Results were also compared to the experimentally observed force-induced conformation. In particular, an exposed amino acid sequence in the experimentally stretched filament was also found to become exposed during the SMD simulations, suggesting that initial stages of the force induced transition are well captured. Furthermore, a second sequence was shown to be initially hidden in the native filament and became exposed upon

  11. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of a type IV pilus probe initial stages of a force-induced conformational transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph L; Biais, Nicolas; Tama, Florence

    2013-04-01

    Type IV pili are long, protein filaments built from a repeating subunit that protrudes from the surface of a wide variety of infectious bacteria. They are implicated in a vast array of functions, ranging from bacterial motility to microcolony formation to infection. One of the most well-studied type IV filaments is the gonococcal type IV pilus (GC-T4P) from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea. Cryo-electron microscopy has been used to construct a model of this filament, offering insights into the structure of type IV pili. In addition, experiments have demonstrated that GC-T4P can withstand very large tension forces, and transition to a force-induced conformation. However, the details of force-generation, and the atomic-level characteristics of the force-induced conformation, are unknown. Here, steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation was used to exert a force in silico on an 18 subunit segment of GC-T4P to address questions regarding the nature of the interactions that lead to the extraordinary strength of bacterial pili. SMD simulations revealed that the buried pilin α1 domains maintain hydrophobic contacts with one another within the core of the filament, leading to GC-T4P's structural stability. At the filament surface, gaps between pilin globular head domains in both the native and pulled states provide water accessible routes between the external environment and the interior of the filament, allowing water to access the pilin α1 domains as reported for VC-T4P in deuterium exchange experiments. Results were also compared to the experimentally observed force-induced conformation. In particular, an exposed amino acid sequence in the experimentally stretched filament was also found to become exposed during the SMD simulations, suggesting that initial stages of the force induced transition are well captured. Furthermore, a second sequence was shown to be initially hidden in the native filament and became exposed upon stretching.

  12. [New classification of Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hai-yang; Zhou, Yong-gang; Zheng, Chong; Cao, Wen-zhe; Wang Sen; Wu, Wen-ming; Piao, Shang; Du, Yin-qiao

    2016-02-01

    To compare differences between Crowe IV developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) with secondary acetabulum and Crowe IV DDH without secondary acetabulum,and determine whether it is necessary to divide Crowe IV DDH into two subtypes. From June 2007 to May 2015,145 hips of 112 Crowe N patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA) using S-ROM stem were divided into two groups: secondary acetabulum formaton group (group A) and no secondary acetabulum formaton group (group B). In group A,there were 12 females, 96 males,with an average age of (39.38 ± 11.19) years old. In group B, there were 2 females, 35 males, with an average age of (38.19 ± 10.92) years old. All the patients were evaluated by using Harris Hip Score. Radiographic evaluations were made preoperatively and during follow up. The differences between two groups were compared on dislocation height, canal flare index (CFI), subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy (SSTO) usage, pre- and post-operation Harris scores, complications. The dislocation height for group A was (4.74 ± 1.57) cm, while the dislocation height for group B was (3.12 ± 1.15) cm. Significantly difference was detected between two groups. The CFI for group A was 2.69 ± 0.68, while the CFI for group B was 3.42 ± 0.79, and the significantly difference was detected between two groups. Harris scores were totally improved from 58.18 ± 15.67 preoperatively to 91.20 ± 3.79 post-operatively and the difference was significant. Pre-operative Harris scores was 58.1 ± 15.3 in group A, 58.3 ± 16.9 in group B. Post-operative Harris scores was 91.0 ± 4.1 in group A, 91.0 ± 5.1 in group B. No significant difference was found on Harris scores between A and B preoperatively and post-operatively. Complications of 4 cases peri-prosthesis fracture, 4 cases dislocation and 4 cases nerve injury occur in group A; While only one case dislocation and one case nerve injury occur in group B. No statistical significance was detected. Crowe IV DDH with

  13. Treatment with 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin ameliorated symptoms of Bartter syndrome type IV caused by mutated Bsnd in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Naohiro; Kamiya, Kazusaku; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Yui, Naofumi; Chiga, Motoko; Sohara, Eisei; Rai, Tatemitu; Sakaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinich

    2013-11-22

    Mutations of BSND, which encodes barttin, cause Bartter syndrome type IV. This disease is characterized by salt and fluid loss, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and sensorineural hearing impairment. Barttin is the β-subunit of the ClC-K chloride channel, which recruits it to the plasma membranes, and the ClC-K/barttin complex contributes to transepithelial chloride transport in the kidney and inner ear. The retention of mutant forms of barttin in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is etiologically linked to Bartter syndrome type IV. Here, we report that treatment with 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an Hsp90 inhibitor, enhanced the plasma membrane expression of mutant barttins (R8L and G47R) in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Administration of 17-AAG to Bsnd(R8L/R8L) knock-in mice elevated the plasma membrane expression of R8L in the kidney and inner ear, thereby mitigating hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hearing loss. These results suggest that drugs that rescue ER-retained mutant barttin may be useful for treating patients with Bartter syndrome type IV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astobiza Ianire

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST. Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4, 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20 and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21 were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several

  15. Immunochemical and autoantigenic properties of the globular domain of basement membrane collagen (type IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Mark, H; Oberbäumer, I; Timpl, R; Kemler, R; Wick, G

    1985-02-01

    Polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against the globular domain NC1 of collagen IV from human placenta and a mouse tumor react with conformational antigenic determinants present on the NC1 hexamers and also with the three major subunits obtained after dissociation. The antibodies recognized unique structures within basement membranes and showed a broad tissue reactivity but only limited species cross-reactivity. Using these antibodies, it was possible to detect small amounts of collagen IV antigens from cell cultures and in serum. Monoclonal rat antibodies against mouse NC1 revealed a similar reaction potential. Autoantibodies could be produced in mice against mouse NC1 which react with kidney and lung basement membranes in a pathological manner, mimicking Goodpasture syndrome.

  16. A novel arctigenin-containing latex glove prevents latex allergy by inhibiting type I/IV allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Xin; Xue, Dan-Ting; Liu, Meng; Zhou, Zheng-Min; Shang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed at developing a natural compound with anti-allergic effect and stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions and investigating whether its anti-allergic effect is maintained after its addition into the latex. The effects of nine natural compounds on growth of the RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were determined using MTT assay. The compounds included glycyrrhizin, osthole, tetrandrine, tea polyphenol, catechin, arctigenin, oleanolic acid, baicalin and oxymatrine. An ELISA assay was used for the in vitro anti-type I/IV allergy screening; in this process β-hexosaminidase, histamine, and IL-4 released from RBL-2H3 cell lines and IFN-γ and IL-2 released from mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were taken as screening indices. The physical stability of eight natural compounds and the dissolubility of arctigenin, selected based on the in vitro pharnacodynamaic screening and the stability evaluation, were detected by HPLC. The in vivo pharmacodynamic confirmation of arctigenin and final latex product was evaluated with a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) model and an allergen-specific skin response model. Nine natural compounds showed minor growth inhibition on RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes. Baicalin and arctigenin had the best anti-type I and IV allergic effects among the natural compounds based on the in vitro pharmacodynamic screening. Arctigenin and catechin had the best physical stability under different manufacturing conditions. Arctigenin was the selected for further evaluation and proven to have anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo in a dose-dependent manner. The final product of the arctigenin-containing latex glove had anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo which were mainly attributed to arctigenin as proved from the dissolubility results. Arctigenin showed anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vitro and in vivo, with a good stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions

  17. A retrospective chart review to assess the safety of nonablative fractional laser resurfacing in Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte M; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Alexis, Andrew F

    2013-04-01

    Laser resurfacing in patients with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes (SPT) IV to VI is associated with a higher risk of pigmentary alteration. There is a paucity of studies evaluating optimum treatment parameters for fractional lasers in darkly pigmented skin types. This is a retrospective review of medical records for patients with SPT IV to VI who were treated with a 1,550 nm erbium-doped fractional nonablative laser (Fraxel Re:Store SR 1550; Solta Medical, Hayword, CA). Data were collected from patient charts and the clinic laser logbook from January 2008 to January 2012. The frequency of treatment-associated postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and treatment settings used were evaluated. A total of 115 total laser sessions (45 patients) were included in our analysis. Five of the sessions (4%) were accompanied by PIH, 2 of which occurred in a single patient. Only 1 episode of PIH lasted longer than 1 month (2 months). Two of the 5 cases had only transient PIH (≤7 days), one of which was reported by the patient and not clinically evident on examination. The 1,550 nm erbium-doped fractional laser is well tolerated in SPT IV to VI. Fractional laser resurfacing, with the settings used and pretreatment and posttreatment hydroquinone 4% cream, was associated with a low risk of PIH in darker skin types.

  18. Laser and Light Treatments for Hair Reduction in Fitzpatrick Skin Types IV-VI: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayne, Rachel A; Perper, Marina; Eber, Ariel E; Aldahan, Adam S; Nouri, Keyvan

    2018-04-01

    Unwanted facial and body hair presents as a common finding in many patients, such as females with hirsutism. With advances in laser and light technology, a clinically significant reduction in hair can be achieved in patients with light skin. However, in patients with darker skin, Fitzpatrick skin types (FST) IV-VI, the higher melanin content of the skin interferes with the proposed mechanism of laser-induced selective photothermolysis, which is to target the melanin in the hair follicle to cause permanent destruction of hair bulge stem cells. Many prospective and retrospective studies have been conducted with laser and light hair-removal devices, but most exclude patients with darkly pigmented skin, considering them a high-risk group for unwanted side effects, including pigmentation changes, blisters, and crust formation. We reviewed the published literature to obtain studies that focused on hair reduction for darker skin types. The existing literature for this patient population identifies longer wavelengths as a key element of the treatment protocol and indicates neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG), diode, alexandrite, and ruby lasers as well as certain intense pulsed light sources for safe hair reduction with minimal side effects in patients with FST IV-VI, so long as energy settings and wavelengths are appropriate. Based on the findings in this review, safe and effective hair reduction for patients with FST IV-VI is achievable under proper treatment protocols and energy settings.

  19. Identification of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases active towards (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine among PLP fold type IV transaminases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezsudnova, Ekaterina Yu; Dibrova, Daria V; Nikolaeva, Alena Yu; Rakitina, Tatiana V; Popov, Vladimir O

    2018-04-10

    New class IV transaminases with activity towards L-Leu, which is typical of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases (BCAT), and with activity towards (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine ((R)-PEA), which is typical of (R)-selective (R)-amine:pyruvate transaminases, were identified by bioinformatics analysis, obtained in recombinant form, and analyzed. The values of catalytic activities in the reaction with L-Leu and (R)-PEA are comparable to those measured for characteristic transaminases with the corresponding specificity. Earlier, (R)-selective class IV transaminases were found to be active, apart from (R)-PEA, only with some other (R)-primary amines and D-amino acids. Sequences encoding new transaminases with mixed type of activity were found by searching for changes in the conserved motifs of sequences of BCAT by different bioinformatics tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of a distinct type IV collagen α chain with restricted kidney distribution and assignment of its gene to the locus of X chromosome-linked Alport syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostikka, S.L.; Hoeyhtyae, M.; Tryggvason, K.; Eddy, R.L.; Byers, M.G.; Shows, T.B.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have identified and extensively characterized a type IV collagen α chain, referred to as α5(IV). Four overlapping cDNA clones isolated contain an open reading frame for 543 amino acid residues of the carboxyl-terminal end of a collagenous domain, a 229-residue carboxyl-terminal noncollagenous domain, and 1201 base pairs coding for a 3' untranslated region. The collagenous Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeat sequence has five imperfections that coincide with those in the corresponding region of the α1(IV) chain. The noncollagenous domain has 12 conserved cysteine residues and 83% and 63% sequence identity with the noncollagenous domains of the α1(IV) and α2(IV) chains, respectively. The α5(IV) chain has less sequence identity with the putative bovine α3(IV) and α4(IV) chains. Antiserum against an α5(IV) synthetic peptide stained a polypeptide chain of about 185 kDa by immunoblot analysis and immunolocalization of the chain in human kidney was almost completely restricted to the glomerulus. The gene was assigned to the Xq22 locus by somatic cell hybrids and in situ hybridization. This may be identical or close to the locus of the X chromosome-linked Alport syndrome that is believed to be a type IV collagen disease

  1. Hereditary sensory and autosomal peripheral neuropathy-type IV: case series and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, D P; Chandan, G D; Jasleen, Handa Kaur; Rajkumar, G C; Rudresh, K B; Prashanth, R

    2015-06-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) IV is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which is characterized by a decrease in the number of myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibers of peripheral nerves which causes diminished or absent pain sensation leading to increase in self-mutilative habits. A retrospective study of eight cases ranging from age group of 4 to 17 years for oral and digital signs and symptoms is presented. All the patients showed congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis. Oral self-mutilations, such as autoextraction of teeth and severe bite injuries (with resultant scarring) of the finger tips and oral soft tissues (tongue, lip, and buccal mucosa) were found in most patients. Our study suggests that early diagnosis and specific treatment plan are important for prevention of characteristic of the oral as well as digital trauma associated with this disorder.

  2. Ionizing radiation modulates the exposure of the HUIV26 cryptic epitope within collagen type IV during angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Peter C.; Roth, Jennifer M.; Lymberis, Stella C.; DeWyngaert, Keith; Broek, Daniel; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The majority of the research on the biologic effects of ionizing radiation has focused on the impact of radiation on cells in terms of gene expression, DNA damage, and cytotoxicity. In comparison, little information is available concerning the direct effects of radiation on the extracellular microenvironment, specifically the extracellular matrix and its main component, collagen. We have developed a series of monoclonal antibodies that bind to cryptic epitopes of collagen Type IV that are differentially exposed during matrix remodeling and are key mediators of angiogenesis. We have hypothesized that ionizing radiation might affect the process of angiogenesis through a direct effect on the extracellular matrix and specifically on collagen Type IV. Methods and Materials: Angiogenesis was induced in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model; 24 h later, a single-dose treatment with ionizing radiation (0.5, 5, and 20 cGy) was administered. Angiogenesis was assessed, and the exposure of two cryptic regulatory epitopes within collagen Type IV (HUI77 and HUIV26) was studied in vitro by solid-phase ELISA and in vivo by immunofluorescence staining. Results: A dose-dependent reduction of angiogenesis with maximum inhibition (85%-90%) occurring at 20 cGy was demonstrated in the CAM model. Exposure of the cryptic HUIV26 site, an angiogenesis control element, was inhibited both in vitro and in vivo by the same radiation dose, whereas little if any change was observed for the HUI77 cryptic epitope. Conclusions: A dose-dependent alteration of the functional exposure of the HUIV26 cryptic epitope is induced by radiation in vitro and in the CAM model in vivo. This radiation-induced change in protein structure and function may contribute to the inhibitory effects of ionizing radiation on new blood vessel growth and warrants further studies in other models

  3. [Clinical value of "Kou mode of hepatic hilar anastomosis" in resection of type III or IV hepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-dong; Liu, Wei; Tao, Lian-yuan; Zhang, Zhen-huan; Cai, Lei; Zhang, Shuang-min

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the surgical technique of "Kou mode of hepatic hilar anastomosis" in the treatment for type III or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The clinical data of 89 patients with type III or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma surgically treated in our department between Jan. 1990 and Jan. 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Since January 2000, "Kou mode of hepatic hilar anastomosis" was performed for some patients with advanced hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The patients were divided into two groups: group A treated between 1990 and 1999, group B between 2000 and 2008. The rate of resection, therapeutic efficacy and complications in these two groups were compared, respectively. Of the 37 cases with hilar cholangiocarcinoma in group A, 4 were surgically treated (10.8%), with 1 (2.7%) radical resection and 3 (8.1%) palliative resection. Among the 52 cases with hilar cholangiocarcinoma in the group B, 35 (67.3%) received surgical resection, of them 15 (28.8%) underwent radical resection and 20 (38.5%) had palliative resection. Twenty-eight of these 35 cases underwent the "Kou mode of hepatic hilar anastomosis". The resection rate of advanced hilar cholangiocarcinoma in the group B was significantly higher than that in group A (P anastomosis" developed bile leakage to a varying degree and recovered after drainage and symptomatic treatment. The resection rate of type III or IV advanced hilar cholangiocarcinoma can be remarkably improved by using a novel alternative surgical technique called "Kou mode of hepatic hilar anastomosis". However, the long-term outcome still needs to be determined by close follow-up and further observation.

  4. Detection and differentiation of coxiella burnetii in biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, Marvin E. (Richland, WA); Mallavia, Louis P. (Moscow, ID); Samuel, James E. (Derwood, MD); Baca, Oswald G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    Methods for detecting the presence of Coxiella burnetii in biological samples, as well as a method for differentiating strains of C. burnetii that are capable of causing acute disease from those strains capable of causing chronic disease are disclosed. The methods generally comprise treating cells contained within the biological sample to expose cellular DNA, and hybridizing the cellular DNA with a DNA probe containing DNA sequences that specifically hybridize with C. burnetii DNA of strains associated with the capacity to cause acute or chronic disease.

  5. Detection and differentiation of coxiella burnetii in biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, Marvin E. (Richland, WA); Mallavia, Louis P. (Moscow, ID); Samuel, James E. (Pullman, WA); Baca, Oswald G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Methods for detecting the presence of Coxiella burenetii in biological samples, as well as a method for differentiating strains of C. burnetii that are capable of causing acute disease from those strains capable of causing chronic disease are disclosed. The methods generally comprise treating cells contained within the biological sample to expose cellular DNA, and hybridizing the cellular DNA (specifically rickettsial DNA) with a C. burnetii-specific labeled DNA probe. Radioisotope and biotin labels are preferred, allowing detection through autoradiography and colorimetric assays, respectively.

  6. Detection and differentiation of coxiella burnetii in biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, Marvin E. (Richland, WA); Mallavia, Louis P. (Moscow, ID); Baca, Oswald G. (Albuquerque, NM); Samuel, James E. (Pullman, WA)

    1989-01-01

    Methods for detecting the presence of Coxiella burnetii in biological samples, as well as a method for differentiating strains of C. burnetii that are capable of causing acute disease from those strains capable of causing chronic disease are disclosed. The methods generally comprise treating cells contained within the biological sample to expose cellular DNA, and hybridizing the cellular DNA (specifically rickettsial DNA) with a C. burnetii-specific labeled DNA probe. Radioisotope and biotin labels are preferred, allowing detection through autoradiography and colorimetric assays, respectively.

  7. Coxiella Burnetii: Host and Bacterial Responses to Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-16

    sheep, and pos- ibly cows [8,9]. In the laboratory, C. burnetii is routinely ultured in chicken embryo yolk sacs, in cell cultures, and can e recovered...rickettsial diseases in man, PAHO Science Publication Num- ber 147. Wahington, DC: Pan American Health Organization; 1966. p. 528–31. 84] Bell JF, Lackman DB...and immunological properties of Coxiella burnetii vaccines in C57BL/10ScN endotoxin-nonresponder mice. Infect Immun 1982;35(3):1091–102. 92] Fries LF

  8. [Ehlers Danlos type IV syndrome presenting with simultaneous dissection of both internal carotid and both vertebral arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondon, K; de Toffol, B; Georgesco, G; Cassarini, J-F; Machet, M-C; Cottier, J-P; Arbeille, B; Autret, A

    2004-04-01

    Dissection of cervical arteries is a frequent cause of stroke in young subjects. We report the case of a 34-year-old patient who experienced simultaneous dissection of both internal carotid arteries and both vertebral arteries leading to repeated motor deficit of the right half-body associated with persistent otalgia. Search for an etiology led to the diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV. Search for the cause of cervical artery dissection must consider connective tIssue disease, particularly vascular forms of Ehler-Danlos syndrome. Diagnostic, therapeutic as well as prognostic aspects are discussed.

  9. Hopf and Bautin Bifurcation in a Tritrophic Food Chain Model with Holling Functional Response Types III and IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Víctor; Castillo-Santos, Francisco Eduardo; Dela-Rosa, Miguel Angel; Loreto-Hernández, Iván

    In this paper, we analyze the Hopf and Bautin bifurcation of a given system of differential equations, corresponding to a tritrophic food chain model with Holling functional response types III and IV for the predator and superpredator, respectively. We distinguish two cases, when the prey has linear or logistic growth. In both cases we guarantee the existence of a limit cycle bifurcating from an equilibrium point in the positive octant of ℝ3. In order to do so, for the Hopf bifurcation we compute explicitly the first Lyapunov coefficient, the transversality Hopf condition, and for the Bautin bifurcation we also compute the second Lyapunov coefficient and verify the regularity conditions.

  10. Brucella and Coxiella; if you don't look, you don't find.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambourne, Jonathan R; Brooks, Tim

    2015-02-01

    Brucella and Coxiella are similar; both are obligate intracellular, zoonotic pathogens with a broad geographic distribution. Infection in animals is usually asymptomatic, but causes fetal loss and therefore has significant economic impact. Human infection may be asymptomatic or give rise to either organ-specific or multi-system disease. Organism culture is challenging for Coxiella and can lack sensitivity for Brucella. Therefore, infection is most commonly diagnosed by serology, but this may be negative in early infection and serology results may be challenging to interpret. Both Brucella and Coxiella are typically susceptible to a wide range of antimicrobials, but long courses may be needed. © 2015 Royal College of Physicians.

  11. ABNORMAL TYPE-III COLLAGEN PRODUCED BY AN EXON-17-SKIPPING MUTATION OF THE COL3A1 GENE IN EHLERS-DANLOS SYNDROME TYPE-IV IS NOT INCORPORATED INTO THE EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHIODO, AA; SILLENCE, DO; COLE, WG; BATEMAN, JF

    1995-01-01

    A novel heterozygous mutation of the COL3Al gene that encodes the alpha 1(III) chains of type III collagen was identified in a family with the: acrogeric form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV (EDS-IV). Cultured dermal fibroblasts produced normal and shortened alpha 1(III) chains. The triple helix

  12. Assessment of proteolytic degradation of the basement membrane: a fragment of type IV collagen as a biochemical marker for liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne S.; Karsdal, Morten A.; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz

    2011-01-01

    Collagen deposition and an altered matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression profile are hallmarks of fibrosis. Type IV collagen is the most abundant structural basement membrane component of tissue, which increases 14-fold during fibrogenesis in the liver. Proteolytic degradation of collagens...

  13. Loss of Col3a1, the gene for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, results in neocortical dyslamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jin Jeong

    Full Text Available It has recently been discovered that Collagen III, the encoded protein of the type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS gene, is one of the major constituents of the pial basement membrane (BM and serves as the ligand for GPR56. Mutations in GPR56 cause a severe human brain malformation called bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria, in which neurons transmigrate through the BM causing severe mental retardation and frequent seizures. To further characterize the brain phenotype of Col3a1 knockout mice, we performed a detailed histological analysis. We observed a cobblestone-like cortical malformation, with BM breakdown and marginal zone heterotopias in Col3a1⁻/⁻ mouse brains. Surprisingly, the pial BM appeared intact at early stages of development but starting as early as embryonic day (E 11.5, prominent BM defects were observed and accompanied by neuronal overmigration. Although collagen III is expressed in meningeal fibroblasts (MFs, Col3a1⁻/⁻ MFs present no obvious defects. Furthermore, the expression and posttranslational modification of α-dystroglycan was undisturbed in Col3a1⁻/⁻ mice. Based on the previous finding that mutations in COL3A1 cause type IV EDS, our study indicates a possible common pathological pathway linking connective tissue diseases and brain malformations.

  14. Gene expression profiling of mucolipidosis type IV fibroblasts reveals deregulation of genes with relevant functions in lysosome physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzato, Andrea; Barlati, Sergio; Borsani, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV, MIM 252650) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder that causes mental and motor retardation as well as visual impairment. The lysosomal storage defect in MLIV is consistent with abnormalities of membrane traffic and organelle dynamics in the late endocytic pathway. MLIV is caused by mutations in the MCOLN1 gene, which codes for mucolipin-1 (MLN1), a member of the large family of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels. Although a number of studies have been performed on mucolipin-1, the pathological mechanisms underlying MLIV are not fully understood. To identify genes that characterize pathogenic changes in mucolipidosis type IV, we compared the expression profiles of three MLIV and three normal skin fibroblasts cell lines using oligonucleotide microarrays. Genes that were differentially expressed in patients' cells were identified. 231 genes were up-regulated, and 116 down-regulated. Real-Time RT-PCR performed on selected genes in six independent MLIV fibroblasts cell lines was generally consistent with the microarray findings. This study allowed to evidence the modulation at the transcriptional level of a discrete number of genes relevant in biological processes which are altered in the disease such as endosome/lysosome trafficking, lysosome biogenesis, organelle acidification and lipid metabolism.

  15. ROLE OF DPP-IV INHIBITORS IN TREATMENT OF TYPE II DIABETES

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Kishan D; Patel Grishma M.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging as an epidemic of the 21st century type II diabetes has become a major health problem throughout the globe. Known treatments of type II diabetes mellitus have limitations such as weight gain and hypoglycaemias. A new perspective is the use of incretin hormones and incretin enhancers. Incretin mimetics are a new class of pharmacological agents with multiple antihyperglycemic actions that mimic the actions of incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. DPP-4, a protease th...

  16. Two transitional type Ia supernovae located in the Fornax cluster member NGC 1404: SN 2007on and SN 2011iv

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, C.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Ashall, C.; Baron, E.; Burns, C. R.; Hoeflich, P.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Mazzali, P. A.; Phillips, M. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Anderson, J. P.; Benetti, S.; Brown, P. J.; Campillay, A.; Challis, P.; Contreras, C.; Elias de la Rosa, N.; Folatelli, G.; Foley, R. J.; Fraser, M.; Holmbo, S.; Marion, G. H.; Morrell, N.; Pan, Y.-C.; Pignata, G.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Taddia, F.; Robledo, S. Torres; Valenti, S.

    2018-03-01

    We present an analysis of ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared observations of the fast-declining Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) 2007on and 2011iv, hosted by the Fornax cluster member NGC 1404. The B-band light curves of SN 2007on and SN 2011iv are characterised by Δm15 (B) decline-rate values of 1.96 mag and 1.77 mag, respectively. Although they have similar decline rates, their peak B- and H-band magnitudes differ by 0.60 mag and 0.35 mag, respectively. After correcting for the luminosity vs. decline rate and the luminosity vs. colour relations, the peak B-band and H-band light curves provide distances that differ by 14% and 9%, respectively. These findings serve as a cautionary tale for the use of transitional SNe Ia located in early-type hosts in the quest to measure cosmological parameters. Interestingly, even though SN 2011iv is brighter and bluer at early times, by three weeks past maximum and extending over several months, its B - V colour is 0.12 mag redder than that of SN 2007on. To reconcile this unusual behaviour, we turn to guidance from a suite of spherical one-dimensional Chandrasekhar-mass delayed-detonation explosion models. In this context, 56Ni production depends on both the so-called transition density and the central density of the progenitor white dwarf. To first order, the transition density drives the luminosity-width relation, while the central density is an important second-order parameter. Within this context, the differences in the B - V colour evolution along the Lira regime suggest that the progenitor of SN 2011iv had a higher central density than SN 2007on. The photometry tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A58

  17. Modulation of Kingella kingae adherence to human epithelial cells by type IV Pili, capsule, and a novel trimeric autotransporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsch, Eric A; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E; St Geme, Joseph W

    2012-10-23

    Kingella kingae is an emerging bacterial pathogen that is being recognized increasingly as an important etiology of septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and bacteremia, especially in young children. Colonization of the posterior pharynx is a key step in the pathogenesis of K. kingae disease. Previous work established that type IV pili are necessary for K. kingae adherence to the respiratory epithelium. In this study, we set out to identify additional factors that influence K. kingae interactions with human epithelial cells. We found that genetic disruption of the gene encoding a predicted trimeric autotransporter protein called Knh (Kingella NhhA homolog) resulted in reduced adherence to human epithelial cells. In addition, we established that K. kingae elaborates a surface-associated polysaccharide capsule that requires a predicted ABC-type transporter export operon called ctrABCD for surface presentation. Furthermore, we discovered that the presence of a surface capsule interferes with Knh-mediated adherence to human epithelial cells by nonpiliated organisms and that maximal adherence in the presence of a capsule requires the predicted type IV pilus retraction machinery, PilT/PilU. On the basis of the data presented here, we propose a novel adherence mechanism that allows K. kingae to adhere efficiently to human epithelial cells while remaining encapsulated and more resistant to immune clearance. Kingella kingae is a Gram-negative bacterium that is being recognized increasingly as a cause of joint and bone infections in young children. The pathogenesis of disease due to K. kingae begins with bacterial colonization of the upper respiratory tract, and previous work established that surface hair-like fibers called type IV pili are necessary for K. kingae adherence to respiratory epithelial cells. In this study, we set out to identify additional factors that influence K. kingae interactions with respiratory epithelial cells. We discovered a novel surface protein called

  18. Energy–momentum localization for Bianchi type-IV Universe in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    different energy–momentum complexes give same and reasonable results for a given ... He investigated the formulation of covariant conservation laws and calculated the tidal work using ... tetrad theory of gravity, have obtained total energy of the Universe in Bianchi type- ...... Principle and applications of general theory of.

  19. Improvement of diabetes, obesity and hypertension in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice by bis(allixinato)oxovanadium(IV) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Yusuke; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yoshida, Jiro; Kodera, Yukihiro; Katoh, Akira; Takada, Jitsuya; Sakurai, Hiromu

    2006-01-01

    Previously, we found that bis(allixinato)oxovanadium(IV) (VO(alx) 2 ) exhibits a potent hypoglycemic activity in type 1-like diabetic mice. Since the enhancement of insulin sensitivity is involved in one of the mechanisms by which vanadium exerts its anti-diabetic effects, VO(alx) 2 was further tested in type 2 diabetes with low insulin sensitivity. The effect of oral administration of VO(alx) 2 was examined in obesity-linked type 2 diabetic KKA y mice. Treatment of VO(alx) 2 for 4 weeks normalized hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension in KKA y mice; however, it had no effect on hypoadiponectinemia. VO(alx) 2 also improved hyperleptinemia, following attenuation of obesity in KKA y mice. This is the first example in which a vanadium compound improved leptin resistance in type 2 diabetes by oral administration. On the basis of these results, VO(alx) 2 is proposed to enhance not only insulin sensitivity but also leptin sensitivity, which in turn improves diabetes, obesity and hypertension in an obesity-linked type 2 diabetic animal

  20. Tissue-engineered cartilaginous constructs for the treatment of caprine cartilage defects, including distribution of laminin and type IV collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Lily; Hsu, Hu-Ping; Spector, Myron

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was the immunohistochemical evaluation of (1) cartilage tissue-engineered constructs; and (2) the tissue filling cartilage defects in a goat model into which the constructs were implanted, particularly for the presence of the basement membrane molecules, laminin and type IV collagen. Basement membrane molecules are localized to the pericellular matrix in normal adult articular cartilage, but have not been examined in tissue-engineered constructs cultured in vitro or in tissue filling cartilage defects into which the constructs were implanted. Cartilaginous constructs were engineered in vitro using caprine chondrocyte-seeded type II collagen scaffolds. Autologous constructs were implanted into 4-mm-diameter defects created to the tidemark in the trochlear groove in the knee joints of skeletally mature goats. Eight weeks after implantation, the animals were sacrificed. Constructs underwent immunohistochemical and histomorphometric evaluation. Widespread staining for the two basement membrane molecules was observed throughout the extracellular matrix of in vitro and in vivo samples in a distribution unlike that previously reported for cartilage. At sacrifice, 70% of the defect site was filled with reparative tissue, which consisted largely of fibrous tissue and some fibrocartilage, with over 70% of the reparative tissue bonded to the adjacent host tissue. A novel finding of this study was the observation of laminin and type IV collagen in in vitro engineered cartilaginous constructs and in vivo cartilage repair samples from defects into which the constructs were implanted, as well as in normal caprine articular cartilage. Future work is needed to elucidate the role of basement membrane molecules during cartilage repair and regeneration.

  1. A study of visual double stars with early type primaries. IV. Astrophysical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindroos, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    Astrophysical parameters (MK class, colour excess, absolute magnitude, distance, effective temperature mass and age) are derived from calibrations of the uvbyβ indices for the members of 253 double stars with O or B type primaries and faint secondaries. The photometric spectral classification is compared to the MK classes and the agreement is very good. The derived data together with spectroscopic and JHKL data are used for deciding which pairs are likely to be physical and which are optical and it is shown that 98 (34%) of the secondaries are likely to be members of physical systems. For 90% of the physical pairs the projected separations between the components is less than 25000 AU. A majority of the physical secondaries are late type stars and 50% of them are contracting towards the zero-age main-sequence. Also presented are new uvbyβ data for 43 secondaries and a computer programme for determining astrophysical parameters from uvbyβ data

  2. Photon storage in ¿-type optically dense atomic media. IV. Optimal control using gradient ascent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorshkov, Alexey V.; Calarco, Tomasso; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2008-01-01

    We use the numerical gradient ascent method from optimal control theory to extend efficient photon storage in -type media to previouslyinaccessible regimes and to provide simple intuitive explanations for our optimization techniques. In particular, by using gradient ascent to shape classical....... We also demonstrate that the often discussed connection between time reversal andoptimality in photon storage follows naturally from gradient ascent. Finally, we discuss the optimization of controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening....

  3. Treatment of Medial Malleolus or Pure Deltoid Ligament Injury in Patients with Supination-External Rotation Type IV Ankle Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Yin, Jian-Wen; Wang, Chen; Huang, Jia-Zhang; Ma, Xin; Wang, Cheng-Wei; Wang, Xue

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of internal fixation on postoperative ankle function in patients with supination-external rotation type IV ankle fractures, including medial malleolus fractures and deltoid ligament injury. Between January 2012 and June 2014, patients with medial structure injuries were enrolled in this study and assigned to the medial malleolus fracture group or the deltoid ligament group. The surgical procedures for the two groups were documented. The follow-up endpoint was the time point when the steel plate or screw was removed from the lateral ankle. The Olerud-Molander ankle scoring system was used to assess ankle function. A total of 84 patients with supination-external rotation type IV ankle fractures had complete medical records and were included in this study. The average age of the patients was 44.16 years (range, 15-75). The patient sample included 39 males and 45 females. Overall, 49 patients (19 males and 30 females) suffered a medial malleolus fracture. The average age of these patients was 40.20 years (range, 15-75). Patients with a posterior malleolar fracture fragment >25% of the articular surface accounted for 81.6% (40 patients) of these patients. Overall, 35 patients (20 males and 15 females) experienced a deltoid ligament injury. The average age of these patients was 44.21 years (range, 17-73). Patients with a posterior malleolar fracture fragment >25% of the articular surface accounted for 11.5% (four patients) of these patients. Open reduction was performed in patients with medial malleolus fractures, and two 4.0-mm cannulated screws were used to fixate the posterior malleolus and the medial malleolus. The suture-anchor technique was used to repair the ligaments in patients with deltoid ligament injuries. The follow-up endpoint was the time point when the steel plate and screws were removed from the lateral ankle in patients. The average follow-up period was 13.4 months (range, 11-17). The Olerud-Molander ankle scoring system was

  4. Combined determination of serum type IV collagen with urine Tamm-Horsfall protein and albumin for early diagnosis in diabetic retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hong; Zhang Aihua; Ren Yuguo

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between changes of serum type IV collagen, urine Tamm-horsfall protein, albumin and development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Serum CIV, urine THP and Alb were determined with ELISA and RIA respectively in 76 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (NDR26, BDR26, PDR24) and 30 controls. Results: Values of the three markers were significantly different among the three groups of patients (p < 0.01; p < 0.01; p < 0.001 respectively). Conclusion: Serum type IV collagens, urine Tamm-Horsfall protein and albumin were sensitive indicators in predicting diabetic retinopathy

  5. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Ambient Air after a Large Q Fever Outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna M T de Rooij

    Full Text Available One of the largest Q fever outbreaks ever occurred in the Netherlands from 2007-2010, with 25 fatalities among 4,026 notified cases. Airborne dispersion of Coxiella burnetii was suspected but not studied extensively at the time. We investigated temporal and spatial variation of Coxiella burnetii in ambient air at residential locations in the most affected area in the Netherlands (the South-East, in the year immediately following the outbreak. One-week average ambient particulate matter < 10 μm samples were collected at eight locations from March till September 2011. Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations with various spatial and temporal characteristics were analyzed by mixed logistic regression. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in 56 out of 202 samples (28%. Airborne Coxiella burnetii presence showed a clear seasonal pattern coinciding with goat kidding. The spatial variation was significantly associated with number of goats on the nearest goat farm weighted by the distance to the farm (OR per IQR: 1.89, CI: 1.31-2.76. We conclude that in the year after a large Q fever outbreak, temporal variation of airborne Coxiella burnetii is suggestive to be associated with goat kidding, and spatial variation with distance to and size of goat farms. Aerosol measurements show to have potential for source identification and attribution of an airborne pathogen, which may also be applicable in early stages of an outbreak.

  6. Calcitonin gene-related peptide regulates type IV hypersensitivity through dendritic cell functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihisa Mikami

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, mutual regulation of the nervous system and immune system is well studied. One of neuropeptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, is a potent regulator in immune responses; in particular, it has anti-inflammatory effects in innate immunity. For instance, a deficiency of the CGRP receptor component RAMP 1 (receptor activity-modifying protein 1 results in higher cytokine production in response to LPS (lipopolysaccharide. On the other hand, how CGRP affects DCs in adaptive immunity is largely unknown. In this study, we show that CGRP suppressed Th1 cell differentiation via inhibition of IL-12 production in DCs using an in vitro co-culture system and an in vivo ovalbumin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH model. CGRP also down-regulated the expressions of chemokine receptor CCR2 and its ligands CCL2 and CCL12 in DCs. Intriguingly, the frequency of migrating CCR2(+ DCs in draining lymph nodes of RAMP1-deficient mice was higher after DTH immunization. Moreover, these CCR2(+ DCs highly expressed IL-12 and CD80, resulting in more effective induction of Th1 differentiation compared with CCR2(- DCs. These results indicate that CGRP regulates Th1 type reactions by regulating expression of cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in DCs.

  7. Chromospherically active stars. IV - HD 178450 = V478 Lyr: An early-type BY Draconis type binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekel, Francis C.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the variable star HD 178450 = V478 Lyr is a chromospherically active G8 V single-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 2.130514 days. This star is characterized by strong UV emission features and a filled-in H-alpha absorption line which is variable in strength. Classified as an early-type BY Draconis system, it is similar to the BY Dra star HD 175742 = V775 Her. The unseen secondary of HD 178450 has a mass of about 0.3 solar masses and is believed to be an M2-M3 dwarf.

  8. Intimal aortic sarcoma mimicking ruptured thoracoabdominal type IV aneurysm. a rare case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeilias Panagiotis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary intimal aortic sarcoma represents a very rare and highly lethal medical entity. Diagnosis is made either by embolic events caused by the tumor or by surrounding tissue symptoms such as pain. Herein we report an extremely rare case of a 51-year-old man previously operated for ascending aortic aneurysm, who presented with clinical and radiological findings suggestive of a ruptured thoracoabdominal type IV aneurysm. The patient underwent radical resection of the aorta and surrounding tissue with placement of a composite 4-branched graft. The diagnosis was made by frozen section and regular histopathologic examination of the specimen and the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. Nine months after surgery the patient is still alive and has no signs of recurrence. We review the literature and discuss the option of postoperative chemotherapy.

  9. Severe manifestation of Bartter syndrome Type IV caused by a novel insertion mutation in the BSND gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablos, Augusto Luque; García-Nieto, Victor; López-Menchero, Jesús C; Ramos-Trujillo, Elena; González-Acosta, Hilaria; Claverie-Martín, Félix

    2014-05-01

    Bartter syndrome Type IV is a rare subtype of the Bartter syndromes that leads to both severe renal salt wasting and sensorineural deafness. This autosomal recessive disease is caused by mutations in the gene encoding barttin, BSND, an essential subunit of the ClC-K chloride channels expressed in renal and inner ear epithelia. Patients differ in the severity of renal symptoms, which appears to depend on the modification of channel function by the mutant barttin. To date, only a few BSND mutations have been reported, most of which are missense or nonsense mutations. In this study, we report the identification of the first insertion mutation, p.W102Vfs*7, in the BSND gene of a newborn girl with acute clinical symptoms including early-onset chronic renal failure. The results support previous data indicating that mutations that are predicted to abolish barttin expression are associated with a severe phenotype and early onset renal failure.

  10. Novel mutations in the SOX10 gene in the first two Chinese cases of type IV Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lu; Chen, Hongsheng; Jiang, Wen; Hu, Zhengmao; Mei, Lingyun; Xue, Jingjie; He, Chufeng; Liu, Yalan; Xia, Kun; Feng, Yong

    2011-05-20

    We analyzed the clinical features and family-related gene mutations for the first two Chinese cases of type IV Waardenburg syndrome (WS4). Two families were analyzed in this study. The analysis included a medical history, clinical analysis, a hearing test and a physical examination. In addition, the EDNRB, EDN3 and SOX10 genes were sequenced in order to identify the pathogenic mutation responsible for the WS4 observed in these patients. The two WS4 cases presented with high phenotypic variability. Two novel heterozygous mutations (c.254G>A and c.698-2A>T) in the SOX10 gene were detected. The mutations identified in the patients were not found in unaffected family members or in 200 unrelated control subjects. This is the first report of WS4 in Chinese patients. In addition, two novel mutations in SOX10 gene have been identified. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Spectral types for objects in the Kiso survey. IV - Data for 81 stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Gary; Mcmahan, Robert K.

    1988-01-01

    Spectroscopy and spectral types for 81 ultraviolet-excess objects found in the Kiso Schmidt-camera survey are reported. The data were secured with the McGraw-Hill 1.3 m telescope at 8-A resolution covering the wavelength interval 4000 -7200 A using the Mark II spectrograph. Descriptions of the spectra of some of the more peculiar objects found in this sample are given and include 14 sub-dwarfs, 23 definite DA white dwarfs, including a magnetic one, and one DQ whie dwarf, eight quasars and emission-line objects, and a new composite DA + dM system. More spectroscopy of the new cataclysmic variable KUV 01584-0939 and a possibly related object is also described.

  12. Surgical pitfalls in patients with Ehlers–Danlos type IV: A case of spontaneous sigmoid perforation in a 17-year-old male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Lyn Ng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS is a group of well described connective tissue disorders in which collagen production is impaired. The surgical management of affected individuals remains challenging, with no general consensus. We report a case of spontaneous sigmoid perforation in a 17-year-old Eurasian male, in whom we subsequently established the diagnosis of EDS type IV (EDS-IV. We review the literature to discuss the clinical features and diagnosis, and the recommended therapeutic management.

  13. Type I allergy to natural rubber latex and type IV allergy to rubber chemicals in health care workers with glove-related skin symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettis, E; Assennato, G; Ferrannini, A; Tursi, A

    2002-03-01

    It has been established that there are type I and type IV allergens in latex gloves. The purpose of the study was to establish the prevalence of rubber glove-induced skin symptoms among health care workers in one Italian hospital. Health care workers (n = 1584) were evaluated using a written questionnaire and 295 respondents with glove-induced skin symptoms were tested. We performed: skin prick test with latex glove extract and commercial latex, and environmental and food allergens; glove use test; patch tests with a rubber additive series; and RASTs. Hospital employees who used or had used latex gloves at work were 1294. Three hundred and sixteen (24.4%) reported glove-induced symptoms, namely, cutaneous symptoms in all the cases and non-cutaneous symptoms in 105 subjects (8.1%). Twenty-seven of the 295 symptomatic employees tested (9.1%) were latex sensitive. Thirty-one patients (10.5%) exhibited positive patch test to rubber-related allergens. The most positive readings were obtained from the Thiuram mix and the Carba mix, with 12 and 9 positivities, respectively. The risk factors for latex skin sensitization were: a previous history of atopy and asthma; history of surgery; pre-existing hand dermatitis; work-related symptoms; and positive skin tests to common inhalant and certain foods (P skin complaints of latex gloves are related to skin irritation rather than to allergy. The immediate allergy to latex and the delayed allergy to rubber chemicals suggest that all the health care workers with glove-related dermatitis should undergo both skin prick test and glove use test to detect type I hypersensitivity to latex, and patch test to detect type IV hypersensitivity to rubber chemicals.

  14. Outflow Kinematics Manifested by the Hα Line: Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Daeun; Woo, Jong-Hak; Bae, Hyun-Jin, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-20

    Energetic ionized gas outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been studied as a key phenomenon related to AGN feedback. To probe the kinematics of the gas in the narrow-line region, [O iii] λ 5007 has been utilized in a number of studies showing nonvirial kinematic properties due to AGN outflows. In this paper, we statistically investigate whether the H α emission line is influenced by AGN-driven outflows by measuring the kinematic properties based on the H α line profile and comparing them with those of [O iii]. Using the spatially integrated spectra of ∼37,000 Type 2 AGNs at z < 0.3 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, we find a nonlinear correlation between H α velocity dispersion and stellar velocity dispersion that reveals the presence of the nongravitational component, especially for AGNs with a wing component in H α . The large H α velocity dispersion and velocity shift of luminous AGNs are clear evidence of AGN outflow impacts on hydrogen gas, while relatively smaller kinematic properties compared to those of [O iii] imply that the observed outflow effect on the H α line is weaker than the case of [O iii].

  15. Coxiella burnetii: host and bacterial responses to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, David M

    2007-10-16

    Designation as a Category B biothreat agent has propelled Coxiella burnetii from a relatively obscure, underappreciated, "niche" microorganism on the periphery of bacteriology, to one of possibly great consequence if actually used in acts of bioterrorism. Advances in the study of this microorganism proceeded slowly, primarily because of the difficulty in studying this obligate intracellular pathogen that must be manipulated under biosafety level-3 conditions. The dogged determination of past and current C. burnetii researchers and the application of modern immunological and molecular techniques have more clearly defined the host and bacterial response to infection. This review is intended to provide a basic introduction to C. burnetii and Q fever, while emphasizing immunomodulatory properties, both positive and negative, of Q fever vaccines and C. burnetii infections.

  16. First molecular evidence of Coxiella burnetii infecting ticks in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Angel A; Rodríguez, Islay; Miranda, Jorge; Contreras, Verónica; Mattar, Salim

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. In order to explore the occurrence of C. burnetii in ticks, samples were collected from horses, dogs and humans living in a Cuban occidental community. The species most commonly recovered were Amblyomma mixtum (67%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (27%) and Dermacentor nitens (6%). Specific IS1111 PCR and amplicon sequencing allowed the identification of C. burnetii DNA in A. mixtum collected from a domestic horse. These findings, for first time in Cuba, indicate the need for an in-depth assessment of the C. burnetii occurrence in hosts and humans at risk of infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Inappropriate suppression of glucagon during OGTT but not during isoglycaemic i.v. glucose infusion contributes to the reduced incretin effect in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, F K; Vilsbøll, T; Madsbad, S

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated glucagon responses during OGTT and isoglycaemic i.v. glucose infusion, respectively, to further elucidate the mechanisms behind the glucose intolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients (eight men) with type 2 diabetes (age: 64...... during the 2 days was obtained in both groups. In the control subjects no difference in glucagon suppression during the first 45 min of OGTT and isoglycaemic i.v. glucose infusion (-36 +/- 12 vs -64 +/- 23 mmol/l x 45 min; p = NS) was observed, whereas in the group of patients with type 2 diabetes...... significant glucagon suppression only occurred following isoglycaemic i.v. glucose infusion (-63 +/- 21 vs 10 +/- 16 mmol/l x 45 min; p = 0.002). The incretin effect was significantly reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with control subjects, but no significant differences in the secretion...

  18. Burst pressure investigation of filament wound type IV composite pressure vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhood, Naseer H.; Karuppanan, Saravanan; Ya, H. H.; Baharom, Mohamad Ariff

    2017-12-01

    Currently, composite pressure vessels (PVs) are employed in many industries such as aerospace, transportations, medical etc. Basically, the use of PVs in automotive application as a compressed natural gas (CNG) storage cylinder has been growing rapidly. Burst failure due to the laminate failure is the most critical failure mechanism for composite pressure vessels. It is predominantly caused by excessive internal pressure due to an overfilling or an overheating. In order to reduce fabrication difficulties and increase the structural efficiency, researches and studies are conducted continuously towards the proper selection of vessel design parameters. Hence, this paper is focused on the prediction of first ply failure pressure for such vessels utilizing finite element simulation based on Tsai-Wu and maximum stress failure criterions. The effects of laminate stacking sequence and orientation angle on the burst pressure were investigated in this work for a constant layered thickness PV. Two types of winding design, A [90°2/∓θ16/90°2] and B [90°2/∓θ]ns with different orientations of helical winding reinforcement were analyzed for carbon/epoxy composite material. It was found that laminate A sustained a maximum burst pressure of 55 MPa for a sequence of [90°2/∓15°16/90°2] while the laminate B returned a maximum burst pressure of 45 MPa corresponding to a stacking sequence of [90°2/±15°/90°2/±15°/90°2/±15° ....] up to 20 layers for a constant vessel thickness. For verification, a comparison was done with the literature under similar conditions of analysis and good agreement was achieved with a maximum difference of 4% and 10% for symmetrical and unsymmetrical layout, respectively.

  19. Coxiella-like infection in psittacines and a toucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, H L; Cadenas, M B; Diab, S S; Nordhausen, R; Bradway, D; Crespo, R; Breitschwerdt, E B

    2008-09-01

    Seven psittacine birds and a toucan (Ramphastos toco) were diagnosed as infected with Coxiella-like bacteria, based on polymerase chain reaction and bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence obtained from each bird's liver tissue. Most of the birds exhibited lethargy and weakness for several days prior to death. Gross lesions included mild to moderate emaciation and severely enlarged and mottled pale livers and spleens. Microscopically, there was multifocal necrosis of hepatocytes with infiltration of a mixed population of inflammatory cells, including lymphocytes, heterophils, plasma cells, and macrophages randomly scattered throughout in most birds. In several birds within the macrophages there were vacuoles containing basophilic small cocco-bacilli organisms measuring about 0.5-1 microm. The spleens had increased numbers of mononuclear phagocytic system cells, some of which had vacuoles that contained similar organisms, as observed in the liver. There was inflammation in the epicardium and endocardium, interstitium of the lungs, kidney, adrenal and thyroid glands, lamina propria of the intestine, and in occasional birds in the brain, bursa of Fabricius, and bone marrow associated with similar organisms in the macrophages. Transmission electron microscopy of the liver and lungs in most birds and in the thyroid glands of one bird revealed pleomorphic round to elongated bacteria measuring about 0.45 microm in diameter and more than 1.0 microm in length. Most of these organisms contained a peripheral zone of loosely arranged electron dense material that was located immediately beneath a trilaminar membrane. Occasional organisms contained nucleoids. This is the first documentation of disease presumptively associated with Coxiella-like bacteria in birds.

  20. Evaluation of three analytical techniques used to determine high levels of volatile organic compounds in type IV sludge from Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Tsai, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for volatile organic compound (VOC) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E reg-sign) and Oil Dri reg-sign to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a simulated Type IV RFP sludge (nonradioactive) was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East. This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. On the basis of historical information, a typical Type IV sludge is expected to contain approximately 1-10 percent of three target VOCs. The objective of this work is to evaluate three proposed methods for the determination of high levels of these three VOCs in Type IV sludge. The three methods are (1) static headspace gas analysis, (2) methanol extraction, and (3) ethylene glycol extraction. All three methods employ gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). They were evaluated regarding general method performance criteria, ease of operation, and amounts of secondary mixed waste generated

  1. [Double-plate fixation via combined approaches for the treatment of old tibial plateau fractures of Schatzker type IV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hong-Lue; Dai, Peng-Yi; Liu, Wei-Feng; Yuan, Yan-Hao

    2017-10-25

    To explore the clinical efficacy of double-plate fixation for the treatment of old tibial plateau fractures with Schatzker type IV through anterior midline and posteromedial approaches. From July 2013 to July 2015, 15 patients with old tibial plateau fractures were treated with internal fixation using locking reconstructive plate for the posteromedial fragment and anatomical locking plate for anteromedial fragment through antero midline and posteromedial approaches. There were 9 males and 6 females, with an average age of 49.2 years old (ranged, 21 to 61 years old). Eight patients had injured in the left side and 7 in the right side. According to Schatzker classification, all patients were type IV. The mean interval from injury to operation was 26.5 days (ranged, 21 to 65 days). The main clinical symptoms before operation were knee joint swelling, pain, deformity and limitation of motion. The X-ray and CT confirmed the fracture type. The indexes such as tibial plateau tibial shaft angle (TPA), femoral tibial angle (FTA) and posterior slope angle (PSA) were compared between immediate postoperation and final follow-up using postoperative X-ray film. The knee functions were evaluated using the HSS (Hospital for Special Surgery) knee score system. Two patients had incision complications which healed by correct treatment, 1 patient had traumatic arthritis. All patients were followed up for mean 16.6 months (ranged, 13 to 24 months). No infections, deep venous thrombosis, implant loosening and breakage, fragment displacement, plateau surface collapse and bone nonunion found. The bone union time ranged from 3 to 8 months (mean 6.07 months) after operation. The average immediate postoperative value of TPA, FTA and PSA were(86.81±1.67)°, (168.00±3.29)° and(10.20±1.47)° respectively; and(86.47±1.67)°, (168.53±3.03)° and (10.54±1.21)° respectively at the final follow-up evaluation, showing no statistical differences( P >0.05). According to the HSS score system, 26

  2. Molecular detection of Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella and Francisella bacteria in ticks collected from Artiodactyla in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrandee, Chalao; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2016-07-01

    A total of 79 ticks collected from Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) and Wild boar (Sus scrofa) were examined by PCR for the presence of Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, and Francisella bacteria. Of the 79 ticks, 13% tested positive for Rickettsia, 15% tested positive for Anaplasma, 4% tested positive for Coxiella, and 3% tested positive for Francisella. Interestingly, triple infection with Anaplasma, Rickettsia and Francisella was determined in a Dermacentor auratus tick. Moreover, another triple infection with Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Coxiella was found in a Haemaphysalis lagrangei tick. Double infection of Rickettsia with Coxiella was also detected in another H. lagrangei tick. From the phylogenetic analyses, we found a Rickettsia sp. with a close evolutionary relationship to Rickettsia bellii in the H. lagrangei tick. We also found the first evidence of a Rickettsia sp. that is closely related to Rickettsia tamurae in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks from Thailand. H. lagrangei and Haemaphysalis obesa ticks collected from Sambar deer tested positive for Anaplasma species form the same clade with Anaplasma bovis. In contrast, other H. lagrangei ticks collected from Sambar deer and D. auratus ticks collected from Wild boar were also reported for the first time to be infected with an Anaplasma species that is closely related to Anaplasma platys. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of Coxiella bacteria revealed that Coxiella symbionts from H. lagrangei formed a distinctly different lineage from Coxiella burnetii (a human pathogen). Additionally, Francisella bacteria identified in D. auratus ticks were found to be distantly related to a group of pathogenic Francisella species. The identification of these bacteria in several feeding ticks suggests the risk of various emerging tick-borne diseases and endosymbionts in humans, wildlife, and domestic animals in Thailand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  3. Identification and functional analysis of a novel mutation in the SOX10 gene associated with Waardenburg syndrome type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Han; Chen, Hong-Sheng; Li, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Hua; Mei, Ling-Yun; He, Chu-Feng; Wang, Xing-Wei; Men, Mei-Chao; Jiang, Lu; Liao, Xin-Bin; Wu, Hong; Feng, Yong

    2014-03-15

    Waardenburg syndrome type IV (WS4) is a rare genetic disorder, characterized by auditory-pigmentary abnormalities and Hirschsprung disease. Mutations of the EDNRB gene, EDN3 gene, or SOX10 gene are responsible for WS4. In the present study, we reported a case of a Chinese patient with clinical features of WS4. In addition, the three genes mentioned above were sequenced in order to identify whether mutations are responsible for the case. We revealed a novel nonsense mutation, c.1063C>T (p.Q355*), in the last coding exon of SOX10. The same mutation was not found in three unaffected family members or 100 unrelated controls. Then, the function and mechanism of the mutation were investigated in vitro. We found both wild-type (WT) and mutant SOX10 p.Q355* were detected at the expected size and their expression levels are equivalent. The mutant protein also localized in the nucleus and retained the DNA-binding activity as WT counterpart; however, it lost its transactivation capability on the MITF promoter and acted as a dominant-negative repressor impairing function of the WT SOX10. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, inhibits type I-IV allergic inflammation and pro-inflammatory enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yun; Kim, Chang Jong

    2010-06-01

    We previously reported that arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan isolated from Forsythia koreana, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic effects in animal models. In addition, arctigenin inhibited eosinophil peroxidase and activated myeloperoxidase in inflamed tissues. In this study, we tested the effects of arctigenin on type I-IV allergic inflammation and pro-inflammatory enzymes in vitro and in vivo. Arctigenin significantly inhibited the heterologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis induced by ovalbumin in mice at 15 mg/kg, p.o., and compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells at 10 microM. Arctigenin (15 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited reversed cutaneous anaphylaxis. Further, arctigenin (15 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited the Arthus reaction to sheep's red blood cells, decreasing the hemolysis titer, the hemagglutination titer, and the plaque-forming cell number for SRBCs. In addition, arctigenin significantly inhibited delayed type hypersensitivity at 15 mg/kg, p.o. and the formation of rosette-forming cells at 45 mg/kg, p.o. Contact dermatitis induced by picrylchloride and dinitrofluorobenzene was significantly (p arctigenin (0.3 mg/ear). Furthermore, arctigenin dose-dependently inhibited pro-inflammatory enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase-1 and 2, 5-lipoxygenase, phospholipase A2, and phosphodiesterase. Our results show that arctigenin significantly inhibited B- and T-cell mediated allergic inflammation as well as pro-inflammatory enzymes.

  5. Fiber fine structure during solar type IV radio bursts: Observations and theory of radiation in presence of localized whistler turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernold, T.E.X.; Treumann, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Observations with a digital spectrometer within the frequency band between 250 and 273 MHz of fiber fine structures during the type IV solar radio burst of 1978 October 1 are presented and analyzed. The results are summarized in histograms. Typical values for drift rates are in the range between -2.3 and -9.9 MHz s -1 . Frequency intervals between absorption and emission within the spectrum were measured to be within 0.9 and 2.7 MHz. Several types of spectra are discussed. A theoretical interpretation is based upon the model of a population of electrons trapped within a magnetic-mirror loop-configuration. It is shown that the fiber emission can be explained assuming an interaction between spatially localized strong whistler turbulence (solitons) and a broad-band Langmuir wave spectrum. Estimates using the observed flux values indicate that a fiber is composed of some 10 11 --10 14 solitons occupying a volume of about 10 5 --10 8 km 3 . Ducting of whistler solitons in low-density magnetic loops provides a plausible explanation for coherent behavior during the lifetime of an individual fiber. The magnetic field strength is found to be 6.2< or =B< or =35 gauss at the radio source and 15.3< or =B< or =76 gauss at the lower hybrid wave level respectively. The quasi-periodicity of the fiber occurrence is interpreted as periodically switched-on soliton production

  6. Type IV Pili are required for virulence, twitching motility, and biofilm formation of acidovorax avenae subsp. Citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Ofir; Goffer, Tal; Burdman, Saul

    2009-08-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), a threatening disease of watermelon, melon, and other cucurbits. Despite the economic importance of BFB, relatively little is known about basic aspects of the pathogen's biology and the molecular basis of its interaction with host plants. To identify A. avenae subsp. citrulli genes associated with pathogenicity, we generated a transposon (Tn5) mutant library on the background of strain M6, a group I strain of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, and screened it for reduced virulence by seed-transmission assays with melon. Here, we report the identification of a Tn5 mutant with reduced virulence that is impaired in pilM, which encodes a protein involved in assembly of type IV pili (TFP). Further characterization of this mutant revealed that A. avenae subsp. citrulli requires TFP for twitching motility and wild-type levels of biofilm formation. Significant reductions in virulence and biofilm formation as well as abolishment of twitching were also observed in insertional mutants affected in other TFP genes. We also provide the first evidence that group I strains of A. avenae subsp. citrulli can colonize and move through host xylem vessels.

  7. Fusion of lysosomes with secretory organelles leads to uncontrolled exocytosis in the lysosomal storage disease mucolipidosis type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonhong; Ahuja, Malini; Kim, Min Seuk; Brailoiu, G Cristina; Jha, Archana; Zeng, Mei; Baydyuk, Maryna; Wu, Ling-Gang; Wassif, Christopher A; Porter, Forbes D; Zerfas, Patricia M; Eckhaus, Michael A; Brailoiu, Eugen; Shin, Dong Min; Muallem, Shmuel

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in TRPML1 cause the lysosomal storage disease mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV). The role of TRPML1 in cell function and how the mutations cause the disease are not well understood. Most studies focus on the role of TRPML1 in constitutive membrane trafficking to and from the lysosomes. However, this cannot explain impaired neuromuscular and secretory cells' functions that mediate regulated exocytosis. Here, we analyzed several forms of regulated exocytosis in a mouse model of MLIV and, opposite to expectations, we found enhanced exocytosis in secretory glands due to enlargement of secretory granules in part due to fusion with lysosomes. Preliminary exploration of synaptic vesicle size, spontaneous mEPSCs, and glutamate secretion in neurons provided further evidence for enhanced exocytosis that was rescued by re-expression of TRPML1 in neurons. These features were not observed in Niemann-Pick type C1. These findings suggest that TRPML1 may guard against pathological fusion of lysosomes with secretory organelles and suggest a new approach toward developing treatment for MLIV. © 2015 The Authors.

  8. Design of type X-IV atmospheric pressure capsule for irradiation test based on JSME S NC-1 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohkawara, Masami; Shibata, Isao

    2007-02-01

    In NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) experiments, test fuels are inserted in the especial capsule and the capsule will be inserted into the experimental tube which is located in the center of reactor core. In NSRR, there are 17 types of atmospheric pressure capsule, and one of them Type X-IV atmospheric pressure capsule has been produced 6 times under authorization of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Application for the 7th time of authorization was submitted to the MEXT in June 2006. On this application, standard which is used to design was changed to The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME) S NC1-2005 from the Notification 501 of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). The JSME S NC1-2005 introduced the service condition in addition to the reactor condition which has been used in the Notification 501. In this application, stress limits were calculated based on the service condition. The JSME S NC1-2005 requires estimation of combined stress for Class1 support structures, which was unnecessary in the Notification 501. In this application, combined stresses were calculated and confirmed not to exceed the stress limits. (author)

  9. Diffuse reticuloendothelial system involvement in type IV glycogen storage disease with a novel GBE1 mutation: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoulas, Pilar L; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Roy, Angshumoy; Bali, Deeksha S; Finegold, Milton J; Craigen, William J

    2012-06-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IV is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of glycogen metabolism caused by mutations in the GBE1 gene that encodes the 1,4-alpha-glucan-branching enzyme 1. Its clinical presentation is variable, with the most common form presenting in early childhood with primary hepatic involvement. Histologic manifestations in glycogen storage disease type IV typically consist of intracytoplasmic non-membrane-bound inclusions containing abnormally branched glycogen (polyglucosan bodies) within hepatocytes and myocytes. We report a female infant with classic hepatic form of glycogen storage disease type IV who demonstrated diffuse reticuloendothelial system involvement with the spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes infiltrated by foamy histiocytes with intracytoplasmic polyglucosan deposits. Sequence analysis of the GBE1 gene revealed compound heterozygosity for a previously described frameshift mutation (c.1239delT) and a novel missense mutation (c.1279G>A) that is predicted to alter a conserved glycine residue. GBE enzyme analysis revealed no detectable activity. A review of the literature for glycogen storage disease type IV patients with characterized molecular defects and deficient enzyme activity reveals most GBE1 mutations to be missense mutations clustering in the catalytic enzyme domain. Individuals with the classic hepatic form of glycogen storage disease type IV tend to be compound heterozygotes for null and missense mutations. Although the extensive reticuloendothelial system involvement that was observed in our patient is not typical of glycogen storage disease type IV, it may be associated with severe enzymatic deficiency and a poor outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lack of association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC variant with type 2 diabetes in an ethnically diverse hypertensive case control cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnes Jason H

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, the high-mobility group A1 gene (HMGA1 variant IVS5-13insC has been associated with type 2 diabetes, but reported associations are inconsistent and data are lacking in Hispanic and African American populations. We sought to investigate the HMGA1-diabetes association and to characterize IVS5-13insC allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium (LD in 3,070 Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American patients from the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST. Methods INVEST was a randomized, multicenter trial comparing two antihypertensive treatment strategies in an ethnically diverse cohort of hypertensive, coronary artery disease patients. Controls, who were diabetes-free throughout the study, and type 2 diabetes cases, either prevalent or incident, were genotyped for IVS5-13insC using Taqman®, confirmed with Pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing. For LD analysis, genotyping for eight additional HMGA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was performed using the Illumina® HumanCVD BeadChip. We used logistic regression to test association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC and diabetes, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and percentage European, African, and Native American ancestry. Results We observed IVS5-13insC minor allele frequencies consistent with previous literature in Caucasians and African Americans (0.03 in cases and 0.04 in controls for both race/ethnic groups, and higher frequencies in Hispanics (0.07 in cases and 0.07 in controls. The IVS5-13insC was not associated with type 2 diabetes overall (odds ratio 0.98 [0.76-1.26], p=0.88 or in any race/ethnic group. Pairwise LD (r2 of IVS5-13insC and rs9394200, a SNP previously used as a tag SNP for IVS5-13insC, was low (r2=0.47 in Caucasians, r2=0.25 in Hispanics, and r2=0.06 in African Americans. Furthermore, in silico analysis suggested a lack of functional consequences for the IVS5-13insC variant. Conclusions Our results suggest that IVS5-13ins

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and its correlation with basal membrane components laminin-5 and collagen type IV in paediatric burn patients measured with Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging (SPRI) biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremijewicz, Artur; Matuszczak, Ewa; Sankiewicz, Anna; Tylicka, Marzena; Komarowska, Marta; Tokarzewicz, Anna; Debek, Wojciech; Gorodkiewicz, Ewa; Hermanowicz, Adam

    2018-01-30

    The purpose of this study was the determination of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and its correlation with basal membrane components laminin-5 and collagen type IV in the blood plasma of burn patients measured with Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging (SPRI) biosensors. 31 children scalded by hot water who were managed at the Department of Paediatric Surgery between 2014-2015, after primarily presenting with burns in 4-20% TBSA were included into the study (age 9 months up to 14 years, mean age 2,5+1 years). There were 10 girls and 21 boys. Venous blood samples were drawn 2-6h, and 12-16h after the thermal injury, and on the subsequent days 3, 5 and 7. The matrix metalloproteinase-2, collagen type IV and laminin-5 concentrations were assessed using Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging by the investigators blinded to the other data. The MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV concentrations in the blood plasma of patients with burns, were highest 12-16h after thermal injury, the difference was statistically significant. The MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV concentrations measured 3 days, 5 days and 7 days after the thermal injury, slowly decreased over time, and on the 7th day reached the normal range, when compared with the concentration measured in controls. Current work is the first follow-up study regarding MMP-2 in burns. MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV levels were elevated early after burn injury in the plasma of studied patients, and were highest 12-16h after the injury. MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV levels were not proportional to the severity of the burn. We believe in the possibility that the gradual decrease of MMP-2, collagen type IV and laminin-5 concentrations could be connected with the process of healing, but to prove it, more investigation is needed in this area. The SPR imaging biosensor is a good diagnostic tool for determination of MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV in blood plasma of patients with burns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  12. Enhanced discrimination of highly clonal ST22-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus IV isolates achieved by combining spa, dru, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2010-05-01

    ST22-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus type IV (ST22-MRSA-IV) is endemic in Irish hospitals and is designated antibiogram-resistogram type-pulsed-field group (AR-PFG) 06-01. Isolates of this highly clonal strain exhibit limited numbers of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns and spa types. This study investigated whether combining PFGE and spa typing with DNA sequencing of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec)-associated direct repeat unit (dru typing) would improve isolate discrimination. A total of 173 MRSA isolates recovered in one Irish hospital during periods in 2007 and 2008 were investigated using antibiogram-resistogram (AR), PFGE, spa, dru, and SCCmec typing. Isolates representative of each of the 17 pulsed-field group 01 (PFG-01) spa types identified underwent multilocus sequence typing, and all isolates were ST22. Ninety-seven percent of isolates (168 of 173) exhibited AR-PFG 06-01 or closely related AR patterns, and 163 of these isolates harbored SCCmec type IVh. The combination of PFGE, spa, and dru typing methods significantly improved discrimination of the 168 PFG-01 isolates, yielding 65 type combinations with a Simpson\\'s index of diversity (SID) of 96.53, compared to (i) pairwise combinations of spa and dru typing, spa and PFGE typing, and dru and PFGE typing, which yielded 37, 44, and 43 type combinations with SIDs of 90.84, 91.00, and 93.57, respectively, or (ii) individual spa, dru, and PFGE typing methods, which yielded 17, 17, and 21 types with SIDs of 66.9, 77.83, and 81.34, respectively. Analysis of epidemiological information for a subset of PFG-01 isolates validated the relationships inferred using combined PFGE, spa, and dru typing data. This approach significantly enhances discrimination of ST22-MRSA-IV isolates and could be applied to epidemiological investigations of other highly clonal MRSA strains.

  13. New lethal disease involving type I and III collagen defect resembling geroderma osteodysplastica, De Barsy syndrome, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome IV.

    OpenAIRE

    Jukkola, A; Kauppila, S; Risteli, L; Vuopala, K; Risteli, J; Leisti, J; Pajunen, L

    1998-01-01

    We describe the clinical findings and biochemical features of a male child suffering from a so far undescribed lethal connective tissue disorder characterised by extreme hypermobility of the joints, lax skin, cataracts, severe growth retardation, and insufficient production of type I and type III procollagens. His features are compared with Ehlers-Danlos type IV, De Barsy syndrome, and geroderma osteodysplastica, as these disorders show some symptoms and signs shared with our patient. The chi...

  14. Type-IVC Secretion System: A Novel Subclass of Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) Common Existing in Gram-Positive Genus Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Gao, George F.

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of pathogens are being found to possess specialized secretion systems which they use in various ways to subvert host defenses. Type IV secretion system (T4SS) is one of versatile secretion systems essential for the virulence and even survival of some bacteria species, and they enable the secretion of protein and DNA substrates across the cell envelope. T4SS was once believed to be present only in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we present evidence of a new subclass of T4SS, Type-IVC secretion system and indicate its common existence in the Gram-positive bacterial genus Streptococcus. We further identified that VirB1, VirB4, VirB6 and VirD4 are the minimal key components of this system. Using genome comparisons and evolutionary relationship analysis, we proposed that Type-IVC secretion system is movable via transposon factors and mediates the conjugative transfer of DNA, enhances bacterial pathogenicity, and could cause large-scale outbreaks of infections in humans. PMID:23056296

  15. Identification of a de novo mutation of SOX10 in a Chinese patient with Waardenburg syndrome type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fenghe; Zhao, Min; Fan, Lynn; Zhang, Hongyan; Shi, Yang; Han, Rui; Qu, Chunyan

    2016-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, characterized by the association of sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation abnormalities. Four subtypes have been classified. The present study aimed to analyze the clinical feature and investigate the genetic cause for a Chinese case of Waardenburg type IV (WS4). The patient and his family members were subjected to mutation detection in the candidate gene SOX10 by Sanger sequencing. The patient has the clinical features of WS4, including sensorineural hearing loss, bright blue irides, premature graying of the hair and Hirschsprung disease. A novel heterozygous frameshift mutation, c.752_753ins7 (p.Gly252Alafs*31) in the exon 5 of SOX10 was detected in the patient, but not found in the unaffected family members and 100 normal controls. This mutation results in a premature stop codon 31 amino acid downstream. The novel mutation c.752_753ins7 (p.Gly252Alafs*31) arose de novo and was considered as the cause of WS4 in the proband. This study further characterized the molecular complexity of WS4 and provided a clinical case for genotype-phenotype correlation studies of different phenotypes caused by SOX10 mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin enhances production and secretion of type IV collagenases in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Y; Kawakami, S; Fujii, Y; Kihara, K; Oshima, H

    1997-03-01

    Intravesical administration of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an effective and widely accepted treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Rapid progression of the disease after BCG therapy, however, has been reported in some cases refractory to the treatment. We examined whether BCG treatment and coexistence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) alter the invasive potential of bladder cancer cells. Production and secretion of two type IV collagenases, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP 9, by PBMCs from five healthy donors or bladder cancer cells (T24, JTC 30, and JTC 32) were evaluated by gelatin zymography, western blot analysis, and northern blot analysis. Invasion of bladder cancer cells was also examined using reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel). BCG (5, 50, and 500 micrograms/ml) had no effect on secretion of MMP 2 and MMP 9 by bladder cancer cells, but increased the production and secretion of MMP 9 by PBMCs in a dose-dependent manner. The coexistence of PBMCs increased invasion of T24 cells and BCG further enhanced the invasion. Thus, BCG promotes invasion of bladder cancer cells under certain conditions. An increase in the secretion of MMP 9 by PBMCs may account in part for the effect.

  17. Cleavage of phosphorothioated DNA and methylated DNA by the type IV restriction endonuclease ScoMcrA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Liu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many taxonomically diverse prokaryotes enzymatically modify their DNA by replacing a non-bridging oxygen with a sulfur atom at specific sequences. The biological implications of this DNA S-modification (phosphorothioation were unknown. We observed that simultaneous expression of the dndA-E gene cluster from Streptomyces lividans 66, which is responsible for the DNA S-modification, and the putative Streptomyces coelicolor A(32 Type IV methyl-dependent restriction endonuclease ScoA3McrA (Sco4631 leads to cell death in the same host. A His-tagged derivative of ScoA3McrA cleaved S-modified DNA and also Dcm-methylated DNA in vitro near the respective modification sites. Double-strand cleavage occurred 16-28 nucleotides away from the phosphorothioate links. DNase I footprinting demonstrated binding of ScoA3McrA to the Dcm methylation site, but no clear binding could be detected at the S-modified site under cleavage conditions. This is the first report of in vitro endonuclease activity of a McrA homologue and also the first demonstration of an enzyme that specifically cleaves S-modified DNA.

  18. EXTRA-ARTICULAR FRACTURE OF THE MEDIAL END OF THE CLAVICLE ASSOCIATED WITH TYPE IV ACROMIOCLAVICULAR DISLOCATION: CAAE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Mário Chaves; Gonçalves, Lucas Braga Jacques; Vilela, Jose Carlos Souza; Leonel, Igor Lima; Costa, Lincoln Paiva; de Andrade, Ronaldo Percopi

    2011-01-01

    Fractures of the clavicle and acromioclavicular dislocations are very common injuries when they occur separately. The combination of an acromioclavicular dislocation and a fracture of the lateral third of the clavicle is not rare. However, there are very few reported cases of acromioclavicular dislocations associated with fractures of the middle third of the clavicle; those associated with fractures of the medial third are even rarer. We report the case of an adult male who suffered an acromioclavicular dislocation (type IV) associated with a displaced extra-articular fracture of the medial end of the clavicle (Almann group 3) in a cycling accident. The patient was treated during the acute phase with open reduction and internal fixation of the two lesions. At the clinical evaluation 12 months after the surgery, the patient was asymptomatic, with full active and passive mobility, and normal strength and endurance of the shoulder girdle. Radiographs and a three-dimensional CT scan showed persistent posterosuperior subluxation of the acromioclavicular joint and anatomical consolidation of the clavicular fracture.

  19. Twitching motility of bacteria with type-IV pili: Fractal walks, first passage time, and their consequences on microcolonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Konark; Klumpp, Stefan; Banerjee, Varsha; Marathe, Rahul

    2017-11-01

    A human pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), moves on surfaces by attaching and retracting polymeric structures called Type IV pili. The tug-of-war between the pili results in a two-dimensional stochastic motion called twitching motility. In this paper, with the help of real-time NG trajectories, we develop coarse-grained models for their description. The fractal properties of these trajectories are determined and their influence on first passage time and formation of bacterial microcolonies is studied. Our main observations are as follows: (i) NG performs a fast ballistic walk on small time scales and a slow diffusive walk over long time scales with a long crossover region; (ii) there exists a characteristic persistent length lp*, which yields the fastest growth of bacterial aggregates or biofilms. Our simulations reveal that lp*˜L0.6 , where L ×L is the surface on which the bacteria move; (iii) the morphologies have distinct fractal characteristics as a consequence of the ballistic and diffusive motion of the constituting bacteria.

  20. The BID Domain of Type IV Secretion Substrates Forms a Conserved Four-Helix Bundle Topped with a Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Frédéric V; de Beer, Tjaart A P; Dranow, David M; Schirmer, Tilman; Phan, Isabelle; Dehio, Christoph

    2017-01-03

    The BID (Bep intracellular delivery) domain functions as secretion signal in a subfamily of protein substrates of bacterial type IV secretion (T4S) systems. It mediates transfer of (1) relaxases and the attached DNA during bacterial conjugation, and (2) numerous Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) during protein transfer into host cells infected by pathogenic Bartonella species. Furthermore, BID domains of Beps have often evolved secondary effector functions within host cells. Here, we provide crystal structures for three representative BID domains and describe a novel conserved fold characterized by a compact, antiparallel four-helix bundle topped with a hook. The conserved hydrophobic core provides a rigid scaffold to a surface that, despite a few conserved exposed residues and similarities in charge distribution, displays significant variability. We propose that the genuine function of BID domains as T4S signal may primarily depend on their rigid structure, while the plasticity of their surface may facilitate adaptation to secondary effector functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlation Between Intercritical Heat-Affected Zone and Type IV Creep Damage Zone in Grade 91 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiyu; Kannan, Rangasayee; Li, Leijun

    2018-04-01

    A soft zone in Cr-Mo steel weldments has been reported to accompany the infamous Type IV cracking, the highly localized creep damage in the heat-affected zone of creep-resistant steels. However, the microstructural features and formation mechanism of this soft zone are not well understood. In this study, using microhardness profiling and microstructural verification, the initial soft zone in the as-welded condition was identified to be located in the intercritical heat-affected zone of P91 steel weldments. It has a mixed structure, consisting of Cr-rich re-austenitized prior austenite grains and fine Cr-depleted, tempered martensite grains retained from the base metal. The presence of these further-tempered retained grains, originating from the base metal, is directly responsible for the hardness reduction of the identified soft zone in the as-welded condition. The identified soft zone exhibits a high location consistency at three thermal stages. Local chemistry analysis and thermodynamic calculation show that the lower chromium concentrations inside these retained grains thermodynamically decrease their potentials for austenitic transformation during welding. Heterogeneous grain growth is observed in the soft zone during postweld heat treatment. The mismatch of strengths between the weak Cr-depleted grains and strong Cr-rich grains enhances the creep damage. Local deformation of the weaker Cr-depleted grains accelerates the formation of creep cavities.

  2. Exploratory study on Th1 epitope-induced protective immunity against Coxiella burnetii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Xiong

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes Q fever in humans. In the present study, 131 candidate peptides were selected from the major immunodominant proteins (MIPs of C. burnetii due to their high-affinity binding capacity for the MHC class II molecule H2 I-A(b based on bioinformatic analyses. Twenty-two of the candidate peptides with distinct MIP epitopes were well recognized by the IFN-γ recall responses of CD4(+ T cells from mice immunized with parental proteins in an ELISPOT assay. In addition, 7 of the 22 peptides could efficiently induce CD4(+ T cells from mice immunized with C. burnetii to rapidly proliferate and significantly increase IFN-γ production. Significantly higher levels of IL-2, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were also detected in serum from mice immunized with a pool of the 7 peptides. Immunization with the pool of 7 peptides, but not the individual peptides, conferred a significant protection against C. burnetii infection in mice, suggesting that these Th1 peptides could work together to efficiently activate CD4(+ T cells to produce the Th1-type immune response against C. burnetii infection. These observations could contribute to the rational design of molecular vaccines for Q fever.

  3. Computational prediction of secretion systems and secretomes of Brucella: identification of novel type IV effectors and their interaction with the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Vishnu, Udayakumar S; Dinakaran, Vasudevan; Sridhar, Jayavel; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2016-01-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that cause brucellosis in various mammals including humans. Brucella survive inside the host cells by forming vacuoles and subverting host defence systems. This study was aimed to predict the secretion systems and the secretomes of Brucella spp. from 39 complete genome sequences available in the databases. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify the type IV secretion effectors and their interactions with host proteins. We predicted the secretion systems of Brucella by the KEGG pathway and SecReT4. Brucella secretomes and type IV effectors (T4SEs) were predicted through genome-wide screening using JVirGel and S4TE, respectively. Protein-protein interactions of Brucella T4SEs with their hosts were analyzed by HPIDB 2.0. Genes coding for Sec and Tat pathways of secretion and type I (T1SS), type IV (T4SS) and type V (T5SS) secretion systems were identified and they are conserved in all the species of Brucella. In addition to the well-known VirB operon coding for the type IV secretion system (T4SS), we have identified the presence of additional genes showing homology with T4SS of other organisms. On the whole, 10.26 to 14.94% of total proteomes were found to be either secreted (secretome) or membrane associated (membrane proteome). Approximately, 1.7 to 3.0% of total proteomes were identified as type IV secretion effectors (T4SEs). Prediction of protein-protein interactions showed 29 and 36 host-pathogen specific interactions between Bos taurus (cattle)-B. abortus and Ovis aries (sheep)-B. melitensis, respectively. Functional characterization of the predicted T4SEs and their interactions with their respective hosts may reveal the secrets of host specificity of Brucella.

  4. Parallel Evolution of a Type IV Secretion System in Radiating Lineages of the Host-Restricted Bacterial Pathogen Bartonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Philipp; Salzburger, Walter; Liesch, Marius; Chang, Chao-Chin; Maruyama, Soichi; Lanz, Christa; Calteau, Alexandra; Lajus, Aurélie; Médigue, Claudine; Schuster, Stephan C.; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens

  5. Effective prediction of bacterial type IV secreted effectors by combined features of both C-termini and N-termini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Guo, Yanzhi; Pu, Xuemei; Li, Menglong

    2017-11-01

    Various bacterial pathogens can deliver their secreted substrates also called as effectors through type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) into host cells and cause diseases. Since T4SS secreted effectors (T4SEs) play important roles in pathogen-host interactions, identifying them is crucial to our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of T4SSs. A few computational methods using machine learning algorithms for T4SEs prediction have been developed by using features of C-terminal residues. However, recent studies have shown that targeting information can also be encoded in the N-terminal region of at least some T4SEs. In this study, we present an effective method for T4SEs prediction by novelly integrating both N-terminal and C-terminal sequence information. First, we collected a comprehensive dataset across multiple bacterial species of known T4SEs and non-T4SEs from literatures. Then, three types of distinctive features, namely amino acid composition, composition, transition and distribution and position-specific scoring matrices were calculated for 50 N-terminal and 100 C-terminal residues. After that, we employed information gain represent to rank the importance score of the 150 different position residues for T4SE secretion signaling. At last, 125 distinctive position residues were singled out for the prediction model to classify T4SEs and non-T4SEs. The support vector machine model yields a high receiver operating curve of 0.916 in the fivefold cross-validation and an accuracy of 85.29% for the independent test set.

  6. Parallel evolution of a type IV secretion system in radiating lineages of the host-restricted bacterial pathogen Bartonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Engel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS, and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps, evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial

  7. Parallel evolution of a type IV secretion system in radiating lineages of the host-restricted bacterial pathogen Bartonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Philipp; Salzburger, Walter; Liesch, Marius; Chang, Chao-Chin; Maruyama, Soichi; Lanz, Christa; Calteau, Alexandra; Lajus, Aurélie; Médigue, Claudine; Schuster, Stephan C; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-02-10

    Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens

  8. Phylogenetic inference of Coxiella burnetii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather P McLaughlin

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is a human pathogen that causes the serious zoonotic disease Q fever. It is ubiquitous in the environment and due to its wide host range, long-range dispersal potential and classification as a bioterrorism agent, this microorganism is considered an HHS Select Agent. In the event of an outbreak or intentional release, laboratory strain typing methods can contribute to epidemiological investigations, law enforcement investigation and the public health response by providing critical information about the relatedness between C. burnetii isolates collected from different sources. Laboratory cultivation of C. burnetii is both time-consuming and challenging. Availability of strain collections is often limited and while several strain typing methods have been described over the years, a true gold-standard method is still elusive. Building upon epidemiological knowledge from limited, historical strain collections and typing data is essential to more accurately infer C. burnetii phylogeny. Harmonization of auspicious high-resolution laboratory typing techniques is critical to support epidemiological and law enforcement investigation. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP -based genotyping approach offers simplicity, rapidity and robustness. Herein, we demonstrate SNPs identified within 16S rRNA gene sequences can differentiate C. burnetii strains. Using this method, 55 isolates were assigned to six groups based on six polymorphisms. These 16S rRNA SNP-based genotyping results were largely congruent with those obtained by analyzing restriction-endonuclease (RE-digested DNA separated by SDS-PAGE and by the high-resolution approach based on SNPs within multispacer sequence typing (MST loci. The SNPs identified within the 16S rRNA gene can be used as targets for the development of additional SNP-based genotyping assays for C. burnetii.

  9. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV : unusual congenital anomalies in a mother and son with a COL3A1 mutation and a normal collagen III protein profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, HY; Pals, G; van Essen, AJ

    A mother and son with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV and unusual congenital anomalies are described. The congenital anomalies include, in the mother, amniotic band-like constrictions on one hand, a unilateral clubfoot, and macrocephaly owing to normal-pressure hydrocephaly and, in the son, an

  10. Advanced Gastric Cancer: Differentiation of Borrmann Type IV versus Borrmann Type III by Two-Phased Dynamic Multi-Detector Row CT with Use of the Water Filling Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Jung; Yu, Jeong Sik; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Joo Hee; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Ki Whang [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hae Youn [CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    To characterize Borrmann type IV from Borrmann type III advanced gastric cancer (AGC) by two-phased multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) using the water filling method. A total of 143 patients (pathologically confirmed Borrmann type III and IV - 100 and 43 patients), who underwent preoperative MDCT, were enrolled. Two radiologists, retrospectively and independently, determined tumor enhancement pattern using a 5-grade scale without clinical information. A weighted kappa test was applied for interobserver variability. The score of tumor enhancement pattern correlated with Borrmann type as determined by Spearman's correlation coefficient. The accuracy of differentiation of Borrmann type using MDCT was determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. Interobserver agreement (weighted kappa = 0.683) was substantial. The tumor enhancement pattern score showed a significant correlation with Borrmann type (reviewer 1, r = 0.591, p < 0.001; reviewer 2, r = 0.616, p < 0.001). The accuracy for differentiation of Borrmann type on MDCT was 0.86 (p < 0.001) in both reviewers. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of Borrmann type IV were 79% and 82% in reviewer 1, and 88% and 78% in reviewer 2, respectively. Dual-phased MDCT using the water filling method can differentiate between Borrmann type IV and III AGC with high accuracy.

  11. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in clinically healthy German sheep flocks

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    Hilbert Angela

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current epidemiological data on the situation of Coxiella (C. burnetii infections in sheep are missing, making risk assessment and the implementation of counteractive measures difficult. Using the German state of Thuringia as a model example, the estimated sero-, and antigen prevalence of C. burnetii (10% and 25%, respectively was assessed at flock level in 39/252 randomly selected clinically healthy sheep flocks with more than 100 ewes and unknown abortion rate. Results The CHECKIT™ Q-fever Test Kit identified 11 (28% antibody positive herds, whereas real-time PCR revealed the presence of C. burnetii DNA in 2 (5% of the flocks. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis of 9 isolates obtained from one flock revealed identical profiles. All isolates contained the plasmid QpH1. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. burnetii is present in clinically inconspicuous sheep flocks and sporadic flare-ups do occur as the notifications to the German animal disease reporting system show. Although C. burnetii infections are not a primary veterinary concern due to the lack of significant clinical impact on animal health (with the exception of goats, the eminent zoonotic risk for humans should not be underestimated. Therefore, strategies combining the interests of public and veterinary public health should include monitoring of flocks, the identification and culling of shedders as well as the administration of protective vaccines.

  12. No indication of Coxiella burnetii infection in Norwegian farmed ruminants

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    Kampen Annette H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Coxiella burnetii, the cause of Q-fever, has never been detected in Norwegian animals. Recognising the increasing prevalence of the infection in neighbouring countries, the aim of the study was to perform a survey of Norwegian farmed ruminants for the prevalence of C. burnetii infection. Results Milk and blood samples from more than 3450 Norwegian dairy cattle herds, 55 beef cattle herds, 348 dairy goat herds and 118 sheep flocks were serologically examined for antibodies against C. burnetii. All samples were negative for antibodies against C. burnetii. The estimated prevalences of infected herds were 0 (95% confidence interval: 0% - 0.12%, 0 (0% - 12%, 0 (0% - 1.2% and 0 (0% - 10% for dairy cattle herds, beef cattle herds, goat herds and sheep flocks, respectively. Conclusions The study indicates that the prevalence of C. burnetii infection in farmed Norwegian ruminants is low, and it cannot be excluded that Norway is free of the infection. It would be beneficial if Norway was able to maintain the current situation. Therefore, preventive measures should be continued.

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Ruminant Coxiella burnetii Isolates of European Origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; Ellis, Richard J.; Adam, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is responsible for Q fever, a worldwide zoonosis attributed to the inhalation of aerosols contaminated by livestock birth products. Six draft genome sequences of European C. burnetii isolates from ruminants are presented here. The availability of these genomes will help in under......Coxiella burnetii is responsible for Q fever, a worldwide zoonosis attributed to the inhalation of aerosols contaminated by livestock birth products. Six draft genome sequences of European C. burnetii isolates from ruminants are presented here. The availability of these genomes will help...

  14. Coxiella burnetii associated placental lesions and infection level in parturient cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Rodolakis, Annie; Cochonneau, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Cotyledons (n=170) from dairy cattle were analysed for Coxiella burnetii by real-time (rt) PCR targeting the IS1111a and icd genes. Positive cases (n=90) and a random selection of negative cases (n=20) were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry and, if infection level was high, by fluoresce......Cotyledons (n=170) from dairy cattle were analysed for Coxiella burnetii by real-time (rt) PCR targeting the IS1111a and icd genes. Positive cases (n=90) and a random selection of negative cases (n=20) were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry and, if infection level was high...

  15. MOLECULAR-GENETIC BASIS OF PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOGENICITY OF COXIELLA BURNETII

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    Yu. A. Panpherova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The agent of Q-fever Coxiella burnetii is unusual intracellular pathogen which is possessed of biggest transporting and metabolic abilities in compare with microorganisms with similar parasitic strategy. It is supposed that different strains of the pathogen exist in various stages of pathological adaption and have different potential of virulence. The structure of C. burnetii genome, characteristics of metabolic routes, mechanisms of interaction with host cells and possible virulence factors are discussed in the review. The special attention is paid to Coxiella genotyping methods and possible correlations between genomic polymorphism of different strains and their virulence potential.

  16. Peptide Nucleic Acid Knockdown and Intra-host Cell Complementation of Ehrlichia Type IV Secretion System Effector

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    Pratibha Sharma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Survival of Ehrlichia chaffeensis depends on obligatory intracellular infection. One of the barriers to E. chaffeensis research progress has been the inability, using conventional techniques, to generate knock-out mutants for genes essential for intracellular infection. This study examined the use of Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs technology to interrupt type IV secretion system (T4SS effector protein expression in E. chaffeensis followed by intracellular complementation of the effector to determine its requirement for infection. Successful E. chaffeensis infection depends on the E. chaffeensis-specific T4SS protein effector, ehrlichial translocated factor-1 (Etf-1, which induces Rab5-regulated autophagy to provide host cytosolic nutrients required for E. chaffeensis proliferation. Etf-1 is also imported by host cell mitochondria where it inhibits host cell apoptosis to prolong its infection. We designed a PNA specific to Etf-1 and showed that the PNA bound to the target region of single-stranded Etf-1 RNA using a competitive binding assay. Electroporation of E. chaffeensis with this PNA significantly reduced Etf-1 mRNA and protein, and the bacteria's ability to induce host cell autophagy and infect host cells. Etf-1 PNA-mediated inhibition of ehrlichial Etf-1 expression and E. chaffeensis infection could be intracellularly trans-complemented by ectopic expression of Etf-1-GFP in host cells. These data affirmed the critical role of bacterial T4SS effector in host cell autophagy and E. chaffeensis infection, and demonstrated the use of PNA to analyze the gene functions of obligate intracellular bacteria.

  17. Type IV pilins regulate their own expression via direct intramembrane interactions with the sensor kinase PilS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmury, Sara L N; Burrows, Lori L

    2016-05-24

    Type IV pili are important virulence factors for many pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa Transcription of the major pilin gene-pilA-is controlled by the PilS-PilR two-component system in response to unknown signals. The absence of a periplasmic sensing domain suggested that PilS may sense an intramembrane signal, possibly PilA. We suggest that direct interactions between PilA and PilS in the inner membrane reduce pilA transcription when PilA levels are high. Overexpression in trans of PilA proteins with diverse and/or truncated C termini decreased native pilA transcription, suggesting that the highly conserved N terminus of PilA was the regulatory signal. Point mutations in PilA or PilS that disrupted their interaction prevented autoregulation of pilA transcription. A subset of PilA point mutants retained the ability to interact with PilS but could no longer decrease pilA transcription, suggesting that interaction between the pilin and sensor kinase is necessary but not sufficient for pilA autoregulation. Furthermore, PilS's phosphatase motif was required for the autoregulation of pilA transcription, suggesting that under conditions where PilA is abundant, the PilA-PilS interaction promotes PilR dephosphorylation and thus down-regulation of further pilA transcription. These data reveal a clever bacterial inventory control strategy in which the major subunit of an important P. aeruginosa virulence factor controls its own expression.

  18. The Legionella pneumophila IcmSW complex interacts with multiple Dot/Icm effectors to facilitate type IV translocation.

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    Eric D Cambronne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many gram-negative pathogens use a type IV secretion system (T4SS to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The fidelity of protein translocation depends on the efficient recognition of effector proteins by the T4SS. Legionella pneumophila delivers a large number of effector proteins into eukaryotic cells using the Dot/Icm T4SS. How the Dot/Icm system is able to recognize and control the delivery of effectors is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the IcmS and IcmW proteins interact to form a stable complex that facilitates translocation of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that the IcmSW complex is necessary for the productive translocation of multiple Dot/Icm effector proteins. Effector proteins that were able to bind IcmSW in vitro required icmS and icmW for efficient translocation into eukaryotic cells during L. pneumophila infection. We identified regions in the effector protein SidG involved in icmSW-dependent translocation. Although the full-length SidG protein was translocated by an icmSW-dependent mechanism, deletion of amino terminal regions in the SidG protein resulted in icmSW-independent translocation, indicating that the IcmSW complex is not contributing directly to recognition of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system. Biochemical and genetic studies showed that the IcmSW complex interacts with a central region of the SidG protein. The IcmSW interaction resulted in a conformational change in the SidG protein as determined by differences in protease sensitivity in vitro. These data suggest that IcmSW binding to effectors could enhance effector protein delivery by mediating a conformational change that facilitates T4SS recognition of a translocation domain located in the carboxyl region of the effector protein.

  19. A bipartite signal mediates the transfer of type IV secretion substrates of Bartonella henselae into human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulein, Ralf; Guye, Patrick; Rhomberg, Thomas A; Schmid, Michael C; Schröder, Gunnar; Vergunst, Annette C; Carena, Ilaria; Dehio, Christoph

    2005-01-18

    Bacterial type IV secretion (T4S) systems mediate the transfer of macromolecular substrates into various target cells, e.g., the conjugative transfer of DNA into bacteria or the transfer of virulence proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The T4S apparatus VirB of the vascular tumor-inducing pathogen Bartonella henselae causes subversion of human endothelial cell (HEC) function. Here we report the identification of multiple protein substrates of VirB, which, upon translocation into HEC, mediate all known VirB-dependent cellular changes. These Bartonella-translocated effector proteins (Beps) A-G are encoded together with the VirB system and the T4S coupling protein VirD4 on a Bartonella-specific pathogenicity island. The Beps display a modular architecture, suggesting an evolution by extensive domain duplication and reshuffling. The C terminus of each Bep harbors at least one copy of the Bep-intracellular delivery domain and a short positively charged tail sequence. This biparte C terminus constitutes a transfer signal that is sufficient to mediate VirB/VirD4-dependent intracellular delivery of reporter protein fusions. The Bep-intracellular delivery domain is also present in conjugative relaxases of bacterial conjugation systems. We exemplarily show that the C terminus of such a conjugative relaxase mediates protein transfer through the Bartonella henselae VirB/VirD4 system into HEC. Conjugative relaxases may thus represent the evolutionary origin of the here defined T4S signal for protein transfer into human cells.

  20. Functional mapping of PilF and PilQ in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type IV pilus system.

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    Koo, Jason; Tang, Tim; Harvey, Hanjeong; Tammam, Stephanie; Sampaleanu, Liliana; Burrows, Lori L; Howell, P Lynne

    2013-04-30

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses type IV pili (T4P) to interact with the environment and as key virulence factors when acting as an opportunistic pathogen. Assembly of the outer membrane PilQ secretin channel through which the pili are extruded is essential for pilus biogenesis. The P. aeruginosa T4P pilotin, PilF, is required for PilQ outer membrane localization and assembly into secretins and contains six tetratricopeptide (TPR) protein-protein interaction motifs, suggesting that the two proteins interact. In this study, we found that the first four TPR motifs of PilF are sufficient for PilQ outer membrane targeting, oligomerization, and function. Guided by our structure of PilF, site-directed mutagenesis of the protein surface revealed that a hydrophobic groove on the first TPR is required for PilF-mediated PilQ assembly. Deletion of individual domains within PilQ suggests that the N0, KH-like, or secretin domain, but not the C-terminus, interacts with PilF. Purified PilQ was found to pull down PilF from Pseudomonas cell lysates. Together, these data allow us to propose a model for PilF function in the T4P system. PilF interacts directly or indirectly with the PilQ monomer after translocation of both proteins through the inner membrane and acts as a co-chaperone with the Lol system to facilitate transit across the periplasm to the outer membrane. The mechanism of PilQ insertion and assembly, which appears to be independent of the Bam system, remains to be determined.

  1. A zebrafish model for Waardenburg syndrome type IV reveals diverse roles for Sox10 in the otic vesicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Kirsten; Abbas, Leila; Spencer, Joanne; Brannon, Claire; Mowbray, Catriona; Nikaido, Masataka; Kelsh, Robert N; Whitfield, Tanya T

    2009-01-01

    In humans, mutations in the SOX10 gene are a cause of the auditory-pigmentary disorder Waardenburg syndrome type IV (WS4) and related variants. SOX10 encodes an Sry-related HMG box protein essential for the development of the neural crest; deafness in WS4 and other Waardenburg syndromes is usually attributed to loss of neural-crest-derived melanocytes in the stria vascularis of the cochlea. However, SOX10 is strongly expressed in the developing otic vesicle and so direct roles for SOX10 in the otic epithelium might also be important. Here, we examine the otic phenotype of zebrafish sox10 mutants, a model for WS4. As a cochlea is not present in the fish ear, the severe otic phenotype in these mutants cannot be attributed to effects on this tissue. In zebrafish sox10 mutants, we see abnormalities in all otic placodal derivatives. Gene expression studies indicate deregulated expression of several otic genes, including fgf8, in sox10 mutants. Using a combination of mutant and morphant data, we show that the three sox genes belonging to group E (sox9a, sox9b and sox10) provide a link between otic induction pathways and subsequent otic patterning: they act redundantly to maintain sox10 expression throughout otic tissue and to restrict fgf8 expression to anterior macula regions. Single-cell labelling experiments indicate a small and transient neural crest contribution to the zebrafish ear during normal development, but this is unlikely to account for the strong defects seen in the sox10 mutant. We discuss the implication that the deafness in WS4 patients with SOX10 mutations might reflect a haploinsufficiency for SOX10 in the otic epithelium, resulting in patterning and functional abnormalities in the inner ear.

  2. L-arginine mediated renaturation enhances yield of human, α6 Type IV collagen non-collagenous domain from bacterial inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, Venugopal; Boosani, Chandra Shekhar; Verma, Raj Kumar; Guda, Chittibabu; Sudhakar, Yakkanti Akul

    2012-10-01

    The anti-angiogenic, carboxy terminal non-collagenous domain (NC1) derived from human Collagen type IV alpha 6 chain, [α6(IV)NC1] or hexastatin, was earlier obtained using different recombinant methods of expression in bacterial systems. However, the effect of L-arginine mediated renaturation in enhancing the relative yields of this protein from bacterial inclusion bodies has not been evaluated. In the present study, direct stirring and on-column renaturation methods using L-arginine and different size exclusion chromatography matrices were applied for enhancing the solubility in purifying the recombinant α6(IV)NC1 from bacterial inclusion bodies. This methodology enabled purification of higher quantities of soluble protein from inclusion bodies, which inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation. Thus, the scope for L-arginine mediated renaturation in obtaining higher yields of soluble, biologically active NC1 domain from bacterial inclusion bodies was evaluated.

  3. Is coracoclavicular stabilisation alone sufficient for the endoscopic treatment of severe acromioclavicular joint dislocation (Rockwood types III, IV, and V)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, J; Duparc, F; Andrieu, K; Duport, M; Toussaint, B; Bertiaux, S; Clavert, P; Gastaud, O; Brassart, N; Beaudouin, E; De Mourgues, P; Berne, D; Bahurel, J; Najihi, N; Boyer, P; Faivre, B; Meyer, A; Nourissat, G; Poulain, S; Bruchou, F; Ménard, J F

    2015-12-01

    The primary objective was to evaluate correlations linking anatomical to functional outcomes after endoscopically assisted repair of acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation (ACJD). Combined acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular stabilisation improves radiological outcomes compared to coracoclavicular stabilisation alone. A prospective multicentre study was performed. Clinical outcome measures were pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS), subjective functional impairment (QuickDASH score), and Constant's score. Anatomical outcomes were assessed on standard radiographs (anteroposterior view of the acromioclavicular girdle and bilateral axillary views) obtained preoperatively and postoperatively and on postoperative dynamic radiographs taken as described by Tauber et al. Of 116 patients with acute ACJD included in the study, 48% had type III, 30% type IV, and 22% type V ACJD according to the Rockwood classification. Coracoclavicular stabilisation was achieved using a double endobutton in 93% of patients, and concomitant acromioclavicular stabilisation was performed in 50% of patients. The objective functional outcome was good, with an unweighted Constant's score ≥ 85/100 and a subjective QuickDASH functional disability score ≤ 10 in 75% of patients. The radiographic analysis showed significant improvements from the preoperative to the 1-year postoperative values in the vertical plane (decrease in the coracoclavicular ratio from 214 to 128%, p=10(-6)) and in the horizontal plane (decrease in posterior displacement from 4 to 0mm, p=5×10(-5)). The anatomical outcome correlated significantly with the functional outcome (absolute R value=0.19 and p=0.045). We found no statistically significant differences across the various types of constructs used. Intra-operative control of the acromioclavicular joint did not improve the result. Implantation of a biological graft significantly improved both the anatomical outcome in the vertical plane (p=0.04) and

  4. Malleolar fractures and their ligamentous injury equivalents have similar outcomes in supination-external rotation type IV fractures of the ankle treated by anatomical internal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, M B; Little, M T M; Lazaro, L E; Sculco, P K; Cymerman, R M; Daigl, M; Helfet, D L; Lorich, D G

    2012-11-01

    It has previously been suggested that among unstable ankle fractures, the presence of a malleolar fracture is associated with a worse outcome than a corresponding ligamentous injury. However, previous studies have included heterogeneous groups of injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any specific pattern of bony and/or ligamentous injury among a series of supination-external rotation type IV (SER IV) ankle fractures treated with anatomical fixation was associated with a worse outcome. We analysed a prospective cohort of 108 SER IV ankle fractures with a follow-up of one year. Pre-operative radiographs and MRIs were undertaken to characterise precisely the pattern of injury. Operative treatment included fixation of all malleolar fractures. Post-operative CT was used to assess reduction. The primary and secondary outcome measures were the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and the range of movement of the ankle. There were no clinically relevant differences between the four possible SER IV fracture pattern groups with regard to the FAOS or range of movement. In this population of strictly defined SER IV ankle injuries, the presence of a malleolar fracture was not associated with a significantly worse clinical outcome than its ligamentous injury counterpart. Other factors inherent to the injury and treatment may play a more important role in predicting outcome.

  5. Interaction of Coxiella burnetii Strains of Different Sources and Genotypes with Bovine and Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

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    Katharina Sobotta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most human Q fever infections originate from small ruminants. By contrast, highly prevalent shedding of Coxiella (C. burnetii by bovine milk rarely results in human disease. We hypothesized that primary bovine and human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM represent a suitable in vitro model for the identification of strain-specific virulence properties at the cellular level. Twelve different C. burnetii strains were selected to represent different host species and multiple loci variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA genotypes. Infection efficiency and replication of C. burnetii were monitored by cell culture re-titration and qPCR. Expression of immunoregulatory factors after MDM infection was measured by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. Invasion, replication and MDM response differed between C. burnetii strains but not between MDMs of the two hosts. Strains isolated from ruminants were less well internalized than isolates from humans and rodents. Internalization of MLVA group I strains was lower compared to other genogroups. Replication efficacy of C. burnetii in MDM ranged from low (MLVA group III to high (MLVA group IV. Infected human and bovine MDM responded with a principal up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-12, and TNF-α. However, MLVA group IV strains induced a pronounced host response whereas infection with group I strains resulted in a milder response. C. burnetii infection marginally affected polarization of MDM. Only one C. burnetii strain of MLVA group IV caused a substantial up-regulation of activation markers (CD40, CD80 on the surface of bovine and human MDM. The study showed that replication of C. burnetii in MDM and the subsequent host cell response is genotype-specific rather than being determined by the host species pointing to a clear distinction in C. burnetii virulence between the genetic groups.

  6. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Allyson M; Real Hernandez, Luis M; Berhow, Mark A; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2014-07-02

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims were to characterize and examine extracts from greenhouse-grown or commercially purchased herbs for their ability to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), enzymes that play a role in insulin secretion and insulin signaling, respectively. Greenhouse herbs contained more polyphenols (302.7-430.1 μg of gallic acid equivalents/mg of dry weight of extract (DWE)) and flavonoids (370.1-661.4 μg of rutin equivalents/mg of DWE) compared to the equivalent commercial herbs. Greenhouse rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram extracts were the best inhibitors of DPP-IV (IC₅₀=16, 29, and 59 μM, respectively). Commercial rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram were the best inhibitors of PTP1B (32.4-40.9% at 500 μM). The phytochemicals eriodictyol, naringenin, hispidulin, cirsimaritin, and carnosol were identified by LC-ESI-MS as being present in greenhouse-grown Mexican oregano and rosemary. Computational modeling indicated that hispidulin, carnosol, and eriodictyol would have the best binding affinities for DPP-IV. Biochemically, the best inhibitors of DPP-IV were cirsimaritin (IC₅₀=0.43±0.07 μM), hispidulin (IC₅₀=0.49±0.06 μM), and naringenin (IC₅₀=2.5±0.29 μM). Overall, herbs contain several flavonoids that inhibit DPP-IV and should be investigated further regarding their potential in diabetes management.

  7. Apolipoprotein A-IV concentrations and clinical outcomes in haemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus--a post hoc analysis of the 4D Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollerits, B; Krane, V; Drechsler, C; Lamina, C; März, W; Ritz, E; Wanner, C; Kronenberg, F

    2012-12-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is an anti-atherogenic and anti-oxidative plasma glycoprotein involved in reverse cholesterol transport. The aim of this study was to examine the association between apoA-IV and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular endpoints and parameters of protein-energy wasting and nutrition in haemodialysis patients. This post hoc analysis was performed in the German Diabetes Dialysis Study (4D Study) evaluating atorvastatin in 1255 haemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, followed for a median of 4 years. The association between apoA-IV and relevant outcomes was analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a marker of protein-energy wasting. In addition, a definition of extended wasting was applied, combining median values of BMI, serum albumin, creatinine and sensitive C-reactive protein, to classify patients. Mean (±SD) apoA-IV concentration was 49.8 ± 14.2 mg dL(-1). Age- and gender-adjusted apoA-IV concentrations were strongly associated with the presence of congestive heart failure at baseline [odds ratio = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-0.88 per 10 mg dL(-1) increase; P 1). During the prospective follow-up, the strongest association was found for all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.89, 95% CI 0.85-0.95, P = 0.001), which was mainly because of patients with BMI > 23 kg m(-2) (HR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.94, P 1) and those in the nonwasting group according to the extended definition (HR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.84-0.96, P = 0.001). This association remained significant after additionally adjusting for parameters associated with apoA-IV at baseline. Further associations were observed for sudden cardiac death. ApoA-IV was less strongly associated with atherogenic events such as myocardial infarction. Low apoA-IV levels seem to be a risk predictor of all-cause mortality and sudden cardiac death. This association might be modified by nutritional status. © 2012 The Association

  8. Novel NTRK1 mutations cause hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV: demonstration of a founder mutation in the Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Bayrakli, Fatih; DiLuna, Michael L; Bilguvar, Kaya; Bayri, Yasar; Yalcinkaya, Cengiz; Bursali, Aysegul; Ozdamar, Elif; Korkmaz, Baris; Mason, Christopher E; Ozturk, Ali K; Lifton, Richard P; State, Matthew W; Gunel, Murat

    2008-05-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV), or congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by insensitivity to noxious stimuli, anhidrosis from deinnervated sweat glands, and delayed mental and motor development. Mutations in the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 (NTRK1), a receptor in the neurotrophin signaling pathway phosphorylated in response to nerve growth factor, are associated with this disorder. We identified six families from Northern Central Turkey with HSAN IV. We screened the NTRK1 gene for mutations in these families. Microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers on the Affymetrix 250K chip platform were used to determine the haplotypes for three families harboring the same mutation. Screening for mutations in the NTRK1 gene demonstrated one novel frameshift mutation, two novel nonsense mutations, and three unrelated kindreds with the same splice-site mutation. Genotyping of the three families with the identical splice-site mutation revealed that they share the same haplotype. This report broadens the spectrum of mutations in NTRK1 that cause HSAN IV and demonstrates a founder mutation in the Turkish population.

  9. CagI is an essential component of the Helicobacter pylori Cag type IV secretion system and forms a complex with CagL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieu Thuy Pham

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of type B gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma, uses the Cag type IV secretion system to induce a strong proinflammatory response in the gastric mucosa and to inject its effector protein CagA into gastric cells. CagA translocation results in altered host cell gene expression profiles and cytoskeletal rearrangements, and it is considered as a major bacterial virulence trait. Recently, it has been shown that binding of the type IV secretion apparatus to integrin receptors on target cells is a crucial step in the translocation process. Several bacterial proteins, including the Cag-specific components CagL and CagI, have been involved in this interaction. Here, we have examined the localization and interactions of CagI in the bacterial cell. Since the cagI gene overlaps and is co-transcribed with the cagL gene, the role of CagI for type IV secretion system function has been difficult to assess, and conflicting results have been reported regarding its involvement in the proinflammatory response. Using a marker-free gene deletion approach and genetic complementation, we show now that CagI is an essential component of the Cag type IV secretion apparatus for both CagA translocation and interleukin-8 induction. CagI is distributed over soluble and membrane-associated pools and seems to be partly surface-exposed. Deletion of several genes encoding essential Cag components has an impact on protein levels of CagI and CagL, suggesting that both proteins require partial assembly of the secretion apparatus. Finally, we show by co-immunoprecipitation that CagI and CagL interact with each other. Taken together, our results indicate that CagI and CagL form a functional complex which is formed at a late stage of secretion apparatus assembly.

  10. On the type Ia supernovae 2007on and 2011iv: evidence for Chandrasekhar-mass explosions at the faint end of the luminosity-width relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashall, C.; Mazzali, P. A.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Hoeflich, P.; Burns, C. R.; Gall, C.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, N.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2018-06-01

    Radiative transfer models of two transitional type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been produced using the abundance stratification technique. These two objects - designated SN 2007on and SN 2011iv - both exploded in the same galaxy, NGC 1404, which allows for a direct comparison. SN 2007on synthesized 0.25 M_{⊙} of 56Ni and was less luminous than SN 2011iv, which produced 0.31 M_{⊙} of 56Ni. SN 2007on had a lower central density (ρc) and higher explosion energy (Ekin ˜1.3 ± 0.3 × 1051erg) than SN 2011iv, and it produced less nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) elements (0.06 M_{⊙}). Whereas, SN 2011iv had a larger ρc, which increased the electron capture rate in the lowest velocity regions, and produced 0.35 M_{⊙} of stable NSE elements. SN 2011iv had an explosion energy of ˜Ekin ˜0.9 ± 0.2 × 1051erg. Both objects had an ejecta mass consistent with the Chandrasekhar mass (Ch-mass), and their observational properties are well described by predictions from delayed-detonation explosion models. Within this framework, comparison to the sub-luminous SN 1986G indicates SN 2011iv and SN 1986G have different transition densities (ρtr) but similar ρc. Whereas SN 1986G and SN 2007on had a similar ρtr but different ρc. Finally, we examine the colour-stretch parameter sBV versus Lmax relation and determine that the bulk of SNe Ia (including the sub-luminous ones) are consistent with Ch-mass delayed-detonation explosions, where the main parameter driving the diversity is ρtr. We also find ρc to be driving the second-order scatter observed at the faint end of the luminosity-width relationship.

  11. Protein composition of the phase I Coxiella burnetii soluble antigen prepared by extraction with trichloroacetic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flores-Ramírez, G.; Kmeťová, E.; Danchenko, M.; Špitalská, E.; Havlíček, Vladimír; Škultéty, L'udovít

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2017), s. 361-368 ISSN 0001-723X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chemovaccine * Coxiella burnetii * Outbreaks in Slovakia Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 0.673, year: 2016

  12. Q fever in pregnant Goats: PAthogenesis and excretion of Coxiella burnetii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.; Gelderen, van E.; Dinkla, A.; Frangoulidis, D.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Keulen, van L.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Infected pregnant goats are a major source of human infection. However, the tissue dissemination and excretion pathway of the pathogen in goats are still poorly understood. To better understand Q fever pathogenesis, we

  13. Factors associated with Coxiella burnetii antibody positivity in Danish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Suman; Agger, Jens Frederik Gramstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify associations between the level of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) antibodies in individual milk samples and cow and herd level factors in Danish dairy cows. The study, designed as a prospective cross sectional study with follow up, included 24 herds identified...

  14. Presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii and risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    Q fever is a bacterial zoonosis caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii. It is well established that Q fever causes fetal loss in small ruminants. The suspicion has been raised that pregnant women may also experience adverse pregnancy outcome when the infection is acquired or reactivated during...

  15. Screening of blood donors for chronic Coxiella burnetii infection after large Q fever outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Ed; Hogema, Boris M.; Molier, Michel; Zaaijer, Hans L.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands experienced major Q fever outbreaks from 2007 through 2009. An increasing number of human chronic Q fever cases has been reported in the affected area. Blood donors unaware of chronic Coxiella burnetii infection might be infectious for transfusion recipients. Local blood donations

  16. Application of fluorescent in situ hybridisation for demonstration of Coxiella burnetti in placentas from ruminant abortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Montgomery, Donald L.; Jaeger, Paula T.

    2007-01-01

    A fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) assay targeting 16S ribosomal RNA was developed for detection of the zoonotic bacterium Coxiella burnetii in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, and applied on placentas from ruminant abortions. The applicability of the FISH assay was compared...

  17. Prevalence of Coxiella Burnetii in Ticks After a Large Outbreak of Q Fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, H.; Tijsse-Klasen, E.; Langelaar, M.; Bruin, de A.; Fonville, M.; Gassner, F.; Takken, W.; Wieren, van S.E.; Nijhof, A.; Jongejan, F.; Maassen, C.B.M.; Scholte, E.J.; Hovius, J.W.; Emil Hovius, K.; Spitalska, E.; Duynhoven, van Y.T.

    2012-01-01

    Q fever has emerged as an important human and veterinary public health problem in the Netherlands with major outbreaks in three consecutive years. Goat farms are probably the prime source from which Coxiella burnetii have spread throughout the environment, infecting people living in the vicinity.

  18. Reduction of Coxiella burnetii prevalence by vaccination of goats and sheep, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerweg, R.; Brom, Van den R.; Roest, H.I.J.; Bouma, A.; Vellema, P.; Pieterse, M.; Dercksen, D.; Nielen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the number of human Q fever cases in the Netherlands increased dramatically. In response to this increase, dairy goats and dairy sheep were vaccinated against Coxiella burnetii. All pregnant dairy goats and dairy sheep in herds positive for Q fever were culled. We identified the effect of

  19. In silico biosynthesis of virenose, a methylated deoxy-sugar unique to Coxiella burnetii lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Coxiella burnetii is Gram-negative bacterium responsible for the zoonosis Q-fever. While it has an obligate intracellulargrowth habit, it is able to persist for extended periods outside of a host cell and can resist environmental conditions that would be lethal to most prokaryotes. It is...

  20. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in women exposed to livestock animals, Denmark, 1996 to 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Molbak, K; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic infection which can pose a danger to pregnant women. To our knowledge, Denmark has never experienced a clinically verified Q fever outbreak. We aimed to quantify risk of infection in pregnant women occupationally and environmentally exposed to Coxiella burnetii. The Danish...

  1. Use of Monoclonal Antibodies to Lipopolysaccharide for Antigenic Analysis of Coxiella burnetii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Akitoyo; Kawamura, Midori; To, Ho; Andoh, Masako; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Fukushi, Hideto; Amano, Ken-Ichi; Hirai, Katsuya

    2003-01-01

    Antigenic differences among Coxiella burnetii strains were analyzed. The monoclonal antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide outer core did not react with the strains containing a QpRS plasmid or with plasmidless strains, whereas they reacted with strains containing a QpH1 or QpDV plasmid. C. burnetii isolates could be divided into two groups immunologically. PMID:12682176

  2. Use of Monoclonal Antibodies to Lipopolysaccharide for Antigenic Analysis of Coxiella burnetii

    OpenAIRE

    Hotta, Akitoyo; Kawamura, Midori; To, Ho; Andoh, Masako; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Fukushi, Hideto; Amano, Ken-Ichi; Hirai, Katsuya

    2003-01-01

    Antigenic differences among Coxiella burnetii strains were analyzed. The monoclonal antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide outer core did not react with the strains containing a QpRS plasmid or with plasmidless strains, whereas they reacted with strains containing a QpH1 or QpDV plasmid. C. burnetii isolates could be divided into two groups immunologically.

  3. Detection of Coxiella burnetii using (q)PCR: a comparison of available assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin A; van Rotterdam B; LZO; cib

    2012-01-01

    Q fever, caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii, has become an emerging public health problem in the Netherlands since 2007. Diagnosis of Q fever, both in humans and animals, is mainly based on serology. Serological techniques are less suitable for direct transmission and source-finding studies

  4. Human dose response models for Q fever: estimation of Coxiella burnetii exposure and disease burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooke, RJ

    2016-01-01

    The largest Q fever outbreak in the world occurred in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2009 with 4,500 reported acute symptomatic Q fever cases. Interventions were required to stop the release of aerosolized Coxiella burnetii from infected goat farms and the outbreak developed into a major public

  5. Cell-Free Propagation of Coxiella burnetii Does Not Affect Its Relative Virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuley, R.; Smith, H.E.; Frangoulidis, D.; Smits, M.A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Bossers, A.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. In vitro growth of the bacterium is usually limited to viable eukaryotic host cells imposing experimental constraints for molecular studies, such as the identification and characterisation of major virulence factors.

  6. Genetic mechanisms of Coxiella burnetii lipopolysaccharide phase variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare, Paul A; Jeffrey, Brendan M; Long, Carrie M; Martens, Craig M; Heinzen, Robert A

    2018-03-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogen that causes human Q fever, a disease that normally presents as a severe flu-like illness. Due to high infectivity and disease severity, the pathogen is considered a risk group 3 organism. Full-length lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is required for full virulence and disease by C. burnetii and is the only virulence factor currently defined by infection of an immunocompetent animal. Transition of virulent phase I bacteria with smooth LPS, to avirulent phase II bacteria with rough LPS, occurs during in vitro passage. Semi-rough intermediate forms are also observed. Here, the genetic basis of LPS phase conversion was investigated to obtain a more complete understanding of C. burnetii pathogenesis. Whole genome sequencing of strains producing intermediate and/or phase II LPS identified several common mutations in predicted LPS biosynthesis genes. After passage in broth culture for 30 weeks, phase I strains from different genomic groups exhibited similar phase transition kinetics and elevation of mutations in LPS biosynthesis genes. Targeted mutagenesis and genetic complementation using a new C. burnetii nutritional selection system based on lysine auxotrophy confirmed that six of the mutated genes were necessary for production of phase I LPS. Disruption of two of these genes in a C. burnetii phase I strain resulted in production of phase II LPS, suggesting inhibition of the encoded enzymes could represent a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of Q fever. Additionally, targeted mutagenesis of genes encoding LPS biosynthesis enzymes can now be used to construct new phase II strains from different genomic groups for use in pathogen-host studies at a risk group 2 level.

  7. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence in small ruminants in The Gambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Klaasen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram negative bacterium present worldwide. Small ruminants are considered the main reservoirs for infection of humans. This study aimed to estimate the extent of C. burnetii infection among sheep and goats in part of The Gambia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This survey was carried out from March to May 2012 at two areas in The Gambia. The first area comprised a cluster of seven rural villages situated 5-15 km west of Farafenni as well as the local abattoir. A second sampling was done at the central abattoir in Abuko (30 km from the capital, Banjul in the Western Region. Serum samples were obtained from 490 goats and 398 sheep. In addition, 67 milk samples were obtained from lactating dams. Sera were tested with a Q fever ELISA kit. C. burnetii DNA was extracted from milk samples and then detected using a specific quantitative multiplex PCR assay, targeting the IS1111a element. A multivariable mixed logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between seropositivity and explanatory variables. An overall seroprevalence of 21.6% was found. Goats had a significantly higher seroprevalence than sheep, respectively 24.2% and 18.5%. Seropositive animals were significantly older than seronegative animals. Animals from the villages had a significantly lower seroprevalence than animals from the central abattoir (15.1% versus 29.1%. C. burnetii DNA was detected in 2 out of 67 milk samples, whereas 8 samples gave a doubtful result. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: A substantial C. burnetii seroprevalence in sheep and goats in The Gambia was demonstrated. People living in close proximity to small ruminants are exposed to C. burnetii. Q fever should be considered as a possible cause of acute febrile illness in humans in The Gambia. Future studies should include a simultaneous assessment of veterinary and human serology, and include aetiology of febrile illness in local clinics.

  8. Resolution of Large Azygos Vein Aneurysm Following Stent-Graft Shunt Placement in a Patient with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, Estelle S.; Williams, David M.; Deeb, G.M.; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is a rare connective tissue disorder associated with thin-walled, friable arteries and veins predisposing patients to aneurysm formation, dissection, fistula formation, and vessel rupture. Azygos vein aneurysm is an extremely rare condition which has not been reported in association with EDS in the literature. We present a patient with EDS type IV and interrupted inferior vena cava (IVC) with azygos continuation who developed an azygos vein aneurysm. In order to decrease flow through the azygos vein and reduce the risk of aneurysm rupture, a stent-graft shunt was created from the right hepatic vein to the azygos vein via a transhepatic, retroperitoneal route. At 6 month follow-up the shunt was open and the azygos vein aneurysm had resolved

  9. The dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor vildagliptin suppresses endogenous glucose production and enhances islet function after single-dose administration in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balas, Bogdan; Baig, Muhammad R; Watson, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Vildagliptin is a selective dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor that augments meal-stimulated levels of biologically active glucagon-like peptide-1. Chronic vildagliptin treatment decreases postprandial glucose levels and reduces hemoglobin A1c in type 2 diabetic patients. However......, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which vildagliptin promotes reduction in plasma glucose concentration. METHODS: Sixteen patients with type 2 diabetes (age, 48+/-3 yr; body mass index, 34.4+/-1.7 kg/m2; hemoglobin A1c, 9.0+/-0.3%) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo......-controlled trial. On separate days patients received 100 mg vildagliptin or placebo at 1730 h followed 30 min later by a meal tolerance test (MTT) performed with double tracer technique (3-(3)H-glucose iv and 1-(14)C-glucose orally). RESULTS: After vildagliptin, suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP...

  10. The type IV pilin of Burkholderia mallei is highly immunogenic but fails to protect against lethal aerosol challenge in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Paula J; Guo, Qin; Waag, David M; Donnenberg, Michael S

    2007-06-01

    Burkholderia mallei is the cause of glanders and a proven biological weapon. We identified and purified the type IV pilin protein of this organism to study its potential as a subunit vaccine. We found that purified pilin was highly immunogenic. Furthermore, mice infected via sublethal aerosol challenge developed significant increases in titers of antibody against the pilin, suggesting that it is expressed in vivo. Nevertheless, we found no evidence that high-titer antipilin antisera provided passive protection against a sublethal or lethal aerosol challenge and no evidence of protection afforded by active immunization with purified pilin. These results contrast with the utility of type IV pilin subunit vaccines against other infectious diseases and highlight the need for further efforts to identify protective responses against this pathogen.

  11. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent serum assay specific for the 7S domain of Collagen Type IV (P4NP 7S)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana J; Nielsen, Mette J; Dai, Yueqin

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  The present study describes the ability of a newly developed N-terminal pro-peptides of type IV collagen 7S domain (P4NP 7S) competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for describing liver fibrosis. The assay applies a monoclonal antibody specific for a PIVNP 7S epitope 100...... were significantly elevated in rat with liver fibrosis as seen by histology (CCL4: 283% elevated in the highest quartile of total hepatic collagen compared with controls, P = 0.001; BDL: 183% elevated at week 4 compared with sham, P type IV collagen...... expression in BDL rats (r = 0.49, P serum assay specific for P4NP 7S was highly related to liver fibrosis...

  12. Identification and tissue distribution of mRNAs encoding salmon-type calcitonins-IV and -V in the rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Yoshie; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2004-06-01

    Four types of calcitonin are produced in salmonid fish, although their functional diversity is almost unknown. To explore the significance of these isoforms, we have characterized salmon-type calcitonin (sCT) mRNAs in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and examined their tissue distribution. In addition to the previously isolated sCT-I cDNAs, two new forms of sCT cDNA were cloned from the ultimobranchial gland, and one of them (sCT-IV cDNA) was predicted to encode an N-terminal peptide of 80 amino acid residues, a putative cleavage site Lys-Arg, sCT-IV, a cleavage and amidation sequence Gly-Lys-Lys-Arg, and a C-terminal peptide of 18 amino acids. The sCT-IV precursor was 78% identical with the rainbow trout sCT-I precursors. The other cloned cDNA encoded a precursor for a novel CT, sCT-V. The sCT-V peptide was different from sCT-IV by only one amino acid residue: Val at position 8 in the latter was replaced by Met. The sCT-V precursor had 80 and 90% identity with the sCT-I and -IV precursors respectively. No cDNA clones were obtained for sCTs-II or -III.Tissue distribution of sCT-I, -IV and -V mRNAs was examined by RT-PCR and specific cleavage with restriction enzymes. An amplified fragment from sCT-I mRNA was detected not only in the ultimobranchial gland, but also in the gills, testis and ovary. RT-PCR analysis coupled to restriction digestion further revealed that sCT-IV mRNA was expressed in both the testis and the ultimobranchial gland. The expression sites of sCT-IV mRNA were localized to the Leydig cells of the testis and to the parenchymal cells of the ultimobranchial gland, by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Although the amino acid sequence of sCT-V peptide was nearly the same as that of sCT-IV, the sCT-V gene showed a much wider pattern of expression: the band amplified by RT-PCR was detected in all the tissues examined except the kidney, gills and blood cells. The sCT-V mRNA was shown to be localized in the parenchymal cells of the

  13. Development of a Novel Scaffold of Chitosan, Type IV Collagen and Integrin α3β1 As Alternative Scaffold for Primary Culture of Podocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ginette Zárate-Triviño

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss of podocytes has been a main pathology present in renal diseases; the leak of these specialized cells increases the permeability of the glomerular basal membrane (GMB and protein release affecting the glomeruli, the main structure of the kidney. The study of different physiopathology mechanism has been a challenge because of the short lifetime of podocytes in vitro. We obtained and characterized composites based on Chitosan (CTS, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, type IV collagen and integrin α3β1 as a possible application in primary culture of podocytes. Podocytes were extracted from the urine of patients with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome (INS. To evaluate biocompatibility, we assessed cell viability through the lactate dehydrogenase assay. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of specific proteins from podocytes such as podocin, and podocalyxin and CD80, a marker of cellular stress. The results showed that our synthesis method promotes the copolymerization of the components in the scaffold. Due to its reactivity, the amine group of chitosan made links with type IV collagen and integrin α3β1. The swelling and degradation tests allowed us to select the material with the best mechanical properties for cellular culture. The expression of podocin and podocalyxin remains the same in the culture of podocytes on the scaffold; in contrast, CD80 expression increased. The viability of podocytes cultured on the CTS/PVA/type IV collagen/integrin α3β1 scaffold increased in comparison to the culture control.

  14. Transmission of endemic ST22-MRSA-IV on four acute hospital wards investigated using a combination of spa, dru and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creamer, E

    2012-11-01

    The transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) between individual patients is difficult to track in institutions where MRSA is endemic. We investigated the transmission of MRSA where ST22-MRSA-IV is endemic on four wards using demographic data, patient and environmental screening, and molecular typing of isolates. A total of 939 patients were screened, 636 within 72 h of admission (on admission) and 303 >72 h after admission, and 1,252 environmental samples were obtained. Isolates were typed by spa, dru and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. A composite dendrogram generated from the three sets of typing data was used to divide isolates into \\'dendrogram groups\\' (DGs). Ten percent of patients (92\\/939) were MRSA-positive; 7 % (44\\/636) on admission and 16 % (48\\/303) >72 h after admission (p = 0.0007). MRSA was recovered from 5 % of environmental specimens (65\\/1,252). Most isolates from patients (97 %, 85\\/88) and the environment (97 %, 63\\/65) exhibited the ST22-MRSA-IV genotype. Four DGs (DG1, DG4, DG16 and DG17) accounted for 58 % of ST22-MRSA-IV isolates from patients. Epidemiological evidence suggested cross-transmission among 44\\/92 patients (48 %) but molecular typing confirmed probable cross-transmission in only 11 instances (13 %, 11\\/88), with the majority of cross-transmission (64 %; 7\\/11) occurring on one ward. In the setting of highly clonal endemic MRSA, the combination of local epidemiology, PFGE, spa and dru typing provided valuable insights into MRSA transmission.

  15. Coxiella burnetii Infections in Small Ruminants and Humans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magouras, I; Hunninghaus, J; Scherrer, S; Wittenbrink, M M; Hamburger, A; Stärk, K D C; Schüpbach-Regula, G

    2017-02-01

    The recent Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands raised concerns about the potential risk of outbreaks in other European countries. In Switzerland, the prevalence of Q fever in animals and humans has not been studied in recent years. In this study, we describe the current situation with respect to Coxiella (C.) burnetii infections in small ruminants and humans in Switzerland, as a basis for future epidemiological investigations and public health risk assessments. Specific objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (i) estimate the seroprevalence of C. burnetii in sheep and goats, (ii) quantify the amount of bacteria shed during abortion and (iii) analyse temporal trends in human C. burnetii infections. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii in small ruminants was determined by commercial ELISA from a representative sample of 100 sheep flocks and 72 goat herds. Herd-level seroprevalence was 5.0% (95% CI: 1.6-11.3) for sheep and 11.1% (95% CI: 4.9-20.7) for goats. Animal-level seroprevalence was 1.8% (95% CI: 0.8-3.4) for sheep and 3.4% (95% CI: 1.7-6) for goats. The quantification of C. burnetii in 97 ovine and caprine abortion samples by real-time PCR indicated shedding of >10 4 bacteria/g in 13.4% of all samples tested. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting C. burnetii quantities in a large number of small ruminant abortion samples. Annual human Q fever serology data were provided by five major Swiss laboratories. Overall, seroprevalence in humans ranged between 1.7% and 3.5% from 2007 to 2011, and no temporal trends were observed. Interestingly, the two laboratories with significantly higher seroprevalences are located in the regions with the largest goat populations as well as, for one laboratory, with the highest livestock density in Switzerland. However, a direct link between animal and human infection data could not be established in this study. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. A retrospective comparative study of arthroscopic fixation in acute Rockwood type IV acromioclavicular joint dislocation: single versus double paired Endobutton technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Liu, Haifeng; Lu, Wei; Li, Dingfu; Zhu, Weimin; Ouyang, Kan; Wu, Bing; Peng, Liangquan; Wang, Daping

    2018-05-24

    Rockwood type IV acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocation is a trauma usually needs surgical treatment. Paired EndoButton technique (PET) is used in treating such condition. However, the effect of using different types of PET (single versus double PET) for fixation remains controversial. This study aims to evaluate and compare the efficacy of single and double PET and to provide a suitable option for the surgeons. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients with acute Rockwood type IV ACJ dislocation who had undergone arthroscopic fixation using single or double PET fixation between March 2009 and March 2015. Seventy-eight consecutive patients identified from chart review were picked and were divided into the single and double PET group with 39 cases in each group. The indexes of visual analog scale score (VAS) for pain, the radiographs of the affected shoulder at different time points of the follow-up, the time of return to activities and sports, the constant functional score, and the Karlsson acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) score, were assessed in a minimum of 2 years postoperation. The average coracoclavicular (CC) and acromioclavicular (AC) distances of the affected joints in the double PET group were significantly smaller than those of the single PET group 2 years postoperation (P  0.05). The mean VAS pain score was not significantly different, while significant difference was found for the number and times of cases return to activities and sports, constant functional score, and Karlsson ACJ score (P < 0.05) between the two groups. Therefore, the double PET group has better outcome than the single PET group. Complications including redislocation, button slippage, erosion, or AC joint instability occurred in the single PET group, while the complication in the double PET group was rare. Compared with the single PET, the double PET group achieved better outcome with less complications in arthroscopically treating acute Rockwood type IV ACJ

  17. A new multiplex PCR for easy screening of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus SCCmec types I-V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Andersen, Ina S

    2007-01-01

    A multiplex PCR with four primer-pairs was designed to identify the five main known SCCmec types. A clear and easily discriminated band pattern was obtained for all five types. The SCCmec type was identified for 98% of 312 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA...

  18. The nebular spectra of the transitional Type Ia Supernovae 2007on and 2011iv: broad, multiple components indicate aspherical explosion cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzali, P. A.; Ashall, C.; Pian, E.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Gall, C.; Phillips, M. M.; Höflich, P.; Hsiao, E.

    2018-05-01

    The nebular-epoch spectrum of the rapidly declining, `transitional' Type Ia supernova (SN) 2007on showed double emission peaks, which have been interpreted as indicating that the SN was the result of the direct collision of two white dwarfs. The spectrum can be reproduced using two distinct emission components, one redshifted and one blueshifted. These components are similar in mass but have slightly different degrees of ionization. They recede from one another at a line-of-sight speed larger than the sum of the combined expansion velocities of their emitting cores, thereby acting as two independent nebulae. While this configuration appears to be consistent with the scenario of two white dwarfs colliding, it may also indicate an off-centre delayed detonation explosion of a near-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf. In either case, broad emission line widths and a rapidly evolving light curve can be expected for the bolometric luminosity of the SN. This is the case for both SNe 2007on and 2011iv, also a transitional SN Ia that exploded in the same elliptical galaxy, NGC 1404. Although SN 2011iv does not show double-peaked emission line profiles, the width of its emission lines is such that a two-component model yields somewhat better results than a single-component model. Most of the mass ejected is in one component, however, which suggests that SN 2011iv was the result of the off-centre ignition of a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf.

  19. A spectroscopic search for colliding stellar winds in O-type close binary systems. IV - Iota Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Douglas R.; Wiggs, Michael S.; Bagnuolo, William G., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    We present H-alpha and He I 6678 A line profiles for the eccentric orbit binary Iota Ori. We have applied a tomography algorithm which uses the established orbital velocity curves and intensity ratio to reconstruct the spectral line profiles for each star. The He I profiles appear as pure photospheric lines, and H-alpha shows variable emission in the line core throughout the orbit (which is typical of O giants) and in the blue wing near periastron passage. We show that the blue wing emission is consistent with an origin between the stars which probably results from a dramatic focusing of the primary's stellar wind at periastron. We also present IUE archival spectra of the UV wind lines N V 1240 A and C IV 1550 A.

  20. Genetic and mechanistic evaluation for the weak A phenotype in Ael blood type with IVS6 + 5G>A ABO gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D-P; Sun, C-F; Ning, H-C; Peng, C-T; Wang, W-T; Tseng, C-P

    2015-01-01

    Ael is a rare blood type that is characterized by weak agglutination of RBCs when reacts with anti-A antibody in adsorption-elution test. Although IVS6 + 5G→A mutation is known to associate with the Ael blood type, genetic and mechanistic evaluation for the weak agglutination of Ael with IVS6 + 5G→A mutation has not yet been completely addressed. In this study, five cases of confirmed Ael individuals were analysed. The cDNAs for the A(el) alleles were obtained by cloning method for sequence analyses. The erythroleukemia K562 cells were used as the cell study model and were transfected with the A(el) expression construct. Flow cytometry analysis was then performed to determine the levels of surface antigen expression. The results indicated that IVS6 + 5G→A attributes to all cases of Ael . RT-PCR analyses revealed the presence of at least 10 types of aberrant A(el) splicing transcripts. Most of the transcripts caused early termination and produced non-functional protein during translation. Nevertheless, the transcript without exons 5-6 was predicted to generate functional Ael glycosyltransferase lacking 57 amino acids at the N-terminal segment. When the exons 5-6 deletion transcript was stably expressed in the K562 cells, weak agglutination of the cells can be induced by adding anti-A antibody followed by adsorption-elution test. This study demonstrates that aberrant splicing of A transcripts contributes to weak A expression and the weak agglutination of Ael -RBCs, adding to the complexity for the regulatory mechanisms of ABO gene expression. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  1. Wolbachia lipoproteins: abundance, localisation and serology of Wolbachia peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein and the Type IV Secretion System component, VirB6 from Brugia malayi and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, Denis; Guimarães, Ana F; Molyneux, Gemma R; Johnston, Kelly L; Ford, Louise; Taylor, Mark J

    2014-10-06

    Lipoproteins are the major agonists of Wolbachia-dependent inflammatory pathogenesis in filariasis and a validated target for drug discovery. Here we characterise the abundance, localisation and serology of the Wolbachia lipoproteins: Wolbachia peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein and the Type IV Secretion System component, VirB6. We used proteomics to confirm lipoprotein presence and relative abundance; fractionation, immunoblotting and confocal and electron immuno-microscopy for localisation and ELISA for serological analysis. Proteomic analysis of Brugia malayi adult female protein extracts confirmed the presence of two lipoproteins, previously predicted through bioinformatics: Wolbachia peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein (wBmPAL) and the Type IV Secretion System component, VirB6 (wBmVirB6). wBmPAL was among the most abundant Wolbachia proteins present in an extract of adult female worms with wBmVirB6 only detected at a much lower abundance. This differential abundance was reflected in the immunogold-labelling, which showed wBmPAL localised at numerous sites within the bacterial membranes, whereas wBmVirB6 was present as a single cluster on each bacterial cell and also located within the bacterial membranes. Immunoblotting of fractionated extracts confirmed the localisation of wBmPAL to membranes and its absence from cytosolic fractions of C6/36 mosquito cells infected with wAlbB. In whole worm mounts, antibody labelling of both lipoproteins were associated with Wolbachia. Serological analysis showed that both proteins were immunogenic and raised antibody responses in the majority of individuals infected with Wuchereria bancrofti. Two Wolbachia lipoproteins, wBmPAL and wBmVirB6, are present in extracts of Brugia malayi with wBmPAL among the most abundant of Wolbachia proteins. Both lipoproteins localised to bacterial membranes with wBmVirB6 present as a single cluster suggesting a single Type IV Secretory System on each Wolbachia cell.

  2. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV and recurrent carotid-cavernous fistula: review of the literature, endovascular approach, technique and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desal, H.A.; Toulgoat, F.; Raoul, S.; Guillon, B.; Bommard, S.; Naudou-Giron, E.; Auffary-Calvier, E.; Kersaint-Gilly, A. de

    2005-01-01

    We report the follow-up of a previously published case (Forlodou et al. Neuroradiology 38:595-597, 1996) of carotido-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) in a patient presenting with type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS 4) that were successfully treated twice by an endovascular approach. Initial treatment with a detachable balloon was in 1994 for a right CCF, and, 8 years later, a left CCF was treated by selective transarterial occlusion of the cavernous sinus with coils. Unfortunately, the patient suffered from a spontaneous post-operative intracranial haemorrhage in the left hemisphere and died. Review of the literature, technical considerations for bilateral CCF and complication are discussed

  3. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV and recurrent carotid-cavernous fistula: review of the literature, endovascular approach, technique and difficulties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desal, H.A.; Toulgoat, F.; Raoul, S.; Guillon, B.; Bommard, S.; Naudou-Giron, E.; Auffary-Calvier, E.; Kersaint-Gilly, A. de [Department of Neuroradiology, Laennec Hospital, University of Nantes (France); 1

    2005-04-01

    We report the follow-up of a previously published case (Forlodou et al. Neuroradiology 38:595-597, 1996) of carotido-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) in a patient presenting with type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS 4) that were successfully treated twice by an endovascular approach. Initial treatment with a detachable balloon was in 1994 for a right CCF, and, 8 years later, a left CCF was treated by selective transarterial occlusion of the cavernous sinus with coils. Unfortunately, the patient suffered from a spontaneous post-operative intracranial haemorrhage in the left hemisphere and died. Review of the literature, technical considerations for bilateral CCF and complication are discussed.

  4. Incidence and specificity of antibodies to types I, II, III, IV, and V collagen in rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases as measured by 125I-radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, J.M.; Huffstutter, E.H.; Townes, A.S.; Kang, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Antibodies to human native and denatured types I, II, III, IV, and V collagens were measured using 125I-radioimmunoassay. Mean levels of binding by sera from 30 rheumatoid arthritis patients were significantly higher than those from 20 normal subjects against all of the collagens tested. The relative antibody concentration was higher in synovial fluid than in simultaneously obtained serum. Many patients with gout or various other rheumatic diseases also had detectable anticollagen antibodies. With a few notable exceptions, the majority of the reactivity detected in all patient groups was directed against covalent structural determinants present on all of the denatured collagens, suggesting a secondary reaction to tissue injury

  5. [Prevalence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in a healthy population in Lanzarote (Canary Islands)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Velasco, F; Otero Ferrio, I; Borobio Enciso, M V

    1991-05-01

    The Canary Islands area now appears to be a Q-fever endemic zone, especially the west side (La Palma island). The situation in the eastern islands in unknown. In order to evaluate the seric prevalence of Coxiella burnetii, 100 serum samples that were taken from the adult population of Lanzarote and, following strict criteria, were analysed using a complement fixation test; blood donors and patients who had suffered a recent infection were excluded. The study was carried out during November/1986. Three serum samples were positive, one had titers of 1/8 and the other two showed 1/64. This prevalence rate of residual Coxiella burnetii antibodies in Lanzarote (3%)--despite being low compared to other areas in Spain--together with te recent cases described, confirms the suspicion that the Canary Islands area is indeed a new endemic Q-fever zone.

  6. Protective immunity induced by 67 K outer membrane protein of phase I Coxiella burnetii in mice and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.X.; Zhi, N.; Yu, S.R.; Li, Q.J.; Yu, G.Q.; Zhang, X.

    1994-01-01

    A 67 K outer membrane protein (OMP) isolated from phase I Coxiella burnetii QiYi strain was purified with monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) coupled to CNBr-Sepharose 4B. Chemical analyses of the 67 K protein showed that it contained seventeen kids of amino acids and no lipopolysaccharides. The immunogenicity and protectivity of the 67 K protein against C. burnetii was evaluated in mice and guinea pigs bi in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assay, delayed-type skin test, antibody conversion rate, and immunization and challenge tests. Intraperitoneal injection of the 67 K protein resulted in antibody production against phase I and II whole cell antigens. The anti-67 K antibody conversion rate was found to be 100% in mice and guinea pigs as well. Lymphocytes were responses in vitro to specific antigen. In addition, delayed-type hypersensitivity appeared two weeks after immunization with the 67 K protein. Moreover, 199% of mice and guinea pigs inoculated with the 67 K protein were protected against a challenge with 10 3 ID 50 virulent C. burnetii. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the 67 K OMP elicits in vivo and in vitro both B cell-mediated and T cell-mediated immunity in mice and guinea pigs. Thus the 67 K protein is a candidate for an effective subunit vaccine against Q fever. (author)

  7. Actin polymerization in the endosomal pathway, but not on the Coxiella-containing vacuole, is essential for pathogen growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E Miller

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterium that replicates within an expansive phagolysosome-like vacuole. Fusion between the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV and late endosomes/multivesicular bodies requires Rab7, the HOPS tethering complex, and SNARE proteins, with actin also speculated to play a role. Here, we investigated the importance of actin in CCV fusion. Filamentous actin patches formed around the CCV membrane that were preferred sites of vesicular fusion. Accordingly, the mediators of endolysosomal fusion Rab7, VAMP7, and syntaxin 8 were concentrated in CCV actin patches. Generation of actin patches required C. burnetii type 4B secretion and host retromer function. Patches decorated with VPS29 and VPS35, components of the retromer, FAM21 and WASH, members of the WASH complex that engage the retromer, and Arp3, a component of the Arp2/3 complex that generates branched actin filaments. Depletion by siRNA of VPS35 or VPS29 reduced CCV actin patches and caused Rab7 to uniformly distribute in the CCV membrane. C. burnetii grew normally in VPS35 or VPS29 depleted cells, as well as WASH-knockout mouse embryo fibroblasts, where CCVs are devoid of actin patches. Endosome recycling to the plasma membrane and trans-Golgi of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 and cationic-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR, respectively, was normal in infected cells. However, siRNA knockdown of retromer resulted in aberrant trafficking of GLUT1, but not CI-M6PR, suggesting canonical retrograde trafficking is unaffected by retromer disruption. Treatment with the specific Arp2/3 inhibitor CK-666 strongly inhibited CCV formation, an effect associated with altered endosomal trafficking of transferrin receptor. Collectively, our results show that CCV actin patches generated by retromer, WASH, and Arp2/3 are dispensable for CCV biogenesis and stability. However, Arp2/3-mediated production of actin filaments required for cargo transport within the

  8. Non-invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound for UV-induced hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick skin types III and IV: a prospective, randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachiramon, Vasanop; Jurairattanaporn, Natthachat; Harnchoowong, Sarawin; Chayavichitsilp, Pamela

    2018-02-01

    Skin hyperpigmentation is a frequently encountered problem, particularly in darker skin types. Unfortunately, standard treatments for this condition have shown disappointing results. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is commonly indicated for skin laxity, but recently was used to treat UV-induced hyperpigmentation in animal models. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound for UVB-induced hyperpigmentation in human subjects. A randomized, evaluator-blinded pilot study was conducted on 20 subjects. Each subject was induced three hyperpigmentary spots by local broadband UVB. After 2 weeks, each spot was randomly allocated to control, low-energy, and high-energy HIFU. Subjects were instructed to follow up weekly for a duration of 1 month. Lightness index measurements, mean improvement scores, subjects' satisfaction, pain scores, and side effects were evaluated. All 20 subjects completed the study. Fourteen subjects had Fitzpatrick (FPT) skin type III and six subjects had FPT skin type IV. Twelve subjects showed greater improvement at control sites while eight subjects showed greater improvement at HIFU-treated sites. In FPT skin type III, HIFU appeared to be inferior to control in both lightness index and mean improvement scores, but in FPT skin type IV, HIFU had greater lightness index improvement and higher improvement scores than control. Side effects were more frequent in high-energy-treated areas. Focused ultrasound may be offered in some patients with hyperpigmentary conditions. More research is needed to determine proper energy settings for optimal outcome.

  9. Stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture: a comparative finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowei; Zhi, Zhongzheng; Yu, Baoqing; Chen, Fancheng

    2015-11-25

    The purpose of this study is to compare the stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the medial tibial plateau fracture (Schatzker type IV fracture) was created. An axial force of 2500 N with a distribution of 60% to the medial compartment was applied to simulate the axial compressive load on an adult knee during single-limb stance. The equivalent von Mises stress, displacement of the model relative to the distal tibia, and displacement of the implants were used as the output measures. The mean stress value of the plate-screw fixation system was 18.78 MPa, which was significantly (P stress value of the triangular fragment in the plate-screw fixation system model was 42.04 MPa, which was higher than that in the screw fixation model (24.18 MPa). But the mean stress of the triangular fractured fragment in the screw fixation model was significantly higher in terms of equivalent von Mises stress (EVMS), x-axis, and z-axis (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the load transmission mechanism between plate-screw fixation system and screw fixation system was different and the stability provided by the plate-screw fixation system was superior to the screw fixation system.

  10. Identification of the NC1 domain of {alpha}3 chain as critical for {alpha}3{alpha}4{alpha}5 type IV collagen network assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBleu, Valerie; Sund, Malin; Sugimoto, Hikaru; Birrane, Gabriel; Kanasaki, Keizo; Finan, Elizabeth; Miller, Caroline A; Gattone, Vincent H; McLaughlin, Heather; Shield, Charles F; Kalluri, Raghu

    2010-12-31

    The network organization of type IV collagen consisting of α3, α4, and α5 chains in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is speculated to involve interactions of the triple helical and NC1 domain of individual α-chains, but in vivo evidence is lacking. To specifically address the contribution of the NC1 domain in the GBM collagen network organization, we generated a mouse with specific loss of α3NC1 domain while keeping the triple helical α3 chain intact by connecting it to the human α5NC1 domain. The absence of α3NC1 domain leads to the complete loss of the α4 chain. The α3 collagenous domain is incapable of incorporating the α5 chain, resulting in the impaired organization of the α3α4α5 chain-containing network. Although the α5 chain can assemble with the α1, α2, and α6 chains, such assembly is incapable of functionally replacing the α3α4α5 protomer. This novel approach to explore the assembly type IV collagen in vivo offers novel insights in the specific role of the NC1 domain in the assembly and function of GBM during health and disease.

  11. Renal dysfunction and barttin expression in Bartter syndrome Type IV associated with a G47R mutation in BSND in a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C W; Lim, J H; Youn, D-Y; Chung, S; Lim, M-H; Kim, Y K; Chang, Y S; Lee, J-H

    2011-02-01

    Bartter syndrome (BS) Type IV, associated with a G47R mutation in the BSND gene, is known to result in a mild renal phenotype. However, we report here on three brothers with varying degrees of renal dysfunction from mild to end-stage renal disease associated with renal barttin and ClC-K expression. The brothers had histories of polyhydramnios, prematurity, polyuria, deafness, and small body size. Laboratory findings showed hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, normotensive hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism, and an increased urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride, consistent with BS Type IV. Microscopic examination of renal tissue showed hyperplasia of cells at the juxtaglomerular apparatus with dilated atrophic tubules and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. A weak barttin signal related to CIC-K expression in the cytoplasm of tubule cells, but not the basement membrane, was noted. A sequence analysis of the BSND gene showed that the affected males were homozygous for a missense G47R mutation in exon 1 of BSND. These findings suggest that the G47R mutation results in a dramatic decrease in barttin expression, which appears to be related to the location of CIC-K being changed from the basement membrane to the cytoplasm in the tubule and might have varying effects on renal function associated with factors other than this gene.

  12. Crystal structures of lazulite-type oxidephosphates TiIIITiIV3O3(PO4)3 and MIII4TiIV27O24(PO4)24 (MIII=Ti, Cr, Fe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneborn, M.; Glaum, R.; Reinauer, F.

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of the oxidephosphates Ti III Ti IV 3 O 3 (PO 4 ) 3 (black), Cr III 4 Ti IV 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 (red-brown, transparent), and Fe III 4 Ti IV 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 (brown) with edge-lengths up to 0.3 mm were grown by chemical vapour transport. The crystal structures of these orthorhombic members (space group F2dd ) of the lazulite/lipscombite structure family were refined from single-crystal data [Ti III Ti IV 3 O 3 (PO 4 ) 3 : Z=24, a=7.3261(9) A, b=22.166(5) A, c=39.239(8) A, R 1 =0.029, wR 2 =0.084, 6055 independent reflections, 301 variables; Cr III 4 Ti IV 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 : Z=1, a=7.419(3) A, b=21.640(5) A, c=13.057(4) A, R 1 =0.037, wR 2 =0.097, 1524 independent reflections, 111 variables; Fe III 4 Ti IV 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 : Z=1, a=7.4001(9) A, b=21.7503(2) A, c=12.775(3) A, R 1 =0.049, wR 2 =0.140, 1240 independent reflections, 112 variables). For Ti III Ti IV O 3 (PO 4 ) 3 a well-ordered structure built from dimers [Ti III,IV 2 O 9 ] and [Ti IV,IV 2 O 9 ] and phosphate tetrahedra is found. The metal sites in the crystal structures of Cr 4 Ti 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 and Fe 4 Ti 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 , consisting of dimers [M III Ti IV O 9 ] and [Ti IV,IV 2 O 9 ], monomeric [Ti IV O 6 ] octahedra, and phosphate tetrahedra, are heavily disordered. Site disorder, leading to partial occupancy of all octahedral voids of the parent lipscombite/lazulite structure, as well as splitting of the metal positions is observed. According to Guinier photographs Ti III 4 Ti IV 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 (a=7.418(2) A, b=21.933(6) A, c=12.948(7) A) is isotypic to the oxidephosphates M III 4 Ti IV 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 (M III : Cr, Fe). The UV/vis spectrum of Cr 4 Ti 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 reveals a rather small ligand-field splitting Δ o =14,370 cm -1 and a very low nephelauxetic ratio β=0.72 for the chromophores [Cr III O 6 ] within the dimers [Cr III Ti IV O 9 ]. - Graphical abstract: Single crystals of the oxidephosphates Ti III Ti IV 3 O 3 (PO 4 ) 3 (black), Cr III 4 Ti IV 27 O

  13. 10 CFR Appendix IV to Part 960 - Types of Information for the Nomination of Sites as Suitable for Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contained in other areas of similar size in the geologic setting. • Past and present drilling and mining.... The types of information to support this description should include— • Topography of the site...

  14. Analysis of the cbhE' plasmid gene from acute disease-causing isolates of Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnick, M F; Small, C L; Frazier, M E; Mallavia, L P

    1991-07-15

    A gene termed cbhE' was cloned from the QpH1 plasmid of Coxiella burnetii. Expression of recombinants containing cbhE' in vitro and in Escherichia coli maxicells, produced an insert-encoded polypeptide of approx. 42 kDa. The CbhE protein was not cleaved when intact maxicells were treated with trypsin. Hybridizations of total DNA isolated from the six strains of C. burnetii indicate that this gene is unique to C. burnetii strains associated with acute disease, i.e., Hamilton[I], Vacca[II], and Rasche[III]. The cbhE' gene was not detected in strains associated with chronic disease (Biotzere[IV] and Corazon[V]) or the Dod[VI] strain. The cbhE' open reading frame (ORF) is 1022 bp in length and is preceded by a predicted promoter/Shine-Dalgarno (SD) region of TCAACT(-35)-N16-TAAAAT(-10)-N14-AGAAGGA (SD) located 10 nucleotides (nt) before the presumed AUG start codon. The ORF ends with a single UAA stop codon and has no apparent Rho-factor-independent terminator following it. The cbhE' gene codes for the CbhE protein of 341 amino acid (aa) residues with a deduced Mr of 39,442. CbhE is predominantly hydrophilic with a predicted pI of 4.43. The function of CbhE is unknown. No nt or aa sequences with homology to cbhE' or CbhE, respectively, were found in searches of a number of data bases.

  15. Characterization of type I, II, III, IV, and V collagens by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Laura; Cohen, David; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2000-04-01

    The relative proportions of genetically distinct collagen types in connective tissues vary with tissue type and change during disease progression, development, wound healing, aging. This study aims to 1) characterize the spectro- temporal fluorescence emission of fiber different types of collagen and 2) assess the ability of time-resolved laser- induced fluorescence spectroscopy to distinguish between collagen types. Fluorescence emission of commercially available purified samples was induced with nitrogen laser excitation pulses and detected with a MCP-PMT connected to a digital storage oscilloscope. The recorded time-resolved emission spectra displayed distinct fluorescence emission characteristics for each collagen type. The time domain information complemented the spectral domain intensity data for improved discrimination between different collagen types. Our results reveal that analysis of the fluorescence emission can be used to characterize different species of collagen. Also, the results suggest that time-resolved spectroscopy can be used for monitoring of connective tissue matrix composition changes due to various pathological and non-pathological conditions.

  16. Multiple Substrate Usage of Coxiella burnetii to Feed a Bipartite Metabolic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Häuslein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogen Coxiella burnetii causes Q-fever and is classified as a category B bio-weapon. Exploiting the development of the axenic growth medium ACCM-2, we have now used 13C-labeling experiments and isotopolog profiling to investigate the highly diverse metabolic network of C. burnetii. To this aim, C. burnetii RSA 439 NMII was cultured in ACCM-2 containing 5 mM of either [U-13C3]serine, [U-13C6]glucose, or [U-13C3]glycerol until the late-logarithmic phase. GC/MS-based isotopolog profiling of protein-derived amino acids, methanol-soluble polar metabolites, fatty acids, and cell wall components (e.g., diaminopimelate and sugars from the labeled bacteria revealed differential incorporation rates and isotopolog profiles. These data served to decipher the diverse usages of the labeled substrates and the relative carbon fluxes into the core metabolism of the pathogen. Whereas, de novo biosynthesis from any of these substrates could not be found for histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, proline and valine, the other amino acids and metabolites under study acquired 13C-label at specific rates depending on the nature of the tracer compound. Glucose was directly used for cell wall biosynthesis, but was also converted into pyruvate (and its downstream metabolites through the glycolytic pathway or into erythrose 4-phosphate (e.g., for the biosynthesis of tyrosine via the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Glycerol efficiently served as a gluconeogenetic substrate and could also be used via phosphoenolpyruvate and diaminopimelate as a major carbon source for cell wall biosynthesis. In contrast, exogenous serine was mainly utilized in downstream metabolic processes, e.g., via acetyl-CoA in a complete citrate cycle with fluxes in the oxidative direction and as a carbon feed for fatty acid biosynthesis. In summary, the data reflect multiple and differential substrate usages by C. burnetii in a bipartite-type metabolic network

  17. Oral manifestations and prosthetic rehabilitation in hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN)type IV: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofluoglu, Duygu; Altin, Nazli; Yaman, Elif; Tuna İnce, Elif Bahar; Aytepe, Zeynep; Tanyeri, Hakki

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are rare genetic syndromes of unknown etiology. They are seen in early childhood and are categorized into six different types by their symptoms. HSAN type 4 demonstrates autosomal recessive transmission pattern, with such major characteristics as loss of sense of pain, self-mutilation, anhydrosis and mental retardation. Sympathetic innervations are deficient despite the existence of sweat glands. Sufferers are hypotonic without any tendon reflexes, and neuro-motor development is retarded. In some cases tactile sensation and vibration may be intact. Biting injuries due to lack of pain sensation cause laceration, ulceration and scarring of the tongue, lips and other parts of oral mucosa. Tooth luxation and severe dental attrition have been observed. This case report presents oral and dental findings, surgical treatments and prosthetic rehabilitation of an 11- year-old boy with HSAN type 4.

  18. Molecular characterization by MLVA of Coxiella burnetii strains infecting dairy cows and goats of north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglie, Letizia; Guerrini, Eulalia; Rampazzo, Erika; Barberio, Antonio; Tilburg, Jeroen J H C; Hagen, Ferry; Lucchese, Laura; Zuliani, Federica; Marangon, Stefano; Natale, Alda

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii), an obligate intracellular bacterium. In ruminants, shedding into the environment mainly occurs during parturition or abortion, but the bacterium is shed also in milk, vaginal mucus, stools and urine. In Italy few surveys have been conducted and reported seroprevalence values ranged between 10% and 60%, even if few human cases have been described. Genotyping of bacteria is crucial for enhancing diagnostic methods and for epidemiological surveillance. The objective of this study was to investigate genotypic differences of C. burnetii genotypes directly in 34 samples, collected during a 3-years survey among 11 dairy cattle and 11 goat farms in the north-eastern part of Italy using a 6-locus multiple loci variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) method. The samples analysed included 13 bulk tank milk (BTM), 6 individual milk, 11 vaginal swabs and 4 foetal spleens. MLVA-type 2 was determined as the most prevalent in cattle in this study. C. burnetii strains circulating in the studied cattle population are very similar to genotypes previously described, while genotypes from goats showed an important variability. Further investigation are needed to understand the reason of this pattern. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Glucagon-like peptide 1 and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2004-01-01

    Proof-of-concept for the efficacy of a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-based therapy of patients with type 2 diabetes was provided in 2002 by means of prolonged continuous subcutaneous infusion of native GLP-1. Since then, several long-acting analogues of GLP-1, as well as inhibitors of dipeptidyl...

  20. Genetic and mechanistic evaluation for the mixed-field agglutination in B3 blood type with IVS3+5G>A ABO gene mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Ping Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ABO blood type B(3 is the most common B subtype in the Chinese population with a frequency of 1/900. Although IVS3+5G>A (rs55852701 mutation of B gene has been shown to associate with the development of B(3 blood type, genetic and mechanistic evaluation for the unique mixed-field agglutination phenotype has not yet been completely addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we analyzed 16 cases of confirmed B(3 individuals and found that IVS3+5G>A attributes to all cases of B(3. RT-PCR analyses revealed the presence of at least 7 types of aberrant B(3 splicing transcripts with most of the transcripts causing early termination and producing non-functional protein during translation. The splicing transcript without exon 3 that was predicted to generate functional B(3 glycosyltransferase lacking 19 amino acids at the N-terminal segment constituted only 0.9% of the splicing transcripts. Expression of the B(3 cDNA with exon 3 deletion in the K562 erythroleukemia cells revealed that the B(3 glycosyltransferase had only 40% of B(1 activity in converting H antigen to B antigen. Notably, the typical mixed-field agglutination of B(3-RBCs can be mimicked by adding anti-B antibody to the K562-B(3 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study thereby demonstrates that both aberrant splicing of B transcripts and the reduced B(3 glycosyltransferase activity contribute to weak B expression and the mixed-field agglutination of B(3, adding to the complexity for the regulatory mechanisms of ABO gene expression.

  1. Long pulsed Nd: YAG laser with inbuilt cool sapphire tip for long term hair reduction on type- IV and V skin: A prospective analysis of 200 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Soni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laser hair reduction has become a very popular means to get rid of unwanted hair. Aims: We conducted the current study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Nd: YAG laser on dark skin. We also evaluated the effect of increasing the gap between sessions on the long term efficacy of hair reduction achieved with long pulsed Nd: YAG laser. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 200 consecutive female patients who underwent laser hair reduction for unwanted hair over the face, at Kaya skin clinic Delhi, with long pulsed Nd: YAG laser, from May 2006 to May 2009. The gap between sessions was increased from 2 nd session itself. Results were evaluated 6 months after 6 sessions. Also a note was made of worsening of hair growth or any side effects experienced the patient during any of the sessions. Results: A total of 200 female patients (160 skin type IV and 40 skin type V were followed up. Of these, 64 enrolled for lower face, 88 for chin or upper neck and 48 for upper lip. 6 months after 6 sessions, more than 50% improvement was seen in 68.7% of lower face, 89.69% cases of chin and 59% of upper lip cases. None of the patients had any worsening. Conclusions: The current study shows that long pulsed Nd: YAG is a very safe and effective means of hair reduction in skin types IV and V. Adequate fluences and increasing the gap between sessions from the 2 nd session could be the key to achieving long term hair reduction with Nd: YAG laser. Adequate cooling and proper shaving are the key factors determining the safety.

  2. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Spatially resolved star formation histories in galaxies as a function of galaxy mass and type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, D.; Thomas, D.; Maraston, C.; Westfall, K.; Etherington, J.; Riffel, R.; Mallmann, N. D.; Zheng, Z.; Argudo-Fernández, M.; Lian, J.; Bershady, M.; Bundy, K.; Drory, N.; Law, D.; Yan, R.; Wake, D.; Weijmans, A.; Bizyaev, D.; Brownstein, J.; Lane, R. R.; Maiolino, R.; Masters, K.; Merrifield, M.; Nitschelm, C.; Pan, K.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Schneider, D. P.

    2017-04-01

    We study the internal gradients of stellar population properties within 1.5 Re for a representative sample of 721 galaxies, with stellar masses ranging between 109 M⊙ and 1011.5 M⊙ from the SDSS-IV MaNGA Integral-Field-Unit survey. Through the use of our full spectral fitting code firefly, we derive light- and mass-weighted stellar population properties and their radial gradients, as well as full star formation and metal enrichment histories. We also quantify the impact that different stellar population models and full spectral fitting routines have on the derived stellar population properties and the radial gradient measurements. In our analysis, we find that age gradients tend to be shallow for both early-type and late-type galaxies. Mass-weighted age gradients of early-types arepositive (˜0.09 dex/Re) pointing to 'outside-in' progression of star formation, while late-type galaxies have negative light-weighted age gradients (˜-0.11 dex/Re), suggesting an 'inside-out' formation of discs. We detect negative metallicity gradients in both early- and late-type galaxies, but these are significantly steeper in late-types, suggesting that the radial dependence of chemical enrichment processes and the effect of gas inflow and metal transport are far more pronounced in discs. Metallicity gradients of both morphological classes correlate with galaxy mass, with negative metallicity gradients becoming steeper with increasing galaxy mass. The correlation with mass is stronger for late-type galaxies, with a slope of d(∇[Z/H])/d(log M) ˜ -0.2 ± 0.05 , compared to d(∇[Z/H])/d(log M) ˜ -0.05 ± 0.05 for early-types. This result suggests that the merger history plays a relatively small role in shaping metallicity gradients of galaxies.

  3. Middle-term follow-up results of Pipkin type IV femoral head fracture patients treated by reconstruction plate and bioabsorbable screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Xi Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the mid-term curative effects of the treatment of Pipkin type IV femoral head fractures using a reconstruction plate and bioabsorbable screws and provide the evidence for clinical practice. Methods: From February 2010 to September 2014, 21 patients with Pipkin type IV femoral head fractures were treated surgically. There were 13 males and 8 females with an average age of 41.1 years (range, 20–65 years. The causes of the fractures included traffic accidents (13 cases, falls from a height (four cases, heavy lifting injuries (three cases, and sport injury (one case. All patients were followed up with radiography and three-dimensional reconstruction computed tomography and other checks and any complications were actively managed. Closed reduction of fracture-dislocation of the hip was attempted under general anesthesia using the Kocher-Langenbeck approach. Femoral head fractures were treated with internal fixation or excision based on the size of the fracture fragments, whereas acetabular fractures were fixed with a reconstruction plate and screws following anatomic reduction. Results: The incisions healed by primary intention in all patients after surgery, without any infection, deep venous thrombosis, or other complications. All 21 patients were followed up for 36–76 months, with an average follow-up duration of 49 months. Postoperative imaging data showed that all dislocations and fractures were anatomically reduced, and bony union of the fractures was achieved. Heterotopic ossification was found in four patients, post-traumatic osteoarthritis in three, and avascular necrosis of the femoral head in two. At the final follow-up, the assessment of hip joint function according to the Thompson-Epstein scoring scale was excellent in 10 cases, good in six cases, fair in three cases, and poor in two cases. The rate of excellent and good functional outcomes was 76.1%. Conclusion: The mid-term curative effects of a

  4. IVS Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    International VLBI Service (IVS) is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.

  5. New lethal disease involving type I and III collagen defect resembling geroderma osteodysplastica, De Barsy syndrome, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukkola, A; Kauppila, S; Risteli, L; Vuopala, K; Risteli, J; Leisti, J; Pajunen, L

    1998-06-01

    We describe the clinical findings and biochemical features of a male child suffering from a so far undescribed lethal connective tissue disorder characterised by extreme hypermobility of the joints, lax skin, cataracts, severe growth retardation, and insufficient production of type I and type III procollagens. His features are compared with Ehlers-Danlos type IV, De Barsy syndrome, and geroderma osteodysplastica, as these disorders show some symptoms and signs shared with our patient. The child died because of failure of the connective tissue structures joining the skull and the spine, leading to progressive spinal stenosis. The aortic valve was translucent and insufficient. The clinical symptoms and signs, together with histological findings, suggested a collagen defect. Studies on both skin fibroblast cultures and the patient's serum showed reduced synthesis of collagen types I and III at the protein and RNA levels. The sizes of the mRNAs and newly synthesised proteins were normal, excluding gross structural abnormalities. These findings are not in accordance with any other collagen defect characterised so far.

  6. SDSS-IV MaNGA: a distinct mass distribution explored in slow-rotating early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yu; Li, Hongyu; Wang, Jie; Gao, Liang; Li, Ran; Ge, Junqiang; Jing, Yingjie; Pan, Jun; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Valenzuela, Octavio; Ortíz, Erik Aquino

    2018-06-01

    We study the radial acceleration relation (RAR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the SDSS MaNGA MPL5 data set. The complete ETG sample show a slightly offset RAR from the relation reported by McGaugh et al. (2016) at the low-acceleration end; we find that the deviation is due to the fact that the slow rotators show a systematically higher acceleration relation than the McGaugh's RAR, while the fast rotators show a consistent acceleration relation to McGaugh's RAR. There is a 1σ significant difference between the acceleration relations of the fast and slow rotators, suggesting that the acceleration relation correlates with the galactic spins, and that the slow rotators may have a different mass distribution compared with fast rotators and late-type galaxies. We suspect that the acceleration relation deviation of slow rotators may be attributed to more galaxy merger events, which would disrupt the original spins and correlated distributions of baryons and dark matter orbits in galaxies.

  7. Osteogenesis imperfecta Type IV: a newly identified variant at position c.560 (G > T; p.Gly187Val) in the COL1A2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Akin; Karademir, Dilay; Sen, Eylem; Yazici, Selcuk; Adali, Ertan; Erdem, Erkan; Karacan, Meric

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a clinically heterogenous disease caused by defective collagen syntesis associated with a mutation in the COL1A1 or COL1A2 genes. In this report, we present a case of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type IV, seen in a female fetus with incurved femurs at 18 weeks of gestation. Molecular analysis of the newborn revealed a novel mutation at position c.560 (c.560 G > T) of the exon 12 in the COL1A2 gene; which lead to the glycine modification with valine (p.Gly187Val) at codon 187. The pregnancy follow-up was uneventful. After delivery, the newborn underwent biphosponat therapy and no fracture was detected until 1 year old.

  8. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of a bacterial type IV pilus reveal characteristics of an experimentally-observed, force-induced conformational transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Biais, Nicolas; Tama, Florence

    2011-10-01

    Type IV pili (T4P) are long, filamentous structures that emanate from the cellular surface of many infectious bacteria. They are built from a 158 amino acid long subunit called pilin. T4P can grow to many micrometers in length, and can withstand large tension forces. During the infection process, pili attach themselves to host cells, and therefore naturally find themselves under tension. We investigated the response of a T4 pilus to a pulling force using the method of steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation. Our simulations expose to the external environment an amino acid sequence initially hidden in the native filament, in agreement with experimental data. Therefore, our simulations might be probing the initial stage of the transition to a force-induced conformation of the T4 pilus. Additional exposed amino acid sequences that might be useful targets for drugs designed to mitigate bacterial infection were also predicted.

  9. Postreplication Roles of the Brucella VirB Type IV Secretion System Uncovered via Conditional Expression of the VirB11 ATPase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin P. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Brucella abortus, the bacterial agent of the worldwide zoonosis brucellosis, primarily infects host phagocytes, where it undergoes an intracellular cycle within a dedicated membrane-bound vacuole, the Brucella-containing vacuole (BCV. Initially of endosomal origin (eBCV, BCVs are remodeled into replication-permissive organelles (rBCV derived from the host endoplasmic reticulum, a process that requires modulation of host secretory functions via delivery of effector proteins by the Brucella VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS. Following replication, rBCVs are converted into autophagic vacuoles (aBCVs that facilitate bacterial egress and subsequent infections, arguing that the bacterium sequentially manipulates multiple cellular pathways to complete its cycle. The VirB T4SS is essential for rBCV biogenesis, as VirB-deficient mutants are stalled in eBCVs and cannot mediate rBCV biogenesis. This has precluded analysis of whether the VirB apparatus also drives subsequent stages of the Brucella intracellular cycle. To address this issue, we have generated a B. abortus strain in which VirB T4SS function is conditionally controlled via anhydrotetracycline (ATc-dependent complementation of a deletion of the virB11 gene encoding the VirB11 ATPase. We show in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs that early VirB production is essential for optimal rBCV biogenesis and bacterial replication. Transient expression of virB11 prior to infection was sufficient to mediate normal rBCV biogenesis and bacterial replication but led to T4SS inactivation and decreased aBCV formation and bacterial release, indicating that these postreplication stages are also T4SS dependent. Hence, our findings support the hypothesis of additional, postreplication roles of type IV secretion in the Brucella intracellular cycle.

  10. Inulin-type fructan degradation capacity of Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa butyrate-producing colon bacteria and their associated metabolic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, F; De Vuyst, L

    2017-05-30

    Four selected butyrate-producing colon bacterial strains belonging to Clostridium cluster IV (Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum DSM 23266 T and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii DSM 17677 T ) and XIVa (Eubacterium hallii DSM 17630 and Eubacterium rectale CIP 105953 T ) were studied as to their capacity to degrade inulin-type fructans and concomitant metabolite production. Cultivation of these strains was performed in bottles and fermentors containing a modified medium for colon bacteria, including acetate, supplemented with either fructose, oligofructose, or inulin as the sole energy source. Inulin-type fructan degradation was not a general characteristic among these strains. B. pullicaecorum DSM 23266 T and E. hallii DSM 17630 could only ferment fructose and did not degrade oligofructose or inulin. E. rectale CIP 105953 T and F. prausnitzii DSM 17677 T fermented fructose and could degrade both oligofructose and inulin. All chain length fractions of oligofructose were degraded simultaneously (both strains) and both long and short chain length fractions of inulin were degraded either simultaneously (E. rectale CIP 105953 T ) or consecutively (F. prausnitzii DSM 17677 T ), indicating an extracellular polymer degradation mechanism. B. pullicaecorum DSM 23266 T and E. hallii DSM 17630 produced high concentrations of butyrate, CO 2 , and H 2 from fructose. E. rectale CIP 105953 T produced lactate, butyrate, CO 2 , and H 2 , from fructose, oligofructose, and inulin, whereas F. prausnitzii DSM 17677 T produced butyrate, formate, CO 2 , and traces of lactate from fructose, oligofructose, and inulin. Based on carbon recovery and theoretical metabolite production calculations, an adapted stoichiometrically balanced metabolic pathway for butyrate, formate, lactate, CO 2 , and H 2 production by members of both Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa butyrate-producing bacteria was constructed.

  11. Disruption of fibronectin matrix affects type IV collagen, fibrillin and laminin deposition into extracellular matrix of human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filla, Mark S; Dimeo, Kaylee D; Tong, Tiegang; Peters, Donna M

    2017-12-01

    Fibronectin fibrils are a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the trabecular meshwork (TM). They are a key mediator of the formation of the ECM which controls aqueous humor outflow and contributes to the pathogenesis of glaucoma. The purpose of this work was to determine if a fibronectin-binding peptide called FUD, derived from the Streptococcus pyogenes Functional Upstream Domain of the F1 adhesin protein, could be used to control fibronectin fibrillogenesis and hence ECM formation under conditions where its expression was induced by treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. FUD was very effective at preventing fibronectin fibrillogenesis in the presence or absence of steroid treatment as well as the removal of existing fibronectin fibrils. Disruption of fibronectin fibrillogenesis by FUD also disrupted the incorporation of type IV collagen, laminin and fibrillin into the ECM. The effect of FUD on these other protein matrices, however, was found to be dependent upon the maturity of the ECM when FUD was added. FUD effectively disrupted the incorporation of these other proteins into matrices when added to newly confluent cells that were forming a nascent ECM. In contrast, FUD had no effect on these other protein matrices if the cell cultures already possessed a pre-formed, mature ECM. Our studies indicate that FUD can be used to control fibronectin fibrillogenesis and that these fibrils play a role in regulating the assembly of other ECM protein into matrices involving type IV collagen, laminin, and fibrillin within the TM. This suggests that under in vivo conditions, FUD would selectively disrupt fibronectin fibrils and de novo assembly of other proteins into the ECM. Finally, our studies suggest that targeting fibronectin fibril assembly may be a viable treatment for POAG as well as other glaucomas involving excessive or abnormal matrix deposition of the ECM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Variation of the Stellar Initial Mass Function in Spiral and Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Ge, Junqiang; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Emsellem, Eric; Dutton, Aaron A.; Li, Cheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Drory, Niv; Lopes, Alexandre Roman

    2017-04-01

    We perform Jeans anisotropic modeling (JAM) on elliptical and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR13 sample. By comparing the stellar mass-to-light ratios estimated from stellar population synthesis and from JAM, we find a systematic variation of the initial mass function (IMF) similar to that in the earlier {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} results. Early-type galaxies (elliptical and lenticular) with lower velocity dispersions within one effective radius are consistent with a Chabrier-like IMF, while galaxies with higher velocity dispersions are consistent with a more bottom-heavy IMF such as the Salpeter IMF. Spiral galaxies have similar systematic IMF variations, but with slightly different slopes and larger scatters, due to the uncertainties caused by the higher gas fractions and extinctions for these galaxies. Furthermore, we examine the effects of stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients on our JAM modeling, and we find that the trends become stronger after considering the gradients.

  13. SDSS-IV MaNGA: The Spatially Resolved Stellar Initial Mass Function in ˜400 Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Taniya; Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Westfall, Kyle B.; Goddard, Daniel; Lian, Jianhui; Meneses-Goytia, Sofia; Jones, Amy; Vaughan, Sam; Andrews, Brett H.; Bershady, Matthew; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Emsellem, Eric; Law, David R.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Wake, David; Yan, Renbin; Zheng, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    MaNGA provides the opportunity to make precise spatially resolved measurements of the IMF slope in galaxies owing to its unique combination of spatial resolution, wavelength coverage and sample size. We derive radial gradients in age, element abundances and IMF slope analysing optical and near-infrared absorption features from stacked spectra out to the half-light radius of 366 early-type galaxies with masses 9.9 - 10.8 log M/M⊙. We find flat gradients in age and [α/Fe] ratio, as well as negative gradients in metallicity, consistent with the literature. We further derive significant negative gradients in the [Na/Fe] ratio with galaxy centres being well enhanced in Na abundance by up to 0.5 dex. Finally, we find a gradient in IMF slope with a bottom-heavy IMF in the centre (typical mass excess factor of 1.5) and a Milky Way-type IMF at the half-light radius. This pattern is mass-dependent with the lowest mass galaxies in our sample featuring only a shallow gradient around a Milky Way IMF. Our results imply the local IMF-σ relation within galaxies to be even steeper than the global relation and hint towards the local metallicity being the dominating factor behind the IMF variations. We also employ different stellar population models in our analysis and show that a radial IMF gradient is found independently of the stellar population model used. A similar analysis of the Wing-Ford band provides inconsistent results and further evidence of the difficulty in measuring and modelling this particular feature.

  14. Resurfacing of facial acne scars with a new variable-pulsed Er:YAG laser in Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namitha Chathra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Er:YAG laser, considered to be less effective than CO2 laser in its traditional form, in its new modulated version has variable pulse technology that is claimed to be superior to the earlier versions of the laser.Aim: The aim of the study was to check efficacy and safety of the new variable square pulse (VSP Er:YAG laser in the management of acne scar in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V.Materials and Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 80 patients (Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V with atrophic and hypertrophic facial acne scars. Records of the patients who had undergone four treatment sessions with VSP technology equipped with Er:YAG laser were extracted. Each patient had undergone a minimum of four sessions. Fractional mode at medium laser pulse (SP and long pulse (LP was employed for the depressed center of the scars to stimulate neocollagenogenesis. Short laser pulse (MSP in nonfractionated mode was used for ablating the raised scar border and hypertrophic scars. Goodman and Baron global scarring grading system was used for qualitative and quantitative assessments. Patient’s satisfaction to the treatment and observer’s assessment of improvement (based on photographs was graded as poor (75% improvement.Results: At the end of the four sessions, the number of patients in grade IV postacne scarring reduced from 16 to 2 and that in grade III from 47 to 29. The mean score significantly dropped from 36.94 to 27.5. Subjective assessment revealed that 78 of 80 patients had noticed more than 25% improvement, with 50 of them showing more than 50% improvement at the end of four sessions. Eight patients perceived an excellent response and 42 reported a good response. This is notably higher than the observer’s grading, which showed an excellent response in only 2 patients and a good response in 35. Adverse effects were limited to prolonged erythema (two patients, prolonged crusting (one patient, and

  15. Resurfacing of Facial Acne Scars With a New Variable-Pulsed Er:YAG Laser in Fitzpatrick Skin Types IV and V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chathra, Namitha; Mysore, Venkataram

    2018-01-01

    The Er:YAG laser, considered to be less effective than CO 2 laser in its traditional form, in its new modulated version has variable pulse technology that is claimed to be superior to the earlier versions of the laser. The aim of the study was to check efficacy and safety of the new variable square pulse (VSP) Er:YAG laser in the management of acne scar in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V. This retrospective study consisted of 80 patients (Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V) with atrophic and hypertrophic facial acne scars. Records of the patients who had undergone four treatment sessions with VSP technology equipped with Er:YAG laser were extracted. Each patient had undergone a minimum of four sessions. Fractional mode at medium laser pulse (SP) and long pulse (LP) was employed for the depressed center of the scars to stimulate neocollagenogenesis. Short laser pulse (MSP) in nonfractionated mode was used for ablating the raised scar border and hypertrophic scars. Goodman and Baron global scarring grading system was used for qualitative and quantitative assessments. Patient's satisfaction to the treatment and observer's assessment of improvement (based on photographs) was graded as poor (75% improvement). At the end of the four sessions, the number of patients in grade IV postacne scarring reduced from 16 to 2 and that in grade III from 47 to 29. The mean score significantly dropped from 36.94 to 27.5. Subjective assessment revealed that 78 of 80 patients had noticed more than 25% improvement, with 50 of them showing more than 50% improvement at the end of four sessions. Eight patients perceived an excellent response and 42 reported a good response. This is notably higher than the observer's grading, which showed an excellent response in only 2 patients and a good response in 35. Adverse effects were limited to prolonged erythema (two patients), prolonged crusting (one patient), and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (one patient). Ninety-seven percent of

  16. Dynamic localization of HmpF regulates type IV pilus activity and directional motility in the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ye Won; Gonzales, Alfonso; Harwood, Thomas V; Huynh, Jessica; Hwang, Yeji; Park, Jun Sang; Trieu, Anthony Q; Italia, Parth; Pallipuram, Vivek K; Risser, Douglas D

    2017-10-01

    Many cyanobacteria exhibit surface motility powered by type 4 pili (T4P). In the model filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, the T4P systems are arrayed in static, bipolar rings in each cell. The chemotaxis-like Hmp system is essential for motility and the coordinated polar accumulation of PilA on cells in motile filaments, while the Ptx system controls positive phototaxis. Using transposon mutagenesis, a gene, designated hmpF, was identified as involved in motility. Synteny among filamentous cyanobacteria and the similar expression patterns for hmpF and hmpD imply that HmpF is part of the Hmp system. Deletion of hmpF produced a phenotype distinct from other hmp genes, but indistinguishable from pilB or pilQ. Both an HmpF-GFPuv fusion protein, and PilA, as assessed by in situ immunofluorescence, displayed coordinated, unipolar localization at the leading pole of each cell. Reversals were modulated by changes in light intensity and preceded by the migration of HmpF-GFPuv to the lagging cell poles. These results are consistent with a model where direct interaction between HmpF and the T4P system activates pilus extension, the Hmp system facilitates coordinated polarity of HmpF to establish motility, and the Ptx system modulates HmpF localization to initiate reversals in response to changes in light intensity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Uncovering the Angular Momentum Content of Central and Satellite Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. E.; Leauthaud, A.; Emsellem, E.; Ge, J.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Greco, J.; Lin, Y.-T.; Mao, S.; Masters, K.; Merrifield, M.; More, S.; Okabe, N.; Schneider, D. P.; Thomas, D.; Wake, D. A.; Pan, K.; Bizyaev, D.; Oravetz, D.; Simmons, A.; Yan, R.; van den Bosch, F.

    2018-01-01

    We study 379 central and 159 satellite early-type galaxies with two-dimensional kinematics from the integral-field survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) to determine how their angular momentum content depends on stellar and halo mass. Using the Yang et al. group catalog, we identify central and satellite galaxies in groups with halo masses in the range {10}12.5 {h}-1 {M}ȯ {10}11 {h}-2 {M}ȯ tend to have very little rotation, while nearly all galaxies at lower mass show some net rotation. The ∼30% of high-mass galaxies that have significant rotation do not stand out in other galaxy properties, except for a higher incidence of ionized gas emission. Our data are consistent with recent simulation results suggesting that major merging and gas accretion have more impact on the rotational support of lower-mass galaxies. When carefully matching the stellar mass distributions, we find no residual differences in angular momentum content between satellite and central galaxies at the 20% level. Similarly, at fixed mass, galaxies have consistent rotation properties across a wide range of halo mass. However, we find that errors in classification of central and satellite galaxies with group finders systematically lower differences between satellite and central galaxies at a level that is comparable to current measurement uncertainties. To improve constraints, the impact of group-finding methods will have to be forward-modeled via mock catalogs.

  18. Hepatic 123I-insulin binding kinetics in non-insulin-dependent (Type 2) diabetic patients after i.v. bolus administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oolbekkink, M.; Veen, E.A. van der; Heine, R.J.; Hollander, W. den; Nauta, J.J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Insulin binding kinetics in the liver were studied in non insulin dependent (Type 2) diabetic patients, by i.v. bolus administration of 123 I-insulin. Eight Type 2 diabetic patients were compared with six male volunteers. Uptake of 123 I-insulin by liver and kidneys was measured by dynamic scintigraphy with a gamma camera during 30 min. Images of liver and kidneys appeared within 2-3 min after administration of 123 I-insulin at a dose of 1 mCi (37 MBq). Peak radioactivity for the liver was found 7.5±0.2 and 6.9±0.3 min after injection for the healthy and the diabetic subjects, respectively (N.S.). The percentage 123 I-insulin hepatic uptake was not significantly different for the diabetic and the healthy subjects. Although a large variation exists for maximal uptake of radioactivity within both groups, the data suggest that binding differences in the liver in Type 2 diabetic patients, as compared to healthy subjects, may not account for hepatic insulin resistance. (orig.)

  19. Platelet half-life in patients with primary hyperlipoproteinemia type IIa, IIb, and IV according to Fredrickson with and without clinical signs of atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, E; Sinzinger, H; Widhalm, K; Kaliman, J; Hoefer, R [Vienna Univ. (Austria). 2. Medizinische Klinik; Ludwig Boltzmann-Institut fuer Nuklearmedizin, Vienna (Austria); Vienna Univ. (Austria). Kinderklinik; Vienna Univ. (Austria). Kardiologische Klinik)

    1982-09-01

    It is generally accepted that platelet half-life is shortened in atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Concerning changes due to hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP), however, there exist only few data. Therefore, we examined the platelet-half life in 60 patients with recently discovered HLP type IIa, IIb and IV according to Fredrickson before treatment in comparison to 60 controls. 33 of the HLP-patients had no clinical symptoms of angiopathy. 27 patients suffered from peripheral vascular disease or from coronary heart disease as verified by angiography. The labelling of autologous platelets was performed with 100..mu..Ci of /sup 111/Indium-oxine-sulfate at 37/sup 0/C for 5 minutes. The mean labelling efficiency was 90%, the recovery after 2 hours about 70%. Serum lipoproteins were estimated by means of ultracentrifugation and polyanionprecipitation according to Lipid Research Clinic Methods. In the patients with HLP platelet half-life was significantly shortened in comparison to the control group (p < 0.01). These changes were most pronounced in patients with HLP-type IIa and with atherosclerotic lesions, respectively. In patients with HLP-type IIa a very close correlation could be demonstrated between platelet half-life and LDL-cholesterol (r = -0.72; p < 0.001) as well as total cholesterol (r = -0.73; p < 0.001). These data prove that in HLP in-vivo platelet function as measured by platelet survival is significantly influenced even before the occurrence of clinically relevant symptoms of atherosclerosis.

  20. Sensitivitas dan Spesifisitas Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction untuk Mendeteksi DNA Coxiella burnetii (SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF NESTED POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR DETECTION OF COXIELLA BURNETII DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trioso Purnawarman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity and specificity of nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR to detect Coxiella burnetii(C. burnetii DNA were studied. The primer system which consists of external primers (OMP1 and OMP2and internal primers (OMP3 and OMP4, was designed from the nucleotide sequence of the com I geneencoding for 27 kDa outer membrane protein and used to specifically amplify a 501 bp and 438 bp fragment.This nested PCR assay was 50 fold more sensitive than that of using PCR external primer only. TheNested PCR has a detection limit as low as 300 pg/?l. Specificity studies showed that nested PCR onlydetected C. burnetii DNA and did not happened Brucella abortus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosaand Campylobacter Jejuni DNA. Nested PCR has high senstively and specificaly diagnostic method of C.burnetii as agent of Q fever disease.

  1. The lanthanoid(III) chloride oxoselenates(IV) MCl[SeO3] (M = Sm - Lu) with HoCl[TeO3]- or B-type structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipp, C.; Schleid, T.

    2008-01-01

    The B-type lanthanoid(III) chloride oxoselenates(IV) MCl[SeO 3 ] (M = Sm - Lu) crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pnma (no. 62) with Z = 4 in the structure type of HoCl[TeO 3 ]. Their lattice constants are decreasing following the lanthanoid contraction from a = 730.01(7), b = 707.90(7), c 895.64(9) pm for SmCl[SeO 3 ] to a = 714.63(7), b = 681.76(7), c = 864.05(9) pm for LuCl[SeO 3 ]. In contrast to NdCl[SeO 3 ], the only representative of the A-type structure, where the coordination numbers of the Nd 3+ cations are 7+2 and 8, the B-type structure is dominated by pentagonal bipyramids [MO 5 Cl 2 ] 9- (CN(M 3+ ) = 7), which are connected via trans-oriented O..O edges to ∞ 1 {[MO 4/2 e O 1/1 t Cl 2/1 t ] 5- } chains (e = edge-sharing, t = terminal) running parallel to the [010] direction. Their inclination relative to each other allows for an alternating interconnection of these chains via Cl - and ψ 1 -tetrahedral [SeO 3 ] 2- anions to form a three-dimensional structure. The distances within the [SeO 3 ] 2- groups are in the normal range (d(Se-O) = 165 - 172 pm), while those of the O 2- and Cl - anions to the central M 3+ cation diminish in dependence of the increasing atomic number (d(M-O) = 226 - 244 pm / 216 - 232 pm, d(M-Cl) 277 - 278 pm / 266 - 270 pm, M = Sm / Lu). For the synthesis of the chloride oxoselenates(IV) MCl[SeO 3 ] the respective lanthanoid sesquioxide (M 2 O 3 ) and selenium dioxide (SeO 2 ) were reacted with either an eutectic mixture of RbCl and LiCl or with the corresponding lanthanoid trichloride (MCl 3 ) in evacuated silica ampoules for either five weeks at 500 C or one week at 850 C. (orig.)

  2. Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, in domestic sheep flocks from Wyoming, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftis, Amanda D; Reeves, Will K; Miller, Myrna M; Massung, Robert F

    2012-03-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is an intracellular bacterial pathogen. It has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution. We conducted a serological survey of domestic sheep herds for infections with C. burnetii in Wyoming following reports of abortion and open ewes. Based on the serologic evidence, there was no link between reproductive problems and exposure to C. burnetii. However, the overall prevalence of C. burnetii in WY sheep was 7%, which indicates that the agent is present in the environment and could pose a threat to public health.

  3. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF COXIELLA BURNETII IN CHEESES PRODUCED IN SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.T.R. Proroga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the presence of Coxiella burnetii in cow, buffalo and small ruminants (sheep and goat cheeses produced in southern Italy has been evaluated with the aim to analyze the risk of infection for consumers. The survey was performed using molecular assays (Real-Time PCR to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA. The samples have been furthermore tested with specific methods for species identification in milk and dairy products. C. burnetii has been detected in 75% of cow cheese samples, while in small ruminants and buffaloes diary products have been assessed at 45,9% and 23,9% respectively.

  4. Superoxide anion production and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in Coxiella burnetii.

    OpenAIRE

    Akporiaye, E T; Baca, O G

    1983-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii was examined for superoxide anion (O2-) production and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. The organism generated O2- at pH 4.5 but not at pH 7.4. The rickettsia displayed superoxide dismutase activity distinguishable from that of the host cell (L-929 mouse fibroblast). Catalase activity was maximal at pH 7.0 and diminished at pH 4.5. These enzymes may account, in part, for the ability of this obligate intracellular parasite to survive within phagocytes.

  5. Hepatic imaging in stage IV-S neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, E.A. Jr.; Smith, W.L.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City; Cohen, M.D.; Kisker, C.T.; Platz, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Stage IV-S neuroblastoma describes a group of infants with tumor spread limited to liver, skin, or bone marrow. Such patients, who constitute about 25% of affected infants with neuroblastoma, may expect spontaneous tumor remission. We report 18 infants with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma, 83% of whom had liver involvement. Imaging investigations included Technetium 99m sulfur colloid scan, ultrasound, and CT. Two patterns of liver metastasis were noted: ill-defined nodules or diffuse tumor throughout the liver. Distinction of normal and abnormal liver with diffuse type metastasis could be quite difficult, particularly with liver scans. We conclude that patients with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma have ultrasound or CT examination as an initial workup, with nuclear medicine scans reserved for followup studies. (orig.)

  6. Strong association between a splice mutation (IVS12+5G{r_arrow}A) and haplotype 6 in hereditary tyrosinemia type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguay, R.M.; St-Louis, M.; Gibson, K. [Universite Laval, Ste-Foy (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT I; McKusick 276700) is a severe inborn error of tyrosine catabolism pathway caused by a deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH). The highest frequency reported is the one in Saguenay-Lac St-Jean (Quebec, Canada) where 1:1,846 births are affected. The FAH gene has been cloned and several mutations have been described. Allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization was used to examine the frequency of a splice (IVS12-5G{r_arrow}A) mutation recently reported and RFLP analysis was done to identify haplotypes related to HT I. The splice mutation was found on 45/50 alleles (90%) in patients from SLSJ and 12/66 (18%) alleles from patients world-wide. All 25 patients from the SLSJ region were positive with 20 being homozygous, indicating that this mutation is the major cause of HT I in French Canada. Of these 25 patients, 96% were positive for one haplotype called no 6 which is these 25 patients, 96% were positive for one haplotype called no 6 which is identified by TaqI, RsaI, BglII, MspI and KpnI digestions. These data show a really strong association between the mutation (IVS12+5G{r_arrow}A) and haplotype 6. Among our patients from around the world, {approximately}52% were positive for haplotype 6 indicating its strong relation with HT I. These results provide the rationale for DNA-based carrier testing for HT I in the F-C population at risk as well as in HT I patients in general.

  7. Decreased fracture rate, pharmacogenetics and BMD response in 79 Swedish children with osteogenesis imperfecta types I, III and IV treated with Pamidronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, K; Kindmark, A; Rubin, C-J; Malmgren, B; Grigelioniene, G; Söderhäll, S; Ljunggren, Ö; Åström, E

    2016-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited heterogeneous bone fragility disorder, usually caused by collagen I mutations. It is well established that bisphosphonate treatment increases lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD), as well as improves vertebral geometry in severe OI; however, fracture reduction has been difficult to prove, pharmacogenetic studies are scarce, and it is not known at which age, or severity of disease, treatment should be initiated. COL1A1 and COL1A2 were analyzed in 79 children with OI (type I n=33, type III n=25 and type IV n=21) treated with Pamidronate. Data on LS BMD, height, and radiologically confirmed non-vertebral and vertebral fractures were collected prior to, and at several time points during treatment. An increase in LS BMD Z-score was observed for all types of OI, and a negative correlation to Δ LS BMD was observed for both age and LS BMD Z-score at treatment initiation. Supine height Z-scores were not affected by Pamidronate treatment, The fracture rate was reduced for all OI types at all time points during treatment (overall p4yrs Pamidronate. Twice as many boys as girls with OI type I were treated with Pamidronate, and the fracture rate the year prior treatment was 2.2 times higher for boys (p=0.0236). Greater Δ LS BMD, but smaller Δ fracture numbers were observed on Pamidronate for helical glycine mutations in COL1A1 vs. COL1A2. Vertebral compression fractures did not progress in any individual during treatment; however, they did not improve in 9%, and these individuals were all >11years of age at treatment initiation (p<0.0001). Pamidronate treatment in children with all types of OI increased LS BMD, decreased fracture rate, and improved vertebral compression fractures. Fracture reduction was prompt and maintained during treatment, irrespective of age at treatment initiation and collagen I mutation type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Looking for new hybrid polymer fillers: synthesis of nanosized α-type Zr(IV) organophosphonates through an unconventional topotactic anion exchange reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Monica; Donnadio, Anna; Troni, Elisabetta; Capitani, Donatella; Casciola, Mario

    2013-07-01

    Gels of α-type zirconium(IV) phosphate alkylphosphonates, ZP(Cn)x, were prepared by reacting, at room temperature, propanol intercalated nanosized α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) with propanol solutions of alkylphosphonic acids (H2Cn, n = number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain = 4, 5, 6), with (H2Cn/Zr) molar ratios in the range 0.4-4.0. (31)P MAS NMR showed the presence of resonances due to the phosphate and phosphonate groups bonded to the Zr atoms mainly by three oxygen atoms, as in the α-type layer. The composition of the ZP(Cn)x materials, obtained by thermogravimetric analysis, ranges from x ≈ 0.2 to x ≈ 1.1. On the basis of the NMR data and of the analysis of the X-ray patterns of gels and powders, it is inferred that the ZP(Cn)x compounds have an α-type layered structure and that the reaction between α-ZrP and H2Cn is a topotactic anion exchange process. The evolution of the X-ray patterns during propanol deintercalation is consistent with a random distribution of the alkylphosphonate groups on the α-type layers which gives rise to porous pathways in the interlayer region. To test the possibility of using ZP(Cn)x as mechanical reinforcement of a polymer matrix, a starch membrane filled with 5 wt % ZP(C6)0.54 was prepared and characterized by stress-strain mechanical tests. Besides an excellent flexibility, this membrane exhibited a proportional increase of the Young's modulus by 230% in comparison with neat starch.

  9. Persistent Coxiella burnetii infection in mice overexpressing IL-10: an efficient model for chronic Q fever pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Meghari

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-10 increases host susceptibility to microorganisms and is involved in intracellular persistence of bacterial pathogens. IL-10 is associated with chronic Q fever, an infectious disease due to the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Nevertheless, accurate animal models of chronic C. burnetii infection are lacking. Transgenic mice constitutively expressing IL-10 in macrophages were infected with C. burnetti by intraperitoneal and intratracheal routes and infection was analyzed through real-time PCR and antibody production. Transgenic mice exhibited sustained tissue infection and strong antibody response in contrast to wild-type mice; thus, bacterial persistence was IL-10-dependent as in chronic Q fever. The number of granulomas was low in spleen and liver of transgenic mice infected through the intraperitoneal route, as in patients with chronic Q fever. Macrophages from transgenic mice were unable to kill C. burnetii. C. burnetii-stimulated macrophages were characterized by non-microbicidal transcriptional program consisting of increased expression of arginase-1, mannose receptor, and Ym1/2, in contrast to wild-type macrophages in which expression of inducible NO synthase and inflammatory cytokines was increased. In vivo results emphasized macrophage data. In spleen and liver of transgenic mice infected with C. burnetii by the intraperitoneal route, the expression of arginase-1 was increased while microbicidal pathway consisting of IL-12p40, IL-23p19, and inducible NO synthase was depressed. The overexpression of IL-10 in macrophages prevents anti-infectious competence of host, including the ability to mount granulomatous response and microbicidal pathway in tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first efficient model for chronic Q fever pathogenesis.

  10. Genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii in the 2007-2010 Q fever outbreak episodes in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilburg, Jeroen J. H. C.; Rossen, John W. A.; van Hannen, Erik J.; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Hermans, Mirjam H. A.; van de Bovenkamp, Jeroen; Roest, Hendrik Jan I. J.; de Bruin, Arnout; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H.; Horrevorts, Alphons M.; Klaassen, Corne H. W.

    The genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii in clinical samples obtained from the Dutch Q fever outbreak episodes of 2007-2010 was determined by using a 6-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis panel. The results are consistent with the introduction of one founder genotype that is gradually

  11. Screening of post-mortem tissue donors for Coxiella burnetii infection after large outbreaks of Q fever in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Marja J.; Maas, D. Willemijn; Renders, Nicole H. M.; Hermans, Mirjam H. A.; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Hogema, Boris M.

    2014-01-01

    After the largest outbreaks of Q fever ever recorded in history occurred in the Netherlands, concern arose that Coxiella may be transmitted via donated tissues of latent or chronically infected donors. The Dutch Health Council recently advised to screen tissue donors, donating high risk tissues, for

  12. Detection of phase I IgG antibodies to Coxiella burnetii with EIA as a screening test for blood donations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, W.; Wielders, C. C. H.; Schimmer, B.; Wegdam-Blans, M. C. A.; Meekelenkamp, J.; Zaaijer, H. L.; Schneeberger, P. M.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of a high phase I IgG antibody titre may indicate chronic infection and a risk for the transmission of Coxiella burnetii through blood transfusion. The outbreak of Q fever in the Netherlands allowed for the comparison of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with the reference immunofluorescence

  13. Airborne Transmission of Coxiella burnetii : Spatial dispersion modelling and the effects of meteorological and environmental conditions on Q fever incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leuken, J.P.G.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands experienced the largest human and veterinary Q fever epidemic ever described. From 2007 through 2010, over 4,000 human cases were notified and approximately a twelve-fold higher number was probably infected by Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever. Dairy goat farms, and

  14. Screening for Coxiella burnetii infection during pregnancy : pros and cons according to the Wilson and Jungner criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munster, Janna; Steggerda, L.; Leenders, A.; Aarnoudse, J.; Hak, E.

    2012-01-01

    In Europe the incidence of human Q fever has dramatically increased over the previous years. Untreated infections with Coxiella burnetii, the causal agent of Q fever, have been associated with both obstetric and maternal complications. The majority of pregnant women with a C. burnetii infection

  15. Association between antibodies to Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk and perinatal mortality of Danish dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Katrine T.; Nielsen, Søren S.; Agger, Jens F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coxiella burnetii is a well-known cause of placentitis and subsequent abortion in ruminants, but there are no reports on the relationship with perinatal mortality. The study was performed to determine the influence of level and change of bulk tank milk (BTM) antibodies to C. burnetii ...

  16. Coxiella burnetii isolates cause genogroup-specific virulence in mouse and guinea pig models of acute Q fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell-Lodrigue, K.E.; Andoh, M.; Poel, M.W.J.; Poels, M.W.J.; Shive, H.R.; Weeks, B.R.; Zhang, G.Q.; Tersteeg, C.; Masegi, T.; Hotta, A.; Yamaguchi, T.; Fukushima, H.; Hirai, K.; McMurray, D.N.; Samuel, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease of worldwide significance caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Humans with Q fever may experience an acute flu-like illness and pneumonia and/or chronic hepatitis or endocarditis. Various markers demonstrate significant phylogenetic

  17. A 48 kDa collagen-binding phosphoprotein isolated from bovine aortic endothelial cells interacts with the collagenous domain, but not the globular domain, of collagen type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannariello-Brown, J; Madri, J A

    1990-01-15

    We have identified collagen-binding proteins in detergent extracts of metabolically labelled bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) by collagen type IV-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The major collagen type IV-binding protein identified by SDS/PAGE had a molecular mass of 48 kDa, which we term the 'collagen-binding 48 kDa protein' (CB48). The pI of CB48 was 8.0-8.3 in a two-dimensional gel system, running non-equilibrium pH gel electrophoresis in the first dimension and SDS/PAGE in the second dimension. Under these conditions CB48 separated into two major (a and b) and one minor isoform (c); a was the most basic of the three isoforms. Two-dimensional chymotryptic peptide maps derived from each individual isoform were virtually identical. The charge differences between the isoforms were due in part to differential H3(32)PO4 incorporation by the protein. CB48 bound to intact collagen type IV and the collagenous region of collagen type IV, but not to the globular NC1 domain. Cell-surface labelling and indirect immunofluorescence experiments localized the bulk of CB48 intracellularly in the endoplasmic reticulum Golgi region, with a minor population of molecules on the cell surface. A specific rabbit polyclonal anti-CB48 serum did not inhibit the attachment or spreading of BAEC to collagen type IV in an 'in vitro' adhesion assay, suggesting that the cell-surface population of CB48 is not involved in BAEC adhesion. We conclude that CB48 is a collagen-binding phosphoprotein that interacts with the collagenous domain of collagen type IV and may be involved in intracellular transport of collagen molecules.

  18. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome type IV: a multi-exon deletion in one of the two COL3A1 alleles affecting structure, stability, and processing of type III procollagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superti-Furga, A.; Gugler, E.; Gitzelmann, R.; Steinmann, B.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have studied a patient with severe, dominantly inherited Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV. The results indicate that this patient carries a deletion of 3.3 kilobase pairs in the triple helical coding domain of one of the two alleles for the pro-α-chains of type III collagen (COL3A1). His cultured skin fibroblasts contain equal amounts of normal length mRNA and of mRNA shortened by approximately 600 bases, and synthesize both normal and shortened pro-α1(III)-chains. In procollagen molecules containing one or more shortened chains, a triple helix is formed with a length of only about 780 amino acids. The mutant procollagen molecules have decreased thermal stability, are less efficiently secreted, and are not processed as their normal counterpart. The deletion in this family is the first mutation to be described in COL3A1

  19. A 48 kDa collagen-binding phosphoprotein isolated from bovine aortic endothelial cells interacts with the collagenous domain, but not the globular domain, of collagen type IV.

    OpenAIRE

    Yannariello-Brown, J; Madri, J A

    1990-01-01

    We have identified collagen-binding proteins in detergent extracts of metabolically labelled bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) by collagen type IV-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The major collagen type IV-binding protein identified by SDS/PAGE had a molecular mass of 48 kDa, which we term the 'collagen-binding 48 kDa protein' (CB48). The pI of CB48 was 8.0-8.3 in a two-dimensional gel system, running non-equilibrium pH gel electrophoresis in the first dimension and SDS/PAGE in the se...

  20. Identification of Coxiella burnetii genotypes in Croatia using multi-locus VNTR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Račić, Ivana; Spičić, Silvio; Galov, Ana; Duvnjak, Sanja; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Vujnović, Anja; Habrun, Boris; Cvetnić, Zeljko

    2014-10-10

    Although Q fever affects humans and animals in Croatia, we are unaware of genotyping studies of Croatian strains of the causative pathogen Coxiella burnetii, which would greatly assist monitoring and control efforts. Here 3261 human and animal samples were screened for C. burnetii DNA by conventional PCR, and 335 (10.3%) were positive. Of these positive samples, 82 were genotyped at 17 loci using the relatively new method of multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). We identified 13 C. burnetii genotypes not previously reported anywhere in the world. Two of these 13 genotypes are typical of the continental part of Croatia and share more similarity with genotypes outside Croatia than with genotypes within the country. The remaining 11 novel genotypes are typical of the coastal part of Croatia and show more similarity to one another than to genotypes outside the country. Our findings shed new light on the phylogeny of C. burnetii strains and may help establish MLVA as a standard technique for Coxiella genotyping. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Coxiella burnetii as a possible cause of autoimmune liver disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaech Chloe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Q fever is a zoonotic infection that may cause severe hepatitis. Q-fever hepatitis has not yet been associated with autoimmune hepatitis and/or primary biliary cirrhosis. Case presentation We describe a 39-year-old man of Sri Lankan origin with chronic Q-fever hepatitis who developed autoantibodies compatible with autoimmune hepatitis/primary biliary cirrhosis overlap syndrome. Ursodeoxycholic acid in addition to antibiotic therapy markedly improved hepatic enzyme levels suggesting that autoimmunity, potentially triggered by the underlying infection, was involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage. Conclusion We suggest that Coxiella burnetii might trigger autoimmune liver disease. Patients with Q-fever hepatitis who respond poorly to antibiotics should be investigated for serological evidence of autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis or overlap syndrome, as these patients could benefit from adjunctive therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid. Conversely, C. burnetii serology might be necessary in patients with autoimmune liver disease in order to exclude underlying Coxiella infection.

  2. Resident alveolar macrophages are susceptible to and permissive of Coxiella burnetii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Calverley

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a zoonotic disease with potentially life-threatening complications in humans. Inhalation of low doses of Coxiella bacteria can result in infection of the host alveolar macrophage (AM. However, it is not known whether a subset of AMs within the heterogeneous population of macrophages in the infected lung is particularly susceptible to infection. We have found that lower doses of both phase I and phase II Nine Mile C. burnetii multiply and are less readily cleared from the lungs of mice compared to higher infectious doses. We have additionally identified AM resident within the lung prior to and shortly following infection, opposed to newly recruited monocytes entering the lung during infection, as being most susceptible to infection. These resident cells remain infected up to twelve days after the onset of infection, serving as a permissive niche for the maintenance of bacterial infection. A subset of infected resident AMs undergo a distinguishing phenotypic change during the progression of infection exhibiting an increase in surface integrin CD11b expression and continued expression of the surface integrin CD11c. The low rate of phase I and II Nine Mile C. burnetii growth in murine lungs may be a direct result of the limited size of the susceptible resident AM cell population.

  3. When outgroups fail; phylogenomics of rooting the emerging pathogen, Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Talima; Hornstra, Heidie M; Sahl, Jason W; Schaack, Sarah; Schupp, James M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; O'Neill, Matthew W; Priestley, Rachael A; Champion, Mia D; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James S; Kersh, Gilbert J; Samuel, James E; Massung, Robert F; Keim, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Rooting phylogenies is critical for understanding evolution, yet the importance, intricacies and difficulties of rooting are often overlooked. For rooting, polymorphic characters among the group of interest (ingroup) must be compared to those of a relative (outgroup) that diverged before the last common ancestor (LCA) of the ingroup. Problems arise if an outgroup does not exist, is unknown, or is so distant that few characters are shared, in which case duplicated genes originating before the LCA can be used as proxy outgroups to root diverse phylogenies. Here, we describe a genome-wide expansion of this technique that can be used to solve problems at the other end of the evolutionary scale: where ingroup individuals are all very closely related to each other, but the next closest relative is very distant. We used shared orthologous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 10 whole genome sequences of Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in humans, to create a robust, but unrooted phylogeny. To maximize the number of characters informative about the rooting, we searched entire genomes for polymorphic duplicated regions where orthologs of each paralog could be identified so that the paralogs could be used to root the tree. Recent radiations, such as those of emerging pathogens, often pose rooting challenges due to a lack of ingroup variation and large genomic differences with known outgroups. Using a phylogenomic approach, we created a robust, rooted phylogeny for C. burnetii. [Coxiella burnetii; paralog SNPs; pathogen evolution; phylogeny; recent radiation; root; rooting using duplicated genes.].

  4. Effect of endocytosis inhibitors on Coxiella burnetii interaction with host cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tujulin, E.; Macellaro, A.; Norlander, L.; Liliehoeoek, B.

    1998-01-01

    The obligate intracellular rickettsia Coxiella burnetii has previously been reported to reach the intra-vacuolar compartment of host cells by phagocytosis. With the aim to further examine the mechanisms of C. burnetii internalisation, macrophage monolayers were treated with well characterised inhibitors of endocytosis. The treatment with two general inhibitors, colchicine and methylamine, resulted in a pronounced dose-dependent decrease of radiolabelled phase II rickettsiae retained from the intracellular fraction. A third inhibitor used, amiloride, has been reported to reduce effectively clathrin-independent pinocytic pathways. The internalisation of C. burnetii was shown to be substantially reduced also by amiloride and the effect was dependent on its concentration. The passive role of C. burnetii in the internalisation was verified by using heat-killed C. burnetii. Host cells treated with either of the three inhibitors (amiloride, colchicine and methylamine) showed a similar reduction of intracellular C. burnetii after exposure to killed as weal as live organisms. The data presented indicate that different endocytic mechanisms, pinocytosis as well as phagocytosis, may mediate the uptake of C. burnetii by a host cell. Key words: Coxiella burnetii; internalisation; endocytosis (authors)

  5. Zoonotic pathogens in Atlantic Forest wild rodents in Brazil: Bartonella and Coxiella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Tatiana; Ferreira, Michelle Santos; Guterres, Alexandro; Mares-Guia, Maria Angélica; Teixeira, Bernardo R; Gonçalves, Jonathan; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2017-04-01

    Zoonotic pathogens comprise a significant and increasing fraction of all emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases that plague humans. Identifying host species is one of the keys to controlling emerging infectious diseases. From March 2007 until April 2012, we collected a total of 131 wild rodents in eight municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We investigated these rodents for infection with Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. In total, 22.1% (29/131) of the rodents were infected by at least one pathogen; co-infection was detected in 1.5% (2/131) of rodents. Coxiella burnetii was detected in 4.6% (6/131) of the wild animals, 17.6% of the rodents harbored Bartonella spp. No cases of Rickettsia were identified. Bartonella doshiae and Bartonella vinsonii were the species found on the wild mammals. This report is the first to note C. burnetii, B. doshiae and B. vinsonii natural infections in Atlantic Forest wild rodents in Brazil. Our work highlights the potential risk of transmission to humans, since most of the infected specimens belong to generalist species that live near human dwellings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Serosurvey of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Laikipia County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, A S; Fèvre, E M; Kinnaird, M; Muloi, D M; Wang, C A; Larsen, P S; O'Brien, T; Deem, S L

    2017-11-01

    Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are an important protein source for people in semi-arid and arid regions of Africa. In Kenya, camel populations have grown dramatically in the past few decades resulting in the potential for increased disease transmission between humans and camels. An estimated four million Kenyans drink unpasteurized camel milk, which poses a disease risk. We evaluated the seroprevalence of a significant zoonotic pathogen, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), among 334 camels from nine herds in Laikipia County, Kenya. Serum testing revealed 18.6% positive seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii (n = 344). Increasing camel age was positively associated with C. burnetii seroprevalence (OR = 5.36). Our study confirmed that camels living in Laikipia County, Kenya, have been exposed to the zoonotic pathogen, C. burnetii. Further research to evaluate the role of camels in disease transmission to other livestock, wildlife and humans in Kenya should be conducted. © 2017 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Asteroids IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  8. From mucolipidosis type IV to Ebola: TRPML and two-pore channels at the crossroads of endo-lysosomal trafficking and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Christian; Butz, Elisabeth; Chen, Cheng-Chang; Wahl-Schott, Christian; Biel, Martin

    2017-11-01

    What do lysosomal storage disorders such as mucolipidosis type IV have in common with Ebola, cancer cell migration, or LDL-cholesterol trafficking? LDL-cholesterol, certain bacterial toxins and viruses, growth factors, receptors, integrins, macromolecules destined for degradation or secretion are all sorted and transported via the endolysosomal system (ES). There are several pathways known in the ES, e.g. the degradation, the recycling, or the retrograde trafficking pathway. The ES comprises early and late endosomes, lysosomes and recycling endosomes as well as autophagosomes and lysosome related organelles. Contact sites between the ES and the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi apparatus may also be considered part of it. Dysfunction of this complex intracellular machinery can cause or contribute to the development of a number of diseases ranging from neurodegenerative, infectious, or metabolic diseases to retinal and pigmentation disorders as well as cancer and autophagy-related diseases. Endolysosomal ion channels such as mucolipins (TRPMLs) and two-pore channels (TPCs) play an important role in intracellular cation/calcium signaling and homeostasis and appear to critically contribute to the proper function of the endolysosomal trafficking network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of a direct carotid-cavernous fistula in a patient with type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollands, J.K.; Santarius, T.; Kirkpatrick, P.J.; Higgins, J.N.

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of a 34-year-old female with type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome diagnosed with a carotid cavernous fistula presenting with progressive proptosis. Endovascular embolization using balloons or coils carries a high risk of complications in this group of patients, owing to the extreme fragility of the blood vessels. Initial treatment was conservative until an intracerebral haemorrhage occurred. To avoid transfemoral angiography, the ipsilateral carotid arteries and the internal jugular vein were surgically exposed for insertion of two endovascular sheaths. The patient was transferred from theatre to the angiography suite and the sheaths were used for embolization access. The fistula was closed, with preservation of the carotid artery, using Guglielmi detachable coils deployed in the cavernous sinus from the arterial and venous sides. Rapid resolution of symptoms and signs followed, which was sustained at 6-month follow-up. This technique offers alternative access for endovascular treatment, which may reduce the high incidence of mortality associated with catheter angiography in this condition. (orig.)

  10. Successful surgical treatment of intramural aortoatrial fistula, severe aortic regurgitation, mitral prolapse, and tricuspid insufficiency in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shengli; Gao, Changqing; Ren, Chonglei; Zhang, Tao

    2012-06-01

    Patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV, an inherited connective tissue disorder, are predisposed to vascular and digestive ruptures, and arterial ruptures account for the majority of deaths. A 31-year-old man with EDS presented with an intramural aortoatrial fistula, severe aortic regurgitation, mitral valve prolapse, and severe tricuspid valve insufficiency combined with a severely dilated left ventricle. Determining the best surgical option for the patient was not easy, especially regarding the course of action for the aortic root with a tear in the sinus of Valsalva. The fistula tract was closed at the aorta with suture and with a patch in the right atrium, the mitral valve was repaired with edge-to-edge suture and then annuloplasty with a Cosgrove ring, the aortic valve was replaced with a mechanical prosthesis, and a modified De Vega technique was used for the tricuspid valvuloplasty. The postoperative course was uncomplicated, and the patient was discharged 2 weeks later. The considerations made to arrive at the chosen surgical course of action in this complex case are reviewed.

  11. Treatment of a direct carotid-cavernous fistula in a patient with type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollands, J.K.; Santarius, T.; Kirkpatrick, P.J. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Higgins, J.N. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    We report a case of a 34-year-old female with type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome diagnosed with a carotid cavernous fistula presenting with progressive proptosis. Endovascular embolization using balloons or coils carries a high risk of complications in this group of patients, owing to the extreme fragility of the blood vessels. Initial treatment was conservative until an intracerebral haemorrhage occurred. To avoid transfemoral angiography, the ipsilateral carotid arteries and the internal jugular vein were surgically exposed for insertion of two endovascular sheaths. The patient was transferred from theatre to the angiography suite and the sheaths were used for embolization access. The fistula was closed, with preservation of the carotid artery, using Guglielmi detachable coils deployed in the cavernous sinus from the arterial and venous sides. Rapid resolution of symptoms and signs followed, which was sustained at 6-month follow-up. This technique offers alternative access for endovascular treatment, which may reduce the high incidence of mortality associated with catheter angiography in this condition. (orig.)

  12. Optimization of Extrusion Process of Directly Expanded Snacks Based on Potato Starch in a Single Step for the Formation of Type IV Resistant Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-López, Amira Daniela; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2017-09-01

    Resistant starch type IV (RSIV) can be produced by chemical modifications (etherized or esterified) such as conversion, substitution, or cross-linking, which can prevent its digestion by blocking enzyme access and forming atypical linkages. In this research, the effects of barrel temperature (145.86-174.14 °C), the screw speed (42.93-57.07 Hz) and derivatization (esterification) in the formation of RSIV content of directly expanded snacks (second generation snacks) were studied. Potato starch was chemically modified by phosphorylation and succinylation, and expanded by using the extrusion cooking process. Snacks with phosphorylated starch showed expansion index from 2.57 to 3.23, bulk density from 306.19 to 479.00 kg/m 3 and RSIV from 43.27 to 55.81%. Snacks with succinylated starch had expansion index from 3.52 to 3.82, bulk density from 99.85 to 134.51 kg/m 3 and RSIV from 23.17 to 35.01%. The results found in this work showed that it is possible to manufacture extruded directly expanded snacks (second-generation snacks) such as a ready-to-eat (RTE) with good physicochemical properties and without substantial loss of extrusion functionality, which could bring a healthy benefit due to the presence of RSIV.

  13. Coxiella burnetii Circulation in a Naturally Infected Flock of Sheep: Individual Follow-Up of Antibodies in Serum and Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulié, A; Rousset, E; Gasqui, P; Lepetitcolin, E; Leblond, A; Sidi-Boumedine, K; Jourdain, E

    2017-07-01

    The control of Q fever, a zoonotic disease caused by the Coxiella burnetii bacterium, remains a scientific challenge. Domestic ruminants are considered the main reservoir, shedding C. burnetii essentially through parturition products during abortion or birth. Sheep are particularly frequently associated with human outbreaks, but there are insufficient field data to fully understand disease dynamics and to instigate efficient control measures. A longitudinal follow-up study of a naturally infected sheep flock was performed (i) to investigate relationships between seropositivity and bacterial shedding in the vaginal mucus, (ii) to describe the kinetics of antibodies, including responses to vaccination, (iii) to monitor maternal antibodies in ewe lambs, and (iv) to compare serological results for milk and serum samples. For 8 months, we collected blood samples every 3 weeks from 11 aborting and 26 nonaborting dairy ewes, 20 nonaborting suckler ewes, and 9 ewe lambs. Individual milk samples were also obtained from lactating females. All serum and milk samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), whereas vaginal swabs were tested by quantitative PCR. We found that some dairy females did not seroconvert despite shedding C. burnetii in their vaginal mucus. Overall, antibody levels in adult females were found to remain stable over time, with exceptions during the mating and lambing periods. Maternal antibodies decreased during the first month after birth. Interestingly, antibody levels in milk were correlated with those in serum. This study provides valuable field data that will help improve Q fever surveillance and within-flock management measures. IMPORTANCE Field data are necessary to improve the surveillance, diagnosis, and sanitary management of Q fever in livestock. Here, we provide extensive serological data obtained from serum and milk samples from infected and vaccinated ewes belonging to a naturally infected flock of sheep. We show that

  14. Single-catheter approach for ablation of the slow pathway in a patient with type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and AV nodal reentrant tachycardia using a magnetic navigation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Szili-Torok (Tamas); E. Jessurun; L.J.L.M. Jordaens (Luc)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPatients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV have thin-walled, friable arteries and veins. Invasive procedures carry a significantly increased risk for perforation of blood vessels. The aim of this case report is to demonstrate the feasibility and potential benefits of using a

  15. Identification of VceA and VceC, two members of the VjbR regulon that are translocated into macrophages by the Brucella type IV secretion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maarten F.; Sun, Yao-Hui; den Hartigh, Andreas B.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2008-01-01

    Survival and replication inside host cells by Brucella spp. requires a type IV secretion system (T4SS), encoded by the virB locus. However, the identity of the molecules secreted by the T4SS has remained elusive. We hypothesized that proteins translocated by the T4SS would be co-regulated with the

  16. Study on the diagnostic value of determination of serum IV-C, PC III, HA, LN and PLD concentrations for hepatic fibrosis in patients with B hepatitis of various types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhuocheng; Chen Jianxiong; Xiong Ying

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum levels of collagen type IV(IV-C), procollagen type III (PC III), hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN) and prolidase (PLD) and their relationship with hepatic fibrosis in patients with B hepatitis of different types. Methods: Serum levels of IV-C, PC III, HA, LN and PLD were measured with RIA in 39 controls and 103 patients with HBV infection of various types (including acute hepatitis AH n=19, chronic persistent hepatitis CPH n=29, Chronic active hepatitis CAH n=25 and liver cirrhosis LH n=30. Degree of hepatic fibrosis (Grade 0-4) was ascertained with liver biopsy in 35 patients (CAH16, LC19) and correlationship with the corresponding levels of these 5 serum markers was steadied. Results: 1) Serum levels of IV-C, PC III, HA, LN and PLD were significantly higher in patients with CAH and LC than those in other patients and controls (P 0.05). 3) Serum levels of these markers were all positively correlated with the degree of hepatic fibrosis noted in the biopsy specimens obtained from patients with CAH (n=16) and LC (n=19) (r=+0.64 - + 0.89, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum levels of these markers could reflect the degree of hepatic fibrosis and severity of liver damage; determination of which was of diagnostic and even prognostic value. HA and LN appeared to be better correlated with degree of hepatic fibrosis than the remaining three markers did. (authors)

  17. Association of DSM-IV Posttraumatic Stress Disorder With Traumatic Experience Type and History in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Howard; Petukhova, Maria V; Sampson, Nancy A; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn J; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Koenen, Karestan C; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O'Neill, Siobhan; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Scott, Kate M; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J; Ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Gureje, Oye; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-03-01

    Previous research has documented significant variation in the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) depending on the type of traumatic experience (TE) and history of TE exposure, but the relatively small sample sizes in these studies resulted in a number of unresolved basic questions. To examine disaggregated associations of type of TE history with PTSD in a large cross-national community epidemiologic data set. The World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys assessed 29 TE types (lifetime exposure, age at first exposure) with DSM-IV PTSD that was associated with 1 randomly selected TE exposure (the random TE) for each respondent. Surveys were administered in 20 countries (n = 34 676 respondents) from 2001 to 2012. Data were analyzed from October 1, 2015, to September 1, 2016. Prevalence of PTSD assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Among the 34 676 respondents (55.4% [SE, 0.6%] men and 44.6% [SE, 0.6%] women; mean [SE] age, 43.7 [0.2] years), lifetime TE exposure was reported by a weighted 70.3% of respondents (mean [SE] number of exposures, 4.5 [0.04] among respondents with any TE). Weighted (by TE frequency) prevalence of PTSD associated with random TEs was 4.0%. Odds ratios (ORs) of PTSD were elevated for TEs involving sexual violence (2.7; 95% CI, 2.0-3.8) and witnessing atrocities (4.2; 95% CI, 1.0-17.8). Prior exposure to some, but not all, same-type TEs was associated with increased vulnerability (eg, physical assault; OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3-7.9) or resilience (eg, participation in sectarian violence; OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9) to PTSD after the random TE. The finding of earlier studies that more general history of TE exposure was associated with increased vulnerability to PTSD across the full range of random TE types was replicated, but this generalized vulnerability was limited to prior TEs involving violence, including participation in organized violence (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6), experience of

  18. Insights into early extracellular matrix evolution: spongin short chain collagen-related proteins are homologous to basement membrane type IV collagens and form a novel family widely distributed in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouacheria, Abdel; Geourjon, Christophe; Aghajari, Nushin; Navratil, Vincent; Deléage, Gilbert; Lethias, Claire; Exposito, Jean-Yves

    2006-12-01

    Collagens are thought to represent one of the most important molecular innovations in the metazoan line. Basement membrane type IV collagen is present in all Eumetazoa and was found in Homoscleromorpha, a sponge group with a well-organized epithelium, which may represent the first stage of tissue differentiation during animal evolution. In contrast, spongin seems to be a demosponge-specific collagenous protein, which can totally substitute an inorganic skeleton, such as in the well-known bath sponge. In the freshwater sponge Ephydatia mülleri, we previously characterized a family of short-chain collagens that are likely to be main components of spongins. Using a combination of sequence- and structure-based methods, we present evidence of remote homology between the carboxyl-terminal noncollagenous NC1 domain of spongin short-chain collagens and type IV collagen. Unexpectedly, spongin short-chain collagen-related proteins were retrieved in nonsponge animals, suggesting that a family related to spongin constitutes an evolutionary sister to the type IV collagen family. Formation of the ancestral NC1 domain and divergence of the spongin short-chain collagen-related and type IV collagen families may have occurred before the parazoan-eumetazoan split, the earliest divergence among extant animal phyla. Molecular phylogenetics based on NC1 domain sequences suggest distinct evolutionary histories for spongin short-chain collagen-related and type IV collagen families that include spongin short-chain collagen-related gene loss in the ancestors of Ecdyzosoa and of vertebrates. The fact that a majority of invertebrates encodes spongin short-chain collagen-related proteins raises the important question to the possible function of its members. Considering the importance of collagens for animal structure and substratum attachment, both families may have played crucial roles in animal diversification.

  19. Cyclic Di-GMP Binding by an Assembly ATPase (PilB2) and Control of Type IV Pilin Polymerization in the Gram-Positive Pathogen Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, William A; Orr, Mona W; Murray, Samantha R; Lee, Vincent T; Melville, Stephen B

    2017-05-15

    The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens possesses type IV pili (TFP), which are extracellular fibers that are polymerized from a pool of pilin monomers in the cytoplasmic membrane. Two proteins that are essential for pilus functions are an assembly ATPase (PilB) and an inner membrane core protein (PilC). Two homologues each of PilB and PilC are present in C. perfringens , called PilB1/PilB2 and PilC1/PilC2, respectively, along with four pilin proteins, PilA1 to PilA4. The gene encoding PilA2, which is considered the major pilin based on previous studies, is immediately downstream of the pilB2 and pilC2 genes. Purified PilB2 had ATPase activity, bound zinc, formed hexamers even in the absence of ATP, and bound the second messenger molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). Circular dichroism spectroscopy of purified PilC2 indicated that it retained its predicted degree of alpha-helical secondary structure. Even though no direct interactions between PilB2 and PilC2 could be detected in vivo or in vitro even in the presence of c-di-GMP, high levels of expression of a diguanylate cyclase from C. perfringens (CPE1788) stimulated polymerization of PilA2 in a PilB2- and PilC2-dependent manner. These results suggest that PilB2 activity is controlled by c-di-GMP levels in vivo but that PilB2-PilC2 interactions are either transitory or of low affinity, in contrast to results reported previously from in vivo studies of the PilB1/PilC1 pair in which PilC1 was needed for polar localization of PilB1. This is the first biochemical characterization of a c-di-GMP-dependent assembly ATPase from a Gram-positive bacterium. IMPORTANCE Type IV pili (TFP) are protein fibers involved in important bacterial functions, including motility, adherence to surfaces and host cells, and natural transformation. All clostridia whose genomes have been sequenced show evidence of the presence of TFP. The genetically tractable species Clostridium perfringens was used to study proteins involved in

  20. Iron Starvation Conditions Upregulate Ehrlichia ruminantium Type IV Secretion System, tr1 Transcription Factor and map1 Genes Family through the Master Regulatory Protein ErxR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Moumène

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia ruminantium is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes heartwater, a fatal disease in ruminants. Due to its intracellular nature, E. ruminantium requires a set of specific virulence factors, such as the type IV secretion system (T4SS, and outer membrane proteins (Map proteins in order to avoid and subvert the host's immune response. Several studies have been conducted to understand the regulation of the T4SS or outer membrane proteins, in Ehrlichia, but no integrated approach has been used to understand the regulation of Ehrlichia pathogenicity determinants in response to environmental cues. Iron is known to be a key nutrient for bacterial growth both in the environment and within hosts. In this study, we experimentally demonstrated the regulation of virB, map1, and tr1 genes by the newly identified master regulator ErxR (for Ehrlichia ruminantium expression regulator. We also analyzed the effect of iron depletion on the expression of erxR gene, tr1 transcription factor, T4SS and map1 genes clusters in E. ruminantium. We show that exposure of E. ruminantium to iron starvation induces erxR and subsequently tr1, virB, and map1 genes. Our results reveal tight co-regulation of T4SS and map1 genes via the ErxR regulatory protein at the transcriptional level, and, for the first time link map genes to the virulence function sensu stricto, thereby advancing our understanding of Ehrlichia's infection process. These results suggest that Ehrlichia is able to sense changes in iron concentrations in the environment and to regulate the expression of virulence factors accordingly.

  1. SDSS IV MaNGA: Deep observations of extra-planar, diffuse ionized gas around late-type galaxies from stacked IFU spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.; Kauffmann, G.; D'Souza, R.; Bizyaev, D.; Law, D.; Haffner, L.; Bahé, Y.; Andrews, B.; Bershady, M.; Brownstein, J.; Bundy, K.; Cherinka, B.; Diamond-Stanic, A.; Drory, N.; Riffel, R. A.; Sánchez, S. F.; Thomas, D.; Wake, D.; Yan, R.; Zhang, K.

    2017-03-01

    We have conducted a study of extra-planar diffuse ionized gas using the first year data from the MaNGA IFU survey. We have stacked spectra from 49 edge-on, late-type galaxies as a function of distance from the midplane of the galaxy. With this technique we can detect the bright emission lines Hα, Hβ, [O II]λλ3726, 3729, [O III]λ5007, [N II]λλ6549, 6584, and [S II]λλ6717, 6731 out to about 4 kpc above the midplane. With 16 galaxies we can extend this analysis out to about 9 kpc, I.e. a distance of 2Re, vertically from the midplane. In the halo, the surface brightnesses of the [O II] and Hα emission lines are comparable, unlike in the disk where Hα dominates. When we split the sample by specific star-formation rate, concentration index, and stellar mass, each subsample's emission line surface brightness profiles and ratios differ, indicating that extra-planar gas properties can vary. The emission line surface brightnesses of the gas around high specific star-formation rate galaxies are higher at all distances, and the line ratios are closer to ratios characteristic of H II regions compared with low specific star-formation rate galaxies. The less concentrated and lower stellar mass samples exhibit line ratios that are more like H II regions at larger distances than their more concentrated and higher stellar mass counterparts. The largest difference between different subsamples occurs when the galaxies are split by stellar mass. We additionally infer that gas far from the midplane in more massive galaxies has the highest temperatures and steepest radial temperature gradients based on their [N II]/Hα and [O II]/Hα ratios between the disk and the halo. SDSS IV.

  2. Helicobacter pylori Type IV Secretion System and Its Adhesin Subunit, CagL, Mediate Potent Inflammatory Responses in Primary Human Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Tafreshi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer in humans. Although the gastric epithelium is the primary site of H. pylori colonization, H. pylori can gain access to deeper tissues. Concurring with this notion, H. pylori has been found in the vicinity of endothelial cells in gastric submucosa. Endothelial cells play crucial roles in innate immune response, wound healing and tumorigenesis. This study examines the molecular mechanisms by which H. pylori interacts with and triggers inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. We observed that H. pylori infection of primary human endothelial cells stimulated secretion of the key inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-8 (IL-8. In particular, IL-8, a potent chemokine and angiogenic factor, was secreted by H. pylori-infected endothelial cells to levels ~10- to 20-fold higher than that typically observed in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. These inflammatory responses were triggered by the H. pylori type IV secretion system (T4SS and the T4SS-associated adhesin CagL, but not the translocation substrate CagA. Moreover, in contrast to integrin α5β1 playing an essential role in IL-8 induction by H. pylori upon infection of gastric epithelial cells, both integrin α5β1 and integrin αvβ3 were dispensable for IL-8 induction in H. pylori-infected endothelial cells. However, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is crucial for mediating the potent H. pylori-induced IL-8 response in endothelial cells. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which the H. pylori T4SS and its adhesin subunit, CagL, may contribute to H. pylori pathogenesis by stimulating the endothelial innate immune responses, while highlighting EGFR as a potential therapeutic target for controlling H. pylori-induced inflammation.

  3. Feasibility and effectiveness of the implementation of a primary prevention programme for type 2 diabetes in routine primary care practice: a phase IV cluster randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez Alvaro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to perform an independent evaluation of the feasibility and effectiveness of an educational programme for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (DM2 in high risk populations in primary care settings, implanted within the Basque Health Service - Osakidetza. Methods/design This is a prospective phase IV cluster clinical trial conducted under routine conditions in 14 primary health care centres of Osakidetza, randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. We will recruit a total sample of 1089 individuals, aged between 45 and 70 years old, without diabetes but at high risk of developing the condition (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, FINDRISC ≥ 14 and follow them up for 2 years. Primary health care nursing teams of the intervention centres will implement DE-PLAN, a structured educational intervention program focused on changing healthy lifestyles (diet and physical activity; while the patients in the control centres will receive the usual care for the prevention and treatment of DM2 currently provided in Osakidetza. The effectiveness attributable to the programme will be assessed by comparing the changes observed in patients exposed to the intervention and those in the control group, with respect to the risk of developing DM2 and lifestyle habits. In terms of feasibility, we will assess indicators of population coverage and programme implementation. Discussion The aim of this study is to provide the scientific basis for disseminate the programme to the remaining primary health centres in Osakidetza, as a novel way of addressing prevention of DM2. The study design will enable us to gather information on the effectiveness of the intervention as well as the feasibility of implementing it in routine practice. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01365013

  4. Evolutionary Dynamics of Pathoadaptation Revealed by Three Independent Acquisitions of the VirB/D4 Type IV Secretion System in Bartonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Alexander; Segers, Francisca H I D; Quebatte, Maxime; Mistl, Claudia; Manfredi, Pablo; Körner, Jonas; Chomel, Bruno B; Kosoy, Michael; Maruyama, Soichi; Engel, Philipp; Dehio, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    The α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises a group of ubiquitous mammalian pathogens that are studied as a model for the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis. Vast abundance of two particular phylogenetic lineages of Bartonella had been linked to enhanced host adaptability enabled by lineage-specific acquisition of a VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) and parallel evolution of complex effector repertoires. However, the limited availability of genome sequences from one of those lineages as well as other, remote branches of Bartonella has so far hampered comprehensive understanding of how the VirB/D4 T4SS and its effectors called Beps have shaped Bartonella evolution. Here, we report the discovery of a third repertoire of Beps associated with the VirB/D4 T4SS of B. ancashensis, a novel human pathogen that lacks any signs of host adaptability and is only distantly related to the two species-rich lineages encoding a VirB/D4 T4SS. Furthermore, sequencing of ten new Bartonella isolates from under-sampled lineages enabled combined in silico analyses and wet lab experiments that suggest several parallel layers of functional diversification during evolution of the three Bep repertoires from a single ancestral effector. Our analyses show that the Beps of B. ancashensis share many features with the two other repertoires, but may represent a more ancestral state that has not yet unleashed the adaptive potential of such an effector set. We anticipate that the effectors of B. ancashensis will enable future studies to dissect the evolutionary history of Bartonella effectors and help unraveling the evolutionary forces underlying bacterial host adaptation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. IS1111 insertion sequences of Coxiella burnetii: characterization and use for repetitive element PCR-based differentiation of Coxiella burnetii isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massung Robert F

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii contains the IS1111 transposase which is present 20 times in the Nine Mile phase I (9Mi/I genome. A single PCR primer that binds to each IS element, and primers specific to a region ~500-bp upstream of each of the 20 IS1111 elements were designed. The amplified products were characterized and used to develop a repetitive element PCR genotyping method. Results Isolates Nine Mile phase II, Nine Mile RSA 514, Nine Mile Baca, Scottish, Ohio, Australian QD, Henzerling phase I, Henzerling phase II, M44, KAV, PAV, Q238, Q195 and WAV were tested by PCR and compared to 9Mi/I. Sequencing was used to determine the exact differences in isolates which lacked specific IS elements or produced PCR products of differing size. From this data, an algorithm was created utilizing four primer pairs that allows for differentiation of unknown isolates into five genomic groups. Additional isolates (Priscilla Q177, Idaho Q, Qiyi, Poker Cat, Q229 and Q172 and nine veterinary samples were characterized using the algorithm which resulted in their placement into three distinct genomic groups. Conclusion Through this study significant differences, including missing elements and sequence alterations within and near IS element coding regions, were found between the isolates tested. Further, a method for differentiation of C. burnetii isolates into one of five genomic groups was created. This algorithm may ultimately help to determine the relatedness between known and unknown isolates of C. burnetii.

  6. Reduction of Coxiella burnetii prevalence by vaccination of goats and sheep, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; van den Brom, René; Roest, Hendrik I J; Bouma, Annemarie; Vellema, Piet; Pieterse, Maarten; Dercksen, Daan; Nielen, Mirjam

    2011-03-01

    Recently, the number of human Q fever cases in the Netherlands increased dramatically. In response to this increase, dairy goats and dairy sheep were vaccinated against Coxiella burnetii. All pregnant dairy goats and dairy sheep in herds positive for Q fever were culled. We identified the effect of vaccination on bacterial shedding by small ruminants. On the day of culling, samples of uterine fluid, vaginal mucus, and milk were obtained from 957 pregnant animals in 13 herds. Prevalence and bacterial load were reduced in vaccinated animals compared with unvaccinated animals. These effects were most pronounced in animals during their first pregnancy. Results indicate that vaccination may reduce bacterial load in the environment and human exposure to C. burnetii.

  7. Prevalence of Coxiella Burnetii in Dairy Herds - Diagnostic Methods and Risk to Humans - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymańska-Czerwińska Monika

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. The main source of infection are ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats. C. burnetii is excreted via birth products, vaginal mucus, milk, and faeces. Raw milk is considered useful for epidemiological examinations of animals and evaluation of infection dynamics at the herd level. This article summarises data on prevalence studies on C. burnetii in bulk-tank milk in different European countries with the means of serological tests and PCR. It also summarises the results of studies to evaluate the actual risk of disease transmission to humans through consumption of raw milk. Moreover, the available diagnostic tools for detection C. burnetii infection are presented.

  8. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in domestic ruminants in Gran Canaria Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, N F; Carranza, C; Bolaños, M; Pérez-Arellano, J L; Gutierrez, C

    2010-04-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, a zoonosis with worldwide occurrence. In the Canary Islands, the overall seroprevalence in humans has been estimated to be 21.5%. Gran Canaria island concentrates the highest ruminant population in the archipelago and the prevalence of the human infection is 23.5%. To evaluate the seroprevalence in livestock and the affected areas in Gran Canaria island, a total of 1249 ruminants were randomly selected for this study (733 goats, 369 sheep and 147 cattle). The samples were evaluated using an indirect ELISA Kit. The results showed seroprevalences of 60.4%, 31.7% and 12.2% in goats, sheep and cattle, respectively. Based on these results, Q fever could be considered as endemic in Gran Canaria island. Sanitary measures should be taken at the farm level to minimize the risk of exposure of C. burnetii to humans.

  9. Investigation of Rickettsia, Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella in ticks from animals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halajian, Ali; Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Heyne, Heloise; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Oteo, José A

    2016-03-01

    Ticks are involved in the epidemiology of several human pathogens including spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp. Human diseases caused by these microorganisms have been reported from South Africa. The presence of SFG Rickettsia spp., C. burnetii and Bartonella spp. was investigated in 205 ticks collected from domestic and wild animals from Western Cape and Limpopo provinces (South Africa). Rickettsia massiliae was detected in 10 Amblyomma sylvaticum and 1 Rhipicephalus simus whereas Rickettsia africae was amplified in 7 Amblyomma hebraeum. Neither C. burnetii nor Bartonella spp. was found in the examined ticks. This study demonstrates the presence of the tick borne pathogen R. massiliae in South Africa (Western Cape and Limpopo provinces), and corroborates the presence of the African tick-bite fever agent (R. africae) in this country (Limpopo province). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. RAW MILK AT VENDING MACHINES: EVALUATION OF E. SAKAZAKII, COXIELLA BURNETII AND M. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN PIEDMONT EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gallina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Italian consumers changed their food habits in the last period; the increase of raw milk consuming is also related to the high number of self service vending machines that have been authorized, particularly in Northern Italy. According to national rules on raw milk hygienic conditions, the most important bacteria are checked by Veterinary Services; the aim of this study was to investigate some emerging or re-emerging hazards in raw milk at vending machines. For this reason 100 raw milk samples were collected and analyzed in order to detect E. sakazakii, Coxiella burnetii and M. avium subsp paratuberculosis. One milk sample resulted to be positive with PCR method for E. sakazakii (no cultural confirmation was possible; 49% of samples resulted posivite for the presence of Coxiella burnetii specific DNA, and 5% of milk samples came out positive to the presence of M. paratuberuclosis antibodies with ELISA methods.

  11. High throughput detection of Coxiella burnetii by real-time PCR with internal control system and automated DNA preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Panning, Marcus; Kilwinski, Jochen; Greiner-Fischer, Susanne; Peters, Martin; Kramme, Stefanie; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Meyer, Hermann; Henning, Klaus; Drosten, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q-fever, a widespread zoonosis. Due to its high environmental stability and infectivity it is regarded as a category B biological weapon agent. In domestic animals infection remains either asymptomatic or presents as infertility or abortion. Clinical presentation in humans can range from mild flu-like illness to acute pneumonia and hepatitis. Endocarditis represents the most common form of chronic Q-fever. In humans serology is t...

  12. Coxiella burnetii Circulation in a Naturally Infected Flock of Sheep: Individual Follow-Up of Antibodies in Serum and Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Joulié, A.; Rousset, E.; Gasqui, P.; Lepetitcolin, E.; Leblond, A.; Sidi-Boumedine, K.; Jourdain, E.

    2017-01-01

    The control of Q fever, a zoonotic disease caused by the Coxiella burnetii bacterium, remains a scientific challenge. Domestic ruminants are considered the main reservoir, shedding C. burnetii essentially through parturition products during abortion or birth. Sheep are particularly frequently associated with human outbreaks, but there are insufficient field data to fully understand disease dynamics and to instigate efficient control measures. A longitudinal follow-up study of a naturally infe...

  13. Circulation of Coxiella burnetii in a Naturally Infected Flock of Dairy Sheep: Shedding Dynamics, Environmental Contamination, and Genotype Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Joulié, A.; Laroucau, K.; Bailly, X.; Prigent, M.; Gasqui, P.; Lepetitcolin, E.; Blanchard, B.; Rousset, E.; Sidi-Boumedine, K.; Jourdain, E.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Domestic ruminants are considered to be the main reservoir. Sheep, in particular, may frequently cause outbreaks in humans. Because within-flock circulation data are essential to implementing optimal management strategies, we performed a follow-up study of a naturally infected flock of dairy sheep. We aimed to (i) describe C. burnetii shedding dynamics by sampling vaginal mucus, feces, and milk, (ii) assess circulating strain divers...

  14. Coxiella burnetii Shedding Routes and Antibody Response after Outbreaks of Q Fever-Induced Abortion in Dairy Goat Herds▿

    OpenAIRE

    Rousset, Elodie; Berri, Mustapha; Durand, Benoit; Dufour, Philippe; Prigent, Myriam; Delcroix, Thibault; Touratier, Anne; Rodolakis, Annie

    2008-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium largely carried by ruminants and shed into milk, vaginal mucus, and feces. The main potential hazard to humans and animals is due to shedding of bacteria that can then persist in the environment and be aerosolized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shedding after an outbreak of Q fever abortion in goat herds and to assess the relationship with the occurrence of abortions and antibody responses. Aborting and nonaborting goa...

  15. No excess risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among women with serological markers of previous infection with Coxiella burnetii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Mølbak, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Q fever caused by Coxiella burnetii is transmitted to humans by inhalation of aerosols from animal birth products. Q fever in pregnancy is suspected to be a potential cause of fetal and maternal morbidity and fetal mortality but the pathogenesis is poorly understood, and even in Q fever endemic...... areas, the magnitude of a potential association is not established.We aimed to examine if presence of antibodies to C. burnetii during pregnancy or seroconversion were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes....

  16. Q fever in Egypt: Epidemiological survey of Coxiella burnetii specific antibodies in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and camels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Klemmer

    Full Text Available Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Clinical presentation in humans varies from asymptomatic to flu-like illness and severe sequelae may be seen. Ruminants are often sub-clinically infected or show reproductive disorders such as abortions. In Egypt, only limited data on the epidemiology of Q fever in animals are available. Using a stratified two stage random sampling approach, we evaluated the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii specific antibodies among ruminants and camels in 299 herds. A total of 2,699 blood samples was investigated using enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Coxiella burnetii specific antibodies were detected in 40.7% of camels (215/528, 19.3% of cattle (162/840, 11.2% of buffaloes (34/304, 8.9% of sheep (64/716 and 6.8% of goats (21/311, respectively. Odds of seropositivity were significantly higher for cattle (aOR: 3.17; 95% CI: 1.96-5.13 and camels (aOR: 9.75; 95% CI: 6.02-15.78. Significant differences in seropositivity were also found between domains (Western Desert, Eastern Desert and Nile Valley and Delta and 25 governorates (p 0.05. Only 8.7% of the interviewed people living on the farms consumed raw camel milk and none reported prior knowledge on Q fever. Findings from this nationwide study show that exposure to Coxiella burnetii is common in ruminants and camels. Disease awareness among physicians, veterinarians and animal owners has to be raised. Future epidemiological investigations have to elucidate the impact of Q fever on human health and on the economy of Egypt.

  17. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of Coxiella burnetii antibody ELISA tests in bovine blood and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Suman; Toft, Nils; Agerholm, Jørgen S.

    2013-01-01

    Serological tests for Coxiella burnetii (the causative agent of Q fever) antibodies are usually based on enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) although this method is not thoroughly evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for detection...... lactating cows is relatively easy, non-invasive and inexpensive and hence milk ELISA may be a better option for screening lactating cows. But, blood ELISA is an option for screening non-lactating cattle....

  18. Bartonella henselae trimeric autotransporter adhesin BadA expression interferes with effector translocation by the VirB/D4 type IV secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun-Yueh; Franz, Bettina; Truttmann, Matthias C; Riess, Tanja; Gay-Fraret, Jérémie; Faustmann, Marco; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Dehio, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    The Gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae is the aetiological agent of cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis in humans. Two pathogenicity factors of B. henselae - each displaying multiple functions in host cell interaction - have been characterized in greater detail: the trimeric autotransporter Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) and the type IV secretion system VirB/D4 (VirB/D4 T4SS). BadA mediates, e.g. binding to fibronectin (Fn), adherence to endothelial cells (ECs) and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VirB/D4 translocates several Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into the cytoplasm of infected ECs, resulting, e.g. in uptake of bacterial aggregates via the invasome structure, inhibition of apoptosis and activation of a proangiogenic phenotype. Despite this knowledge of the individual activities of BadA or VirB/D4 it is unknown whether these major virulence factors affect each other in their specific activities. In this study, expression and function of BadA and VirB/D4 were analysed in a variety of clinical B. henselae isolates. Data revealed that most isolates have lost expression of either BadA or VirB/D4 during in vitro passages. However, the phenotypic effects of coexpression of both virulence factors was studied in one clinical isolate that was found to stably coexpress BadA and VirB/D4, as well as by ectopic expression of BadA in a strain expressing VirB/D4 but not BadA. BadA, which forms a dense layer on the bacterial surface, negatively affected VirB/D4-dependent Bep translocation and invasome formation by likely preventing close contact between the bacterial cell envelope and the host cell membrane. In contrast, BadA-dependent Fn binding, adhesion to ECs and VEGF secretion were not affected by a functional VirB/D4 T4SS. The obtained data imply that the essential virulence factors BadA and VirB/D4 are likely differentially expressed during different stages of the infection cycle of

  19. Raman spectra of Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}X{sub 4}{sup VI} magnetic quaternary semiconductor compounds with tetragonal stannite type structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincón, C., E-mail: crincon@ula.ve; Quintero, M.; Power, Ch.; Moreno, E.; Quintero, E.; Morocoima, M. [Centro de Estudios de Semiconductores, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Henao, J. A.; Macías, M. A. [Grupo de Investigación en Química Estructural, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Química, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Apartado Aéreo 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2015-05-28

    A comparative study of the Raman spectra of Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}S{sub 4}{sup VI} and Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}Se{sub 4}{sup VI}(where B = Mn or Fe) magnetic quaternary semiconductor compounds with stannite-type structure (I4{sup ¯}2m) has been done. Most of the fourteen Raman lines expected for these materials were observed in the spectra. The two strongest lines observed have been assigned to the IR inactive A{sub 1}{sup 1} and A{sub 1}{sup 2} stannite modes that originated from the motion of the S or Se anion around the Cu and C{sup IV} cations remaining at rest. The shift in the frequency of these two lines of about 150 cm{sup −1} to lower energies observed in Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}Se{sub 4}{sup VI} compounds as compared to those in Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}S{sub 4}{sup VI} ones, can then be explained as due to the anion mass effect. Based on the fact that values of these frequencies depend mainly on anion mass and bond-stretching forces between nearest-neighbor atoms, the vibrational frequencies v{sup ¯}(A{sub 1}{sup 2}) and v{sup ¯}(A{sub 1}{sup 2}) of both modes for several Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}X{sub 4}{sup VI} stannite compounds (where X = S, Se, or Te) very close to the experimental data reported for these materials were calculated from a simple model that relates these stretching forces to the anion-cation bond-distances.

  20. Treatment of melasma with low fluence, large spot size, 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser for the treatment of melasma in Fitzpatrick skin types II-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alia S; Hussain, Mussarat; Goldberg, David J

    2011-12-01

    Melasma is a common condition affecting over six million American women. Treatment of dermal or combined melasma is difficult and does not respond well to conventional topical therapies. Various light sources have been used recently in the treatment of melasma including fractionated ablative and non-ablative lasers as well as intense pulse light. We report the use of low fluence, large spot size Q-switched, Nd:Yag laser for the treatment of melasma in skin types II-IV.

  1. Routinely used immunoassays do not detect circulating anti-GBM antibodies against native NC1 hexamer and EA epitope of the α3 chain of type IV collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavarino, Giovanna; Gauthier, Arnaud; Hellmark, Thomas; Carron, Pierre-Louis; Giovannini, Diane; Colliard, Sophie; Dragon-Durey, Marie-Agnès; Segelmark, Mårten; Cesbron, Jean-Yves; Dumestre-Pérard, Chantal

    2018-04-12

    Detection of circulating anti-GBM antibodies has a key role for the diagnosis of Goodpasture syndrome but immunoassays using purified or recombinant alpha3(IV)NC1 as antigen do not recognize all anti-GBM antibodies. We show that anti-GBM antibodies directed against epitopes in their native conformation or cryptic epitopes are detected by indirect immunofluorescence. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Highly sensitive real-time PCR for specific detection and quantification of Coxiella burnetii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linke Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii, the bacterium causing Q fever, is an obligate intracellular biosafety level 3 agent. Detection and quantification of these bacteria with conventional methods is time consuming and dangerous. During the last years, several PCR based diagnostic assays were developed to detect C. burnetii DNA in cell cultures and clinical samples. We developed and evaluated TaqMan-based real-time PCR assays that targeted the singular icd (isocitrate dehydrogenase gene and the transposase of the IS1111a element present in multiple copies in the C. burnetii genome. Results To evaluate the precision of the icd and IS1111 real-time PCR assays, we performed different PCR runs with independent DNA dilutions of the C. burnetii Nine Mile RSA493 strain. The results showed very low variability, indicating efficient reproducibility of both assays. Using probit analysis, we determined that the minimal number of genome equivalents per reaction that could be detected with a 95% probability was 10 for the icd marker and 6.5 for the IS marker. Plasmid standards with cloned icd and IS1111 fragments were used to establish standard curves which were linear over a range from 10 to 107 starting plasmid copy numbers. We were able to quantify cell numbers of a diluted, heat-inactivated Coxiella isolate with a detection limit of 17 C. burnetii particles per reaction. Real-time PCR targeting both markers was performed with DNA of 75 different C. burnetii isolates originating from all over the world. Using this approach, the number of IS1111 elements in the genome of the Nine Mile strain was determined to be 23, close to 20, the number revealed by genome sequencing. In other isolates, the number of IS1111 elements varied widely (between seven and 110 and seemed to be very high in some isolates. Conclusion We validated TaqMan-based real-time PCR assays targeting the icd and IS1111 markers of C. burnetii. The assays were shown to be specific, highly

  3. The Role of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV in Lung Metastasis of Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Our studies focused on (1) cloning and sequencing of wild-type endothelial DPP IV (wtDPP IV) and preparation of truncated DPP IV ( tDPP IV); (2...that was identical to hepatic DPP IV. Acid extraction of rat lung yielded a tDPP IV, which was an effective inhibitor of breast cancer cell adhesion to

  4. IV treatment at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other IV treatments you may receive after you leave the hospital include: Treatment for hormone deficiencies Medicines for severe nausea that cancer chemotherapy or pregnancy may cause Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for pain (this is IV ...

  5. Múltiplos carcinomas basocelulares na região pubiana em uma paciente fototipo IV: relato de caso Multiple basal cell carcinomas in the pubic area in a patient with skin type IV: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiani Banhos Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma basocelular é a neoplasia maligna cutânea mais comum em humanos, localizando-se, frequentemente, em áreas expostas e em indivíduos de pele clara. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente de 62 anos, faiodérmica, com múltiplas lesões de bordas discretamente elevadas, eritemato-acastanhadas na região pubiana, cujo diagnóstico clínico foi carcinoma basocelular pigmentado, confirmado através do estudo histopatológico. A imunoistoquímica das lesões foi negativa para a pesquisa de papiloma vírusBasal cell carcinoma is the most common type of malignant cutaneous neoplasm in humans, being more frequently located in exposed areas and in fair-skinned individuals. It is reported the case of a 62-yearold female patient, brown-skinned ,with multiple lesions with edges slightly raised, reddish-brown in the pubic region, whose clinical diagnosis was pigmented basal cell carcinoma, confirmed by histopathology. Immunohistochemistry of the lesions was negative for the detection of papilloma virus

  6. Long-term dynamics of Coxiella burnetii in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGonzález-Barrio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects of the dynamics of Coxiella burnetii that are relevant for the implementation of control strategies in ruminant herds with endemic Q-fever are unknown. We designed a longitudinal study to monitor the dynamics of exposure to C. burnetii in a red deer herd with endemic infection in order to allow the design of Q fever specific control approaches. Other relevant aspects of the dynamics of C. burnetii - the effect of herd immune status, age, season and early infection on exposure, the average half-life of antibodies, the presence and duration of maternal humoral immunity and the age of first exposure - were analysed. The dynamics of C. burnetii in deer herds seems to be modulated by host herd and host individual factors and by particular host life history traits. Red deer females become exposed to C. burnetii at the beginning of their second year since maternal antibodies protect them after birth and during the main pathogen shedding season - at the end of spring-early summer. Infection pressure varies between years, probably associated to herd immunity effects, determining inter-annual variation in the risk of exposure. These results suggest that any strategy applied to control C. burnetii in deer herds should be designed to induce immunity in their first year of life immediately after losing maternal antibodies. The short average life of C. burnetii antibodies suggests that any protection based upon humoral immunity would require re-vaccination every 6 months.

  7. Proteomic and systems biology analysis of the monocyte response to Coxiella burnetii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Shipman

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of Q fever. Chronic Q fever can produce debilitating fatigue and C. burnetii is considered a significant bioterror threat. C. burnetii occupies the monocyte phagolysosome and although prior work has explained features of the host-pathogen interaction, many aspects are still poorly understood. We have conducted a proteomic investigation of human Monomac I cells infected with the Nine Mile Phase II strain of C. burnetii and used the results as a framework for a systems biology model of the host response. Our principal methodology was multiplex differential 2D gel electrophoresis using ZDyes, a new generation of covalently linked fluorescent protein detection dyes under development at Montana State University. The 2D gel analysis facilitated the detection of changes in posttranslational modifications on intact proteins in response to infection. The systems model created from our data a framework for the design of experiments to seek a deeper understanding of the host-pathogen interactions.

  8. Novel Detection of Coxiella spp., Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis Endosymbionts in Deer Keds (Lipoptena fortisetosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hun Lee

    Full Text Available We describe for the first time the detection of Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis endosymbionts in blood-sucking deer keds. Eight deer keds attached to a Korean water deer were identified as Lipoptena fortisetosa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae by morphological and genetic analyses. Among the endosymbionts assessed, CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis were identified in L. fortisetosa by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Based on phylogeny, CLB 16S rRNA sequences were classified into clade B, sharing 99.4% identity with CLB from Haemaphysalis longicornis in South Korea. Although the virulence of CLB to vertebrates is still controversial, several studies have reported clinical symptoms in birds due to CLB infections. The 18S rRNA sequences of T. luwenshuni and T. ovis in this study were 98.8-100% identical to those in GenBank, and all of the obtained sequences of T. ovis and T. luwenshuni in this study were 100% identical to each other, respectively. Although further studies are required to positively confirm L. fortisetosa as a biological vector of these pathogens, strong genetic relationships among sequences from this and previous studies suggest potential transmission among mammalian hosts by ticks and keds.

  9. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in domesticated and feral cats in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Amanda J; Bosward, Katrina L; Heller, Jane; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2015-05-15

    The seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in cats in eastern Australia is unknown, and the risk of transmission from cats to humans is undetermined. This study aimed to determine the exposure of cats to C. burnetii in four distinct cat subpopulations. An indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used for detection of anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans were adapted, verified for use on feline serum, and compared. Cat serum samples (n=712) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [cattery-confined breeding cats, pet cats, feral cats and shelter cats]. The proportions of seropositive cats were; cattery-confined breeding cats (35/376, 9.3%), pets (2/198, 1%), feral cats (0/50), shelter cats (0/88). The significant variables in C. burnetii seropositivity were cattery-confined breeding cat subpopulation and sterilisation status, with infected cats 17.1 (CI 4.2-70.2; Pcats and 6.00 (CI 2.13-16.89; Pcats have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii is seen amongst cattery-confined breeding cats. Cat breeders and veterinary personnel involved in feline reproductive procedures may be at higher risk of exposure to C. burnetii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Shedding and serological patterns of dairy cows following abortions associated with Coxiella burnetii DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guatteo, R; Joly, A; Beaudeau, F

    2012-03-23

    To describe both shedding and serological patterns following abortions detected as being associated with Coxiella burnetii (Cb), 24 cows experiencing an abortion due to Cb were followed over a one month period. Samples taken on the day of abortion (D0) were followed 3-fold by weekly samplings from day 14 (D14) to D28 after the abortion. Milk and vaginal mucus were collected at each weekly sampling and tested using real-time PCR while blood samples were collected 2-fold on D21 and D28 and tested using ELISA. We found a very short duration of C. burnetii shedding in vaginal mucus after abortion, highlighting the need to collect samples as rapidly as possible following an abortion to avoid false negative results. In contrast with previous results, concomitancy of vaginal and mucus shedding was frequent, especially for cows shedding a high bacterial load on DO leading to the hypothesis that the clinical onset of the infection influences the modalities of Cb shedding. Lastly, serological results indicating a lack of sensitivity to detect Cb shedder cows (especially for cows for which Ct values were high) suggest that ELISA is not a useful tool to diagnose abortions at the individual level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cell-free propagation of Coxiella burnetii does not affect its relative virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runa Kuley

    Full Text Available Q fever is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. In vitro growth of the bacterium is usually limited to viable eukaryotic host cells imposing experimental constraints for molecular studies, such as the identification and characterisation of major virulence factors. Studies of pathogenicity may benefit from the recent development of an extracellular growth medium for C. burnetii. However, it is crucial to investigate the consistency of the virulence phenotype of strains propagated by the two fundamentally different culturing systems. In the present study, we assessed the viability of C. burnetii and the lipopolysaccaride (LPS encoding region of the bacteria in both culture systems as indirect but key parameters to the infection potential of C. burnetii. Propidium monoazide (PMA treatment-based real-time PCR was used for enumeration of viable C. burnetii which were validated by fluorescent infectious focus forming unit counting assays. Furthermore, RNA isolated from C. burnetiipropagated in both the culture systems was examined for LPS-related gene expression. All thus far known LPS-related genes were found to be expressed in early passages in both culturing systems indicating the presence of predominantly the phase I form of C. burnetii. Finally, we used immune-competent mice to provide direct evidence, that the relative virulence of different C. burnetii strains is essentially the same for both axenic and cell-based methods of propagation.

  12. Characterization of a novel arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec composite island with significant homology to Staphylococcus epidermidis ACME type II in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotype ST22-MRSA-IV.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-05-01

    The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is prevalent among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates of sequence type 8 (ST8) and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type IVa (USA300) (ST8-MRSA-IVa isolates), and evidence suggests that ACME enhances the ability of ST8-MRSA-IVa to grow and survive on its host. ACME has been identified in a small number of isolates belonging to other MRSA clones but is widespread among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). This study reports the first description of ACME in two distinct strains of the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. A total of 238 MRSA isolates recovered in Ireland between 1971 and 2008 were investigated for ACME using a DNA microarray. Twenty-three isolates (9.7%) were ACME positive, and all were either MRSA genotype ST8-MRSA-IVa (7\\/23, 30%) or MRSA genotype ST22-MRSA-IV (16\\/23, 70%). Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular characterization revealed the presence of a novel 46-kb ACME and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) composite island (ACME\\/SCCmec-CI) in ST22-MRSA-IVh isolates (n=15). This ACME\\/SCCmec-CI consists of a 12-kb DNA region previously identified in ACME type II in S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, a truncated copy of the J1 region of SCCmec type I, and a complete SCCmec type IVh element. The composite island has a novel genetic organization, with ACME located within orfX and SCCmec located downstream of ACME. One PVL locus-positive ST22-MRSA-IVa isolate carried ACME located downstream of SCCmec type IVa, as previously described in ST8-MRSA-IVa. These results suggest that ACME has been acquired by ST22-MRSA-IV on two independent occasions. At least one of these instances may have involved horizontal transfer and recombination events between MRSA and CoNS. The presence of ACME may enhance dissemination of ST22-MRSA-IV, an already successful MRSA clone.

  13. Detection of Coxiella burnetii by PCR in bulk tank milk samples from dairy caprine herds in southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalili

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To use PCR for the detection of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii in bulk tank milk samples collected from dairy caprine herds in southeast Iran. Methods: In the present study, 31 goat bulk milk from 31 dairy goat herds were tested for C. burnetii using trans-PCR assay. The animals which their milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Results: In total, 5 of 31 (16.12% goat milk samples were positive. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate clinically healthy dairy goats are important sources of C. burnetii infection in this area.

  14. In vitro studies of interaction of rickettsia and macrophages: effect of ultraviolet light on Coxiella burnetti inactivation and macrophage enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.S.; Kishimoto, R.A.; Canonico, P.G.

    1980-03-01

    The inactivation of Coxiella burnetii in suspension or in cultures of guinea pig peritoneal macrophages by ultraviolet (uv) light was studied. The effect of uv treatment on the activity of macrophage organelle marker enzymes and their subsequent equilibration in linear sucrose gradients was also determined. It was shown that uv treatment for 15 s at a distance of 10 cm inactivated C. burnetti, either in suspension or within guinea pig peritoneal macrophages. Similar uv treatment had little effect on the activity or equilibration of macrophage organelle marker enzymes in linear sucrose gradients.

  15. Phase Variation Analysis of Coxiella burnetii during Serial Passage in Cell Culture by Use of Monoclonal Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Hotta, Akitoyo; Kawamura, Midori; To, Ho; Andoh, Masako; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Fukushi, Hideto; Hirai, Katsuya

    2002-01-01

    Antigenic changes in Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile strain phase I during serial passages in cell culture were analyzed with three groups of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against lipopolysaccharide. The MAbs of group 1 did not react with organisms that were passaged over five times, and the MAbs of group 2 did not react with organisms that were passaged over eight times. The MAbs of group 3 reacted with organisms passaged up to 15 times but did not react with phase II cells. These results suggest...

  16. Phase Variation Analysis of Coxiella burnetii during Serial Passage in Cell Culture by Use of Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Akitoyo; Kawamura, Midori; To, Ho; Andoh, Masako; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Fukushi, Hideto; Hirai, Katsuya

    2002-01-01

    Antigenic changes in Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile strain phase I during serial passages in cell culture were analyzed with three groups of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against lipopolysaccharide. The MAbs of group 1 did not react with organisms that were passaged over five times, and the MAbs of group 2 did not react with organisms that were passaged over eight times. The MAbs of group 3 reacted with organisms passaged up to 15 times but did not react with phase II cells. These results suggest that C. burnetii could be differentiated into four phase states during phase variation. PMID:12117996

  17. In vitro studies of interaction of rickettsia and macrophages: effect of ultraviolet light on Coxiella burnetti inactivation and macrophage enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.S.; Kishimoto, R.A.; Canonico, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    The inactivation of Coxiella burnetii in suspension or in cultures of guinea pig peritoneal macrophages by ultraviolet (uv) light was studied. The effect of uv treatment on the activity of macrophage organelle marker enzymes and their subsequent equilibration in linear sucrose gradients was also determined. It was shown that uv treatment for 15 s at a distance of 10 cm inactivated C. burnetti, either in suspension or within guinea pig peritoneal macrophages. Similar uv treatment had little effect on the activity or equilibration of macrophage organelle marker enzymes in linear sucrose gradients

  18. Characterization of a Novel Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element (ACME) and Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec Composite Island with Significant Homology to Staphylococcus epidermidis ACME type II in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Genotype ST22-MRSA-IV.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-02-22

    The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is prevalent among ST8-MRSA-IVa (USA300) isolates and evidence suggests that ACME enhances the ability of ST8-MRSA-IVa to grow and survive on its host. ACME has been identified in a small number of isolates belonging to other MRSA clones but is widespread among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). This study reports the first description of ACME in two distinct strains of the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. A total of 238 MRSA isolates recovered in Ireland between 1971 and 2008 were investigated for ACME using a DNA microarray. Twenty-three isolates (9.7%) were ACME-positive, all were either MRSA genotype ST8-MRSA-IVa (7\\/23, 30%) or ST22-MRSA-IV (16\\/23, 70%). Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular characterization revealed the presence of a novel 46-kb ACME and SCCmec composite island (ACME\\/SCCmec-CI) in ST22-MRSA-IVh isolates (n = 15). This ACME\\/SCCmec-CI consists of a 12-kb DNA region previously identified in ACME type II in S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, a truncated copy of the J1 region of SCCmec I and a complete SCCmec IVh element. The composite island has a novel genetic organization with ACME located within orfX and SCCmec located downstream of ACME. One pvl-positive ST22-MRSA-IVa isolate carried ACME located downstream of SCCmec IVa as previously described in ST8-MRSA-IVa. These results suggest that ACME has been acquired by ST22-MRSA-IV on two independent occasions. At least one of these instances may have involved horizontal transfer and recombination events between MRSA and CoNS. The presence of ACME may enhance dissemination of ST22-MRSA-IV, an already successful MRSA clone.

  19. Toward the establishment of standardized in vitro tests for lipid-based formulations, part 3: understanding supersaturation versus precipitation potential during the in vitro digestion of type I, II, IIIA, IIIB and IV lipid-based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hywel D; Sassene, Philip; Kleberg, Karen; Calderone, Marilyn; Igonin, Annabel; Jule, Eduardo; Vertommen, Jan; Blundell, Ross; Benameur, Hassan; Müllertz, Anette; Pouton, Colin W; Porter, Christopher J H

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that digestion of lipid-based formulations (LBFs) can stimulate both supersaturation and precipitation. The current study has evaluated the drug, formulation and dose-dependence of the supersaturation - precipitation balance for a range of LBFs. Type I, II, IIIA/B LBFs containing medium-chain (MC) or long-chain (LC) lipids, and lipid-free Type IV LBF incorporating different doses of fenofibrate or tolfenamic acid were digested in vitro in a simulated intestinal medium. The degree of supersaturation was assessed through comparison of drug concentrations in aqueous digestion phases (APDIGEST) during LBF digestion and the equilibrium drug solubility in the same phases. Increasing fenofibrate or tolfenamic acid drug loads (i.e., dose) had negligible effects on LC LBF performance during digestion, but promoted drug crystallization (confirmed by XRPD) from MC and Type IV LBF. Drug crystallization was only evident in instances when the calculated maximum supersaturation ratio (SR(M)) was >3. This threshold SR(M) value was remarkably consistent across all LBF and was also consistent with previous studies with danazol. The maximum supersaturation ratio (SR(M)) provides an indication of the supersaturation 'pressure' exerted by formulation digestion and is strongly predictive of the likelihood of drug precipitation in vitro. This may also prove effective in discriminating the in vivo performance of LBFs.

  20. Successful treatment of direct carotid-cavernous fistula in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV without arterial puncture: the transvenous triple-overlay embolization (TAILOREd) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Thien J; Morton, Ryan P; Levitt, Michael R; Ghodke, Basavaraj V; Wink, Onno; Hallam, Danial K

    2017-08-18

    We report successful transvenous treatment of direct carotid-cavernous fistula in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV using a novel triple-overlay embolization (TAILOREd) technique without the need for arterial puncture, which is known to be highly risky in this patient group. The TAILOREd technique allowed for successful treatment using preoperative MR angiography as a three-dimensional overlay roadmap combined with cone beam CT and live fluoroscopy, precluding the need for an arterial puncture. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Thermodynamic characteristics of systems with solid solutions composed of crystal hydrates of lanthanide and yttrium chlorides, at 250C. III. Systems of Roozeboom's type IV, with restricted solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolova, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    The values of the activity, the activity coefficients, the free energy of mixing and the excess free energy of mixing have been calculated for CeCl 3 -LnCl 3 -H 2 O systems (where Ln identical with Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Y) containing solid solutions of types IV and IVa. It is shown that the stability of the solid solutions decreases with increasing difference between the radii of the cations of cerium and the second lanthanide, which enter into the composition of the components of the solid solutions. The factors determining the composition of a liquid solution corresponding to the eutonic point are specified

  2. A Probably Minor Role for Land-Applied Goat Manure in the Transmission of Coxiella burnetii to Humans in the 2007-2010 Dutch Q Fever Outbreak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Roest, H.I.J.; Bruin, de Arnout; Dercksen, D.; Santman-Berends, I.M.G.A.; Hoek, van der Wim; Dinkla, A.; Vellema, Jelmer; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, Q fever started to become a major public health problem in the Netherlands, with small ruminants as most probable source. In order to reduce environmental contamination, control measures for manure were implemented because of the assumption that manure was highly contaminated with Coxiella

  3. A probably minor role for land-applied goat manure in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans in the 2007–2010 Dutch Q fever outbreak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Brom, R.; Roest, H.J.; De Bruin, A.; Dercksen, D.; Santman-Berends, I.; Van der Hoek, W.; Dinkla, A.; Vellema, J.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, Q fever started to become a major public health problem in the Netherlands, with small ruminants as most probable source. In order to reduce environmental contamination, control measures for manure were implemented because of the assumption that manure was highly contaminated with Coxiella

  4. Culture-independent genome sequencing of Coxiella burnetii from a native heart valve of a Tunisian patient with severe infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Delaloye

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report draft genome of a Coxiella burnetii strain sequenced from the native valve of a patient presenting with severe endocarditis in Tunisia. The genome could be sequenced without a cellular or axenic culture step. The MST5 strain was demonstrated to be closely related to the published reference genome of C. burnetii CbuK_Q154.

  5. Risk Factors of Coxiella burnetii (Q Fever) Seropositivity in Veterinary Medicine Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Myrna M. T.; Schimmer, Barbara; Versteeg, Bart; Schneeberger, Peter; Berends, Boyd R.; Heederik, Dick; van der Hoek, Wim; Wouters, Inge M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Q fever is an occupational risk for veterinarians, however little is known about the risk for veterinary medicine students. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii among veterinary medicine students and to identify associated risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study with questionnaire and blood sample collection was performed among all veterinary medicine students studying in the Netherlands in 2006. Serum samples (n = 674), representative of all study years and study directions, were analyzed for C. burnetii IgG and IgM phase I and II antibodies with an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Seropositivity was defined as IgG phase I and/or II titer of 1∶32 and above. Results Of the veterinary medicine students 126 (18.7%) had IgG antibodies against C. burnetii. Seropositivity associated risk factors identified were the study direction ‘farm animals’ (Odds Ratio (OR) 3.27 [95% CI 2.14–5.02]), advanced year of study (OR year 6: 2.31 [1.22–4.39] OR year 3–5 1.83 [1.07–3.10]) having had a zoonosis during the study (OR 1.74 [1.07–2.82]) and ever lived on a ruminant farm (OR 2.73 [1.59–4.67]). Stratified analysis revealed study direction ‘farm animals’ to be a study-related risk factor apart from ever living on a farm. In addition we identified a clear dose-response relation for the number of years lived on a farm with C. burnetii seropositivity. Conclusions C. burnetii seroprevalence is considerable among veterinary medicine students and study related risk factors were identified. This indicates Q fever as an occupational risk for veterinary medicine students. PMID:22363803

  6. Emergence of Coxiella burnetii in ruminants on Reunion Island? Prevalence and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Cardinale

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a widespread zoonosis that is caused by Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii, and ruminants are identified as the main sources of human infections. Some human cases have been described, but very limited information was available about Q fever in ruminants on Reunion Island, a tropical island in the Indian Ocean. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from March 2011 to August 2012 to assess the Q fever prevalence and to identify the major risk factors of C. burnetii infection in ruminants. A total of 516 ruminants (245 cattle, 137 sheep and 134 goats belonging to 71 farms and localized in different ecosystems of the island were randomly selected. Samples of blood, vaginal mucus and milk were concomitantly collected from females, and a questionnaire was submitted to the farmers. Ticks from positively detected farms were also collected. The overall seropositivity was 11.8% in cattle, 1.4% in sheep and 13.4% in goats. C. burnetii DNA was detected by PCR in 0.81%, 4.4% and 20.1% in cow, sheep and goat vaginal swabs, respectively. C. burnetii shedding in milk was observed in 1% of cows, 0% in sheep and 4.7% in goats. None of the ticks were detected to be positive for C. burnetii. C. burnetii infection increased when the farm was exposed to prevailing winds and when there were no specific precautions for a visitor before entering the farm, and they decreased when a proper quarantine was set up for any introduction of a new ruminant and when the animals returned to the farm at night. MLVA genotyping confirmed the role of these risk factors in infection.

  7. Coxiella burnetii transcriptional analysis reveals serendipity clusters of regulation in intracellular bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Leroy

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever, is mainly transmitted to humans through an aerosol route. A spore-like form allows C. burnetii to resist different environmental conditions. Because of this, analysis of the survival strategies used by this bacterium to adapt to new environmental conditions is critical for our understanding of C. burnetii pathogenicity. Here, we report the early transcriptional response of C. burnetii under temperature stresses. Our data show that C. burnetii exhibited minor changes in gene regulation under short exposure to heat or cold shock. While small differences were observed, C. burnetii seemed to respond similarly to cold and heat shock. The expression profiles obtained using microarrays produced in-house were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Under temperature stresses, 190 genes were differentially expressed in at least one condition, with a fold change of up to 4. Globally, the differentially expressed genes in C. burnetii were associated with bacterial division, (pppGpp synthesis, wall and membrane biogenesis and, especially, lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan synthesis. These findings could be associated with growth arrest and witnessed transformation of the bacteria to a spore-like form. Unexpectedly, clusters of neighboring genes were differentially expressed. These clusters do not belong to operons or genetic networks; they have no evident associated functions and are not under the control of the same promoters. We also found undescribed but comparable clusters of regulation in previously reported transcriptomic analyses of intracellular bacteria, including Rickettsia sp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The transcriptomic patterns of C. burnetii observed under temperature stresses permits the recognition of unpredicted clusters of regulation for which the trigger mechanism remains unidentified but which may be the result of a new mechanism of epigenetic regulation.

  8. Hydroxychloroquine susceptibility determination of Coxiella burnetii in human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Khalil, Jacques Bou; Le Bideau, Marion; Perreal, Celine; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2017-07-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, survives and replicates in the acidic environment of monocytes/macrophages; hydroxychloroquine, through alkalinisation of the acidic vacuoles, is critical for the management of Q fever. In this study, a collection of C. burnetii strains isolated from human samples was tested to evaluate the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine. Serial two-fold dilutions of doxycycline (0.25-8 mg/L) and hydroxychloroquine (0.25-4 mg/L) were added to C. burnetii-infected human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblast cells after 48 h of incubation, in duplicate. DNA was detected by C. burnetii-specific semi-quantitative PCR with primers and probes designed for amplification of the IS1111 and IS30A spacers. A total of 29 C. burnetii isolates obtained from 29 patients were tested. Doxycycline MICs ranged from 0.25 mg/L to 0.5 mg/L and hydroxychloroquine MICs from 0.25 mg/L to >4 mg/L. Four C. burnetii stains had hydroxychloroquine MICs ≤ 1 mg/L. The concentration of hydroxychloroquine was associated with a significant decrease in C. burnetii DNA copies in HEL cells based on linear regression analysis (P= 0.01). Recommended serum concentrations of hydroxychloroquine significantly reduced the growth of C. burnetii. Moreover, some C. burnetii strains presented hydroxychloroquine MICs below the recommended serum concentrations, indicating that, for these cases, hydroxychloroquine treatment alone may even be effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk factors of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) seropositivity in veterinary medicine students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Myrna M T; Schimmer, Barbara; Versteeg, Bart; Schneeberger, Peter; Berends, Boyd R; Heederik, Dick; van der Hoek, Wim; Wouters, Inge M

    2012-01-01

    Q fever is an occupational risk for veterinarians, however little is known about the risk for veterinary medicine students. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii among veterinary medicine students and to identify associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study with questionnaire and blood sample collection was performed among all veterinary medicine students studying in The Netherlands in 2006. Serum samples (n = 674), representative of all study years and study directions, were analyzed for C. burnetii IgG and IgM phase I and II antibodies with an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Seropositivity was defined as IgG phase I and/or II titer of 1:32 and above. Of the veterinary medicine students 126 (18.7%) had IgG antibodies against C. burnetii. Seropositivity associated risk factors identified were the study direction 'farm animals' (Odds Ratio (OR) 3.27 [95% CI 2.14-5.02]), advanced year of study (OR year 6: 2.31 [1.22-4.39] OR year 3-5 1.83 [1.07-3.10]) having had a zoonosis during the study (OR 1.74 [1.07-2.82]) and ever lived on a ruminant farm (OR 2.73 [1.59-4.67]). Stratified analysis revealed study direction 'farm animals' to be a study-related risk factor apart from ever living on a farm. In addition we identified a clear dose-response relation for the number of years lived on a farm with C. burnetii seropositivity. C. burnetii seroprevalence is considerable among veterinary medicine students and study related risk factors were identified. This indicates Q fever as an occupational risk for veterinary medicine students.

  10. Molecular survey of Coxiella burnetii in wildlife and ticks at wildlife-livestock interfaces in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndeereh, David; Muchemi, Gerald; Thaiyah, Andrew; Otiende, Moses; Angelone-Alasaad, Samer; Jowers, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, a zoonotic disease of public health importance. The role of wildlife and their ticks in the epidemiology of C. burnetii in Kenya is unknown. This study analysed the occurrence and prevalence of the pathogen in wildlife and their ticks at two unique wildlife-livestock interfaces of Laikipia and Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) with the aim to determine the potential risk of transmission to livestock and humans. Blood from 79 and 73 animals in Laikipia and MMNR, respectively, and 756 and 95 ixodid ticks in each of the areas, respectively, was analysed. Ticks were pooled before analyses into 137 and 29 samples in Laikipia and MMNR, respectively, of one to eight non-engorged ticks according to species and animal host. Real-time PCR amplifying the repetitive insertion element IS1111a of the transposase gene was used to detect C. burnetii DNA. Although none of the animals and ticks from MMNR tested positive, ticks from Laikipia had an overall pooled prevalence of 2.92% resulting in a maximum-likelihood estimate of prevalence of 0.54%, 95% CI 0.17-1.24. Ticks positive for C. burnetii DNA belonged to the genus Rhipicephalus at a pooled prevalence of 2.96% (maximum-likelihood estimate of prevalence of 0.54%, 95% CI 0.17-1.26). These ticks were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. pulchellus and R. evertsi at pooled prevalence of 3.77, 3.03 and 2.04%, respectively. The presence of C. burnetii in ticks suggests circulation of the pathogen in Laikipia and demonstrates they may play a potential role in the epidemiology of Q fever in this ecosystem. The findings warrant further studies to understand the presence of C. burnetii in domestic animals and their ticks within both study areas.

  11. Persistence of Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, in murine adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassina Bechah

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is known to persist in humans and rodents but its cellular reservoir in hosts remains undetermined. We hypothesized that adipose tissue serves as a C. burnetii reservoir during bacterial latency. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were infected with C. burnetii by the intraperitoneal route or the intracheal route. Adipose tissue was tested for the presence of C. burnetii several months after infection. C. burnetii was detected in abdominal, inguinal and dorsal adipose tissue 4 months post-infection, when no bacteria were detected in blood, liver, lungs and spleen, regardless of the inoculation route and independently of mouse strain. The transfer of abdominal adipose tissue from convalescent BALB/c mice to naïve immunodeficient mice resulted in the infection of the recipient animals. It is likely that C. burnetii infects adipocytes in vivo because bacteria were found in adipocytes within adipose tissue and replicated within in vitro-differentiated adipocytes. In addition, C. burnetii induced a specific transcriptional program in in-vivo and in vitro-differentiated adipocytes, which was enriched in categories associated with inflammatory response, hormone response and cytoskeleton. These changes may account for bacterial replication in in-vitro and chronic infection in-vivo. Adipose tissue may be the reservoir in which C. burnetii persists for prolonged periods after apparent clinical cure. The mouse model of C. burnetii infection may be used to understand the relapses of Q fever and provide new perspectives to the follow-up of patients.

  12. Comparison of Coxiella burnetii shedding in milk of dairy bovine, caprine, and ovine herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolakis, A; Berri, M; Héchard, C; Caudron, C; Souriau, A; Bodier, C C; Blanchard, B; Camuset, P; Devillechaise, P; Natorp, J C; Vadet, J P; Arricau-Bouvery, N

    2007-12-01

    The shedding of Coxiella burnetii in bovine, caprine, and ovine milk was measured using PCR, in 3 herds for each species, the bulk tank milk samples of which were positive at the time of their selection. Milk samples of 95 cows, 120 goats, and 90 ewes were sampled over 16 wk, as was the bulk tank milk. The shedding of C. burnetii in vaginal mucus and feces was checked at the beginning of the experiment and 2 mo later. The clinical signs in the selected herds as well as the duration and the shedding routes differed among the 3 species. The cows were asymptomatic and shed C. burnetii almost exclusively in milk. In one of the caprine herds, abortions due to C. burnetii were reported. The goats excreted the bacteria mainly in milk. In contrast, the ewes, which came from flocks with abortions due to Q fever (C. burnetii infection), shed the bacteria mostly in feces and in vaginal mucus. This could explain why human outbreaks of Q fever are more often related to ovine flocks than to bovine herds. These excretions did not seem more frequent when the samples were taken close to parturition. The samples were taken from 0 to 421 d after parturition in bovine herds and from 5 to 119 d and 11 to 238 d after parturition in the caprine and ovine herds, respectively. The shedding in milk was sometimes intermittent, and several animals shed the bacteria but were negative by ELISA: 80% of the ewes were seronegative, underscoring the lack of sensitivity of the ELISA tests available for veterinary diagnosis. The detection of antibodies in milk seems more sensitive than it is in serum.

  13. Coxiella burnetii associated reproductive disorders in domestic animals-a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agerholm Jørgen S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacterium Coxiella burnetii has been detected in the fetal membranes, birth fluids and vaginal mucus, as well as in the milk and other excretions of several domestic mammals. The finding of C. burnetii in association with abortion, parturition and in the postpartum period has led to the hypothesis that C. burnetii causes a range of reproductive diseases. This review critically evaluates the scientific basis for this hypothesis in domestic mammals. The review demonstrates a solid evidence for the association between C. burnetii infection and sporadic cases of abortion, premature delivery, stillbirth and weak offspring in cattle, sheep and goats. C. burnetii induced in-herd epidemics of this complete expression of reproductive failure have been reported for sheep and goats, but not for cattle. The single entities occur only as part of the complex and not as single events such as generally increased stillbirth rate. Studies show that C. burnetii initially infects the placenta and that subsequent spread to the fetus may occur either haematogenous or by the amniotic-oral route. The consequences for the equine, porcine, canine and feline conceptus remains to the elucidated but that infection of the conceptus may occur is documented for most species. There is no solid evidence to support a hypothesis of C. burnetii causing disorders such as subfertility, endometritis/metritis, or retained fetal membranes in any kind of domestic animal species. There is a strong need to validate non-pathology based methods such as polymerase chain reaction for their use in diagnostic and research in relation to establishing C. burnetii as the cause of abortion and to adapt an appropriate study design and include adequate control animals when linking epidemiological findings to C. burnetii or when evaluating effects of vaccination in production herds.

  14. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity and associated risk factors in goats in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, S; Jones-Bitton, A; McEwen, S; Jansen, J; Menzies, P

    2015-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium, and infection in goats with this bacterium can result in abortion, stillbirth or birth of non-viable kids. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the seroprevalence and risk factors for C. burnetii exposure in Ontario goats. Sera were collected between August 2010 and February 2012, and tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IDEXX). Overall, 63.2% (48/76, 95% CI=51.9-73.4) of farms had one or more seropositive goats. A higher farm-level seroprevalence of 78.6% (33/42) was found on dairy goat farms, compared to 44.1% (15/34) on meat goat farms (pgoats were seropositive. Similarly, a higher individual-level seroprevalence was identified for dairy goats (43.7%, 633/1447) compared to meat goats (10.8%, 81/748) (pfarm-level clustering identified risk factors associated with seropositivity (pgoat farms were located in a 5-km radius, goats had 5.6 times (95% CI=1.01-30.8) times the odds of seropositivity compared to those that were not. Relative to goats from farms where all kidding pen hygiene was practiced (adding bedding, removing birth materials and disinfection after kidding), goats from farms which only added bedding and removed birth materials had a higher odds of seropositivity (OR=19.3, 95% CI=1.1-330.4), as did goats from farms which practiced none of these measures (OR=161.0, 95% CI=2.4-10822.2). An interaction term revealed kidding outdoors when there were no swine on farm had a protective effect on seropositivity compared to kidding indoors, or kidding outdoors with swine on the farm. These results can inform strategies to mitigate exposure to C. burnetii in Ontario. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii infection in Africa: a OneHealth systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sky Vanderburg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a common cause of febrile illness and community-acquired pneumonia in resource-limited settings. Coxiella burnetii, the causative pathogen, is transmitted among varied host species, but the epidemiology of the organism in Africa is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review of C. burnetii epidemiology in Africa from a "One Health" perspective to synthesize the published data and identify knowledge gaps.We searched nine databases to identify articles relevant to four key aspects of C. burnetii epidemiology in human and animal populations in Africa: infection prevalence; disease incidence; transmission risk factors; and infection control efforts. We identified 929 unique articles, 100 of which remained after full-text review. Of these, 41 articles describing 51 studies qualified for data extraction. Animal seroprevalence studies revealed infection by C. burnetii (≤13% among cattle except for studies in Western and Middle Africa (18-55%. Small ruminant seroprevalence ranged from 11-33%. Human seroprevalence was <8% with the exception of studies among children and in Egypt (10-32%. Close contact with camels and rural residence were associated with increased seropositivity among humans. C. burnetii infection has been associated with livestock abortion. In human cohort studies, Q fever accounted for 2-9% of febrile illness hospitalizations and 1-3% of infective endocarditis cases. We found no studies of disease incidence estimates or disease control efforts.C. burnetii infection is detected in humans and in a wide range of animal species across Africa, but seroprevalence varies widely by species and location. Risk factors underlying this variability are poorly understood as is the role of C. burnetii in livestock abortion. Q fever consistently accounts for a notable proportion of undifferentiated human febrile illness and infective endocarditis in cohort studies, but incidence estimates are lacking. C. burnetii presents a real

  16. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in ticks by PCR and by PCR - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, as an obligata intracellular bacterium, is the etiologic agent of Q-fever. It is widely distributed in nature and is responsible for infection in various animals (cattle, sheep, goat) and humans. C. burnetii has been isolated from milk, ticks and human patients with acute and chronic Q fever. Ticks are the principal vectors and reservoirs of C. burnetii. Since over 40 species of ticks have been found to be infected with C. burnetii, ticks can serve as indicators of infection in nature. In this study, total of 2472 ticks (1446 female, 1021 male and 5 nymphs) were collected from 38 provinces of Turkey. The ticks were gathered into groups of 1 to 7 ticks as to the provinces, species and gender for DNA extraction. Following DNA extraction, the groups were examined for the presence of C. burtii by using the CB1and CB2. The ticks collected from the province of Denizli (56 in total) were gathered into 13 groups according to the species and gender. From these groups, 6 were positive for C. burnetii. The ticks collected from Ankara province, total of 160 ticks, were grouped into 53 as to their species and gender, only one group was found to be positive for C. burnetii. The specificities of PCR products were evaluated by restriction analysis. The positive PCR products were digested with the enzyme Taq1 and for bands in order of 118, 57, 43 and 39 bp's were appeared such as seen in the positive control DNA (C. burnetii Nine Mile RSA493)

  17. Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia conorii: Two zoonotic pathogens in peridomestic rodents and their ectoparasites in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Harrus, Shimon

    2018-01-01

    Rodents are hosts of numerous pathogenic agents of public health importance globally. Their ability to harbor these pathogens without showing overt clinical signs of disease has epidemiologic consequences. In some rural settings in Nigeria, humans and rodents do not only share feeds and abode, but the latter may end up on the table of the former as a source of protein, thereby increasing the risks of disease transmission. Molecular assays were used to detect and characterize two agents of zoonotic importance, Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp. in 194 peridomestic rodents captured in a peri-urban setting in Nigeria, and 32 pools of ectoparasites removed from them, to determine their possible role in the epidemiology of these diseases in this country. Targeting and characterizing the insertion sequence IS1111, C. burnetii DNA was detected in 4 out of 194 (2.1%) rodents comprising 3 out of 121 (2.5%) Rattus norvegicus and 1 out of 48 (2.1%) Rattus rattus screened in this study. Rickettsia spp. DNA was detected in two Rhipicephalus sanginueus sensu lato pools (i.e. RT1 and RT4) using the citrate synthase (gltA) gene and further characterized by amplification and sequence analysis of six genes to determine their identity. The RT1 sample consistently gave 98-100% identity to Rickettsia conorii str. Malish 7 for the various genes and loci studied. However, the identity of RT4 could not be definitively determined due to variable identities to different Rickettsia spp. according to the gene or loci under consideration. Further isolation study to determine if the RT4 characterized is a new variant or a mixture of sequences of different rickettsiae within the pool will be worthwhile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Q Fever in Pregnant Goats: Pathogenesis and Excretion of Coxiella burnetii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Hendrik-Jan; van Gelderen, Betty; Dinkla, Annemieke; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; van Zijderveld, Fred; Rebel, Johanna; van Keulen, Lucien

    2012-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Infected pregnant goats are a major source of human infection. However, the tissue dissemination and excretion pathway of the pathogen in goats are still poorly understood. To better understand Q fever pathogenesis, we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via the intranasal route with a recent Dutch outbreak C. burnetii isolate. Tissue dissemination and excretion of the pathogen were followed for up to 95 days after parturition. Goats were successfully infected via the intranasal route. PCR and immunohistochemistry showed strong tropism of C. burnetii towards the placenta at two to four weeks after inoculation. Bacterial replication seemed to occur predominantly in the trophoblasts of the placenta and not in other organs of goats and kids. The amount of C. burnetii DNA in the organs of goats and kids increased towards parturition. After parturition it decreased to undetectable levels: after 81 days post-parturition in goats and after 28 days post-parturition in kids. Infected goats gave birth to live or dead kids. High numbers of C. burnetii were excreted during abortion, but also during parturition of liveborn kids. C. burnetii was not detected in faeces or vaginal mucus before parturition. Our results are the first to demonstrate that pregnant goats can be infected via the intranasal route. C. burnetii has a strong tropism for the trophoblasts of the placenta and is not excreted before parturition; pathogen excretion occurs during birth of dead as well as healthy animals. Besides abortions, normal deliveries in C. burnetii-infected goats should be considered as a major zoonotic risk for Q fever in humans. PMID:23152826

  19. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and associated risk factors in dairy and mixed cattle farms from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonero, Alfonso; Guzmán, Lucía T; Montaño, Karen; Torralbo, Alicia; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Saa, Luis R

    2015-03-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the main reservoir. An extensive cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Q fever was performed in dairy and mixed (dairy-beef) cattle herds in Ecuador. A total of 2668 serum samples from 386 herds were analyzed using an ELISA. In addition, a questionnaire with 57 variables related to management, feeding, facilities, biosecurity and animal health was completed for every cattle farm. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to determine the factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The true prevalence of C. burnetii seropositivity in dairy and mixed cattle from Ecuador reached 12.6% (CI95%: 11.3-13.9%). The herd prevalence was 46.9% (181/386) (CI95%: 41.9-51.9%), and the within herd prevalence ranged between 8% and 100% (mean: 25.0%; Q1: 12.5%, Q2: 25.0%, Q3: 37.5%). Four factors were included in the GEE model for C. burnetii seropositivity: age of the cattle (OR: 1.01; CI95%: 1.006-1.014), feeding of calves with milk replacers (OR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.1-3.3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus seropositivity (OR: 1.54; CI95%: 1.1-2.3), and disinfection of the umbilical cord (OR: 0.60; CI95%: 0.4-0.9). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternofetal consequences of Coxiella burnetii infection in pregnancy: a case series of two outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boden Katharina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high complication rate of Q fever in pregnancy is described on the basis of a limited number of cases. All pregnant women with proven Q fever regardless of clinical symptoms should therefore receive long-term cotrimoxazole therapy. But cotrimoxazole as a folic acid antagonist may cause harm to the fetus. We therefore investigated the Q fever outbreaks, Soest in 2003 and Jena in 2005, to determine the maternofetal consequences of Coxiella burnetii infection contracted during pregnancy. Methods Different outbreak investigation strategies were employed at the two sides. Antibody screening was performed with an indirect immunofluorescence test. Medical history and clinical data were obtained and serological follow up performed at delivery. Available placental tissue, amniotic fluid and colostrum/milk were further investigated by polymerase chain reaction and by culture. Results 11 pregnant women from Soest (screening rate: 49% and 82 pregnant women from Jena (screening rate: 27% participated in the outbreak investigation. 11 pregnant women with an acute C. burnetii infection were diagnosed. Three women had symptomatic disease. Three women, who were infected in the first trimester, were put on long-term therapy. The remaining women received cotrimoxazole to a lesser extent (n=3, were treated with macrolides for three weeks (n=1 or after delivery (n=1, were given no treatment at all (n=2 or received antibiotics ineffective for Q fever (n=1. One woman and her foetus died of an underlying disease not related to Q fever. One woman delivered prematurely (35th week and one child was born with syndactyly. We found no obvious association between C. burnetii infection and negative pregnancy outcome. Conclusions Our data do not support the general recommendation of long-term cotrimoxazole treatment for Q fever infection in pregnancy. Pregnant women with symptomatic C. burnetii infections and with chronic Q fever should be treated. The

  1. Inhibition of microRNA-214-5p promotes cell survival and extracellular matrix formation by targeting collagen type IV alpha 1 in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q S; Meng, F Y; Zhao, Y H; Jin, C L; Tian, J; Yi, X J

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional effects of microRNA (miR)-214-5p on osteoblastic cells, which might provide a potential role of miR-214-5p in bone fracture healing. Blood samples were obtained from patients with hand fracture or intra-articular calcaneal fracture and from healthy controls (HCs). Expression of miR-214-5p was monitored by qRT-PCR at day 7, 14 and 21 post-surgery. Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were transfected with antisense oligonucleotides (ASO)-miR-214-5p, collagen type IV alpha 1 (COL4A1) vector or their controls; thereafter, cell viability, apoptotic rate, and the expression of collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1), type II collagen (COL-II), and type X collagen (COL-X) were determined. Luciferase reporter assay, qRT-PCR, and Western blot were performed to ascertain whether COL4A1 was a target of miR-214-5p. Plasma miR-214-5p was highly expressed in patients with bone fracture compared with HCs after fracture (p extracellular matrix (ECM) formation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by targeting COL4A1. Cite this article: Q. S. Li, F. Y. Meng, Y. H. Zhao, C. L. Jin, J. Tian, X. J. Yi. Inhibition of microRNA-214-5p promotes cell survival and extracellular matrix formation by targeting collagen type IV alpha 1 in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:464-471. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.68.BJR-2016-0208.R2. © 2017 Yi et al.

  2. Comparison of closely related, uncultivated Coxiella tick endosymbiont population genomes reveals clues about the mechanisms of symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsementzi, Despina; Castro Gordillo, Juan; Mahagna, Mustafa; Gottlieb, Yuval; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the symbiotic interaction between Coxiella-like endosymbionts (CLE) and their tick hosts is challenging due to lack of isolates and difficulties in tick functional assays. Here we sequenced the metagenome of a CLE population from wild Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (CRs) and compared it to the previously published genome of its close relative, CLE of R. turanicus (CRt). The tick hosts are closely related sympatric species, and their two endosymbiont genomes are highly similar with only minor differences in gene content. Both genomes encode numerous pseudogenes, consistent with an ongoing genome reduction process. In silico flux balance metabolic analysis (FBA) revealed the excess production of L-proline for both genomes, indicating a possible proline transport from Coxiella to the tick. Additionally, both CR genomes encode multiple copies of the proline/betaine transporter, proP gene. Modelling additional Coxiellaceae members including other tick CLE, did not identify proline as an excreted metabolite. Although both CRs and CRt genomes encode intact B vitamin synthesis pathway genes, which are presumed to underlay the mechanism of CLE-tick symbiosis, the FBA analysis indicated no changes for their products. Therefore, this study provides new testable hypotheses for the symbiosis mechanism and a better understanding of CLE genome evolution and diversity. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Microevolution of the chromosomal region of acute disease antigen A (adaA in the query (Q fever agent Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Frangoulidis

    Full Text Available The acute disease antigen A (adaA gene is believed to be associated with Coxiella burnetii strains causing acute Q fever. The detailed analysis of the adaA genomic region of 23 human- and 86 animal-derived C. burnetii isolates presented in this study reveals a much more polymorphic appearance and distribution of the adaA gene, resulting in a classification of C. burnetii strains of better differentiation than previously anticipated. Three different genomic variants of the adaA gene were identified which could be detected in isolates from acute and chronic patients, rendering the association of adaA positive strains with acute Q fever disease disputable. In addition, all adaA positive strains in humans and animals showed the occurrence of the QpH1 plasmid. All adaA positive isolates of acute human patients except one showed a distinct SNP variation at position 431, also predominant in sheep strains, which correlates well with the observation that sheep are a major source of human infection. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis of the adaA gene revealed three deletion events and supported the hypothesis that strain Dugway 5J108-111 might be the ancestor of all known C. burnetii strains. Based on our findings, we could confirm the QpDV group and we were able to define a new genotypic cluster. The adaA gene polymorphisms shown here improve molecular typing of Q fever, and give new insights into microevolutionary adaption processes in C. burnetii.

  4. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Probing the Kinematic Morphology–Density Relation of Early-type Galaxies with MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. E.; Leauthaud, A.; Emsellem, E.; Goddard, D.; Ge, J.; Andrews, B. H.; Brinkman, J.; Brownstein, J. R.; Greco, J.; Law, D.; Lin, Y.-T.; Masters, K. L.; Merrifield, M.; More, S.; Okabe, N.; Schneider, D. P.; Thomas, D.; Wake, D. A.; Yan, R.; Drory, N.

    2017-12-01

    The “kinematic” morphology–density relation for early-type galaxies posits that those galaxies with low angular momentum are preferentially found in the highest-density regions of the universe. We use a large sample of galaxy groups with halo masses {10}12.5MaNGA) survey to examine whether there is a correlation between local environment and rotational support that is independent of stellar mass. We find no compelling evidence for a relationship between the angular momentum content of early-type galaxies and either local overdensity or radial position within the group at fixed stellar mass.

  5. Generation IV national program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preville, M.; Sadhankar, R.; Brady, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the Generation IV National Program. This program involves evolutionary and innovative design with significantly higher efficiencies (∼50% compared to present ∼30%) - sustainable, economical, safe, reliable and proliferation resistant - for future energy security. The Generation IV Forum (GIF) effectively leverages the resources of the participants to meet these goals. Ten countries signed the GIF Charter in 2001

  6. Bone Turnover Markers in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and/or Type 2 Diabetes during Oral Glucose and Isoglycemic iv Glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagensen, Henrik; Junker, Anders E; Jørgensen, Niklas R

    2018-01-01

    Context: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and vice versa, and both conditions are associated with an increased risk of fractures and altered bone turnover. While NAFLD patients typically suffer from decreased bone mineral density (BMD), T2D is ass...

  7. In Vitro Activities of Telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia conorii, Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia prowazekii, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, Bartonella bacilliformis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis

    OpenAIRE

    Rolain, Jean-Marc; Maurin, Max; Bryskier, André; Raoult, Didier

    2000-01-01

    In vitro activities of telithromycin compared to those of erythromycin against Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis were determined. Telithromycin was more active than erythromycin against Rickettsia, Bartonella, and Coxiella burnetii, with MICs of 0.5 μg/ml, 0.003 to 0.015 μg/ml, and 1 μg/ml, respectively, but was inactive against Ehrlichia chaffeensis.

  8. Manifestation of π-contacts in magnetic field dependence of I-V characteristics for proximity-type 2D Josephson junction array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, V.A.G.; Sergeenkov, S.; Marega, E.; Araujo-Moreira, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Results on the temperature and magnetic field dependence of current-voltage characteristics (CVC) are presented for SNS-type 2D ordered array of Nb-Cu 0.95 Al 0.05 -Nb junctions. The critical current I C (T,H) and the power exponent a(T,H)=1+Φ 0 I C (T,H)/2k B T of the nonlinear CVC law V=R[I-I C (T,H)] a(T,H) are found to have a maximum at non-zero value of applied magnetic field H p =225 Oe, which is attributed to manifestation of π-type Josephson contacts in our sample.

  9. X-linked Alport syndrome associated with a synonymous p.Gly292Gly mutation alters the splicing donor site of the type IV collagen alpha chain 5 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xue Jun; Nozu, Kandai; Eguchi, Aya; Nozu, Yoshimi; Morisada, Naoya; Shono, Akemi; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Shima, Yuko; Nakanishi, Koichi; Vorechovsky, Igor; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2016-10-01

    X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS) is a progressive hereditary nephropathy caused by mutations in the type IV collagen alpha chain 5 gene (COL4A5). Although many COL4A5 mutations have previously been identified, pathogenic synonymous mutations have not yet been described. A family with XLAS underwent mutational analyses of COL4A5 by PCR and direct sequencing, as well as transcript analysis of potential splice site mutations. In silico analysis was also conducted to predict the disruption of splicing factor binding sites. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of kidney biopsies was used to detect α2 and α5 chain expression. We identified a hemizygous point mutation, c.876A>T, in exon 15 of COL4A5 in the proband and his brother, which is predicted to result in a synonymous amino acid change, p.(Gly292Gly). Transcript analysis showed that this mutation potentially altered splicing because it disrupted the splicing factor binding site. The kidney biopsy of the proband showed lamellation of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), while IHC revealed negative α5(IV) staining in the GBM and Bowman's capsule, which is typical of XLAS. This is the first report of a synonymous COL4A5 substitution being responsible for XLAS. Our findings suggest that transcript analysis should be conducted for the future correct assessment of silent mutations.

  10. Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile II proteins modulate gene expression of monocytic host cells during infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Edward I

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes acute and chronic disease in humans. Bacterial replication occurs within enlarged parasitophorous vacuoles (PV of eukaryotic cells, the biogenesis and maintenance of which is dependent on C. burnetii protein synthesis. These observations suggest that C. burnetii actively subverts host cell processes, however little is known about the cellular biology mechanisms manipulated by the pathogen during infection. Here, we examined host cell gene expression changes specifically induced by C. burnetii proteins during infection. Results We have identified 36 host cell genes that are specifically regulated when de novo C. burnetii protein synthesis occurs during infection using comparative microarray analysis. Two parallel sets of infected and uninfected THP-1 cells were grown for 48 h followed by the addition of chloramphenicol (CAM to 10 μg/ml in one set. Total RNA was harvested at 72 hpi from all conditions, and microarrays performed using Phalanx Human OneArray™ slides. A total of 784 (mock treated and 901 (CAM treated THP-1 genes were up or down regulated ≥2 fold in the C. burnetii infected vs. uninfected cell sets, respectively. Comparisons between the complementary data sets (using >0 fold, eliminated the common gene expression changes. A stringent comparison (≥2 fold between the separate microarrays revealed 36 host cell genes modulated by C. burnetii protein synthesis. Ontological analysis of these genes identified the innate immune response, cell death and proliferation, vesicle trafficking and development, lipid homeostasis, and cytoskeletal organization as predominant cellular functions modulated by C. burnetii protein synthesis. Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate that C. burnetii proteins actively regulate the expression of specific host cell genes and pathways. This is in addition to host cell genes that respond to the presence of the

  11. Cortactin is involved in the entry of Coxiella burnetii into non-phagocytic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana M Rosales

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cortactin is a key regulator of the actin cytoskeleton and is involved in pathogen-host cell interactions. Numerous pathogens exploit the phagocytic process and actin cytoskeleton to infect host cells. Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever, is internalized by host cells through a molecular mechanism that is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we analyzed the role of different cortactin motifs in the internalization of C. burnetii by non-phagocytic cells. C. burnetii internalization into HeLa cells was significantly reduced when the cells expressed GFP-cortactin W525K, which carries a mutation in the SH3 domain that renders the protein unable to bind targets such as N-WASP. However, internalization was unaffected when the cells expressed the W22A mutant, which has a mutation in the N-terminal acidic region that destroys the protein's ability to bind and activate Arp2/3. We also determined whether the phosphorylation status of cortactin is important for internalization. Expression of GFP-cortactin 3F, which lacks phosphorylatable tyrosines, significantly increased internalization of C. burnetii, while expression of GFP-cortactin 3D, a phosphotyrosine mimic, did not affect it. In contrast, expression of GFP-cortactin 2A, which lacks phosphorylatable serines, inhibited C. burnetii internalization, while expression of GFP-cortactin SD, a phosphoserine mimic, did not affect it. Interestingly, inhibitors of Src kinase and the MEK-ERK kinase pathway blocked internalization. In fact, both kinases reached maximal activity at 15 min of C. burnetii infection, after which activity decreased to basal levels. Despite the decrease in kinase activity, cortactin phosphorylation at Tyr421 reached a peak at 1 h of infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the SH3 domain of cortactin is implicated in C. burnetii entry into HeLa cells. Furthermore, cortactin phosphorylation at serine and dephosphorylation

  12. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Rio de Janeiro hospitals: dissemination of the USA400/ST1 and USA800/ST5 SCCmec type IV and USA100/ST5 SCCmec type II lineages in a public institution and polyclonal presence in a private one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, Roberta Mello Ferreira; Cavalcante, Fernanda Sampaio; Iorio, Natalia Lopes Pontes; Schuenck, Ricardo Pinto; Olendzki, André Nogueira; Felix, Maria José; Chamon, Raiane Cardoso; dos Santos, Kátia Regina Netto

    2013-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have changed since certain non-multiresistant MRSA lineages have emerged in hospitals. In this study, 99 MRSA isolates, 77 from a public and 22 from a private hospital, were characterized. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, whereas staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing and Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes were assessed by polymerase chain reaction. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing analyses were carried out to determine the MRSA lineages. High rates of resistance were found to erythromycin (96%), ciprofloxacin (93%), and clindamycin (90%). The SCCmec types found were as follows: type II (14.2%), III (62.6%), and IV (23.2%). Approximately 85% of type III isolates was related to the Brazilian epidemic clone in both hospitals. For type IV isolates, 94.4% were related to both USA400/ sequence type (ST) 1 and USA800/ST5 lineages in the public hospital, whereas the USA400/ST1, USA800/ST5, USA1100/ST30, and EMRSA (Epidemic MRSA)-15/ST22 lineages were detected in the private hospital. Among the SCCmec II isolates, approximately 85% were related to the USA100/ST5 lineage. Three MRSA isolates were positive to Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. The study showed that there was an emergence of USA400/ST1, USA800/ST5 SCCmec IV, and USA100/ST5 SCCmec II MRSA lineages in both hospitals. There was a dissemination of them in the public hospital and a polyclonal presence of the MRSA isolates in the private hospital. The spread of these lineages can be facilitated by the characteristics of the health institution. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory activity of protein hydrolyzates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder. Recently, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors that protect incretin hormones from being cleaved by DPP-IV have been used as drugs to control glycemia. This study examined the potential hypoglycemic effect of amaranth grain storage protein hydrolyzates ...

  14. SDSS-IV MaNGA: global stellar population and gradients for about 2000 early-type and spiral galaxies on the mass-size plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Ge, Junqiang; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Mo, H. J.; Li, Cheng; Zheng, Zheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Brownstein, Joel R.; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Law, David R.; Drory, Niv

    2018-05-01

    We perform full spectrum fitting stellar population analysis and Jeans Anisotropic modelling of the stellar kinematics for about 2000 early-type galaxies (ETGs) and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR14 sample. Galaxies with different morphologies are found to be located on a remarkably tight mass plane which is close to the prediction of the virial theorem, extending previous results for ETGs. By examining an inclined projection (`the mass-size' plane), we find that spiral and early-type galaxies occupy different regions on the plane, and their stellar population properties (i.e. age, metallicity, and stellar mass-to-light ratio) vary systematically along roughly the direction of velocity dispersion, which is a proxy for the bulge fraction. Galaxies with higher velocity dispersions have typically older ages, larger stellar mass-to-light ratios and are more metal rich, which indicates that galaxies increase their bulge fractions as their stellar populations age and become enriched chemically. The age and stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients for low-mass galaxies in our sample tend to be positive (centre Spiral galaxies with large mass and size have the steepest gradients, while the most massive ETGs, especially above the critical mass Mcrit ≳ 2 × 1011 M⊙, where slow rotator ETGs start dominating, have much flatter gradients. This may be due to differences in their evolution histories, e.g. mergers.

  15. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 22 0 C, 45 0 C, and 60 0 C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature

  16. Impact of baseline BMI on glycemic control and weight change with metformin monotherapy in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients: phase IV open-label trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linong Ji

    Full Text Available Differences exist between treatment recommendations regarding the choice of metformin as first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes patients according to body mass index (BMI. This study compared the efficacy of metformin monotherapy among normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.In this prospective, multicenter, open-label study in China, patients aged 23-77 years were enrolled 1∶1:1 according to baseline BMI: normal-weight (BMI 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2; n = 125; overweight (BMI 24.0-27.9 kg/m(2; n = 122 or obese (BMI ≥28 kg/m(2; n = 124. Extended-release metformin was administered for 16 weeks (500 mg/day, up-titrated weekly to a maximum 2,000 mg/day. The primary efficacy endpoint was the effect of baseline BMI on glycemic control with metformin monotherapy, measured as the change from baseline in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c at week 16 compared among BMI groups using ANCOVA. Other endpoints included comparisons of metformin's effects on fasting plasma glucose (FPG, lipid levels and body weight.Mean HbA1c decreases at week 16, adjusted for baseline values, were -1.84%, -1.78% and -1.78% in normal-weight, overweight and obese patients, (P = 0.664; body weight decreased by 2.4%, 3.9% and 3.5%, respectively. FPG levels decreased similarly over time in all BMI groups (P = 0.461 and changes from baseline in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C did not differ significantly among BMI groups at week 16 (P = 0.143 and 0.451, respectively.Baseline BMI had no impact on glycemic control, weight change or other efficacy measures with metformin monotherapy. These data suggest that normal-weight type 2 diabetes patients would derive the same benefits from first-line treatment with metformin as overweight and obese patients, and are not at increased risk of excess weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00778622.

  17. [Mechanism of nutrient preservation and supply by soil and its regulation. IV. Fertility regulation and improvement of brown earth type vegetable garden soil and their essence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Zhou, L

    2000-08-01

    Pot experiment studies on the fertility regulation and improvement of fertile and infertile brown earth type vegetable garden soils and their functionary essence show that under conditions of taking different soil fertility improvement measures, the nutrient contents in fertile and infertile soils were not always higher than the controls, but the aggregation densities of soil microaggregates were increased, and the proportion of different microaggregates was more rational. There was no significant relationship between soil productivity and soil microaggregates proportion. It is proved that the essence of soil fertility improvement consists in the ultimate change of the preservation and supply capacities of soil nutrients, and the proportion of soil microaggregates could be an integrative index to evaluate the level of soil fertility and the efficiency of soil improvement.

  18. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  19. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  20. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  1. SAGE IV Pathfinder

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilizing a unique, new occultation technique involving imaging, the SAGE IV concept will meet or exceed the quality of previous SAGE measurements at a small...

  2. Neisseria meningitidis differentially controls host cell motility through PilC1 and PilC2 components of type IV Pili.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe C Morand

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a strictly human pathogen that has two facets since asymptomatic carriage can unpredictably turn into fulminant forms of infection. Meningococcal pathogenesis relies on the ability of the bacteria to break host epithelial or endothelial cellular barriers. Highly restrictive, yet poorly understood, mechanisms allow meningococcal adhesion to cells of only human origin. Adhesion of encapsulated and virulent meningococci to human cells relies on the expression of bacterial type four pili (T4P that trigger intense host cell signalling. Among the components of the meningococcal T4P, the concomitantly expressed PilC1 and PilC2 proteins regulate pili exposure at the bacterial surface, and until now, PilC1 was believed to be specifically responsible for T4P-mediated meningococcal adhesion to human cells. Contrary to previous reports, we show that, like PilC1, the meningococcal PilC2 component is capable of mediating adhesion to human ME180 epithelial cells, with cortical plaque formation and F-actin condensation. However, PilC1 and PilC2 promote different effects on infected cells. Cellular tracking analysis revealed that PilC1-expressing meningococci caused a severe reduction in the motility of infected cells, which was not the case when cells were infected with PilC2-expressing strains. The amount of both total and phosphorylated forms of EGFR was dramatically reduced in cells upon PilC1-mediated infection. In contrast, PilC2-mediated infection did not notably affect the EGFR pathway, and these specificities were shared among unrelated meningococcal strains. These results suggest that meningococci have evolved a highly discriminative tool for differential adhesion in specific microenvironments where different cell types are present. Moreover, the fine-tuning of cellular control through the combined action of two concomitantly expressed, but distinctly regulated, T4P-associated variants of the same molecule (i.e. PilC1 and Pil

  3. Threshold levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone for impaired bone health in children with congenital ichthyosis and type IV and V skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, G; Sreenivas, V; Yenamandra, V K; Gupta, N; Sharma, V K; Marwaha, R K; Bhari, N; Irshad, M; Kabra, M; Thulkar, S

    2015-01-01

    Patients with congenital ichthyosis, especially those with darker skin types, are at increased risk of developing vitamin D deficiency and rickets. The relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone health have not been studied previously, in ichthyosis. To determine the threshold levels of 25(OH)D and PTH for impaired bone health in children with congenital ichthyosis. In this cross-sectional study, 119 children with ichthyosis and 168 controls were recruited. Serum 25(OH)D, PTH, calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured. Radiological screening for rickets was carried out only in children with ichthyosis. Forty-seven children with ichthyosis had either clinical or radiological evidence of rickets. The correlation between serum 25(OH)D and PTH showed that a serum level of 25(OH)D 8 ng mL(-1) was associated with a significant increase in PTH. The correlation between PTH and ALP showed that a serum PTH level of 75 pg mL(-1) was associated with a significant increase in ALP levels. Of the different clinical phenotypes of ichthyosis, both autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) and epidermolytic ichthyosis (EI) were found to have significantly increased PTH, ALP and radiological rickets scores compared with common ichthyosis. Serum levels of 25(OH)D ≤ 8 ng mL(-1) and PTH ≥ 75 pg mL(-1) significantly increases the risk for development of rickets [odds ratio (OR) 2·8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·05-7·40; P = 0·04] in ichthyosis. Among the different types, patients with ARCI (OR 4·83; 95% CI 1·74-13·45; P < 0·01) and EI (OR 5·71; 95% CI 1·74-18·79; P < 0·01) are at an increased risk of developing rickets. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Aborted Fetuses of Cattle and Sheep Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay in Mashhad City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Abiri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coxiella burnetii is an important intracellular pathogen that ruminants can act as primary reservoirs. Reservoirs may excrete the bacterium into the placenta, vaginal mucus and feces. Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect C. burnetii in aborted samples from ruminant flocks in Mashhad city, northeast of Iran, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. Materials and Methods: A total number of 154 fetal tissue samples of cattle, sheep and goat were subjected to nested PCR assay. Results: Sixteen (17.3% out of 92 samples from sheep and 15 (25% from 60 cattle fetuses were positive. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate the presence of C. burnetii in aborted ruminants and these can be the potential reservoirs of C. burnetii in the mentioned area.

  5. Detection of phase I IgG antibodies to Coxiella burnetii with EIA as a screening test for blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoek, W; Wielders, C C H; Schimmer, B; Wegdam-Blans, M C A; Meekelenkamp, J; Zaaijer, H L; Schneeberger, P M

    2012-11-01

    The presence of a high phase I IgG antibody titre may indicate chronic infection and a risk for the transmission of Coxiella burnetii through blood transfusion. The outbreak of Q fever in the Netherlands allowed for the comparison of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with the reference immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in a large group of individuals one year after acute Q fever. EIA is 100 % sensitive in detecting high (≥1:1,024) phase I IgG antibody titres. The cost of screening with EIA and confirming all EIA-positive results with IFA is much lower than screening all donations with IFA. This should be taken into account in cost-effectiveness analyses of screening programmes.

  6. SPIDER. IV. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED COLOR GRADIENTS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: NEW INSIGHT INTO CORRELATIONS WITH GALAXY PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Barbera, F.; De Carvalho, R. R.; De La Rosa, I. G.; Gal, R. R.; Swindle, R.; Lopes, P. A. A.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of stellar population gradients in 4546 early-type galaxies (ETGs) with photometry in grizYHJK along with optical spectroscopy. ETGs were selected as bulge-dominated systems, displaying passive spectra within the SDSS fibers. A new approach is described which utilizes color information to constrain age and metallicity gradients. Defining an effective color gradient, ∇ * , which incorporates all of the available color indices, we investigate how ∇ * varies with galaxy mass proxies, i.e., velocity dispersion, stellar (M * ) and dynamical (M dyn ) masses, as well as age, metallicity, and [α/Fe]. ETGs with M dyn larger than 8.5 x 10 10 M sun have increasing age gradients and decreasing metallicity gradients with respect to mass, metallicity, and enhancement. We find that velocity dispersion and [α/Fe] are the main drivers of these correlations. ETGs with 2.5 x 10 10 M sun ≤ M dyn ≤ 8.5 x 10 10 M sun show no correlation of age, metallicity, and color gradients with respect to mass, although color gradients still correlate with stellar population parameters, and these correlations are independent of each other. In both mass regimes, the striking anti-correlation between color gradient and α-enhancement is significant at ∼5σ and results from the fact that metallicity gradient decreases with [α/Fe]. This anti-correlation may reflect the fact that star formation and metallicity enrichment are regulated by the interplay between the energy input from supernovae, and the temperature and pressure of the hot X-ray gas in ETGs. For all mass ranges, positive age gradients are associated with old galaxies (>5-7 Gyr). For galaxies younger than ∼5 Gyr, mostly at low mass, the age gradient tends to be anti-correlated with the Age parameter, with more positive gradients at younger ages.

  7. The natural infection of birds and ticks feeding on birds with Rickettsia spp. and Coxiella burnetii in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthová, Lenka; Slobodník, Vladimír; Slobodník, Roman; Olekšák, Milan; Sekeyová, Zuzana; Svitálková, Zuzana; Kazimírová, Mária; Špitalská, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are known as primary vectors of many pathogens causing diseases in humans and animals. Ixodes ricinus is a common ectoparasite in Europe and birds are often hosts of subadult stages of the tick. From 2012 to 2013, 347 birds belonging to 43 species were caught and examined for ticks in three sites of Slovakia. Ticks and blood samples from birds were analysed individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and Coxiella burnetii by PCR-based methods. Only I. ricinus was found to infest birds. In total 594 specimens of bird-attached ticks were collected (451 larvae, 142 nymphs, 1 female). Altogether 37.2% (16/43) of bird species were infested by ticks and some birds carried more than one tick. The great tit, Parus major (83.8%, 31/37) was the most infested species. In total, 6.6 and 2.7% of bird-attached ticks were infected with Rickettsia spp. and C. burnetii, respectively. Rickettsia helvetica predominated (5.9%), whereas R. monacensis (0.5%) was only sporadically detected. Coxiella burnetii was detected in 0.9%, Rickettsia spp. in 8.9% and R. helvetica in 4.2% of bird blood samples. The great tit was the bird species most infested with I. ricinus, carried R. helvetica and C. burnetti positive tick larvae and nymphs and was found to be rickettsaemic in its blood. Further studies are necessary to define the role of birds in the circulation of rickettsiae and C. burnetii in natural foci.

  8. Modifications in the glycerophospholipid composition between the Coxiella burnetii phase I and phase II cells suggest an association with phase variation of the bacterium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frimmelová, M.; Toman, R.; Pompach, Petr; Škultéty, L'udovít

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2016), s. 27-33 ISSN 0001-723X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Coxiella burnetii * glycerophospholipids * FT-ICR MS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.673, year: 2016

  9. Bartonella and Coxiella infective endocarditis in Brazil: molecular evidence from excised valves from a cardiac surgery referral center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1998 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Cristiane da Cruz; Ramos, Rosana Grandelle; Lopes, Gabriel Quintino; Santos, Marisa Silva; Golebiovski, Wilma Felix; Weksler, Clara; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna Ianini D'Almeida; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Lepidi, Hubert; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    PCR was used to detect Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp in heart valves obtained during the period 1998-2009 from patients operated on for blood culture-negative endocarditis in a cardiac surgery hospital in Brazil. Of the 51 valves tested, 10 were PCR-positive; two were positive for Bartonella and one for C. burnetii. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Peptides Derived from Type IV Collagen, CXC Chemokines, and Thrombospondin-1 Domain-Containing Proteins Inhibit Neovascularization and Suppress Tumor Growth in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob E. Koskimaki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis or neovascularization, the process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting microvasculature, involves interactions among several cell types including parenchymal, endothelial cells, and immune cells. The formation of new vessels is tightly regulated by a balance between endogenous proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors to maintain homeostasis in tissue; tumor progression and metastasis in breast cancer have been shown to be angiogenesis-dependent. We previously introduced a systematic methodology to identify putative endogenous antiangiogenic peptides and validated these predictions in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and migration assays. These peptides are derived from several protein families including type IV collagen, CXC chemokines, and thrombospondin-1 domain-containing proteins. On the basis of the results from the in vitro screening, we have evaluated the ability of one peptide selected from each family named pentastatin-1, chemokinostatin-1, and properdistatin, respectively, to suppress angiogenesis in an MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer orthotopic xenograft model in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Peptides were administered intraperitoneally once per day. We have demonstrated significant suppression of tumor growth in vivo and subsequent reductions in microvascular density, indicating the potential of these peptides as therapeutic agents for breast cancer.

  11. Fratura extra-articular da extremidade medial da clavícula associada à luxação acromioclavicular tipo IV: relato de caso Extra-articular fracture of the medial end of the clavicle associated with type IV acromioclavicular dislocation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Chaves Correa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ocorrendo isoladamente, as fraturas da clavícula e as luxações acromioclaviculares são lesões muito comuns. A combinação de uma luxação acromioclavicular e de uma fratura do terço lateral da clavícula não é rara. Entretanto, existem muito poucos casos descritos de luxações acromioclaviculares associadas a fraturas do terço médio da clavícula; aquelas associadas a fraturas do terço medial são ainda mais raras. Nós reportamos o caso de um indivíduo adulto do sexo masculino que sofreu uma luxação acromioclavicular (tipo IV associada a uma fratura extra-articular desviada da extremidade medial da clavícula (grupo 3 de Almann em um acidente ciclístico. O paciente foi tratado na fase aguda com redução aberta e fixação interna das duas lesões. Na avaliação clínica, 12 meses após a cirurgia, o paciente apresentava-se assintomático, com mobilidade ativa e passiva completa, força e resistência normais e simetria das cinturas escapulares. As radiografias e a tomografia computadorizada tridimensional mostravam subluxação posterossuperior persistente da articulação acromioclavicular e consolidação anatômica da fratura clavicular.Fractures of the clavicle and acromioclavicular dislocations are very common injuries when they occur separately. The combination of an acromioclavicular dislocation and a fracture of the lateral third of the clavicle is not rare. However, there are very few reported cases of acromioclavicular dislocations associated with fractures of the middle third of the clavicle; those associated with fractures of the medial third are even rarer. We report the case of an adult male who suffered an acromioclavicular dislocation (type IV associated with a displaced extra-articular fracture of the medial end of the clavicle (Almann group 3 in a cycling accident. The patient was treated during the acute phase with open reduction and internal fixation of the two lesions. At the clinical evaluation 12

  12. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This protein is located in the membranes of lysosomes and endosomes, compartments within the cell that digest ... transport (trafficking) of fats (lipids) and proteins between lysosomes and endosomes. Mucolipin-1 appears to be important ...

  13. IV access in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, J J

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

  14. Internet Economics IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    edts.): Internet Economics IV Technical Report No. 2004-04, August 2004 Information Systems Laboratory IIS, Departement of Computer Science University of...level agreements (SLA), Information technology (IT), Internet address, Internet service provider 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18... technology and its economic impacts in the Internet world today. The second talk addresses the area of AAA protocol, summarizing authentication

  15. Uranium (IV) carboxylates - I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satpathy, K C; Patnaik, A K [Sambalpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1975-11-01

    A few uranium(IV) carboxylates with monochloro and trichloro acetic acid, glycine, malic, citric, adipic, o-toluic, anthranilic and salicylic acids have been prepared by photolytic methods. The I.R. spectra of these compounds are recorded and basing on the spectral data, structure of the compounds have been suggested.

  16. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  17. Current status of NPP generation IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohanes Dwi Anggoro; Dharu Dewi; Nurlaila; Arief Tris Yuliyanto

    2013-01-01

    Today development of nuclear technology has reached the stage of research and development of Generation IV nuclear power plants (advanced reactor systems) which is an innovative development from the previous generation of nuclear power plants. There are six types of power generation IV reactors, namely: Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR), Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR), Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), and Super Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR). The purpose of this study is to know the development of Generation IV nuclear power plants that have been done by the thirteen countries that are members of the Gen IV International Forum (GIF). The method used is review study and refers to various studies related to the current status of research and development of generation IV nuclear power. The result of this study showed that the systems and technology on Generation IV nuclear power plants offer significant advances in sustainability, safety and reliability, economics, and proliferation resistance and physical protection. In addition, based on the research and development experience is estimated that: SFR can be used optimally in 2015, VHTR in 2020, while NPP types GFR, LFR, MSR, and SCWR in 2025. Utilization of NPP generation IV said to be optimal if fulfill the goal of NPP generation IV, such as: capable to generate energy sustainability and promote long-term availability of nuclear fuel, minimize nuclear waste and reduce the long term stewardship burden, has an advantage in the field of safety and reliability compared to the previous generation of NPP and VHTR technology have a good prospects in Indonesia. (author)

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Organ Tin (IV) Complexes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-08-21

    Aug 21, 2012 ... the reference drug. In addition, within the diorganotin(IV) complexes, monomeric type (3) exhibited a slightly better activity as compared to the organodistannoxane dimer types (1 and 4). Key words: Preliminary in vitro cytotoxic assay, organotin(IV) complexes, comparison study. INTRODUCTION. Although ...

  19. Characterization of the GDP-D-mannose biosynthesis pathway in Coxiella burnetii: the initial steps for GDP-β-D-virenose biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasaki, Craig T; Mertens, Katja; Samuel, James E

    2011-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of human Q fever, is a gram-negative and naturally obligate intracellular bacterium. The O-specific polysaccharide chain (O-PS) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of C. burnetii is considered a heteropolymer of the two unusual sugars β-D-virenose and dihydrohydroxystreptose and mannose. We hypothesize that GDP-D-mannose is a metabolic intermediate to GDP-β-D-virenose. GDP-D-mannose is synthesized from fructose-6-phosphate in 3 successive reactions; Isomerization to mannose-6-phosphate catalyzed by a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI), followed by conversion to mannose-1-phosphate mediated by a phosphomannomutase (PMM) and addition of GDP by a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP). GDP-D-mannose is then likely converted to GDP-6-deoxy-D-lyxo-hex-4-ulopyranose (GDP-Sug), a virenose intermediate, by a GDP-mannose-4,6-dehydratase (GMD). To test the validity of this pathway in C. burnetii, three open reading frames (CBU0671, CBU0294 and CBU0689) annotated as bifunctional type II PMI, as PMM or GMD were functionally characterized by complementation of corresponding E. coli mutant strains and in enzymatic assays. CBU0671, failed to complement an Escherichia coli manA (PMM) mutant strain. However, complementation of an E. coli manC (GMP) mutant strain restored capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis. CBU0294 complemented a Pseudomonas aeruginosa algC (GMP) mutant strain and showed phosphoglucomutase activity (PGM) in a pgm E. coli mutant strain. Despite the inability to complement a manA mutant, recombinant C. burnetii PMI protein showed PMM enzymatic activity in biochemical assays. CBU0689 showed dehydratase activity and determined kinetic parameters were consistent with previously reported data from other organisms. These results show the biological function of three C. burnetii LPS biosynthesis enzymes required for the formation of GDP-D-mannose and GDP-Sug. A fundamental understanding of C. burnetii genes that encode PMI, PMM and GMP is

  20. Optimal and safe treatment of spider leg veins measuring less than 1.5 mm on skin type IV patients, using repeated low-fluence Nd:YAG laser pulses after polidocanol injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Moraga, Javier; Hernández, Esteban; Royo, Josefina; Alcolea, Justo; Isarría, M Jose; Pascu, Mihail Lucian; Smarandache, Adriana; Trelles, Mario

    2013-05-01

    Treatment of micro-veins of less than 1.5 mm with laser and with chemical sclerosis is technically challenging because of their difficulty to remedy. Laser treatment is even more difficult when dark phototypes are involved.Three groups of 30 patients each, skin type IV, and vessels measuring less than 1.5 mm in diameter, were e