WorldWideScience

Sample records for cows fed grass-clover

  1. Effects of toasting blue lupins, soybeans or barley as supplement for high-yielding organic dairy cows fed grass-clover silage ad libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Lund, Peter; Kristensen, Troels

    2008-01-01

    . The supplement under investigation was: lupins in experiment 1, barley in experiment 2 and soybeans in experiment 3. The same forage mixture of grass-clover silage (84% of DM), grass pellets (11% of DM) and straw (5% of DM) was fed ad libitum in all the experiments. Toasting decreased effective rumen protein...... degradability determined in situ for all three supplements. Compared to untreated lupins toasting of lupins tended (P = 0.10) to increase milk yield, whereas toasting of soybeans did not affect milk yield. Toasting of lupins decreased (P = 0.03) milk protein content (32.2 versus 32.7 g/kg), whereas toasting...... of soybeans did not affect milk protein content. ECM yield was significantly higher (P = 0.002) for cows fed toasted soybeans than for cows fed untreated soybeans (28.1 versus 26.4 kg ECM) whereas there was no significant effect on ECM yield from toasting lupins or barley. It can be concluded...

  2. Effect of digestibility of grass-clover silage and concentrate to forage ratio on methane emission from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    and D, respectively. TMR forage DM consisted of 2/3 of one of the respective grass-clover silages and 1/3 maize silage, and concentrate (soya meal and wheat) proportion of DM was 20% (low) or 50% (high). Methane emissions from the cows were measured 20-22 hours in one of four chambers working after...

  3. Metabolisable protein supply to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of increased dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage, obtained by extending the pre-wilting period before ensiling, on the amount of metabolisable protein (MP) supplied to lactating dairy cows. Spring growth and first regrowth of grass...... and faeces, respectively, were collected over 94 h to cover the diurnal variation, pooled, and subsequently analysed. Rumen fluid was collected in same sampling procedure. To estimate the duodenal flow of microbial protein, microbes were isolated from the rumen and analysed for amino acids (AA) and purines...... flow of AA. The higher duodenal flow of AA derived from a lower rumen degradation of feed protein and a tendency towards a higher microbial synthesis in the rumen. Fibre digestibility and CH4 production were not affected by silage DM concentration. In conclusion, MP concentration in grass-clover silage...

  4. Amino acid profile of metabolisable protein in lactating dairy cows is affected by dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    Our previous study showed that supply of metabolisable protein (MP) to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage. The aim of this study was to examine how amino acid (AA) profile of MP was affected by silage DM concentration. Eight grass-c...

  5. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production and composition, chewing activities, digestibilities, and fecal dry matter (DM) concentration and scoring. Forages were fed as two-thirds grass-clover and one-third corn silage supplemented with either 20 or 50% concentrate. Rations were fed ad libitum as total mixed rations. Early maturity cuts were more digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake, and decreased the yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM). Summer cuts increased the ECM yield compared with spring cuts. Milk yield (kg and kilogram of ECM) was numerically higher for cows fed early summer cut, independent of FCR in the ration. Milk protein concentration decreased, or tended to decrease, with maturity. For LFCR, the milk fat concentration increased with maturity resulting in a decreased protein:fat ratio. At HFCR, increased maturity increased the time spent chewing per kilogram of DM. Digestibility of silages was positively correlated with the fecal DM concentration. The DM intake and ECM yield showed no significant response to FCR in the ration, but the milk composition was affected. The LFCR decreased the milk fat percentage and increased the milk protein

  6. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Byskov, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    The physical structure value of conserved grass/clover forages of spring harvest was evaluated by assessing effects of harvest time, conservation method, iNDF/NDF ratio and NDF intake (NDFI) per kg BW on chewing activity and fecal particle size in dairy heifers. A mixed sward consisting of ryegrass...... of 315, 436, 414 and 503 g/kg DM, respectively. Forages were fed as sole feed to four Jersey heifers of 435±30 kg BW in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Feeding level was 90% of individual ad libitum intake, divided equally across two daily meals offered at 0800 and 1530 h. Chewing activity was estimated...... from recorded jaw movements (JM) oscillations continuously logged for 96 h and summarized per 24 h as mean effective rumination time and eating time. Eating behavior was further observed during four 20-min test meals. Weight proportion of large feces particles (>1.0 mm) and geometric mean fecal...

  7. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Byskov, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    The physical structure value of conserved grass/clover forages of spring harvest was evaluated by assessing effects of harvest time, conservation method, iNDF/NDF ratio and NDF intake (NDFI) per kg BW on chewing activity and fecal particle size in dairy heifers. A mixed sward consisting of ryegrass...

  8. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late......) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production...... digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake...

  9. Forage fiber effects on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A K S; Weisbjerg, M R; Storm, A C; Nørgaard, P

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NDF content in highly digestible grass/clover silage on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in dairy heifers. The reduction in particle size from feed to feces was evaluated and related to feed intake, chewing activity, and apparent digestibility. Four grass/clover harvests (Mixtures of Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, and Trifolium repens) were performed from early May to late August at different maturities, at different regrowth stages, and with different clover proportions, resulting in silages with NDF contents of 312, 360, 371, and 446 g/kg DM, respectively, and decreasing NDF digestibility with greater NDF content. Four rumen-fistulated dairy heifers were fed silage at 90% of ad libitum level as the only feed source in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Silage, ingested feed boluses, medial and ventral ruminal digesta, and feces samples were washed with neutral detergent in nylon bags of 10-μm pore size, freeze dried, and divided into small (1 mm) particles by dry-sieving. Chewing activity, rumen pool size, and apparent digestibility were measured. Intake of NDF increased linearly from 2.3 to 2.8 kg/d with greater NDF content of forages (P = 0.01), but silages were exposed to similar eating time (P = 0.55) and rumination time per kg NDF (P = 0.35). No linear effect of NDF content was found on proportion of LP in ingested feed boluses (P = 0.31), medial rumen digesta (P = 0.95), ventral rumen digesta (P = 0.84), and feces (P = 0.09). Greater proportions of DM (P ruminal digesta compared with ventral rumen, and differences in DM proportion increased with greater NDF content (P = 0.02). Particle size distributions were similar for digesta from the medial and ventral rumen regardless of NDF content of the silages (P > 0.13). The LP proportion was >30% of particles in the ventral and medial rumen, whereas in the feces, the LP proportion was content of the silages

  10. Forage fiber effects on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Storm, Adam Christian

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NDF content in highly digestible grass/clover silage on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in dairy heifers. The reduction in particle size from feed to feces was evaluated and related to feed intake...... measured. Intake of NDF increased linearly from 2.3 to 2.8 kg/d with greater NDF content of forages (P = 0.01), but silages were exposed to similar eating time (P = 0.55) and rumination time per kg NDF (P = 0.35). No linear effect of NDF content was found on proportion of LP in ingested feed boluses (P = 0.......31), medial rumen digesta (P = 0.95), ventral rumen digesta (P = 0.84), and feces (P = 0.09). Greater proportions of DM (P ruminal digesta compared with ventral rumen, and differences in DM proportion increased with greater NDF content (P = 0...

  11. Effects of forage neutral detergent fibre and time after feeding on medial and ventral rumen pH and volatile fatty acids concentration in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A. K. S.; Storm, A. C.; Weisbjerg, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    (NDF) content and time after feeding on the medial to ventral VFA and pH gradient as well as rumen motility in the rumen of heifers fed grass/clover silages. Four silages were harvested at different growth stages with NDF contents of 31–45% of DM and in vitro organic matter digestibilities of 75......–82% and fed to four rumen-fistulated Jersey heifers at 90% of ad libitum level in a Latin square design, with half the ration fed at 0800 hours and 1530 hours. Rumen fluid was sampled hourly from 0730 hours to 1530 hours in the medial and ventral rumen, and analysed for pH and concentrations of VFA, L......-lactic acid, and ammonia to assess ruminal chemical gradient. Reticular contractions were continuously recorded by a pressure transducer. Time relative to feeding affected rumen parameters as pH was generally lower and VFA content greater in medial compared with ventral rumen fluid. Greater NDF content...

  12. Effects of forage neutral detergent fibre and time after feeding on medial and ventral rumen pH and volatile fatty acids concentration in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Storm, Adam Christian; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    (NDF) content and time after feeding on the medial to ventral VFA and pH gradient as well as rumen motility in the rumen of heifers fed grass/clover silages. Four silages were harvested at different growth stages with NDF contents of 31–45% of DM and in vitro organic matter digestibilities of 75......–82% and fed to four rumen-fistulated Jersey heifers at 90% of ad libitum level in a Latin square design, with half the ration fed at 0800 hours and 1530 hours. Rumen fluid was sampled hourly from 0730 hours to 1530 hours in the medial and ventral rumen, and analysed for pH and concentrations of VFA, L......-lactic acid, and ammonia to assess ruminal chemical gradient. Reticular contractions were continuously recorded by a pressure transducer. Time relative to feeding affected rumen parameters as pH was generally lower and VFA content greater in medial compared with ventral rumen fluid. Greater NDF content...

  13. Effects of feeding level and NDF content of grass-clover silages on chewing activity, fecal particle size and NDF digestibility in dairy heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Nørgaard, Peder

    2014-01-01

    intake (PRumination time per kg DM intake (Pcontents (Prumination with greater...... NDF content (Prumination time increased with greater NDF content (Pcontent (P...The objective of this study was to assess effects of feed intake and NDF content of highly digestible grass-clover silage on chewing behavior, fecal particle size distribution and apparent digestibility in restrictively fed heifers. Four grass-clover silages (Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense...

  14. Effect of carbohydrate source and rumen pH on enteric methane from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to measure the enteric methane emissions in dairy cows fed diets rich in starch or sugar with and without manipulation of rumen pH. The rations were based on grass-clover silage supplemented with either wheat (W), NaOH treated wheat (WNaOH), sugar beet molasses (M...

  15. Sources of N2O in organic grass-clover pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Ambus, P.

    2002-01-01

    Organic farming practises, and in particular dairy production systems based on grass-clover pastures are becoming increasingly abundant within Danish agriculture. Grass-clover pastures may provide a mitigation option to reduce grassland nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Velthof et al. 1998). The objectives of this work was to examine the relationship between N2O emissions and transformations of inorganic N in organically managed grass-clover pastures of different ages. Results from the projec...

  16. Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.S.

    2005-09-01

    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and in soil N 2 O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N 2 ) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N 2 lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N 2 O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N 2 O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N 2 as a source of N 2 O. 2: examining the link between N 2 O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N 2 O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 ± 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N 2 was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N 2 O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m -2 was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised nitrification rate, which appeared to be the most important factor

  17. Relationship between nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emission in grass-clover pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Ambus, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports on a work assessing the relationship between gross N transformations in grass-clover soils and emissions of nitrous oxide. By this manner, the source strength of the biogenic processes responsible for nitrous oxide production is evaluated.

  18. Effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Vestergaard, Jannie Steensig; Fretté, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover: maize silage ratio on milk production, milk composition and the sensory quality of the milk was investigated in a 2   2 factorial experiment. Toasting of field beans resulted in lower milk contents of both fat (44.2 versus 46.1 g/kg, P = 0.......02) and protein (33.5 versus 34.2 g/kg, P = 0.008), whereas milk production, urea and somatic cell contents were unaffected compared with the untreated field beans. Increasing the proportion of maize silage (from 9 to 21% of DM) in the ration decreased the content of urea in milk (P = 0.002), whereas milk......-β-carotene (P = 0.04) and β-carotene (P = 0.05). Toasting of field beans compared with untreated field beans did not affect the milk content of carotenoids and had only small effects on fatty acid composition. Regarding the sensory quality, the four treatments resulted in milk being characterized...

  19. Enchytraeids as indicator of soil quality in temporary organic grass-clover leys under contrasting management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Kristine; Schmelz, Rüdiger; Larsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One objective in organic farming is to sustain the quality of the soil resource. Because enchytraeids are an important soil faunal component, they stand as bioindicators of soil quality. We tested this candidature in a field experiment on loamy sand soil with 1- and 4-year old grass-clover leys...... interactions among soil physical, chemical and biological properties suggest that enchytraeid abundance is not a feasible stand-alone indicator of management impacts on soil quality in temporary grass-clover leys but may candidate as one of several biological key parameters in more comprehensive soil quality...

  20. Analysis of the soil food web structure under grass and grass clover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Smeding, F.W.; Vries, de F.T.; Bloem, J.

    2006-01-01

    The below ground biodiversity of soil organisms plays an important role in the functioning of the the soil ecosystem, and consequently the above ground plant production. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of grass or grass-clover in combination with fertilisation on the soil

  1. Forbs enhance productivity of unfertilised grass-clover leys and support low-carbon bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Wen-Feng; Jing, Jingying; Rasmussen, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Intensively managed grasslands are dominated by highly productive grass-clover mixtures. Increasing crop diversity by inclusion of competitive forbs may enhance biomass production and sustainable biofuel production. Here we examined if one or all of three forbs (chicory, Cichorium intybus L.; car...

  2. Estimating grass-clover ratio variations caused by traffic intensities using image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Grøn; Green, Ole

    Grass and especially clover have a negative yield response as a function of  traffic intensity.  Conventional grass-clover production for silage have high traffic intensity due to fertilizing with slurry, cutting the grass, rolling the grass into swaths, and collecting and chopping the grass...... to fulfill the aim [1]http://www.ruralni.gov.uk/index/publications/press_articles/dairy-2/role-of-clover.htm...

  3. Effects of grass-clover management and cover crops on nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emissions in a stockless organic crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brozyna, Michal Adam; Petersen, Søren O; Chirinda, Ngoni

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) supply in stockless organic farming may be improved through use of grass-clover for anaerobic digestion, producing biogas and digested manure for use as fertilizer in the crop rotation. We studied the effects of grass-clover management on N cycling, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions...... in the rotation (spring barley, potato and winter wheat); actual digestion of grass-clover cuttings was not possible, instead digested pig manure was used as substitute for digested grass-clover. Nitrous oxide fluxes were monitored between April 2008 and May 2009. In general, application of digested manure had...

  4. Effect of maturity and conservation of grass/clover on digestibility and rumen pH in heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, A.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate effects of maturity and conservation of primary growth grass/clover on apparent digestibility and rumen pH. Two batches of mixed ryegrass, red and white clover harvested in 2009 on May 9 and 25 were conserved as either silage or hay. The forages early silage (ES) and hay...... (EH), and late silage (LS) and hay (LH) had DM contents of 45, 84, 25 and 83%, and NDF contents of 32, 44, 42 and 50% of DM, respectively. Forages were fed as sole feed to four Jersey heifers of 435±30 kg BW in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Feeding level was 90% of individual ad libitum intake......, divided in two daily meals at 0800 and 1530 h. Potentially digestible NDF (DNDF) was determined after 288 h in situ. Apparent digestibility of OM and NDF was estimated using Cr3O2 as marker. Rumen fluid pH in the medial and ventral rumen was measured with 1 h intervals from 0730 to 1530 h. Data...

  5. Nitrate leaching in maize after cultivation of differently managed grass-clover leys on coarse sand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    When grass-clover leys have been ploughed nitrate leaching may increase. However, management of leys before or after ploughing may affect the leaching risk. We examined the effect of cultivating a six year ley, which the last two years had been treated differently (grazing only; spring cut follow...

  6. Environmental life cycle assessments of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass and winter wheat straw for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the potential environmental impacts of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass, and straw from winter wheat as biomass feedstocks for biorefinery. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method included the following impact categories: Global Warming Potential (GWP100),...

  7. Production of N{sub 2}O in grass-clover pastures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.S.

    2005-09-01

    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and in soil N{sub 2}O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N{sub 2}) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N{sub 2} lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N{sub 2}O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N{sub 2}O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N{sub 2} as a source of N{sub 2}O. 2: examining the link between N{sub 2}O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N{sub 2}O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 {+-} 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N{sub 2} was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N{sub 2}O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m{sup -2} was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised

  8. Nitrogen fertilization of grass/clover swards under cutting or grazing by dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søegaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    farms over a period of three years. Nitrogen was applied at four rates (0, 75, 150, and 225 kg N year-1) with cutting or grazing regime in Year 1 and Year 2, after establishment. A spring-only application of 150 kg N was compared with four applications during the season, which was the fertilization...... affected. The results indicate different possibilities for strategic fertilization both at farm and field level, and in swards with a high clover content it demonstrates how the clover content can be used as a buffer both for maximizing the N-response and for manipulating the production profile.......Intensively managed perennial ryegrass/white clover (Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L.) swards receive relatively high levels of fertilizer N, and high N surpluses can subsequently be found. The N-fertilization effects on growth, yield, and herbage quality were therefore examined on three...

  9. Reaction of cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L. in grass-clover mixture on N fertilization and grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Andreata-Koren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Grazing is the most common way of using a hill and mountain areas because of their specific agro-ecological conditions. Cocksfoot is a grass with high productivity and quality, and it is very good for sowing in the sward for grazing. Because of its good adaptability to different growing conditions, especially in very dry and cold areas, it is excellent in relation to some other good grasses, which can not be raised in such areas. The aim of the experiment was to determine effect of N application (0-N0 and 150 kg ha-1 year-1-N150 and rotational grazing by cattle (C and sheep (S, and their interaction on the cocksfoot sown in a mixture of smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratensis L. and white clover (Trifolium repens L. in hill mountain areas. In a three-year average, the application of 150 kg ha-1 N had significant impact on cocksfoot population density (number of tillers m-2, and it was 51.4 % higher than the recorded one before grazing (P<0.05 and 42.2 % higher after grazing (P<0.01 in comparison to N0. The application of 150 kg ha-1 N resulted in significantly higher cocksfoot dry matter (DM yield for 38.6 % (P<0.01 and 15.3 % higher cocksfoot share in the total mixture in relation to N0 (P<0.01. Grazing management and grazing management interaction with N rate did not significantly affect the population density of individual years. However, in the three-year average, grazing management significantly affected cocksfoot DM (P<0.01 and its percentage in the total DM mixture (P<0.01. Cattle grazing resulted in 9.9 % higher cocksfoot DM yield and 15.2 % higher cocksfoot percentage in pasture. Interaction of grazing management and N-level had significant influence on the percentage of cocksfoot DM in grass-clover mixture. On cattle grazed areas fertilized with 150 kg ha-1 N, the percentage of cocksfoot DM was the highest (74. 07%, while the lowest percentage of cocksfoot DM was recorded on the sheep grazed areas without N (55.12%.

  10. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with dried distillers grains with solubles at 2 dietary crude protein levels on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality....... As societal concerns exist, and in many areas strict regulation, regarding nitrogen excretion from dairy cows, the dairy industry has focused on reducing dietary protein level and nitrogen excretion. In the present study, we investigated the use of DDGS as a protein source, at a marginally low dietary crude...... protein (CP) levels, in a grass-clover and corn silage-based ration. The experiment involved 24 Holstein cows and 2 protein sources (DDGS or soybean-canola mixture) fed at 2 levels of CP (14 or 16%) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both protein source...

  11. The combined effect of fertiliser nitrogen and phosphorus on herbage yield and change in soil nutrients of a grass/clover and grass-only sward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Snijders, P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The combined effect of reduced nitrogen ( N ) and phosphorus ( P ) application on the production of grass- only and grass/ clover swards was studied in a five- year cutting experiment on a marine clay soil, established on newly sown swards. Furthermore, changes in soil N, P and carbon ( C ) were

  12. Effects of grazing strategy on limiting nitrate leaching in grazed grass-clover pastures on coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Eriksen, Jørgen; Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    -term mean. The experiment was initiated in a 4-yr-old grass-clover sward in south Denmark. Three treatments were as follows grazing only (G), spring cut followed by grazing (CG) and both spring and autumn cuts with summer grazing (CGC). Nitrate leaching was calculated by extracting water isolates from 80 cm......Urinations of ruminants on grazed pastures increase the risk of nitrate leaching. The study investigated the effect of reducing the length of the grazing season on nitrate leaching from a coarse sandy, irrigated soil during 2006–2007 and 2007–2008. In both years, precipitation was above the long...... depth using ceramic suction cups. Because of considerable variation in measured nitrate concentrations, the 32 installed suction cups per treatment were insufficient to reveal differences between treatments. However, weighted nitrate leaching estimations for G, CG and CGC showed estimated mean nitrate N...

  13. Voluntary intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization by sheep fed ensiled grass clover mixture harvested at three stages of maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of grass maturity at harvest on silage ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and N retention in wether sheep. The sward was harvested at the stem elongation, tasseling and flowering growth stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata. Three silages were offered to four Charolais wether sheep in an incomplete change over design with four periods. As the crop matured, there was an increase (P<0.001 in dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentration and a decrease in crude protein (CP concentration (P<0.001. Increasing maturity of grass ensiled showed a linear decrease (P<0.01 in voluntary silage intake of DM, OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, a linear decrease (P<0.01 in digestibility of silage DM, OM, NDF, ADF, CP, and a linear decrease in nitrogen balance (P<0.01. No quadratic response was recorded in silage intake, digestibility or N balance. The results suggest that grass maturity at harvest influences the nutritive value of grass silage, in terms of ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and N retention in sheep, as a result of changes in chemical composition.

  14. Estimating legume N-2 fixation in grass-clover mixtures of a grazed organic cropping system using two N-15 methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, F.P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2000-01-01

    The input of Nitrogen (N) through symbiotic N-2 fixation (SNF) in grass-clover mixtures was determined in an organic cropping. system for grazing during 3 years. The mixture of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) was established by undersowing in spring...... barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and maintained subsequently for two production years. Dinitrogen fixation was determined using the N-15 isotope dilution techniques and two labelling procedures. Using either pre-labelling of the soil with immobilisation of the N-15 by addition of a carbon source before...

  15. Rumen volatile fatty acids and milk composition from cows fed hay, haylage, or urea-treated corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schingoethe, D J; Voelker, H H; Beardsley, G L; Parsons, J G

    1976-05-01

    Alfalfa-brome hay, haylage, .5% urea-treated corn silage, or .5% urea plus 1% dried whey-treated corn silage was fed as the only forage to one of four groups of 10 lactating cows per group for a lactation trial of 10 wk. Rumen samples were collected via stomach tube 3 to 4 h after the morning feeding. The pH of the rumen samples from cows fed hay was higher than for cows fed haylage, urea-treated corn silage, and urea-whey corn silage, 6.69 versus 6.36, 6.40, and 6.50. Total volatile fatty acids and propionate were highest from cows fed urea-whey corn silage and were higher on all three fermented forages than cows fed hay. Acetate/propionate ratio was highest from cows fed hay and lowest from cows fed corn silages. Butyrate was highest from cows fed haylage or hay. Milk protein composition was not affected by ration although nonprotein nitrogen of milk was highest from cows fed the urea-treated corn silages. Oleic acid and total unsaturated fatty acids were lowest in milk fat from cows fed hay while palmitic acid was highest from cows fed hay and haylage. These results suggest that type of forage fed may cause small changes in rumen fermentation and in milk composition. The importance of these changes is unknown but may affect properties of dairy products produced from this milk.

  16. Effect of supplementing crossbt·ed lactating dairy cows fed elephant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of supplementing lactating c.rosshrcd dairy cows fed on elephant grass based diets with labjab hay ... causes a reduction in overall digestibility of herbage dry matter. ..... Selected Topics in animal. Nutrition. ... Working paper No. 99:pp.

  17. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensor...

  18. OMASAL MORPHOLOGY OF DAIRY COWS FED WITH HIGH OR LOW GRAIN CONTENT DIET PRIOR PARTURITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo de Oliveira Rocha Bhering Santoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little is known about the morphological response of the omasum in dairy cows that consume a high-energy diet pre-partum. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a transitional diet with high grain content is able to induce changes in omasum morphology. Six weeks before the expected calving, four Holstein cows were fed a standardization diet, and four weeks before delivery, the cows were fed a diet with high grain content (HGC or low (LGC grain content. After calving, all of the cows were fed a high energy lactation diet. The cows that were fed the HGC diet pre-partum had higher dry matter and nutrient intake than the cows that were fed the LGC diet. The mitotic index of the omasum epithelium was higher than the mitotic index in the rumen, but apparently the response to the diet stimuli was slower. In the cows that were fed the HGC diet, the omasum papillae were taller one week before parturition and two weeks post-partum. Cows that were fed the HGC diet had a thinner epithelium due to thinner non-keratinized layers of the omasum epithelium. We conclude that the omasum mucosa of dairy cows responds to the stimuli of a pre-partum HGC diet, which was indicated by the greater height of the omasum papillae and by the reduced thickness of the omasum epithelium. It seems that the mitotic index responds a little more slowly, but the response to the diet stimuli is stronger in the omasum epithelium than in the rumen.

  19. Lactation performance and serum biochemistry of dairy cows fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... supplementation in multiparous dairy cows diet may improve their milk yield in transition period. Key words: Dairy cow, ... 20 multiparous Holsteins (parity 3) housed in free stalls at the. Esfahan-Kesht farm .... Corn gluten meal.

  20. The use of urea by lactating dairy cows when fed maize silage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of urea by lactating dairy cows when fed maize silage. T.J. Dugmere, A.M. Breden and K.P. Walsh. Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Natal Region, Pietermaritzburg. Maize silage is relatively high in energy but low in protein for the normal lactational requirements of dairy cows. Three trials were ...

  1. Microbial biomass, microbial diversity, soil carbon storage, and stability after incubation of soil from grass-clover pastures of different age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory incubation study with clover grass pasture soils of seven different ages (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 16 production years) was carried out to determine initial soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks and potentials for greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CO2). Compared with the soil from...... the recently established pasture, an increase of total soil C and N was observed along with pasture age. Greenhouse gas emissions were low and not significantly different among the soils from younger pastures (0-5 years), but especially N2O emissions increased markedly in the soil from 16-year-old grass......-clover. Low emissions might mainly be due to an early C limitation occurring in the soils from younger pastures, which was also corroborated by decreasing levels of cold water-extractable C and early shifts within the microbial community. However, higher emissions from the old pasture soil were offset by its...

  2. Parturient hypocalcemia in jersey cows fed alfalfa haylage-based diets with different cation to anion ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, P J; Mueller, F J; Miller, J K; Ramsey, N; Goff, J P; Horst, R L

    1989-10-01

    Jersey cows were fed three alfalfa haylage-based diets with different cation-anion balances beginning 6 wk preceding third or later calving and ending 24 to 36 h postpartum. Sodium and Cl as percentages of dietary DM were .08 and 1.66 in diet 1 (anionic, 5 cows), .44 and .91 in diet 2 (intermediate, 6 cows), and 1.60 and .34 in diet 3 (cationic, 6 cows). Cation-anion balances were 22, 60, and 126 meq/100 g DM; Ca:P ratios averaged 4:1. Cows fed diet 1 in comparison with cows fed diets 2 or 3 over 6 wk had similar concentrations of Ca, P, and Na but higher concentrations of Mg and K in plasma and higher urinary excretions of Ca and Mg. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 d before parturition were higher in cows fed diet 1 than in cows fed diets 2 or 3. Within 36 h after calving, mean concentrations of Ca in plasma (mg/dl, range) of cows fed diets 1 to 3, respectively, were 7 (8.7 to 6.2), 6.5 (7.8 to 3.9), and 6.3 (7.8 to 3.8). Number of cases of clinical milk fever by diet were 0 of 5, 2 of 6, and 1 of 6 cows. Alteration of dietary cation-anion balance by addition of Cl may effectively reduce incidence and severity of parturient hypocalcemia.

  3. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  4. Effect of concentrate feeding strategy on the performance of dairy cows fed total mixed rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KHALILI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available concerning the effects of offering additional concentrates with total mixed ration (TMR on milk production. The aim of the present study was to compare TMR representing simplified feeding (TMR1 with TMR combined with a decreasing amount of additional concentrate (TMR2C. Finnish Ayrshire cows (39 were housed in a loose housing barn. TMR1 consisted of a mixed ration of grass silage (0.49 and concentrates (0.51. In TMR2C, the same grass silage and concentrate were mixed in a ratio of 55:45. In TMR2C, cows were offered additional concentrates from automatic feeders differing in composition from the concentrate in TMR1 [6.5 kg d-1 (first 100 days, Phase 1, 3.0 kg d-1 (subsequent 50 days, Phase 2 and no concentrate thereafter (Phase 3]. During the whole experiment (224 days, total consumption of concentrates per cow averaged 2426 kg dry matter (TMR1 and 2414 kg dry matter (TMR2C. There were no significant differences in mean total dry matter, metabolizable energy, crude protein or absorbed amino acid intakes. During Phase 2, total intake of all cows fed TMR2C was one kg lower (P = 0.10 than for cows fed TMR1. This was due to differences in total feed intake of multiparous cows. Average yields (kg d-1 of milk, energy corrected milk, protein, fat and lactose were not significantly different between diets. During Phase 2, primiparous cows tended to produce more energy corrected milk on TMR2C than on TMR1. The results showed that both TMR1 and TMR2C were equal feeding strategies for early lactating cows and cows did not benefit from greater concentrate consumption in early stage of lactation when total consumption of concentrates was similar.;

  5. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand

  6. Comparison of three techniques for estimating the forage intake of lactating dairy cows on pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoon, B; Sollenberger, L E; Moore, J E; Staples, C R; Fike, J H; Portier, K M

    2003-09-01

    Quantifying DMI is necessary for estimation of nutrient consumption by ruminants, but it is inherently difficult on grazed pastures and even more so when supplements are fed. Our objectives were to compare three methods of estimating forage DMI (inference from animal performance, evaluation from fecal output using a pulse-dose marker, and estimation from herbage disappearance methods) and to identify the most useful approach or combination of approaches for estimating pasture intake by lactating dairy cows. During three continuous 28-d periods in the winter season, Holstein cows (Bos taurus; n = 32) grazed a cool-season grass or a cool-season grass-clover mixture at two stocking rates (SR; 5 vs. 2.5 cows/ha) and were fed two rates of concentrate supplementation (CS; 1 kg of concentrate [as-fed] per 2.5 or 3.5 kg of milk produced). Animal response data used in computations for the animal performance method were obtained from the latter 14 d of each period. For the pulse-dose marker method, chromium-mordanted fiber was used. Pasture sampling to determine herbage disappearance was done weekly throughout the study. Forage DMI estimated by the animal performance method was different among periods (P forage mass. The pulse-dose marker method generally provided greater estimates of forage DMI (as much as 11.0 kg/d more than the animal performance method) and was not correlated with the other methods. Estimates of forage DMI by the herbage disappearance method were correlated with the animal performance method. The difference between estimates from these two methods, ranging from -4.7 to 5.4 kg/d, were much lower than their difference from pulse-dose marker estimates. The results of this study suggest that, when appropriate for the research objectives, the animal performance or herbage disappearance methods may be useful and less costly alternatives to using the pulse-dose method.

  7. Health status of cows fed maize silage covered with oxo-biodegradable foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr SZTERK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural practice, silage production uses pure, low density polyethylene foil. This foil, after use, becomes farm waste, having a negative impact on the environment. Instead of conventional foil, an environmentally safe biodegradable foil can be used, made from naturally occurring polymers or from synthetic multiparticulates, easily degradable by microorganisms. Silage covered with this type of foil should be safe for animal health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether oxo-biodegradable film could be used instead of conventional film in agricultural practice, to produce silage that is safe for the cows' health. Dairy cows were fed a partly mixed ratio (PMR, the component of which was silage made of whole maize plants, covered with oxo-biodegradable foil. The cow blood serum was marked for content of: glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triacylglycerols and enzyme activity: aspartic and alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase and amylase. The total protein concentration in the serum of cows analyzed at the end of the experiment was higher than the commonly accepted normal values. The content of glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerols and the activity of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase and amylase was within reference limits. Feeding of silage from whole maize plants covered withoxo-biodegradable foil did not negatively affect the biochemical indicators of the cows' blood serum. The silage proved to be safe for the cows' health.

  8. Lead pollution: lead content in milk from cows fed on contaminated forages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapetti, C; Arduino, E; Durio, P

    1973-01-01

    Lead toxicity is reviewed, and the history of the lead poisoning is described. Much of the lead pollution in soil is due to automobile exhaust. Two milk cows were fed forage with added lead acetate. The 20 kg of lead corresponded to 50 ppm, a level that is often found in hays near major highways. The cows milk was then analyzed for lead content. During the first and second phase of administration of lead salts, the milk cows did not show any evident symptoms of intoxication. The lead in the milk did have a marked correlation with the administered lead. The lead doses did not last long enough for chronic symptoms to begin. The dosage of lead in milk, due to the facility of drawing samples and the relevant levels of response, could represent a valid method for diagnosing incipient chronic intoxications.

  9. A new nordic structure evaluation system for diets fed to dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.; Volden, H.

    2008-01-01

    on eating, ruminating and total chewing time by cattle fed mainly high forage diets. The EI is proportional with the neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content and a particle size factor (Size_E) of the feed. The RI is proportional with the NDF content, a particle size factor (Size_R) and a hardness factor...... per kg of total DMI is considered to ensure a sufficient intake of physically effective fibre in order to ensure good ruminal fibre digestion and to prevent a low rumen pH, digestive disorders and a low milk fat content in high-yielding dairy cows.......The objective of the Norfor structure system was to establish a model for prediction of eating- (EI), ruminating- (RI) and total chewing index (CI) for feeds and total rations fed to dairy cows. The model was predicted from a Meta analysis of more than 100 published experiments including results...

  10. Fatty Acid Digestibility in Lactating Cows Fed Increasing Amounts of Protected Vegetable Oil, Fish Oil or Saturated Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christian Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestion was studied in three dairy cows cannulated in the rumen, duodenum and ileum. Cows were fed encapsulated fat sources (vegetable oil, saturated fat and fish oil). A preperiod diet was fed with no added fat. In a graeco-latin design nine diets comprising three levels of each...... of the three fat sources were fed. The preperiod diet contained 230 g fatty acids (FA), whereas the three other fats were fed at about 550, 850 and 1150 g FA/day. The feed-ileùm true digestibility of total FA was 95, 47 and 86% for vegetable, saturated and fish fat, respectively. The true digestibility of FA...

  11. Variability, stability, and resilience of fecal microbiota in dairy cows fed whole crop corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minh Thuy; Han, Hongyan; Yu, Zhu; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Nishino, Naoki

    2017-08-01

    The microbiota of whole crop corn silage and feces of silage-fed dairy cows were examined. A total of 18 dairy cow feces were collected from six farms in Japan and China, and high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes was performed. Lactobacillaceae were dominant in all silages, followed by Acetobacteraceae, Bacillaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae. In feces, the predominant families were Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Rikenellaceae, and Paraprevotellaceae. Therefore, Lactobacillaceae of corn silage appeared to be eliminated in the gastrointestinal tract. Although fecal microbiota composition was similar in most samples, relative abundances of several families, such as Ruminococcaceae, Christensenellaceae, Turicibacteraceae, and Succinivibrionaceae, varied between farms and countries. In addition to the geographical location, differences in feeding management between total mixed ration feeding and separate feeding appeared to be involved in the variations. Moreover, a cow-to-cow variation for concentrate-associated families was demonstrated at the same farm; two cows showed high abundance of Succinivibrionaceae and Prevotellaceae, whereas another had a high abundance of Porphyromonadaceae. There was a negative correlation between forage-associated Ruminococcaceae and concentrate-associated Succinivibrionaceae and Prevotellaceae in 18 feces samples. Succinivibrionaceae, Prevotellaceae, p-2534-18B5, and Spirochaetaceae were regarded as highly variable taxa in this study. These findings help to improve our understanding of variation and similarity of the fecal microbiota of dairy cows with regard to individuals, farms, and countries. Microbiota of naturally fermented corn silage had no influence on the fecal microbiota of dairy cows.

  12. Effect of conservation and maturity of primary growth grass/clover on chewing activity and fecal particle size in heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Nørgaard, Peder; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    silage or hay. The forages early silage (ES) and hay (EH), and late silage (LS) and hay (LH) had DM contents of 45, 84, 25 and 83%, and NDF contents of 32, 44, 42 and 50% of DM, respectively. Forages were fed as sole feed to four Jersey heifers of 435±30 kg BW in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Feeding...... level was 90% of individual ad libitum intake, divided in two daily meals at 0800 and 1530 h. Jaw movements oscillations (JMO) were recorded for 96 h continuously using Hall sensor fitted chewing halters. Jaw movements (JM) were identified from JMO, clustered into cycles and periods of rumination...... spent eating, but lower mean rumination per kg NDF intake (P=0.002). Hay compared to silage caused higher NDF intake (Pruminating (P=0.004) in min/kg NDF intake. Feeding silage compared to hay resulted in a higher proportion of washed fecal particle...

  13. Ingestive behavior of lactating cows fed sugarcane and crude glycerin levels on the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Teixeira Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The crude glycerin used as feed for ruminants has drawn attention of the researchers for dealing with environmental aspects. Considering current legislation did not establish how to treat this product, this is a low cost alternative of great amount of a residue of the biodiesel production. In this study we evaluated different crude glycerin levels on ingestive behavior which were studied as the diet of lactating cows fed with sugarcane. The glycerin levels were 0, 4, 8 and 12% of the dry matter; the diet was balanced to contain enough nutrients for the maintenance and milk production of 15 kg.dia-1. Sixteen (16 crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were distributed into four 4x4 Latin Squares. The animals were submitted to observation of 24 hours every five minutes to evaluate ingestive behavior. The observation of the activities was recorded. The animal´s behavior was visually determined with five minutes of intervals to determine the times spent in idle, feeding, rumination, and were calculated patterns of feeding and rumination. The addition of glycerin to the diet did not affect the ingestive behavior parameter in lactating cows fed sugarcane, might be explained by the similarity in NDF content of diets, and up to 12% may be added of the diet’s dry matter.

  14. Production and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows fed ground field peas with or without ruminally protected lysine and methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Whitehouse, N L; Aragona, K M; Schwab, C S; Reis, S F; Brito, A F

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has shown that cows fed ≥24% of the diet dry matter (DM) as field peas decreased milk yield as well as concentration and yield of milk protein, possibly due to reduced DM intake and limited supply of Lys and Met. Twelve multiparous and 4 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The diets contained (DM basis) 34.8% corn silage, 15.2% grass-legume silage, 5.9% roasted soybean, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premix, 2.0% alfalfa pellets, and either (1) 36% ground corn, 2.4% soybean meal, and 1.3% urea (UR), (2) 29.7% ground corn, 9.8% soybean meal, 0.13% ruminally protected (RP) Lys, and 0.07% RP-Met (CSBAA), (3) 25% ground field peas, 12.3% ground corn, and 2.4% soybean meal (FP), or (4) FP supplemented with 0.15% RP-Lys and 0.05% RP-Met (FPAA). Our objective was to test the effects of FP versus UR, FPAA versus CSBAA, and FPAA versus FP on milk yield and composition, N utilization, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation profile, and plasma concentration of AA. Milk yield did not differ across diets. Compared with cows fed UR, those fed FP had greater DM intake, concentration and yield of milk true protein, apparent total-tract digestibility of fiber, urinary excretion of purine derivatives, and concentrations of total volatile fatty acids in the rumen and Lys in plasma, and less milk urea N and ruminal NH 3 -N. The concentration of milk urea N, as well as the concentration and yield of milk fat increased in cows fed FPAA versus CSBAA. Moreover, cows fed FPAA had greater ruminal concentration of total volatile fatty acids, increased proportions of acetate and isobutyrate, and decreased proportions of propionate and valerate than those fed CSBAA. The plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Phe decreased, whereas plasma Met increased and plasma Lys tended to increase in cows fed FPAA versus CSBAA. Concentration of milk true protein, but not yield, was increased in cows fed FPAA

  15. Effect of spring versus autumn grass/clover silage and rapeseed supplementation on milk production, composition and quality in Jersey cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Vogdanou, Stefania; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2016-01-01

    of C16 : 0, riboflavin and α-tocopherol were decreased with autumn silage. The majority of C18 FAs in milk and α-tocopherol concentration increased with rapeseed whereas C11 : 0 to C16 : 0 FA were reduced. Autumn silage reduced biohydrogenation of C18 : 2n6, whereas rapeseed increased biohydrogenation...

  16. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were......), while cows in the experimental group were fed the basic diet and supplemented with 1 kg zeolite pellets once daily. During the third week (period 3) both groups were fed the basic ration only and observed for any persistent effects after zeolite withdraw. Daily sampling included blood and urine....... Selected physiological parameters were compared between groups during period 2 and 3, whereas mean values from period 1, 2 and 3 were compared within the groups. Zeolite supplementation revealed a significant influence on calcium homeostasis. A slight decrease in serum Ca and in renal excretion of calcium...

  17. Economic performance of dairy cows fed diets with different levels of oregano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julinessa Silva Oliveira de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the economic viability of using different levels of oregano in diets for lactating cows fed sugar cane. We used 12 crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows assigned to three 4 x 4 Latin squares. The four treatments consisted of different levels of oregano: oregano free-control diet (0% and diets added with 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% oregano. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production of 15 kg day-1. For economic analysis, we employed two economic indicators, net present value and internal rate of return. The total cost per animal and per liter of milk produced has increased with the inclusion of oregano. The inclusion of oregano was not effective for both productivity and profitability, with prices equal to R$ 0.87, 0.97, 1.09, 1.22, and R$ 0.78, 1.03, 1.28, and 1.52 of milk and concentrate, respectively for each level of inclusion. The internal rate of return was more advantageous when not adding oregano in the diet, indicating the viability of using oregano up to 0.8% inclusion to the diet of dairy cows under the conditions of this experiment. The net present value demonstrated that this investment is interesting for all discount rates used in the diet without the addition of oregano, pointing out that, in this treatment, the activity was feasible for any opportunity cost.

  18. Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tempel Stumpf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test, and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day, sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow per day or no additives. Assessments were made at the 28th and 44th days. Supply of sodium citrate or bicarbonate has no influence on the metabolic attributes, productivity, body weight, and body condition score of the cows, neither on the composition and stability of milk.

  19. Iodine in raw and pasteurized milk of dairy cows fed different amounts of potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzian, M A

    2011-02-01

    Relation between iodine (I) intake by lactating Holstein cows and iodine concentrations in raw and pasteurized milk were investigated. Four treatment groups with eight cows assigned to each treatment were fed a basal diet containing 0.534 mg I/kg alone or supplemented with potassium iodide at 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg in 7-week period. Iodine concentrations in raw milk increased with each increase in dietary I from 162.2 ng/ml for basal diet to 534.5, 559.8 and 607.5 ng/ml when 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg was fed as potassium iodide (P HTST) pasteurization process reduced I concentration. The mean iodine content found in the milk prior to heating processing was 466.0 ± 205.0 ng/ml, whereas for the processed milk this level was 349.5 ± 172.8 ng/ml. It was concluded that iodine supplementation above of NRC recommendation (0.5 mg/kg diet DM) resulted in significant increases in iodine concentrations in milk, although the effect of heating in HTST pasteurization process on iodine concentration was not negligible.

  20. Comparison of updates to the Molly cow model to predict methane production from dairy cows fed pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Beukes, P C; Hanigan, M D; Waghorn, G; Muetzel, S; McNamara, J P

    2013-08-01

    Molly is a deterministic, mechanistic, dynamic model representing the digestion, metabolism, and production of a dairy cow. This study compared the predictions of enteric methane production from the original version of Molly (MollyOrigin) and 2 new versions of Molly. Updated versions included new ruminal fiber digestive parameters and animal hormonal parameters (Molly84) and a revised version of digestive and ruminal parameters (Molly85), using 3 different ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) stoichiometry constructs to describe the VFA pattern and methane (CH4) production (g of CH4/d). The VFA stoichiometry constructs were the original forage and mixed-diet VFA constructs and a new VFA stoichiometry based on a more recent and larger set of data that includes lactate and valerate production, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria, as well as protozoal pools. The models' outputs were challenged using data from 16 dairy cattle 26 mo old [standard error of the mean (SEM)=1.7], 82 (SEM=8.7) d in milk, producing 17 (SEM=0.2) kg of milk/d, and fed fresh-cut ryegrass [dry matter intake=12.3 (SEM=0.3) kg of DM/d] in respiration chambers. Mean observed CH4 production was 266±5.6 SEM (g/d). Mean predicted values for CH4 production were 287 and 258 g/d for MollyOrigin without and with the new VFA construct. Model Molly84 predicted 295 and 288 g of CH4/d with and without the new VFA settings. Model Molly85 predicted the same CH4 production (276 g/d) with or without the new VFA construct. The incorporation of the new VFA construct did not consistently reduce the low prediction error across the versions of Molly evaluated in the present study. The improvements in the Molly versions from MollyOrigin to Molly84 to Molly85 resulted in a decrease in mean square prediction error from 8.6 to 8.3 to 4.3% using the forage diet setting. The majority of the mean square prediction error was apportioned to random bias (e.g., 43, 65, and 70% in MollyOrigin, Molly84, and Molly85, respectively, on

  1. Milk Production of Lactating Cows Fed Pangola Silage Ensiled with Irradiated Silage Innoculant and Fresh Cut Pangola Grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanpanich, Somkiert; Buaphan, Sirirat; Boon-ek, Lertchatand; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    Ten crossbred Holstein lactating cows of mid-lactation and similar body score condition were balanced across the 2 treatments containing Group 1: 5 cows given fresh cut Pangola grass and Group 2: 5 cows fed Pangola silage ensiled with silage innoculant, under Group Comparison Design. They were also provided with an exact amount of 1 kg meal concentrate to 1 kg of milk produced. Mineral supplement and water were supplied free choice. The results did show that the cows in Group 1 had significantly higher (P<0.05) roughage and total dry matter intake than did the cows in Group 2. However, milk production in Group 2 appeared to have a non-significant higher amount, the concentrations of Blood urea nitrogen, Blood glucose and Triiodothyronine were not significant different between groups. The body weight change increased in both groups. It can concluded that cows fed Pangola silage ensiled with silage innoculant seemed to have higher Digestibility Co-efficiency due to the high efficiency of silage innoculant fermentation. Then, silage quality would be improved by mean of silage innoculant application.

  2. Ruminal, Intestinal, and Total Digestibilities of Nutrients in Cows Fed Diets High in Fat and Undegradable Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmquist, D.L.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1993-01-01

    To study relationships of high undegradable intake protein and dietary fat on intestinal AA supply, the ruminal, intestinal, and total digestibilities of diets with or without added fat (5% of DM) and animal protein (blood meal: hydrolyzed feather meal, 1:1; 8% of DM) were examined with four cows...... with cows cannulated 100-cm distal to the pylorus, but only when cows were fed protein-supplemented diets; the estimates from those diets caused calculated microbial protein efficiency to exceed theoretical values. We postulated that blood meal and feather meal segregated near the pylorus, yielding high...... estimates of duodenal AA N flow. Removal of data for protein-supplemented diets obtained from cows cannulated at the pylorus yielded estimates of microbial protein synthetic efficiency consistent with literature values. Microbial synthesis of AA N was related linearly to ruminal digestion of carbohydrate...

  3. Efficacy of controlled-release capsules containing monensin for the prevention of subclinical ketosis in pasture-fed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C W R; Young, L; McDougall, S

    2015-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of intra-rumenal controlled release capsules (CRC) containing 32 g of monensin administered pre-calving to reduce the cumulative incidence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in mainly pasture-fed dairy cows. Cows (n=837) due to calve in the first 6 weeks of the spring calving period were enrolled from four commercial herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand in a blinded, randomised, negative-controlled field trial. Three weeks before the start of the calving period cows were randomly allocated to receive either no treatment (control) or a single CRC containing monensin and then blood sampled on two occasions, 7 days apart within 12 days following calving for measurement of concentrations of beta hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood. Cows were diagnosed with SCK if the concentration of BHBA in blood in either of these samples was ≥1.2 mmol/L. Fewer treated cows were diagnosed with SCK within 12 days post-calving than control cows (144/340 (42.4%) vs. 192/336 (57.1%); p10 days prior to calving reduced the cumulative incidence of SCK of pasture-based dairy cows in commercial dairy herds within 12 days post-calving. Administration pre-calving of an intra-rumenal bolus containing monensin can be considered as one of a range of management options for the control of SCK in early lactation.

  4. Effects of bacterial direct-fed microbials on ruminal characteristics, methane emission, and milk fatty acid composition in cows fed high- or low-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippeau, C; Lettat, A; Martin, C; Silberberg, M; Morgavi, D P; Ferlay, A; Berger, C; Nozière, P

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of bacterial direct-fed microbials (DFM) on ruminal fermentation and microbial characteristics, methane (CH 4 ) emission, diet digestibility, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition in dairy cows fed diets formulated to induce different ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles. Eight ruminally cannulated dairy cows were divided into 2 groups based on parity, days in milk, milk production, and body weight. Cows in each group were fed either a high-starch (38%, HS) or a low-starch (2%, LS) diet in a 55:45 forage-to-concentrate ratio on a dry matter (DM) basis. For each diet, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a Latin square design of (1) control (CON); (2) Propionibacterium P63 (P63); (3) P63 plus Lactobacillus plantarum 115 (P63+Lp); (4) P63 plus Lactobacillus rhamnosus 32 (P63+Lr). Strains of DFM were administered at 10 10 cfu/d. Methane emission (using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique), total-tract digestibility, dry matter intake, and milk production and composition were quantified in wk 3. Ruminal fermentation and microbial characteristics were measured in wk 4. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The 2 diets induced different ruminal VFA profiles, with a greater proportion of propionate at the expense of acetate and butyrate for the HS diet. Greater concentrations of total bacteria and selected bacterial species of methanogenic Archaea were reported for the HS diet, whereas the protozoa concentration in HS decreased. For both diets, bacterial DFM supplementation raised ruminal pH (+0.18 pH units, on average) compared with CON. Irrespective of diet, P63+Lp and P63+Lr increased ruminal cellulase activity (3.8-fold, on average) compared with CON, but this effect was not associated with variations in ruminal microbial numbers. Irrespective of diet, no effect of bacterial DFM on ruminal VFA was observed. For the LS diet, supplementing cows with P63+Lr tended

  5. Effects of ruminally degradable starch levels on performance, nitrogen balance, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed low corn-based starch diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobin Luo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective This trial was performed to examine the effects of ruminally degradable starch (RDS levels in total mixed ration (TMR with low corn-based starch on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Methods Eight multiparous Holstein cows (body weight [BW]: 717±63 kg; days in milk [DIM]: 169±29 were assigned to a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 62.3% ruminally degradable starch (% of total starch, low RDS or 72.1% ruminally degradable starch (% of total starch, high RDS. Changes to the ruminally degradable levels were conducted by using either finely ground corn or steam-flaked corn as the starch component. Results The results showed that dry matter intake, milk yield and composition in dairy cows were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was lower for cows fed high RDS TMR than low RDS TMR. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude protein decreased, and that of starch increased for cows fed high RDS TMR over those fed low RDS TMR, with no dietary effect on the whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter. The proportion of urinary N excretion in N intake was lower and that of fecal N excretion in N intake was higher for cows fed high RDS TMR than those fed low RDS TMR. The N secretion in milk and the retention of N were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Total purine derivative was similar in cows fed high RDS TMR and low RDS TMR. Consequently, estimated microbial N flow to the duodenum was similar in cows fed high RDS TMR and low RDS TMR. Conclusion Results of this study show that ruminally degradable starch levels can influence whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows fed low corn-based starch diets, with no influence on performance.

  6. Feed intake and urinary excretion of nitrogen and purine derivatives in pregnant suckler cows fed alternative roughage-based diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jardstedt, M.; Hessle, A.; Nørgaard, P.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared intake of alternative roughage-based diets and of common late-cut grass silage and related intake to urinary nitrogen (N), urea-N and purine derivative (PD) excretion, where PD is an indicator of rumen microbial crude protein (MCP) synthesis. Total urine was collected from 36...... Hereford cows, blocked into three groups based on expected calving date. Cows within calving groups were randomly assigned to one of four roughage diets: common mixed grass silage (MGS), festulolium silage plus urea (FLS), reed canarygrass silage (RCS) and barley straw plus urea and rapeseed meal (BRM...... diets stimulated rumen MCP production to a greater extent than the BRM diet, as indicated by the higher urinary output of PD in cows fed the grass silage-based diets (P

  7. Body retention and tissue distribution of 59Fe and 54Mn in newborn rats fed iron-supplemented cow's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruden, Nevenka

    1980-01-01

    The effect of iron-fortified cow's milk on body 59 Fe and 54 Mn retention and selective tissue distribution has been studied in newborn rats. Six-day old rats, divided into three groups were artificially fed for 7 hrs 0,45 ml of cow's milk or cow's milk enriched with either 52 or 103 μg of Fe /ml and marked with 59 Fe and 54 Mn. After 4 days there was no significant difference in whole body or carcass activity between the groups. Iron added to milk in large amounts did not influence body 59 Fe or 54 Mn retention in newborn rats, whereas it enhanced 59 Fe deposition in the liver and the intestinal wall and, to a lesser extent, 54 Mn deposition in the liver

  8. Performance evaluation and adaptability of lactating dairy cows fed soybean and its by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria de Vasconcelos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the lactation performance and adaptability of confined dairy cows fed diets containing soybean and its by-products, this study used 12 Holsteincows with initial production of 30 kg milk-1 day-1 day-1 in feedlot system distributed in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The experimental period lasted 84 days. The dry matter intake (DMI and meteorological variables were recorded daily. Milk production was measured from the 15th to the 21st day, with milk analysis twice in each period, and physiological variables collected on the 15, 17th and 21st days of each experimental period. The thermal comfort indices and rectal temperature were considered normal, however the respiratory frequency and heart rate were different between the periods. Total milk production and percentage of crude protein were not affected. The thermal environment had influence on the CMS and on the percentage of milk fat in warmer periods, but the mechanism of heat dissipation was efficient for the animals to maintain homeothermy without affecting milk production.

  9. A new nordic structure evaluation system for diets fed to dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.; Randby, Å.T.

    2010-01-01

    , and with studies as random effect for ruminating time. The mRTf value per kg forage NDF decreased at increased BW and DNFIf/BW. The mETf value increased at increasing BW and at decreasing DM contents of grass silage. Intake of NDF from rolled barley stimulated ruminating time by 3/4 of the stimuli from DNFIf......The overall aim was to establish a model for predicting chewing index (CI) values for ranking the fibrousnesses of feeds fed to dairy cows within the Nordic Chewing index system. The CI values are predicted as the sum of the eating (EI) and ruminating time index (RI) values. The EI values...... are assumed to be proportional with the NDF content and a particle size factor through the porportionality factor kEI. The RI values are assumed to be proportional with the NDF content, a particle size factor and a hardness factor through the proportionality factor kRI. The kEI, kRI values and the k...

  10. Dry matter intake, body condition score, and grazing behavior of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows fed kale or grass once versus twice daily during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugoho, I; Edwards, G R

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of wintering pregnant, nonlactating dairy cows outdoors on either kale or grass, fed in 1 [11 kg dry matter (DM) of kale or grass + 3 kg DM of baled barley straw offered in the morning] or 2 allocations (5.5 kg DM of kale or grass grazed + 1.5 kg DM of barley straw offered morning and afternoon) per day. The body condition score (BCS) gain over the 47-d winter feeding period was higher for grass-fed (0.5 BCS units) than kale-fed cows (0.3 BCS units), but was unaffected by feeding frequency. Forage DM utilization was higher for kale-fed (97%) than grass-fed cows (76%), leading to higher estimated dry matter intake (DMI) in kale-fed (10.7 kg of DM/cow per day) than grass-fed cows (7.7 kg of DM/cow per day). Forage DM utilization and estimated DMI were not affected by feeding frequency. Prehension bite rate was greater for grass-fed (37.3 bites/min) than kale-fed cows (7.6 bites/min), but more mastication bites were required for kale-fed cows. Cumulative DMI after 2, 3, and 6 h was greater in cows allocated forage once than twice a day and for kale than grass after 3 and 6 h. Mean eating time was greater for cows offered forage once (477 min) than twice (414 min) per day. In conclusion, increasing feeding frequency from once to twice per day decreased the intake rate within the first 6 h after allocation, but did not affect total daily DMI, DM utilization or BCS gain. Thus, moving cows more frequently would not have any significant advantage. It may increase labor requirements, thereby creating a more challenging wintering management than feeding once per day. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between residual feed intake and digestibility for lactating Holstein cows fed high and low starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2017-01-01

    We determined if differences in digestibility among cows explained variation in residual feed intake (RFI) in 4 crossover design experiments. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 120±30d in milk; mean ± SD) were fed diets high (HS) or low (LS) in starch. The HS diets were 30% (±1.8%) starch and 27% (±1.2%) neutral detergent fiber (NDF); LS diets were 14% (±2.2%) starch and 40% (±5.3%) NDF. Each experiment consisted of two 28-d treatment periods, with apparent total-tract digestibility measured using indigestible NDF as an internal marker during the last 5d of each period. Individual cow dry matter (DM) intake and milk yield were recorded daily, body weight was measured 3 to 5 times per week, and milk components were analyzed 2 d/wk. Individual DM intake was regressed on milk energy output, metabolic body weight, body energy gain, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort (a group of cows that received treatments in the same sequence) nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment, with the residual being RFI. High RFI cows ate more than expected and were deemed less efficient. Residual feed intake correlated negatively with digestibility of starch for both HS (r=-0.31) and LS (r=-0.23) diets, and with digestibilities of DM (r=-0.30) and NDF (r=-0.23) for LS diets but was not correlated with DM or NDF digestibility for HS diets. For each cohort within an experiment, cows were classified as high RFI (HRFI; >0.5 SD), medium RFI (MRFI; ±0.5 SD), and low RFI (LRFI; Digestibility of DM was similar (~66%) among HRFI and LRFI for HS diets but greater for LRFI when fed LS diets (64 vs. 62%). For LS diets, digestibility of DM could account for up to 31% of the differences among HRFI and LRFI for apparent diet energy density, as determined from individual cow performance, indicating that digestibility explains some of the between-animal differences for the ability to convert gross energy into net energy. Some of the differences in digestibility

  12. Enteric methane emissions and lactational performance of Holstein cows fed different concentrations of coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, M; Powers, W J; Fogiel, A C; Liesman, J S; Bello, N M; Beede, D K

    2012-05-01

    To determine if dietary medium-chain fatty acids (FA; C(8) to C(14)) may mitigate enteric methane emissions, 24 cows were blocked by body size (n=2) and randomly assigned to 1 sequence of dietary treatments. Diets were fed for 35 d each in 2 consecutive periods. Diets differed in concentrations of coconut oil (CNO; ~75% medium-chain FA): 0.0 (control) or 1.3, 2.7, or 3.3% CNO, dry matter basis. The control diet contained 50% forage (74% from corn silage), 16.5% crude protein (60% from rumen-degradable protein), 34% neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 71% from forage), and 28% starch, dry matter basis. Data and sample collections were from d 29 to 35 in environmentally controlled rooms to measure methane (CH(4)) production. Methane emitted was computed from the difference in concentrations of inlet and outlet air and flux as measured 8 times per day. Control cows emitted 464 g of CH(4)/d, consumed 22.9 kg of DM/d, and produced 34.8 kg of solids-corrected milk/d and 1.3 kg of milk fat/d. Treatment with 1.3, 2.7, or 3.3% dietary CNO reduced CH(4) (449, 291, and 253 g/d, respectively), but concomitantly depressed dry matter intake (21.4, 17.9, and 16.2 kg/d, respectively), solids-corrected milk yield (36.3, 28.4, and 26.8 kg/d, respectively), and milk fat yield (1.4, 0.9, and 0.9 kg/d, respectively). The amount of NDF digested in the total tract decreased with increased dietary CNO concentrations; thus, CH(4) emitted per unit of NDF digested rose from 118 to 128, 153, and 166 g/kg across CNO treatments. Dietary CNO did not significantly affect apparent digestibility of CP but increased apparent starch digestibility from 92 to 95%. No FA C(10) or shorter were detected in feces, and apparent digestibility decreased with increasing FA chain length. Coconut oil concentrations of 2.7 or 3.3% decreased yields of milk FA C(14). The highest milk fat concentration (3.69%; 1.3% CNO) was due to the greatest yields of C(12) to C(16) milk FA. Milk FA concentrations of C(18:2 trans-10,cis

  13. Effects of dietary starch and protein levels on milk production and composition of dairy cows fed high concentrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Güçlü Sucak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Twenty eight Holstein cows (averaged 41±31.5 and 82±24 days in milk, and 30.4±3.49 and 29.0±2.22 kg/d milk yield were fed a high concentrate diet (70:30 concentrate to forage to examine effects on milk production and composition. The cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were starch (14% and 22% and protein (15% and 18%. Wheat straw was used as forage source. The study lasted 6 weeks. Dry matter intake was not affected (P> 0.05 by the dietary treatments in the study. Milk yield increased with increased dietary protein level (P< 0.01. Milk urea nitrogen concentrations were affected by dietary protein and starch levels, but there was no interaction effect. Nitrogen efficiency (Milk N/N intake was decreased by increasing in dietary protein level (P< 0.01. In conclusion, the cows fed total mixed ration (TMR containing low level of wheat straw responded better when dietary protein increased. But, efficiency of N use and N excretion to the environment were worsened. Key words: Dairy cattle, milk composition, protein, starch, wheat straw

  14. Investigation of Vermiwash Obtained from California Red Worm Which Fed Cow Dung in terms of Trace and Nutrient Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Yüksek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems facing sustainable agriculture is the supply of quality fertilizers and the problems encountered in the application of fertilizers. In the last years, while trying to increase the amount of fertilizers obtained by natural methods, On the other hand it has been observed that studies for obtaining different types (solid natural, liquid natural, bio-natural etc. of fertilizer have continued increasing. The aim of this study is to determine time depend (30 days, 31-60 days changes of some nutrients and metals in vermiwash obtained from Eisenia fetida fed with fermented natural cow dung. For this purpose, Eisenia fetida were fed with fermented cow dung which obtained from cows grazing in natural habitat and obtained vermiwash were analyzed to determined some macro and micronutrient elements. As a result of the study, while the values of N, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg, Sb in vermiwash decreased at a statistically significant level depending on the time; Co, As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Se, Mo, Li and Be were increased at statistically significant levels.

  15. Status of vitamins E and A and β-carotene and health in organic dairy cows fed a diet without synthetic vitamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, B; Persson Waller, K; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    are mainly found in pasture and in grass and legume silages, but the concentrations are highly variable. This study compared the vitamin status and health of cows without synthetic vitamin supplementation (NSV group) with control cows (CON group) fed synthetic vitamins according to Swedish recommendations......Synthetic vitamin supplementation is not consistent with organic production, so it is important to investigate whether dairy cows can maintain their health and production without synthetic vitamins being added to their diet. In basic dairy cow diets, provitamin A (β-carotene) and vitamin E...... (600 IU of vitamin E and 80,000 IU of vitamin A per cow per day) to investigate whether dairy cows can fulfill their requirements of vitamins A and E without supplementation with synthetic vitamins. Vitamin concentrations in blood plasma and milk, health, fertility, milk yield, and milk composition...

  16. Circulating blood metabolites in early-lactation dairy cows fed canola or soybean meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    A successful transition from pregnancy to lactation is imperative for dairy cows to maximize milk production potential. Altering the dietary protein source can change the availability of energy to the cow. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of crude protein (CP) source canol...

  17. Mineral retention in three-week-old piglets fed goat and cow milk infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd, S.M.; Darragh, A.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Prosser, C.G.; Lowry, D.

    2006-01-01

    Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula

  18. Analysis of hepatic transcript profile and plasma lipid profile in early lactating dairy cows fed grape seed and grape marc meal extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Denise K; Winkler, Anne; Koch, Christian; Dusel, Georg; Liebisch, Gerhard; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2017-03-23

    It was recently reported that dairy cows fed a polyphenol-rich grape seed and grape marc meal extract (GSGME) during the transition period had an increased milk yield, but the underlying reasons remained unclear. As polyphenols exert a broad spectrum of metabolic effects, we hypothesized that feeding of GSGME influences metabolic pathways in the liver which could account for the positive effects of GSGME in dairy cows. In order to identify these pathways, we performed genome-wide transcript profiling in the liver and lipid profiling in plasma of dairy cows fed GSGME during the transition period at 1 week postpartum. Transcriptomic analysis of the liver revealed 207 differentially expressed transcripts, from which 156 were up- and 51 were down-regulated, between cows fed GSGME and control cows. Gene set enrichment analysis of the 155 up-regulated mRNAs showed that the most enriched gene ontology (GO) biological process terms were dealing with cell cycle regulation and the most enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways were p53 signaling and cell cycle. Functional analysis of the 43 down-regulated mRNAs revealed that a great part of these genes are involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) and inflammatory processes. Accordingly, protein folding, response to unfolded protein, unfolded protein binding, chemokine activity and heat shock protein binding were identified as one of the most enriched GO biological process and molecular function terms assigned to the down-regulated genes. In line with the transcriptomics data the plasma concentrations of the acute phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin were reduced in cows fed GSGME compared to control cows. Lipidomic analysis of plasma revealed no differences in the concentrations of individual species of major and minor lipid classes between cows fed GSGME and control cows. Analysis of hepatic transcript profile in cows fed GSGME during the

  19. Faecal excretion of total and acid extractable phosphorus in dairy cows fed rations with different levels of phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordqvist, Maria; Spörndly, Rolf; Holtenius, Kjell

    2016-03-15

    The phosphorus (P) originating from livestock operations causes eutrophication. Determination of acid extractable P (AEP) in cattle faeces has been proposed as a tool to identify excessive P feeding. The method has not yet been evaluated in controlled studies with cows subjected to individual recording of P intake. Thus the present study focused on investigating the relationship between different P fractions in faeces from cows fed rations with varying P content. The study also investigated whether AEP in faeces could be used to estimate dietary P intake in relation to the P requirement. The results showed that acid extractable P predicted P overfeeding. P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as acid extractable P. The unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. This study demonstrates in experimental studies a positive relationship between measured AEP and indirectly calculated regulated P. Any P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as AEP. This fraction is thought to be the most mobile P fraction with regard to potential runoff losses. However, the unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Performance and metabolite profile of dairy cows fed tropical grasses and concentrates containing crude protein with low or high degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael dos Santos Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ten Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows distributed into two simultaneous Latin squares (5 × 5 as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement formed by chopped sugarcane or elephant grass silage, both with high or low protein degradability supplements and a corn silage as a control treatment, were compared using orthogonal contrasts. The studied variables were the performance, plasma concentrations of urea-N, glucose, and creatinine, urine-N and milk urea-N, and the nychthemeral variation in NH3-N in the rumen fluid of dairy cows. Nutrient intake, milk production, and milk composition were affected by the treatments. The total mixed ration containing elephant grass silage combined with rumen undegradable protein (RUP provided balanced amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the rumen. This effect may explain the 18% increase in milk yield compared with the other treatments. The diurnal pattern of ruminal NH3-N was interpreted with a sinusoid model. In general, cows fed elephant grass silage exhibited higher concentrations of blood plasma and milk urea-N than animals fed sugarcane. The cows that consumed elephant grass silage with rumen degradable protein concentrate showed a higher milk urea-N compared with animals that consumed elephant grass silage with the RUP concentrate. The use of diets based on corn silage leads to a better use of nitrogen compounds because these diets resulted in lower levels of urea-N in the plasma, urine, and milk at the same level of milk production compared with diets containing elephant grass silage or chopped sugarcane as roughages. In sugarcane-based diets, even greater nitrogen losses in the urine are observed, despite the presence of readily fermentable carbohydrates in the diet.

  1. Methane production, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, and milk production of dairy cows fed conventional or brown midrib corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Benchaar, C

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of replacing conventional corn silage (CCS) with brown midrib corn silage (BMCS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH 4 emission, nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and N excretion. Sixteen rumen-cannulated lactating cows used in a crossover design (35-d periods) were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio = 65:35, dry matter basis) based (59% dry matter) on either CCS or BMCS. Dry matter intake and milk yield increased when cows were fed BMCS instead of CCS. Of the milk components, only milk fat content slightly decreased when cows were fed the BMCS-based diet compared with when fed the CCS-based diet (3.81 vs. 3.92%). Compared with CCS, feeding BMCS to cows increased yields of milk protein and milk fat. Ruminal pH, protozoa numbers, total VFA concentration, and molar proportions of acetate and propionate were similar between cows fed BMCS and those fed CCS. Daily enteric CH 4 emission (g/d) was unaffected by dietary treatments, but CH 4 production expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake or on milk yield basis was lower for cows fed the BMCS-based diet than for cows fed the CCS-based diet. A decline in manure N excretion and a shift in N excretion from urine to feces were observed when BMCS replaced CCS in the diet, suggesting reduced potential of manure N volatilization. Results from this study show that improving fiber quality of corn silage in dairy cow diets through using brown midrib trait cultivar can reduce enteric CH 4 emissions as well as potential emissions of NH 3 and N 2 O from manure. However, CH 4 emissions during manure storage may increase due to excretion of degradable OM when BMCS diet is fed, which merits further investigation. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Feed intake and milk production in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare feed intake, milk production, milk composition and organic matter (OM) digestibility in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species. Data from the literature was collected and different data sets were made to compare families (grasses v. legumes...... tannins in birdsfoot trefoil. None of the included grass species differed in DMI, milk production, milk composition or OM digestibility, indicating that different grass species have the same value for milk production, if OM digestibility is comparable. However, the comparison of different grass species...

  3. Technical note: Nitrogen isotopic fractionation can be used to predict nitrogen-use efficiency in dairy cows fed temperate pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Sheahan, A J; Gibbs, S J; Rius, A G; Kay, J K; Meier, S; Edwards, G R; Dewhurst, R J; Roche, J R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitrogen isotopic fractionation (δ(15)N) and nitrogen-use efficiency (milk nitrogen/nitrogen intake; NUE) in pasture-fed dairy cows supplemented with increasing levels of urea to mimic high rumen degradable protein pastures in spring. Fifteen cows were randomly assigned to freshly cut pasture and either supplemented with 0, 250, or 336 g urea/d. Feed, milk, and plasma were analyzed for δ(15)N, milk and plasma for urea nitrogen concentration, and plasma for ammonia concentration. Treatment effects were tested using ANOVA and relationships between variables were established by linear regression. Lower dry matter intake (P = 0.002) and milk yield (P = 0.002) occurred with the highest urea supplementation (336 g urea/d) compared with the other two treatments. There was a strong linear relationship between milk δ(15)N - feed δ(15)N and NUE: [NUE (%) = 58.9 - 10.17 × milk δ(15)N - feed δ(15)N (‰) (r(2) = 0.83, P < 0.001, SE = 1.67)] and between plasma δ(15)N - feed δ(15)N and NUE: [NUE (%) = 52.4 - 8.61 × plasma δ(15)N - feed δ(15)N (‰) (r(2) = 0.85, P < 0.001, SE = 1.56)] . This study confirmed the potential use of δ(15)N to predict NUE in cows consuming different levels of rumen degradable protein.

  4. Behavior patterns of cows with Charolais or Nellore breed predominance fed diets with plant extract or monensin sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Rumpel Segabinazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the ingestive behavior of feedlot cows fed additives based on plant extracts or monensin sodium. Twenty-four Charolais and Nellore crossbred cows with age and average initial weight of 7 years and 423 kg, respectively, were used. The experimental diets were plant extracts: basal diet + 5 g/animal/day of a natural additive composed of 750 mg of essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris, 150 mg of garlic (Allium sativum, 250 mg of rosemary extract (Rosmarimus officinalis, 250 mg of canola oil (Brassica napus, 250 mg extract of quillaja (Quillaja saponaria, and 3350 mg of corn starch; sodium monensin: basal diet + 300 mg/monensin/animal/day; and control: basal diet without additive. The basal diet contained sorghum silage and concentrate in a 62:38 ratio. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 3 × 2 (3 diets and 2 breed predominances factorial arrangement, and means were compared using DMS test at 5% of significance. The type of additive consumed did not alter animal feeding behavior. Cows with Charolais predominance consumed more dry matter (13.78 vs. 12.38 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber (7.81 vs. 6.89 kg/day, ruminated for longer (8.47 vs. 7.82 h, spent more time chewing (13.05 vs 12.01 h, had a greater number of chews per minute (58.88 vs 53.21 and a greater number of ruminal bolus (541.43 vs. 464.09 boluses/day; however, cows with Nellore predominance had greater idling time (11.82 vs. 10.74 h.

  5. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  6. In vitro methane and gas production with inocula from cows and goats fed an identical diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Genet; Hendriks, Wouter H; Pellikaan, Wilbert F

    2018-03-01

    Fermentative capacity among ruminants can differ depending on the type of ruminant species and the substrate fermented. The aim was to compare in vitro cow and goat rumen inocula in terms of methane (CH 4 ) and gas production (GP), fermentation kinetics and 72 h volatile fatty acids (VFA) production using the browse species Acacia etbaica, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Rhus natalensis, freeze-dried maize silage and grass silage, and a concentrate as substrates. Total GP, CH 4 and VFA were higher (P ≤ 0.008) in goat inoculum than cows across substrates. The half-time for asymptotic GP was lower (P goats compared to cows. Methane production and as a percentage of total GP was higher (P goats compared to cows. Goat inoculum showed higher fermentative activity with a concomitant higher CH 4 production compared to cows. This difference highlights the ability of goats to better utilise browse species and other roughage types. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Production performance of lactating dairy cows at pasture fed concentrate supplemented with licuri oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano dos Santos Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal level of licuri oil to use in the concentrate of lactating dairy cows on pasture, through growth performance, feed conversion and cost of the supplementation. A total of 16 dairy cows, Holstein × Zebu crossbreed, were kept on Tanzania grass pasture. Cows were divided into four Latin squares, 4 × 4, formed by four experimental periods of 21 days, divided into 17 days for adaptation and four days for data collection. Cows received three kg of concentrate per day at the time of milking, and the treatments consisted of four diets containing licuri oil at levels of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of the concentrated dry matter. There was a linear increase in the daily milk yield, corrected to 3.5% fat, and an improvement in the feed conversion of the dry matter and neutral detergent fiber with the inclusion of the licuri oil. The optimal level of licuri oil was 1.5% of the concentrated DM for dairy cows on pasture, whose level has the best profit sale of milk, with positive results in the corrected daily milk production and conversion of the feed nutrients.

  8. Nitrogen metabolism and microbial production of dairy cows fed sugarcane and nitrogen compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Geógenes da Silva; Pedreira,Marcio dos Santos; Pereira,Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; Santos,Dimas Oliveira; Souza,Dicastro Dias de; Porto Junior,Antonio Ferraz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dairy cow diets containing two different sources of urea on nitrogen metabolism and microbial synthesis. Eight crossbred cows were confined and distributed in two 4x4 Latin: FS - soybean meal (control), conventional urea (UC) 100%; ULL 44 UC = 56% / 44% ULL, ULL 88 UC = 12% / 88% ULL. Diets were offered to animals during 21 days with 14 days of adaptation. The N intake, retained nitrogen balance, nitrogen excretion in milk, urine, feces and ...

  9. The effect of silage cutting height on the nutritive value of a normal corn silage hybrid compared with brown midrib corn silage fed to lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, L; Moulder, B M; Mulrooney, C M; Teller, R S; Schmidt, R J

    2008-04-01

    A brown midrib (BMR) hybrid and a silage-specific non-BMR (7511FQ) hybrid were harvested at a normal cut height leaving 10 to 15 cm of stalk in the field. The non-BMR hybrid was also cut at a greater height leaving 45 to 50 cm of stalk. Cutting high increased the concentrations of dry matter (+4%), crude protein (+5%), net energy for lactation (+3%), and starch (+7%), but decreased the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (-9%), neutral detergent fiber (-8%), and acid detergent lignin (-13%) for 7511FQ. As expected, the BMR corn silage was 30% lower in lignin concentration than 7511FQ. After 30 h of in vitro ruminal fermentation, the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber for normal cut 7511FQ, the same hybrid cut high, and the normal cut BMR hybrid were 51.7, 51.4, and 63.5%, respectively. Twenty-seven multiparous lactating cows were fed a total mixed ration composed of the respective silages (45% of dry matter) with alfalfa haylage (5%), alfalfa hay (5%), and concentrate (45%) (to make the TMR isocaloric and isonitrogenous) in a study with a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Milk production was greater for cows fed the BMR hybrid (48.8 kg/d) compared with those fed the normal cut 7511FQ (46.8 kg/d) or cut high (47.7 kg/d). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Feed efficiency for cows fed the BMR silage (1.83) was greater than for those fed high-cut 7511FQ (1.75), but was not different from cows fed the normal cut 7511FQ (1.77). Cows fed the BMR silage had milk with greater concentrations of lactose but lower milk urea nitrogen than cows on other treatments. Harvesting a silage-specific, non-BMR corn hybrid at a high harvest height improved its nutritive content, but the improvement in feeding value was not equivalent to that found when cows were fed BMR corn silage.

  10. Effect of source of trace minerals in either forage- or by-product-based diets fed to dairy cows: 2. Apparent absorption and retention of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, M J; St-Pierre, N R; Weiss, W P

    2017-07-01

    Eighteen multiparous cows were used in a split-plot replicated Latin square with two 28-d periods to evaluate the effects of source of supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn (sulfates or hydroxy) on apparent absorption of minerals when fed in either a forage- or by-product-based diet. The by-product diets were formulated to have greater concentrations of NDF and lesser concentrations of starch, and specific ingredients were chosen because they were good sources of soluble fiber and β-glucans, which bind trace minerals in nonruminants. We hypothesized that hydroxy trace minerals would interact less with digesta and have greater apparent absorption compared with sulfate minerals, and the difference in apparent absorption would be greater for the by-product diet compared with the forage-based diet. During the 56-d experiment, cows remained on the same fiber treatment but source of supplemental trace mineral was different for each 28-d period; thus, all cows were exposed to both mineral treatments. During each period cows were fed no supplemental Cu, Zn, or Mn for 16 d, followed by 12 d of feeding supplemental minerals from either sulfate or hydroxy sources. Supplemental minerals for each of the mineral sources fed provided approximately 10, 35, and 32 mg/kg of supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn, respectively, for both fiber treatments. Total Cu, Zn, and Mn dietary concentrations, respectively, were approximately 19, 65, and 70 mg/kg for the forage diets and 21, 85, and 79 for the by-product diets. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake (24.2 kg/d) or milk production (34.9 kg/d). Cows consuming the by-product diets had greater Zn (1,863 vs. 1,453 mg/d) and Mn (1,790 vs. 1,588 mg/d) intake compared with cows fed forage diets, but apparent Zn absorption was similar between treatments. Manganese apparent absorption was greater for the by-product diets compared with the forage diets (16 vs. 11%). A fiber by mineral interaction was observed for Cu apparent absorption, as cows fed

  11. Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Digestive Tract of Lactating Cows Fed Tallow in Increasing Amounts at Two Feed Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Børsting, Christian Friis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acid metabolism in the digestive tract was studied in lactating cows fed at two levels of dry matter intake (L, 8.6 kg DM and H, 12.6 kg DM), with 0, 4 and 6% added tallow at low feed level (L0, L4 and L6), and 0, 2, 4 and 6% fat at high feed level (H0, H2, H4 and H6). Mean fatty...... in the diet. As a mean 68% of the unsaturated C18 fatty acids were hydrogenated in the rumen. Fatty acid and crude fat true digestibilities decreased with increasing fat intakes owing to a decrease in stearic acid (C18:0) digestibility....

  12. Sensorial and fatty acid profile of ice cream manufactured with milk of crossbred cows fed palm oil and coconut fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, S A S; Madrona, G S; Visentainer, J V; Bonafe, E G; Carvalho, C B; Roche, P M; Prado, I N

    2014-11-01

    This work was carried out to study the nutritional quality of milk of cows fed palm oil (PAL) or coconut fat (COC), and the use of that milk as raw material for ice cream production. Three treatments were tested with 23 healthy cows: control (CON), PAL, and COC. The milk was collected at d 21 and 36 of the experimental diet. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrates) and fatty acid composition were evaluated on milk and ice cream, and sensorial analysis, color (lightness, green/red, and blue/yellow), overrun, and texture were evaluated on the ice cream. Fatty acids present in milk and ice cream were determined by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis results showed that the ice cream acceptability index was above 70%. No difference was observed for proximate composition in milk and ice cream. Chromatographic analysis showed an increase in saturated fatty acid concentration in CON and lower levels in PAL; polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration was higher in PAL and lower in CON, in milk and ice cream; monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk was higher in PAL and lower in CON but no difference was found in ice cream. Comparing n-3 content in milk and ice cream, we observed that PAL had higher levels than CON and COC. The results indicate that it is feasible to add sources of fat to the animal feed for fatty acid composition modulation of milk and ice cream. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rumen fermentation and nutrient flow to the omasum in Holstein cows fed extruded canola seeds treated with or without lignosulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallacy Barbacena Rosa dos Santos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 548 kg of body weight and 74 d in lactation were used in a Latin square design with four 21-d experimental periods to determine effects of feeding extruded versus non-extruded canola seed, with or without 50 g/kg lignosulfonate on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow to the omasum, and degradability of dry matter (DM and N of each diet. The DM effective degradability increased with extrusion and lignosulfonate treatment had no effect. The effective degradability of N was similar between diets. Lignosulfonate treatment of extruded versus non-extruded canola seeds decreased ruminal and total tract apparent digestibility of organic matter. The lowest apparent ruminal and highest intestinal digestibilities of protein, expressed as a percentage of N intake were observed for cows fed extruded canola seeds without lignosulfonate. Lignosulfonate treatment and extrusion had no effect on pH and concentrations of ammonia N and volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Results suggest that extruded canola seed untreated with formaldehyde may stimulate efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and is an effective means of increasing the availability of protein in the small intestine without affecting the total tract apparent digestibility of protein.

  14. Feeding behavior of lactating cows fed palm kernel cake in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of including of palm kernel cake on feeding behavior of lactating crossbred cows. Twelve crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were distributed in three 4 x 4 latin squares, with the following treatments: control; inclusion of 5%; inclusion of 10%; inclusion of 15% palm kernel cake in the diet dry matter. The animals were observed during four periods as to feeding behavior, 24 hours in each period. There was no effect of inclusion of palm kernel cake (p > 0.05 on time spent on eating, ruminating and idling. The feeding efficiencies of dry matter and corrected neutral detergent fiber, total digestible nutrients, and the rumination efficiency of corrected neutral detergent fiber were not influenced (p > 0.05. There was a linear increase with the inclusion of palm kernel cake (p 0.05. The inclusion of palm kernel cake in diets for dairy cows causes no change in behavior activities and efficiencies of feeding and rumination, until the 15% level of inclusion.

  15. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  16. Udder health of dairy cows fed different dietary energy levels after a short or no dry period without use of dry cow antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2018-01-01

    Reports on the effects of length of dry period (DP) on udder health of cows that were not treated with dry cow antibiotics are scarce. Additionally, the effects of a reduced dietary energy level for cows with a 0-d DP on udder health have not yet been studied. The aims of this study were (1) to

  17. Evaluation of dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha fed different levels of concentrate at diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective with this research was to evaluate the dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha submitted to different levels of concentrate supplementation in the diet. Used 16 lactating cows ½ Holstein x ½ Zebu, with an average of 80 ±10.14 days of lactation and body weight of 454.7 ± 54.51 kg. The animals were distributed in four treatments, using a 4x4 Latin square. The evaluation of behavior was done every ten minutes, during 24 hours on the 16th day of period. We used analysis of variance and regression probability of 0.05. The time spent grazing, ruminating and other activities, the numbers of grazing, ruminating, of bites per day and chews per cake, the grazing times, total power and total chewing, bit rate, time to swallow; time per bolus ruminated; chewing speed and power efficiency for NDF were not altered by increased levels of concentrate. The time of trough, the trough period, the bit size, the chews time for bolus, feeding efficiency for DM, NFC, and TDN and rumination efficiency linearly increased. Periods of rumination, deglutition bits, number of rumination chews per day, decreased linearly with increasing levels of concentrate. Significant quadratic effect of concentrate level on the number of periods in other activities and over time on other activities. Supplementation with 33.8% concentrate in the diet of cows grazing not promote changes in the activity of grazing, ruminating and other activities, but increases the time of trough. The increase in concentrate diet improves the efficiencies of feeding and rumination

  18. Dairy cows fed on tropical legume forages: effects on milk yield, nutrients use efficiency and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Montoya, J M; García, R A; Ramos, R A; Flores, J M; Alas, E A; Corea, E E

    2018-04-01

    Two trials with multiparous dairy cows were conducted. Experiment 1 tested the effects of increasing forage proportion in the diet (500, 600, and 700 g/kg DM) when a mixed sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and jackbean (Cannavalia ensiformis) silage was used as forage. Experiment 2 studied the substitution of sorghum silage and soybean meal by jackbean silage or fresh cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) forage in the diet. All diets were iso-energetic and iso-proteic. In each experiment, 30 cows were used and separated into three groups. In experiment 1, there were no differences in dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield (MY), or apparent total tract digestibility (aTTd) among the three diets, but milk fat content increased with increasing forage proportion, even though the similar neutral detergent fiber of all diets. Nitrogen use efficiency was highest in the diet containing 600 g forage/kg DM, and some evidence was observed for a better profitability with this forage proportion. In experiment 2, feeding legumes increased DMI despite no effects on aTTd. Milk yield increased in line with DMI, with a larger increase for the fresh cowpea. Nitrogen use efficiency and milk composition were not affected by the diets. The increased MY and lower feed costs increased the economic benefits when feeding legumes, particularly when feeding fresh cowpea. Feeding fresh cowpea or jackbean silage to dairy cows appears to be an alternative to soybean as protein source, ideally at a forage proportions of 600 g/kg DM, without altering milk yield and quality and increasing the farm profitability.

  19. Effect of different levels of mangosteen peel powder supplement on the performance of dairy cows fed concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, Sineenart; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) peel powder (MSP) supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed a concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP). Four crossbred dairy cows (50 % Holstein-Friesian and 50 % Thai native breed) in mid-lactation, 404 ± 50.0 kg of body weight and 90 ± 5 day in milk with daily milk production of 9 ± 2.0 kg/day, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive 4 dietary treatments. The treatments were different levels of MSP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/head/day. Rice straw was used as a roughage source and fed ad libitum to all cows, and concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg concentrate was offered corresponding to concentrate to milk yield ratio at 1:2. Results revealed that feed intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and temperature, and total volatile fatty acid were not significantly affected by MSP supplementation (P > 0.05). However, increasing levels of MSP supplementation increased molar proportion of propionate while ammonia-nitrogen, acetate, and acetate to propionate ratio were decreased (P fermentation efficiency, milk production and protein content, and economical return of lactating dairy cows fed on rice straw.

  20. Intake and milk yield of Zebu cows fed Moringa forage ensiled with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor nutrition of Zebu cattle grazing low quality native pastures is still a major constraint to milk production in Nigeria. High protein Moringa oleifera silage fed to these animals has potential to improve local milk production. In this study, moringa forage (MF) was ensiled with cassava peel (CSP) at 30, 50 and 70 % inclusion ...

  1. Modelling interactions in grass-clover mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nassiri Mahallati, M.

    1998-01-01

    The study described in this thesis focuses on a quantitative understanding of the complex interactions in binary mixtures of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) under cutting. The first part of the study describes the dynamics of growth, production

  2. Comparison of the compositions of the stool microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula, cow milk-based formula, or breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Gerald W; Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Gowri Pathmanathan, Siva; Zhou, Shao J; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A; Sullivan, Thomas; Prosser, Colin G; Lowry, Dianne; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milk-fed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained.

  3. ADDITION POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN THE DIET INCREASES THE NUMBER AND SIZE OF FOLLICLES IN COWS FED UNDER TROPICAL GRAZING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cansino-Arroyo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective was determined the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS on the number and follicular size in cows fed under tropical grazing during the dry season and rainy season. Using a group of cows PUFAS (GA, dry: n=9 and rain: n=13 maintained under grazing continuo, which received a nutritional supplement, with the addition of 5 % of PUFAS in the supplement. A second control group (GT; dry: n=13 and rain: n=9, kept in the same conditions as the previous group, without PUFAS. The number of follicles was greater during the rainy season than during dry (P=0.0001. Cows GT nutritional supplement did not improve the number of follicles between 2 times (P ≥ 0.7. However, the addition of PUFAS to supplement increases the number of follicles during the rainy season (P=0.002. Otherwise, when the cows were ovulation hormonally stimulated are not noted an increase in the number of follicles in cows with or without PUFAS in the supplement. With these results, we can conclude that the number of follicles is affected by perceived conditions, besides that addition of PUFAS increases the number of follicles during the rainy season in tropical grazing cows.

  4. Consumption, nutrient digestibility and lactation performance of dairy cows fed soybeans in different forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria de Vasconcelos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Holstein cows were given diets containing soybean supplied in different ways in order to identify possible changes in lactation performance and evaluate the economic feasibility of the diets. The diets included: soybean meal only (SM-control; raw soybean (RaS; roasted soybean (RoS and soybean meal plus 5% urea (SMU. The forage consisted of corn silage. We analyzed the dry matter intake, milk production and collected milk samples. To estimate digestibility, we collected six samples of feces over a period of six consecutive days. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC did not differ among treatments. On the other hand, crude protein (CP intake was influenced by the diets, and the highest mean values of ether extract (EE were found with the RaS and RoS diets. The intake of total digestible nutrients (TDN was lower in the RaS and RoS diets compared to the control diet. DM, OM, CP, EE, and NDF digestibility were not affected by the different diets, while NFCs were reduced in the RoS diet and TDN decreased with both the RaS and RoS diets. There were also no differences observed across diets for total milk production, production corrected to 3.5% fat, diet efficiency, or milk per kilogram of dry matter and/or crude protein. We conclude that raw and roasted soybeans as well as concentrate plus 5% urea in dry matter may be used instead of soybean meal as feed for high-producing cows, without affecting milk production and composition. We also observed that the SMU diet was the least costly.

  5. Intake, digestibility and ruminal parameters of dairy cows fed pelleted diets and treated with lignosulfonate-containing sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francilaine Eloise De Marchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate intake, in vitro and apparent digestibility and ruminal parameters of Holstein cows that were confined and fed corn silage and concentrate containing: ground sunflower seeds (GS; ground sunflower seeds treated with 5% lignosulfonate (GSL; pelleted sunflower seeds (PS; or ground and pelleted sunflower seeds treated with lignosulfonate (PSL. Four lactating cows with 130±28 days of lactation and body weights of 569±63 kg were used. These animals were distributed in a Latin square design with four diets and four periods of 21 days each. There were no differences in the intakes (% body weight of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, mineral matter (MM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF or acid detergent fiber (ADF. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF and NFC were similar for all the diets, with a tendency towards decreased CP digestibility for all the pelleted diets (65.79% compared with the non-pelleted diets (69.66%. A negative effect of lignosulfonate was observed for the in vitro digestibility (IVD of DM, and a negative tendency was observed for the IVD of OM. Pelleting decreased the concentration of acetic acid (55.95 × 58.82 mM in rumen fluid. There was no effect of diet on pH (6.17 or ammonia nitrogen concentration (18.19 mg/dL. Pelleting and lignosulfonate do not promote the protective effect of sunflower seed nutrients as expected, and it may be more feasible to provide ground sunflower seed.

  6. Brown midrib corn silage fed during the peripartal period increased intake and resulted in a persistent increase in milk solids yield of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W C; Chase, L E; Overton, T R; Nestor, K E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate transition cow performance when brown midrib corn silage (BMRCS; Mycogen F2F444) was included in the diet during the transition period, and to determine if any production response occurring during the first 3 wk of lactation would persist from wk 4 to 15 when a common diet was fed. Seventy Holstein dairy cows were blocked by parity (either second or third and greater) and calving date and randomly assigned to the CCS (a mixture of varieties of conventional corn silage) or BMRCS treatment. Diets were formulated with the objective of keeping all ration parameters the same, with the exception of neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility values (30 h) for CCS and BMRCS averaged 56.8 and 73.8%, respectively. Prepartum rations contained 47% corn silage, 18% wheat straw, 7% alfalfa haylage, and 28% concentrate, and averaged 45% neutral detergent fiber (DM basis). Postpartum rations contained 40% corn silage, 15% alfalfa haylage, 1% straw, and 44% concentrate. Milk weights (3×/d) and dry matter intake were recorded daily, and milk composition was measured weekly. Cows fed BMRCS had higher dry matter intake during the 2-wk period before calving (14.3 vs. 13.2 kg/d) and the 3-wk period after calving (20.1 vs. 18.1 kg/d) than did cows fed CCS. Yields of milk, solids, and lactose were increased, whereas a trend was observed for a reduction in somatic cell counts and linear scores in the postpartum period for cows receiving BMRCS during the transition. A significant carryover effect of BMRCS was observed on production from wk 4 to 15 when the common diet was fed, with yields of protein (1.36 vs. 1.30 kg/d), lactose (2.24 vs. 2.12 kg/d), and solids (5.82 vs. 5.51 kg/d) increasing significantly, and yields of fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and fat tending to increase during this period for cows that had been fed BMRCS. The increased intakes during the last 2 wk of the prepartum period in

  7. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    intake, and milking frequency were recorded daily, while milk composition and milk FA daily were analyzed weekly. Milk sensory analysis was performed on fresh and 7 d stored samples for the four diets. The PMR intake increased almost 1 kg from Gly0 to Gly12, and decreased by approximately 1 kg from Gly12......The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensory...... quality. Forty Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. Crude glycerol substituted barley in the partially mixed ration (PMR) of the cows at inclusion levels of 0% (Gly0), 6% (Gly6), 12% (Gly12), and 18% (Gly18) of dietary dry matter (DM). Individual milk production, feed...

  8. Nitrogen balance and milk composition of dairy cows fed urea and soybean meal and two protein levels using sugar cane based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Andreucci Conti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of feeding two levels of crude protein (CP (low: 142 g CP/kg DM; and high: 156 g CP/kg DM and two nitrogen sources (soybean meal and urea to dairy cows using sugar cane as forage on microbial protein synthesis, the composition of the milk nitrogen fraction, nitrogen (N balance and blood parameters. Twelve Holstein cows with an average milk yield of 22.0 ± 2.3 kg/day, and with 235 ± 40 days in milk were included in this study. The animals were grouped into three balanced and contemporary 4x4 Latin squares for an experimental period of 21 days. On the 15th day of each period, milk and urine samples were collected for microbial protein synthesis determination. Total excretion of urine (L/day, milk urea nitrogen (MUN and blood urea were higher for the diets with high CP, regardless of the nitrogen source. Nitrogen efficiency was higher for cows fed diets with low CP. Cows in the final third of lactation can be fed diets with reduced CP levels, regardless of the nitrogen source, soybean meal or urea, without influencing the synthesis of microbial protein or the composition of the nitrogen fraction of milk.

  9. Greater mortality and morbidity in extremely preterm infants fed a diet containing cow milk protein products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven A; Schanler, Richard J; Lee, Martin L; Rechtman, David J

    2014-01-01

    Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. EP infants milk fortified with a human milk protein-based fortifier (HM) (n=167) or a diet containing variable amounts of milk containing cow milk-based protein (CM) (n=93). Principal outcomes were mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), growth, and duration of parenteral nutrition (PN). Mortality (2% versus 8%, p=0.004) and NEC (5% versus 17%, p=0.002) differed significantly between the HM and CM groups, respectively. For every 10% increase in the volume of milk containing CM, the risk of sepsis increased by 17.9% (pmilk diet, devoid of CM-containing products, was associated with lower mortality and morbidity in EP infants without compromising growth and should be considered as an approach to nutritional care of these infants.

  10. Effect of Calcium Borogluconate Injection pre and Immediately Postpartum on Production Performance, Incidence of Metabolic Disorders and Situation of the Uterus After Calving in Cows Fed Anionic Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Amanlou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of calcium borogluconate injection 48 and 24 hours prepartum and immediately after parturition on dry matter intake at day of calving, milk yield, incidence of metabolic disorders and uterine conditions during the first 21 days postpartum in cows fed anionic diets. Thirty six lactating dairy cows were balanced by parity (1, 2, 3+ and allocated to 4 subcutaneous injection treatments of 15.2 gr calcium as borogluconate at different times pre and postpartum than expected calving date . Group 1 consisted of 9 cows receiving no treatment before or after parturition. Group 2 consisted of 9 cows receiving calcium borogluconate 48 h prepartum.Group 3 consisted of 9 cows receiving calcium borogluconate 24 h prepartum. Group 4 consisted of 9 cows receiving 15.2 gr of ca as borogluconate immediately postpartum. Dry matter intake was in treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 10.87, 12.32, 12.63 and 15.03 kg in the first 24 h after calving, respectively And indicated significantly difference among treatments. milk yield in 2, 3 and 4 treatments was significantly greater than group 1 in the first 21 days of lactation (38.7, 38.9, 40.3 vs 36.07 kg/d. Treatment had a significant effect on the subclinical hypocalcemia incidence so incidence risk of subclinical hypocalcemia in 1 treatment was 10 times more likely than 4 treatment. Data regression analysis indicated that 4 treatment had a significant effect on the ketosis incidence. So that the cows no calcium injection 2.43 times more likely to experience ketosis than 4 treatment. But experimental treatments were not significantly effect on the incidence of milk fever, displacement abomasum, retained placenta, metritis and endometritis. In general, calcium injection, especially immediately after parturation increased the dry matter intake in day of calving and reduced metabolic disorders such as hypocalcaemia and ketosis.

  11. Effect of source of trace minerals in either forage- or by-product-based diets fed to dairy cows: 1. Production and macronutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, M J; Weiss, W P

    2017-07-01

    Excess rumen-soluble Cu and Zn can alter rumen microbial populations and reduce fiber digestibility. Because of differences in particle size and chemical composition, ruminal and total-tract digestibility of fiber from forage- and by-product-based diets can differ. We hypothesized that, because of differences in mineral solubility, diets with hydroxy rather than sulfate trace minerals would have greater fiber digestibility, but the effect may depend on source of fiber. Eighteen multiparous cows were used in a split-plot replicated Latin square with two 28-d periods to evaluate the effects of Cu, Zn, and Mn source (sulfates or hydroxy; Micronutrients USA LLC, Indianapolis, IN) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) source (forage diet = 26% NDF vs. by-product = 36%) on total-tract nutrient digestibility. During the entire experiment (56 d) cows remained on the same fiber treatment, but source of supplemental trace mineral was different for each 28-d period so that all cows were exposed to both mineral treatments. During each of the two 28-d periods, cows were fed no supplemental Cu, Zn, or Mn for 16 d followed by 12 d of feeding supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn from either sulfates or hydroxy sources. Supplemental minerals for each of the mineral sources fed provided approximately 10, 35, and 32 mg/kg of supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn, respectively, for both fiber treatments. Total dietary concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mn were approximately 19, 65, and 70 mg/kg for the forage diets and 21, 85, and 79 mg/kg for the by-product diets, respectively. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake (24.2 kg/d) or milk production (34.9 kg/d). Milk fatty acid profiles were altered by fiber source, mineral source, and their interaction. Cows fed the by-product diets had lower dry matter (65.9 vs. 70.2%), organic matter (67.4 vs. 71.7%), and crude protein digestibility (58.8 vs. 62.1%) but greater starch (97.5 vs. 96.3%) and NDF digestibility (50.5 vs. 44.4%) compared with cows fed the

  12. Fatty acid profile and composition of milk protein fraction in dairy cows fed long-chain unsaturated fatty acids during the transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palma Rennó

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilization of different sources of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids in diets for dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation on the milk fatty acid profile and composition of the protein fraction. Thirty-six Holstein cows were divided into three groups, fed the following diets: control (C; soybean oil (SO; and calcium salts of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids (CS. The milk samples utilized for analysis were obtained weekly from parturition to twelve weeks of lactation; each one of the samples originated from two daily milkings. Milk composition and total nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen and non-casein nitrogen levels were analyzed. The cows receiving the diet with calcium salts had lower concentrations of non-protein nitrogen (%CP in milk compared with the animals fed the diet with soybean oil. There was a decrease in concentration of medium-chain fatty acids C12-C16, and a concomitant increase in concentrations of long-chain fatty acids >C18 in milk fat for the animals fed the diets CS and SO when compared with diet C. Soybean oil and CS diets increased milk-fat concentrations of the acids C18: 1 trans-11, C18: 2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18: 2 trans-10 cis-12 in relation to diet C. The utilization of sources of long-chain fatty acids in the diet of dairy cows increases the biological value of milk in early lactation due to higher concentrations of specific fatty acids such as CLA C18: 2cis-9, trans-11.

  13. Efficacy of using a combination of rendered protein products as an undegradable intake protein supplement for lactating, winter-calving, beef cows fed bromegrass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinias, A M; Lardy, G P; Leupp, J L; Encinias, H B; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-two (36 in each of two consecutive years) lactating, British-crossbred cows (609 +/- 19 kg) were used to evaluate effects of feeding a feather meal-blood meal combination on performance by beef cows fed grass hay. Bromegrass hay (9.6% CP, DM basis) was offered ad libitum and intake was measured daily in individual Calan electronic headgates. Acclimation to Calan gates began approximately 20 d after parturition, and treatments were initiated 21 d later. Cows were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (DM basis) for 60 d: 1) nonsupplemented control (CON), 2) energy control (ENG; 790 g/d; 100% beet pulp), 3) degradable intake protein (DIP; 870 g/d; 22% beet pulp and 78% sunflower meal), or 4) undegradable intake protein (UIP; 800 g/d; 62.5% sunflower meal, 30% hydrolyzed feather meal, and 7.5% blood meal). Net energy concentrations of supplements were formulated to provide similar NE(m) intakes (1.36 Mcal/d). The DIP and UIP supplements were calculated to supply similar amounts of DIP (168 g/d) and to supply 64 and 224 g/d of UIP, respectively. Forage DMI (kg/d) decreased in supplemented vs. nonsupplemented (P = 0.03) and DIP vs. UIP (P = 0.001); however, when expressed as a percentage of BW, forage DMI was not different (P = 0.23). Supplemented cows tended (P = 0.17) to lose less BW than CON. Body condition change was not affected (P = 0.60) by postpartum supplementation. No differences were noted in milk production (P = 0.29) or in calf gain during the supplementation period (P = 0.74). Circulating insulin concentrations were not affected by treatment (P = 0.42). In addition, supplementation did not affect circulating concentrations of NEFA (P = 0.18) or plasma urea nitrogen (P = 0.38). Results of the current study indicate that supplementation had little effect on BW, BCS, milk production, or calf BW when a moderate-quality forage (9.6% CP) was fed to postpartum, winter-calving cows in optimal body condition (BCS > 5). Supplemental UIP did not enhance

  14. Shifts in Rumen Fermentation and Microbiota Are Associated with Dissolved Ruminal Hydrogen Concentrations in Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Different Types of Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Rong; Xie, Tian Yu; Janssen, Peter H; Sun, Xue Zhao; Beauchemin, Karen A; Tan, Zhi Liang; Gao, Min

    2016-09-01

    Different carbohydrates ingested greatly influence rumen fermentation and microbiota and gaseous methane emissions. Dissolved hydrogen concentration is related to rumen fermentation and methane production. We tested the hypothesis that carbohydrates ingested greatly alter the rumen environment in dairy cows, and that dissolved hydrogen concentration is associated with these changes in rumen fermentation and microbiota. Twenty-eight lactating Chinese Holstein dairy cows [aged 4-5 y, body weight 480 ± 37 kg (mean ± SD)] were used in a randomized complete block design to investigate effects of 4 diets differing in forage content (45% compared with 35%) and source (rice straw compared with a mixture of rice straw and corn silage) on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial populations. Feed intake (10.7-12.6 kg/d) and fiber degradation (0.584-0.692) greatly differed (P ≤ 0.05) between cows fed the 4 diets, leading to large differences (P ≤ 0.05) in gaseous methane yield (27.2-37.3 g/kg organic matter digested), dissolved hydrogen (0.258-1.64 μmol/L), rumen fermentation products, and microbiota. Ruminal dissolved hydrogen was negatively correlated (r 0.40; P Ruminal dissolved hydrogen was positively correlated (r = 0.93; P ruminal dissolved hydrogen in lactating dairy cows. An unresolved paradox was that greater dissolved hydrogen was associated with greater numbers of methanogens but with lower gaseous methane emissions. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Insulin signaling, inflammation, and lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue of transition dairy cows either overfed energy during the prepartum period or fed a controlled-energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Abuelo, A; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J

    2016-08-01

    Adipose tissue mobilization is a hallmark of the transition period in dairy cows. Cows overfed energy during the dry period have higher concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) compared with cows fed a controlled-energy diet prepartum. The reason for an increase in blood NEFA concentrations at the level of adipose tissue in cows overfed energy has not been fully elucidated. One hypothesis is that cows with high BHB concentrations suffer from adipose tissue-specific insulin resistance, leading to higher rates of adipose tissue mobilization in the postpartum period. To test this hypothesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies of cows overfed energy in excess of predicted requirements by 50% in the dry period, and that had high concentrations of blood BHB postpartum (group H; n=12), were used. Findings were compared with results of biopsies from cows fed a controlled-energy diet and with low BHB concentrations postpartum (group C; n=12) to create the biggest contrast in BHB concentrations. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and 60 min after an intravenous glucose challenge (0.25 g/kg of glucose) at 28 and 10 d before expected calving as well as on d 4 and 21 postpartum. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and hormone-sensitive lipase was determined before and after glucose infusion by Western blot. Western blot was also used to assess the baseline protein abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin receptor β-subunit. In addition, gene expression of fatty acid synthase, adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor α was determined by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Backfat thickness was determined in the thurl area by ultrasonography. Cows in group H showed a greater degree of lipogenesis prepartum, but no differences were found in lipolytic enzyme activity postpartum compared with cows

  16. Production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk highly enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids from dairy cows fed alfalfa protein concentrate or supplemental vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, M-C; Gervais, R; Rico, D E; Lebeuf, Y; Chouinard, P Y

    2016-06-01

    Given its elevated content of carotenoids, alfalfa protein concentrates (APC) have the potential to prevent oxidation of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The effects of feeding APC or supplemental vitamin E on production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids were evaluated using 6 lactating Holstein cows (224±18d in milk) in a replicated 3×3 Latin square (21-d periods, 14d for adaptation). Treatment diets contained (dry matter basis) (1) 9% soybean meal (control, CTL); (2) 9% soybean meal + 300 IU of vitamin E/kg (VitE treatment); or (3) 9% APC (APC treatment). Cows received a continuous abomasal infusion of 450g/d of linseed oil. As a result, milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 increased from 1.08±0.13 to 3.9±0.40% (mean ± SD), whereas cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased from 0.40±0.04 to 14.27±1.81% during the experimental period compared with the pretrial period. Milk yield tended to be higher for APC (14.7kg/d) compared with CTL (13.4kg/d), and was greater than that for VitE (13.0kg/d). Protein yield was higher in cows fed APC (518g/d) compared with VitE (445g/d) but was not different from that in cows fed CTL (483g/d). These effects resulted in improved milk N efficiency in cows fed APC (26.1% of N intake secreted in milk) compared with CTL (23.0%) and VitE (22.9%). Feeding APC increased milk fat content of lutein (252μg/g) compared with CTL (204μg/g) and VitE (190μg/g). Milk fat content of vitamin E was higher for APC (34.5μg/g) compared with CTL (19.0μg/g) and tended to be lower than that with VitE (44.9μg/g). Redox potential of fresh milk from cows fed APC (152mV) was similar to that of VitE (144mV), but lower than that of CTL (189mV). Treatments had no effect on fresh milk contents of dissolved oxygen (8.1±1.5mg/L), and conjugated diene hydroperoxides (2.7±0.5mmol/L). The concentrations of volatile lipid oxidation products (propanal, hexanal, hept-cis-4-enal, 1-octen-3-one) tended

  17. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    dietary backward energy partition calculations (Equations 1 to 5 above) was highest in cows fed for AL (22.5 vs. 20.2kg/d). The resulting R(2) were 0.28 between DMI measured and DMI estimated by gaseous measurements, and 0.36 between DMI measured and DMI predicted by the National Research Council model (2001). Results showed that spot short-term measurements of QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with dietary backward estimations of energy partition underestimated DMI by 7.8%. However, the approach proposed herein was able to significantly discriminate differences in DMI between cows fed for AL or RI. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Urea-N recycling in lactating dairy cows fed diets with 2 different levels of dietary crude protein and starch with or without monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recktenwald, E B; Ross, D A; Fessenden, S W; Wall, C J; Van Amburgh, M E

    2014-03-01

    Rumensin (monensin; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) has been shown to reduce ammonia production and microbial populations in vitro; thus, it would be assumed to reduce ruminal ammonia production and subsequent urea production and consequently affect urea recycling. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of 2 levels of dietary crude protein (CP) and 2 levels of starch, with and without Rumensin on urea-N recycling in lactating dairy cattle. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (107 ± 21 d in milk, 647 kg ± 37 kg of body weight) were fed diets characterized as having high (16.7%) or low (15.3%) CP with or without Rumensin, while dietary starch levels (23 vs. 29%) were varied between 2 feeding periods with at least 7d of adaptation between measurements. Cows assigned to high or low protein and to Rumensin or no Rumensin remained on those treatments to avoid carryover effects. The diets consisted of approximately 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa hay, and 40% concentrate mix specific to the treatment diets, with 0.5 kg of wheat straw added to the high starch diets to enhance effective fiber intake. The diets were formulated using Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (version 6.1), and the low-protein diets were formulated to be deficient for rumen ammonia to create conditions that should enhance the demand for urea recycling. The high-protein diets were formulated to be positive for both rumen ammonia and metabolizable protein. Rumen fluid, urine, feces, and milk samples were collected before and after a 72-h continuous jugular infusion of (15)N(15)N-urea. Total urine and feces were collected during the urea infusions for N balance measurements. Milk yield and dry matter intake were improved in cows fed the higher level of dietary CP and by Rumensin. Ruminal ammonia and milk and plasma urea nitrogen concentrations corresponded to dietary CP concentration. As has been shown in vitro, Rumensin reduced rumen ammonia concentration by

  19. Identification of lactic acid bacteria in the feces of dairy cows fed whole crop maize silage to assess the survival of silage bacteria in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongyan; Wang, Chao; Li, Yanbing; Yu, Zhu; Xu, Qingfang; Li, Guangpeng; Minh, Tang Thuy; Nishino, Naoki

    2018-01-01

    In order to assess the survival of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in whole crop maize silage in the gut of dairy cows, one representative silage sample and three different feces samples were collected from dairy cows on three dairy farms in Hua Bei, China and three dairy farms in Kyushu, Japan. The composition of the bacterial community was examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lactobacillus acetotolerans was detected in all bunker-made maize silage samples, regardless of the dairy farm or sampling region from which they were sourced. A total of eight LAB species were detected in the maize silage samples, of which three (L. acetotolerans, L. pontis and L. casei) appeared to survive digestion. The populations of L. acetotolerans in silage and feces were 10 6-7 and 10 3-4 copies/g, respectively, indicating that, even for the LAB species showing potential survival in the gut, competition in this niche may be harsh and the population may substantially decrease during the digestion process. It may be difficult for silage LAB to survive in the gut of silage-fed dairy cows, because marked decrease in population can take place during the digestion process, even for surviving species. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Methane production, nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, N balance, and milk production of cows fed timothy silage- or alfalfa silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Massé, D I; Petit, H V; Benchaar, C

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of changing forage source in dairy cow diets from timothy silage (TS) to alfalfa silage (AS) on enteric CH₄ emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40, dry matter basis), with the forage portion consisting of either TS (0% AS; 0% AS and 54.4% TS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (50% AS; 27.2% AS and 27.2% TS in the TMR), or AS (100% AS; 54.4% AS and 0% TS in the TMR). Compared with TS, AS contained less (36.9 vs. 52.1%) neutral detergent fiber but more (20.5 vs. 13.6%) crude protein (CP). In sacco 24-h ruminal degradability of organic matter (OM) was higher for AS than for TS (73.5 vs. 66.9%). Replacement of TS with AS in the diet entailed increasing proportions of corn grain and bypass protein supplement at the expense of soybean meal. As the dietary proportion of AS increased, CP and starch concentrations increased, whereas fiber content declined in the TMR. Dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing AS proportions in the diet. Apparent total-tract digestibility of OM and gross energy remained unaffected, whereas CP digestibility increased linearly and that of fiber decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of AS in the diet. The acetate-to-propionate ratio was not affected, whereas ruminal concentration of ammonia (NH₃) and molar proportion of branched-chain VFA increased as the proportion of AS in the diet increased. Daily CH₄ emissions tended to increase (476, 483, and 491 g/d for cows fed 0% AS, 50% AS, and 100% AS, respectively) linearly as cows were fed increasing proportions of AS. Methane production adjusted for dry matter intake (average=19.8 g/kg) or gross energy intake (average=5.83%) was not affected by increasing AS inclusion

  1. The particulate passage rate, nutrient composition and fermentation characteristics across gastrointestinal tracts in lactating dairy cows fed three different forage source diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Gu, F F; Huang, X B; Liu, J X

    2018-04-19

    This study was conducted to investigate the particulate passage rate, nutrient characteristics and fermentation parameters across the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in lactating dairy cows fed cereal straws in comparison with alfalfa hay. Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets consisting of 55% concentrate, 15% corn silage and 30% different forage sources as follows (% of dry matter [DM]): (i) 23% alfalfa hay and 7% Chinese wild rye hay (AH); (ii) 30% corn stover (CS); and (iii) 30% rice straw (RS). The Cr-mordanted corn silage-neutral detergent fibre was used to estimate the passage flow at week 14. After 14-week feeding, the animals were slaughtered to collect the gastrointestinal digesta. Dietary forage sources had little effect on the fractional passage rates in the rumen (range from 5.05 to 6.25%/hr) or hindgut (range from 4.49 to 5.24%/hr). Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in the caecum was highest, followed by the rumen, colon and rectum, and the lowest in the abomasum and duodenum, indicating that the large intestines, especially caecum, are the important positions for carbohydrate degradation. Greater proportion of propionate and butyrate and lower acetate were found in the AH compared to CS or RS in colon, but higher acetate in abomasum was found in the cows fed CS or RS compared to AH. In conclusion, cereal straw diets did not change the particulate passage rate in the rumen and hindgut which might be mainly due to the similar DM intake among these three diets. Different forage source diets significantly changed VFA proportion in the abomasum and colon, indicating the existence of different digestion or absorption rates in these tracts among the experimental diets. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Supplementation of herbal plants differently modulated metabolic profile, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative stress in transition dairy cows fed various extruded oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Riasi, A; Taghizadeh, A; Zebeli, Q

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a mixture of herbal plants (HM) and two sources of unsaturated fatty acids (FA), extruded linseed (LS) and soybean (SB), on metabolic profile, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative status of transition dairy cows. Thirty-two prepartum Holstein cows, blocked by parity and calving day, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments, in a 2×2 factorial design, starting from 25 days before the expected calving date to 26 days postpartum. The supplementation rates of HM were 150 and 170 g/animal/day at pre- and postpartum, respectively. Blood samples were analyzed for metabolites on day 7.15±1.70 prepartum and on days 1 and 21 postpartum. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IV-GTT) was conducted on day 25 postpartum. Data showed that cows supplemented with HM had lower serum concentration of NEFA (0.395 vs. 0.602±0.044 mmol/L; Pinsulin ratio (Pcows fed the LS-based diet had greater serum glucose concentration during prepartum (80.7 vs. 71.3±3.32 mg/dL; P=0.06) and postpartum period (86.3 vs. 73.5±3.35 mg/dL; P=0.01), as well as lower NEFA (0.425 vs. 0.572±0.044 mmol/L; P=0.03) and insulin to glucose ratio (Pinsulin-sensitivity check index revealed that supplementing HM in LS-based diet improved insulin sensitivity (0.45 vs. 0.41±0.013; P=0.03) prepartum, whereas after parturition, the HM addition was effective for both oil seeds (0.40 vs. 0.37±0.008; P=0.06) in enhancing insulin sensitivity. Result of IV-GTT indicated that cows fed LS-based diets had higher basal glucose concentration (63.7 vs. 55.7±2.37; mg/dL; P=0.02) and lower glucose area under the curve (995.8 vs. 1529.5±100.7; mg/dL×45 min; Pinsulin resistance, this feeding strategy lowered total antioxidant capacity prepartum (0. 48 vs. 0.55±0.017 nmol/L; Pinsulin response following glucose infusion, although feeding of LS-based diets induced an increased oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of alfalfa germplasm and stage of maturity on digestive process and productive response of dairy cows fed alfalfa hay-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects on the digestive process and the productive performances of dairy cows fed diets containing alfalfa hay from  different germplasms and maturity were assessed in the present study. Three different lots of first-cut alfalfa hay were  used in the study: the improved variety “Boreal”, harvested at two consecutive maturity stages (early flowering and full  flowering and the ecotype “Vogherese”, at full flowering. Cutting the plant at an earlier stage of maturity improved hay  quality in comparison with the more mature forages (crude protein: 21.4 vs 16.5% DM; P  DM; P  er lignin content for the latter (8.6 vs 8.2% DM; P  tating cows were formulated using an equal amount of corn silage and the maximum inclusion of one of the tested hays  as forage base. The better quality of the early cut hay made it possible to increase its inclusion in the diet up to 44% of  total dietary DM, while the two more mature hays covered only 36% of total DM of the respective diets. According to a  3 x 3 Latin square design, the diets were fed to 3 Italian Brown cows (initial average days in milk 121 ± 24 and milk  yield 20 kg ± 1.3 fitted with ruminal cannula in 3 consecutive periods of 28 d each. Alfalfa stage of maturity and  germplasm did not affect dietary DM intake (average 16 kg/d. Degradability parameters of dietary DM, calculated by in  situ nylon bags technique, showed similar kinetics of rumen disappearance for all diets. No differences were noticed in  the ruminal rate of passage of the solid phase among diets, while the liquid phase showed a slower rate of passage for  the early flowering hay diet. Consistent with the degradation process, the stage of maturity or the alfalfa germplasm did  not affect the rumen fluid data or the in vivo digestibility coefficients of the diets. Milk yield did not show any change due  to either alfalfa maturity or cultivar, while milk protein was lowered when cows received the early cut hay

  4. Urea and short-chain fatty acids metabolism in Holstein cows fed a low-nitrogen grass-based diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, B A; Lund, P; Kristensen, N B

    2008-01-01

    Three ruminally cannulated and multicatheterised lactating dairy cows were used to investigate the effect of different supplement strategies to fresh clover grass on urea and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolism in a zero-grazing experiment with 24-h blood and ruminal samplings....

  5. Restoration of in situ fiber degradation and the role of fibrolytic microbes and ruminal pH in cows fed grain-rich diets transiently or continuously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourazad, P; Khiaosa-Ard, R; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Klevenhusen, F; Zebeli, Q

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we used two different grain-rich feeding models (continuous or transient) to determine their effects on in situ fiber degradation and abundances of important rumen fibrolytic microbes in the rumen. The role of the magnitude of ruminal pH drop during grain feeding in the fiber degradation was also determined. The study was performed in eight rumen-fistulated dry cows. They were fed forage-only diet (baseline), and then challenged with a 60% concentrate diet for 4 weeks, either continuously (n=4 cows) or transiently (n=4 cows). The cows of transient feeding had 1 week off concentrate in between. Ruminal degradation of grass silage and fiber-rich hay was determined by the in situ technique, and microbial abundances attached to incubated samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR. The in situ trials were performed at the baseline and in the 1st and the last week of concentrate feeding in the continuous model. The in situ trials were done in cows of the transient model at the baseline and in the 1st week of the re-challenge with concentrate. In situ degradation of NDF and ADF of the forage samples, and microbial abundances were determined at 0, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h of the incubation. Ruminal pH and temperature during the incubation were recorded using indwelling pH sensors. Compared with the respective baseline, both grain-rich feeding models lowered ruminal pH and increased the duration of pH below 5.5 and 5.8. Results of the grass silage incubation showed that in the continuous model the extent of NDF and ADF degradation was lower in the 1st, but not in the last week compared with the baseline. For the transient model, degradation of NDF of the silage was lower during the re-challenge compared with the baseline. Degradation of NDF and ADF of the hay was suppressed by both feeding models compared with the respective baseline. Changes in fiber degradation of either grass silage or hay were not related to the magnitude of ruminal pH depression during grain

  6. Milk fatty acid profile of Peruvian Criollo and Brown Swiss cows in response to different diet qualities fed at low and high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Karin; Gomez, Carlos A; García, Miriam; Aufdermauer, Tony; Kreuzer, Michael; Hess, Hans Dieter; Wettstein, Hans-Rudolf

    2008-12-01

    Two identical experimental protocols were followed at 200 and 3,600 m above sea level (a.s.l.) determining the changes of the milk fatty acid (FA) profile of Brown Swiss (BS) and indigenous Peruvian Criollo cows (CR) as a response to diets which were designed to cover the variation in feed quality caused by season. At each site (altitude), six BS and six CR cows, adapted to > 3,500 m a.s.l., were fed three dietary treatments (DS, dry-season forage; RS rainy-season forage; OC, diet optimised to meet the cow's requirements) in a 2 x 2 x 3-factorial arrangement. Intakes of FA and milk yield increased from diet DS (low quality diet) to RS and OC (high quality diet) for both cow types. Milk fat proportions of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), C18:3 c9,c12,c15, total n-3 and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were highest (p < 0.05) with diet OC and higher in the lowlands than in the highlands. Low intakes of diet DS obviously resulted in a ruminal energy deficiency and body lipid mobilisation. The ruminal energy deficiency with diet DS was especially pronounced in BS, apparently reducing biohydrogenation rate and leading to lower proportions of C18:0 and higher proportions of C18:3 c9,c12,c15 in milk fat (p < 0.05). Especially C18:3 c9,c12,c15 intake did not concur with its proportion in milk fat, suggesting a strong dependence on energy status. Milk yield and FA excretion with milk were higher for BS than for CR (p < 0.05) with all three diets although milk fat content was lower (p < 0.05) for BS than CR. Milk fat of BS was richer in CLA and PUFA than milk fat of CR (p < 0.05). The desaturase indices for 18 FA were also higher for BS than CR (p < 0.05), suggesting a slightly higher delta9-desaturase activity for BS, especially with diet DS. Milk fat content was generally higher at the high altitude than at the lowland site (p < 0.05), whereas the FA profile was unexpectedly similar across sites. Various interactions were found among diet type, cow type and altitude (site

  7. Effect of forage conservation method on ruminal lipid metabolism and microbial ecology in lactating cows fed diets containing a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Kairenius, P; Ahvenjärvi, S; Crosley, L K; Muetzel, S; Huhtanen, P; Vanhatalo, A; Toivonen, V; Wallace, R J; Shingfield, K J

    2013-04-01

    The effect of forage conservation method on ruminal lipid metabolism and microbial ecology was examined in 2 complementary experiments in cows. Treatments comprised fresh chopped grass, barn-dried hay, or untreated (UTS) or formic acid-treated silage (FAS) prepared from the same grass sward. Preparation of conserved forages coincided with the collection of samples from cows offered fresh grass. In the first experiment, 5 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (229 d in milk) were used to compare the effects of feeding diets based on grass followed by hay during 2 consecutive 14-d periods separated by a 5-d transition during which extensively wilted grass was fed. In the second experiment, 5 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (53 d in milk) were assigned to 1 of 2 blocks and allocated treatments according to a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 14-d periods to compare the effects of hay, UTS, and FAS. Cows received 7 or 9 kg/d of the same concentrate in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Conservation of grass by drying, but not ensiling, decreased forage fatty acid content primarily due to losses of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Compared with grass, feeding hay had no effect on dry matter intake (DMI), rumen pH, or fermentation characteristics, other than increasing ammonia content, but lowered whole-tract organic matter and fiber digestibility (experiment 1). Relative to hay, silage increased DMI, rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, and molar proportions of butyrate, and decreased molar acetate proportions (experiment 2). Compared with UTS, FAS increased DMI, had no effect on rumen ammonia or VFA concentrations, but tended to lower rumen pH and the molar ratio of lipogenic to glucogenic VFA. Conservation method had no substantial effect on ruminal or whole-tract digestibility coefficients. Compared with fresh grass and silages, hay decreased lipolysis and biohydrogenation (BH) of dietary unsaturates in the rumen, resulting in similar flows of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3

  8. Digestibility of Fatty Acids in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Dairy Cows Fed with Tallow or Saturated Fats Rich in Stearic Acid or Palmitic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben; Børsting, Christian Friis

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestibility was studied with five lactating cows fed three different fat sources in a 5 × 5 latin square experiment. The treatments were 500 g of tallow, 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in stearic acid (C18:0) (SARF) or 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in palmitic acid (C16......:0) (PARF) per day. The total daily fatty acid intake was about 1100 g in rations with the highest fat inclusion. The fatty acid digestibilities were 76% for tallow, 74 and 64% for 500 and 1000 g SARF, respectively, and 87 and 81% for 500 and 1000 g of PARF, respectively. When compared to fatty acid...... digestibility for tallow predicted from a model based on literature values, PARF had a higher fatty acid digestibility at both fat intakes, and SARF had a lower fatty acid digestibility, especially at high fat intake....

  9. Quantitative analysis of ruminal bacterial populations involved in lipid metabolism in dairy cows fed different vegetable oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Cancino-Padilla, N.; Romero, J.

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oils are used to increase energy density of dairy cow diets, although they can provoke changes in rumen bacteria populations and have repercussions on the biohydrogenation process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sources of dietary lipids: soybean oil (SO......, an unsaturated source) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO, a saturated source) on bacterial populations and the fatty acid profile of ruminal digesta. Three non-lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in a 3×3 Latin square design with three periods consisting of 21 days. Dietary treatments...... parameters, whereas HPO can increase load of ruminal P. bryantii. Also, results observed in our targeted bacteria may have depended on the saturation degree of dietary oils....

  10. Enteric methane production, digestibility and rumen fermentation in dairy cows fed different forages with and without rapeseed fat supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of forage species (grass or maize) and the maturity stage of grass on enteric methane (CH4) production, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation, and to study possible interactions with cracked rapeseed as fat source. Six lactating......, ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulated Holstein dairy cows (206 days in milk, milk yield 25.1 kg) were submitted to an incomplete Latin square design (6 × 4) with six diets and four periods. Two grass silages (early first cut, 361 g aNDFom/kg DM and late first cut, 515 g aNDFom/kg DM) and one maize silage...... grass silage had a higher total tract OM and aNDFom digestibility than late cut grass silage. The present study demonstrates that choice of forage species and harvest time affects CH4 emission from dairy cows, while the CH4 reducing ability of fat does not interact with forage characteristics...

  11. Digital Cushion Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism Gene Network Expression in Holstein Dairy Cows Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Muhammad Iqbal

    Full Text Available The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON or high-energy (OVE diets. The middle fat pad of the hoof digital cushion was collected soon after slaughter. Despite the lack of effect on expression of the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG, the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACACA, FASN, SCD, and DGAT2 was upregulated with OVE. Along with the upregulation of G6PD and IDH1, important for NADPH synthesis during lipogenesis, and the basal glucose transporter SLC2A1, these data indicated a pro-lipogenic response in the digital cushion with OVE. The expression of the lipid droplet-associated protein PLIN2 was upregulated while expression of lipolytic enzymes (ATGL, ABDH5, and LIPE only tended to be upregulated with OVE. Therefore, OVE induced lipogenesis, lipid droplet formation, and lipolysis, albeit to different extents. Although concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA did not differ, among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, the concentration of 20:5n3 was lower with OVE. Among the saturated fatty acids, 20:0 concentration was greater with OVE. Although data indicated that the hoof digital cushion metabolic transcriptome is responsive to higher-energy diets, this did not translate into marked differences in the fatty acid composition. The decrease in concentration of PUFA, which could contribute to synthesis of inflammatory molecules, in OVE-fed cows indicated that feeding higher-energy diets might be detrimental for the mediation of inflammation in digital cushion. This effect could be further exacerbated by physiologic and endocrine changes during the peripartal period that favor inflammation.

  12. Cheese and milk quality of F1 Holstein x Zebu cows fed different levels of banana peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio Parrela de Melo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of different levels of sun-dried banana peel in the diet for crossbred cows on the quality of Minas fresh cheese and milk. Diets consisted of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% replacement of sorghum silage with banana peel. Ten cows were assigned to two 5 x 5 Latin squares experimental design. Milk samples were taken from each cow and analyzed for composition. Milk was pasteurized for the production of Minas fresh cheese, which was weighed to determine the yield and analyzed for texture, physical and chemical characteristics and consumer acceptance test. Milk urea nitrogen had a quadratic effect with minimum point at 43.76% replacement of silage with banana peel. The remaining items evaluated in the composition of milk and cheese and the consumer acceptance test were not influenced by diets with banana peel. The replacement of up to 60% sorghum silage with banana peel is a viable alternative because it causes no alteration in physical and chemical composition of milk and Minas fresh cheese, as well as consumer acceptance.

  13. Microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism in cows bred on tropical pasture and fed on cassava root and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádler Carvalho da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Current experiment evaluated the effect of replacement of full corn meal by dehydrated ground cassava roots at levels 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in experimental supplements for lactating cows grazing on irrigated and fertilized tropical pastures. Ten Holstein cows were divided into two 5 x 5 Latin squares, with average initial 150 days of lactation, milk production 22±3.30 kg day-1 at the beginning of experiment and initial body weight of 603±65 kg. Cows were maintained on pasture consisting of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum cultivar Pioneiro, intercropped with Tifton 85 (Cynodon nlemfuensis, fertilized with 600 kg nitrogen per hectare year-1. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 between the substitution levels of corn meal by ground and dehydrated cassava root in the concentrate on the synthesis of microbial protein with an estimated average of 1,288.49 g day-1 and efficiency in the synthesis of microbial protein per kilogram of TDN with estimated average of 91.30 g kg-1 TDN. Nitrogen equilibrium showed an estimated average of 218.79 g day-1 of retained nitrogen. The microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance were not affected by treatments.

  14. Rumen-protected lysine, methionine, and histidine increase milk protein yield in dairy cows fed a metabolizable protein-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Cassidy, T W; Heyler, K S; Lapierre, H; Varga, G A; de Veth, M J; Patton, R A; Parys, C

    2012-10-01

    DMI and milk yield in dairy cows. Supplementation of the MP-deficient diet with RPLys and RPMet diminished the difference in DMI and milk yield compared with ADMP and additional supplementation with RPHis eliminated it. As total-tract fiber digestibility was decreased with the DMP diets, but DMI tended to increase with RP AA supplementation, we propose that, similar to monogastric species, AA play a role in DMI regulation in dairy cows. Our data implicate His as a limiting AA in high-producing dairy cows fed corn silage- and alfalfa haylage-based diets, deficient in MP. The MP-deficient diets clearly increased milk N efficiency and decreased dramatically urinary N losses. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Productive performance and efficiency of utilization of the diet components in dairy cows fed castor meal treated with calcium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Variz Cobianchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing of 0; 0.33; 0.67 and 1.0 (kg/kg of soybean meal (SBM by undecorticated castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide (CMT - 60 g/kg was evaluated on performance and efficiency of nutrient utilization in dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein and crossbred cows were distributed in four 4 × 4 latin squares. Animals received concentrated feed at a ratio of 1 kg for 3 kg of milk produced, in the natural matter. The diets had the same amount of nitrogen (150.4 g crude protein/kg DM, containing 325.6 g of concentrated feed/kg DM. There was no effect on the serum concentration of transaminase and the animals showed no clinical symptoms of intoxication by ricin. The intake of DM, crude protein (CP and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC reduced from 0.67 replacement of SBM by CMT. The intake of neutral detergent fibers corrected for ash and protein (NDFap increased from 0.33 replacement of SBM with CMT. Although the digestibility of dietary components decreased from 0.33 replacement, the intake of digestible components only reduced from 0.67 replacement. Because of the reduction of digestible energy, the synthesis of microbial CP and the utilization efficiency of rumen-degradable protein for the synthesis of microbial CP reduced with full replacement of SBM by CMT. Milk yield, milk composition, daily variation of body weight and the efficiency of utilization of the nutrients for the synthesis of N in milk reduced from 0.67 replacement of SBM by CMT. Castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide can replace up to 0.33 of SBM (50 g/kg DM diet DM in the diet of dairy cows with an average milk production of 20 kg/day.

  16. Performance and metabolite profile of dairy cows fed tropical grasses and concentrates containing crude protein with low or high degradability

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Raphael dos Santos; Oliveira, Tadeu Silva de; Pereira, José Carlos; Vieira, Ricardo Augusto Mendonça; Henrique, Douglas Sampaio; Fernandes, Alberto Magno; Leonel, Fernando de Paula

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ten Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows distributed into two simultaneous Latin squares (5 × 5) as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement formed by chopped sugarcane or elephant grass silage, both with high or low protein degradability supplements and a corn silage as a control treatment, were compared using orthogonal contrasts. The studied variables were the performance, plasma concentrations of urea-N, glucose, and creatinine, urine-N and milk urea-N, and the nychthemeral variation in NH3-N in th...

  17. Milk Chemical Composition of Dairy Cows Fed Rations Containing Protected Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Fermented Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudibya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the effect of ration containing protected omega-3 and fermented rice bran on chemical composition of dairy milk. The research employed 10 female PFH dairy cows of 2-4 years old with body weight 300-375 kg. The research was assigned in randomized complete block design. The treatment consisted of P0= control ration, P1= P0 + 20% fermented rice bran, P2= P1 + 4% soya bean oil, P3= P1 + 4% protected tuna fish oil and P4= P1 + 4% protected lemuru fish oil. The results showed that the effects of fish oil supplementation in the rations significantly (P<0.01 decreased feed consumption, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, lipids, and saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it increased milk production, content of high density lipoprotein, omega-3, omega-6 and unsaturated fatty acids in the dairy cows milk. It is concluded that the inclusion of 4% protected fish oil in the rations can produce healthy milk by decreasing milk cholesterol and increasing omega-3 fatty acids content.

  18. Intake, milk yield, and physiological parameters of lactating cows fed on diets containing different quantities of xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of substituting Tifton-85 grass hay with different quantities of xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei (0, 12, 24, and 36% on the nutrient intake and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous crossbred cows at approximately 100 days in milk, with an average milk yield of 15 kg of milk per day-1, and an average body weight (BW of 465.20 ± 39.37 kg, were distributed in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 16 days, consisting of 10 days for adaptation and 6 days for data collection, giving a total of 64 experimental days. The roughage: concentrate ratio was 60:40, on a dry matter (DM basis. The DM intake, expressed in kg day-1, was affected quadratically by the levels of xiquexique in the diets. The intakes of DM, expressed in % BW and g kg-0.75, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF in the three units analyzed (kg day-1, % BW, and g kg-0.75, as well as the intakes of organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, and total carbohydrates (TC, expressed in kg/day-1, decreased linearly with the levels of xiquexique in the diet. Milk yield (kg day-1 was reduced by the addition of xiquexique into the diet, but feed efficiency was not influenced. Water intake from feed (WIFeed, expressed in kg day-1 and % BW, incresed linearly with increasing levels of xiquexique in the total diet, while voluntary water intake, expressed in kg day-1 and % BW (WIVoluntary, decreased linearly. The total water intake (WITotal was not affected by experimental treatments. Participation of WIVoluntary in the WITotal linearly reduced with Xiquexique levels in the diet. The respiratory rate and surface temperature during both periods of the day (morning and afternoon, and rectal temperature during the morning were not influenced by the levels of xiquexique in the diet. Therefore, xiquexique can be utilized in the feeding of medium and high producing dairy cows

  19. Lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen down-regulates stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression and alters fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianle; Tao, Hui; Chang, Guangjun; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Lei; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2015-03-07

    Dairy cows are often fed a high-concentrate diet to meet lactating demands, yet long-term concentrate feeding induces subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and leads to a decrease in milk fat. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 (SCD1) participates in fatty acid biosynthesis in the liver of lactating ruminants. Here, we conducted this study to investigate the impact of lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen on SCD1 expression and on fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet. Eight multiparous mid-lactating Holstein cows (455 ± 28 kg) were randomly assigned into two groups in the experiment and were fed a low-concentrate diet (LC) or high-concentrate diet (HC) for 18 weeks. The results showed that the total volatile fatty acids and lactic acid accumulated in the rumen, leading to a decreased rumen pH and elevated lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in the HC group. The long chain fatty acid profile in the rumen and hepatic vein was remarkably altered in the animals fed the HC diet. The triglyceride (TG), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and total cholesterol (TCH) content in the plasma was significantly decreased, whereas plasma glucose and insulin levels were increased. The expression of SCD1 in the liver was significantly down-regulated in the HC group. In regards to transcriptional regulators, the expression of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factors (SREBF1c, SREBF2) and SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP) was down-regulated, while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was up-regulated. These data indicate that lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen down-regulates stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression and alters fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet.

  20. Effect of camelina oil or live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ruminal methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, A R; Kairenius, P; Stefański, T; Leskinen, H; Comtet-Marre, S; Forano, E; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    The potential of dietary supplements of 2 live yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or camelina oil to lower ruminal methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production and the associated effects on animal performance, rumen fermentation, rumen microbial populations, nutrient metabolism, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed grass silage-based diets were examined. Four Finnish Ayrshire cows (53±7 d in milk) fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4×4 Latin square with four 42-d periods. Cows received a basal total mixed ration (control treatment) with a 50:50 forage-to-concentrate ratio [on a dry matter (DM) basis] containing grass silage, the same basal total mixed ration supplemented with 1 of 2 live yeasts, A or B, administered directly in the rumen at 10(10) cfu/d (treatments A and B), or supplements of 60g of camelina oil/kg of diet DM that replaced concentrate ingredients in the basal total mixed ration (treatment CO). Relative to the control, treatments A and B had no effects on DM intake, rumen fermentation, ruminal gas production, or apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. In contrast, treatment CO lowered DM intake and ruminal CH4 and CO2 production, responses associated with numerical nonsignificant decreases in total-tract organic matter digestibility, but no alterations in rumen fermentation characteristics or changes in the total numbers of rumen bacteria, methanogens, protozoa, and fungi. Compared with the control, treatment CO decreased the yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and protein. Relative to treatment B, treatment CO improved nitrogen utilization due to a lower crude protein intake. Treatment A had no influence on milk FA composition, whereas treatment B increased cis-9 10:1 and decreased 11-cyclohexyl 11:0 and 24:0 concentrations. Treatment CO decreased milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and total saturated FA, and increased 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3n-3, and trans FA concentrations. Decreases in ruminal CH4

  1. Comparison of the impact of six heat-load management strategies on thermal responses and milk production of feed-pad and pasture fed dairy cows in a subtropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, T. M.; Jonsson, N. N.; Mayer, D. G.; Gaughan, J. B.; Ehrlich, W. K.; McGowan, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to hot environments affects milk yield (MY) and milk composition of pasture and feed-pad fed dairy cows in subtropical regions. This study was undertaken during summer to compare MY and physiology of cows exposed to six heat-load management treatments. Seventy-eight Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked by season of calving, parity, milk yield, BW, and milk protein (%) and milk fat (%) measured in 2 weeks prior to the start of the study. Within blocks, cows were randomly allocated to one of the following treatments: open-sided iron roofed day pen adjacent to dairy (CID) + sprinklers (SP); CID only; non-shaded pen adjacent to dairy + SP (NSD + SP); open-sided shade cloth roofed day pen adjacent to dairy (SCD); NSD + sprinkler (sprinkler on for 45 min at 1100 h if mean respiration rate >80 breaths per minute (NSD + WSP) ); open-sided shade cloth roofed structure over feed bunk in paddock + 1 km walk to and from the dairy (SCP + WLK). Sprinklers for CID + SP and NSD + SP cycled 2 min on, 12 min off when ambient temperature >26°C. The highest milk yields were in the CID + SP and CID treatments (23.9 L cow-1 day-1), intermediate for NSD + SP, SCD and SCP + WLK (22.4 L cow-1 day-1), and lowest for NSD + WSP (21.3 L cow-1 day-1) ( P cows in CID + SP showed no decline in MY out to a THI break point value of 83.2, whereas the pooled MY of the other treatments declined when THI >80.7. A combination of iron roof shade plus water sprinkling throughout the day provided the most effective control of heat load.

  2. Supplementation of increasing amounts of linseed oil to dairy cows fed total mixed rations: effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Romero-Pérez, G A; Chouinard, P Y; Hassanat, F; Eugene, M; Petit, H V; Côrtes, C

    2012-08-01

    The effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, forage (i.e., timothy hay) in sacco ruminal degradation, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, milk production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows was investigated. Four ruminally cannulated, primiparous lactating cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (28-d periods). They were fed a total mixed ration (50:50 forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio [dry matter (DM) basis] without supplementation (control, CTL), or supplemented (wt/wt; DM basis) with LO at 2, 3, or 4%. Supplementation with LO had no effect on DM intake (19 kg/d) and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy). Ruminal pH, ammonia, and total volatile FA concentrations were not changed by LO supplementation to diets. Extent of changes in volatile FA pattern and effective ruminal degradability of DM of timothy hay were minor. Neither the total numbers nor the genera distribution of protozoa was changed by the addition of increasing amounts of LO to the diet. Milk yield increased linearly (26.1, 27.3, 27.4, and 28.4 kg/d for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO added to the diet increased. Milk fat content was not affected by LO supplementation, whereas milk protein content decreased linearly with increasing amounts of LO in the diet. Milk fat proportions of several intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated FA (i.e., trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11,cis-15 18:2, and cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 18:3) increased linearly with LO addition to the diet. The proportion of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 decreased linearly (2.06, 1.99, 1.91, and 1.83% for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO in the diet increased. Milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased as the level of LO in the diet increased up to 3% but no further increase was observed when 4% of LO

  3. Performans Induk Sapi Silangan Simmental – Peranakan Ongole dan Induk Sapi Peranakan Ongole dengan Pakan Hijauan dan Konsentrat (Performance of Simmental – Ongole Crossbred Cow and Ongole Crossbred Cow Fed with Forage and Concentrate Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Endrawati

    2012-02-01

    matter, organic matter, crude protein digestibility (70.83±3.26% vs 65.36±2.19%; 72.38±3.08% vs 67.10±2.15%; 79.48±2.29% vs 75.79±2.17%, and so were in the case of BCS, and estrus cycles in SIMPO and PO cow. It is concluded that based on the metabolic body weight and feed digestibility, between SIMPO and PO cows were similar. (Key words: Performance, Cow, Simmental – Ongole Crossbred cow, Ongole Crossbred cow, Forage, Concentrate

  4. Subclinical ketosis in post-partum dairy cows fed a predominantly pasture-based diet: defining cut-points for diagnosis using concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood and determining prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C W R; Young, L; McDougall, S

    2015-09-01

    Firstly, to define, in dairy cows in the first 5 weeks post-calving fed a predominantly pasture-based diet, cut-points of concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood, above which there were associations with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), reduced pregnancy rates (PR) and decreased milk production, in order to better define subclinical ketosis (SCK) in such cattle; and secondly, to determine the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for SCK. An observational field study was conducted in 565 cows from 15 spring-calving and predominantly pasture-fed dairy herds in two regions of New Zealand during the 2010- 2011 dairy season. Within each herd, a cohort of randomly selected cows (approximately 40 per herd) was blood sampled to determine concentrations of BHBA on six occasions at weekly intervals starting within 5 days of calving. The key outcome variables were the presence/absence of PVD at 5 weeks post-calving, PR after 6 weeks (6-week PR) and after the completion of the breeding season (final PR), and mean daily milk solids production. Two cut-points for defining SCK were identified: firstly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L within 5 days post-calving, which was associated with an increased diagnosis of PVD (24 vs. 8%); and secondly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L at any stage within 5 weeks post-calving, which was associated with decreased 6-week PR (78 vs. 85%). The mean herd-level incidence of SCK within 5 weeks post-calving was 68 (min 12; max 100)% and large variations existed between herds in peak prevalence of SCK and the interval post-calving at which such peaks occurred. Cows>8 years of age and cows losing body condition were at increased risk of SCK within 5 weeks of calving. Cows with concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L in early lactation had a higher risk of PVD and lower 6-week PR. Cow and herd-level prevalence of SCK varied widely in early lactation. Subclinical ketosis is common and is significantly

  5. Short communication: Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash and indigestible neutral detergent fiber as total-tract digestibility markers in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and indigestible NDF (iNDF) as intrinsic digestibility markers in comparison with total fecal collection (TC) in dairy cows fed corn silage- and alfalfa haylage-based diets. The experiment was part of a larger experiment, which involved 8 Holstein cows [102±28.4 d in milk, 26.4±0.27 kg/d of dry matter (DM) intake, and 43±5.3 kg/d milk yield]. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with the following treatments: metabolizable protein (MP)-adequate diet [15.6% crude protein (CP); high-CP], MP-deficient diet (14.0% CP; low-CP), and 2 other low-CP diets supplemented (top-dressed) with ruminally protected Lys or Lys and Met. Data for the 3 low-CP diets were combined for this analysis. Total feces were collected for 5 consecutive days during each period to estimate total-tract apparent digestibility. Digestibility was also estimated using AIA (digestion with 2 N HCl) and iNDF (12-d ruminal incubation in 25-μm-pore-size bags). Significant diet × digestibility method interactions were observed for fecal output of nutrients and digestibility. Fecal output of nutrients estimated using AIA or iNDF was lower compared with TC and fecal output of DM, organic matter, and CP tended to be higher for iNDF compared with AIA for the high-CP diet. For the low-CP diet, however, fecal output of all nutrients was lower for AIA compared with TC and was higher for iNDF compared with TC. Data from this experiment showed that, compared with TC, AIA underestimated fecal output and overestimated digestibility, particularly evident with the fiber fractions and the protein-deficient diet. Compared with TC, fecal output was overestimated and digestibility of the low-CP diet was underestimated when iNDF was used as a marker, although the magnitude of the difference was smaller compared with that for AIA. In the conditions of the current study, iNDF appeared to be a more reliable digestibility marker

  6. Productivity of lactating cows fed on a diet of haylage from a vetch pea-oat mixture with the introduction of new biological preservative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Baryshnikov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a new biological preservative representing a mix of lyophilized Lactobacillus plantarum VKPM V-4173, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis VKPM V-2092 and Propionibacterium acidipropionici VKPMV-5723 strains (40 : 40 : 20 on the quality of haylage prepared from a mix of vetch, oats, and pea has been studied. The total bacteria content in the preservative was 1·1011 CFU/g. Five different variants of conservation of alfalfa haylage prepared at the budding stage were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The variants included a self-conserved control and the preservative at two different dosages (3 and 6 g/ton with and without the addition of cellulolytic enzymes. The best results were observed in the case of both the enzyme-free and the enzyme-containing preservative at the dosage equal to 6 g/ton. These variants provided the maximum protein content in the haylage (94.3% and 94.5% of the initial content, respectively and a high content of lactic acid (62.9% and 65.4% of the total acid content, respectively and also good organoleptic characteristics. The determined optimum biopreservative dosage was tested under industrial conditions using 750 tons of vetch-oats-pea haylage. The use of the biopreservative provided a high-quality haylage of high nutritive value. Industrial evaluation of the effect on the productivity of milk cattle (n = 15 of the addition of the biopreservative to the haylage showed that the maximum average daily yield of milk with basic fat content (3.4% was obtained from cows of the experimental group whose ration included haylage prepared with the use of the studied preservative. This yield came to32.7 kg , which exceeded the yield for the control group (fed on self-conserved haylage by 7.0%. Three months feeding of cows with the haylage prepared with the use of the new preservative brought a significant saving of money (4,862 rubles per a head at the prices of 2015–2016.

  7. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products on performance and rumen fermentation and microbiota in dairy cows fed a diet containing low quality forage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Zhu; Zihai Wei; Ningning Xu; Fan Yang; Ilkyu Yoon; Yihua Chung; Jianxin Liu; Jiakun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Background:A possible option to meet the increased demand of forage for dairy industry is to use the agricultural byproducts,such as corn stover.However,nutritional value of crop residues is low and we have been seeking technologies to improve the value.A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the effects of four levels of Soccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP;Original XP;Diamond V) on lactation performance and rumen fermentation in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows fed a diet containing low-quality forage.Eighty dairy cows were randomly assigned into one of four treatments:basal diet supplemented with 0,60,120,or 180 g/d of SCFP per head mixed with 180,120,60,or 0 g of corn meal,respectively.The experiment lasted for 10 wks,with the first 2 weeks for adaptation.Results:Dry matter intake was found to be similar (P > 0.05) among the treatments.There was an increasing trend in milk production (linear,P ≤ 0.10) with the increasing level of SCFP supplementation,with no effects on contents of milk components (P > 0.05).Supplementation of SCFP linearly increased (P < 0.05) the N conversion,without affecting rumen pH and ammonia-N (P > 0.05).Increasing level of SCFP linearly increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of ruminal total volatile fatty acids,acetate,propionate,and butyrate,with no difference in molar proportion of individual acids (P > 0.05).The population of fungi and certain cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus albus,R.flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes)increased linearly (P < 0.05) but those of lactate-utilizing (5elenomonas ruminontium and Megasphaera elsdenii) and lactate-producing bacteria (Streptococcus bovis) decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) with increasing level of SCFP.The urinary purine derivatives increased linearly (P < 0.05) in response to SCFP supplementation,indicating that SCFP supplementation may benefit for microbial protein synthesis in the rumen.Conclusions:The SCFP supplementation was effective in

  8. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake and blood parameters of Holstein cows fed ensiled apple pomace co-ensiled with broiler litter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman Azizi, Osman; Karimi, Shahram; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ensiled mixed apple pomace and broiler litter (EAPBL) on milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI) and blood parameters at early lactation cow. Four multiparous early-lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4×4 Latin...

  9. Selenium Dynamics in the Blood of Beef Cows and Calves Fed Diets Supplemented with Organic and Inorganic Selenium Sources and the Effect on their Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Slavík

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of feed supplementation with sodium selenite or selenized yeast on serum Se levels and reproduction indicators in cattle. In three beef herds young heifers, cows in late pregnancy, and their calves were randomly grouped by 6. In Herd 1, the mean Se serum levels were 51.01 μg l-1 in heifers, 32.12 μg l-1 in cows in late pregnancy, and 29.07 μg l-1 in their calves. In Herd 2, 27.42 μg l-1 (heifers, Z22.9 μg l-1 (late pregnancy, and 23.46 μg l-1 (calves. In Herd 3, 27.07 μg l-1 (heifers, 22 μg l-1 (late pregnant cows, and 31.05 μg l-1 (calves. Over a 6-month period, the animals in Herd 1 were given selenium yeast supplement; in Herd 2 sodium selenite, whereas Herd 3 served as a negative control. Afterwards, a second blood sample was taken. The mean Se serum levels were as follows: Herd 1 (selenium yeast: 90.73 μg l-1 in late pregnant cows ( p -1 in calves (p -1 (late pregnant cows p -1 (calves p -1 (late pregnant cows, 32.85 μg l-1 (calves. A significant difference was also observed in the second blood sample taken in both the late pregnant cows and the calves between the Herds 1 and 2 (late pregnant cows p p < 0.01. No significant differences were demonstrated between the groups. Herds 1 and 2 showed an improvement in their health status, as compared with the previous period, neither in reproduction indicators nor in the weight gain of the calves.

  10. Integrative Analyses of Hepatic Differentially Expressed Genes and Blood Biomarkers during the Peripartal Period between Dairy Cows Overfed or Restricted-Fed Energy Prepartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Khuram; Bionaz, Massimo; Trevisi, Erminio; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Loor, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Using published dairy cattle liver transcriptomics dataset along with novel blood biomarkers of liver function, metabolism, and inflammation we have attempted an integrative systems biology approach applying the classical functional enrichment analysis using DAVID, a newly-developed Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA), and an upstream gene network analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Transcriptome data was generated from experiments evaluating the impact of prepartal plane of energy intake [overfed (OF) or restricted (RE)] on liver of dairy cows during the peripartal period. Blood biomarkers uncovered that RE vs. OF led to greater prepartal liver distress accompanied by a low-grade inflammation and larger proteolysis (i.e., higher haptoglobin, bilirubin, and creatinine). Post-partum the greater bilirubinaemia and lipid accumulation in OF vs. RE indicated a large degree of liver distress. The re-analysis of microarray data revealed that expression of >4,000 genes was affected by diet × time. The bioinformatics analysis indicated that RE vs. OF cows had a liver with a greater lipid and amino acid catabolic capacity both pre- and post-partum while OF vs. RE cows had a greater activation of pathways/functions related to triglyceride synthesis. Furthermore, RE vs. OF cows had a larger (or higher capacity to cope with) ER stress likely associated with greater protein synthesis/processing, and a higher activation of inflammatory-related functions. Liver in OF vs. RE cows had a larger cell proliferation and cell-to-cell communication likely as a response to the greater lipid accumulation. Analysis of upstream regulators indicated a pivotal role of several lipid-related transcription factors (e.g., PPARs, SREBPs, and NFE2L2) in priming the liver of RE cows to better face the early postpartal metabolic and inflammatory challenges. An all-encompassing dynamic model was proposed based on the findings. PMID:24914544

  11. Nitrogen balance and milk composition of dairy cows fed urea and soybean meal and two protein levels using sugar cane based diets

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Henrique Andreucci Conti; Elmeson Ferreira de Jesus; Angélica Simone Cravo Pereira; Marcos André Arcari; Kleber da Cunha Peixoto Junior; Francisco Palma Rennó; Marcos Veiga dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of feeding two levels of crude protein (CP) (low: 142 g CP/kg DM; and high: 156 g CP/kg DM) and two nitrogen sources (soybean meal and urea) to dairy cows using sugar cane as forage on microbial protein synthesis, the composition of the milk nitrogen fraction, nitrogen (N) balance and blood parameters. Twelve Holstein cows with an average milk yield of 22.0 ± 2.3 kg/day, and with 235 ± 40 days in milk were included in this study. The animals wer...

  12. A prospective study of cow's milk allergy in exclusively breast-fed infants. Incidence, pathogenetic role of early inadvertent exposure to cow's milk formula, and characterization of bovine milk protein in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Husby, S; Osterballe, O

    1988-01-01

    A cohort of 1,749 newborns in the municipality of Odense were followed prospectively for the development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) during their first year of life. Altogether 39 fulfilled the criteria for CMA (2.2%). Out of the 39 infants, 17 developed symptoms of CMA during breast-feeding, in ...

  13. Nitrogen use efficiencies to grow, feed, and recycle manure from the major diet components fed to dairy cows in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crops and livestock transform a general range of 20% to 50% of applied N into product N. Most applied N not transformed into agricultural products is lost to the environment. The objective of this study was to quantify soil N input (fertilizer N, biologically fixed-N) incorporation into dairy cow di...

  14. Metabolic and productive response to ruminal protein degradability in early lactation cows fed untreated or xylose-treated soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani-Moghadam, M; Amanlou, H; Nikkhah, A

    2009-12-01

    Effects of different dietary rumen undegradable (RUP) to degradable (RDP) protein ratios on ruminal nutrient degradation, feed intake, blood metabolites and milk production were determined in early lactation cows. Four multiparous (43 ± 5 days in milk) and four primiparous (40 ± 6 days in milk) tie-stall-housed Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 21-day periods. Each period had 14-day of adaptation and 7-day of sampling. Diets contained on a dry matter (DM) basis, 23.3% alfalfa hay, 20% corn silage and 56.7% concentrate. Cows were first offered alfalfa hay at 7:00, 15:00 and 23:00 hours, and 30 min after each alfalfa hay delivery were offered a mixture of corn silage and concentrate. Treatments were diets with RUP:RDP ratios of (i) 5.2:11.6 (control), (ii) 6.1:10.6, (iii) 7.1:9.5 and (iv) 8.1:8.5, on a dietary DM% basis. Different RUP:RDP ratios were obtained by partial and total replacement of untreated soybean meal (SBM) with xylose-treated SBM (XSBM). In situ study using three rumen-cannulated non-lactating cows showed that DM and crude protein (CP) of SBM had greater rapidly degradable fractions. The potentially degradable fractions were degraded more slowly in XSBM. Treatment cows produced greater milk, protein, lactose, solids-non-fat and total solids than control cows. Increasing RUP:RDP reduced blood urea linearly. Feed costs dropped at RUP:RDP ratios of 6.1:10.6 and 7.1:9.5, but not at 8.1:8.5, compared with the 5.2:11.6 ratio. Intake of DM and CP, rumen pH, blood glucose, albumin and total protein, faecal and urine pH, changes in body weight and body condition score, and milk lactose and solids-non-fat percentages did not differ among treatments. Results provide evidence that increasing dietary RUP:RDP ratio from 5.2:11.6 to 7.1:9.5 optimizes nitrogen metabolism and milk production and reduces feed costs in early lactation cows. Reduced blood urea suggests reprodutive benefits.

  15. Effect of niacin supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient flow at the duodenum in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to ascertain if a daily niacin supplementation of 6 g/cow to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate for the decrease in rumen microbial fermentation due to a negative rumen nitrogen balance (RNB). A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows was used. The diets consisted of 10 kg dry matter (DM) maize silage and 7 kg DM concentrate and differed as follows: (i) Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein (CP) at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals, but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); (ii) Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP, and RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals; and (iii) Diet NA (nicotinic acid; n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. The negative RNB affected the rumen fermentation pattern and reduced ammonia content in rumen fluid and the daily duodenal flows of microbial CP (MP) and uCP. Niacin supplementation increased the apparent ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis per unit of rumen degradable CP was higher, whereby the amount of MP reaching the duodenum was unaffected by niacin supplementation. The number of protozoa in rumen fluid was higher in NA treatment. The results indicated a more efficient use of rumen degradable N due to changes in the microbial population in the rumen when niacin was supplemented to diets deficient in RNB for lactating dairy cows.

  16. Insulin signaling and skeletal muscle atrophy and autophagy in transition dairy cows either overfed energy or fed a controlled energy diet prepartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Abuelo, A; Nydam, D V; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J

    2016-05-01

    During periods of negative energy balance, mobilization of muscle is a physiologic process providing energy and amino acids. This is important in transition dairy cows experiencing negative energy and protein balance postpartum. Overconsumption of energy during late pregnancy affects resting glucose and insulin concentrations peripartum and increases the risk for hyperketonemia postpartum, but the effects on muscle tissue are not fully understood. Skeletal muscle accounts for the majority of insulin-dependent glucose utilization in ruminants. Our objective was to study peripartal skeletal muscle insulin signaling as well as muscle accretion and atrophy in cows with excess energy consumption prepartum. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained 28 and 10 days prepartum, as well as 4 and 21 days postpartum from 24 Holstein cows. Biopsies were taken immediately before and 60 min after intravenous glucose challenge causing endogenous release of insulin. Gene expression of IGF-1, myostatin, and atrogin-1, as well as immunoblot analysis of atrogin-1, muRF1, ubiquitinated proteins, LC3, and phosphorylation of AKT, ERK and mTORC1 substrate 4EBP1 was performed. Excess energy consumption in late pregnancy did not lead to changes in insulin-dependent molecular regulation of muscle accretion or atrophy compared with the controlled energy group. In both groups, phosphorylation of AKT and mTORC1 substrate was significantly decreased postpartum whereas proteasome activity and macroautopagy were upregulated. This study showed that in addition to the proteasome pathway of muscle atrophy, macroautophagy is upregulated in postpartum negative energy and protein balance regardless of dietary energy strategy prepartum and was higher in cows overfed energy throughout the study period.

  17. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  18. Conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and other biohydrogenation intermediates in plasma and milk fat of cows fed raw or extruded linseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akraim, F; Nicot, M C; Juaneda, P; Enjalbert, F

    2007-07-01

    Thirty lactating dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design to investigate the effects of a raw or extruded blend of linseed and wheat bran (70:30) on plasma and milk fatty-acids (FA). Linseed diets, containing 16.6% linseed blend on a dry-matter basis, decreased milk yield and protein percentage. They decreased the proportions of FA with less than 18 carbons in plasma and milk and resulted in cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3 proportions that were more than three and four times higher in plasma and milk, respectively, whereas cis-9, cis-12 18:2 proportions were decreased by 10-15%. The cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 18:3 isomer of conjugated linolenic acid was not detected in the milk of control cows, but was over 0.15% of total FA in the milk fat of linseed-supplemented cows. Similarly, linseed increased plasma and milk proportions of all biohydrogenation (BH) intermediates in plasma and milk, including the main isomer of conjugated linoleic acid cis-9, trans-11 18:2, except trans-4 18:1 and cis-11, trans-15 18:2 in plasma lipids. In milk fat, compared with raw linseed, extruded linseed further reduced 6:0-16:0 even-chain FA, did not significantly affect the proportions of 18:0, cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, cis-12 18:2, tended to increase cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3, and resulted in an additional increase in the proportions of most BH intermediates. It was concluded that linseed addition can improve the proportion of conjugated linoleic and linolenic acids, and that extrusion further increases the proportions of intermediates of ruminal BH in milk fat.

  19. Illumina Sequencing Approach to Characterize Thiamine Metabolism Related Bacteria and the Impacts of Thiamine Supplementation on Ruminal Microbiota in Dairy Cows Fed High-Grain Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaohua; Xue, Fuguang; Nan, Xuemei; Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Kun; Beckers, Yves; Jiang, Linshu; Xiong, Benhai

    2017-01-01

    The requirements of thiamine in adult ruminants are mainly met by ruminal bacterial synthesis, and thiamine deficiencies will occur when dairy cows overfed with high grain diet. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ruminal thiamine synthesis bacteria, and whether thiamine deficiency is related to the altered bacterial community by high grain diet is still unclear. To explore thiamine synthesis bacteria and the response of ruminal microbiota to high grain feeding and thiamine supplementation, six rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned into a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control diet (CON, 20% dietary starch, DM basis), high grain diet (HG, 33.2% dietary starch, DM basis) and high grain diet supplemented with 180 mg thiamine/kg DMI (HG+T). On day 21 of each period, rumen content samples were collected at 3 h postfeeding. Ruminal thiamine concentration was detected by high performance liquid chromatography. The microbiota composition was determined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Cows receiving thiamine supplementation had greater ruminal pH value, acetate and thiamine content in the rumen. Principal coordinate analysis and similarity analysis indicated that HG feeding and thiamine supplementation caused a strong shift in bacterial composition and structure in the rumen. At the genus level, compared with CON group, the relative abundances of 19 genera were significantly changed by HG feeding. Thiamine supplementation increased the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria including Bacteroides, Ruminococcus 1, Pyramidobacter, Succinivibrio , and Ruminobacter , and their increases enhanced the fiber degradation and ruminal acetate production in HG+T group. Christensenellaceae R7, Lachnospira, Succiniclasticum , and Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 exhibited a negative response to thiamine supplementation. Moreover, correlation analysis revealed that ruminal thiamine concentration was positively

  20. Illumina Sequencing Approach to Characterize Thiamine Metabolism Related Bacteria and the Impacts of Thiamine Supplementation on Ruminal Microbiota in Dairy Cows Fed High-Grain Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of thiamine in adult ruminants are mainly met by ruminal bacterial synthesis, and thiamine deficiencies will occur when dairy cows overfed with high grain diet. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ruminal thiamine synthesis bacteria, and whether thiamine deficiency is related to the altered bacterial community by high grain diet is still unclear. To explore thiamine synthesis bacteria and the response of ruminal microbiota to high grain feeding and thiamine supplementation, six rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned into a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control diet (CON, 20% dietary starch, DM basis, high grain diet (HG, 33.2% dietary starch, DM basis and high grain diet supplemented with 180 mg thiamine/kg DMI (HG+T. On day 21 of each period, rumen content samples were collected at 3 h postfeeding. Ruminal thiamine concentration was detected by high performance liquid chromatography. The microbiota composition was determined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Cows receiving thiamine supplementation had greater ruminal pH value, acetate and thiamine content in the rumen. Principal coordinate analysis and similarity analysis indicated that HG feeding and thiamine supplementation caused a strong shift in bacterial composition and structure in the rumen. At the genus level, compared with CON group, the relative abundances of 19 genera were significantly changed by HG feeding. Thiamine supplementation increased the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria including Bacteroides, Ruminococcus 1, Pyramidobacter, Succinivibrio, and Ruminobacter, and their increases enhanced the fiber degradation and ruminal acetate production in HG+T group. Christensenellaceae R7, Lachnospira, Succiniclasticum, and Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 exhibited a negative response to thiamine supplementation. Moreover, correlation analysis revealed that ruminal thiamine concentration was

  1. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p raw soya beans for EE (p raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile with a linear decrease of cis-9-trans 11CLA and total saturated FA; and linear increase of total unsaturated and C18:3 FA. Energy balance was positively affected (p = 0.03) by whole raw soya beans as well as efficiency of NEL milk/DE intake (p = 0.02). Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were not affected by whole raw soya

  2. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar ou silagem de milho Ingestive behavior in dairy cows fed sugar cane or corn silage based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro de Souza Mendonça

    2004-06-01

    . The animals were observed every 10 minutes, during 24 hours, to determine the time expended eating, ruminating and resting. There was no difference for the mean time expended eating and ruminating among the experimental diets. However, in the corn silage based diets, the animals expended less time idle, compared to those fed sugar cane based diets. Feeding efficiency, expressed in gNDF/h, showed no difference among the experimental diets. Rumination efficiency, expressed in gDM/h, was similar for the different diets. Rumination efficiency, expressed in gNDF/h (RUE NDF was higher for the corn silage based diet. There was no difference in RUE NDF among the sugar cane based diets. Cows fed sugar cane based diets showed higher time expended in idle and smaller DM intake, when compared those fed corn silage based diets.

  3. Produção e qualidade do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com silagens de grama estrela (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst = Production and quality of milk from Holstein cows fed stargrass silages (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho e a qualidade do leite produzido por vacas da raça Holandesa no terço final da lactação, alimentadas com silagens de grama estrela com aplicação de inoculante ou uréia em relação à silagem de milho. Foram avaliadas silagens de grama estrela com aplicação de aditivo enzimo-bacteriano na dosagem de 80 g deinoculante/tonelada, uréia na dosagem de 7 kg t-1 e silagem de milho. Para avaliação do desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade foram utilizadas seis vacas da raça Holandesas com peso médio de 480 kg distribuídas em delineamento (duplo quadrado latino (3 x 3. Asdigestibilidades da MS, PB e FDN foram maiores para a silagem de milho. O fornecimento de silagens de grama estrela com aditivo e com uréia não interferiu na produção e qualidade do leite, mostrando-se como alternativa para sistemas de produção animal com base emvolumosos conservados mediante a análise econômica da substituição da silagem de milho.The study aimed to evaluate animal performance and quality of milk from Holstein cows during the final third period of lactation fed stargrass silages supplied with inoculant or urea in relation to corn silage. Stargrass silages with enzymatic-bacterial inoculant (80 g of additive/ton of silage, urea supply (7 kg t-1 and corn silage were evaluated. Six Holstein cows with an average body weight of 480 kg were allocated in a double Latin square design (3 x 3. Corn silagepresented the highest values of DM, CP and NDF digestibility when compared to stargrass silages. Supplying Holstein cows with stargrass silages with additive and urea did not promote any effect on production and milk quality. Thus, it can be an alternative in animalproduction systems based on conserved roughage, depending on economical analysis for the replacement of corn silage.

  4. Short communication: Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorich, C D; Varner, R K; Pereira, A B D; Martineau, R; Soder, K J; Brito, A F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure enteric CH4 emissions using a new portable automated open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS) and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF6) in midlactation Holstein cows housed in a tiestall barn. Sixteen cows averaging 176 ± 34 d in milk, 40.7 ± 6.1 kg of milk yield, and 685 ± 49 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 out of 2 treatments according to a crossover design. Treatments were (1) ad libitum (adjusted daily to yield 10% orts) and (2) restricted feed intake [set to restrict feed by 10% of baseline dry matter intake (DMI)]. Each experimental period lasted 22d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. A common diet was fed to the cows as a total mixed ration and contained 40.4% corn silage, 11.2% grass-legume haylage, and 48.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Spot 5-min measurements using the GQS were taken twice daily with a 12-h interval between sampling and sampling times advanced 2h daily to account for diurnal variation in CH4 emissions. Canisters for the SF6 method were sampled twice daily before milking with 4 local background gas canisters inside the barn analyzed for background gas concentrations. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by treatments and averaged 472 and 458 g/d (standard error of the mean = 18 g/d) for ad libitum and restricted intake treatments, respectively (data not shown). The GQS appears to be a reliable method because of the relatively low coefficients of variation (ranging from 14.1 to 22.4%) for CH4 emissions and a moderate relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.42) between CH4 emissions and DMI. The SF6 resulted in large coefficients of variation (ranging from 16.0 to 111%) for CH4 emissions and a poor relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.17) between CH4 emissions and DMI, likely because of limited barn ventilation and high background gas concentration. Research with improved barn ventilation systems or

  5. Enteric methane production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows fed grass silage- or corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Klop, G; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing grass silage (GS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric methane (CH4) production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. A completely randomized block design experiment was conducted with 32 multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four dietary treatments were used, all having a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). The roughage consisted of either 100% GS, 67% GS and 33% CS, 33% GS and 67% CS, or 100% CS (all DM basis). Feed intake was restricted (95% of ad libitum DM intake) to avoid confounding effects of DM intake on CH4 production. Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Increasing CS proportion linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber and crude protein intake and linearly increased starch intake. Milk production and milk fat content (on average 23.4 kg/d and 4.68%, respectively) were not affected by increasing CS inclusion, whereas milk protein content increased quadratically. Rumen variables were unaffected by increasing CS inclusion, except the molar proportion of butyrate, which increased linearly. Methane production (expressed as grams per day, grams per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, and as a percent of gross energy intake) decreased quadratically with increasing CS inclusion, and decreased linearly when expressed as grams of CH4 per kilogram of DM intake. In comparison with 100% GS, CH4 production was 11 and 8% reduced for the 100% CS diet when expressed per unit of DM intake and per unit fat- and protein-corrected milk, respectively. Nitrogen efficiency increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. The concentration of trans C18:1 FA, C18:1 cis-12, and total CLA increased quadratically, and

  6. Microbial release of ferulic and p-coumaric acids from forages and their digestibility in lactating cows fed total mixed rations with different forage combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bin-Bin; Jin, Xin; Yang, Hong-Jian; Li, Sheng-Li; Jiang, Lin-Shu

    2016-01-30

    Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (PCA) are widely distributed in graminaceous plant cell walls. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of ester-linked FA (FAest) and PCA (PCAest) in lactating dairy cows. Regarding corn stover, ensiled corn stover, whole corn silage, Chinese wild ryegrass and alfalfa hay with different phenolic acid profiles, the in vitro rumen digestibility of forage FAest and PCAest was negatively correlated with the ether-linked FA content and original PCA/FA ratio in the forages. The concentration of both phenolic acids in culture fluids was low after a 72 h incubation, and the mixed rumen microorganisms metabolized nearly all phenolic acids released into the culture fluids. FAest digestibility in the whole digestive tract was negatively correlated with dietary PCA/FA ratio, but a converse result occurred with dietary PCAest digestibility. The digestibility in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract was greater for FAest than for PCAest. Forage PCAest in comparison with FAest is not easily digested in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract, and they were negatively affected by forage FAeth content and lignification extent indicated by the original dietary PCA/FA ratio. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Interaction of unsaturated fat or coconut oil with monensin in lactating dairy cows fed 12 times daily. II. Fatty acid flow to the omasum and milk fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveneau, C; Ribeiro, C V D M; Eastridge, M L; Firkins, J L

    2012-04-01

    Feeding animal-vegetable (AV) fat or medium-chain fatty acids (FA) to dairy cows can decrease ruminal protozoal counts. However, combining moderate to large amounts of AV fat with monensin (tradename: Rumensin, R) could increase the risk for milk fat depression (MFD), whereas it is not known if diets supplemented with coconut oil (CNO; rich in medium-chain FA) with R would cause MFD. In a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, 6 rumen-cannulated cows were fed diets without or with R (12 g/909 kg) and either control (no fat), 5% AV fat, or 5% CNO. Diets were balanced to have 21.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 16.8% crude protein, and 42% nonfiber carbohydrates. Omasal flows of FA were characterized by an increased percentage of trans 18:1 for AV fat and CNO diets compared with the control, a higher percentage of 12:0 and 14:0 for CNO, and higher cis 18:1 for AV fat. Milk FA composition reflected the changes observed for omasal FA digesta flow. The de novo FA synthesis in the mammary gland was decreased by the main effects of R compared without R (averaged over fat treatments) and for added fat (AV fat and CNO) versus control (averaged over R). The percentages of 6:0, 8:0, and 10:0 in milk fat were lower for R and for AV fat and CNO compared with the control. The percentage of trans 18:1 FA in milk fat also higher for AV fat and CNO compared with the control. Against our hypotheses, the feeding of CNO did not prevent MFD, and few interactions between R and fat source were detected. The feeding of CNO did compromise ruminal biohydrogenation, with accumulation of trans 18:1 in the rumen and in milk fat. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance of dairy cows fed rations produced with sugarcane silages treated with additives or fresh sugarcane Desempenho de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com rações produzidas com silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com aditivos ou cana-de-açúcar fresca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Faria Pedroso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was performed aiming at evaluating the performance of dairy cows fed sugarcane silages treated with additives compared to cows fed fresh forage. Twenty-four Holstein cows were grouped in blocks of three cows, according to parity order and milk production level, in multiple 3 x 3 Latin Square design to evaluate three types of ration (63% roughage and 37% concentrate in dry matter - DM: ration with silage treated with urea (5.0 g/kg of fresh forage - FF + sodium benzoate (0.5 g/kg FF; ration with silage inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri (5 x 10(4 cfu/g FF; ration with fresh sugarcane. Each evaluation period consisted of two weeks for adaptation and one week for data collection. Cows fed rations with silages treated with urea + benzoate and L. buchneri showed lower DM intake (18.5 vs 21.4 kg/day and lower milk production (17.4 vs 18.6 kg/day in comparison to those fed fresh forage ration. Fat content was higher in the milk of cows fed silage inoculated with L. buchneri compared to cows in the fresh forage group resulting in similar 3.5% fat corrected milk (FCM among cows in both groups. Cows fed ration with silage treated with urea + benzoate presented intermediate fat content in milk but inferior FCM production compared to animals fed fresh sugarcane. Feed efficiency (kg FCM/kg DMI was higher for cows fed ration produced with the inoculated silage (0.95, intermediate for cows that received silage treated with the combination of chemical additives (0.91 and lower for cows fed the ration with fresh sugarcane (0.83.Um experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com aditivos em comparação ao de vacas alimentadas com a forragem fresca. Vinte e quatro vacas holandesas foram agrupadas em blocos de três vacas, de acordo com a ordem do parto e com o nível de produção de leite, em um delineamento quadrado latino múltiplo 3 x 3, para avalia

  9. Quinoa-geheleplantensilage in het rantsoen van melkkoeien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.; Schooten, van H.; Pinxterhuis, I.

    2002-01-01

    Report of a feeding experiment with the aim to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of wilted grass-clover silage by quinoa whole crop silage on feed intake and milk production and milk composition of dairy cows.

  10. Metabolism of early-lactation dairy cows as affected by dietary starch and monensin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Ryan, C M; Pelton, S H; Mechor, G D; Overton, T R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary starch content and monensin (MON) on metabolism of dairy cows during early lactation. Before parturition, primiparous (n=21) and multiparous (n=49) Holstein cows were fed a common controlled-energy close-up diet with a daily topdress of either 0 or 400mg/d monensin. From d 1 to 21 postpartum, cows were fed a high-starch (HS; 26.2% starch, 34.3% neutral detergent fiber, 22.7% acid detergent fiber, 15.5% crude protein) or low-starch (LS; 21.5% starch, 36.9% neutral detergent fiber, 25.2% acid detergent fiber, 15.4% crude protein) total mixed ration with a daily topdress of either 0mg/d monensin (CON) or 450mg/d monensin (MON), continuing with prepartum topdress assignment. From d 22 through 63 postpartum, all cows were fed HS and continued with the assigned topdress treatment until d 63. Cows fed HS had higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) than cows fed LS during d 1 to 21 postpartum. Cows fed LS had elevated early-lactation β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) compared with cows fed HS. Cows fed HS had greater insulin resistance and increased plasma haptoglobin in the early lactation period. There was no effect of MON on postpartum plasma NEFA. Cows fed MON had higher plasma glucose compared with CON cows, which was driven by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had greater plasma glucose concentrations than cows fed CON. Cows fed MON had lower plasma BHBA compared with CON, which was contributed to by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had lower BHBA concentrations than CON. Starch treatment had no effect on overall liver triglyceride content. Primiparous cows fed MON had increased liver triglyceride content compared with CON primiparous cows, and multiparous cows fed MON had decreased liver triglyceride content compared with CON cows. Multiparous cows fed LS with MON had higher liver glycogen content than multiparous

  11. (PHF) cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANZ

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... terms of longevity and culling reasons were investigated. For the group of PHF cows, ... breeding work, there has been a considerable increase in productivity .... day of cow's life, it was found that as far as the pro- ductive life ...

  12. FED INTAKE AND MILK PRODUCTION OF HOLSTEIN-ZEBU CROSSBREED COWS HOLD IN DIFFERENT TROPICAL PASTURES CONSUMO DE ALIMENTOS E PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE DE VACAS MESTIÇAS MANTIDAS EM DIFERENTES PASTAGENS TROPICAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Costa Cruz Borges

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Fed intake and milk production of Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows, grazing Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP, Brachiaria decumbens (BRA and Guinea grass (Pannicum maximum (COL and supplemented with four kg of concentrate, were evaluated in a double Latin square (3x3. Fecal production and feed intake were calculated using Cr2O3 and in vitro digestibility. Dry mater intake (DMI was similar among forages (18kg/cow which represented 2.72%; 2.84% and 2.96% of the live weight for NAP, BRACH and COL respectively. The intake per unit of metabolic size (g DM/kg0.75 was 130 for NAP, 135 for BRACH and 145 for COL. The intake of BRACH resulted in lower milk production (14,4kg than NAP (15,5kg and COL (16,1Kg. Grasses did not affected the milk composition which showed 4,03% of fat, 2,46% of protein and 12,42% of total solids. It was concluded that NAP, BRACH and COL are good alternatives for milk production in grazing systems.

    KEY WORDS: Brachiaria decumbens, Guinea grass, Panicum maximum, Napier, Pennisetum purpureum.

    Realizou-se a avaliação do consumo de alimentos e da produção de leite de vacas mestiças pastejando piquetes de capim Napier (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP, Brachiaria decumbens (BRA e Colonião (Pannicum maximum (COL e suplementadas com quatro kg de concentrado em um esquema de quadrado latino (3x3 duplo. Calcularam-se a produção fecal e o consumo de alimentos com o auxílio do Cr2O3 e da digestibilidade in vitro. O consumo diário de MS foi semelhante entre as forragens (18kg/vaca, as quais representaram 2,72%; 2,84% e 2,96% do p.v. para o NAP, BRACH e COL, respectivamente. O consumo por unidade de tamanho metabólico (g MS/kg0,75 foi de 130 para o NAP, 135 para a BRACH e 145 para

  13. The effects of forage proportion and rapidly degradable dry matter from concentrate on ruminal digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with fixed neutral detergent fiber and starch contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechartier, C; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratio and the rate of ruminal degradation of carbohydrates from the concentrate on digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets. Six cows with ruminal cannulas were assigned to 6 treatments in a 6x6 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 3x2 factorial design. Three proportions of neutral detergent fiber from forage [FNDF; 7.6, 13.2, and 18.9% of dry matter (DM)] were obtained by modifying F:C (20:80, 35:65, and 50:50). These F:C were combined with concentrates with either high or low content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates. The dietary content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates from the concentrate was estimated from the DM disappearance of concentrate after 4h of in sacco incubation (CRDM). Thus, 2 proportions of CRDM were tested (20 and 30% of DM). Wheat and corn grain were used as rapidly and slowly degradable starch sources, respectively. Soybean hulls and citrus pulp were used as slowly and rapidly degradable fiber sources, respectively. Concentrate composition was adjusted to maintain dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents at 35.9 and 28.9% of DM, respectively. There was no effect of the interaction between F:C and CRDM on DM intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, chewing activity, and fibrolytic activity. When F:C decreased, DMI increased, the mean ruminal pH linearly decreased, and the pH range linearly increased from 0.95 to 1.27 pH unit. At the same time, the acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased linearly. Decreasing F:C linearly decreased the average time spent chewing per kilogram of DMI from 35.2 to 19.5min/kg of DMI and decreased ruminal liquid outflow from 11.6 to 9.2L/kg of DMI, suggesting a decrease in the salivary flow. Increasing CRDM decreased DMI and increased the time during which pH was below 6.0 (3.1 vs. 4.8h), the pH range (0.90 vs. 1.33), and the initial rate of pH drop. It also increased the volatile fatty acid range (35 vs. 59mM), thus

  14. Interaction of unsaturated fat or coconut oil with monensin in lactating dairy cows fed 12 times daily. I. Protozoal abundance, nutrient digestibility, and microbial protein flow to the omasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveneau, C; Karnati, S K R; Oelker, E R; Firkins, J L

    2012-04-01

    Monensin (tradename: Rumensin) should reduce the extent of amino acid deamination in the rumen, and supplemental fat should decrease protozoal abundance and intraruminal N recycling. Because animal-vegetable (AV) fat can be biohydrogenated in the rumen and decrease its effectiveness as an anti-protozoal agent, we included diets supplemented with coconut oil (CNO) to inhibit protozoa. In a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, 6 rumen-cannulated cows were fed diets without or with Rumensin (12 g/909 kg) and either no fat (control), 5% AV fat, or 5% CNO. The log10 concentrations (cells/mL) of total protozoa were not different between control (5.97) and AV fat (5.95) but were decreased by CNO (4.79; main effect of fat source). Entodinium and Dasytricha decreased as a proportion of total cells from feeding CNO, whereas Epidinium was unchanged in total abundance and thus increased proportionately. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was not affected by diet, but the acetate:propionate ratio decreased for CNO (1.85) versus control (2.95) or AV fat (2.58). Feeding CNO (23.8%) decreased ruminal neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with control (31.1%) and AV fat (30.5%). The total-tract digestibility of NDF was lower for CNO (45.8%) versus control (57.0%) and AV fat (54.6%), with no difference in apparent organic matter digestibility (averaging 69.8%). The omasal flows of microbial N and non-ammonia N were lower for CNO versus control and AV fat, but efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was not affected. The dry matter intake was 4.5 kg/d lower with CNO, which decreased milk production by 3.1 kg/d. Main effect means of dry matter intake and milk yield tended to decrease by 0.7 and 1.2 kg/d, respectively, when Rumensin was added. Both percentage and production of milk fat decreased for CNO (main effect of fat source). An interaction was observed such that AV decreased milk fat yield more when combined with Rumensin

  15. Validation of an in vitro model for predicting rumen and total-tract fiber digestibility in dairy cows fed corn silages with different in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibilities at 2 levels of dry matter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo study was performed to validate an in vitro procedure that predicts rate of fiber digestion and total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (TTNDFD). Two corn silages that differed in fiber digestibility were used in this trial. The corn silage with lower fiber digestibility (LFDCS) had the TTNDFD prediction of 36.0% of total NDF, whereas TTNDFD for the corn silage with higher fiber digestibility (HFDCS) was 44.9% of total neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Two diets (1 with LFDCS and 1 with HFDCS) were formulated and analyzed using the in vitro assay to predict the TTNDFD and rumen potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) digestion rate. Similar diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, high-producing dairy cows in 2 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of intake (restricted to approximately 90% of ad libitum intake vs. ad libitum) and corn silage of different fiber digestibility. Treatments were restricted and ad libitum LFDCS as well as restricted and ad libitum HFDCS. The input and output values predicted from the in vitro model were compared with in vivo measurements. The pdNDF intake predicted by the in vitro model was similar to pdNDF intake observed in vivo. Also, the pdNDF digestion rate predicted in vitro was similar to what was observed in vivo. The in vitro method predicted TTNDFD of 50.2% for HFDCS and 42.9% for LFDCS as a percentage of total NDF in the diets, whereas the in vivo measurements of TTNDFD averaged 50.3 and 48.6% of total NDF for the HFDCS and LFDCS diets, respectively. The in vitro TTNDFD assay predicted total-tract NDF digestibility of HFDCS diets similar to the digestibility observed in vivo, but for LFDCS diets the assay underestimated the digestibility compared with in vivo. When the in vitro and in vivo measurements were compared without intake effect (ad libitum and restricted) considering only diet effect of silage fiber

  16. Body composition of lactating and dry Holstein cows estimated by deuterium dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.A.; Ehle, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    In three experiments patterns of water turnover and body composition estimated by deuterium oxide were studied in Holstein cows. In the first experiment, four lactating cows were infused with deuterium oxide, and blood samples were taken during 4-d collection. Milking was stopped; cows were reinfused with deuterium oxide and resampled. Slopes of deuterium oxide dilution curves indicated lactating cows turned water over more rapidly than nonlactating cows. In the second experiment with the same four cows, during 4-d collection, deuterium oxide concentrations in milk, urine, and feces showed dilution patterns similar to deuterium oxide in blood. Sampling milk may be an alternative to sampling blood. In the third experiment, 36 Holstein cows were fed 55, 65, or 75% alfalfa, smooth bromegrass, or equal parts of each forage as total mixed rations; remaining portions of rations were a grain mixture. Body composition was estimated at -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mo postpartum. Empty body water, protein, mineral, fat, and fat percentage decreased from prepartum to postpartum. First calf heifers contained less empty body water, protein, and mineral than older cows. Cows fed diets with 55% forage had more body fat than those fed diets with 75% forage. Cows fed alfalfa-based diets had more gastrointestinal fill regardless of grain than cows fed diets that contained alfalfa and smooth bromegrass. Gastrointestinal fill of cows increased from prepartum to 5 mo postpartum

  17. Desempenho produtivo e custos com alimentação de búfalas lactantes submetidas a dietas com diferentes fontes de lipídeo Performance and feed cost of lactating water buffalo cows fed different fat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    , cottonseed and soybean oil. The experimental period was 84 days, with four periods of 21 days (14 days for diet adaptation and 7 days for sample collections. The diets were fullfed, twice daily, as total mixed ration. At sample collections period, milk yield (kg/day and 4% fat corrected milk (4%FCM yield were evaluated. Four kg of milk were collected for mozzarella type cheese production. After mozzarella cheese production, it was determined the efficiency in relation to milk in natura and milk 45FCM. The fat sources did not affect daily milk production of water buffalo cows, however affected the 4%FCM, which was higher in the water buffalo cows that was fed diet with soybean seed. The efficiency of milk for Mozzarella production was higher for soybean oil diet. Feeding costs, per day and total (84 days were higher for the diet with cottonseed, followed by soybean oil, without additional fat and soybean seed. The profitability for the milk sale was higher for diet with soybean grain, soybean oil, without additional lipid and with cottonseed, respectively, and for mozzarella sail was higher for soybean oil. As the main buffalo milk product is the mozzarella, results suggested that the diet with soybean oil content would be the best for lactating water buffalo.

  18. Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth / For Teens / Mad Cow Disease What's ... are people to get it? What Is Mad Cow Disease? Mad cow disease is an incurable, fatal ...

  19. Produção de proteína microbiana e parâmetros ruminais em vacas leiteiras alimentadas com farelo de trigo Microbial protein production and ruminal parameters in dairy cows fed wheat middlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Aparecida Soares

    2005-02-01

    concentration. The four experimental diets were formulated to contain 70% of corn silage and 30% of concentrate. Increasing levels of wheat middlings in the concentrate (0, 33, 67 and 100% in substitution to the corn meal. The milk urea (38.8 mg/dL and N-urea (18.1 mg/dL concentrations were not influenced by wheat middlings levels, such as plasma urea (51.1 mg/dL e N-urea (23.8 mg/dL concentration. The urinary urea, N-urea, allantoin, PD, absorbed purine, N-microbial urinary excretion and milk allantoin concentration were not altered. However, uric acid excretion presented a quadratic response, with maximum value of 40.03 mmol/day in the wheat middlings level of 36%. The pH and ruminal ammonia concentration before and after feeding were also not influenced by wheat middlings levels. The corn meal can be substituted integrally by the wheat middlings in the concentrate of dairy cows, with 20 kg/day average milk production, fed corn silage based diets, with no alteration on microbial protein production and ruminal pH and ammonia concentration.

  20. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  1. Supplementation of corn dried distillers' grains plus solubles to gestating beef cows fed low-quality forage:II. Impacts on uterine blood flow, circulating estradiol-17beta and progesterone, and hepatic steriod metabolizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving uterine blood flow in nutrient restricted cows is vital to prevent under development of the fetus leading to decreased production characteristics of the offspring. This study examined uterine blood flow, steroid concentrations, and the activity of steroid metabolizing enzymes in pregnant b...

  2. Consumo, produção de leite e estresse térmico em vacas da raça Pardo-Suíça alimentadas com castanha de caju Dry mater intake, milk yield, and heat stress indicators of dairy cows fed diets with cashew nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Pimentel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo de matéria seca, a produção de leite e os indicadores de estresse térmico de vacas Pardo-Suíça alimentadas com castanha de caju no semi-árido do Nordeste do Brasil. Doze animais foram distribuídos em um ensaio de reversão, com quatro tratamentos: 0, 8, 16 e 24% de castanha no concentrado. As vacas receberam cana-de-açúcar à vontade e sete quilos de concentrado por dia. Maior consumo de matéria seca de cana-de-açúcar foi observado no tratamento com concentrado sem castanha (7,70kgMS/dia em relação aos tratamentos com 16% e 24% de castanha (7,35 e 7,05kgMS/dia, respectivamente. O consumo no tratamento com concentrado sem castanha não diferiu do consumo no tratamento com 8% (7,59kgMS/dia. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre a produção de leite e sobre as variáveis indicativas de estresse térmico (P>0,05.A study was carried out to evaluate dry matter intake, milk yield, and heat stress parameters in Brown Swiss cows fed diets with cashew nut. Animals were raised in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian Northeast. Twelve cows were subjected to a switch back experimental design, with four treatments: 0, 8, 16, and 24% of cashew nut in the concentrate. Each cow received 7kg of concentrate per day and had free access to sugar cane. Dry matter (DM intake and milk yield were daily taken as well as measurements of rectal and milk temperature; and cardiac and respiratory rates. The highest intake of forage (sugar cane was obtained when the concentrate had no cashew nut (7.7kgDM/day. This value was not different when the concentrate contained 8% of cashew nut (7.59kgDM/day but greater than dry matter intake of cows receiving diets with 16% of cashew nut (7.35kgDM/day; P0.05. Such low variability in daily milk yield could be associated with the higher energy density of diets containing more cashew nut. Finally, indicators of heat stress were not influenced by changes in the diets, given the air temperatures and

  3. Effect of body condition on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Welch, K D

    2008-12-01

    We determined whether cows in low (LBC) or high body condition (HBC) would consume different amounts of green pine needles (Pinus ponderosa). Cows (mature; open Hereford and Hereford x Angus) were fed a maintenance basal diet (alfalfa pellets) for Exp. 1 and 2; during Exp. 3 and 4, cows were fed high-protein and high-energy diets, respectively. Experiment 5 was a grazing study on rangeland during winter in South Dakota; diets were determined by using bite counts. Mean BCS (1 = emaciated, 9 = obese) was 7.5 for HBC cows and <4.0 for LBC cows during the experiments. During Exp. 1, LBC cows consumed more (P = 0.001) pine needles than did HBC cows (5.5 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.14 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). During Exp. 2, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC cows consumed variable, but greater, amounts of pine needles than did HBC cows (3.7 +/- 0.19 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.12 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). When fed a high-protein/low-energy diet, LBC cows ate more (P = 0.04) pine needles than did HBC cows. When fed a low-protein/high-energy diet, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) because LBC cows consumed more pine needles than did HBC cows for the first 3 d of the study, and then consumption by LBC animals decreased during the last 4 d. These experiments suggest that the protein:energy ratio may be an important factor in the ability of cows to tolerate terpenes, and that cows were not able to sustain an increased quantity of needle consumption on a low-protein diet. During the 25-d grazing study, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC animals selected more pine needles (up to 25% of daily bites) on some days compared with HBC cows. Weather influenced pine needle consumption because pine needle bites by LBC cows were related (r(2) = 0.60; P = 0.001) to days of greater snow depth and lower minimum daily temperatures. Both LBC and HBC cows increased selection of pine needles from trees during cold, snowy weather, but

  4. Predisposition of cows to mastitis in non-infected mammary glands: effects of dietary-induced negative energy balance during mid-lactation on immune-related genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E

    2011-01-01

    Cows experiencing severe postpartal negative energy balance (NEB) are at greater risk of developing mastitis than cows in positive energy balance (PEB). Our objectives were to compare mammary tissue gene expression profiles between lactating cows (n = 5/treatment) subjected to feed restriction...... to induce NEB and cows fed ad libitum to maintain PEB in order to identify genes involved in immune response and cellular metabolism that may predispose cows to an intramammary infection in non-infected mammary gland. The NEB cows were feed-restricted to 60% of calculated net energy for lactation...... requirements, and cows fed PEB cows were fed the same diet ad libitum. At 5 days after feed restriction, one rear mammary gland from all cows was biopsied for RNA extraction and transcript profiling using microarray and quantitative PCR. Energy balance (NEB vs. PEB) resulted in 278 differentially expressed...

  5. Digestibilidade e metabólitos sanguíneos de vacas da raça Holandesa superovuladas que receberam Lac100® ou linhaça em grão como fontes de gordura Digestibility and blood concentration of metabolites in superovulated dairy cows fed Lac100® or linseed as fat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L.B. Cavalieri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de duas fontes de gordura, Lac100® (Yakult, fonte de ácido graxo ômega-6, e linhaça em grão (Linum usitatissimum (LIN, fonte de ácido graxo ômega-3, sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DMS, proteína bruta (DPB, fibra em detergente neutro (DFDN, fibra em detergente ácido (DFDA e extrato etéreo (DEE, e concentrações sanguíneas de HDL, LDL, VLDL, colesterol, triglicerídeos, glicose, cálcio, fósforo, N-ureico e progesterona. Foram utilizadas 10 vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação, distribuídas nos dois tratamentos, em um delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os animais alimentados com Lac100® apresentaram maiores valores de DFDN (57,44% vs. 50,80% e DEE (77,70% vs. 72,18% quando comparados aos alimentados com LIN. Os animais alimentados com Lac100® apresentaram maiores concentrações de LDL (111,00 vs. 45,46mg/dL, HDL (82,27 vs. 64,93mg/dL e colesterol total (203,60 vs. 116,13mg/dL e menor concentração de N-ureico (13,22 vs. 15,19mg/dL em relação aos animais alimentados com linhaça em grão. As concentrações sanguíneas de glicose, cálcio, fósforo e progesterona não foram alteradas. Os resultados sugerem que a fonte de gordura na dieta modifica a DFDN e a DEE e, as concentrações sanguíneas de LDL, HDL e colesterol total em vacas em lactação.The effect of two sources of fat, calcium salts of soybean oil, Lac100® (Yakult, a source of omega-6 fatty acids or whole flaxseed (Linum usitatissiumum, a source of omega-3 fatty acids were evaluated to determine the apparent digestibility of dry matter (DDM, crude protein (DCP, neutral detergent fiber (DNDF, acid detergent fiber (DADF, and ether extract (DEE; and blood concentrations of HDL, LDL, VLDL, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, N-urea, and progesterone. Ten lactating Holstein cows were allocated in two treatments and a completely randomized design was used. Cows fed Lac100® had higher

  6. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow's milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough ...

  7. effect of chronic consumption of cow's urine concoction on gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The effect of chronic consumption of cow's urine concoction (CUC) and the role of tobacco leaves was studied on the gastric ... CUC-T fed group showed 80% reduction but the pyloric glands in group fed with CUC-NT were not reduced. ... The concoction was given orally through a plastic tube as reported by other authors.

  8. N transfer in three species grass-clover mixtures with chicory, ribwort plantain or caraway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Rasmussen, Jim; Carlsson, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Background and aimsThere is substantial evidence that legume-derived Nitrogen (N) is transferred to neighboring non-legumes in grassland mixtures. However, there is sparse information about how deep rooted non-legume forage herbs (forbs) influence N transfer in multi-species grasslands. Methodology......Red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) was grown together with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and one of three forb species: chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) or caraway (Carum carvi L.) in a field experiment. During the first year after the establishment, red...... clover leaves were labeled with 15N-urea to determine the N transfer from red clover to companion ryegrass and forbs. ResultsOn an annual basis, up to 15 % of red clover N was transferred to the companion ryegrass and forbs, but predominantly to the grass. The forb species did not differ in their ability...

  9. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume–cereal arable cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea–oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass...... N2 fixation and 15N labeling technique to determine the fate of pea and oat residue N recovery in the subsequent crop. The subsequent spring wheat and winter triticale crop yields were not significantly affected by the previous main crop, but a significant effect of catch crop undersowing...

  10. Nitrogen cycling in organic farming systems with rotational grass-clover and arable crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Jørgen; Grant, Ruth; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2006-01-01

    Organic farming is considered an effective means of reducing nitrogen losses compared with more intensive conventional farming systems. However, under certain conditions, organic farming may also be susceptible to large nitrogen (N) losses. This i especially the case for organic .....

  11. Lucerne (Medicago sativa) or grass-clover as cut-and-carry fertilizers in organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.; Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Koopmans, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Onfarm nitrogen fixation is a driving force in organic agriculture. The efficiency with which this nitrogen is used can be increased by using lucerne (Medicago sativa) or grassclover directly as sources of fertilizer on arable land: cutandcarry fertilizers. In two arable crops, the use of lucerne

  12. Short-term residual N unaffected by forbs in grass-clover mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Rasmussen, Jim; Cong, Wenfeng

    2017-01-01

    We determined the effect on residual nitrogen (N) of including forbs (chicory, ribwort plantain and caraway) in perennial ryegrass-red clover mixtures. Although soil N inputs during the grassland phase differed markedly between mixtures, in a pot experiment we found no differences...... in the potentially mineralizable N of the soil or in the dry matter production and N content of the spring barley test crop. The fertilizer value of the grassland mixtures corresponded to 10 g N/m2, irrespective of forb inclusion. Thus, the inclusion of nonlegume forbs did not negatively affect short-term residual N...

  13. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folman, Y.; Rosenberg, M.; Kaim, M.

    1990-01-01

    Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P 4 ) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (≤2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (≥4.1 ng/mL) P 4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P 4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

  15. Impact of dietary starch concentration formulated with two types of corn silage on methane and ammonia emissions in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions of lactating dairy cows fed different starch level and corn silage type. After the completion of an 8-wk production study, 48 Holstein cows were allocated to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers (2 cows/chamber) for...

  16. Rendimento, composição e análise sensorial do queijo minas frescal fabricado com leite de vacas mestiças alimentadas com diferentes volumosos Yield, composition and sensory analysis of Minas cheese made with milk from crossbred cows fed different roughages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Cristina dos Santos Guimarães Martins

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade físico-química e sensorial e o perfil de ácidos graxos do queijo minas frescal produzido com o leite de vacas mestiças alimentadas com dietas contendo quatro volumosos: canade-açúcar, silagem de sorgo, silagem de girassol e pastagem de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia. Foram avaliados o rendimento, a composição físico-química e o perfil de ácidos graxos. Também foi realizada a análise sensorial do queijo minas frescal e da composição físico-química do leite. Utilizaram-se oito vacas mestiças 1/2 Holandês/Gir, com período de lactação de 180 ± 12 dias, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4, com quatro animais, quatro dietas e quatro períodos. Os períodos foram de 18 dias, sendo 15 dias de adaptação e três dias de coletas de dados. Após o processamento do queijo, foi feita análise microbiológica, físico-química e posteriormente análise sensorial. Amostras do queijo foram congeladas e analisadas quanto ao perfil de ácidos graxos. O teor de gordura do queijo foi maior para as dietas com cana-de-açúcar e silagem de girassol em relação à silagem de sorgo e ao pasto de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, que não diferiram entre si. O queijo produzido a partir do leite de vacas alimentadas com silagem de girassol apresentou melhor perfil de ácidos graxos e índices de qualidade nutricional, maior proporção e melhor perfil de ácidos graxos insaturados. O rendimento do queijo foi igual para todas as dietas, independentemente do volumoso utilizado em sua composição. O queijo produzido com o leite de vacas alimentadas com silagem de girassol tem maior preferência pelos julgadores no teste de análise sensorial, especialmente quanto ao atributo aparência.The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical-chemical and sensory quality and fatty acid profile of Minas cheese produced from milk from crossbred cows fed diets with four roughages (sugar cane

  17. [Cow's milk protein sensitive enteropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, H K

    1982-01-01

    Cow's milk protein sensitive enteropathy (CMPSE) is characterized by the following items: 1. The great majority of affected infants have not been breast fed or only for a few days. Additional risks are immaturity, preceding enteritis, trisomy 21, and abdominal operation in the newborn. 2. Half of the patients become ill during the first two weeks after starting cow's milk formula. The main symptoms are watery, mucus containing diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal distension, pallor and rapid weight loss. 3. In CMPSE the small intestinal mucosa shows varying degrees of inflammation and villous atrophy. Bloody stools refer to large bowel affection. 4. CMPSE is always transitory and usually persists for less than one year. Inadequate treatment leads to "severe protracted diarrhea" or "intractable diarrhea" syndrome. Soya-based formula should not be the diet of first choice, since secondary intolerance to soya proteins will frequently develop. Exclusive breast feeding during the first months of life is the best prophylaxis of CMPSE.

  18. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. Journal of

  19. Comparative studies on bone structure in dairy cows with different feeding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilmane, M; Zitare, I; Jemeljanovs, A

    2010-01-01

    The bone belongs to the dynamic tissues and its structure in domestic cows is still not completely understood in correlation to the impact of different food components. The aim of our work was a histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical research on bone morphology and factors influencing it in healthy dairy cows fed with self-produced grain and with rapeseed cakes. The bone of self-produced grain-fed cows demonstrated statistically significant difference in the number of osteocytes from the bone of rapeseed cakes-fed cows. The rapeseed cakes-fed cows didn't show any bone cell positive for BMP2/4, while FGFR1 increased significantly in their supportive tissues. The number of bFGF- and apoptosis-containing structures varied in cows of both groups. MMP2 expression showed statistically significant difference between both animals' groups with domination in bone of cows fed with self-produced grain. Defensin-, osteopontin- and osteocalcin-containing cells showed tendency to increase in bone of cows on rapeseed cakes diet. Conclusions. The rapeseed-fed cow's long bones demonstrate significant decrease of osteocytes per mm2 and selective increase of FGFR1, suggesting the (compensatory) growth stimulation in supportive tissue. The statistically significant selective absence of MMP2 with a slight tendency of increase in osteopontin and osteocalcin in rapeseed-fed cow's long bones indicates the persistence of seemingly still compensated qualitative changes in bone (beginning of disturbances in mineralization, metabolism etc.) proved also by a slight increase of the bone antimicrobial peptide.

  20. Desempenho produtivo de vacas da raça Gir leiteira em confinamento alimentadas com níveis de concentrado e proteína bruta nas dietas Productive performance of dairy Gyr cows in feedlot fed levels of concentrate and crude protein in diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Monteiro Araújo Teixeira

    2010-11-01

    greater increase in the total dry matter intake. The coefficient of digestibility of crude protein was influenced by greater levels of concentrate and crude protein in the diet. Milk production was greater for cows fed diets with greater levels of concentrate and crude protein but it did not differ among cows fed other diets. For cows of milking Gyr breed kept in the conditions of this research, levels of 23.3% concentrate and 12% of crude protein in the diet present the best productive response.

  1. Feedlot finishing cull cows fed diets with different levels of concentrateTerminação em confinamento de vacas de descarte recebendo dietas com diferentes teores de concentrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryon Guilherme Strack

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance and carcass quality and beef and cull cow subjected to diets with two levels of concentrate (1.08 and 1.62% of body weight, whith base in dry matter durind the feedlot finishing. In this study were used twenty cull cows of the breed Aberdeen Angus, Charolais, Caracu, Canchim and Charolais x Caracu whith a mean age of 7.2 years. The average weight gain during the termination was similar between levels 1.08 and 1.62% (1.81 and 2.00 kg/day, respectively. However, animals in the 1.62% group consumed much digestible energy (46.13 Mcal / day compared to the lowest level (38.32 Mcal / day, showing similarity (P > 0.01 in the values of conversion food (6.78 and 6.93 kg dry matter / kg weight gain and energy efficiency (21.68 and 23.40 between the two groups. In feedlot finishing cull cows with an average age of 7.5 years, the increase of the concentrate from 1.08 to 1.62% of body weight based on dry matter based on corn silage, no benefits productive performance of cows nor the quality characteristics of meat. Increasing the concentrate level in the diet of this category can cause greater haunch thickness and better carcass conformation in feedlot finishing.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o desempenho e a qualidade da carcaça e da carne de vacas de descarte submetidas a dietas com dois teores de concentrado (1,08 e 1,62% do peso vivo, com base na matéria seca durante o processo de terminação em confinamento. Foram utilizadas 20 vacas de descarte, de raça mestiça, que compõem a formação do composto Purunã, Aberdeen Angus, Charolês, Caracu, Canchim e Caracu x Charolês com idade média de 7,2 anos. Independente do nível de concentrado o ganho de peso médio durante a terminação foi semelhante entre os teores 1,08 e 1,62% (1,81 e 2,00 kg/ dia, respectivamente. No entanto, os animais do grupo 1,62% consumiram maior quantidade energia digestível (46,13Mcal/dia em relação ao

  2. Mad Cow Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth / For Parents / Mad Cow Disease What's ... Is Being Done About It Print About Mad Cow Disease Mad cow disease has been in the ...

  3. A model to estimate insulin sensitivity in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtenius Kjell

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Impairment of the insulin regulation of energy metabolism is considered to be an etiologic key component for metabolic disturbances. Methods for studies of insulin sensitivity thus are highly topical. There are clear indications that reduced insulin sensitivity contributes to the metabolic disturbances that occurs especially among obese lactating cows. Direct measurements of insulin sensitivity are laborious and not suitable for epidemiological studies. We have therefore adopted an indirect method originally developed for humans to estimate insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. The method, "Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index" (RQUICKI is based on plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and free fatty acids (FFA and it generates good and linear correlations with different estimates of insulin sensitivity in human populations. We hypothesized that the RQUICKI method could be used as an index of insulin function in lactating dairy cows. We calculated RQUICKI in 237 apparently healthy dairy cows from 20 commercial herds. All cows included were in their first 15 weeks of lactation. RQUICKI was not affected by the homeorhetic adaptations in energy metabolism that occurred during the first 15 weeks of lactation. In a cohort of 24 experimental cows fed in order to obtain different body condition at parturition RQUICKI was lower in early lactation in cows with a high body condition score suggesting disturbed insulin function in obese cows. The results indicate that RQUICKI might be used to identify lactating cows with disturbed insulin function.

  4. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and corn particle size on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, S M; Ferraretto, L F; Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary starch content in corn-based diets and corn particle size on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows using the omasal and reticular sampling technique. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were fine (FG; mean particle size=552µm) and coarse (CG; 1,270µm) ground dry shelled corn in normal- (NS) and reduced- (RS) starch diets fed as total mixed rations. The NS and RS rations contained 27 and 18% starch (dry matter basis), respectively, and were formulated by partially replacing corn with soy hull pellets. Mean dry matter intake was unaffected by treatment (23.2kg/d). Cows fed NS diets produced 1.9kg/d more milk and 0.06kg/d more milk protein compared with cows fed RS diets. Cows fed NSFG and RSCG diets produced more fat-corrected milk than did cows fed NSCG and RSFG diets. Milk urea concentration was decreased for cows fed NS diets (12.4mg/dL) compared with RS diets (13.5mg/dL). Ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; % of NDF intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with NS diets (43.4 vs. 34.9%), and total-tract digestibility of NDF (% of NDF intake) was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (50.1 vs. 43.1%). Ruminal digestibility of starch (% of starch intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was greater in cows fed NS diets compared with those fed RS diets (85.6 vs. 81.6%). Total-tract starch digestion was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (96.9 vs. 94.6%) and in cows fed FG diets compared with those fed CG diets (98.0 vs. 93.5%). Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. The omasal and reticular sampling techniques resulted in similar treatment effects for nutrient flow

  5. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles to lactating beef cows: impact of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk production and pre-weaning progeny growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shee, C N; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-01-01

    Multiparous Angus×Simmental cows (n=54, 5.22±2.51 years) with male progeny were fed one of two diets supplemented with either dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or soybean meal (CON), from calving until day 129 postpartum (PP) to determine effects of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk composition and calf growth. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and consisted of rye hay and DDGS (19.4% CP; 8.76% fat), or corn silage, rye hay and soybean meal (11.7% CP; 2.06% fat). Cow-calf pairs were allotted by cow and calf age, BW and breed. Cow BW and body condition score (BCS; P⩾0.13) were similar throughout the experiment. A weigh-suckle-weigh was performed on day 64 and day 110±10 PP to determine milk production. Milk was collected on day 68 and day 116±10 PP for analysis of milk components. Milk production was unaffected (P⩾0.75) by dietary treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was increased at both time points in DDGS compared with CON cows (Pcows on day 68 PP. Compared to CON, DDGS decreased medium chain FA (Pcows, which resulted in an increase (Pcows fed DDGS compared with cows fed CON (Pcows did not change cow BW or BCS, but did improve TAI rates and altered milk composition compared with CON. As a result, male progeny from cows fed DDGS during lactation had greater average daily gain and were heavier at day 129 and at weaning compared with male progeny from cows fed a control diet.

  6. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas em lactação alimentadas com níveis de inclusão de bagaço de mandioca Ingestive behavior of dairy cows fed with inclusion levels of cassava bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Cecato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de vacas em lactação recebendo dietas com níveis de bagaço de mandioca (0; 5; 10 e 15%. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas leiteiras Holandês x Zebu com 478,5kg de peso corporal médio e com 100 a 150 dias de lactação, distribuídas em três Quadrados Latinos 4 x 4. Além do consumo de matéria seca, fibra em detergente neutro, carboidratos não fibrosos e nutrientes digestíveis totais, foi avaliado o comportamento ingestivo dos animais, os quais foram submetidos a quatro avaliações visuais, com duração de 24 horas cada, em escalas de cinco minutos. As avaliações foram realizadas no último dia de cada período experimental, que tiveram duração de 12 dias. Os consumos de matéria seca, carboidratos não fibrosos e nutrientes digestíveis totais aumentaram linearmente com a inclusão do bagaço de mandioca. O tempo gasto com alimentação, ruminação e ócio não diferiu entre os tratamentos, assim como o número de períodos e o tempo gasto em cada período nas respectivas atividades. Quanto aos aspectos comportamentais, apenas o número de mastigações por bolo ruminado foi afetado pelas dietas. As eficiências de alimentação e ruminação só tiveram interferência nos carboidratos não fibrosos, os quais apresentaram efeito quadrático. O aumento crescente dos consumos de matéria seca, carboidratos não-fibrosos e nutrientes digestíveis totais demonstraram que o bagaço de mandioca em níveis de até 15% não altera o comportamento ingestivo.The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of lactating cows receiving diets with different levels of cassava bagasse (0; 5; 10 and 15%. Twelve Holstein x Zebu dairy cows with 478.5kg of average body weight and 100 to 150 days in milk, were distributed in three 4 x 4 Latin Squares. The dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber, non fibrous carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients intake, and the ingestive behavior of the animals

  7. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50 years as part of the five-point mastitis prevention program. The goal of dry cow treatment is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections by eliminating infections already present at dryin...

  8. Intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating dairy cows fed diets containing sunflower cakeConsumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes e balanço de nitrogênio em vacas leiteiras alimentadas com dietas contendo torta de girassol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia Sales Pereira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of sunflower cake (SC inclusion in the diets of lactating dairy cows on dry matter (DM intake, the apparent digestibility of dietary nutrients and nitrogen balance. Eight Holstein-Zebu cows with a milk yield of 20 ± 2 kg/day were allotted to a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design, where were tested the effects of four levels of SC inclusion (0, 7, 14 and 21% of DM basis. Tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon hay was used as roughage in a 60:40 roughage:concentrate ratio. The SC inclusion had no effect on dry matter, crude protein, organic matter (OM or total carbohydrate (TC intake (kg/day. However, a quadratic effect (P O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de inclusão de torta de girassol (TG na dieta de vacas em lactação sobre o consumo de matéria seca (MS, digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes da dieta e balanço de nitrogênio. Oito vacas Girolanda com produção diária de leite de 20 ± 2 kg/dia foram distribuídas em delineamento em quadrado latino duplo 4x4, em que foram testados os efeitos de quatro níveis de inclusão da TG (0, 7, 14 e 21% MS. Foi utilizado o feno de Tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon como volumoso em uma relação volumoso:concentrado de 60:40. A inclusão de TG não afetou o consumo (kg/dia de MS, proteína bruta, matéria orgânica (OM e carboidratos totais (CT. Entretanto, foi observado efeito quadrático (P < 0,05 no consumo (kg/dia de fibra em detergente neutro e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF. Não houve efeito da inclusão de TG na digestibilidade de MO, CT e CNF, assim como para o balanço de nitrogênio. Foi observado efeito linear para o nitrogênio endógeno basal (g/dia. A torta de girassol pode ser recomendada como um ingrediente de rações para vacas em lactação.

  9. Blood constituents of holstein cows fed with corn or elephant-grass silages / Constituintes sangüíneos de vacas da raça holandesa alimentadas com silagens de milho ou de capim-elefante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Harry Bumbieris Júnior

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of corn (Zea mays L. silage and elephant-grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum silage on the nutrition of cows during lactation, over some of the blood constituents (glucose, triglycerides and urea. The treatments were three silages (corn silage, elephant-grass silage with bacterial inoculating, elephant-grass silage with enzyme-bacterial inoculating. Nine Holstein cows, with a medium weight of 520 kg, were distributed in experimental delineation of simultaneous triple Latin square. The blood glucose rates were considered normal, independents of the silage used. Concerning the triglicerides levels, it was verified that they are below normal to the different silages. One of the reasons would be the low fat level on the diet. The blood levels of urea observed on the three treatments are considered normal. There was not significant difference among the different kinds of silage in relation to the blood levels of urea, glucose and triglycerides.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do fornecimento de silagem de milho (Zea mays L. e silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum na alimentação de vacas em lactação, sobre alguns dos constituintes sangüíneos (glicose, triglicerídeos e uréia. Os tratamentos foram três silagens (silagem de milho, silagem de capim-elefante com inoculante bacteriano, silagem de capim-elefante com inoculante enzimo-bacteriano. Foram utilizadas nove vacas da raça holandesa, com peso médio de 520 kg, distribuídas em delineamento experimental de triplo quadrado latino simultâneo. As taxas de glicose sangüínea das vacas foram consideradas normais, independente do volumoso utilizado. Em relação aos níveis de triglicerídeos, verificou-se que estão abaixo do normal para os diferentes volumosos. Uma das razões seria o baixo nível de gordura na dieta. Os níveis sangüíneos de uréia observados nos três tratamentos são considerados normais

  10. Energy sources in low intake supplements on the productive and reproductive performance of Zebu cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marcondes de Godoy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of primiparous zebu cows supplemented on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu with supplements of low intake composed of different energy sources in the postpartum period. Sixty cow-calf pairs were divided into three treatments, a standard mineral salt supplement, a supplement based on ground corn and another containing protected fat, under the same conditions of pasture. The cows had an average initial age of 36 months and 295.9 ± 20 kg of initial body weight. The evaluation period lasted from November 2006 to May 2007, the 24 days after delivery until weaning of calves to 192 days of age. Cows fed the supplement based on ground corn (351 g day-1 and protected fat (357 g day-1 showed a similar increase in body weight, which was higher in relation cows fed with the mineral mixture (179 g day-1. Mineral mixture supplementation resulted in body condition score loss of cows between 80 and 136 days after calving. Cows fed energy supplements of low consumption produced more milk, weaned heavier calves and showed higher pregnancy rate than those fed only with the mineral mixture. The use of 3% calcium salts of fatty acids in energy supplements of low consumption did not alter the productive and reproductive performance of primiparous Zebu cows.

  11. Natural Antibodies Related to Energy Balance in Early Lactation Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Meulenberg, S.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Kemp, B.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of natural antibodies (NAb) in plasma and milk of individual dairy cows and to study the relation between NAb concentrations and energy balance (EB) and dietary energy source. Cows (n = 76) were fed a mainly glucogenic, lipogenic, or a

  12. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on ... year old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics ( ...

  13. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas em lactação e de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo palma forrageira Ingestive behavior of lactating cows and sheep fed diets with spineless cactus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safira Valença Bispo

    2010-09-01

    cows, respectively. In experiment 1, five mixed-breed non castrated male sheep with 25.8 kg average weight were distributed in a 5 x 5 latin square. In experiment 2, it was used eight lactating cows 14 kg milk/day average initial production distributed in two 4 x 4 latin squares. The observation of the behavioral data was visually performed for a period of 24 hours in both experiments. In experiment 1, the intake of dry matter, feeding time and rumination efficiency increased linearly with the inclusion of the spineless cactus, whereas rumination time decreased linearly; the consumption of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and feeding efficiency exhibited quadratic behavior. In experiment 2, the inclusion of cactus and urea had no influence on dry matter and NDF intake, neither on time (kgDM/h and efficiency of feeding and rumination; however, rumination efficiency (kgNDF/h exhibited quadratic behavior. Total mastication time and idle time were not influenced by the inclusion of cactus in the diet in both experiments. The inclusion of a source of physically effective fiber is recommended for ruminant rations with a high proportion of spineless cactus.

  14. Chewing activity of dairy cows fed diets based in sunflower cakeComportamento ingestivo de vacas em lactação alimentadas com rações a base de torta de girassol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nery Rocha Junior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of sunflower cake (SC on nutrient intake and ingestive behavior in lactating cows. Eight multiparous Holstein x Zebu cows, between 50 and 74 lactation days and 20 ± 2 kg of milk per day, were allocated in a 4 x 4 double latin square design, where the factors were four inclusion levels of SC (0; 7; 14 and 21%. Tifton 85 hay was used as forage in a 60:40 ratio of forage: concentrate. There was no detectable effect of the inclusion of SC (P > 0.05 on dry matter, crude protein and organic matter intake. However, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake, showed linear and quadratic effect (P O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de torta de girassol (TG sobre o consumo de nutrientes e comportamento ingestivo em vacas em lactação. Oito vacas da raça Girolando, entre 50 e 74 dias em lactação e com produção média de 20 ± 2 kg de leite/dia foram distribuídas em quadrado latino 4x4 duplo, onde os fatores foram os níveis de inclusão de TG (0; 7; 14 e 21%. Como volumoso foi utilizado o feno de Tifton 85 em uma relação 60:40 de volumoso:concentrado. Não foi detectado efeito da inclusão da TG (P > 0,05 sobre consumo de matéria seca, proteína bruta e matéria orgânica. No entanto, os consumos de extrato etéreo e de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN apresentaram comportamento linear e quadrático (P < 0,05, respectivamente. O tempo gasto com ruminação, ócio e em pé não foi alterado pela adição de TG às rações, contudo o tempo despendido com alimentação e ingestão de água foi influenciado linearmente (P < 0,05. A eficiência de ruminação, expressa em gMS/h e gFDN/h, o tempo de mastigação total, número de bolos ruminais e número de mastigações merícicas por dia não diferiram significativamente, com exceção da eficiência de alimentação que variou de forma quadrática (P < 0,05. Em um manejo alimentar de

  15. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50

  16. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to late gestation and early lactation beef cows effect on cow and preweaning calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muegge, C R; Brennan, K M; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-08-01

    Angus × Simmental cows ( = 48; BW = 595 ± 17.4 kg, BCS = 5.26 ± 0.05, and age = 2.3 ± 0.07 yr), pregnant with male fetuses, were used to determine the effect of Se source during the last 80 d of gestation and first 108 d of lactation on cow and calf performance. At 203 d in gestation, cows were blocked by BW, breed composition, age, and calf sire and randomly allotted to organic Se, inorganic Se, or no Se treatments. Diets contained corn silage, corn stover, haylage, dried distillers' grains with solubles, and minerals and were formulated to contain 10.4% CP and 0.90 Mcal/kg NEg during gestation and 12.1% CP and 1.01 Mcal/kg NEg during lactation. Diets were fed daily as a total mixed ration and none, 3 mg/d Se as sodium selenite, or 3 mg/d Se as Sel-Plex were top-dressed daily. At 68 d postpartum (DPP), milk production was calculated using the weigh-suckle-weigh procedure and a milk sample was collected to determine composition. At 108 DPP, cow-calf pairs were commingled until weaning at 210 DPP. Cow BW and BCS ( ≥ 0.56) did not differ between treatments at any time point during the study. Milk production, milk fat, and total solids ( ≥ 0.38) did not differ among treatments. Milk protein tended to increase in cows fed inorganic Se compared with cows fed organic Se ( = 0.07) and milk lactose tended to be greatest in cows fed organic Se ( = 0.10). Conception to AI and overall pregnancy rates did not differ between treatments ( ≥ 0.39). Calf weights and ADG did not differ through 108 DPP ( ≥ 0.77) or for the preweaning period ( ≥ 0.33). Plasma Se concentration was adequate for all cows and did not differ among treatments for cows ( ≥ 0.37) or calves ( ≥ 0.90). Liver Se concentrations in cows fed inorganic or organic Se were greater than in control cows ( < 0.01). Longissimus muscles biopsies taken from progeny at 108 DPP also did not differ between treatments ( = 0.45). In conclusion, dietary Se source did not affect cow performance, milk production

  17. The performance of a white clover-based dairy system in comparison with a grass/fertiliser-N system. II. Animal production, economics and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Boxem, T.; Jagtenberg, C.J.; Verboom, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a white clover based dairy system in comparison with a grass/fertiliser-N system was studied during three years. Both systems had 59 cows, plus young stock, on an area of 40.6 ha for grass/clover and 34.4 ha for grass/fertiliser-N. During the grazing season, the cows in both

  18. A field study on the effects of dietary monensin on milk production and milk composition in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Jocelyn; DuTremblay, Denis; Baril, Jean; Bagg, Randy; Brodeur, Marcel; Duffield, Todd; DesCôteaux, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of 16 ppm of dietary monensin on milk production and composition of dairy cows, and to investigate factors having a potential impact on this effect. Data were generated from a total of 3577 Holstein dairy cows (47 herds) in Quebec enrolled in a herd-level, randomized clinical trial investigating the effects of monensin supplementation. Milk production and composition data were collected from monthly dairy herd improvement (DHI) testing. Monensin increased milk production by 0.9 kg/cow/d in cows under 150 days in milk (DIM) (P < 0.05). Monensin decreased milk fat percentage by 0.18 percentage points during the whole lactation (P < 0.05). This decreasing effect was larger for component-fed cows (P < 0.05) and for cows being fed low levels of dietary physically effective particles (P < 0.05) when compared respectively to cows fed total mixed ration and cows fed high levels of dietary physically effective particles. The results of this study suggest that monensin influences milk production and milk composition of dairy cows, and that diet composition and feeding system influence those effects. PMID:20592825

  19. Feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet induced epigenetic alterations in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhong Dong

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw (HCS diet (65% concentrate+35% corn straw on the epigenetic changes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw (LCS diet (46% concentrate+54% corn straw and with a low-concentrate mixed forage (LMF diet (46% concentrate+54% mixed forage.Multiparous mid-lactation Chinese Holstein cows were fed one of these three diets for 6 weeks, at which time blood samples and mammary tissue samples were collected. Mammary arterial and venous blood samples were analyzed for lipopolysaccharide (LPS concentrations while mammary tissue samples were assayed for histone H3 acetylation and the methylation of specific genes associated with fat and protein synthesis.Extraction of histones and quantification of histone H3 acetylation revealed that acetylation was significantly reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Cows fed the HCS diet had significantly higher LPS concentrations in the mammary arterial blood, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. We found that the extent of histone H3 acetylation was negatively correlated with LPS concentrations. The methylation of the stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase gene associated with milk fat synthesis was increased in cows fed the HCS diet. By contrast, methylation of the gene encoding the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A was reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, suggesting that feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet may alter the methylation of specific genes involved in fat and protein synthesis in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.Feeding the high-concentrate diet induced epigenetic changes in the mammary tissues of dairy cows, possibly through effecting the release of differing amounts of LPS into the mammary blood.

  20. Desempenho produtivo de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com silagem pré-seca de alfafa adicionada de inoculante microbiano Performance of lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa haylage with microbial inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jaime de Almeida Magalhães

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o presente estudo, avaliar os efeitos da inoculação microbiana da silagem pré-seca de alfafa sobre o consumo de matéria seca, a produção e composição do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa, multíparas, com 135 ± 16,4 dias de lactação, distribuídas em delineamento em reversão simples com seqüência balanceada ("cross-over", com dois períodos sucessivos. Os tratamentos corresponderam à silagem pré-seca de alfafa (50,0% de MS e 16,5% de PB controle ou inoculada com o produto Silobac® (Lactobacillus plantarum e Pediococcus pentosaceus. Cada período experimental teve duração de 21 dias, sendo os cinco últimos dias destinados à coleta de dados. Não se observou efeito da inoculação sobre o CMS (inoculada = 17,8 vs. controle = 17,8 kg/animal/dia, a produção de leite corrigida para 4,0% de gordura (21,0 vs. 20,4 kg/dia, produção de leite (23,0 vs. 22,4 kg/dia, porcentagem de gordura (3,46 vs. 3,47%, proteína (2,96 vs. 2,93%, lactose (4,64 vs. 4,67%, sólidos totais (11,9 vs. 11,9% e sólidos desengordurados (8,49 vs. 8,48%, CCS (5,43 vs. 5,16 log cel/10³/mL, NUL (11,7 vs. 12,1 mg/dl, acidez (15,9 vs. 16,4ºD, densidade (1030,1 vs. 1030,0 e crioscopia (-0,529 vs. -0,531ºH.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding alfalfa haylage with microbial inoculat on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition in Holstein cows, at 135 ± 16.4 days in milk. A cross-over design with two periods of sampling was used. Treatments were alfalfa haylage (50.0% DM and 16.5% CP control or microbially inoculated with Silobac® product (Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Each experimental period extended for twenty-one days, the last five used for data collection. The inoculation did not influence DMI (inoculated = 17.8 vs. control = 17.8 kg/animal/day, 4%FCM (21.0 vs. 20.4 kg/day, milk yield (23.0 vs. 22.4 kg/day, fat (3.46 vs. 3.47%, protein (2.96 vs. 2.93%, lactose (4.64 vs. 4

  1. Comparison of methods for estimating herbage intake in grazing dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of herbage intake is a challenge both under practical and experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to estimate herbage intake with different methods for cows grazing 7 h daily on either spring or autumn pastures. In order to generate variation between cows, the 20 cows per...... season, and the herbage intake was estimated twice during each season. Cows were on pasture from 8:00 until 15:00, and were subsequently housed inside and fed a mixed ration (MR) based on maize silage ad libitum. Herbage intake was estimated with nine different methods: (1) animal performance (2) intake...

  2. Consumo de forragem e desempenho de vacas Holandesas sob pastejo em gramíneas tropicais - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.549 Forage intake and performance of Holstein lactating cows fed on tropical grassland pastures - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Portella Montardo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a estrutura das pastagens de Capim Elefante Anão (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott (CEA e Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon nlemfuensis (T85 e sua relação com o consumo de forragem e desempenho de vacas em lactação. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 2004/05, em área da Escola Estadual Técnica Celeste Gobbato, em Palmeira das Missões, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas-teste da raça Holandesa, alimentadas exclusivamente com as pastagens, em pastejo contínuo, distribuídas em dois piquetes por tratamento. As densidades de forragem foram mais altas no T85 que no CEA, em função da maior produção de forragem. Os estratos do dossel forrageiro mais acessíveis ao consumo pelos animais (acima de 20 e 10 cm de altura para CEA e T85, respectivamente apresentaram estruturas distintas, mas o consumo de forragem e a produção de leite foram semelhantes entre os tratamentos. A composição química destas camadas foi similar à das respectivas simulações de pastejo em ambas forrageiras, indicando a determinação da composição química nos estratos mais acessíveis ao pastejo como ferramenta útil nas inferências sobre a qualidade da forragem potencialmente consumível. Pastagens tropicais podem proporcionar produções de leite acima de 17 kg vaca-1 dia-1, mesmo sem uso de suplementação.The structure of Dwarf Elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott (DEG and Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon nlemfuensis (T85 pastures and its relation with forage intake and the performance of lactating cows were evaluated. The trial was conducted in the growth season of 2004/05, in an area belonging to the Celeste Gobbato State Technical School, in the city of Palmeira das Missões, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Twelve Holstein cows were used as testers, fed exclusively on pasture under continuous grazing, in two paddocks per treatment. Forage density was higher on T85 than in

  3. Variáveis ruminais, concentração de uréia plasmática e excreções urinárias de nitrogênio em vacas leiteiras alimentadas com concentrado processado de diferentes formas Ruminal metabolism, plasma urea concentration, and urinary excretion of nitrogen of dairy cows fed concentrate processed in different forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Luiz Wernersbach Filho

    2006-06-01

    at 3 h post-feeding on cows fed diets contained extruded concentrate. Plasma urea did not differ across diets while for urinary excretion of nitrogen a significant difference was observed only for the diet containing the partially processed high-energy concentrate.

  4. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  5. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi A. Black

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined on: (1 lying behaviour and activity; (2 feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3 intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14 or pasture ( n = 14 using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d, lying bouts (bouts/d, steps (steps/d and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum, close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum, calving (calving date and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum. Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less

  6. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Randi A; Krawczel, Peter D

    2016-07-13

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14) or pasture ( n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less aggression

  7. Utilization of kura clover-reed canarygrass silage versus alfalfa silage by lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammes, K L; Heemink, G B H; Albrecht, K A; Combs, D K

    2008-08-01

    The mixture of kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) has proven to be extremely persistent in the northern United States, but information about dairy cow performance on this mixture is lacking. Twenty lactating Holstein cows were used in a crossover design to compare dry matter (DM) intake and milk production from diets containing kura clover-reed canarygrass silage (KRS) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage (AS). Forages were cut, wilted, ensiled in horizontal plastic bags, and allowed to ferment for at least 50 d before beginning the feeding experiment. The KRS was approximately 40% kura clover and 60% reed canarygrass. Treatments were total mixed rations formulated with either 57% of total DM from 1) AS or 2) KRS. Experimental periods were 28 d, with the first 14 d for diet adaptation and the last 14 d for measurement of intake and milk production. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations of AS and KRS were 37.3 and 47.3%, respectively. The fermentation analyses indicated that both silages underwent a restricted fermentation, producing primarily lactic acid and some acetic acid. Dry matter intake (24.2 vs. 22.8 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (32.8 vs. 30.9 kg) were significantly higher for cows fed AS than for cows fed KRS. Cows consumed less NDF (6.7 vs. 8.0 kg) and less digestible NDF (3.0 vs. 4.4 kg) when fed AS diets compared with KRS diets, but the pool of ruminally undegraded NDF was similar (3.7 kg) between diets. Cows produced 1.5 kg of milk/kg of DM consumed regardless of the diet, indicating that digestible NDF of KRS was utilized with similar efficiency as the cell wall constituents of AS, but the intake of cows fed KRS may have been limited by rumen fill. Milk fat concentration tended to be higher for cows fed AS, but the milk true protein concentration and yields of fat and protein did not differ by treatment. Milk urea nitrogen content was higher when cows consumed AS (16.4 mg/ d

  8. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis modulate soy bean derived isoflavone biotransformation in diary cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk-Zieba, I; Woclawek-Potocka, I; Piskula, M K; Piotrowska-Tomala, K K; Boruszewska, D; Bah, M M; Siemieniuch, M J; Skarzynski, D J

    2011-12-01

    The present study compared the changes in isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) and their metabolite (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) concentrations in the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis after feeding with soy bean. Sixteen cows were divided into four groups: control for mastitis group, cows with induced mastitis group, control for metritis group, and cows with induced metritis group. All cows were fed a single dose of 2.5 kg of soy bean and then blood samples were taken from the jugular vein for 8 h at predetermined intervals. The concentrations of soy bean-derived isoflavones and their active metabolites were measured in the blood plasma on HPLC system. β-Glucuronidase activity in the blood plasma of cows was measured by fluorometric method. In the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis, we found considerably higher concentrations and time-dependent increase in isoflavone metabolites (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) with reference to cyclic cows (P < 0.05). Moreover, we noticed significant decrease of genistein in the blood plasma of the cows with induced metritis compared with control cows (P < 0.05). In addition, in the blood plasma of the cows with induced metritis, we found an increase in β-glucuronidase activity compared with control cows (P < 0.05). In conclusion, health status of the females influenced the concentrations of isoflavone metabolites in the blood plasma of the cows. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis increased isoflavone absorption, biotransformation and metabolism. Therefore, we suggest that cows with induced mastitis and metritis are more exposed to active isoflavone metabolite actions than healthy cows. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The Psychology of Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Lori Marino; Kristin Allen

    2017-01-01

    Domestic cows (Bos taurus) are consumed worldwide as beef and veal, kept as dairy product producers, employed as draft animals in labor, and are used for a long list of other products, including leather and manure. But despite global reliance on cows for thousands of years, most people’s perception of them is as plodding herd animals with little individual personality and very simple social relationships or preferences. Yet, a review of the scientific literature on cow behavior points to more...

  10. Dissecting the COW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-04-01

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touch-panel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed

  11. Dissecting the COW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-01-01

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touchpanel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed

  12. The economics of feeding concentrate to partially-milked Sanga cows in the dry season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karikari, P.K.; Asare, K.; Okantah, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was carried for 120 days during the dry season of 1998/99, to assess the sustainability of dry season feed supplementation in an emerging peri-urban dairy production system in the Kumasi district of Ghana. Fifty three Sanga cows were divided into four treatment groups T1, T2, T3 and T4, and were fed 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 kg respectively, of a home-made concentrate supplement containing 18% crude protein. The treatment groups contained 12, 14, 12 and 15 cows, respectively. The cows were milked once a day in the mornings and allowed to suckle during the day. Daily partial milk yield was 1.7, 2.1, 2.6 and 2.7 L for cows supplemented with 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 kg concentrate, respectively. Cows fed 1.5 kg concentrate generated the highest net income from milk sales. They produced 53% more milk and 16% more milk revenue than the control cows. Their-daily partial milk yield was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of cows fed 2 kg concentrate supplement, but was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that from other groups. It was found that feeding 2 kg concentrate supplement a day to Sanga cows in the Kumasi district may not be economical even though milk yield may be increased. It is suggested that given the large variability observed in individual cow performance, selection of more productive cows or culling of less productive ones could be used in conjunction with feed supplementation to improve the productivity of Sanga cows in less endowed environments. (author)

  13. Bioavailability of lead in rats fed human diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostial, K.; Kello, D.

    1979-01-01

    The bioavailability of lead was studied in rats fed various baby foods (Babymix-turkey, Babymix-vegetables, Frutolino-fruit, Frutamix-bananas, Babyron-S-26, Truefood), cow's milk, bread, liver and standard rat diet. Lead absorption was determined by measuring the whole body retention of 203 Pb 6 days after a single oral application. Highest absorption values ranging from 17 to 20% were obtained in animals fed cow's milk and fruit foods. Rats on other human diets absorbed between 3 and 8% of the radioactive lead dose. Only in animals on rat diet lead absorption was below 1%. It is concluded that rats fed human diets show absorption values similar to those in humans. This might indicate that the bioavailability of lead is primarily dependent on dietary habits. This experimental model, if confirmed by further work, might be useful for obtaining preliminary data on the bioavailability of metals from various foods

  14. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on the Performance of Lactating Crossbred Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Chavan

    Full Text Available Sixteen multifarious cows were selected on the basis of average daily milk yield and stage of lactation; they were divided into four groups (four cows in each group with parity within each group. These cows were fed 10gm, 15gm and 20gm probiotics just before evening milk. The multi-strain probiotic used were containing four strains consist of bacteria and fungi namely Lactobacillus acidophilus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces boulardii and Propionibacterium frendenreichii. It was found that, the use of probiotics proved to be effective in increasing milk production of lactating cows. Milk fat, milk protein and SNF content tended to be higher in cows supplemented with probiotics preparations. The appropriate level of 20 gm probiotic per day per animal was found effective. The economic advantage of probiotics depends on its relative prices and on the levels of milk production of the cows. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 557-561

  15. The effects of high levels of rumen degradable protein on rumen pH and histamine concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the supplementation of crude protein (CP) results in rumen acidosis and increased histamine concentrations in dairy cows. Six ruminally fistulated, non-pregnant dry cows were fed three experimental rations in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square

  16. Modification of immune responses and digestive system microbiota of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine(R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) fed to Holstein and Jersey dairy cows during late lactation (average DIM = 202.44 days on wk-0). Cows were randomized to treatment g...

  17. Aerobic fungi in the rumen fluid from dairy cattle fed different sources of forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Natalicia Mendes de Almeida

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic microbiota of the rumen fluid from Holstein cows and heifers fed different tropical forage in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 30 samples of rumen fluid from cows fed with sorghum silage were collected: 32 from cows fed Brachiaria brizantha, 12 from heifers that received sorghum silage and 11 from calves fed sugar cane foliage. The culture was carried out using the agar Sabouraud medium and the solid C medium, containing microcrystalline cellulose. The isolated mycelial fungi were identified by microculture technique and yeasts by micromorphological and physical-chemical analysis. Specific identification for yeasts was confirmed by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. The presence of fungal colonies was confirmed on the Sabouraud medium for 100% of the samples. No significant differences were observed comparing the concentrations of mycelia fungi in the rumen fluid from cows fed different forages and for the two categories evaluated, fed sorghum silage. Yeast populations in the rumen fluid from heifers fed sugarcane were higher compared with those receiving sorghum silage. The yeast Pichia kudriavzevii (Candida krusei was the most frequent and among the mycelial fungi, the genus Aspergillus was the most frequently observed, corresponding to 56% of the samples. Future studies should elucidate the variations in the populations of these microorganisms considering the carbohydrate sources in the tropical forages and the animal categories. The ecological or pathogenic role of these microorganisms should also be considered, aiming at improved productivity and health of cattle.

  18. Wheat is more potent than corn or barley for dietary mitigation of enteric methane emissions from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Jacobs, J L; Hannah, M C; Beauchemin, K A; Eckard, R J; Wales, W J

    2017-09-01

    Wheat is the most common concentrate fed to dairy cows in Australia, but few studies have examined the effects of wheat feeding on enteric methane emissions, and no studies have compared the relative potencies of wheat, corn, and barley for their effects on enteric methane production. In this 35-d experiment, 32 Holstein dairy cows were offered 1 of 4 diets: a corn diet (CRN) of 10.0 kg of dry matter (DM)/d of single-rolled corn grain, 1.8 kg of DM/d of canola meal, 0.2 kg of DM/d of minerals, and 11.0 kg of DM/d of chopped alfalfa hay; a wheat diet (WHT) similar to the CRN diet but with the corn replaced by single-rolled wheat; a barley diet (SRB) similar to the CRN diet but with the corn replaced by single-rolled barley; and a barley diet (DRB) similar to the CRN diet but with the corn replaced by double-rolled barley. Individual cow feed intakes, milk yields, and milk compositions were measured daily but reported for the last 5 d of the experiment. During the last 5 d of the experiment, individual cow methane emissions were measured using the SF 6 tracer technique for all cows, and ruminal fluid pH was continuously measured by intraruminal sensors for 3 cows in each treatment group. The average DM intake of cows offered the CRN, WHT, SRB, and DRB diets was 22.2, 21.1, 22.6, and 22.6 kg/d. The mean energy-corrected milk of cows fed the WHT diet was less than that of cows fed the other diets. This occurred because the milk fat percentage of cows fed the WHT diet was significantly less than that of cows fed the other diets. The mean methane emissions and methane yields of cows fed the WHT diet were also significantly less than those of cows fed the other diets. Indeed, the CRN, SRB, and DRB diets were associated with 49, 73, and 78% greater methane emissions, respectively, compared with the emissions from the WHT diet. Methane yield was found to be most strongly related to the minimum daily ruminal fluid pH. This study showed that although the inclusion of wheat in

  19. The Psychology of Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Marino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestic cows (Bos taurus are consumed worldwide as beef and veal, kept as dairy product producers, employed as draft animals in labor, and are used for a long list of other products, including leather and manure. But despite global reliance on cows for thousands of years, most people’s perception of them is as plodding herd animals with little individual personality and very simple social relationships or preferences. Yet, a review of the scientific literature on cow behavior points to more complex cognitive, emotional and social characteristics. Moreover, when cow behavior is addressed, it is almost entirely done within the framework of and applied to their use as food commodities. Therefore, there is relatively little attention to the study of cow intelligence, personality and sociality at a basic comparative level. In this review, we examine the current state of scientific knowledge about cows within an objective comparative framework, describing their cognitive, emotional, and social characteristics. Our aim is to provide a more veridical and objective current summary of cow psychology on its own terms and in ways which will facilitate better-informed comparisons with other animals. Moreover, an understanding of the capabilities and characteristics of domestic cows will, it is hoped, advance our understanding of who they are as individuals.

  20. Perfil de ácidos graxos do leite de vacas alimentadas com óleo de soja e monensina no início da lactação Milk fatty acid profile of cows fed monensin and soybean oil in early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Costa Eifert

    2006-02-01

    assigned to a completely randomized block design in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (presence or absence of monensin and soybean oil. The following diets were used: control not supplemented with monensin or soybean oil (CT, 33 ppm of monensin (MN, 3.9% of soybean oil (OL or a combination of soybean oil plus monensin (OM. Cows were confined and fed diets with 52% of corn silage and 48% of concentrate. No significant interaction between soybean oil and monensin was observed for any measured FA. Monensin increased unsaturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated FA by 9.0, 8.8 and 10.7%, respectively, while supplementation with soybean oil resulted in greater responses: 39.2, 39.3, and 24.2% for the same FA. Soybean oil also reduced short chain FA (43.7% and medium chain FA (49.1% and increased long chain FA (55.3% in this study. The isomers trans-C18:1 were increased by inclusion of oil and monensin in the diet indicating an additive effect for trans-10 C18:1 that was negatively correlated with milk fat content. The CLA isomer cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 was not affected by treatments but soybean oil reduced delta9-desaturase activity. There were interactions between treatment and week of lactation for short and medium chain FA, C14:0, C16:0, cis-9 C18:1 and trans-10. The combination of monensin and soybean oil in diet of lactating dairy cows was responsible for the most significant changes observed in the profile of milk FA.

  1. Supplemental protein and energy for beef cows consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcherio, J C; Catlett, G E; Paterson, J A; Kerley, M S; Ellersieck, M R

    1995-11-01

    Effects of energy and protein supplementation of endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum)-infected (E+) and noninfected (E-) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) on forage intake, digestibility, N flow to the small intestine, and cow-calf productivity was evaluated in two experiments. In Exp. 1, 10 ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers were fed either E- or E+ hay with four supplements or E- or E+ hay unsupplemented. Four supplements formulated with either cracked corn or soybean hulls with 100 or 200 g/d of ruminally undegraded intake protein (UIP) were compared. Levels of UIP were varied by adding soybean meal or blood meal. Hay OM intake was not affected (P > .20) by source of energy of level of UIP; however, intake of E- was greater (P .20) microbial efficiencies. In Exp. 2, 30 cows (average initial BW 459 +/- 26 kg) and their calves (average initial BW 74 +/- 5 kg and 74 +/- 5 d of age) grazed an 8.1-ha E+ pasture from late May to late July. Cows were individually fed supplements used in Exp. 1 each day. Cows that received cracked corn lost .10 kg/d when fed 100 g/d of UIP but gained .33 kg/d when fed 200 g/d. Cows fed soybean hulls and 100 g/d of UIP gained .07 kg/d, whereas cows provided 200 g/d lost .10 kg/d. Calves nursing cows supplemented with 100 g/d of UIP gained more (P milk consumption and slightly greater (P forage intake than calves nursing cows supplemented with 200 g/d of UIP.

  2. Síntese de proteína microbiana e concentrações de uréia em vacas alimentadas com diferentes fontes de proteína Estimation of microbial protein synthesis and urea nitrogen metabolism in lactating dairy cows fed diets supplemented with different protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas dos Santos Pina

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 12 vacas Holandesas puras e mestiças, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 x 4, organizados de acordo com os dias em lactação, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes protéicas sobre a síntese, a eficiência de síntese de proteína microbiana, a concentração de nitrogênio uréico no soro (NUS e no leite (NUL, a concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal e o pH ruminal. Utilizou-se silagem de milho como volumoso, na proporção de 60% da MS total. Os concentrados foram constituídos de diferentes fontes protéicas (FS - farelo de soja; FA38 - farelo de algodão 38%PB; FA28 - farelo de algodão 28%PB e FSU - farelo de soja + 5% de uréia/sulfato de amônia na MS do concentrado. As coletas spot de urina e de sangue foram realizadas no 18º dia do período experimental 4 horas após o fornecimento da alimentação aos animais, no período da manhã. Não foram observadas diferenças entre as dietas para o volume urinário (V, a excreção total de derivados de purinas (PT, a síntese e a eficiência de síntese de PB microbiana, expressa em g de PB/kg de NDT consumido. As concentrações de NUS e NUL também não diferiram entre as dietas. As concentrações de NUS e NUL e a síntese de PB microbiana não foram influenciadas pelas diferentes fontes de proteína dietéticas, inclusive com a adição de uréia (5% MS do concentrado.Twelve Holstein lactating dairy cows were blocked by days in milk and randomly assigned to three replicated 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate the effect of different protein sources on efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, concentration of serum (NUS and milk (MUN urea nitrogen, and ruminal metabolism. A basal corn silage diet (60% of the total dry matter was fed plus one of the following proteins sources (DM basis: soybean meal (SBM, cottonseed meal with 38% of crude protein (CSM38, cottonseed meal with 28% of crude protein (CSM28, or soybean meal plus 5% of urea

  3. Nitrogen partitioning and milk production of dairy cows grazing simple and diverse pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totty, V K; Greenwood, S L; Bryant, R H; Edwards, G R

    2013-01-01

    Research was conducted to examine the effects of a diverse pasture mix on dry matter intake, milk yield, and N partitioning of lactating dairy cows. A pasture containing only ryegrass and white clover (RG), or high-sugar ryegrass and white clover (HS), was compared with a diverse pasture mix (HSD) including chicory, plantain, lotus, high-sugar ryegrass, and white clover. The experiment was conducted over a 10-d period using 3 groups of 12 cows in late lactation. No difference was observed in dry matter (14.3 kg of dry matter/cow per day) or N (583 g of N/cow per day) intake between treatments. The cows grazing the HSD pasture had an increased milk yield (16.9 kg/d) compared with those grazing the simple RG and HS pastures (15.2 and 14.7 kg/d, respectively). However, no differences were observed in milk solids yield for the 3 treatments. A tendency toward greater milk protein yields in the HSD group resulted in improved N use efficiency for milk of 20.4% from the cows fed HSD, compared with 17.8 and 16.7% from cows in the RG and HS treatments, respectively. Urinary N excretion was lower from the cows fed HSD, at 353.8 g/d, compared with 438.3 and 426.6 g/d for cows fed RG and HS, respectively. These results suggest that the use of pastures containing chicory, lotus, and plantain can contribute to the goal of reducing N losses from cows in late lactation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reproductive performance and nutritional status of Holstein cows in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirelles, C.F.; Vitti, D.M.S.S.; Abdalla, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Reproductive performance and nutritional status were assessed in Holstein cows from two dairy herds in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In the first herd (good management, G), concentrate was fed individually to cows, complete records were kept, veterinary services were provided as necessary and the standard of husbandry practices was good. In the second herd (fair management, F), veterinary services were used only occasionally, the concentrate fed was divided equally among lactating cows and the standard of husbandry practices was only fair. Haemoglobin, haematocrit, glucose, total protein and phosphorus were measured in blood collected at various times after calving. There were no statistical differences between the blood parameters in the two herds except for inorganic phosphorus which differed significantly between farms (P < 0.01). Only plasma glucose had a significant (P < 0.01) effect on the time required by the animals to initiate post-partum ovarian activity. The proportion of cows ovulating by day 60 was 75% in herd G versus 53% in herd F (P < 0.01); by day 100 the values were 82% in herd G and 70% in herd F (P < 0.01). Calving intervals were 12.7 and 13.2 months for herds G and F respectively, suggesting comparable reproductive efficiency. However, only 1 of the 28 cows in herd G was open more than 365 days after calving, as opposed to 5 of the 30 cows in herd F. When a value of 365 open days was given for these non-pregnant cows, the average days open for the herds were then 123 and 154 days for herds G and F respectively, indicating a decided production advantage in favour of the better managed herd. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Impaired specific immunoreactivity in cows with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentink, G H; Rutten, V P; van den Ingh, T S; Hoek, A; Müller, K E; Wensing, T

    1997-05-01

    In this study, hepatic lipidosis in cows was experimentally induced by offering an energy surplus during the dry period. Liver triacylglycerol (TAG) was 16% in the experimental group. In the control group fed the same diet in restricted quantities, liver TAG was about 7%. The animals of both groups were vaccinated with tetanus vaccine at Day 3 after parturition. It was demonstrated that the cows with high liver TAG percentages had lower humoral and cellular (P hepatic lipidosis may be due to impaired immunoreactivity.

  6. 全混合日粮饲喂泌乳奶牛群摄入养分偏离的原因分析及对生产性能的影响%Deviation of Nutrient Intake of Lactating Cow Herds Fed Total Mixed Ration:Reason Analysis and Effects on Production Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继伟; 林雪彦; 王云; 胡志勇; 刘桂梅; 吴志强; 王中华

    2016-01-01

    本试验旨在研究全混合日粮( TMR)饲喂泌乳奶牛群摄入养分偏离的原因分析及对生产性能的影响。选取30个高产牛群,每个牛群采样5 d。采取牛群TMR及剩料样品,进行养分分析和颗粒分级评定,计算各指标的变异系数。记录产奶量,取奶样测乳成分。多元线性回归分析养分、颗粒的变异系数与牛群生产性能的关系。结果表明:30个牛群饲喂的TMR产奶净能(NEL)和粗蛋白质(CP)、中性洗涤纤维(NDF)、酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)、微生物蛋白质(MCP)、瘤胃非降解蛋白质( RUP)、瘤胃能氮平衡( RENB)、小肠可消化粗蛋白质( DCPSI)、钙( Ca)含量分别为6.56 MJ/kg 和16.22%、35.71%、21.38%、77.84 g/kg、92.15 g/kg、14.77 g/kg、104.04 g/kg、1.43%,其中高于配方目标的指标有NDF(1.94%)、Ca(0.57%)、RUP(5.03 g/kg)、RENB (6.95 g/kg ),低于配方目标的指标有 CP (-0.36%)、ADF (-1.54%)、NEL (-0.12 MJ/kg)、MCP(-7.71 g/kg)、DCPSI(-2.12 g/kg)(正值表示提高,负值表示降低)。观测期内,RUP[(16.26±7.10)%]、MCP[(22.78±13.38)%]、RENB[(64.29±34.29)%]3种养分的变异系数大于10%,其他养分的变异系数均小于10%。长、中、短、细4类颗粒含量的变异系数分别为(15.78±9.25)%、(9.12±7.86)%、(6.00±4.00)%、(11.15±9.62)%。回归分析表明, TMR养分和颗粒度变异影响产奶量和乳成分,NEL 变异系数每升高1个百分点,产奶量下降3.662 kg/d;长颗粒变异系数每升高1个百分点,产奶量下降0.124 kg/d,乳脂率升高0.012%。结果提示,TMR饲喂泌乳奶牛摄入养分因投料不准确、加工质量不稳定、搅拌不均匀、挑食等与配方养分产生差异。 TMR加工质量稳定性影响到产奶量和乳成分,其中NEL、DCPSI、RENB的变异影响产奶量,长颗粒变异影响产奶量和乳脂率。%This experiment analyzed the reason for deviation of nutrient intake of lactating cow herds fed total mixed ration ( TMR) and the effects on

  7. Does the diurnal pattern of enteric methane emissions from dairy cows change over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M J; Craigon, J; Saunders, N; Goodman, J R; Garnsworthy, P C

    2018-02-22

    Diet manipulation and genetic selection are two important mitigation strategies for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant livestock. The aim of this study was to assess whether the diurnal pattern of CH4 emissions from individual dairy cows changes over time when cows are fed on diets varying in forage composition. Emissions of CH4 from 36 cows were measured during milking in an automatic (robotic) milking station in three consecutive feeding periods, for a total of 84 days. In Periods 1 and 2, the 36 cows were fed a high-forage partial mixed ration (PMR) containing 75% forage, with either a high grass silage or high maize silage content. In Period 3, cows were fed a commercial PMR containing 69% forage. Cows were offered PMR ad libitum plus concentrates during milking and CH4 emitted by individual cows was sampled during 8662 milkings. A linear mixed model was used to assess differences among cows, feeding periods and time of day. Considerable variation was observed among cows in daily mean and diurnal patterns of CH4 emissions. On average, cows produced less CH4 when fed on the commercial PMR in feeding Period 3 than when the same cows were fed on high-forage diets in feeding Periods 1 and 2. The average diurnal pattern for CH4 emissions did not significantly change between feeding periods and as lactation progressed. Emissions of CH4 were positively associated with dry matter (DM) intake and forage DM intake. It is concluded that if the management of feed allocation remains constant then the diurnal pattern of CH4 emissions from dairy cows will not necessarily alter over time. A change in diet composition may bring about an increase or decrease in absolute emissions over a 24-h period without significantly changing the diurnal pattern unless management of feed allocation changes. These findings are important for CH4 monitoring techniques that involve taking measurements over short periods within a day rather than complete 24-h observations.

  8. THE UTILIZATION OF THE COMPLETE RUMEN MODIFIER ON DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thalib

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the use of Complete Rumen Modifier (CRM to improve dairy cow productivity and to mitigate enteric methane production has been conducted. Sixteen lactating dairy cows were distributed into 4 groups by using compelete randomized design (CRD. Group I (Control fed by basal diet consisted of elephant grass and concentrate 7.5 kg/hd/dy (CP 16% and TDN 70%, Group II (Pro. Woodii fed by basal diet + probiotic Woodii, Group III (Pro.Noterae fed by basal diet + probiotic Noterae; Group IV (CRM-Noterae fed by basal diet + CRM + Pro.Noterae. Measurements were conducted on body weight gain, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, milk and methane production. Results showed that CRM-Noterae increased ADG by 72% (1.29 vs 0.75 kg and improved FCR (9.2 vs 15.6. Probiotic noterae as single treatment or combined with CRM increased fat and total solid content of milk from 3.18% and 10.58% in control group to become 3.91%; 11.31% and 3.55%; 11.02%, respectively. The lowest methane production was recorded in Group IV. The combination of CRM and Noterae reduced percentage of methane production by 14%. It is concluded that combination of CRM and Noterae can improve dairy cow performance and decrease methane production. Probiotic Noterae improved milk quality.

  9. Feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulates rumen fermentation patterns and increases milk fat content in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Bertoni, G; Dunn, S M; Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of the present in vivo and in situ trials were to evaluate whether feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (LA) would affect rumen fermentation patterns, in situ dry matter (DM) degradation kinetics, and milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. The in vivo trial involved 8 rumen-fistulated Holstein cows fed once daily a total mixed ration containing rolled barley grain (27% in DM) steeped for 48 h in an equal quantity of tap water (CTR) or in 0.5% LA (TRT) in a 2 x 2 crossover design. The in situ trials consisted of incubation of untreated rolled barley grain in cows fed CTR or TRT diets and of incubation of 3 different substrates including CTR or barley grain steeped in 0.5% or 1.0% LA (TRT1 and TRT2, respectively) up to 72 h in the rumen. Results of the in vivo trial indicated that cows fed the TRT diet had greater rumen pH during most intensive fermentation phases at 10 and 12 h post-feeding. The latter effect was associated with a shorter duration in which rumen pH was below 5.8 for cows fed the TRT diet (2.4 h) compared with CTR diet (3.9 h). Furthermore, cows fed the TRT diet had lower concentrations of volatile fatty acids at 2 and 4 h post-feeding. In addition, concentrations of preprandial volatile fatty acids were lower in the rumen fluid of cows fed the TRT diet. Results also showed that molar proportion of acetate was lower, whereas propionate tended to increase by feeding cows the TRT diet. Cows fed the TRT diet demonstrated greater rumen in situ lag time of substrate DM degradation and a tendency to lower the fractional degradation rate. Other in situ results indicated a quadratic effect of LA on the effective rumen degradability of substrates whereby the latter variable was decreased from CTR to TRT1 but increased for TRT2 substrate. Although the diet did not affect actual milk yield, fat-corrected milk, percentages of milk protein, and lactose and concentration of milk urea nitrogen, cows fed the TRT diet increased

  10. Lactation performance and serum biochemistry of dairy cows fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum biochemistry concentrations (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and cortisol and insulin concentration) and blood hematology (red blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and percentage neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophiles, eosinophils and ratio of neutrophils to ...

  11. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly; Loor, Juan J; Garnsworthy, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were used in two different 3 × 3 Latin square experiments that included three periods of 21 d. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (500 g/d per cow) or HPO (500 g/d per cow). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (170 g/d per cow) or HPO (170 g/d per cow). Compared with the control and SO diet, HPO addition increased (p lipoprotein (HDL). Total saturated FA were increased (p lipoprotein (VLDL). In non-lactating cows, the concentration of C18:0 was increased (p lipoprotein. Overall, it was found that distribution and transport of FA within the bovine plasma lipoproteins may be influenced by chain length and degree of unsaturation of dietary lipids. Also, the distribution of individual FA isomers such as C18:1trans-11 and C18:2cis-9,trans-11 may vary depending on the physiological state of the cow (lactating or non-lactating), and are increased in plasma (lactating cows) and the HDL (non-lactating cows) when cows are fed SO.

  12. Mad Cow Disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mad Cow Disease, or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is one of ... humoral immunity is developed against such infections. ... Most infecti ve agents, ranging from the more complex protozoans to bacteri(! and viruses, contain nucleic.

  13. Effect of pasture botanical composition on milk composition in organic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S.; Dahl, A.V.; Vae, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Milk samples from sixteen Norwegian Red dairy cows grazing mixed swards of either grass-red clover (GR) or mixed swards of sown and unsown species of grass, clover and other herbs (GCH) were collected during four periods. Both pastures were organically managed. Pasture botanical composition had...

  14. Effects of supplementing methionine hydroxy analog on beef cow performance, milk production, reproduction, and preweaning calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, A R; Ireland, F A; Freitas, T; Tucker, H; Shike, D W

    2017-12-01

    Mature Simmental × Angus cows (214 cows; 635 ± 7 kg) were utilized to determine the effects of late gestation and early postpartum supplementation of methionine hydroxy analog (MHA) on cow BW, BCS, milk production, milk composition, reproduction, and calf performance until weaning in a fall-calving, cool-season grazing system. Cows were stratified by BW, age, AI sire, and assigned to 1 of 12 pastures (17 or 18 cows·pasture). Pastures were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: control (0.45 kg·cow·d of wheat midd-based pellets, = 6) or supplement including MHA (0.45 kg·cow·d of wheat midd-based pellets including 10 g MHA supplied as MFP (Novus International, Inc., St. Charles, MO; = 6). Treatments were fed 23 ± 7 d prepartum through 73 ± 7 d postpartum. Cow BW was collected at postcalving (27 ± 7 d postpartum), end of supplementation (73 ± 7 d postpartum), AI, pregnancy check, and end of trial (192 and 193 ± 7 d postpartum). At 73 ± 7 d postpartum, a subset of cow-calf pairs was used in a weigh-suckle-weigh procedure to determine milk production, and milk samples were taken to determine milk composition ( = 45·treatment). Serum from blood was collected at 73 ± 7 and 83 ± 7 d postpartum to determine cow cyclicity and concentrations of 2-hydroxy4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBa) and L-Methionine. After supplementation, all cow-calf pairs were managed as a common group until weaning (193 ± 7 d of age). Cows were bred via AI at 97 ± 7 d postpartum and clean-up bulls were turned out 11 d post-AI for a 55-d breeding season. Cows fed MHA had greater ( Cow BW and BCS were not different ( ≥ 0.10) at any time points between treatments. There was no treatment effect ( ≥ 0.17) on calf birth BW, calf weaning BW (193 ± 7 d of age), or calf ADG. Calculated 24-h milk production, milk composition and component production did not differ ( ≥ 0.21). There were no differences ( ≥ 0.50) in percentage of cows cycling, AI conception rate, and overall

  15. Feeding a higher forage diet prepartum decreases incidences of subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, L A; Weary, D M; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2013-02-01

    A common feeding practice during the dry period is to switch dairy cows to an energy-dense diet 3 wk prepartum, but this practice may lead to the overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of metabolic disease postpartum. The aim of this trial was to compare the metabolic status of transition Holstein dairy cows fed a 77% forage diet (77F; NEl = 1.46 Mcal/kg; NDF = 41%) vs. those fed an 87% forage diet (87F; NEl = 1.41 Mcal/kg; 48% NDF). Approximately 60 d before calving, cows were dried off, housed in a free stall barn, and fed the 87F diet. Three weeks before expected calving, cows were randomly assigned to either the 77F treatment and switched to this diet (n = 45) or assigned to the 87F treatment and stayed on the dry cow ration until parturition (n = 42). After parturition, all cows were fed a common lactation diet (NEl = 1.59 Mcal/kg; 36% NDF). Dry matter intake was measured daily from 2 wk before to 2 wk after calving. Blood was sampled daily for 10 d postpartum. Subclinical ketosis was diagnosed using a threshold of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) ≥ 1.0 mmol/L after calving. The percentage of cows pregnant and odds of being pregnant for each treatment group were determined at 60, 90, and 120 d in milk through ultrasound by the herd veterinarian. Cows on the 87F diet consumed less DM prepartum than those on the 77F diet (12.7 ± 0.3 kg/d vs. 15.4 ± 0.3 kg/d, P ketosis (SCK; 49% vs. 17%; P = 0.001). Milk production tended to be less for cows fed the 87F diet prepartum (47.3 ± 0.4 kg/d vs. 48.8 ± 0.4 kg/d; P = 0.10) for the first 22 wk of lactation, which was significant for d 7 to 28 of lactation (44.6 ± 1.1 kg/d vs. 47.6 ± 1.0 kg/d; P = 0.05). Although sample size was small to draw strong conclusions on reproductive performance, at 120 d in milk, cows on the 87F diet were 0.3 times more likely to be pregnant (P = 0.03). These results indicate that feeding an 87F diet before calving can reduce rates of SCK in transition dairy cows.

  16. Barium selenate supplementation and its effect on intramammary infection in pasture-based dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, A; Kruze, J; Barkema, H W; Dohoo, I R; Sanchez, J; Uribe, D; Wichtel, J J; Wittwer, F

    2010-04-01

    A significant proportion of cattle receive inadequate dietary Se because of its low content in soils and pastures of various regions of the world. Several economically important diseases in dairy cows, such as mastitis, have been associated with Se deficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single injection of a long-acting form of Se at drying off on the risk and incidence rate of new intramammary infections and on milk somatic cell count in the subsequent lactation in pasture-based dairy cows. Forty-nine Chilean Holstein-Friesian cows were fed a diet containing pasture-based dairy cows did not affect udder health in the subsequent lactation, indicating that Se basal intake was adequate for preventing subclinical mastitis in pasture-based cows in southern Chile. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of moderate dietary restriction on visceral organ weight, hepatic oxygen consumption, and metabolic proteins associated with energy balance in mature pregnant beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, K M; Awda, B J; Fitzsimmons, C; Miller, S P; McBride, B W; Swanson, K C

    2013-09-01

    Twenty-two nonlactating multiparous pregnant beef cows (639 ± 68 kg) were used to investigate the effect of dietary restriction on the abundance of selected proteins regulating cellular energy metabolism. Cows were fed at either 85% (n = 11; LOW) or 140% (n = 11; HIGH) of total NE requirements. The diet consisted of a haylage-based total mixed ration containing 20% wheat straw. Cows were slaughtered by block (predicted date of parturition), beginning 83 d after the initiation of dietary treatments and every week thereafter for 6 wk, such that each block was slaughtered at approximately 250 d of gestation. Tissue samples from liver, kidney, sternomandibularis muscle, ruminal papilli (ventral sac), pancreas, and small intestinal muscosa were collected at slaughter and snap frozen in liquid N2. Western blots were conducted to quantify abundance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), ATP synthase, ubiquitin, and Na/K+ ATPase for all tissues; PPARγ, PPARγ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α), and 5´-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the activated form phosphorylated-AMPK (pAMPK) for liver, muscle, and rumen; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for liver and kidney; and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) for liver. Statistical analysis was conducted using Proc Mixed in SAS and included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, cow age, block, and the random effect of pen. Dietary treatments resulted in cows fed HIGH having greater (P ≤ 0.04) ADG and final BW than cows fed LOW. Abundance of ubiquitin in muscle was greater (P = 0.009) in cows fed LOW, and PCG-1 α in liver was greater (P = 0.03) in cows fed HIGH. Hepatic O2 consumption was greater in HIGH (P ≤ 0.04). Feed intake can influence the abundance of important metabolic proteins and suggest that protein degradation may increase in muscle from moderately nutrient restricted cows and that energy metabolism in liver increases in cows fed above NE requirements.

  18. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and neutral detergent fiber source on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, S M; Akins, M S; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of corn-based dietary starch content and source of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on lactation performance, nutrient digestion, bacterial protein flow, and ruminal parameters in lactating dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 193±11d in milk were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatment diets were high corn grain (HCG; 38% corn silage, 19% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), high soy hulls (HSH; 38% corn silage, 11% dry ground corn, and 13% soy hulls), high corn silage (HCS; 50% corn silage, 6% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), and low corn silage (LCS; 29% corn silage, 15% corn, and 19% soy hulls). The HCG, HSH, HCS, and LCS diets contained 29, 23, 24, and 22% starch; 27, 32, 30, and 32% total NDF; and 21, 21, 25, and 17% forage NDF (dry matter basis), respectively. Mean dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by treatment. Cows fed LCS had reduced milk fat content compared with HSH and HCS. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed HCS compared with the other treatments. Total-tract digestion of NDF was reduced for cows fed the HCG diet. Total-tract starch digestion was increased for cows fed the HSH and HCS compared with HCG and LCS diets. Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal ammonia concentration was reduced in cows fed the HCG and LCS diets compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal propionate increased and the acetate:propionate ratio decreased in cows fed the LCS diet compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal pH was greater for cows fed the HCS diet compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Diet digestibility and performance of mid- to late-lactation cows fed reduced-starch diets by partially replacing corn grain with soy hulls or corn silage was similar to or improved compared with cows fed a normal-starch diet. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  19. Influence of feeding supplements of almond hulls and ensiled citrus pulp on the milk production, milk composition, and methane emissions of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S R O; Chaves, A V; Deighton, M H; Jacobs, J L; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Morris, G L; Wales, W J; Moate, P J

    2018-03-01

    Almond hulls and citrus pulp have been fed to dairy cows with variable responses for milk production, but no information exists on their effect on enteric methane emissions. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either almond hulls or ensiled citrus pulp on the milk yield, milk composition, and enteric methane emissions of dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in mid lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets over a 28-d experiment. Twelve cows received a control (CON) diet, 10 cows a diet containing almond hulls (ALH), and 10 cows a diet containing ensiled citrus pulp (CIT). All cows were offered 6.0 kg of dry matter (DM)/d of crushed corn, 2.0 kg of DM/d of cold-pressed canola, and 0.2 kg of DM/d of a mineral mix. In addition, cows fed the CON diet were offered 14.5 kg of DM/d of alfalfa cubes; cows fed the ALH diet were offered 10.5 kg of DM/d of alfalfa cubes and 4.0 kg of DM/d of almond hulls; and cows on the CIT diet were offered 11.5 kg of DM/d of alfalfa cubes and 3.0 kg of DM/d of ensiled citrus pulp. Milk yield was measured daily and milk composition was measured on 4 d of each week. Individual cow methane emissions were measured by a sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique on d 24 to 28 of the experiment. The mean milk yield of cows fed the CON diet (27.4 kg/d) was greater than the mean milk yield of cows fed the ALH diet (24.6 kg/cow per day), whereas the mean milk yield of cows fed the CIT diet (26.2 kg/cow per day) was not different from the mean milk yield from cows fed the other 2 diets. Dietary treatment did not influence the concentrations of milk fat, protein, and lactose or fat yields, but the mean protein yield from cows fed the CON diet (0.87 kg/d) was greater than that from cows fed the ALH diet (0.78 kg/d) but not different to those fed the CIT diet (0.85 kg/d). In general, we found no differences in the proportion of individual fatty acids in milk. The mean pH of ruminal fluid from cows offered the CON diet was not

  20. Metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate to lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Three lactating Holstein cows implanted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used to investigate alcohol metabolism and metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate. Cows were fed three diets control (basal ration......; C), propanol (C plus 50 g propanol/kg DM; P), and propylacetate (C plus 50 g propanol/kg DM and 15 g propylacetate/kg DM; PPA) in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14 d period. Daily rations were fed in three equally sized portions at 8 hour intervals and 8 hourly sets of ruminal fluid, arterial...

  1. Cellular composition and expression of potential stem cell markers in mammary tissue of cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period and early lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the impact of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late pregnancy on parameters of mammary development in Holstein cows. Cows (N = 16) were fed 10% of their ration as tall fescue seed that was free from (CON) or infected with endophyte (INF) from 90d before expected calving until ...

  2. Effect of pregnancy and feeding level on cell turnover and expression of related genes in the mammary tissue of lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J V; Sørensen, M T; Theil, P K

    2008-01-01

    Milk yield is reduced by pregnancy, and the present experiment was conducted to study the biological basis for the negative effect of pregnancy on milk yield. A total of 16 dairy cows were fed at either a normal or a low feeding level (eight cows per treatment), and half of them were inseminated ...

  3. [Allergic colitis in exclusively breast-fed infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Salinas, C; Blasco Alonso, J; Olivares Sánchez, L; Barco Gálvez, A; del Río Mapelli, L

    2006-02-01

    Eosinophilic colitis is induced by antigens present in cow's milk proteins in formula or human milk. In the last few years, an increasing number of cases have been diagnosed in exclusively breast-fed infants. We performed a retrospective study of 13 infants diagnosed with allergic colitis in our unit between January 1997 and January 2004. All the infants had been exclusively breast-fed. In all patients, initial symptoms were digestive (12 with mucus and bloody stools). Onset of symptoms occurred at 0-3 months in 77 %. Laboratory data of the allergic compound were negative. The main locations were the descending and sigmoid colon (75 %). Biopsy demonstrated acute inflammation, with neutrophil infiltration and an increase in eosinophils. In all patients, initial treatment consisted of exclusion of cow's milk proteins from the mother's diet. Ten of the 13 patients showed no improvement, requiring exclusive administration of protein-free hydrolyzate. In 3 infants, breastfeeding was maintained (breastfeeding without cow's milk proteins plus hydrolyzate). Diagnosis of eosinophilic colitis is based on exclusion of other causes of specific colitis and typical endoscopic and ultrastructural findings. Moreover, a satisfactory response to dietary treatment must be demonstrated. This diagnosis should be considered in breast-fed infants with rectal bleeding without involvement of general health status.

  4. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cow's milk allergy is more common in children than in adults. CaSSim ... adverse reactions to cow's milk protein such as lactose intolerance. .... possible hormonal effects on the reproductive ... formula in humans – such studies are much.

  5. Effects of rumen-protected choline supplementation on metabolic and performance responses of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare metabolic and milk production parameters in dairy cows supplemented and nonsupplemented with rumen-protected choline (RPC) during the transition period. Twenty-three nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein cows were ranked by BW and BCS 21 d before expected date of calving and immediately were assigned to receive (n = 12) or not receive (control; n = 11) RPC until 45 d in milk (DIM). Cows supplemented with RPC received (as-fed basis) 50 and 100 g/d of RPC (18.8% choline) before and after calving, respectively. Before calving, cows were maintained in 2 drylot pens according to treatment with ad libitum access to corn silage, and individually they received (as-fed basis) 3 kg/cow daily of a concentrate. Upon calving, cows were moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens according to treatment, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35 kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after milking. The RPC was individually offered to cows as a topdressing into the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly, and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -21 relative to expected calving date. Upon calving and until 45 DIM, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once a week and analyzed for fat, protein, and total solids. Blood samples were collected every other day from 0 to 20 DIM and every 5 d from 20 to 45 DIM. Based on actual calving dates, cows receiving RPC or control began receiving treatments 16.8 ± 1.7 and 17.3 ± 2.0 d before calving, respectively. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.18) on postpartum concentrate intake, BW and BCS, or serum concentrations of cortisol, β-hydroxybutyrate, NEFA, glucose, and IGF-I. Cows supplemented with RPC had greater (P ≤ 0.01) mean serum haptoglobin and insulin concentrations

  6. Efeito da combinação de óleo de soja e monensina na dieta sobre o consumo de matéria seca e a digestão em vacas lactantes Effect of monensin and soybean oil combination on dry matter intake and digestibility in diets fed to lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Costa Eifert

    2005-02-01

    digestibilidade da FDN ou pelo incremento energético, não justifica a redução no consumo de matéria seca nas dietas com óleo, indicando que fatores metabólicos podem estar envolvidos.Four rumen fistulated lactating dairy cows were assigned to a Latin Square (4x4, with 21 days of experimental period, being the last three days for evaluation, to evaluate the effects of the combination of soybean oil and monensin in lactating dairy cow diets on dry matter intake, total and partial digestibility of the nutrients and ruminal fermentation and microbial synthesis. The animals were assigned to a factorial arrangement (2x2: presence (4% in total DM or absence of soybean oil and presence (33 ppm or monensin absence and were fed diets with 55% corn silage and 45% concentrate. For evaluation of the total and partial digestibility, feces samples and omasal digesta were collected, using ADFi and Cr2O3 as markers. The oil presence reduced dry matter intake, but allowed similar TND intake. The total digestibility of nutrients was not affected by treatments. The NDF ruminal digestibility was similar in the oil presence and in the monensin presence, but it was reduced in the combination of the two. The pH, the efficiency of microbial synthesis and the total of VFA of the rumen liquor were similar among the treatments. Interaction was observed between oil and monensin for N-NH3 concentration, being verified smaller value for the diets with oil only. The proportion of acetate was reduced either in the oil presence or in the monensin presence, but in different magnitudes, as well as in the combination of the two. The propionic acid concentration increased with monensin and with oil, and butyric acid decreased with oil. Acetate:propionate ratio was reduced either in the oil presence or in the monensin presence. The synthesis of microbial protein was reduced in the oil presence and still more when oil was associated to monensin. The soybean oil and monensin combination act about the same

  7. Effect of corn silage hybrids differing in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and total-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies investigating the excretion of acetyl urea in the milk of dairy cows receiving oral doses of 14C acetyl urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, H.; Kijora, C.; Goersch, R.

    1976-01-01

    2 experimental cows were fed acetyl urea several weeks before the trial was started. The first cow received a daily amount of 200 g and the second cow 855 g. On the first day of experiment both cows were given 5 mCi of 14 C acetyl urea intraruminally. Up to 6 hrs after the beginning of the experiment acetyl urea in blood plasma was shown to contain a higher proportion of 14 C activity than urea. 0.21 g urea and 0.18 g acetyl urea were contained in 1 kg of milk from cow No 1 while 1 kg of milk from cow No 2 contained 0.18 g urea and 0.12 g acetyl urea. The feeding of acetyl urea to dairy cows is not recommended on the basis of the fact that any further contamination of human nutrition with foreign substances should be possibly avoided. (author)

  9. Studies investigating the excretion of acetyl urea in the milk of dairy cows receiving oral doses of /sup 14/C acetyl urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergner, H; Kijora, C; Goersch, R [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin

    1976-01-01

    2 experimental cows were fed acetyl urea several weeks before the trial was started. The first cow received a daily amount of 200 g and the second cow 855 g. On the first day of experiment both cows were given 5 mCi of /sup 14/C acetyl urea intraruminally. Up to 6 hrs after the beginning of the experiment acetyl urea in blood plasma was shown to contain a higher proportion of /sup 14/C activity than urea. 0.21 g urea and 0.18 g acetyl urea were contained in 1 kg of milk from cow No 1 while 1 kg of milk from cow No 2 contained 0.18 g urea and 0.12 g acetyl urea. The feeding of acetyl urea to dairy cows is not recommended on the basis of the fact that any further contamination of human nutrition with foreign substances should be possibly avoided.

  10. Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Wilhelm

    2016-01-15

    The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high-input/high-output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate-based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture-based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high-yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter-weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year-round indoor feeding of high-yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human-edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed...... by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. Advanced diagnostic testing using epitope and microarray technology may in the future improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMPA by determination of specific IgE against specific allergen components of cow's milk protein. The incidence of CMPA in early childhood...... is approximately 2-3% in developed countries. Symptoms suggestive of CMPA may be encountered in 5-15% of infants emphasizing the importance of controlled elimination/milk challenge procedures. Reproducible clinical reactions to CMP in human milk have been reported in 0.5% of breastfed infants. Most infants...

  12. Effect of feed restriction on reproductive and metabolic hormones in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Gencoglu, H; Hackbart, K S; Nascimento, A B; Dalla Costa, F; Bender, R W; Guenther, J N; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of feed restriction (FR) on serum glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, progesterone (P4), insulin, and milk production in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, 114 ± 14 d pregnant and 685 ± 39 kg of body weight, were randomly assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. During the first 8 d of each period, cows in all treatments were fed for ad libitum feed intake. Beginning on d 9 of each period, cows received 1 of 4 treatments: ad libitum (AL), 25% feed restriction (25 FR), 50% feed restriction (50 FR), and 50% of TMR replaced with wheat straw (50 ST). Daily feed allowance was divided into 3 equal portions allocated every 8h with jugular blood samples collected immediately before each feeding through d 14. In addition, on d 12 of each period, blood samples were collected before and at 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 min after morning feeding. The conventional total mixed ration and total mixed ration with straw averaged 15.1 and 10.8%, 32.1 and 50.5%, and 26.8 and 17.0% for concentrations of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and starch, respectively. Cows that were feed and energy restricted had reduced dry matter intake, net energy for lactation intake, circulating glucose concentrations, and milk production, but greater body weight and body condition score losses than AL cows. Circulating concentrations of insulin were lower for cows fed 50 FR (8.27 μIU/mL) and 50 ST (6.24 μIU/mL) compared with cows fed AL (16.65 μIU/mL) and 25 FR (11.16 μIU/mL). Furthermore, the greatest plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration was observed for 50 ST (647.7 μ Eq/L), followed by 50 FR (357.5 μEq/L), 25 FR (225.3 μEq/L), and AL (156.3 μEq/L). In addition, serum P4 concentration was lower for cows fed AL than cows fed 50 ST and 25 FR. Thus, FR reduced circulating glucose and insulin but increased P4 concentration, changes that may be positive in reproductive

  13. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Qu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05. Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05. The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  14. Effects of biotin supplementation on peripartum performance and metabolites of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendo, O; Staples, C R; McDowell, L R; McMahon, R; Badinga, L; Martin, F G; Shearer, J F; Seymour, W M; Wilkinson, N S

    2004-08-01

    Fifty-two multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive 0 or 20 mg of biotin/d starting at an average of 16 d prepartum and then switched to 0 or 30 mg of biotin/d from calving through 70 d postpartum to determine whether supplemental biotin would affect cow performance, hepatic lipidosis, and plasma metabolites. Mean concentration of biotin in plasma sampled weekly was greater in cows fed biotin (4.3 vs. 9.4 nmol/L). Postpartum dry matter intake as a percentage of body weight (3.9% vs. 4.0%), milk production (35.8 vs. 34.8 kg/d), and milk fat concentrations (3.59% vs. 3.69%) were similar between treatment groups. Milk from biotin-supplemented cows tended to have a greater concentration of protein (2.73% vs. 2.83%). Concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids were lower at wk 2 (652 vs. 413 microEq/mL) and 4 (381 vs. 196 microEq/mL) postpartum in cows fed supplemental biotin. However, mean plasma concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyric acid were not affected by biotin supplementation. Mean concentration of plasma glucose was greater for lactating cows fed supplemental biotin (63.4 vs. 66.6 mg/dL). Biopsies of liver were taken at 2, 16, and 30 d postpartum. The triacylglycerol concentration in liver (wet basis) tended to decrease at a faster rate after d 2 postpartum with biotin supplementation compared with control cows. The potential mechanisms that link improved glucose status and decreased lipid mobilization in cows supplemented with biotin warrant further investigation.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF PROPYLENE GLYCOL AND CALCIUM PROPIONATE IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GAVAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of the oral administration of propylene glycol and calcium propionate on performance of dairy cows. Treatments were 10 l water (control, 10 l water+300 ml propylene glycol (GP and 10 l water+500 g calcium propionate (CP. Animals were mainly of Holstein breeds and were fed and managed in a commercial setting. The cows were divided randomly into an experimental group, n=24 (n=12 with PG and n=12 with CP and a control group, n=11. Cows received the assigned treatment within 10 hours of calving and 24 hours after calving. Health events were recorded during calving and for the first 21 days in milk (DIM. Health examinations were performed on cows that appeared not well. The cows were milked three times daily and milk production was recorded electronically. Milk solid content and somatic cell score were determinate from three consecutive milking weekly till 20 DIM and than monthly till 110 DIM. Retained placenta, hypocalcaemia, displaced abomasums, ketosis and metritis were low in treatment groups (with PG and CP. The cows receiving PG had 2.8 Kg/day grater milk production than control group. The cows receiving CP had 1.7 kg/day grater milk production than control group. Prophylactic administration of PG and CP drenches to Holstein cows may be justified by potentially higher milk yields and reduced health complications.

  16. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irungu, K.R.G.; Mbugua, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300

  17. Decreased insulin response in dairy cows following a four-day fast to induce hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, S; Oetzel, G R

    2006-08-01

    Negative energy balance has been implicated in the development of fatty liver, insulin resistance, and impaired health in dairy cows. A 4-d fasting model previously was reported to increase liver triglycerides more than 2.5-fold. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate insulin response in this fasting model. Nonlactating, nonpregnant Holstein cows were fasted for 4 d (6 cows) or fed continuously as control cows (4 cows). Samples were collected 5 d before fasting, during fasting, and immediately after the 4-d fast, 8 d after the fast, and 16 d after the fast. Fasted cows had greater liver triglyceride content (49.4 vs. 16.2 mg/g, wet-weight basis) at the end of the fasting period compared with control cows. Fasted cows also had increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations (1.24 vs. 0.21 mmol/L) and increased plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at the end of the fasting period. Liver triglyceride, plasma NEFA, and plasma BHBA in fasted cows returned to prefasting concentrations by the end of the experiment. Plasma glucose concentrations were not affected by fasting. Plasma insulin concentrations were decreased (6.3 vs. 14.1 microU/mL) and insulin-stimulated blood glucose reduction was decreased (24.9 vs. 48.6%) in the fasted cows compared with control cows at the end of the fast, indicating reduced insulin response. Insulin response was negatively correlated with plasma NEFA and liver triglycerides. Decreased insulin response may be an important complication of negative energy balance and hepatic lipidosis.

  18. Effects of Different Ruminally Degradable Starch Levels on Lactation Performance, Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Nitrogen Balance of Dairy Cows Fed High Starch Diets%饲喂高淀粉饲粮时不同瘤胃降解淀粉水平对奶牛泌乳性能、营养物质表观消化率和氮平衡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒国彬; 孙凯晶; 王馨影; 张广宁; 刘岩; 王利军; 徐宏建; 张永根

    2017-01-01

    This trial was performed to examine the effects of different ruminally degradable starch levels on lac?tation performance, nutrient apparent digestibility and nitrogen balance of dairy cows fed high starch diets. Ten multiparous Holstein cows [(average lactation days: (214±38) d; average milk yield: (26.2±2.4) kg/d;average body weight: (727±65) kg] were randomly assigned to 2 groups, and each group had 5 dairy cows. Two types of diets with different ruminally degradable starch levels were formulated, one of them contained 62.3% ( percentage of total starch) ruminally degradable starch which named as low?ruminally degradable starch diet ( L?RDS) , and the other contained 72.1% ( percentage of total starch) ruminally degradable starch which named as high?ruminally degradable starch diet ( H?RDS) . A crossover experimental design was applied. There were two experimental periods, the transition period lasted for 7 d, and each period lasted for 21 d (14 d of pretrial period, and 7 d of sampling period). The results showed as follows:1) the apparent digesti?bility of starch and organic matter was significantly increased (P0.05). 2) Compared with L?RDS group, urinary urea?nitrogen and the proportion of urinary urea?nitrogen in nitrogen intake had a decrease trend for H?RDS group (P=0.09). The nitrogen intake, milk nitrogen, urinary nitrogen, fecal nitrogen, nitrogen retention and the proportions of them in nitrogen intake were not significantly affected by dietary ruminally de?gradable starch level (P>0.05), and the urinary excretion of purine derivatives and microbial protein yield were also not significantly affected by dietary ruminally degradable starch level ( P>0.05) . 3) Dry matter in?take, milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows were not significantly affected by dietary ruminally de?gradable starch level ( P>0.05) . Results of this study show that different ruminally degradable starch levels can affect the nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows

  19. Effects of alternative protein sources on rumen microbes and productivity of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of various protein sources on digestibility, rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. Four Holstein Friesian native crossbred cows in early lactating were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments containing different protein sources in concentrate diets were soybean meal (SBM, cassava hay (CH, Leucaena leucocephala (LL and yeast-fermented cassava chips (YEFECAP, with ad libitum intake of urea-treated rice straw. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was not different among treatments (P>0.05 while CP digestibility was highest (P<0.05 in CH and YEFECAP supplemented groups. Ruminal NH3-N and BUN concentrations varied among protein sources and were highest in SBM and LL fed groups (P<0.05. Ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA and propionic acid were found highest in cows receiving CH and YEFECAP (P<0.05. Ruminal fungi, proteolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were highest when YEFECAP was supplemented. Milk fat and milk protein were significantly increased (P<0.05 in cows fed with CH and YEFECAP. Based on this study, it was concluded that providing CH or YEFECAP as protein source in concentrate diets could improve rumen fermentation and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed on rice straw.

  20. Concentrations of progesterone and insulin in serum of nonlactating dairy cows in response to carbohydrate source and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Scatena, T S; Sá Filho, O G; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2008-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of carbohydrate source and processing on serum progesterone (P4) and insulin concentrations of nonlactating dairy cows. In experiment 1, 12 ovariectomized grazing Gir x Holstein cows were stratified by body weight and body condition score, and randomly assigned to receive a supplement containing either finely ground corn or citrus pulp in a Latin square crossover design. Diets were fed individually, twice daily at a rate of 10.9 kg of dry matter per cow. Cows received a controlled intravaginal P4-releasing insert before the beginning of the study, and inserts were replaced every 7 d. During the first experimental period, cows were adapted to treatments from d 0 to 13 and blood was collected on d 14, whereas during the second experimental period cows were adapted to treatments from d 0 to 6 and blood samples were collected on d 7. In both periods, blood samples were collected immediately before and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after the first supplement feeding of the collection day. In experiment 2, the cows utilized in experiment 1 were randomly assigned to receive a supplement based on finely ground corn, coarsely ground corn, or high-moisture corn in a Latin square crossover design. Cows were fed and received the controlled intravaginal P4-releasing insert as in experiment 1. Within each of the 3 experimental periods, cows were adapted to diets from d 0 to 6, and blood samples were collected on d 7 as in experiment 1. Time effects were detected in experiments 1 and 2 because insulin concentrations increased by 1 h (4.6 +/- 0.90 vs. 7.4 +/- 0.91 microIU/mL for 0 and 1 h, respectively) and P4 concentrations decreased by 3 h (1.8 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.2 +/- 0.11 ng/mL for 0 and 3 h, respectively) after supplements were offered. In experiment 2, insulin concentrations were greater in cows fed high-moisture corn compared with those fed coarsely or finely ground corn (8.8 +/- 1.05, 5.7 +/- 1.05, and 6.1 +/- 1.05 micro

  1. Utilization of urea/molasses liquid feed as a major source of nitrogen and energy for lactating cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjhan, S.K.; Krishna Mohan, D.V.G.; Pathak, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in which urea/molasses liquid feed along with a limited amount of intact protein and cereal forage was fed to lactating cows, and compared with another group receiving conventional concentrate and roughage-based rations. Voluntary consumption of liquid feed by cows was satisfactory. There was no significant difference in the milk yield between the two groups. The higher consumption of metabolizable energy and digestible crude protein by experimental cows from liquid feed was not reflected in their milk yields or body weights. Various other parameters such as digestibilities of nutrients, efficiency of energy and nitrogen utilization for milk production and N-balance have been presented in cows fed urea/molasses liquid diets and conventional diets. (author)

  2. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF SOME ASPECTS REGARDING THE DRINKING BEHAVIOUR IN MULTIPAROUS ROMANIAN BLACK AND WHITE COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. GAVOJDIAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine some aspects of drinking behaviour in thecold-season. The study was carried out on 10 multiparous cows, housed in a tiedstanchion barn 24 hours per day. During the experiments the following behaviouraspects were monitored: the number of drinking periods per 24 hours and drinkingfrequency. When cows were fed twice a day the average number of drinking periodswas 11, and when cows were fed tree times per day, the average number of drinkingperiods per cow was 12.2 per day. The highest frequency of drinking period in thefirst part of the experiment (one with two meals per day was registered at 10:00and 18:00-19:00 h. When the forages were administrated in three meals three peakswere registered, between 09:00, 15:00 and 20:00 h. During the night time,consumption of water was very low.

  3. Effects of differential supplementation of fatty acids during the peripartum and breeding periods of Holstein cows: I. Uterine and metabolic responses, reproduction, and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, F T; Carvalho, T S M; Francisco, N; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R; Jenkins, T C; Thatcher, W W

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effects of differential timing of supplementation of different Ca salts (CS) of fatty acids (FA) on FA profiles of cotyledonary-caruncular tissues, metabolic status, uterine health, pregnancy, pregnancy losses after 2 artificial inseminations (AI), and milk yield. Holstein cows (n=1,380) were assigned randomly to be fed either CS of palm oil (PO) or safflower oil (SO) from 30 d prepartum until 30 d postpartum (dpp) and further randomized to receive either CS of PO or fish oil (FO) from 30 to 160 dpp. Supplementation of CS of FA was at 1.5% of dietary dry matter. Tissues (n=23) and blood (n=32) were collected from a subsample of cows. Blood was collected daily from parturition to 10 dpp and three times weekly thereafter until 30 dpp for analyses of PGF2α metabolite, nonesterified FA, β-hydroxybutyric acid, blood urea nitrogen, and glucose. Cows were evaluated once between 8 to 10 dpp for cervical discharge type. At 43 dpp, cows received 2 injections of PGF2α 14 d apart, followed 14 d later by injections of GnRH at 7 d before and 56 h after an injection of PGF2α with AI at 16 h after the second GnRH injection. All cows received intravaginally a controlled internal drug-releasing device, containing 1.38 g of progesterone, at 18 d after the first AI followed 7 d later by removal of the device and injection of GnRH. Nonpregnant cows at 32 d after AI were injected with PGF2α, followed 56 h later with a GnRH injection and second AI 16 h thereafter. Cows diagnosed pregnant after both AI were re-examined at 60 d of pregnancy to determine pregnancy losses. Milk weights were recorded monthly for all cows. Caruncular n-6:n-3 FA ratio was greater in cows fed SO. Plasma concentrations of metabolites and frequency of cervical discharge type did not differ between PO- and SO-fed cows. Plasma PGF2α metabolite was greater in SO-fed cows at 4 and 7 dpp. Pregnancy per AI at 32 and 60 d post first AI was not affected by diets, but pregnancy

  4. Partial replacement of corn grain by hydrogenated oil in grazing dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salado, E E; Gagliostro, G A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I

    2004-05-01

    Thirty-six grazing dairy cows were used to determine milk production and composition, and dry matter and energy intake when corn grain was partially replaced by hydrogenated oil in the concentrate. Four additional cows, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were used in a crossover design to evaluate effects of supplemental fat on rumen environment and pasture digestion. All cows grazed mixed pastures with an herbage allowance of 30 kg dry matter/cow per day. The control group was fed a concentrate containing corn grain (4.49 kg dry matter/cow per day) and fishmeal (0.37 kg dry matter/cow per day), whereas the other group (fat) received a concentrate containing corn grain (2.87 kg dry matter/cow per day), fishmeal (0.37 kg dry matter/cow per day) and fat (0.7 kg dry matter/cow per day). The fat was obtained by hydrogenation of vegetable oils (melting point 58 to 60 degrees C, 30.3% C16:0, 34.9% C18:0, 21.8% C18:1, 3.3% C18:2). Supplemental fat increased milk production (control = 23.7 vs. fat = 25.0 kg/cow per day), fat-corrected milk (control = 22.5 vs. fat = 24.5 kg/cow per day), milk fat content (control = 3.64% vs. fat = 3.86%) and yields of milk fat (control = 0.86 vs. fat = 0.97 kg/cow per day) and protein (control = 0.74 vs. fat = 0.78 kg/cow per day). Milk percentages of protein, lactose, casein, cholesterol, and urea nitrogen were not affected. Pasture DMI and total DMI of pasture and concentrate and estimated energy intake were unchanged. No differences in loss of body weight or body condition score were detected. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, somatotropin, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor were not affected by supplemental fat. Concentrations of plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol were increased by supplemented fat, and no changes in plasma glucose and urea nitrogen were observed. The acetate-to-propionate ratio was higher in rumen fluid of cows that consumed fat (fat = 3.39 vs. control = 3.27). In situ pasture NDF

  5. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Hellgren, Lars; Raff, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid......, a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated. Objective: To compare the effect of milk-fat from mountain-pasture grazing cows (G) and conventionally fed cows (C) on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. Design: In a double......-blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed...

  6. Energy evaluation of fresh grass in the diets of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Zom, R.L.G.; Valk, H.

    2002-01-01

    The discrepancy between the estimated feeding value of fresh grass and the output per kg grass in terms of milk and maintenance was studied by evaluating 12 experiments with grass-fed dairy cows. The percentage grass in the diets varied between 40 and 90. Intake and milk production were recorded

  7. Relationship between metabolism and ovarian activity in dairy cows with different dry period lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.C.; Soede, N.M.; Dorland, van H.A.; Remmelink, G.J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of dry period length on ovarian activity in cows fed a lipogenic or a glucogenic diet within 100 days in milk (DIM) and to determine relationships between ovarian activity and energy balance and metabolic status in early lactation.

  8. Consumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes, produção e composição do leite de vacas alimentadas com resíduo de cervejaria fermentado - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.6990 Nutrient intake and digestibility and milk yield of cows fed with fermented brewer’s grain - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.6990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Bublitz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a inclusão de 0, 5, 10 e 15% do resíduo de cervejaria fermentado (RCF nas rações de vacas leiteiras sobre o consumo e coeficiente de digestibilidade total (CD dos nutrientes, produção e qualidade do leite. Foram utilizadas 28 vacas da raça Holandesa, com aproximadamente 101 ± 21 dias de lactação, e peso corporal médio de 612 ± 110 kg, alimentadas com silagem de milho, silagem pré-secada de azevém, RCF e concentrado. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os dados de consumo e CD dos nutrientes, produção e qualidade do leite foram submetidos à análise de regressão considerando 5% de probabilidade. O consumo de matéria seca (MS dos animais foi “ad libitum”. Os teores de RCF nas rações não alteraram (p > 0,05 o consumo dos nutrientes. Os CD da matéria orgânica (MO, carboidratos totais (CHT, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA não foram influenciados (p > 0,05 pelos teores de RCF, contudo, verificou-se efeito linear positivo com relação aos CD da MS, proteína bruta (PB e extrato etéreo (EE em função da inclusão do RCF nas rações. A inclusão do RCF nas rações não influenciou (p > 0,05 na produção e qualidade do leite. Conclui-se que o RCF pode ser incluído até 15% nas rações de vacas leiteiras sem alterar o consumo de nutrientes e a produção e qualidade do leiteThe objective this work was to evaluate the inclusion of 0, 5, 10 and 15% of the fermented brewer’s grain (FBG in diets of dairy cows on intake and total digestibility coefficient (DC of nutrients, production and milk quality. Twenty-eight Holstein cows were used, with 100 ± 21 days in milk, and average body weight (BW of 612 ± 110 kg, fed with corn silage, ryegrass silage, FBG and concentrate. Intake data and nutrient’s DC, production and milk quality were subjected to regression analysis to 5% of probability. The DM intake of animals was ad libitum. The FBG inclusion

  9. Effects of dietary crude protein and rumen-degradable protein concentrations on urea recycling, nitrogen balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa, T; Davies, K L; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how interactions between dietary crude protein (CP) and rumen-degradable protein (RDP) concentrations alter urea-nitrogen recycling, nitrogen (N) balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (711±21kg of body weight; 91±17d in milk at the start of the experiment) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments and 29-d experimental periods. Four cows in one Latin square were fitted with ruminal cannulas to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The dietary treatment factors were CP (14.9 vs. 17.5%; dry matter basis) and RDP (63 vs. 69% of CP) contents. Dietary RDP concentration was manipulated by including unprocessed or micronized canola meal. Diet adaptation (d 1-20) was followed by 8d (d 21-29) of sample and data collection. Continuous intrajugular infusions of [(15)N(15)N]-urea (220mg/d) were conducted for 4d (d 25-29) with concurrent total collections of urine and feces to estimate N balance and whole-body urea kinetics. Proportions of [(15)N(15)N]- and [(14)N(15)N]-urea in urinary urea, and (15)N enrichment in feces were used to calculate urea kinetics. For the low-CP diets, cows fed the high-RDP diet had a greater DM intake compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but the opposite trend was observed for cows fed the high-CP diets. Dietary treatment had no effect on milk yield. Milk composition and milk component yields were largely unaffected by dietary treatment; however, on the low-CP diets, milk fat yield was greater for cows fed the low-RDP diet compared with those fed the high-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the high-CP diets. On the high-CP diets, milk urea nitrogen concentration was greater in cows fed the high-RDP diet compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the low-CP diets. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to

  10. Parâmetros ruminais, balanço de compostos nitrogenados e produção microbiana de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com soja e seus subprodutos Ruminal parameters, nitrogen compound balance and microbial production in dairy cows fed soybeans and their by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria de Vasconcelos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a variação do pH, da amônia ruminal e do balanço de compostos nitrogenados e a síntese de proteína microbiana de 12 vacas da raça Holandesa distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 × 4, alimentadas com dietas contendo soja em diferentes formas: farelo de soja (dieta controle, soja crua, soja tostada e farelo de soja + 5% de ureia, utilizando-se silagem de milho como volumoso. A síntese da proteína microbiana foi estimada utilizando-se os derivados de purina na urina e no leite. Amostras de sangue e amostras spot de urina foram coletadas aproximadamente quatro horas após a alimentação da manhã. Houve efeito das dietas sobre o volume urinário e a excreção de ureia na urina. O menor volume urinário (18,84 L foi observado com farelo de soja+ureia. As excreções de ureia na urina foram semelhantes entre a soja crua (532,98 mg/kgPV e a soja tostada (524,41 mg/kgPV e diferiram entre o farelo de soja (561,56 mg/kgPV e o farelo de soja+ureia (575,71 mg/kgPV. A forma de fornecimento da soja não teve efeito no balanço de nitrogênio e nas concentrações do nitrogênio ureico no plasma (NUP, mas teve efeito significativo no nitrogênio ureico no leite (NUL, cuja maior média foi obtida com a soja crua (15,66 mg/dL. As médias de alantoína na urina (416,45 mmol/dia e no leite (12,78 mmol/dia, dos derivados de purinas totais (468,30 mmol/dia, da síntese de proteína microbiana (287,33 g/dia e da eficiência da síntese microbiana (133,06, expressa em g de PB/kg de NDT consumido, não diferiram entre as dietas. As dietas testadas não afetaram o balanço de nitrogênio nem a produção microbiana, porém a inclusão de grãos de soja crus aumentou os teores de nitrogênio ureico no leite.The objective of this study was to assess the variation in the pH, ruminal ammonia, nitrogen compound balance (BN and microbial synthesis (Nmic of 12 Holstein cows distributed in three 4 × 4 Latin squares, fed diets containing

  11. [Allergy to cow's milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourrier, E

    1997-04-01

    After recalling the medical reluctance as well as the risks that there are in complete elimination of milk in infants, the author presents several clinical pictures and then a classification of the immunological types: Allergic shock of neonates, digestive and extra-digestive (skin and respiratory airways) symptoms finally the rare chronic gastro-enteritis to cow milk. Non-reaginic food allergies: Acute gastro-enteropathy to cow milk, with villous atrophy and Heiner's syndrome, delayed hypersensitivities are studied, of difficult diagnosis that may cover almost all pathologies. They may be found in the digestive system, respiratory, the kidneys and even in the organs of behaviour. Migraine of food origin must be remembered. Development in regressive rules is a function of the type of allergy and the suddenness of the symptoms. Diagnosis is above all by questioning and confirmation or not by skin and in vitro tests. Certainty can only be shown by tests of elimination and re-introduction. The diet, at the same time of both diagnostic and therapeutic value, is based on the replacement of cow milk by foods that contain the same amount of proteins. It is essential, especially in the very small, to have perfect match of food so as to avoid any risk of a dramatic hypoprotinemia, which may happen if the child does not like the suggested diet, or if the parents cannot buy the substitution products. In such conditions great care must be taken to avoid provoking a crisis. Care must be taken to decide: If the elimination of cow milk is always justified each time. If it is, always check that the substituted protein is properly made, the family may change the diet mistakenly.

  12. Dairy cow nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Tame, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This review pulls together the results of over 40 research projects and brings us up to date with the latest in thinking on dairy cow nutrition, incorporates the findings of a wide range of organic trials and draws some clear recommendations on appropriate strategies for forage type and management, supplementary feeding, ration formulation and farming systems. It raises important issues around sustainability versus optimum production and highlights future research priorities.

  13. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Asako; Kenéz, Ákos; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA) lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21) to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion ("HC" with 60:40% or "LC" with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio) and supplemented with NA (24 g/day) (NA) or without (CON) until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)) and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear.

  14. Nutrient Restriction Increases Circulating and Hepatic Ceramide in Dairy Cows Displaying Impaired Insulin Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amanda N; Clegg, J L; Perry, C A; McFadden, J W

    2017-09-01

    The progression of insulin resistance in dairy cows represents a maternal adaptation to support milk production during heightened energy demand; however, excessive adipose tissue lipolysis can develop. In diabetic non-ruminants, the mechanisms that mediate insulin resistance involve the sphingolipid ceramide. We tested the hypothesis that ceramide accumulates in dairy cows experiencing lipolysis and insulin resistance. Nine dairy cows were utilized in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Cows were ad libitum fed, nutrient-restricted (NR), or NR with nicotinic acid (NA; 5 mg of NA/h per kg BW; delivered i.v.) for 34 h. When provided access, cows were ad libitum fed a mixed ration of grass hay and ground corn to meet requirements. Intake for NR cows was limited to vitamins and minerals. Nicotinic acid was administered to suppress lipolysis. Saline was infused in cows not provided NA. At 32 and 33 h of treatment, a liver biopsy and insulin tolerance test were performed, respectively. Samples were analyzed using colorimetry, immunoassay, and mass spectrometry. Nutrient restriction increased serum fatty acids and ceramide levels, and impaired insulin sensitivity; however, NA infusion was unable to prevent these responses. We also show that NR increases hepatic ceramide accumulation, a response that was positively associated with serum ceramide supply. Our data demonstrate that circulating and hepatic 24:0-Cer are inversely associated with systemic insulin tolerance, an effect not observed for the 16:0 moiety. In conclusion, our results suggest that ceramide accrual represents a metabolic adaptation to nutrient restriction and impaired insulin action in dairy cows.

  15. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako Kinoshita

    Full Text Available The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2 were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21 to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion ("HC" with 60:40% or "LC" with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio and supplemented with NA (24 g/day (NA or without (CON until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT and retroperitoneal (RPAT adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K, protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear.

  16. Alterations of the Lipid Metabolome in Dairy Cows Experiencing Excessive Lipolysis Early Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Elke; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Gruber, Leonhard; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    A decrease in insulin sensitivity enhances adipose tissue lipolysis helping early lactation cows counteracting their energy deficit. However, excessive lipolysis poses serious health risks for cows, and its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. The present study used targeted ESI-LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics and indirect insulin sensitivity measurements to evaluate metabolic alterations in the serum of dairy cows of various parities experiencing variable lipolysis early postpartum. Thirty (12 primiparous and 18 multiparous) cows of Holstein Friesian and Simmental breeds, fed the same diet and kept under the same management conditions, were sampled at d 21 postpartum and classified as low (n = 10), medium (n = 8), and high (n = 12) lipolysis groups, based on serum concentration of nonesterified fatty acids. Overall, excessive lipolysis in the high group came along with impaired estimated insulin sensitivity and characteristic shifts in acylcarnitine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine and lysophospholipid metabolome profiles compared to the low group. From the detected phosphatidylcholines mainly those with diacyl-residues showed differences among lipolysis groups. Furthermore, more than half of the detected sphingomyelins were increased in cows experiencing high lipomobilization. Additionally, strong differences in serum acylcarnitines were noticed among lipolysis groups. The study suggests an altered serum phospholipidome in dairy cows associated with an increase in certain long-chain sphingomyelins and the progression of disturbed insulin function. In conclusion, the present study revealed 37 key metabolites as part of alterations in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids associated with lowered estimated insulin sensitivity and excessive lipolysis in early-lactating cows.

  17. Gaseous radioiodine transport in the air-forage-cow-milk system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Douglas, R.L.; Barth, D.S.

    1976-04-01

    To study the transport of 131 I in the air-forage-cow milk system, a gaseous form of 131 I was released over a field of growing alfalfa which also contained some baled hay and dairy cows in pens. Some of the alfalfa was converted to hay and fed to cows, and some was used as green chop for other cows and goats. The results of this experiment suggest that the deposition velocity of gaseous iodine is much less than that for iodine bound to particulates; that cows ingesting hay secrete a higher percentage of 131 I in milk than cows ingesting green chop; that gaseous forms do not penetrate hay bales to any great extent; that the gaseous form is transferred to milk in a manner similar to particulate forms; that ingestion of contaminated forage results in 80 times as much 131 I transfer to milk as does inhalation exposure to the same cloud; and that goats transfer 131 I from forage to milk more efficiently than do dairy cows

  18. Alteration in Fecal Microbiota Associated with Grain-induced Subacute Ruminal Acidosis Challenge in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, Anne Mette; Derakshani, Hooman; Li, Shucong

    2014-01-01

    in the field are often not detected. Thus, other and better markers of SARA are needed. The purpose of this research was to study the feces microbiome during SARA and assess the possibilities of using feces microbial markers as indicators of SARA. Methods: Six lactating, rumen cannulated, Danish Holstein cows...... were used in a blocked design study including two blocks. In the first block, two cows received control diet and two cows received SARA-challenge diet. In the second block, former control cows received SARA diet while two new cows received control diet. Cows received a total mixed ration (TMR; 24......% concentrate) for four weeks before the trial. SARA was induced by gradual substitution of 40% of TMR with grain pellets (50:50 wheat:barley) over 3 days. Full SARA diet was fed for four days. Rumen pH was measured continuously by indwelling probes (eCow). Feces samples were taken at 9 am and 9 pm on last day...

  19. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  20. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  1. Reproduction, mastitis, and body condition of seasonally calved Holstein and Jersey cows in confinement or pasture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, S P; White, S L; Green, J T; Benson, G A

    2002-01-01

    Dairy cows in confinement and pasture-based feeding systems were compared across four spring-calving and three fall-calving replicates for differences in reproduction, mastitis, body weights, and body condition scores. Feeding systems and replicates included both Jersey and Holstein cows. Cows in confinement were fed a total mixed ration, and cows on pasture were supplemented with concentrates and provided baled hay or haylage when pasture supply was limiting. Breeding periods were for 75 d in spring or fall. Reproductive performance did not differ significantly due to feeding system or season. Jerseys had higher conception rates (59.6 vs. 49.5 +/- 3.3%) and higher percentages of cows pregnant in 75 d (78.1 vs. 57.9 +/- 3.9%) than Holsteins. Cows in confinement had 1.8 times more clinical mastitis and eight times the rate of culling for mastitis than did cows on pasture. Jerseys had half as many clinical cases of mastitis per cow as Holsteins. Only 41 +/- 5% of confinement Holsteins remained for a subsequent lactation, starting within the defined calving season compared with 51 +/- 5% of pastured Holsteins and 71 and 72 +/- 5% of Jerseys, respectively. Body weights and condition scores were generally higher for confinement cows than pastured cows, and Jerseys had higher condition scores and lower body weights than Holsteins. In summary, pastured cows had fewer clinical cases of mastitis, lower body condition scores, and lower body weights than confinement cows. Holsteins were less likely to rebreed, had more mastitis, higher culling rates, and lower body condition scores than Jerseys.

  2. Effect of increasing dietary nonfiber carbohydrate with starch, sucrose, or lactose on rumen fermentation and productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Oba, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate effects of increasing dietary nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) with starch, sucrose, or lactose on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous, lactating Holstein cows (141 ± 50 d in milk; 614 ± 53 kg of body weight) including 8 ruminally cannulated cows were used in this study. Cows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. The treatments were control [27% starch and 4% sugar on a dry matter (DM) basis], a high-NFC diet by increasing dietary starch content (STA; 32% starch and 4% sugar on a DM basis), and 2 more high-NFC diets by increasing dietary sugar content (27% starch and 9% sugar on a DM basis) in which sucrose (SUC) or lactose (LAC) was supplemented. Dry matter intake was greater for cows fed high-NFC diets compared with control diet (27.1 vs. 26.3 kg/d), but rumen pH and milk production did not differ between cows fed control and high-NFC diets. However, cows fed high-disaccharide diets had lower mean rumen pH than those fed STA diet (6.19 vs. 6.32). Although molar proportion of butyrate was greater for high-disaccharide treatments than STA treatment (15.2 vs. 13.7 mol/100 mol), absorption rate of volatile fatty acid in the rumen was not affected by treatment. In addition, cows fed high-disaccharide diets had higher energy-corrected milk yield than cows fed STA diet (39.6 vs. 38.0 kg/d). Dry matter intake did not differ between cows fed 2 high-disaccharide diets. Although cows fed the SUC diet had lower molar proportion of butyrate in the rumen compared with those fed the LAC diet (14.4 vs. 15.9 mol/100 mol), the SUC diet did not decrease rumen pH. In addition, cows fed the SUC diet had lower nutrient digestibility of organic matter than did those fed the LAC diet (59.7 vs. 64.4%), but milk component yields did not differ between the 2 high-disaccharide diet treatments. The results of the

  3. Inclusion of calcium hydroxide-treated corn stover as a partial forage replacement in diets for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, Brittany A; Wertz-Lutz, Aimee E; Dunn, Jim L; Donkin, Shawn S

    2018-03-01

    Chemical treatment may improve the nutritional value of corn crop residues, commonly referred to as corn stover, and the potential use of this feed resource for ruminants, including lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prestorage chopping, hydration, and treatment of corn stover with Ca(OH) 2 on the feeding value for milk production, milk composition, and dry matter intake (DMI). Multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows (n = 30) were stratified by parity and milk production and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets. Corn stover was chopped, hydrated, and treated with 6% Ca(OH) 2 (as-fed basis) and stored in horizontal silo bags. Cows received a control (CON) total mixed ration (TMR) or a TMR in which a mixture of treated corn stover and distillers grains replaced either alfalfa haylage (AHsub) or alfalfa haylage and an additional portion of corn silage (AH+CSsub). Treated corn stover was fed in a TMR at 0, 15, and 30% of the diet DM for the CON, AHsub, and AH+CSsub diets, respectively. Cows were individually fed in tiestalls for 10 wk. Milk production was not altered by treatment. Compared with the CON diet, DMI was reduced when the AHsub diet was fed and tended to be reduced when cows were fed the AH+CSsub diet (25.9, 22.7, and 23.1 ± 0.88 kg/d for CON, AHsub, and AH+CSsub diets, respectively). Energy-corrected milk production per unit of DMI (kg/kg) tended to increase with treated corn stover feeding. Milk composition, energy-corrected milk production, and energy-corrected milk per unit of DMI (kg/kg) were not different among treatments for the 10-wk feeding period. Cows fed the AHsub and AH+CSsub diets had consistent DMI over the 10-wk treatment period, whereas DMI for cows fed the CON diet increased slightly over time. Milk production was not affected by the duration of feeding. These data indicate that corn stover processing, prestorage hydration, and treatment with calcium hydroxide can serve as an alternative to

  4. Effect of silage type and energy concentration on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.S.; Sejrsen, K.; Andersen, H.R

    2004-01-01

    40 lactating cows were fed either clovergrass or maize silage and a low or high dietary energy concentration in a 2x2 factorial design. The maize silage diets rich in starch and linoleic acid resulted in a higher content of c9t11 and t10c12 CLA in milk fat than the grass silage diets. A high energy...... concentration plus maize silage led to a pronounced shift in the biohydrogenation pathway of linoleic acid, the highest t10c12 CLA content and lowest milk fat percentage. Energy concentration had no effect on milk fat CLA content or milk fat percentage in grass silage fed cows....

  5. Effects of rumen-degradable protein:rumen-undegradable protein ratio and corn processing on production performance, nitrogen efficiency, and feeding behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savari, M; Khorvash, M; Amanlou, H; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Mirzaei, M

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the ratio of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) to rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) and corn processing method on production performance, nitrogen (N) efficiency, and feeding behavior of high-producing Holstein dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (second parity; milk yield = 48 ± 3 kg/d) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factor 1 was corn processing method [ground corn (GC) or steam flaked corn (SFC) with a flake density of about 390 g/L], and factor 2 was RDP:RUP ratio [low ratio (LR) = 60:40; high ratio (HR) = 65:35] based on crude protein (%). The crude protein concentrations were kept constant across the treatments (16.7% of DM). No significant interactions of main treatment effects occurred for lactation performance data. Cows fed 2 different RDP:RUP ratios exhibited similar dry matter intake (DMI), but those fed SFC showed decreased feed intake compared with those receiving GC (25.1 ± 0.48 vs. 26.2 ± 0.47 kg/d, respectively). Cows fed HR diets produced more milk than did those fed LR diets (44.4 ± 1.05 vs. 43.2 ± 1.05 kg/d, respectively). Milk fat content decreased but milk protein content increased in cows fed SFC compared with those fed GC. Feed efficiency (i.e., milk yield/DMI) was enhanced with increasing ratio of RDP:RUP (1.68 ± 0.04 vs. 1.74 ± 0.04 for LR and HR, respectively). Apparent N efficiency was higher in cows fed HR than in those fed LR (30.4 ± 0.61 vs. 29.2 ± 0.62, respectively). Compared with cows fed the GC-based diet, those receiving SFC exhibited lower values of N intake, N-NH 3 concentration, and fecal N excretion. Cows receiving SFC-based diets spent more time ruminating (min/kg of DMI) than did those fed GC. Although these results showed no interaction effects of RDP:RUP ratio and corn processing method on performance, higher RDP:RUP ratios and ground corn can be effective feeding strategies for

  6. Pregnancy, bovine somatotropin, and dietary n-3 fatty acids in lactating dairy cows: I. Ovarian, conceptus, and growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor system responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilby, T R; Sozzi, A; Lopez, M M; Silvestre, F T; Ealy, A D; Staples, C R; Thatcher, W W

    2006-09-01

    The objective was to examine effects of bovine somatotropin (bST), pregnancy, and dietary fatty acids on reproductive responses in lactating dairy cows. Beginning at approximately 17 d in milk (DIM), a comparison was made of isoenergetic diets comprising supplementary lipids of whole cottonseed vs. calcium salts of fish oil enriched lipid (FO). Ovulation was synchronized in cows with a presynchronization plus Ovsynch protocol, and cows were inseminated artificially by appointment or not inseminated (d 0 = time of synchronized ovulation; 77 +/- 12 DIM). On d 0 and 11, cows received bST (500 mg) or no bST. All cows were slaughtered on d 17. Number of cows in each group was as follows: control diet had 5 bST-treated cyclic (bST-C), 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-C), 4 bST-treated pregnant (bST-P), and 5 non-bST-treated pregnant (no bST-P) cows; and cyclic cows fed FO diet had 4 bST-treated (bST-FO) and 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-FO-C) cows. Feeding FO increased milk production, number of class 1 follicles (2 to 5 mm), and decreased insulin during the period before d 0 compared with control-fed cows. The bST increased milk production, pregnancy rate [83% (5/6) vs. 40% (4/10)], conceptus length (45 vs. 34 cm), and interferon-tau in the uterine luminal flushings (9.4 vs. 5.3 microg) with no effect on interferon-tau mRNA concentration in the conceptus. Treatment with bST increased plasma growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. Among control-fed cows (cyclic and pregnant), bST decreased progesterone concentration in plasma. Cows fed FO had less plasma insulin than control-fed cyclic cows, and FO altered the plasma GH (bST-FO > bST-C) and IGF-I (bST-C > bST-FO-C) responses to bST injections. Endometrial IGF-I mRNA was reduced in pregnant cows and tended to decrease in those fed FO. The IGF-II mRNA was increased in the endometrium of pregnant and bST-treated cows fed the control diet. Cows fed FO had increased concentrations of IGF-II mRNA, when b

  7. Maintenance energy requirements of beef cows and relationship with cow and calf performance, metabolic hormones, and functional proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Prado, M J; Long, N M; Davis, M P; Wright, E C; Madden, R D; Dilwith, J W; Bailey, C L; Spicer, L J; Wettemann, R P

    2014-08-01

    Gestating Angus, nonlactating, spring-calving cows were used to determine variation in maintenance energy requirements (MR); to evaluate the relationship among MR and cow and calf performance, plasma concentrations of IGF-I, T4, glucose, insulin, and ruminal temperature; and to describe the LM proteome and evaluate protein abundance in cows with different MR. Cows (4 to 7 yr of age) with a BCS of 5.0 ± 0.2 and BW of 582 ± 37 kg in the second to third trimester of gestation were studied in 3 trials (trial 1, n = 23; trial 2, n = 32; trial 3, n = 38). Cows were individually fed a complete diet in amounts to meet predicted MR (Level 1 Model of NRC), and feed intake was adjusted weekly until constant BW was achieved for at least 21 d (maintenance). Cows were classified on the basis of MR as low (>0.5 SD less than mean, LMR), moderate (±0.5 SD of mean, MMR), or high (>0.5 SD more than mean, HMR) MR. Blood samples were taken at maintenance and at 2 mo postpartum in trial 2. Muscle biopsies were taken from LMR and HMR after cows consumed actual MR for 28 d (trial 2) or 21 d (trial 3). Proteins from LM were separated by 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and were identified, and abundance was quantified and compared. The greatest differences in MR between cows were 29%, 24%, and 25% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Daily MR (NEm, kcal·BW(-0.75)·d(-1)) averaged 89.2 ± 6.3, 93.0 ± 4.9, and 90.4 ± 4.6 in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Postpartum BW and BCS, calf birth and weaning weights, postpartum luteal activity, and ruminal temperature were not influenced by MR of the cows. Concentrations of IGF-I were greater (P = 0.001) in plasma of MMR compared with LMR cows consuming predicted MR diets, and MR was negatively correlated with concentrations of IGF-I in plasma (r = -0.38; P = 0.05) at 2 mo postpartum. A total of 103 proteins were isolated from LM; 52 gene products were identified. Abundance of specific proteins in the LM was not influenced (P > 0

  8. Regulatory effect of dietary intake of chromium propionate on the response of monocyte-derived macrophages from Holstein cows in mid lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Qu, Y; Scholte, C M; O'Connor, D; Rounds, W; Moyes, K M

    2017-08-01

    Chromium (Cr) has been reported to enhance immune function and improve insulin sensitivity and performance in beef and dairy cattle. However, its effect on bovine macrophage inflammatory and metabolic response is unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of dietary Cr on the inflammatory and metabolic response of polarized macrophages ex vivo. Twelve primiparous and 16 multiparous healthy Holstein cows in mid lactation (143 ± 37 d in milk) were enrolled in this study. Cows were fed a common total mixed ration once per day that was top-dressed with 200 g of ground corn containing 1 of 2 dietary treatments: control (CTL, no Cr supplementation) or Cr propionate (CrP, 8 mg of Cr/cow per day) for 35 d. At d 1, 17, and 35 of treatment, blood monocytes were isolated and cultured to obtain 3 monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) phenotypes: M0 (non-polarized), M1 (pro-inflammatory; IFN-γ polarized) and M2 (anti-inflammatory; IL-4 polarized). The experiment was set in a randomized complete block design. Neither dry matter intake nor milk yield was affected by treatment. Plasma concentrations of metabolites and the metabolic and inflammatory response of MDM in spent media were not affected by treatment. Neither the whole blood cell population nor the specific proportion of leukocytes was affected by the main effect of treatment. However, we did observe a trend for fewer circulating neutrophils in cows fed CrP than in cows fed CTL for 35 d, which may be partly attributable to a greater influx of neutrophils into peripheral tissues, a reduced pro-inflammatory response during disease, or both; this warrants future study. Expression of IGFI was increased in MDM-M0, and expression of CXCL11 tended to increase in MDM-M2 from cows fed CrP compared with cows fed CTL. Expression of SLC2A3 also tended to increase in MDM-M2 from cows fed CrP compared with cows fed CTL at 17 d. Our results suggest that CrP has minimal effect on the inflammatory and metabolic

  9. Effects of feeding canola meal or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles as a major protein source in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa, T; Kiran, D; Abeysekara, S

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding canola meal (CM) or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (W-DDGS) as the major source of protein in diets varying in crude protein (CP) content on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein production, omasal nutrient flow, and production performance in lactating dairy cows. Eight lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 29-d periods (21 d of dietary adaptation and 8 d of measurements) and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The treatment factors were (1) source of supplemental protein (CM vs. W-DDGS) and (2) dietary CP content (15 vs. 17%; DM basis). Diets contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate, and were fed twice daily at 0900 and 1600 h as total mixed rations for ad libitum intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by dietary treatments; however, milk yield in cows that were fed CM was numerically greater (+1.1 kg/d) when compared with cows fed W-DDGS. Feeding CM increased milk lactose content compared with feeding W-DDGS. Milk urea nitrogen and ruminal NH3-N concentrations were greater in cows fed the high-CP compared with those fed the low-CP diet. The rumen-degradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-degradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained W-DDGS. Total N flow at the omasal canal was not affected by diet; however, omasal flow of NH3-N was greater in cows fed CM when compared with those fed W-DDGS. The rumen-undegradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the high-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-undegradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the

  10. Continuous lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torben Gosvig; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Andersen, Jens Bech

    2008-01-01

    Reports over the past decade have indicated that normal lactational performance can be achieved in genetically superior and high-producing dairy cows, even when the dry period between 2 lactations is omitted. The hypothesis tested in this experiment was that normal lactogenesis I and metabolic...... function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...

  11. Influences of supplemental feeding on winter elk calf:cow ratios in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Foley, Aaron; Cross, Paul C.; Christianson, David A; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Creely, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Several elk herds in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are fed during winter to alleviate interactions with livestock, reduce damage to stored crops, and to manage for high elk numbers. The effects of supplemental feeding on ungulate population dynamics has rarely been examined, despite the fact that supplemental feeding is partially justified as necessary for maintaining or enhancing population growth rates. We used linear regression to assess how the presence of feedgrounds, snowpack, summer rainfall, indices of grizzly bear density and wolves per elk, elk population trend counts, brucellosis seroprevalence, and survey date were correlated with midwinter calf:cow ratios, a metric correlated with population growth, from 1983–2010 from 12 ecologically similar elk herd units (7 fed and 5 unfed) in Wyoming, USA. Our statistical approach allowed for rigorous tests of the hypotheses that supplemental feeding had positive effects on calf:cow ratios and reduced sensitivity of calf:cow ratios to bottom-up limitation relative to top-down limitation from native predators. Calf:cow ratios generally declined across all herd units over the study period and varied widely among units with feedgrounds. We found no evidence that the presence of feedgrounds had positive effects on midwinter calf:cow ratios in Wyoming. Further, fed elk showed stronger correlations with environmental factors, whereas calf:cow ratios for unfed elk showed stronger correlations with predator indices. Although we found no consistent association between winter feeding and higher calf:cow ratios, we did not assess late winter mortality and differences in human offtake between fed and unfed regions, which remain a priority for future research. 

  12. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows. PMID:25938406

  13. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  14. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Lamp

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS and one pair-fed (PF at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1, cows were challenged for 6 days (P2 by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI = 76 or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  15. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 10(5) vs. 2.18 × 10(5) mL(-1) of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow.

  16. Sugarcane bagasse as exclusive roughage for dairy cows in smallholder livestock system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidiana Amélia Pontes de Almeida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study aimed to evaluate sugarcane bagasse as roughage in lactating cow on feed intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, milk production and composition, and microbial protein synthesis. Methods Ten Girolando cows at initial body weight of 450±25.6 kg and at 143.7±30.7 days in milk were assigned in two 5×5 Latin square designs. Five 21-day experimental periods were adopted (1° to 14-day: diets adaptation period; 15° to 21-day: data collection and sampling period. The diets consisted of four different levels of sugarcane bagasse (45%, 50%, 55%, and 60% and a control diet, commonly adopted in the region, based on spineless cactus (25% sugarcane bagasse, formulated to meet 12 kg/d milk yield. Results The dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, and total digestible nutrients intakes and DM and OM digestibilities observed for 45% and 50% bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet, while that 55% and 60% bagasse inclusion were lower. Cows fed control diet, and bagasse diets of 45%, and 50% levels had the nutritional requirements attended, that guaranteed 12 kg/d of milk yield. The crude protein intake and digestibility of cows fed 45%, 50%, and 55% of bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake and digestibility differ for all bagasse diets related to control diet, while the non-fiber carbohydrates intake and digestibility for cows fed 45% of bagasse were similar for control diet. The intakes and digestibilities of nutrients decreased linearly in function of bagasse inclusion; NDF and indigestible NDF intakes did not vary. The ruminating time, feeding and rumination efficiency, microbial protein synthesis and milk yield decreased linearly with sugarcane bagasse inclusion. Conclusion Sugarcane bagasse decreases milk production; however, its inclusion level in between 45% to 50% associated to concentrate could replace diets based on spineless cactus for crossbred dairy cow's producing 12 kg

  17. Sugarcane bagasse as exclusive roughage for dairy cows in smallholder livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Gleidiana Amélia Pontes; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; de Lima Silva, Janaina; Chagas, Juana Catarina Cariri; Véras, Antônia Sherlânea Chaves; de Barros, Leonardo José Assis; de Almeida, Gledson Luiz Pontes

    2018-03-01

    The study aimed to evaluate sugarcane bagasse as roughage in lactating cow on feed intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, milk production and composition, and microbial protein synthesis. Ten Girolando cows at initial body weight of 450±25.6 kg and at 143.7±30.7 days in milk were assigned in two 5×5 Latin square designs. Five 21-day experimental periods were adopted (1° to 14-day: diets adaptation period; 15° to 21-day: data collection and sampling period). The diets consisted of four different levels of sugarcane bagasse (45%, 50%, 55%, and 60%) and a control diet, commonly adopted in the region, based on spineless cactus (25% sugarcane bagasse), formulated to meet 12 kg/d milk yield. The dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and total digestible nutrients intakes and DM and OM digestibilities observed for 45% and 50% bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet, while that 55% and 60% bagasse inclusion were lower. Cows fed control diet, and bagasse diets of 45%, and 50% levels had the nutritional requirements attended, that guaranteed 12 kg/d of milk yield. The crude protein intake and digestibility of cows fed 45%, 50%, and 55% of bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and digestibility differ for all bagasse diets related to control diet, while the non-fiber carbohydrates intake and digestibility for cows fed 45% of bagasse were similar for control diet. The intakes and digestibilities of nutrients decreased linearly in function of bagasse inclusion; NDF and indigestible NDF intakes did not vary. The ruminating time, feeding and rumination efficiency, microbial protein synthesis and milk yield decreased linearly with sugarcane bagasse inclusion. Sugarcane bagasse decreases milk production; however, its inclusion level in between 45% to 50% associated to concentrate could replace diets based on spineless cactus for crossbred dairy cow's producing 12 kg/d of milk.

  18. Supplementation of monensin and Optimase to beef cows consuming low-quality forage during late gestation and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneen, S K; McGee, A L; Cole, J R; Jennings, J S; Stein, D R; Horn, G W; Lalman, D L

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to investigate the effects of feeding monensin and/or slow release urea with a fibrolytic feed enzyme (Optimase; Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY) on performance, milk production, calf growth performance, and blood metabolites in beef cows. Spring-calving cows and heifers were used in a completely randomized design in Exp. 1 (N = 84; 534 ± 68 kg initial BW) and Exp. 2 (N = 107; 508 ± 72 kg initial BW). Exp. 1 supplements were formulated to meet cow protein requirements and fed daily and included 1) cottonseed meal with no monensin (control); or 2) monensin added to control to supply 200 mg per head per d (MON). In Exp. 2, experimental supplements included 1) cottonseed meal/wheat middlings (CS) fed at a rate to provide adequate DIP and CP according to , 2) the CS plus soybean hulls and 61 g per cow per d Optimase (OPT), 3) the CS plus monensin to supply 200 mg per cow per d (MON2), and 4) OPT plus MON2 (Combo). Cows were fed in last trimester through early lactation in Exp. 1 and during 2nd trimester in Exp. 2. Data were analyzed using the Mixed procedure in SAS with animal as the experimental unit. In Exp. 1, treatment did not affect cow BW or BCS change (P > 0.19). Calf birth BW was not affected by dam treatment (P = 0.24); however, calves from dams consuming MON weighed more (P Milk production did not significantly differ among treatments (P > 0.41). In Exp. 2, mean cow BW and BCS were similar (P > 0.35) among treatments on d 90. However, from d 0 to 54, cows assigned to the OPT supplement gained less BCS (P = 0.02) compared with cows assigned to the CS supplement. Cumulative BCS gain was greater (P calf performance during early lactation seems to be clearer. Replacing a portion of oilseed N in the supplement with Optimase may marginally reduce cow performance. Further research is needed to determine both the effects of monensin and the implications of combining monensin with Optimase on forage intake and cow performance at

  19. Zilpaterol improves feeding performance and fabrication yield of concentrate-finished cull cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, T E; Gasch, C A; Hutcheson, J P; Hodgen, J M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feeding performance and fabrication yield of concentrate-finished cull cows. Three hundred twenty commercial cull cows (2 to 10 yr old) were obtained from ranches in Missouri and South Dakota and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) a control diet containing no ZH and 2) a diet that contained ZH. Cows were fed for 75, 88, or 110 d, and all received the control ration until ZH treatments were initiated. Twenty-four days before slaughter, ZH feeding began for the designated treatment pens; cows were fed ZH [8.33 mg/kg (100% DM basis)] for 20 d with a 4-d withdrawal period before slaughter. No differences (P>0.05) were detected between the 2 treatment groups for initial BW or DMI. Final BW (640.5 vs. 619.1 kg), ADG for the last 24 d (2.75 vs. 2.17 kg), and G:F for the last 24 d (0.160 vs. 0.126) were greater (P 0.05) were found for lean or skeletal maturity score, fat thickness, LM area, HCW, or calculated yield grade among the 2 treatment groups. Feeding ZH increased (P0.07) were found for the remaining fabrication yield attributes. The ZH-treated cows had greater (Pfeeding of ZH to concentrate-finished cull cows enhances production efficiencies and can add new value to the cull cow market. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of body condition score on live and carcass value of cull beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K

    1999-10-01

    Mature beef cows (n = 88) were slaughtered to determine the influence of body condition score (BCS) on carcass and live animal value. Cows were weighed and assigned a BCS (9-point scale), 24 h before slaughter. Hide and by-products weights were recorded during harvest. After a 48-h chill period, the right side of each carcass was fabricated into boneless subprimal cuts, minor cuts, lean trim, fat, and bone. Weights were recorded at all stages of fabrication. Carcass values (U.S.$/100 kg of hot carcass weight) were calculated for U.S. Utility and U.S. Cutter grades, as well as for the Utility/Cutter mix for each BCS. Gross value included the carcass value and the value of the hide and byproducts, whereas net value was calculated after harvest and fabrication costs and by-product value were considered. Live value (U.S.$/100 kg of live weight) was computed by dividing the net value by the animal's live weight 24 h before harvest. The value of the hide and by-products for BCS-2 cows was greater (Pmix, cows designated with a BCS of 7 and 8 had greater (P.05) to BCS-7 cows. Information from this study can be used by the non-fed beef industry to establish a value-based marketing system. Data from this study would indicate that marketing cull beef cows at a BCS of 6 could optimize economic returns to both cow-calf producers and non-fed beef packers.

  1. Interactions between barley grain processing and source of supplemental dietary fat on nitrogen metabolism and urea-nitrogen recycling in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozho, G N; Hobin, M R; Mutsvangwa, T

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of methods of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on urea-N transfer to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the utilization of this recycled urea-N in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (656.3 +/- 27.7 kg of BW; 79.8 +/- 12.3 d in milk) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods and a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Experimental diets contained dry-rolled barley or pelleted barley in combination with whole canola or whole flaxseed as supplemental fat sources. Nitrogen balance was measured from d 15 to 19, with concurrent measurements of urea-N kinetics using continuous intrajugular infusions of [15N 15N]-urea. Dry matter intake and N intake were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Nitrogen retention was not affected by diet, but fecal N excretion was higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in those fed pelleted barley. Actual and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by diet. Milk fat content and milk fat yield were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Source of supplemental fat did not affect urea-N kinetics. Urea-N production was higher (442.2 vs. 334.3 g of N/d), and urea-N entering the GIT tended to be higher (272.9 vs. 202.0 g of N/d), in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. The amount of urea-N entry into the GIT that was returned to the ornithine cycle was higher (204.1 vs. 159.5 g of N/d) in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in pelleted barley-fed cows. The amount of urea-N recycled to the GIT and used for anabolic purposes, and the amounts lost in the urine or feces were not affected by dietary treatment. Microbial nonammonia N supply, estimated using total urinary excretion of purine derivatives, was not affected by diet. These results show that even though barley grain processing altered urea

  2. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Supplementation with partially hydrogenated oil in grazing dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, G F; Gagliostro, G A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I

    2002-03-01

    Effects of partially hydrogenated oil on performance, loss of body weight and body condition score, and blood metabolite and hormone concentrations were evaluated in 37 multiparous Holstein cows in grazing conditions during the first 100 d of lactation. Six additional Holstein cows, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were allocated to a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square to evaluate effects of supplemental fat on rumen environment and pasture digestion. All cows grazed mixed pastures based on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and received 5.4 kg/d of a basal concentrate to which 0, 0.5, or 1 kg/cow per day of partially hydrogenated oil (melting point 58 to 60 degrees C) containing 30.3, 34.9, 21.8, and 3.3% of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C182, respectively, was added. Feeding 1 kg/d of supplemental fat increased fat-corrected milk from 23.4 to 26.3 kg/d, milk fat content from 3.44 to 3.78%, and milk fat yield from 0.87 to 1.03 kg/d compared to control. Milk protein percentage and yield were not affected. Cows fed 1 kg/d of fat increased the content and yield of C16:0 and C18:0 in milk compared with cows fed no added oil. Dry matter intake (DMI) from pasture decreased from 17.8 kg/d for control cows to 13.6 kg/d for cows fed 1 kg of oil, whereas DMI from concentrate was higher for cows fed 1 kg/d of fat (6.0 kg/d) than for controls (5.2 kg/d). Supplemental fat did not affect total dry matter or estimated energy intake and did not change losses of body weight or body condition scores. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, somatotrophin, and insulin-like growth factor-I did not differ among treatments. Concentration of plasma triglycerides was lowered from 318.5 to 271.2 mg/dl, whereas plasma cholesterol was elevated from 185.0 to 235.8 mg/dl in cows receiving 1 kg/d of supplemental fat compared with controls. Responses to lipolytic or insulin challenges were not affected by feeding oil. Supplemental fat did not affect

  4. Importance of the first meal on the development of cow's milk allergy and intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A

    1991-01-01

    A cohort of 1749 newborns from the municipality of Odense born during 1985 in the University Hospital of Odense were followed prospectively for the development of cow's milk allergy (CMA)/cow's milk protein intolerance (CMI) during their first year. The diagnosis of CMA/CMI was based on elimination....../open milk challenge procedures according to generally accepted criteria. Thirty nine infants (2.2%) developed CMA/CMI. Infants with CMA/CMI were fed cow's milk formula daily during the first month of life significantly more often than infants in the study population (p less than .001). All 39 infants...... with CMA/CMI had ingested cow's milk formula (40-830 mL) neonatally, whereas none of the 210 neonates without supplements of cow's milk formula developed CMA/CMI (p less than .05). Based on a positive skin-prick test (2+ or more) and/or specific serum IgE antibody to cow's milk (AL-RAST class 2 or more) 16...

  5. Daidzein enhances immune function in late lactation cows under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, De-Yi; He, Shao-Jun; Liu, Shi-Qing; Tang, Yi-Guo; Jin, Er-Hui; Chen, Hui-Liang; Li, Sheng-He; Zhong, Liang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress decreases natural immunity making cows more vulnerable to diseases. A previous study reported that daidzein can enhance animal resistance to heat stress and regulate animal immunocompetence. However, it is unclear whether daidzein regulates the immune performance of late lactation cows under heat stress. In this study, late lactation cows in four groups were raised in hot weather and fed with basic diet, basic diet plus 200, 300, 400 mg/day daidzein, respectively, and the experimental period was 60 days. Blood was collected to examine the changes of serum total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), immunoglobulin G (IgG), interferon alpha (IFN-α), and interleukin-2 (IL-2). We found the levels of serum IgG and INF-α were significantly higher in late lactation cows after 300 and 400 mg/day daidzein treatment compared to those in the control group and 200 mg/day daidzein treatment (P 0.05). Daidzein can enhance the immunocompetence of late lactation cows and strengthen cow resistance to heat stress. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Effects of an energy-dense diet and nicotinic acid supplementation on production and metabolic variables of primiparous or multiparous cows in periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Reka; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana; Meyer, Ulrich; Locher, Lena; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna; Kenéz, Ákos; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    It is well observed that feeding energy-dense diets in dairy cows during the dry period can cause metabolic imbalances after parturition. Especially dairy cows with high body condition score (BCS) and fed an energy-dense diet were prone to develop production diseases due to metabolic disturbances postpartum. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of an energy-dense diet and nicotinic acid (NA) on production and metabolic variables of primiparous and multiparous cows in late pregnancy and early lactation which were not pre-selected for high BCS. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous German Holstein cows with equal body conditions were fed with energy-dense (60% concentrate/40% roughage mixture; HC group) or adequate (30% concentrate/70% roughage mixture; LC group) diets prepartum. After parturition, concentrate proportion was dropped to 30% for all HC and LC groups and was increased to 50% within 16 days for LC and within 24 days for HC cows. In addition, half of the cows per group received 24 g NA supplement per day and cow aimed to attenuate the lipid mobilisation postpartum. Feeding energy-dense diets to late-pregnant dairy cows elevated the dry matter (p metabolic deviation postpartum as the effects of prepartum concentrate feeding were not carried over into postpartum period. Multiparous cows responded more profoundly to energy-dense feeding prepartum compared with primiparous cows, and parity-related differences in the transition from late pregnancy to lactation were obvious pre- and postpartum. The supplementation with 24 g NA did not reveal any effect on energy metabolism. This study clearly showed that energy-dense feeding prepartum did not result in metabolic imbalances postpartum in multiparous and primiparous cows not selected for high BCS. A genetic predisposition for an anabolic metabolic status as indicated by high BCS may be crucial for developing production diseases at the onset of lactation.

  7. Changes in feed intake, growth, feed efficiency, and body composition of beef cattle fed forage then concentrate diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine changes in production traits and body composition of beef steers and heifers when fed a forage-based ration followed by a concentrate-based ration. Cattle were progeny of composite breed cows bred to Charolais, Simmental, and Red Angus bulls. Appro...

  8. Produção e composição do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com fenos de alfafa e de tifton-85 e silagem de milho Milk production and composition of Holstein cows fed with alfafa and tifton-85 hays and corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóves Cabreira Jobim

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos da ingestão dos fenos de alfafa e tifton-85 e da silagem de milho na produção e composição do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa, multíparas, com peso vivo médio de 460 kg, em início de lactação, num experimento em triplo quadrado latino, simultâneo, com três linhas (vacas e três colunas (volumoso. Não houve efeito (p > 0,05 dos diferentes volumosos na produção e na composição do leite, nem nas porcentagens e produções de gordura, de proteína, de lactose e de sólidos totais. Também a contagem de células somáticas não foi afetada pelos tratamentos. Os resultados da análise econômica mostraram que a silagem de milho proporcionou maior margem líquida por litro de leite/dia produzido.This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of intake of alfalfa and tifton-85 hays and corn silage on the milk production and composition of multiparous Holstein cows, averaging 460 kg in body weight, at the beginning of lactation, using a triple Latin square, simultaneous, with three lines (cows and three columns (forages. There was no effect (p > 0.05 of the different types of forage on the milk production and composition, or on the percentage the production of fat, protein, lactose, total solids, and somatic cell count. The results of the economic analysis showed that the corn silage provided a larger liquid margin for liters of milk produced per day.

  9. Effects of supplementary folic acid and vitamin B(12) on hepatic metabolism of dairy cows according to methionine supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preynat, A; Lapierre, H; Thivierge, M C; Palin, M F; Cardinault, N; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Girard, C L

    2010-05-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to study the interactions between dietary supplements of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and intramuscular injections of folic acid and vitamin B(12), given from 3 wk before calving to 16 wk of lactation, on hepatic metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 10 blocks of 6 cows each according to their previous milk production. Within each block, 3 cows were fed a diet calculated to supply Met as 1.83% of metabolizable protein, whereas the 3 other cows were fed the same diet supplemented with 18g of RPM calculated to provide Met as 2.23% of metabolizable protein. Within each level of Met, the cows received no vitamin supplement or weekly intramuscular injections of 160mg of folic acid alone or combined with 10mg of vitamin B(12). Liver biopsies were taken at 2, 4, 8, and 16 wk of lactation. Liver concentrations of folates and vitamin B(12) were increased by their respective supplements but this response to vitamin supplements was altered by methionine supply. Concentrations of total lipids and triglycerides increased in livers of cows fed RPM, whereas concentrations of cholesterol ester, cholesterol, diglycerides, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were not affected. Folic acid, alone or combined with vitamin B(12), tended to increase the ratio of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine. Gene expression of 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase, microsomal transfer protein, and phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase were higher in liver of cows fed RPM supplements. The relative mRNA abundance of 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase were increased by the combined injections of folic acid and vitamin B(12), whereas those of methionine synthase and methionine synthase reductase were not affected by treatments. These results suggest that increasing supply of methyl groups, as preformed labile methyl groups or through

  10. Effects of supplemental protein type on productivity of primiparous beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderton, B W; Hixon, D L; Hess, B W; Woodard, L F; Hallford, D M; Moss, G E

    2000-12-01

    Effects of supplemental degradable (DIP) and undegradable (UIP) intake protein on forage intake, BW change, body condition score (BCS), postpartum interval to first estrus, conception rate, milk production and composition, serum metabolites and metabolic hormones, and calf gain were determined using 36 primiparous Gelbvieh x Angus rotationally crossed beef cows. On d 3 postpartum, cows (average initial BW = 495 +/- 10 kg and BCS = 5.5 +/- 0.1) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary supplements (12 cows/treatment). Date of parturition was evenly distributed across treatment (average span of calving date among treatments = 2.4 +/- 2.5 d). Individually fed (d 3 through 120 postpartum) dietary supplements were 0.82 kg of corn and 0.23 kg of soybean meal per day (DIP), the DIP + 0.12 kg of blood meal and 0.13 kg of corn gluten meal per day (DIP + UIP), and 0.82 kg of corn, 0.07 kg of blood meal, and 0.08 kg of corn gluten meal per day in an isonitrogenous replacement of soybean meal (UIP IsoN). Cows had ad libitum access to native grass hay (8.5% CP) and trace-mineralized salt. Total OM intake was greater (P = 0.06) for DIP + UIP than UIP IsoN cows. At 30 d postpartum, DIP + UIP cows produced more milk than UIP IsoN, with DIP being intermediate; however, at 60 d postpartum, DIP + UIP and DIP cows were not different, but both had greater milk production than UIP IsoN (treatment x day interaction; P = 0.08). A treatment x day interaction (P = 0.06) for BCS resulted from DIP + UIP cows having the greatest BCS at 60, 90, and 120 d d postpartum and DIP having greater BCS than UIP IsoN cows only on d 60 postpartum. Serum insulin concentrations were highest (treatment x day interaction; P = 0.09) for DIP + UIP cows at 30 d postpartum but did not differ among treatment thereafter. Serum insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-2 (34 kDa) and -3 (40 and 44 kDa) were greatest (P calf weaning weights were unaffected (P = 0.35, 0.42, and 0.64, respectively) by

  11. Effects of Supplementation on Cows With Impaired Fertility in Koibatek and Nakuru Districts Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokwaleput, I.; Siamba, D.N.; Onyango, T.A.; Nampaso, J.S.; Sitienei, K.K.; Lang'at, P.K.; Kessei, L.K.

    1999-01-01

    In a survey conducted in 1996, 82 and 60 cows with impaired fertility were found on 63 and 53 farms in Koibatek District and Bahati division, Nakuru district, respectively. These cows were appraised visually for body condition, and rectal palpation was done to determine the condition of their reproductive organs. The survey revealed that about 50% of the cows were in poor condition; about 60% were in anoestrus, thus indicating the effect of nutrition. Work carried out earlier in Kiambu, Nyandarua and Nakuru districts of Kenya to ascertain factors causing impaired fertility in cows on-farm, showed that management factors and most importantly, nutrition has the greatest effect. These study has therefore confirmed this phenomenon. An on-farm experiment was therefore conducted from mid -November, 1996 to early March, 1997 to determine effects of feeding supplements on the reproduction performance of cows fertility with calving intervals 1.5 years. Thirty six cows on 32 farms in Koibatek were assigned to three treatments: 14 to Dairy meal (DM), 12 to minerals (MIN) and 10 to Dairy meal and minerals (DM+MIN). In Bahati 40 cows, each on a farm were assigned to four treatments: 10 to DM, 10 to MIN , 10 to DM+MIN and 10 to Free grazing (FG). Apart from normal grazing or Stall-feeding, experimental animals were fed daily for 105 days with additional concentrates (DM=2 kg) Dairy meal and/or minerals (MIN: 50 g Maclick super). Freely grazed animals without supplementation acted as controls. Cows were monitored for reproductive events, liveweight changes and milk production. At the start of the experiment, the liveweights of the animals were 356 and 343 kg in Koibatek and Bahati, respectively. During supplemetation, the average liveweights of the cows increased by 18 and 25 kg, while milk production increased by 10 and 5% in Koibatek and Bahati, respectively. These increases were for cows on DM+MIN and were realized during the second month of supplementation. cows on treatments

  12. Effect of energy balance profiles on metabolic and reproductive response in Holstein and Swedish Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntallaris, T; Humblot, P; Båge, R; Sjunnesson, Y; Dupont, J; Berglund, B

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the effect of two feeding levels during the antepartum and postpartum period on reproductive performance and blood metabolites (glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin) in primiparous Holstein and Swedish Red (SRB) cows, in order to identify possible differences in the way these breeds respond to negative energy balance after calving. A total of 44 cows (22 Holstein, 22 SRB) kept in a loose housing system were included in the study. The control group (HE, n = 23) was fed a diet for high-producing cows (target 35 kg/d energycorrected milk, ECM). A lower feeding intensity (LE, n = 21) was achieved by giving -50% concentrate to target 25 kg/d ECM. Diets were implemented 30 days before expected calving and the cows were monitored for 120 days postpartum. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), live body weight and body condition score (BCS) were assessed to calculate the weekly energy balance (residual feed intake). Blood sampling started before diet implementation and was repeated every 2 weeks until Day 60 postpartum and then once monthly until Day 120. Plasma was kept at -20 °C until analysis for glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations. Mixed linear models were used to analyse data (SAS 9.3; PROC MIXED). Holstein cows had lower mean energy balance than SRB cows (-4.7 ± 1.4 and -0.9 ± 1.4 MJ, respectively; p = 0.05). SRB cows had higher (pcows (2.7 ± 0.1) and also higher plasma glucose concentrations from Day -30 to Day 120 relative to parturition (4.1 ± 0.1 and 4.2 ± 0.1 log ; mg/100 ml, respectively; p cows than in Holsteins at Day -14 before calving, indicating higher mobilisation of lipid from adipose tissue already before calving. In contrast, Holstein cows had higher NEFA at Day 14 postpartum than SRB cows (p cows prioritise milk production to a larger extent than SRB cows, resulting in a less balanced metabolic profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Response profiles of enteric methane emissions and lactational performance during habituation to dietary coconut oil in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, M; Powers, W J; Fogiel, A C; Liesman, J S; Beede, D K

    2013-03-01

    Dietary coconut oil (CNO) can reduce dry matter intake (DMI), enteric methane (eCH(4)) emissions, and milk fat yield of lactating cows. The goals of this research were to examine responses to different CNO concentrations during the habituation period (34-d) and to evaluate temporal patterns of DMI, eCH(4), and milk fat yield. Treatment diets contained (dry basis): 0.0% (CNO0), 1.3% (CNO1.3), 2.7% (CNO2.7), 3.3% (CNO3.3), or 4.0% CNO (CNO4). In experiment 1, 12 primi- or small secundiparous cows were housed in individual, environmentally controlled rooms and fed CNO0, CNO1.3, CNO2.7, or CNO4. Measurements included DMI, eCH(4), and milk yield and composition. Due to a precipitous drop in DMI (26%), cows fed CNO4 were replaced with cows fed CNO3.3 following d 10. Dietary CNO of 2.7% or more reduced eCH(4) emissions. Reduction was greater with increased CNO and during the first than the second half of the day. Simultaneously, decline in DMI of cows fed CNO2.7, CNO3.3, or CNO4 was increasingly precipitous with increased CNO concentration. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility during wk 5 was reduced in cows fed CNO2.7 or CNO3.3, which in part explained concomitantly reduced eCH(4)/DMI. In addition, milk fat yield was depressed at an increasing rate in cows fed CNO2.7, CNO3.3, and CNO4. In experiment 2, DMI was measured individually in 12 multiparous cows during habituation to CNO0, CNO1.3, CNO2.7, or CNO3.3 for 21 d before relocation to individual, environmentally controlled rooms. Dietary CNO2.7 or CNO3.3 reduced DMI by d 4 and total-tract NDF digestibility during wk 5. Relocation to individual rooms was associated with a 15% reduction in DMI, which was not affected by treatment. Results showed that 2.7% or more dietary CNO reduced eCH(4) and DMI, caused milk fat depression, and decreased NDF digestibility. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of nitrogen fertilisation rate and maturity of grass silage on methane emission by lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, D.; Hatew, B.; Podesta, S.C.; Klop, G.; Gastelen, van S.; Laar, van H.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    Grass silage is typically fed to dairy cows in temperate regions. However, in vivo information on methane (CH4) emission from grass silage of varying quality is limited. We evaluated the effect of two rates of nitrogen (N) fertilisation of grassland (low fertilisation (LF), 65 kg of N/ha; and high

  15. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Fonken, B.C.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Perdok, H.B.; Fokkink, W.B.; Newbold, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives

  16. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund

    2012-01-01

    and therefore has a major impact on economics and cow welfare. Moist and unhygienic conditions in the cows’ surroundings are considered as important risk factors for DD partly because this can disturb the skin barrier and make the animals more susceptible to infection and partly because the environment might...... act as an infection reservoir. Measures of cow leg cleanliness can be used as a proxy of the hygienic conditions on the floors. Nonetheless, only few studies have used direct measures of cleanliness in association with the risk of DD. Also, little is known about what factors can influence the cow leg...... cleanliness. More knowledge on these aspects will increase our understanding of the disease epidemiology and is essential to improve the success of controlling DD at the herd level. Therefore, the objectives of the present PhD thesis were 1) To investigate the relationship between cow leg cleanliness and DD...

  17. Voxel-Based Morphometry and fMRI Revealed Differences in Brain Gray Matter in Breastfed and Milk Formula-Fed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, X; Andres, A; Pivik, R T; Cleves, M A; Snow, J H; Ding, Z; Badger, T M

    2016-04-01

    Infant diets may have significant impact on brain development in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate brain gray matter structure and function in 8-year-old children who were predominantly breastfed or fed cow's milk formula as infants. Forty-two healthy children (breastfed: n = 22, 10 boys and 12 girls; cow's milk formula: n = 20, 10 boys and 10 girls) were studied by using structural MR imaging (3D T1-weighted imaging) and blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI (while performing tasks involving visual perception and language functions). They were also administered standardized tests evaluating intelligence (Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales) and language skills (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals). Total brain gray matter volume did not differ between the breastfed and cow's milk formula groups. However, breastfed children had significantly higher (P left inferior temporal lobe and left superior parietal lobe compared with cow's milk formula-fed children. Breastfed children showed significantly more brain activation in the right frontal and left/right temporal lobes on fMRI when processing the perception task and in the left temporal/occipital lobe when processing the visual language task than cow's milk formula-fed children. The imaging findings were associated with significantly better performance for breastfed than cow's milk formula-fed children on both tasks. Our findings indicated greater regional gray matter development and better regional gray matter function in breastfed than cow's milk formula-fed children at 8 years of age and suggested that infant diets may have long-term influences on brain development in children. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. Rusitec the cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Full text: The rumen is an important part of the digestive tract of ruminant animals such as cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats. It contains large numbers of micro-organisms whose function is to break down fibrous feed materials such as grass and straw and convert them to products that can be used by the animal to produce meat, milk, wool or draught power. To study the microbial population of the rumen under controlled laboratory conditions, Dr. J.W. Czerkawski of the Hannah Research Institute, Scotland, U.K., developed an 'artificial cow'. The 'cow', named RUSITEC (from the acronym of 'Rumen Simulation Technique') is today being used as part of a project to analyse different feedstuffs being carried out by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at their joint Agricultural Laboratory at Seibersdorf near Vienna, Austria. In the artificial rumen micro-organisms can be indefinitely maintained by feeding a normal ruminant diet each day and providing the correct physiological conditions in terms of temperature, pH and flow of saliva. As RUSITEC chews its way through different feeds, scientists use radioactive tracing techniques to compare their digestibility. (The higher the digestibility of a foodstuff, the higher the nutritive value that can be derived from it.) By analysing the quality of different feeding materials in this way, scientists are seeking to propose improved diets for domestic animals in the developing world. Photos on this page show RUSITEC at work. Below, the vessels representing the rumen, where microbial fermentation of diets takes place; right, the rumen simulation technique in operation; below right, analysis of the end products of fermentative digestion

  19. Nutrition of the transition cow

    OpenAIRE

    BEŇASOVÁ, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis titled Nutrition of the transition cow deals with nutrition of dairy cows in peripartum period with regard to prevention of development of metabolic diseases. Anatomy of digestive system and physiology of digestive processes are briefly described. Characteristic of nutrients and of the most common feeds used for nutrition of dairy cattle serves as introduction to formulation of dairy rations. Metabolic diseases caused by inadequate nutrition in transition period are the b...

  20. Beef cow-calf production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuz, Dillon M; Umberger, Wendy J

    2003-07-01

    Cow-calf production occurs in all 50 states over varied resource bases and under vastly different environmental conditions. Multiple breeds exist and management styles and objectives are as numerous as the number of cow-calf producers. There is not one area of the country, one breed of cattle, or one management style that is most profitable for producing cows and calves. There are, however, some common strategies that can be employed by cow-calf producers to enhance profitability. Costs need to be controlled without jeopardizing cow herd productivity or net returns. It appears that the cost associated with purchased and harvested feeds varies considerably across operations. Understanding cyclic and seasonal price patterns, weight-price slides, cattle shrink, and other marketing costs can help producers enhance their profit by marketing (and not by just selling) their cattle. Producers with superior cattle genetics can become part of a specific alliance or, at a minimum, document the performance of their cattle so that they can get paid for the superior genetics. The beef industry is changing and will likely continue to change. Cow-calf producers will need to examine their own management practices to determine whether they are optimal for the current industry. Those producers who are most adept at matching their management abilities to their cattle type, their resource base, and the appropriate market outlet will be the most successful in the future.

  1. Effects of Feeding Garlic and Juniper Berry Essential Oils on Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs, thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two EOs (garlic and juniper berry oils and monensin on FA profiles of milk fat. Four ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a total mixed ration without supplementation (control, or supplemented with monensin (330 mg/head per day, garlic oil (5 g/head per day, or juniper berry oil (2 g/head per day. The FA composition of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated was not affected by supplementation of EO and monensin. However, proportion of conjugated linoleic acid trans 10, cis 12 (CLA t10, c12 was higher ( P < 0.05 for cows fed EO or monensin than for control cows. Supplementation of monensin increased ( P < 0.05 the proportion of total trans FA compared with the control. These results indicate that supplementation of the dairy cow diet with garlic or juniper berry EO or monensin had the potential to increase the proportion of CLA t10, c12 in milk fat with minimal overall effects on FA of milk fat. The results also confirm the increase of 18:1 t10 in milk fat by feeding monensin to dairy cows.

  2. The effect of partial replacement of corn silage on rumen degradability, milk production and composition in lactating primiparous dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Biricik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of corn silage with long alfalfa hay and/or coarse chopped wheat straw on neutral detergent fibre (NDF rumen degradability, milk yield and composition in late lactating dairy cows fed diets with 50% forage on dry matter basis. Twelve late lactating Holstein primiparous cows including four cows equipped with a rumen cannula, averaging 210 ± 20 d in milk and weighing 575 ± 50 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design. During each of four 21-d periods, cows were fed 4 total mixed diets that were varied in the forage sources: 1 50% corn silage (CS, 2 35% corn silage + 15% wheat straw (CSW, 3 35% corn silage + 15% alfalfa hay (CSA, 4 25% corn silage + 10% wheat straw + 15% alfalfa hay (CSWA. The production of milk averaged 18.55, 20.41 and 20.06 kg/d for unadjusted milk production, 4% fat corrected milk and solid corrected milk, respectively, and was not affected by treatments. Likewise, milk composition or production of milk components was not affected by diets and averaged 4.69% fat, 3.66% protein, 4.51% lactose, 866 g/d fat, 665 g/d protein, 824 g/d lactose. Treatments had no effect on in situ NDF soluble, degradable and potential degradability of all diets, whereas the effective degradability (ED of NDF was greater for cows fed CS diet than for cows fed CSW, CSA and CSWA diets (P<0.05. These values suggested that the partial replacement of corn silage with alfalfa hay and/or wheat straw has no unfavourable effect on the productive parameters.

  3. High levels of whole raw soya beans in dairy cow diets: digestibility and animal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Freitas Junior, J E; Verdurico, L C; Mingoti, R D; Bettero, V P; Benevento, B C; Vilela, F G; Rennó, F P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high levels of whole raw soya beans in the diets of lactating cows. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used, randomized in three 4 ×  4 balanced and contemporary Latin squares and fed the following diets: (i) control (C), without including whole raw soya beans; (ii) 80 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G80); (iii) 160 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G160); and (iv) 240 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G240). There was significant reduction (p beans in dairy cow diets improves the unsaturated fatty acid profile in milk, and the diets (G80 and G160) led to minor alterations in the digestive processes and animal metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. The influence of protein feed supplements for composition of cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čermák Bohuslav

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments at three experimental groups(each n=9 cows the supplement of protein through extracted soja and AMINOTEK were observed. Average daily milk yield depend on month after calving. (1st x= 28  s´=20,2, 2nd x=35 s=25,6, 3nd x=31 s=26,8. The differences among basic milk nutriments were not statistical significant during experiment. The contents of milk nutriments were decreased at the control group and at the both experiment groups in January. A tendency to higher level of proteins, methionine and cystine  was at the experiment groups. The content of lysine is constant. We observed increase content of oil acid in milk tested dairy cow. These dairy cows were fed by AMINOTEK suplement. The oil acid could be basic component in another non-saturated acid in milk fat (NNKT. Again was find higher delegacy linol acid.

  5. Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in grazing Irish dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Luke; Doherty, Michael L; Mulligan, Finbar J

    2008-04-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a significant production disease of dairy cattle. Previous concerns have been raised over the occurrence of SARA in pasture-fed dairy cattle and the potential consequences of laminitis and lameness. Highly digestible perennial rye grass contains high concentrations of rapidly fermentable carbohydrate and low concentrations of physical effective fibre that may result in SARA. This study conducted a point prevalence survey of rumen health status in grazing Irish dairy cattle fed predominantly perennial rye grass-based pasture. The survey assessed rumen fluid, animal health status, milk production data and pasture composition. A total of 144 cows between 80 and 150 days in milk were sampled on 12 farms. Eleven percent of cows were classified as affected with SARA (pH 5.8). The study showed that low rumen pH is prevalent in grazing Irish dairy cattle consuming perennial rye grass-based pasture and raises concerns regarding effective pasture utilisation and possible consequences for animal health.

  6. Mineral balance studies in very low birth weight infants fed human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanler, R.J.; Abrams, S.A.; Garza, C.

    1988-01-01

    Mineral homeostasis often is disrupted in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant fed either human milk or commercial formula that contains insufficient quantities of available calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Alterations in mineral homeostasis include abnormal patterns of serum (Ca and P concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity) and urine (Ca and P) biochemical markers, low net Ca and P retentions in comparison with intrauterine estimates of mineral accretion, and decreased bone mineral content. A two-phase study was conducted in our laboratory to test for these alterations in mineral homeostasis. In phase 1, VLBW infants fed a preparation of fortified human milk (either human milk-derived fortifier I or II or cow milk-derived fortifier) or cow milk-based formula specially designed for VLBW infants were evaluated during their hospitalization. In phase 2, after hospitalization, these infants were evaluated during the first 6 months of life when fed either their mother's milk or routine formula exclusively. The bioavailability of Ca and P from the tested preparations varied widely. Although the fortification of human milk resulted in both an improved biochemical pattern and net retention of Ca and P, optimal intrauterine mineral accretion was not achieved in any group tested. Longitudinal assessments of bone mineralization, by single photon absorptiometry, demonstrated that human milk-fed former VLBW infants had reduced bone mineral content. These investigations suggest that former VLBW infants fed human milk exclusively may be at risk for Ca and P deficiencies

  7. Effect of peroral supplementation with selenium and vitamin e during late pregnancy on udder health and milk quality in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Vasiľ; František Zigo; Juraj Elečko; Martina Zigová; Zuzana Farkašová

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study selenium and vitamin E sources in the diet of dairy cows in late phase of pregnancy and their effects on udder health and milk quality during the first two weeks after calving. The experiment included 48 cows of Holstein breed divided into four equal groups (n = 12). The first experimental group (D1) was fed with addition of vitamin E in total dose of 1020 dl-a-tocopherol acetate Se/cow per day. The second group (D2) was added the selenium at a dose of 0...

  8. Nutritional strategies to combat physiological imbalance of dairy cows during early lactation: The effect of changes in dietary protein to starch-ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Friggens, Nic; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2010-01-01

    Thirty Danish Holstein cows were used to determine how cows in early lactation adapt to changes in protein to starch supply in order to manipulate metabolism to combat physiological imbalance. During weeks 4 through 6 of lactation, 10 cows were fed either a high protein to starch ratio (high) diet...... for the low, control and high diets, respectively. Besides milk urea nitrogen, no other production or metabolic parameters were affected by treatment. In conclusion, manipulation of dietary protein to starch is not a potential strategy to combat physiological imbalance during early lactation...

  9. Yeast culture increased plasma niacin concentration, evaporative heat loss, and feed efficiency of dairy cows in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Julia D L; Silva, Rayana B; Fernandes, Tatiane; Barbosa, Eugenio F; Graças, Larissa E C; Araujo, Rafael C; Pereira, Renata A N; Pereira, Marcos N

    2018-04-04

    The supplementation of dairy cows with yeast culture may increase diet digestibility, plasma niacin concentration, heat dissipation, and lactation performance. Our objective was to evaluate the response of Holstein cows in late lactation (234 ± 131 d in milk) to dead yeast culture (YC, 15 g/d, Factor SC, GRASP, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during Brazilian summer (temperature-humidity index >68 for 92.2% of the time). Thirty-two cows were individually fed a standard total mixed ration for 14 d and control (CTL) or YC treatments for 35 d, in a covariate adjusted complete randomized block design. Response was evaluated in wk 5 or as repeated measures over time. Cows were milked 3 times per day and treatments (YC or placebo) were orally dosed to each cow before each milking. Plasma niacin was 1.50 for CTL and 1.66 µg/mL for YC. The YC reduced rectal temperature, respiration rate, and skin temperature, whereas it tended to increase sweating rate. The proportion of cows with rectal temperature ≥39.2°C on CTL and YC was, respectively, 8 and 0% at 0730 h, 52 and 25% at 1500 h, and 35 and 26% at 2200 h. Plasma glucose was increased by YC. The total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients, plasma urea N concentration, molar proportion of ruminal VFA, and urinary allantoin excretion were not affected by YC. Cows fed YC were less selective against feed particles >19 mm in the morning, in the afternoon were more selective against long feed particles and in favor of particles loss, and feed efficiency of late lactation dairy cows by reducing intake at similar milk yield. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance, body fat reserves and plasma metabolites in Brown Swiss dairy cows: Indoor feeding versus pasture-based feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H-J; Gross, J J; Petermann, R; Probst, S; Bruckmaier, R M; Hofstetter, P

    2018-04-01

    Feeding dairy cows indoors or on pasture affects not only labour, machinery and housing costs, but also animals' performance and metabolism. This study investigates the effects of indoor feeding (IF) with a partial-mixed ration (PMR) versus pasture-based feeding (PF) on milk production, fertility, backfat thickness (BFT), body weight (BW) loss and energy metabolism of Brown Swiss (BS) dairy cows with similar genetic production potential. The IF herd consisted of 13 cows fed a PMR composed of maize and grass silage plus protein concentrate according to each cow's requirements. The PF herd consisted of 14 cows offered barn-ventilated hay ad libitum after calving from January until March and grazed on semi-continuous pastures during the vegetation period. The IF cows produced more energy-corrected milk (ECM) per standard lactation (9,407 vs. 5,960 kg; p dairy cows in our trial seem to have a high capacity for metabolic adaptation to different production systems. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Plasma transport of ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol and their 25-hydroxylated metabolites in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2017-01-01

    treatments: D2, housed indoor and fed 625-μg/d (25.000 IU) ERG; D3, housed indoor and fed 625-μg/d CHO; D2+D3, housed indoor and fed 625-μg/d ERG and 625-μg/d CHO; SUN, let out for daily pasture to facilitate CHO synthesis from sunlight; and D2+SUN, fed 625-μg/d ERG and let out for daily pasture. Blood....../mL 25CHO in pasture or CHO-treated cows with the highest concentration in SUN (P ≤ 0.01). In plasma fractions, CHO was mainly found in the HLP fraction, whereas 25CHO was almost exclusively found in the protein fraction, probably due to its reported high binding affinity to vitamin D-binding protein...

  12. Shifts in bacterial community composition in the rumen of lactating dairy cows under milk fat-depressing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, P J; Stevenson, D M; Mertens, D R

    2010-01-01

    Eighteen ruminally cannulated dairy cattle were fed a series of diets (in 28-d periods) designed to elicit different degrees of milk fat depression (MFD) for the purpose of relating MFD to ruminal bacterial populations. Cows were fed a TMR containing 25% starch (DM basis) supplied as corn silage, a slowly fermented starch (SFS treatment, period 1), then switched to a TMR containing 27% starch, much of it supplied as ground high-moisture corn, a rapidly fermented starch (RFS treatment, period 2). In period 3, the RFS diet was amended with 13.6 mg of monensin/kg of DM (RFS/Mon treatment), and in period 4, the cows were returned to the RFS diet without monensin (RFS/Post treatment). Effect of both starch source and monensin on milk fat percentage varied by cow, and cluster analysis identified 4 pairs of cows having distinct milk fat patterns. Archived ruminal liquors and solids from the 4 pairs were processed to isolate bacterial DNA, which was subjected to automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis followed by correspondence analysis to visualize bacterial community composition (BCC). One pair of cows (S-responsive) showed MFD on RFS feeding, but displayed no additional MFD upon monensin feeding and a fat rebound upon monensin withdrawal. The second pair of cows (M-responsive) showed no MFD upon switch from the SFS diet to the RFS diet, but displayed strong MFD upon monensin feeding and no recovery after monensin withdrawal. Both groups displayed major shifts in BCC upon dietary shifts, including dietary shifts that both did and did not change milk fat production. The third pair of cows (SM-responsive) displayed reduction of milk fat on both RFS and RFS/Mon diets, and fat returned to the levels on the RFS diet upon monensin withdrawal; these cows showed a more gradual shift in BCC in response to both starch source and monensin. The fourth pair of cows (nonresponsive) did not display changes in milk fat percentage with dietary treatment and showed only minor

  13. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, Stig

    2012-01-01

    interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley...... red clover-grass silage diet (1,494μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low....... Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone...

  14. Feeding Frequency Effects in Early Lactation on Productive Efficiency of Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Karimzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to determine the effects of feeding frequency (FF on dairy cow performance fed a total mixed ration (TMR based on chopped alfalfa hay. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows were housed in the individual boxes (4 × 3 m and fed either once a day (1x at 0700 h or 4 times a day (4x at 0100, 0700, 1300 and 1900 h with TMR. The experiment was done as a 2 × 2 crossover design with two 20-d periods. When FF changed from 4x to 1x, dry matter intake (21.1 vs. 20.0 kg/d and NEL intake (36.4 vs. 34.3 Mcal/d increased (P

  15. Effects of extruded corn on milk yield and composition and blood parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a 2x2 cross over design, fourteen Holstein dairy cows at 99±55 DIM were fed two diets containing 21.5% DM of either ground corn (GC or extruded corn (EC. Performance and metabolic profile were detected during the third week of each experimental period. DMI and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. Milk fat and protein percentage of EC diet were significantly (P<0.10 lower than those of GC diet. Probably the higher rumen degradability of starch from EC thesis modified the synthesis of specific fatty acids leading to a milk fat depression event. Diets did not influence blood parameters, except for lower values of total protein and glucose content in EC diet-fed cows. Results suggested that the dietary inclusion of extruded corn should not be used at the tested level of substitution.

  16. Effect of decreasing dietary phosphorus supply on net recycling of inorganic phosphate in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sehested, Jens Jakob

    2011-01-01

    (LP; 2.4 g of P/kg of DM) and high P (HP; 3.4 g of P/kg of DM). The dietary total P (tP) concentrations were obtained by replacing 0.50% calcium carbonate in the LP diet with 0.50% monocalcium phosphate in the HP diet. Diets were fed for 14 d and cows were sampled on d 14 in each period. Cows were fed...... restrictively, resulting in equal dry matter intakes as well as milk, fat, and protein yields between treatments. Net Pi recycling (primarily salivary) was estimated as the difference between net portal plasma flux (net absorption of Pi) and apparently digested tP (feed – fecal tP difference). Phosphorus intake...

  17. Effects of shortening the close-up period length coupled with increased supply of metabolizable protein on performance and metabolic status of multiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, T Amirabadi; Amanlou, H; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2017-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to compare conventional (CON; 21 d) and shortened (SH; 10 d) close-up period, and evaluate the effect of shortened close-up period combined with feeding different metabolizable protein (MP) levels on dry matter (DM) intake, metabolic status, and performance of dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous Holstein cows with similar parity, body weight (BW), and previous lactation milk yield were divided into 2 groups. The first group (n = 24) received the far-off diet from -60 to -21 d (CON), and the second group (n = 24) received same far-off diet from -60 to -10 d (SH) relative to expected parturition. Cows were then moved to individual stalls and randomly allocated to 1 of 3 close-up diets: low MP diet (LMP; MP = 79 g/kg of DM), medium MP diet (MMP; MP = 101 g/kg of DM), or high MP diet (HMP; MP = 118 g/kg of DM). Treatments were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 lengths of close-up period (CON and SH) and 3 levels of MP (LMP, MMP, and HMP). All diets were fed for ad libitum intake during the close-up period. After calving, all cows received the same fresh cow diet. We found no interaction between close-up period length and MP levels for traits, except for postpartum serum fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). The concentrations of postpartum serum fatty acids and BHB were higher on LMP than MMP and HMP diets in SH group. The cows of the SH group tended to produce less colostrum in the first milking than cows in CON group. The length of close-up period did not affect pre- and postpartum DM intake or energy balance of cows during the last week of prepartum, but cows of the CON group had greater BW changes during the last 3 wk before parturition than cows in SH group. Cows fed MMP and HMP diets consumed 1.2 and 1 kg more DM than for those fed LMP prepartum, respectively. The concentrations of prepartum BHB and Ca were higher for SH cows than CON group cows. Except for blood urea N concentration, no other blood metabolite in

  18. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafilzadeh, F.; Piri, V.; Karami-Shabankareh, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30) were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5). Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01) in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively). While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09). The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001). Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01) for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period. (Author)

  19. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh Kafilzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30 were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5. Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01 in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively. While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09. The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001. Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01 for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period.

  20. New guidelines for managing cow's milk allergy in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rosan

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic disease has increased markedly over the last 50 years. Food allergy usually manifests in early childhood as part of the so-called atopic march and most commonly includes one or more of the following foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts and tree nuts, wheat, sesame seed, kiwi fruit and seafood. In the UK about 2% of infants develop cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA), but as many as 15% of infants present with symptoms suggestive of an adverse reaction to cow's milk protein. The diagnosis of CMPA is based on one or more of the following: a detailed clinical history, allergy test results (skin prick testing [SPT] and/or specific immunoglobulin E [IgE]) and, if required, supervised incremental milk challenges. The majority of UK primary care centres do not have access to these tests and may also be unfamiliar with the interpretation or results. In addition, they do not have the facilities for supervised food challenges. Empirical treatment is often required pending confirmation of allergy or referral to a specialist centre, but requires clear guidelines. No consensus guidelines currently exist for the diagnosis and management of CMPA in the UK. An international task force has recently published proposed guidelines for the management of CMPA. These provide separate algorithms covering the diagnosis and management of CMPA for both breast-fed and formula-fed infants and discuss the use of hypoallergenic formulae, elimination diets and diagnostic tests. Revisions and adaptations for the UK market are required and are discussed in this article.

  1. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  2. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, G; Hatew, B; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4 cows. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (CON; urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), NO3 [21 g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM)], DHA (3 g of DHA/kg of DM and urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), or NO3 + DHA (21 g of nitrate/kg of DM and 3 g of DHA/kg of DM, respectively). Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 21% grass silage, 49% corn silage, and 30% concentrates on a DM basis. Feed additives were included in the concentrates. Cows assigned to a treatment including nitrate were gradually adapted to the treatment dose of nitrate over a period of 21 d during which no DHA was fed. The experimental period lasted 17 d, and CH4 production was measured during the last 5d in climate respiration chambers. Cows produced on average 363, 263, 369, and 298 g of CH4/d on CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA treatments, respectively, and a tendency for a nitrate × DHA interaction effect was found where the CH4-mitigating effect of nitrate decreased when combined with DHA. This tendency was not obtained for CH4 production relative to dry matter intake (DMI) or to fat- and protein corrected milk (FPCM). The NO3 treatment decreased CH4 production irrespective of the unit in which it was expressed, whereas DHA did not affect CH4 production per kilogram of DMI, but resulted in a higher CH4 production per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) production. The FPCM production (27.9, 24.7, 24.2, and 23. 8 kg/d for CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA, respectively) was lower for DHA-fed cows because of decreased milk fat concentration. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was decreased by DHA, and the proportion of

  3. Chronic Effects of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Rations with or without Increased Concentrate Proportion on the Insulin Sensitivity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Asako; Keese, Christina; Meyer, Ulrich; Starke, Alexander; Wrenzycki, Christine; Dänicke, Sven

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term exposure to a Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON, 5 mg/kg DM) on the energy metabolism in lactating cows fed diets with different amounts of concentrate. In Period 1 27 German Holstein cows were assigned to two groups and fed a control or mycotoxin-contaminated diet with 50% concentrate for 11 weeks. In Period 2 each group was further divided and fed either a diet containing 30% or 60% concentrate for 16 weeks. Blood samples were collected in week 0, 4, 8, 15, 21, and 27 for calculation of the Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index and biopsy samples of skeletal muscle and the liver in w 0, 15, and 27 for analysis by real-time RT-qPCR. The DON-fed groups presented lower insulin sensitivities than controls at week 27. Concomitantly, muscular mRNA expression of insulin receptors and hepatic mRNA expression of glucose transporter 2 and key enzymes for gluconeogenesis and fatty acid metabolism were lower in DON-fed cows compared to the control. The study revealed no consistent evidence that DON effects were modified by dietary concentrate levels. In conclusion, long-term dietary DON intake appears to have mild effects on energy metabolism in lactating dairy cows. PMID:29738450

  4. Chronic Effects of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Rations with or without Increased Concentrate Proportion on the Insulin Sensitivity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako Kinoshita

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term exposure to a Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON, 5 mg/kg DM on the energy metabolism in lactating cows fed diets with different amounts of concentrate. In Period 1 27 German Holstein cows were assigned to two groups and fed a control or mycotoxin-contaminated diet with 50% concentrate for 11 weeks. In Period 2 each group was further divided and fed either a diet containing 30% or 60% concentrate for 16 weeks. Blood samples were collected in week 0, 4, 8, 15, 21, and 27 for calculation of the Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index and biopsy samples of skeletal muscle and the liver in w 0, 15, and 27 for analysis by real-time RT-qPCR. The DON-fed groups presented lower insulin sensitivities than controls at week 27. Concomitantly, muscular mRNA expression of insulin receptors and hepatic mRNA expression of glucose transporter 2 and key enzymes for gluconeogenesis and fatty acid metabolism were lower in DON-fed cows compared to the control. The study revealed no consistent evidence that DON effects were modified by dietary concentrate levels. In conclusion, long-term dietary DON intake appears to have mild effects on energy metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

  5. 131I levels in cow's milk following ingestion of contaminated alfalfa or sudan grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Stanley, R.E.; Barth, D.S.

    1975-08-01

    A dry aerosol, consisting of submicrometer diatomaceous earth particles tagged with 131 I, was released over two different types of growing forage (alfalfa and Sudan grass) at the Experimental Dairy Farm on the Nevada Test Site. Following deposition of the aerosol, the two forage types were chopped and fed to different groups of lactating dairy cows. The dual objectives of the study were to evaluate the relationship of 131 I secretion in milk to the ingestion of different types of contaminated forage and to obtain a further indication of the possible influence on milk radioiodine levels of changing the particle size of the contaminant. The ratios of the peak activity concentrations measured in the milk to the peak activity concentrations in the forage were computed to be 0.0145 for the cows fed contaminated alfalfa and 0.0082 for those fed contaminated Sudan grass. Comparison of the results from this study with those from earlier studies indicates the major effect on activity levels in the milk can be related to forage type. Ingestion of Sudan grass by the cow reduces the transfer of radioiodine to milk by one half compared to ingestion of alfalfa. (U.S.)

  6. Energy balance in transition cows and its association with health, reproduction and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furken, C; Nakao, T; Hoedemaker, M

    2015-01-01

    It was the purpose of this study to determine the effects of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations at different time periods of the transition period as well as lactation number on metabolism, health, reproduction and milk production in dairy cows. This trial was conducted in a single dairy herd located in Northern Germany. Of the herd, which comprised 330 lactating Holstein cows housed in a free stall barn and fed a total mixed ration (TMR), 83 primiparous and multiparous cows were randomly selected. Animals were checked for body condition score (BCS), locomotion score, calving data, quality of colostrum, reproductive measures, daily rectal temperature of the first 10 days post-partum (p. p.), health data and culling rates up to 200 days in milk (DIM) as well as milk production until 305 DIM. Three different time periods were considered: 3 and 1 week ante partum (a. p.); partus and 1 week p. p.; 3 weeks p. p. Animals with NEFA concentrations ≥ 0.4 mmol/l ante partum had a higher risk of no ovarian activity in week 5 p. p. and of subclinical ketosis post partum than cows with lower NEFA concentrations (p reproduction of dairy cows.

  7. Effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immune system, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jinshun; Liu, Mingmei; Su, Xiaoshuang; Zhan, Kang; Zhang, Chungang; Zhao, Guoqi

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immunity, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows. The experiments employed four primiparous Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas, and used a 4×4 Latin square design. Cattle were fed total mixed ration supplemented with 0 (control group, Con), 20, 60, or 100 mg of alfalfa flavonoids extract (AFE) per kg of dairy cow body weight (BW). The feed intake of the group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE were significantly higher (pcontent of milk reduced (p = 0.05) linearly as AFE supplementation was increased. The somatic cell count of milk in group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE was significantly lower (pruminal fermentation parameters were not affected by AFE supplementation. Relative levels of the rumen microbe Ruminococcus flavefaciens tended to decrease (p = 0.09) quadratically, whereas those of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens showed a tendency to increase (p = 0.07) quadratically in response to AFE supplementation. The results of this study demonstrate that AFE supplementation can alter composition of milk, and may also have an increase tendency of nutrient digestion by regulating populations of microbes in the rumen, improve antioxidant properties by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities, and affect immunity by altering the proportions of lymphocyte and neutrophil granulocytes in dairy cows. The addition of 60 mg/kg BW of AFE to the diet of dairy cows was shown to be beneficial in this study.

  8. Cows, clicks, ciphers, and satire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Tyler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The social network game Farmville, which allows players to grow crops, raise animals, and produce a variety of goods, proved enormously successful within a year of its launch in 2009, attracting 110 million Facebook users. However, the game has been criticised for its mindless mechanics, which require little more than repeated clicking on its colourful icons. By way of parody, Ian Bogost’s Cow Clicker permits its players to simply click on a picture of a cow once every six hours. In this essay I extend Bogost’s critique and suggest that Cow Clicker highlights not just the soulless inanity of Farmville gameplay but also the paucity of that game’s portrayal of the painful reality of a dairy cow’s punishing daily existence and untimely end.

  9. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund

    2012-01-01

    cleanliness was explored but no effect was found. In the second study, potential herd and cow level risk factors for poor hind leg cleanliness were evaluated. Data were obtained from a cross sectional study in 42 commercial dairy herds conducted by senior scientist Peter T. Thomsen. Here, no access to pasture......Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry......; 2) To identify potential risk factors for poor cow leg cleanliness; and 3) To gain more knowledge about potential means of controlling DD. Data was obtained from three studies conducted in commercial Danish dairy herds and the results are presented in four scientific papers. In the first study, cow...

  10. A field study to determine the prevalence, dairy herd management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Anna C; Vertenten, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, major management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds. A total of 131 dairies were enrolled in Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom during 2011 to 2012. A milk-based test for ketones (Keto-Test; Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co. Ltd., Nagoya, Japan; distributed by Elanco Animal Health, Antwerp, Belgium) was used for screening cows between d 7 and 21 after calving and ketosis was defined as a Keto-Test ≥100µmol/L. Study cows were observed for clinical disease up to 35d postcalving. Multivariate analysis (generalized estimating equation logistic regression) was performed to determine country, farm, management, feed, and cow factors associated with ketosis and to determine associations between ketosis and fresh cow diseases. Thirty-nine percent of the cows were classified as having ketosis. The herd average of ketosis was 43% in Germany, 53% in France, 31% in Italy, 46% in the Netherlands, and 31% in the United Kingdom. Of the 131 farms, 112 (85%) had 25% or more of their fresh cows resulting as positive for ketosis. Clinical ketosis was not reported in most farms and the highest level of clinical ketosis reported was 23%. The risks of ketosis were significantly lower in Italy and the United Kingdom compared with France, the Netherlands, and Germany. Larger herd size was associated with a decreased risk of ketosis. The farms that fed partially mixed rations had 1.5 times higher odds of ketosis than those that fed total mixed rations. Cows that calved in April to June had the highest odds of ketosis, with about twice as high odds compared with cows that calved in July to September. The cows that calved in January to March tended to have 1.5 times higher risk of ketosis compared with cows that calved in July to September. The odds of ketosis in parity 2 and parity 3 to 7 was significantly higher (1.5 and 2.8 times higher

  11. Alterations of the Lipid Metabolome in Dairy Cows Experiencing Excessive Lipolysis Early Postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Elke; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Gruber, Leonhard; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    A decrease in insulin sensitivity enhances adipose tissue lipolysis helping early lactation cows counteracting their energy deficit. However, excessive lipolysis poses serious health risks for cows, and its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. The present study used targeted ESI-LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics and indirect insulin sensitivity measurements to evaluate metabolic alterations in the serum of dairy cows of various parities experiencing variable lipolysis early postpartum. Thirty (12 primiparous and 18 multiparous) cows of Holstein Friesian and Simmental breeds, fed the same diet and kept under the same management conditions, were sampled at d 21 postpartum and classified as low (n = 10), medium (n = 8), and high (n = 12) lipolysis groups, based on serum concentration of nonesterified fatty acids. Overall, excessive lipolysis in the high group came along with impaired estimated insulin sensitivity and characteristic shifts in acylcarnitine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine and lysophospholipid metabolome profiles compared to the low group. From the detected phosphatidylcholines mainly those with diacyl-residues showed differences among lipolysis groups. Furthermore, more than half of the detected sphingomyelins were increased in cows experiencing high lipomobilization. Additionally, strong differences in serum acylcarnitines were noticed among lipolysis groups. The study suggests an altered serum phospholipidome in dairy cows associated with an increase in certain long-chain sphingomyelins and the progression of disturbed insulin function. In conclusion, the present study revealed 37 key metabolites as part of alterations in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids associated with lowered estimated insulin sensitivity and excessive lipolysis in early-lactating cows. PMID:27383746

  12. Alterations of the Lipid Metabolome in Dairy Cows Experiencing Excessive Lipolysis Early Postpartum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Humer

    Full Text Available A decrease in insulin sensitivity enhances adipose tissue lipolysis helping early lactation cows counteracting their energy deficit. However, excessive lipolysis poses serious health risks for cows, and its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. The present study used targeted ESI-LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics and indirect insulin sensitivity measurements to evaluate metabolic alterations in the serum of dairy cows of various parities experiencing variable lipolysis early postpartum. Thirty (12 primiparous and 18 multiparous cows of Holstein Friesian and Simmental breeds, fed the same diet and kept under the same management conditions, were sampled at d 21 postpartum and classified as low (n = 10, medium (n = 8, and high (n = 12 lipolysis groups, based on serum concentration of nonesterified fatty acids. Overall, excessive lipolysis in the high group came along with impaired estimated insulin sensitivity and characteristic shifts in acylcarnitine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine and lysophospholipid metabolome profiles compared to the low group. From the detected phosphatidylcholines mainly those with diacyl-residues showed differences among lipolysis groups. Furthermore, more than half of the detected sphingomyelins were increased in cows experiencing high lipomobilization. Additionally, strong differences in serum acylcarnitines were noticed among lipolysis groups. The study suggests an altered serum phospholipidome in dairy cows associated with an increase in certain long-chain sphingomyelins and the progression of disturbed insulin function. In conclusion, the present study revealed 37 key metabolites as part of alterations in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids associated with lowered estimated insulin sensitivity and excessive lipolysis in early-lactating cows.

  13. Effects of feeding pregnant beef cows selenium-enriched alfalfa hay on selenium status and antibody titers in their newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, L G; Bobe, G; Vorachek, W R; Dolan, B P; Estill, C T; Pirelli, G J; Hall, J A

    2017-06-01

    In newborn dairy calves, it has been demonstrated that supranutritional maternal and colostral Se supplementation using Se yeast or sodium selenite, respectively, improves passive transfer of IgG. In beef cattle, agronomic biofortification with Se is a more practical alternative for Se supplementation, whereby the Se concentration of hay is increased through the use of Se-containing fertilizer amendments. It has been previously demonstrated that agronomic Se biofortification is an effective strategy to improve immunity and performance in Se-replete weaned beef calves. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding beef cows Se-enriched alfalfa () hay during the last 8 to 12 wk of gestation on passive transfer of antibodies to calves. At 10 wk ± 16 d before calving, 45 cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups with 3 pens (5 cows/pen) per treatment: Control cows were fed non-Se-fortified alfalfa hay plus a mineral supplement containing 120 mg/kg Se from sodium selenite, Med-Se cows were fed alfalfa hay fertilized with 45.0 g Se/ha as sodium selenate, and High-Se cows were fed alfalfa hay fertilized with 89.9 g Se/ha as sodium selenate; both the Med-Se and the High-Se groups received mineral supplement without added Se. Colostrum and whole blood (WB) were collected from cows at calving, and WB was collected from calves within 2 h of calving and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 h of age. Concentrations of IgG1 and J-5 antibody in cow colostrum and calf serum were quantified using ELISA procedures. Selenium concentrations linearly increased in WB ( cows and in WB of newborn calves ( cows fed Se-biofortified alfalfa hay, but J-5 antibody ( = 0.43) concentrations were not. Calf serum IgG1 ( = 0.43) and J-5 antibody ( = 0.44) concentrations during the first 48 h of age were not affected by prior Se treatment of cows. These data suggest that feeding Se-biofortified alfalfa hay promotes the accumulation of Se and antibodies in colostrum but does not

  14. Impact of longevity on greenhouse gas emissions and profitability of individual dairy cows analysed with different system boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, F; Furger, M; Kreuzer, M; Zehetmeier, M

    2018-05-29

    Dairy production systems are often criticized as being major emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG). In this context, the extension of the length of the productive life of dairy cows is gaining interest as a potential GHG mitigation option. In the present study, we investigated cow and system GHG emission intensity and profitability based on data from 30 dairy cows of different productive lifetime fed either no or limited amounts of concentrate. Detailed information concerning productivity, feeding and individual enteric methane emissions of the individuals was available from a controlled experiment and herd book databases. A simplified GHG balance was calculated for each animal based on the milk produced at the time of the experiment and for their entire lifetime milk production. For the lifetime production, we also included the emissions arising from potential beef produced by fattening the offspring of the dairy cows. This accounted for the effect that changes in the length of productive life will affect the replacement rate and thus the number of calves that can be used for beef production. Profitability was assessed by calculating revenues and full economic costs for the cows in the data set. Both emission intensity and profitability were most favourable in cows with long productive life, whereas cows that had not finished their first lactation performed particularly unfavourably with regard to their emissions per unit of product and rearing costs were mostly not repaid. Including the potential beef production, GHG emissions in relation to total production of animal protein also decreased with age, but the overall variability was greater, as the individual cow history (lifetime milk yield, twin births, stillbirths, etc.) added further sources of variation. The present results show that increasing the length of productive life of dairy cows is a viable way to reduce the climate impact and to improve profitability of dairy production.

  15. Responses of dairy cows with divergent residual feed intake as calves to metabolic challenges during midlactation and the nonlactating period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacomo, K; Norris, E; Dunshea, F R; Hayes, B J; Marett, L C; Wales, W J; Leury, B J

    2018-03-28

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the actual and expected feed intake required to support animal maintenance and growth. Thus, a cow with a low RFI can obtain nutrients for maintenance and growth from a reduced amount of feed compared with a cow with a high RFI. Variation in RFI is underpinned by a combination of factors, including genetics, metabolism, thermoregulation and body composition; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness is also a possible contributor. Responses to 3 metabolic challenges were measured in lactating and nonlactating dairy cattle. Sixteen Holstein Friesian cows with phenotypic RFI measurements that were obtained during the growth period (188-220 d old) were grouped as either low-calfhood RFI (n = 8) or high-calfhood RFI (n = 8). An ACTH (2 µg/kg of body weight), insulin (0.12 U/kg), and epinephrine (a low dose of 0.1 µg/kg and a high dose of 1.6 µg/kg of epinephrine) challenge were each conducted during both midlactation (122 ± 23.4 d in milk) and the nonlactating period (dry period; approximately 38 d after cessation of milking). Cows were housed in metabolism stalls for the challenges and were fed a diet of alfalfa cubes ad libitum for at least 10 d before the experiment (lactating cows also were offered a total of 6 kg of dry matter/d of crushed wheat grain plus minerals fed as 3 kg of dry matter at each milking) and were fasted for 12 h before the challenges. The efficiency of conversion of feed into milk (the ratio of feed consumed to milk produced over the 7 d before the experiment) during midlactation was better (lower) in low-calfhood RFI cows, although dry matter intake did not differ between RFI groups. Low-calfhood RFI cows exhibited a lower plasma cortisol response to the ACTH challenge than high-calfhood RFI cows, particularly in midlactation (-15%). The low-calfhood RFI cows had a greater plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 response to the insulin challenge and plasma fatty

  16. Insulin resistance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, Jenne D; Opsomer, Geert

    2013-07-01

    Glucose is the molecule that drives milk production, and insulin plays a pivotal role in the glucose metabolism of dairy cows. The effect of insulin on the glucose metabolism is regulated by the secretion of insulin by the pancreas and the insulin sensitivity of the skeletal muscles, the adipose tissue, and the liver. Insulin resistance may develop as part of physiologic (pregnancy and lactation) and pathologic processes, which may manifest as decreased insulin sensitivity or decreased insulin responsiveness. A good knowledge of the normal physiology of insulin is needed to measure the in vivo insulin resistance of dairy cows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12°C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na

  18. Rumen-protected methionine compared with rumen-protected choline improves immunometabolic status in dairy cows during the peripartal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z; Bulgari, O; Vailati-Riboni, M; Trevisi, E; Ballou, M A; Cardoso, F C; Luchini, D N; Loor, J J

    2016-11-01

    The immunometabolic status of peripartal cows is altered due to changes in liver function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Nutritional management during this physiological state can affect the biological components of immunometabolism. The objectives of this study were to measure concentrations of biomarkers in plasma, liver tissue, and milk, and also polymorphonuclear leukocyte function to assess the immunometabolic status of cows supplemented with rumen-protected methionine (Met) or choline (CHOL). Forty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a randomized complete block design with 2×2 factorial arrangement of Met (Smartamine M, Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA) and CHOL (ReaShure, Balchem Inc., New Hampton, NY) level (with or without). Treatments (12 cows each) were control (CON), no Met or CHOL; CON and Met (SMA); CON and CHOL (REA); and CON and Met and CHOL (MIX). From -50 to -21d before expected calving, all cows received the same diet [1.40Mcal of net energy for lactation (NE L )/kg of DM] with no Met or CHOL. From -21d to calving, cows received the same close-up diet (1.52Mcal of NE L /kg of DM) and were assigned randomly to each treatment. From calving to 30d, cows were on the same postpartal diet (1.71Mcal of NE L /kg of DM) and continued to receive the same treatments until 30d. The Met supplementation was adjusted daily at 0.08% DM of diet, and CHOL was supplemented at 60g/cow per day. Liver (-10, 7, 21, and 30d) and blood (-10, 4, 8, 20, and 30d) samples were harvested for biomarker analyses. Neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst were assessed at d 1, 4, 14, and 28d. The Met-supplemented cows tended to have greater plasma paraoxonase. Greater plasma albumin and IL-6 as well as a tendency for lower haptoglobin were detected in Met- but not CHOL-supplemented cows. Similarly, cows fed Met compared with CHOL had greater concentrations of total and reduced glutathione (a potent intracellular antioxidant) in liver tissue. Upon a

  19. Skeletal muscle and hepatic insulin signaling is maintained in heat-stressed lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, G; Cole, L C; Zhao, L D; Skrzypek, M V; Sanders, S R; Rhoads, M L; Baumgard, L H; Rhoads, R P

    2016-05-01

    Multiparous cows (n=12; parity=2; 136±8 d in milk, 560±32kg of body weight) housed in climate-controlled chambers were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) consisting primarily of alfalfa hay and steam-flaked corn. During the first experimental period (P1), all 12 cows were housed in thermoneutral conditions (18°C, 20% humidity) with ad libitum intake for 9 d. During the second experimental period (P2), half of the cows were fed for ad libitum intake and subjected to heat-stress conditions [WFHS, n=6; cyclical temperature 31.1 to 38.9°C, 20% humidity: minimum temperature humidity index (THI)=73, maximum THI=80.5], and half of the cows were pair-fed to match the intake of WFHS cows in thermal neutral conditions (TNPF, n=6) for 9 d. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were measured thrice daily at 0430, 1200, and 1630 h. To evaluate muscle and liver insulin responsiveness, biopsies were obtained immediately before and after an insulin tolerance test on the last day of each period. Insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), AKT/protein kinase B (AKT), and phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) were measured by Western blot analyses for both tissues. During P2, WFHS increased rectal temperature and respiration rate by 1.48°C and 2.4-fold, respectively. Heat stress reduced dry matter intake by 8kg/d and, by design, TNPF cows had similar intake reductions. Milk yield was decreased similarly (30%) in WFHS and TNPF cows, and both groups entered into a similar (-4.5 Mcal/d) calculated negative energy balance during P2. Insulin infusion caused a less rapid glucose disposal in P2 compared with P1, but glucose clearance did not differ between environments in P2. In liver, insulin increased p-AKT protein content in each period. Phosphorylation ratio of AKT increased 120% in each period after insulin infusion. In skeletal muscle, protein abundance of the IR, IRS, and AKT remained stable between periods and environment. Insulin increased skeletal muscle p-AKT in each

  20. Once-daily milking during a feed deficit decreases milk production but improves energy status in early lactating grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of milking frequency (MF) at 2 feeding levels (FL) on milk production, body condition score, and metabolic indicators of energy status in grazing dairy cows during early lactation. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows (n=120) grazed pasture and were milked twice daily (2×) from calving until 34 ± 6 d in milk (mean ± standard deviation). Cows were then allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of 2 FL: adequately fed [AF; 14.3 kg dry matter intake (DMI)/cow per d] or underfed (UF; 8.3 kg of DMI/cow per d) and 2 MF: 2× or once daily (1×). Treatments were imposed for 3 wk. After the treatment period, all cows were offered a generous pasture allowance (grazing residuals >1,600 kg of dry matter/ha) and milked 2×. During the 3-wk treatment period, we observed an interaction between FL and MF for energy-corrected milk (ECM), such that the decrease due to 1× milking was greater in AF than in UF cows (20 and 14% decrease, respectively). No interactions were found posttreatment. Cows previously UF produced 7% less ECM than AF cows during wk 4 to 12; however, no subsequent effect was observed of the previous underfeeding. Cows previously milked 1× produced 5% less ECM during wk 4 to 12, and differences remained during wk 13 to 23. During the 3-wk treatment period, UF cows lost 0.2 body condition score units (1-10 scale) and this was not affected by 1× milking. During the treatment period, UF cows had lower plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and greater nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than AF cows. Cows milked 1× had greater plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and lower nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations compared with cows milked 2×. In conclusion, energy status was improved by 1× milking; however, when UF cows were milked 1

  1. Padrões da distribuição nictemeral do comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras, ao início e ao final da lactação, alimentadas com dieta à base de silagem de milho Ingestive behavior nycterohemeral patterns of dairy cows, at the beginning and at the end of lactation, fed a corn silage based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Fischer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos dos estádios de lactação inicial e final sobre o comportamento e a distribuição nictemeral do comportamento ingestivo foram avaliados com oito vacas leiteiras, consumindo uma dieta à base de silagem de milho. A análise espectral das séries de tempos horários de mastigação (ingestão ou ruminação foi realizada usando os dados modificados pela transformação finita de Fourier. Foi realizada análise de variância destes dados e a análise dos periodogramas e diagramas de fase. A duração média das refeições e o consumo de matéria seca foram superiores, enquanto o tempo unitário de ruminação foi inferior no período inicial em relação ao final da lactação. A distribuição dos tempos de ingestão e de ruminação nos estádios inicial e final de lactação seguiu, respectivamente, periodicidades de 24, 12, 8 e 4 horas e de 24, 12 e 8 horas. Foi constatado efeito significativo do estádio de lactação para o tempo gasto ingerindo e ruminando no componente de ritmo 4. O estádio da lactação influenciou alguns parâmetros do comportamento ingestivo e sua ritmicidade.The effects of the stage of lactation upon the ingestive behavior nycterohemeral patterns were evaluated with eight dairy cows eating a corn silage based diet. Spectral analysis was performed through application of the finite Fourier transformation upon hourly duration of eating or ruminating time series. Variance analysis and inspection of phase diagrams and periodograms were done upon modified data. The mean meal duration and dry matter intake were larger while the unitary ruminating time was inferior at the beginning than at the end of the lactation. Nycterohemeral patterns of time spent eating or ruminating at the beginning and at the end of lactation followed mainly periodicities of, respectively, 24, 12, 8 and 4 hours and 24, 12 and 8 hours. A significant effect of stage of lactation was observed at the rhythm component 4 for both time spent

  2. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  3. Effect of feeding long or short wheat hay v. wheat silage in the ration of lactating cows on intake, milk production and digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaani, Y; Nikbachat, M; Yosef, E; Ben-Meir, Y; Mizrahi, I; Miron, J

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in lactating cows the effect of either chopping or ensiling of wheat roughage on: intake, digestibility, lactation performance and animal behavior. Three groups of 14 lactating cows each, were fed total mixed rations (TMRs) based on either long wheat hay (HL), short wheat hay (HS) or wheat silage (SI), as the sole roughage source (30% of TMR dry matter (DM)). Parameters examined: sorting behavior, DM intake, milk yield and composition, rumination, recumbence, average daily rumen pH, digesta passage rate, and in-vivo digestibility. Performance data was summarized by day and analyzed using a proc-mixed model. The content of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) was similar in the HL and SI and lower in the HS, resulting in similar differences among the three corresponding TMRs. In vitro DM digestibility of wheat silage was higher than that of the two hays (65.6% v. 62.8%) resulting in higher in vitro DM digestibility of the SI-TMR compared with the hay-based TMRs (79.3 v. 77.0%). HS-TMR was better than HL- or SI-TMRs at preventing feed sorting by cows after 12 or 24 h eating of the diets. Cows fed HS-TMR consumed more DM and NDF but less peNDF than the other two groups. Average daily rumen pH was similar in the three groups, but daily rumination time was highest in the cows fed HS-TMR. Rumen retention time was longest in cows fed HL-TMR. DM digestibility in cows fed SI-TMR was higher than that of HS and HL groups (65.2%, 61.8% and 62.4%, respectively), but NDF digestibility was similar in the three treatments. The highest intake of digestible DM was observed in cows fed SI-TMR, HS cows were intermediate and HL cows were the lowest. Consequently, cows fed SI-TMR had higher yields of milk, 4% fat corrected milk and energy-corrected milk (47.1, 42.9 and 43.2 kg/day, respectively) than cows fed HS-TMR (45.7, 41.0 and 41.0 kg/day, respectively) or HL-TMR (44.1, 40.3 and 40.3 kg/day, respectively). Net energy

  4. Stage of lactation and corresponding diets affect in situ protein degradation by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadt, I; Mertens, D R; Van Soest, P J; Azzaro, G; Licitra, G

    2014-12-01

    The influence of stage of lactation and corresponding diets on rates of protein degradation (kd) is largely unstudied. Study objectives were to measure and compare in situ ruminal kd of crude protein (CP) and estimate rumen CP escape (rumen-undegradable protein; RUP) of selected feeds by cows at 3 stages of lactation fed corresponding diets, and to determine the incubation times needed in an enzymatic in vitro procedure, using 0.2 units of Streptomyces griseus protease per percent of true CP, that predicted in situ RUP. Residue CP was measured after in situ fermentation for 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h of 5 protein sources and 3 total mixed rations, which were fed to the in situ cows. Two nonlactating (dry) cows and 2 cows each at 190 (mid) and 90 (peak) days of lactation were used. Each pair of cows was offered free-choice diets that differed in composition to meet their corresponding nutrient requirements. Diets had decreasing proportions of forages and contained (dry matter basis) 11.9, 15.1 and 16.4% CP and 54.3, 40.3 and 35.3% neutral detergent fiber, for dry, mid, and peak TMR (TMR1, TMR2, and TMR3), respectively. Intakes were 10.3, 21.4, and 23.8kg of dry matter/d, respectively. Kinetic CP fractions (extractable, potentially degradable, undegradable, or slowly degradable) were unaffected by treatment. Lag time and kd varied among feeds. The kd was faster for all feeds (0.136/h) when incubated in dry-TMR1 cows compared with mid-TMR2 (0.097/h) or peak-TMR3 (0.098/h) cows, and no differences in lag time were detected. Calculated RUP, using estimated passage rates for each cow based on intake, differed between dry-TMR1 (0.382) and mid-TMR2 (0.559) or peak-TMR3 (0.626) cows, with a tendency for mid-TMR2 to be different from peak-TMR3. Using the average kd and lag time obtained from dry-TMR1 to calculate RUP for mid-TMR2 and peak-TMR3 cows using their passage rates reduced RUP values by 6.3 and 9.5 percentage units, respectively. Except for that of herring meal

  5. Effects of mineral salt supplement on enteric methane emissions, ruminal fermentation and methanogen community of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Chong; Chen, Yongxing; Shi, Rongguang; Cheng, Zhenhua; Dong, Hongmin

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of mineral salt supplement on enteric methane emissions, ruminal fermentation and methanogen community of dairy cows over a whole lactation period. Ten Holstein cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR) diet were randomly allocated into two groups, one supplied with mineral salts as the treatment group and the other as the control group. The methane measurement showed that the ingestion of mineral salts lowered enteric methane emissions significantly (P methane emissions by mineral salt intake could be attributed to decreased density of methanogenic archaea and that fluctuations in methane emission over the lactation period might be related to Methanobrevibacter diversity. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Review of the relationship between nutrition and lameness in pasture-fed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, C T; Bramley, E; Lean, I J

    2003-10-01

    Lameness of dairy cattle fed predominantly on pasture is increasingly recognised as one of the most costly disease conditions affecting dairy herds in New Zealand and Australia. Numerous risk factors are involved in the aetiology of claw lameness, including environment and factors associated with the conformation of individual cows. The role of nutrition requires further definition. Australasian pastures are characterised by low levels of fibre and effective fibre, rapid rates of fibre degradation, high water content, and high concentrations of rumen degradable protein during the autumn, winter and spring months. Relationships between high-quality vegetative pastures and ruminal acidosis may increase the risk of laminitis, particularly where pasture is supplemented with grains or other feeds containing significant amounts of starch. This article reviews the incidence, prevalence and pathophysiology of ruminal acidosis and laminitis and considers mechanisms by which acidosis may occur in pasture-fed cows. Techniques for diagnosing ruminal acidosis are reviewed, and practical strategies to avoid it are proposed. Currently, there is little information on the incidence and prevalence of ruminal acidosis and laminitis in pasture-fed cattle. The evidence gathered in this review suggests that ruminal acidosis and laminitis should be considered in the aetiology of lameness in pasture-fed dairy herds.

  7. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on glucose tolerance in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Duplessis, M; Wakshlag, J J; Overton, T R; Cummings, B P; Nydam, D V

    2016-01-01

    Overfeeding energy in the dry period can affect glucose metabolism and the energy balance of transition dairy cows with potential detrimental effects on the ability to successfully adapt to early lactation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on glucose tolerance and on resting concentrations of blood glucose, glucagon, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the peripartum period. Cows entering second or greater lactation were enrolled at dry-off (57 d before expected parturition) into 1 of 3 treatment groups following a randomized block design: cows that received a total mixed ration (TMR) formulated to meet but not exceed energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, controlled energy); cows that received a TMR supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, high energy); and cows that were fed the same diet as the controlled energy group for the first 28 d, after which the TMR was formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements until calving (n=28, intermediate energy). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) with rapid administration of 0.25 g of glucose/kg of body weight were performed 28 and 10d before expected parturition, as well as at 4 and 21 d after calving. Area under the curve for insulin and glucose, maximal concentration and time to half-maximal concentration of insulin and glucose, and clearance rates were calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) indices were calculated from baseline samples obtained during IVGTT and Spearman rank correlations determined between IVGTT parameters and IR indices. Treatment did not affect IVGTT parameters at any of the 4 time points. Correlation between IR indices and IVGTT parameters was generally poor. Overfeeding cows energy in excess of predicted requirements by approximately 50% during the entire dry period resulted in decreased postpartum basal plasma glucose and

  8. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is primarily caused by dryness of the skin and is linked to hereditary factors. However ... in Table I. FPI disorders are typically cow's milk and soya protein induced3 but may also ... fish, chicken, turkey, corn and vegetables. FPI enteropathy ...

  9. Teat condition in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  10. Teat Condition in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, F.

    2004-01-01

    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  11. Coping strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.

    In Chapter 1, current

  12. Nitrate leaching and residual effect in dairy crop rotations with grass-clover leys as influenced by sward age, grazing, cutting and fertilizer regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Intensive dairy farming, with grass-arable crop rotations is challenged by low N use efficiency that may have adverse environmental consequences. We investigated nitrate leaching and N fertility effects of grass–clover leys for five years in two organic crop rotations with different grassland...... with the 2-yr-old leaching the most (36–46 kg N ha−1), and (4) high leaching (>50 kg N ha−1) with lupin and maize, where especially maize was consistently high in all five years (average 81 kg N ha−1). Great care should be taken during all phases of the dairy crop rotation where grasslands cause considerable...... build-up of fertility. With due care and the best management practice, nitrate leaching losses may be reduced to low levels....

  13. Annual maize and perennial grass-clover strip cropping for increased resource use efficiency and productivity using organic farming practice as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Anders; Carter, Mette Sustmann

    2013-01-01

    A cropping system was designed to fulfill the increasing demand for biomass for food and energy without decreasing long term soil fertility. A field experiment was carried out including alternating strips of annual maize (Zea mays L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) – clover (Trifolium...

  14. Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene and Lutein Contents in Forage Legumes, Forbs and a Grass-Clover Mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, A.; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Fresh forages are an important natural source of vitamins and fatty acids in ruminant diets, and their concentrations in forage species are important for the quality of animal-derived foods such as dairy and meat products. The aims of this study were to obtain novel information on vitamins...

  15. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW equipment: Removal. 157.170... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The supply...

  16. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW operations: Changed... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations: Changed characteristics. The COW system may be operated with characteristics that do not meet those...

  17. The Effect of Soybean-Derived Phytoestrogens on Concentrations of Plasma Isoflavones, 15-keto-13,14-dihydroprostaglandin F2α and Progesterone in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Watzková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effect of soybean-derived phytoestrogens and their metabolites on the activity of sex hormones during the oestrous cycle in multiparous lactating dairy cows. The experiment was carried out on 4 multiparous lactating Holstein cows in the form of replicated Latin square in double reversal design. The experiment in the total length of 168 days was divided into 4 periods of 42 days, each consisting of a 21-day preliminary period and a 21-day collecting period. Cows were divided into 2 groups of 2 cows. The control group (C was fed a diet based on extruded rapeseed cake while the experimental group (S was fed a diet containing extruded full-fat soya. The intake of total isoflavones was 3297 mg/d in S and 58.0 mg/d in C (P P P > 0.05. Plasma concentration of prostaglandine PGFM throughout the oestrous cycle in the experimental group (S tended to be higher (P = 0.095 than in the control group (C. No differences in the length of the oestrous cycle between the cows fed different diets were observed.

  18. Evaluation of dietary betaine in lactating Holstein cows subjected to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, L W; Dunshea, F R; Allen, J D; Rungruang, S; Collier, J L; Long, N M; Collier, R J

    2016-12-01

    Betaine (BET), a natural, organic osmolyte, improves cellular efficiency by acting as a chaperone, refolding denatured proteins. To test if dietary BET reduced the effect of heat stress (HS) in lactating dairy cows, multiparous, lactating Holstein cows (n=24) were blocked by days in milk (101.4±8.6 d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 daily intakes of dietary BET: the control (CON) group received no BET, mid intake (MID) received 57mg of BET/kg of body weight, and high dose (HI) received 114mg of BET/kg of body weight. Cows were fed twice daily and BET was top-dressed at each feeding. Cows were milked 2 times/d and milk samples were taken daily for analysis. Milk components, yield, feed intake, and water intake records were taken daily. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were taken 3 times/d at 0600, 1400, and 1800h. Cows were housed in environmentally controlled rooms and were allowed acclimation for 7d at thermoneutral (TN) conditions with a mean temperature-humidity index of 56.6. Cows were then exposed to 7d of TN followed by 7d of HS represented by a temperature-humidity index of 71.5 for 14d. This was followed by a recovery period of 3d at TN. Dietary BET increased milk yield during the TN period. No differences were found between BET and CON in total milk production or milk composition during HS. The increase in water intake during HS was not as great for cows fed BET compared with controls. The cows on CON diets had higher p.m. respiration rate than both MID and HI BET during HS, but lower rectal temperature compared with BET. No difference was found in serum glucose during TN, but cows given HI had elevated glucose levels during HS compared with CON. No differences were found in serum insulin levels between CON and BET but an intake by environment interaction was present with insulin increasing in HI-treated lactating dairy cows during HS. The heat shock response [heat shock protein (HSP) 27 and HSP70] was upregulated in bovine mammary epithelial cells

  19. Effects of two different prepartum diets on some metabolic traits and productive response in multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Gabai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six multiparous Italian Holstein cows were used to compare two feeding strategies for the prepartum period. Cowswere allocated to two dietary treatments on the basis of their parity (3.1 ± 1.1 and mature equivalent production (11473± 1449 kg. From 20 ± 7 d precalving to the calving day, one group of 13 cows (parity = 3.1 ± 1.0; mature equivalentproduction = 11473 ± 1606 kg was fed a Control diet made by mixing a 50:50 as fed combination of the far off dryration and the lactation diet fed postpartum. The remaining cows (parity = 3.1 ± 1.1; mature equivalent production =11473 ± 1338 kg were fed a prepartum diet (Anionic obtained by supplementing the far off dry ration with energy andprotein sources plus calcium chloride. This diet had a lower dietary cation-anion difference than the Control diet (7.35 vs26.66 meq/100 g DM; Pfed the Anionic diet had the lowest DM intake during the prepartum (12.0 vs 13.4 kg/d; Pshowed a limited drop in plasma Ca reducing the incidence of subclinical hypocalcaemia in comparison with the Controlgroup (8 vs 62%; Pof hepatic function (aspartate-amino transferase, ϒ-glutamil transferase, creatin-kinase and bilirubine. After calving,all the cows were co-mingled and fed the same lactation ration and those that had received the Anionic diet duringthe prepartum showed a significant increase in milk yield with no changes in milk quality. Average production at the peakof lactation was 43.8 kg/d for Control cows while it raised up to 47.8 kg/d (Pduring the prepartum. This positive result was obtained with a lower loss in cows’ body condition score measured at 30and 60 days in milk and without any effect on the uterine involution process. The use of the Anionic diet has proven tobe an effective alternative to the common practice of feeding close-up diets made by a partial replacement of the far offdry ration with the diet fed to the lactating cows. This strategy should be particularly recommended for dairy

  20. In vivo release of aflatoxin B1 bound to different sequestering agents in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Diaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nine lactating dairy cows, producing 31.08±5.00 kg of milk/cow/day and fed with a Total Mixed Ration (TMR with an intake of 22.3±0.8 Kg s.s./cow, were used to investigate the resistance of the AFs-SA complex in the rumen and in the gastro-intestinal tract. Two commercial sequestering agents Atox® and Mycosorb® were used. The AFB1 was also mixed to a rumen fluid (R-SA. AFB1 sequestered by Atox®, Mycosorb® and by R-SA were then fed to cows before the morning meal. Milk samples were collected for 6 consecutive milkings and analyzed for AFM1 content. The in vitro binding capacity of the two SA were 94.2% for Atox®, 84.3% for Mycosorb® and 71.86% for the R-SA. Both Atox® and Mycosorb® released some of the sequestered AFB1 determining an increase of the AFM1 in milk as soon as in the 1st milking from oral drenching (4.23±7.33; 23.60±8.23 and 46.06±39.84 ppt for Atox®, Mycosorb® and R-SA respectively. The AFM1 (ng/cow in milk at the 4th milking was lower (66.04, 661.77 and 1613.04; P<0.05 in Atox® and Mycosorb® than R-SA, respectively. The percentage release of bound AFB1 were 1.63% for Atox®, 20.27% for Mycosorb® and 50.48% for R-SA.

  1. Effect of timing and type of supplementary grain on herbage intake, nitrogen utilization and milk production in dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture from evening to morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effect of timing and type of supplementary grain in grazing dairy cows on herbage dry matter intake (HDMI), nitrogen utilization and milk production. Eight lactating cows were allowed to graze from evening to morning during three seasonal periods (spring, summer, autumn). They were randomly allocated to four treatments (timing: pre- (Pre) or post-grazing (Post), for large grain allotments consisting of 75% of daily grain offered; grain type: barley or corn) in 4 × 4 Latin square designs in each period. In the spring period, HDMI was greater for cows fed corn than those fed barley (P = 0.005), whereas cows in the Pre treatment had a similar HDMI, higher (P = 0.049) urinary purine derivative concentration and greater (P = 0.004) milk yield compared with cows in the Post treatment. In the summer and autumn periods, timing treatments did not affect HDMI, nitrogen utilization or milk production, but cows supplemented with barley had higher urinary purine derivatives concentration (P production without reducing HDMI regardless of grain type. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Síntese de proteína microbiana e concentrações de uréia em vacas alimentadas com dietas à base de palma forrageira e diferentes volumosos Microbial protein synthesis and urea nitrogen concentrations in lactating dairy cows fed spineless cactus and different forages based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinco vacas da raça Holandesa foram distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 × 5 com o objetivo de estimar a produção de proteína microbiana utilizando-se a excreção total de derivados de purinas (DP, por meio de coletas spot de urina, e as concentrações de nitrogênio (N-uréia no plasma, no leite e na urina. As cinco dietas foram formuladas com diversos volumosos (bagaço de cana-de-açúcar; feno de capim-tifton; feno de capim-elefante; silagem de sorgo; e uma mistura de silagem de sorgo + bagaço de cana associados à palma forrageira. As concentrações de uréia (10,98 mg/dL e N-uréia (5,11 mg/dL no leite não foram afetadas pelos volumosos, assim como as concentrações plasmáticas de uréia (28,10 mg/dL e N-uréia (13,09 mg/dL. As excreções urinárias de uréia, N-uréia, alantoína e derivados de purina, purinas absorvidas, a síntese de N-microbiano e as concentrações de alantoína no leite não foram alteradas. Os volumosos utilizados podem ser associados a palma forrageira na alimentação de vacas Holandesas, pois não alteram a produção de proteína microbiana.Five Holstein cows were allotted to a 5 × 5 Latin square design with the objective of evaluating the microbial protein production, using the total excretion of purine derivatives (PD, obtained from spot urine collection, plasma and milk urea and nitrogen (N-urea. The five treatments contained different forage sources: sugar cane bagasse (CB, tifton hay (TH, elephant grass hay (EH, sorghum silage (SS and a mixture of sugar cane bagasse + sorghum silage (CBSS. The milk urea (10.98 mg/dL and N-urea (5.11 mg/dL concentrations were not influenced by the forage sources, such as plasma urea (28.10 mg/dL and N-urea (13.09 mg/dL concentrations. The urinary urea, N-urea, allantoin and PD excretions, the absorbed purine, N-microbial synthesis and milk allantoin concentration remained unchanged. The different forage sources in association with forage cactus did not change

  3. FedScope Employment Cubes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This raw data set provides Federal civilian employee population data. The scope of this raw data set includes all data elements used in the creation of the FedScope...

  4. Long-term alteration of follicular steroid concentrations in relation to subclinical endometritis in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M P; Ledgard, A M; Beaumont, S E; Berg, M C; McNatty, K P; Peterson, A J; Back, P J

    2011-11-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the effect of subclinical endometritis (scEndo) on ovarian follicular steroid concentrations in early postpartum pasture-fed dairy cows. Mixed-age lactating dairy cows (n = 169) were examined to ascertain uterine health status on d 21 postpartum (±3 d). From this herd, a cohort of scEndo and uninfected cows (n = 47) were selected using uterine cytology to determine scEndo. To ensure cows with scEndo were selected for the study, a conservative threshold [>18% polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells among uterine nucleated cells] was chosen as a selection threshold. Ovarian follicular dynamics were assessed by ultrasonography on d 21, 42, and 63 postpartum. On the latter 2 d, all follicles >4 mm in diameter were ablated, and 4 d later, the largest (F1) and second largest (F2) follicles were measured and their follicular fluid aspirated. Hematological variables and plasma metabolites were measured also on these days to further characterize scEndo cows. On d 21, the prevalence of scEndo was approximately 9% in this herd; by d 42 infections had self-resolved in the majority (81%) of those cows classified as having scEndo on d 21. The scEndo cows had a delayed return to cyclicity; however, no effect was evident on ovarian follicle size or growth rate. Weeks after scEndo had self-resolved and cyclicity was restored, decreased (P = 0.07) testosterone and increased (P = 0.07) cortisol concentrations were evident in F1 follicles of scEndo compared with uninfected cows. Progesterone concentrations of F1 increased (P cows, whereas estradiol, androstendione, and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations were decreased (P cows. These 3 steroids also differed (P size categories of scEndo but not uninfected cows. On d 21, mean plasma albumin concentration was decreased (P = 0.02) in scEndo cows. In summary, early postpartum scEndo had surprisingly long-term influences on the steroid concentrations of ovarian follicles long after infections had self

  5. Supplementing an immunomodulatory feed ingredient to modulate thermoregulation, physiologic, and production responses in lactating dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Schubach, K M; Batista, L F D; Miranda, M F; Colombo, E A; Rodrigues, R O; Junior, J R G; Cerri, R L A; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-06-01

    This study compared vaginal temperature, physiologic, and productive parameters in lactating dairy cows supplemented or not with Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) during the summer months in a tropical environment. Thirty-two lactating, primiparous (n = 16) and multiparous (n = 16) pregnant Holstein × Gir cows were ranked by parity, days in milk, body weight, and body condition score (BCS), and assigned to receive (SUPP; n = 16) or not (CON; n = 16) Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) at 56 g/cow daily (as-fed basis). During the experimental period (d -6 to 56), cows were maintained in a single drylot pen with ad libitum access to water and a total mixed ration, and milked twice daily. Cows received Omnigen-AF mixed with 200 g of corn (as-fed basis) after the daily morning milking through self-locking head gates, whereas CON cows concurrently received 56 g of kaolin mixed with 200 g of corn. For feed intake evaluation, cows from both treatments were randomly divided in 4 groups of 8 cows each, and allocated to 8 individual feeding stations for 3 d. Intake was evaluated 4 times per group from d 1 to 56. From d -6 to 0, d 15 to 28, and d 43 to 56, cow vaginal temperature was recorded hourly. Environmental temperature-humidity index (THI) was also recorded hourly from d 15 to 28 and d 43 to 56. Cows were evaluated for body weight and BCS on d -6 and 56, individual milk production was recorded daily from d -6 to 56, and milk samples were collected on d -6, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 for analyses of somatic cell count and milk components. Blood samples were collected on d -6, -3, 0, 9, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 36, 45, 48, 51, 54, and 56. Results from samples or observations collected from d -6 to 0 were included as an independent covariate in each respective analysis. Environmental THI was 74.2 ± 0.5 and cows were exposed to THI >68 for 633 h within a total of 672 h of evaluation. Cows assigned to CON had greater vaginal temperature on d

  6. Effects of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference and source of vitamin D in dairy cows: Vitamin D, mineral, and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, R M; Martinez, N; Block, E; Hernandez, L L; Celi, P; Nelson, C D; Santos, J E P; Lean, I J

    2018-03-01

    Pregnant Holstein cows, 28 nulliparous and 51 parous, were blocked by parity and milk yield and randomly allocated to receive diets that differed in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD), +130 or -130 mEq/kg, and supplemented with either calcidiol or cholecalciferol at 3 mg/11 kg of dry matter from 255 d of gestation until parturition. Blood was sampled thrice weekly prepartum, and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, and 30 postpartum to evaluate effects of the diets on vitamin D, mineral and bone metabolism, and acid-base status. Blood pH and concentrations of minerals, vitamin D metabolites, and bone-related hormones were determined, as were mineral concentrations and losses in urine and colostrum. Supplementing with calcidiol increased plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 , 3-epi 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 , 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 , 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 compared with supplementing with cholecalciferol. Cows fed the diet with negative DCAD had lesser concentrations of vitamin D metabolites before and after calving than cows fed the diet with positive DCAD, except for 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 . Feeding the diet with negative DCAD induced a compensated metabolic acidosis that attenuated the decline in blood ionized Ca (iCa) and serum total Ca (tCa) around calving, particularly in parous cows, whereas cows fed the diet with positive DCAD and supplemented with calcidiol had the greatest 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 concentrations and the lowest iCa and tCa concentrations on d 1 and 2 postpartum. The acidogenic diet or calcidiol markedly increased urinary losses of tCa and tMg, and feeding calcidiol tended to increase colostrum yield and increased losses of tCa and tMg in colostrum. Cows fed the diet with negative DCAD had increased concentrations of serotonin and C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen prepartum compared with cows fed the diet with positive DCAD. Concentrations of undercarboxylated and carboxylated

  7. Mammary cell turnover and expression of lipogenic genes in response to silage induced CLA and diet energy density in lactating cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J V; Baumgard, L H; Nielsen, T Skau

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate possible effects of silage induced differences in milk conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and diet energy density on cell turnover and production capacity in the mammary gland. Cows were given high levels of canola fat and fed either grass or maize...

  8. Short Communication: Elevated Concentrations of Oleic Acid and Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Milk Fat of Multiparous Subclinical Ketotic Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haelst, van Y.N.T.; Beeckman, A.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Fievez, V.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether concentrations of specific fatty acids in milk fat are a candidate for the early detection of subclinical ketosis. The case study included multiparous cows fed a lipogenic diet or a mixed glucogenic:lipogenic diet during the first 9 wk of

  9. Effect of feeding different sources of rumen-protected methionine on milk production and N-utilization in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives of this study were to quantify production responses of lactating dairy cows to supplying absorbable Met as isopropyl-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMBi), or rumen-protected Met (RPM, Smartamine® M) fed with or without 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMB), and to determin...

  10. Effects of partial replacement of dietary starch from barley or corn with lactose on ruminal function, short-chain fatty acid absorption, nitrogen utilization, and production performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibisa, G E; Gorka, P; Penner, G B; Berthiaume, R; Mutsvangwa, T

    2015-04-01

    In cows fed diets based on corn-alfalfa silage, replacing starch with sugar improves milk production. Although the rate of ruminal fermentation of sugar is more rapid than that of starch, evidence has been found that feeding sugar as a partial replacement for starch does not negatively affect ruminal pH despite increasing diet fermentability. The mechanism(s) for this desirable response are unknown. Our objective was to determine the effects of replacing barley or corn starch with lactose (as dried whey permeate; DWP) on ruminal function, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption, and nitrogen (N) utilization in dairy cows. Eight lactating cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods and source of starch (barley vs. corn) and level of DWP (0 vs. 6%, DM basis) as treatment factors. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated for the measurement of ruminal function, SCFA absorption, and N utilization. Dry matter intake and milk and milk component yields did not differ with diet. The dietary addition of DWP tended to increase ruminal butyrate concentration (13.6 vs. 12.2 mmol/L), and increased the Cl(-)-competitive absorption rates for acetate and propionate. There was no sugar effect on minimum ruminal pH, and the duration and area when ruminal pH was below 5.8. Minimum ruminal pH tended to be lower in cows fed barley compared with those fed corn (5.47 vs. 5.61). The duration when ruminal pH was below pH 5.8 tended to be shorter (186 vs. 235 min/d), whereas the area (pH × min/d) that pH was below 5.8 was smaller (47 vs. 111) on the corn than barley diets. Cows fed the high- compared with the low-sugar diet had lower ruminal NH3-N concentration. Feeding the high-sugar diet tended to increase apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter and organic matters and increased apparent total-tract digestibility of fat. Apparent total-tract digestibility of N tended to be greater in cows fed barley compared with those fed corn

  11. Effects of feeding dry glycerol to primiparous Holstein dairy cows on follicular development, reproductive performance and metabolic parameters related to fertility during the early post-partum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami-Shabankareh, H; Kafilzadeh, F; Piri, V; Mohammadi, H

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of dry glycerol supplementation on follicular growth, post-partum interval to first ovulation, concentration of serum metabolites and hormones related to fertility, body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows. Sixty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two groups (control: n = 30 and glycerol supplemented: n = 30). Dry glycerol (250 g/day/cow) was fed as a top dressing to the common lactating total mixed ration (TMR) from parturition to 21 days post-partum. Ovaries were examined four times using ultrasonography on days 13, 19, 25 and 36 post-partum to determine ovarian follicular growth. Concentration of serum metabolites and hormones was determined weekly. Body condition score was evaluated weekly from weeks 1 to 5 after parturition, and BWs were recorded three times on days 1, 11 and 21 during the experimental period. The cows fed dry glycerol had more large follicles (p cows. Days to the first ovulation (p = 0.06), days to first oestrus (p = 0.05), services per conception (p = 0.06) and days open (p = 0.004) were positively affected by dry glycerol supplementation. Serum concentration of glucose and insulin was higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p = 0.1; p = 0.06, respectively). Feeding glycerol had no effect on mean serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and IGF-1 during the experimental period. However, significant differences were observed at concentration of BHBA and IGF-1 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) between two groups on day 21 after calving. The cows in the glycerol-fed group had higher serum progesterone concentrations on days 33 (p = 0.007) and 36 (p = 0.004) after calving. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1-5 after calving compared with the control cows (0.34 vs 0.41 BCS). In week 13 post-partum, the proportion of cycling cows was 83.3 and 69.9% for those which

  12. The comparison of dairy performance and some reproductive parameters of holstein cows imported from Sweden and their Polish age mates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The general aim of the present work was to compare dairy performance and some reproductive parameters of Holstein-Friesian (HF cows imported from Sweden as an in-calf heifers, and their age mates in Poland. The animals were kept freely on the deep litter on the farm owned by Agro-company “Witkowo” and feeding was based on TMR (total mixed ration system during whole year. All ration’s ingredients (bulky feed, concentrate, miscellaneous additives were mixed and fed as all-mash. The feed ration depended from the physiological condition of a cow and it was composed of corn and grass ensilage, mash concentrate, crushed corn meal, brewer’s grains and beet pulp.Cows imported from Sweden as in-calf heifers obtained higher milk, fat and protein yield in both lactations comparing to home cows. Significant statistical differences were observed for kg of milk, kg of protein, for FCM (P<0.01 and for kg of fat (P<0.05 in 2nd lactation. Fat and protein content in milk was in average higher for home cows (P<0.01. Big differences (P<0.01 were observed in SBT (proportion of protein to fat content and RTB (difference between concentration of fat and protein at imported cows in 2nd lactation. As far as reproduction parameters (gestation interval, calving interval, insemination index are concerned was cows from Sweden better too. Heifers from Sweden calved earlier. The usage of high genetic potential of imported cows is possible only with providing them optimum living conditions suitable to their needs.

  13. Body condition score at parturition and postpartum supplemental fat effects on cow and calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, S L; Scholljegerdes, E J; Atkinson, R L; Nayigihugu, V; Paisley, S I; Rule, D C; Moss, G E; Robinson, T J; Hess, B W

    2005-12-01

    Three-year-old Angus x Gelbvieh beef cows nutritionally managed to achieve a BCS of 4 +/- 0.07 (479.3 +/- 36.3 kg of BW) or 6 +/- 0.07 (579.6 +/- 53.1 kg of BW) at parturition were used in a 2-yr experiment (n = 36/yr) to determine the effects of prepartum energy balance and postpartum lipid supplementation on cow and calf performance. Beginning 3 d postpartum, cows within each BCS were assigned randomly to be fed hay and a low-fat control supplement or supplements with either high-linoleate cracked safflower seeds or high-oleate cracked safflower seeds until d 60 of lactation. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric, and safflower seed supplements were provided to achieve 5% of DMI as fat. Ultrasonic 12th rib fat and LM area were lower (P condition over the course of the study, whereas cows in BCS 6 lost condition. No differences (P = 0.44 to 0.71) were detected for milk yield, milk energy, milk fat percentage, or milk lactose percentage because of BCS; however, milk protein percentage was less (P = 0.03) for BCS 4 cows. First-service conception rates did not differ (P = 0.22) because of BCS at parturition, but overall pregnancy rate was greater (P = 0.02) in BCS 6 cows. No differences (P = 0.48 to 0.83) were detected in calf birth weight or ADG because of BCS at parturition. Dietary lipid supplementation did not influence (P = 0.23 to 0.96) cow BW change, BCS change, 12th rib fat, LM area, milk yield, milk energy, milk fat percentage, milk lactose percentage, first service conception, overall pregnancy rates, or calf performance. Although cows in BCS of 4 at parturition seemed capable of maintaining BCS during lactation, the overall decrease in pregnancy rate indicates cows should be managed to achieve a BCS >4 before parturition to improve reproductive success.

  14. Psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of dairy cow feces: Long-term operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massé, Daniel I., E-mail: Daniel.masse@agr.gc.ca; Cata Saady, Noori M.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) of cow feces (CF) is feasible. • PDAD of CF is as efficient as mesophilic and thermophilic AD at TCL 21 days. • CF (13–16% TS at OLR 5.0 g TCOD{sub fed} kg{sup −1} inoculum d{sup −1}) yielded 222 ± 27 {sub N}L CH{sub 4} kg{sup −1} VS fed. - Abstract: This paper reports experimental results which demonstrate psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of cow feces during long-term operation in sequence batch reactor. Cow feces (13–16% total solids) has been anaerobically digested in 12 successive cycles (252 days) at 21 days treatment cycle length (TCL) and temperature of 20 °C using psychrotrophic anaerobic mixed culture. An average specific methane yield (SMY) of 184.9 ± 24.0, 189.9 ± 27.3, and 222 ± 27.7 {sub N}L CH{sub 4} kg{sup −1} of VS fed has been achieved at an organic loading rate of 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 g TCOD kg{sup −1} inoculum d{sup −1} and TCL of 21 days, respectively. The corresponding substrate to inoculum ratio (SIR) was 0.39 ± 0.06, 0.48 ± .02, 0.53 ± 0.05, respectively. Average methane production rate of 10 ± 1.4 {sub N}L CH{sub 4} kg{sup −1} VS fed d{sup −1} has been obtained. The low concentration of volatile fatty acids indicated that hydrolysis was the reaction limiting step.

  15. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation - Effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily....... No differences in BCS or HG or in plasma concentrations of glucose, BHBA, NEFA, or IGF-1 were found between the control group and any of the treatment groups. Cows in the GLY group had lower plasma insulin concentrations during DIM 0 to 63 compared with group CON, but no difference in insulin was found between...... supplementation with 450 g of glycerol (GLY), 300 g of propylene glycol (PG), or nothing (control, CON). Supplements were fed twice daily from 0 to 21 d in milk (DIM) as a top dress on concentrates. For each cow, data on parity, breed, calving date, monthly test-day milk yield, and cases of diseases were...

  16. Effects of rumen-protected methionine, lysine, and histidine on lactation performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallongo, F; Harper, M T; Oh, J; Lopes, J C; Lapierre, H; Patton, R A; Parys, C; Shinzato, I; Hristov, A N

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing a metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient diet with rumen-protected (RP) Met, Lys, and His, individually or combined, on the performance of lactating dairy cows. The experiment was a 9-wk randomized complete block design with 72 Holstein cows. Following a 2-wk covariate period, cows were blocked by days in milk, milk yield, and parity, and randomly assigned to 1 of the following 6 treatments: (1) MP-adequate diet [MPA; +243g/d MP balance, according to the National Research Council (2001) requirements]; (2) MP-deficient diet (MPD; -54g/d MP balance); (3) MPD supplemented with RPMet (MPDM); (4) MPD supplemented with RPLys (MPDL); (5) MPD supplemented with RPHis (MPDH); and (6) MPD supplemented with RPMet, RPLys, and RPHis (MPDMLH). Dry matter intake (DMI), yields of milk and milk components (fat, protein, lactose) and energy-corrected milk (ECM), feed and ECM feed efficiencies, and milk and plasma urea N were decreased by MPD, compared with MPA. Supplementation of the MPD diet with RPLys increased milk protein content and plasma glucose concentration and tended to increase milk urea N. Addition of RPHis tended to increase DMI, increased milk protein concentration, and numerically increased yields of milk fat, protein, and ECM. In addition to the trends for increased DMI and milk fat content, and higher milk protein concentration, supplementation of the 3 RP AA also increased yields of milk fat, protein, and ECM and ECM feed efficiency. Relative to MPA, milk N efficiency tended to be increased by MPD. Concentrations of plasma essential AA (except Met and Thr) were decreased by MPD compared with MPA. Supplementation of RPMet, RPLys, and RPHis increased plasma Met (except for MPDM), Lys, and His concentrations, respectively. Cows fed MPD had lower blood hemoglobin concentration and numerically higher plasma ghrelin than cows fed MPA. Concentration of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were or

  17. Effects of temperature-humidity index and chromium supplementation on antioxidant capacity, heat shock protein 72, and cytokine responses of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F J; Weng, X G; Wang, J F; Zhou, D; Zhang, W; Zhai, C C; Hou, Y X; Zhu, Y H

    2014-07-01

    Heat stress adversely affects the productivity and immune status of dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is commonly used to indicate the degree of heat stress on dairy cattle. We investigated the effects of different THI and Cr supplementation on the antioxidant capacity, the levels of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72), and cytokine responses of lactating cows. The study used a total of 24 clinically healthy uniparous midlactation Holstein cows, which were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 12 per group), and was conducted in 3 designated THI periods: low THI period (LTHI; THI = 56.4 ± 2.5), moderate THI period (MTHI; THI = 73.9 ± 1.7), and high THI period (HTHI; THI = 80.3 ± 1.0). The 2 groups of cows were fed corn and corn silage based basal diet supplemented chromium picolinate to provide 3.5 mg of Cr/cow daily (Cr+) or basal diet with no Cr (Cr-). The experiment was a 3 × 2 factorial design. The numbers of leukocytes (P Cows supplemented with Cr had lower (P = 0.009) serum concentrations of cholesterol but greater (P cows supplemented with Cr had greater (P = 0.038) expression of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B α (IκBα) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) compared with those without Cr supplementation in the HTHI, whereas the expression of Hsp72 in PBMC was unaltered. Data indicate that there is a decrease in glucose and increases in BUN and creatinine in the serum of midlactation cows under hot conditions during the summer and that these cows have a lowered oxidative capacity but an elevated antioxidant capacity. In addition, Cr may play an anti-inflammatory role in lactating cows by promoting the release of Hsp72, increasing the production of IL-10, and inhibiting the degradation of IκBα under hot conditions during the summer.

  18. Effects of Prepartum Dietary Energy Level and Nicotinic Acid Supplementation on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Periparturient Dairy Cows Differing in Parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Reka; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana; Hüther, Liane; Meyer, Ulrich; Huber, Korinna; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Several biological changes occur during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation which is associated with a high susceptibility of health disorders. Nicotinic acid, as feed additive, is suggested to balance catabolic metabolism of periparturient dairy cows by attenuating lipolysis and impact production performance. This study provides information of the biological changes occurring around parturition with special emphasis on differences between primiparous and multiparous cows. Present results showed that energy-dense feeding prepartum did not result in metabolic imbalances postpartum in dairy cows which were similar in body condition score. Nicotinic acid supplementation did not reveal any effect. Abstract The periparturient period is critical according to health, productivity and profitability. As this period is fundamental for the success of the lactation period, the interest in improving periparturient health by dietary supplements increased in recent years. The present study investigated the effects of feeding nicotinic acid (NA) combined with varying dietary energy densities on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters of periparturient cows differing in parity. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous dairy cows were enrolled in the study 42 days before expected parturition date until 100 days postpartum with the half of the cows being supplemented with 24 g of NA/d. After parturition a diet with 30% concentrate was fed to all cows which was followed by different concentrate escalation strategies. Dietary NA supplementation was ceased on day 24 postpartum. Dietary NA increased (P = 0.010) serum nicotinamide concentrations (mean of 3.35 ± 1.65 µg/mL), whereas NA could not be detected. Present data emphasize that periparturient cows are faced with major physiological challenges and that both parity-groups have different prerequisites to adapt to those changes irrespective of NA supplementation. The overfeeding of

  19. Nutrient intake in the third instar larvae of Anomala cuprea and Protaetia orientalis submarmorea (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae) from a mixture of cow dung and wood chips: Results from stable isotope analyses of nitrogen and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Masahito; Iwata, Ryutaro; Yamane, Akiomi; Katase, Takao; Ueda, Shingo

    2003-01-01

    The nutrient intake of the third instar larvae of Anomala cuprea (Ac) and Protaerita orientalis submarmorea (Pos) (Colepotera: Scarabaeidae) from a mixture of cow dung and wood chips of two wood species (Cryptomeria japonica and Quercus mongolica), was assayed by the stable isotope technique. The values of δ 15 N and δ 13 C (deviations of 15 N/ 14 N and 13 C/ 12 C from the standard materials) were measured in the following samples: (1) the integument plus the head of the 3rd instar larvae of both species reared in 1999 autumn fed with a mixture of cow dung and wood chips or with leaf mold, (2) cow dung, (3) wood ships, and (4) leaf mold as the larval food before onset of rearing. The δ values of bodies of larvae fed with leaf mold differed with the beetle species. The δ 15 N values of the larval bodies of both species fed with the mixture were close to those of cow dung, whereas the δ 13 C values were in between those of cow dung and wood chips. Therefore, both species were presumed to obtain almost all their nitrogen from cow dung, and their carbon from both dung and wood chips. (author)

  20. Diagnosis and management of cow's milk protein allergy in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, Elisabeth; Hauser, Bruno; Devreker, Thierry; Veereman-Wauters, Gigi; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2012-02-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is frequently suspected in infants with a variety of symptoms. A thorough history and careful clinical examination are necessary to exclude other underlying diseases and to evaluate the severity of the suspected allergy. Care should be taken to diagnose CMPA adequately to avoid an unnecessary diet. We make recommendations based on systematic literature searches using the best-available evidence from PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and bibliographies. Skin prick tests, patch tests and serum specific IgE are only indicative of CMPA. Breastfed infants have a decreased risk of developing CMPA; an elimination diet for the mother is indicated if CMPA is confirmed. If a food challenge is positive in formula fed infants, an extensively hydrolysed formula and cow's milk-free diet is recommended. If symptoms do not improve, an amino acid based formula should be considered. In severe CMPA with life-threatening symptoms, an amino-acid formula is recommended. Elimination diet by a double-blind placebo controlled food challenge is the gold standard for diagnosis. Elimination of the offending allergen from the infants' diet is the main treatment principle.

  1. Cow pregnancy early diagnosis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kynchev, L; Naidenov, N

    1978-02-15

    30 - 50 microlitres of milk are diluted in pH 6.9 - 7.5 phosphate buffer in the ratio of 1:3 to 1:6. Then 200 microlitres of radioactive progesterone and its antibody in the ratio 1:1 are added and incubated for 80 - 90 minutes at 2 - 7 deg. C. After the expiration of the incubation period 0.5 - 0.1 millilitres of 0.2 - 0.6 percent narcol suspension are added, followed by 10 minutes of centrifugation at 2 - 7 deg C and 2200 - 3800 rpm. The resultant fluid is then poured into vials containing 5 - 10 millilitres of scintillation liquid. Then the samples are subjected to B-scintillation count. If blood contains up to 20 picogrammes of progesterone the cow is not pregnant, if the blood contains 20 - 30 picogrammes - there are reasonable doubts, and over 30 picogrammes the cow is pregnant.

  2. The effect of dry corn gluten feed on chewing activities and rumen parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF on dry matter intake (DMI, chewing activity, and rumen fermentation when used to replace a portion of corn silage in diets for lactating Holstein cows. Eight lactating Holstein primiparous cows averaging 98±20 d in milk and weighing 515±20 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design with 4 week periods. Dietary treatments were 1 a control diets (C of 50% forage (corn silage and wheat straw, 35%, 15% DM basis, respectively, 2 a low DCGF diet (L-DCGF in which 10% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, 3 a medium DCGF diet (M-DCGF in which 18% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, and 4 a high DCGF diet (H-DCGF in which 25% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF. The proportion of particles retained on the 19.0 mm screen and physical effectiveness factor of the HDCGF was lower (P<0.05 than in the other groups. Increasing the level of DCGF did not change DMI. Cows fed the C diet spent significantly more time ruminating and chewing per day compared with the MDCGF and H-DCGF diets (483.88, 435.63, 431.25 min/d, P<0.05; and 818.38, 753.00, 745.75 min/d respectively, P<0.05. Cows fed the C diet had ruminal pH values higher than the cows fed the M-DCGF and H-DCGF diets (6.02, 5.95, and 5.91, P<0.05. The total volatile fatty acid and propionate levels of H-DCGF fed cows were higher than the control (P<0.05. The changes in acetate (A and propionate (P concentrations resulted in a decrease in A/P ratio, when corn silage was replaced by DCGF, which led to a reduction in the particle size of the diets (P<0.05. It was concluded that when ratio 18 and 25% DCGF were substituted for corn silage, rumination time, chewing activities and ruminal pH are negatively affected. The optimum level for the addition of DCGF was found to be below 18% of the diet for a healthy rumen and a chewing behaviour in dairy cows.

  3. Soybean in different forms of processing in the feeding of crossbred cows on brachiaria grass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Raimundi Andrade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate intake and digestibility of nutrients, as well as milk production and composition of the milk from F1 Holstein × Gyr cows kept on pasture, supplemented with sugarcane and concentrate (28% CP. Five cows with 150±14 lactation days and average milk production of 7.1±2.1 kg/day were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The treatments were: soybean meal-based concentrate; soy bean-based concentrate; ground soybean-based concentrate; roasted soybean-based concentrate; and ground, roasted soybean-based concentrate. Dry matter (DM, organic matter, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients intakes were not affected by the diet, but ether extract intake was higher for the animals fed soy bean-based diets than those fed soybean meal. The digestibility of DM, NDF and CP did not differ. The corrected milk yield differed between treatments; animals on the treatment with soy bean-based concentrate had the lowest production in relation to the others, which did not differ from each other. There was no difference between treatments for milk composition. Thus, soybean meal can be replaced by ground soy beans or roasted soy beans (ground or whole in diets for low-yield cows reared on Brachiaria decumbens pastures with no harm to milkproduction or composition. Therefore, the use of these alternative raw materials is recommended whenever their inclusion represents lower feeding costs.

  4. Dietary effects of lutein-fortified chlorella on milk components of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30 g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3 weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentrations of milk protein and solids non-fat in groups fed diets containing both conventional and lutein-fortified chlorella were significantly higher than those of the control group (P milk fat among groups. The levels of plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Lutein content in milk was significantly increased in groups fed lutein-fortified chlorella as compared with those of conventional chlorella and control, respectively (P lutein-fortified chlorella has positive effects on milk components and the use of lutein-fortified chlorella in a dairy diet is effective in the production of milk enriched with lutein.

  5. Methane gas from cow dung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The Khadi and Village Industries Commission offers a gobar gas (methane gas) production scheme. The gas plant, available in sizes of 60 to 3000 cu ft, requires only low maintenance expenditures. The cow dung, which is at present being wasted or burned as domestic fuel, can be used for manufacturing methane for fuel gas. The residue will be a good fertilizer for increasing food production. There are now about 4000 gobar gas plants in India.

  6. Evaluation of Coarsely Ground Wheat as a Replacement for Ground Corn in the Diets of Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Q. Guo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight multiparous Holstein cows (569±47 kg of BW; 84±17 DIM were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of coarsely ground wheat (CGW as replacements for ground corn (GC in diets on feed intake and digestion, ruminal fermentation, lactation performance, and plasma metabolites profiles in dairy cows. The cows were settled in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 3-wk treatment periods; four cows in one of the replicates were fitted with rumen cannulas. The four diets contained 0, 9.6, 19.2, and 28.8% CGW and 27.9, 19.2, 9.6, and 0% GC on dry matter (DM basis, respectively. Increasing dietary levels of CGW, daily DM intake tended to increase quadratically (p = 0.07; however, apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF were significantly decreased (p<0.01 in cows fed the 28.8% CGW diets. Ruminal pH remained in the normal physiological range for all dietary treatments at all times, except for the 28.8% CGW diets at 6 h after feeding; moreover, increasing dietary levels of CGW, the daily mean ruminal pH decreased linearly (p = 0.01. Increasing the dietary levels of CGW resulted in a linear increase in ruminal propionate (p<0.01 and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N (p = 0.06 concentration, while ruminal acetate: propionate decreased linearly (p = 0.03 in cows fed the 28.8% CGW diets. Milk production was not affected by diets; however, percentage and yield of milk fat decreased linearly (p = 0.02 when the level of CGW was increased. With increasing levels of dietary CGW, concentrations of plasma beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA (p = 0.07 and cholesterol (p<0.01 decreased linearly, whereas plasma glucose (p = 0.08, insulin (p = 0.02 and urea nitrogen (p = 0.02 increased linearly at 6 h after the morning feeding. Our results indicate that CGW is a suitable substitute for GC in the diets of dairy cows and that it may be included up to a level of 19.2% of DM without adverse effects on feed intake and digestion

  7. Postpartum responses of dairy cows supplemented with n-3 fatty acids for different durations during the peripartal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiei, A; Aliverdilou, A; Amanlou, H; Beheshti, M; Dirandeh, E; Masoumi, R; Moosakhani, F; Petit, H V

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different durations of n-3 supplementation during the peripartal period on production and reproduction performance of Holstein dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dry cows (16 multiparous and 16 primiparous) were blocked within parity for similar expected calving dates 8 wk before calving. Cows within blocks were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) control without n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation during the dry period; (2) n-3 FA supplementation during the whole dry period (8 wk); and (3) n-3 FA supplementation during the early dry period (first 5 wk; far-off), or (4) n-3 FA supplementation during the late dry period (last 3 wk; close-up). All cows received the same diet without n-3 FA after calving for the first 6 wk of lactation. Ovaries of each cow were examined 10, 17, 24, and 34 d from calving (calving=d 0) by transrectal ultrasonography to determine follicular development. Blood samples were collected at 14-d intervals starting on the first day of the dry period (8 wk before expected calving) to determine plasma concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, urea N, aspartate aminotransferase, and insulin. Blood samples were also collected on d 1, 10, 17, 24, 31, and 38 postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. Milk yield was recorded daily throughout the experiment and samples were taken twice weekly (Monday and Thursday mornings) for analysis of fat, protein, and lactose. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk and milk composition were similar among treatments except for fat proportion, which tended to be lower in cows that were fed n-3 FA throughout the dry period. We observed no differences among treatments for plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. The cows that were fed in the 3 n-3 FA treatments had larger ovulatory follicles compared with those fed the controlled diet. Treatments did not differ significantly in terms of the

  8. Modelling impacts of performance on the probability of reproducing, and thereby on productive lifespan, allow prediction of lifetime efficiency in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, H N; Blavy, P; Martin, O; Schmidely, P; Friggens, N C

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive success is a key component of lifetime efficiency - which is the ratio of energy in milk (MJ) to energy intake (MJ) over the lifespan, of cows. At the animal level, breeding and feeding management can substantially impact milk yield, body condition and energy balance of cows, which are known as major contributors to reproductive failure in dairy cattle. This study extended an existing lifetime performance model to incorporate the impacts that performance changes due to changing breeding and feeding strategies have on the probability of reproducing and thereby on the productive lifespan, and thus allow the prediction of a cow's lifetime efficiency. The model is dynamic and stochastic, with an individual cow being the unit modelled and one day being the unit of time. To evaluate the model, data from a French study including Holstein and Normande cows fed high-concentrate diets and data from a Scottish study including Holstein cows selected for high and average genetic merit for fat plus protein that were fed high- v. low-concentrate diets were used. Generally, the model consistently simulated productive and reproductive performance of various genotypes of cows across feeding systems. In the French data, the model adequately simulated the reproductive performance of Holsteins but significantly under-predicted that of Normande cows. In the Scottish data, conception to first service was comparably simulated, whereas interval traits were slightly under-predicted. Selection for greater milk production impaired the reproductive performance and lifespan but not lifetime efficiency. The definition of lifetime efficiency used in this model did not include associated costs or herd-level effects. Further works should include such economic indicators to allow more accurate simulation of lifetime profitability in different production scenarios.

  9. Effects of time of weaning, supplement, and sire breed of calf during the fall grazing period on cow and calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, R E; Grings, E E; MacNeil, M D; Heitschmidt, R K; Haferkamp, M R; Adams, D C

    1996-07-01

    A 4-yr experiment was conducted to determine effects of protein supplementation, age at weaning, and calf sire breed on cow and calf performance during fall grazing. Each year 48 pregnant, crossbred cows nursing steer calves (mean calving date = April 8) were assigned to a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment replicated in three native range pastures. Treatment factors were: 1) no supplement (NS) or an individually fed supplement (S, 3 kg of a 34% protein supplement fed to cows every 3rd d); 2) calves weaned at the beginning (W, mid to late September) or at the end (NW, mid to late December) of the trial each year; or 3) calves sired by Hereford or Charolais bulls. Data were adjusted for cow size (initial hip height and initial and final weights and condition scores) by analyses of covariance using principal component coefficients as covariates. Change in cow weight and condition score were increased by S and W (P Forage intake was decreased (P intake (forage+supplement) was not affected by S but was decreased by W (P effects of treatments were observed the next spring in cow weight, condition score, and birth weight (NW decreased birth weight by 2 kg, P effects by the next fall on weaning weights or pregnancy rates. Milk yield decreased during the experimental period, and S maintained higher milk production in late lactation (P Calf ADG was increased by S and Charolais sires (P effects of feeding a 34% protein supplement to cows were to increase calf gains and improve persistency of lactation and efficiency; 2) delaying weaning decreased cow weight and condition score; 3) effects of weaning age and protein supplementation were highly dependent on forage and environmental conditions in any given year; and 4) whatever effects existed in a given year did not carry over to effects on next year's production as measured by pregnancy rates and weaning weights.

  10. Effects of precalving body condition score and prepartum feeding level on production, reproduction, and health parameters in pasture-based transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Meier, S; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M A; Riboni, M Vailati; Loor, J J; Kay, J K

    2015-10-01

    Precalving feeding level alters postcalving energy balance, dry matter intake, the liver and adipose tissue transcriptome, hepatic lipidosis, and the risk of metabolic diseases in both high-production cows consuming total mixed rations and moderate-production cows grazing pasture. We hypothesized that the reported benefits of a controlled restriction before calving are dependent on precalving body condition score (BCS): low BCS animals would not benefit from reduced feeding levels precalving, but high BCS cows would have metabolic and immunomodulatory profiles indicative of an improved health status. One hundred sixty-one days before calving, 150 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n = 25) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0; based on a 10-point scale: BCS4 and BCS5, respectively) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Cows in the BCS4 and BCS5 groups were managed through late lactation to ensure that target calving BCS was achieved at dry off. Cows were then fed to maintain this BCS target until 3 wk before expected calving date, at which point they were managed within their allotted precalving energy intake treatments by offering different allowances of fresh pasture/cow per day. Milk production, body weight, and BCS were measured weekly; blood was sampled weekly before and after calving and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 relative to calving. Aspirated plasma was assayed for nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, haptoglobin, IL-1β, IL-6, total antioxidant capacity, and reactive oxygen species. Liver was sampled wk 1, 2, and 4 postcalving for triacylglycerol analysis. Results confirm that precalving BCS and precalving feeding level have both independent and interdependent effects on production and health characteristics of transition dairy cows. Irrespective of precalving BCS, a controlled

  11. Effect of reducing milk production using a prolactin-release inhibitor or a glucocorticoid on metabolism and immune functions in cows subjected to acute nutritional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, S; Beaudoin, F; Vanacker, N; Lacasse, P

    2016-12-01

    When cows are unable to consume enough feed to support milk production, they often fall into severe negative energy balance. This leads to a weakened immune system and increases their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Reducing the milk production of cows subjected to acute nutritional stress decreases their energy deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on metabolism and immune function of reducing milk production using quinagolide (a prolactin-release inhibitor) or dexamethasone in feed-restricted cows. A total of 23 cows in early/mid-lactation were fed for 5 d at 55.9% of their previous dry matter intake to subject them to acute nutritional stress. After 1 d of feed restriction and for 4 d afterward (d 2 to 5), cows received twice-daily i.m. injections of water (control group; n=8), 2mg of quinagolide (QN group; n=7), or water after a first injection of 20mg of dexamethasone (DEX group; n=8). Feed restriction decreased milk production, but the decrease was greater in the QN and DEX cows than in the control cows on d 2 and 3. As expected, feed restriction reduced the energy balance, but the reduction was lower in the QN cows than in the control cows. Feed restriction decreased plasma glucose concentration and increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations. The QN cows had higher glucose concentration and lower BHB concentration than the control cows. The NEFA concentration was also lower in the QN cows than in the control cows on d 2. Dexamethasone injection induced transient hyperglycemia concomitant with a reduction in milk lactose concentration; it also decreased BHB concentration and decreased NEFA initially but increased it later. Feed restriction and quinagolide injections did not affect the blood concentration or activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), whereas dexamethasone injection increased PMN blood concentration but decreased the proportion of PMN capable of inducing oxidative

  12. A comparison of native tallgrass prairie and plains bluestem forage systems for cow-calf production in the southern great plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Volesky, J D; Buchanan, D

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare an introduced warm-season perennial grass (plains bluestem, Bothriochloa ischaemum) to native tallgrass prairie for cow-calf production. Three systems were used, two based on tallgrass prairie with two different forms of protein supplementation and one based on plains bluestem as the primary forage. The systems were as follows: 1) native tallgrass prairie with pelleted oilseed meal as the winter protein supplement (native-control); 2) native tallgrass prairie with limited access to wheat pasture as the winter protein supplement (native-wheat); and 3) plains bluestem with limited access to wheat pasture as the protein supplement (bluestem-wheat). Oilseed meal protein supplements were fed twice weekly. Cows grazing wheat pasture were allowed 6 h of grazing twice weekly. Ninety-nine cows per year were used over the 3-yr study. Cows were sired by either Charolais, Gelbvieh, Angus, or Hereford bulls out of commercial Angus-Hereford dams. Calves were sired by Simmental bulls. Calving and weaning rate increased over time but did not differ among systems or breed types. System did not influence the size or body condition score of cows or the performance of calves, but changes in the weight and condition scores of cows were greater on either native system than on the bluestem-wheat system. Cows from Charolais and Gelbvieh bulls were taller (P < 0.05), and heavier (P < 0.05), and weaned heavier (P < 0.05) calves than cows from Angus or Hereford bulls. The weight of cows on the bluestem-wheat system tended to decrease over time, whereas cows grazing on the native systems tended to gain weight over time. The native-control system was the most profitable system based on cow production. If excess hay produced from the bluestem-wheat system was sold as a cash crop, then this system was the most profitable. In general, we conclude that limit-grazing wheat pasture is a viable alternative to oilseed meal as protein supplement for wintering

  13. Feeding distillers' grains, soybean hulls, or a mixture of both to cows as a forage replacement: Effects on intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W B; Coffey, K P; Rhein, R T; Kegley, E B; Philipp, D; Powell, J G; Caldwell, J D; Young, A N

    2017-08-01

    Coproduct feedstuffs offer a unique and potentially profitable avenue for cattle feeding strategies. However, research is lacking in the evaluation of varying coproducts on ruminal fermentation and digestive characteristics when included as the major component of the diet of cows. Our objective was to determine the effect of coproduct feedstuffs as a forage replacement on digestive and fermentative characteristics of cows. Eight ruminally fistulated cows (672 ± 32.0 kg initial BW and approximately 9 yr of age) were stratified by BW and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 diets (2 cows∙diet∙period) in a 2-period study: soybean hulls (SH), distillers' dried grains with solubles (DG), an isoenergetic mixture of soybean hulls and distillers' dried grains with solubles (MX), or ad libitum hay plus 0.9 kg/d of an isoenergetic mixture of soybean hulls and distillers' dried grains with solubles (HY). Diets were formulated to meet the ME requirements of a similar, companion study. Coproduct amounts were increased over a 14-d period. This was followed by a 14-d adaptation to diet and facilities and 5 d of total fecal collections. On the final day of fecal collections, rumen fluid was sampled immediately prior to feeding and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h after feeding for measurement of rumen VFA and ammonia concentrations. Intake of DM and OM was not different ( ≥ 0.28) among treatments, but digestibilities of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF were improved ( cows offered HY than for cows offered the coproduct diets, greater for cows offered SH than for cows offered DG, and for the mean of SH and DG vs. MX. Ruminal retention time was greater ( cows offered the coproduct diets than for cows offered HY and greater for cows offered DG than for cows offered SH. Total VFA averaged across sampling times were greatest ( cows offered SH, and ruminal ammonia N was greatest ( cows offered either DG or MX at all sampling times. Based on these data, coproduct feedstuffs may be fed to meet the energy

  14. Casein infusion rate influences feed intake differently depending on metabolizable protein balance in dairy cows: A multilevel meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, R; Ouellet, D R; Kebreab, E; Lapierre, H

    2016-04-01

    The effects of casein infusion have been investigated extensively in ruminant species. Its effect on responses in dry matter intake (DMI) has been reviewed and indicated no significant effect. The literature reviewed in the current meta-analysis is more extensive and limited to dairy cows fed ad libitum. A total of 51 studies were included in the meta-analysis and data were fitted to a multilevel model adjusting for the correlated nature of some studies. The effect size was the mean difference calculated by subtracting the means for the control from the casein-infused group. Overall, casein infusion [average of 333 g of dry matter (DM)/d; range: 91 to 1,092 g of DM/d] tended to increase responses in DMI by 0.18 kg/d (n=48 studies; 3 outliers). However, an interaction was observed between the casein infusion rate (IR) and the initial metabolizable protein (MP) balance [i.e., supply minus requirements (NRC, 2001)]. When control cows were in negative MP balance (n=27 studies), responses in DMI averaged 0.28 kg/d at mean MP balance (-264 g/d) and casein IR (336 g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses by 0.14 kg/d (MP balance being constant), compared with cows not infused with casein. In contrast, when control cows were in positive MP balance (n=22 studies; 2 outliers), responses in DMI averaged -0.20 kg/d at mean casein IR (339 g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean further decreased responses by 0.33 kg/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in milk true protein yield at mean casein IR were greater (109 vs. 65 g/d) for cows in negative vs. positive MP balance, respectively, and the influence of the casein IR on responses was significant only for cows in negative MP balance. A 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses in milk true protein yield by 25 g/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in blood urea concentration increased in

  15. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption)

  16. Reducing the transfer of radioiodine to milk in cows by adding stable iodine to the forage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, P.; Voigt, G.

    1999-05-01

    The publication reports the activities for the study and explains the measured results achieved. The usefulness of stable iodine administration to cows for reducing radioiodine transfer to the milk is explained. It was found that enhanced stable radioiodine doses have an effect on the iodine metabolism of dairy cows that has to be taken into account. Initially, a literature study was carried out, which then served as a basis for defining subsequent study objectives and experiments. The evaluation of the results yields information about the effects of stable iodine on the radioiodine transfer, as well as the metabolic pathways of iodine in dairy cows. In order to achieve a clear transfer reducing effect (by a factor of 2), doses of 1g/d have to be fed to a cow. This dose will lead to a stable iodine concentration in the milk of about 10 mg/kg. The WHO recommends a daily maximum dose of 0.5 mg of stable iodine in order to safely prevent adverse health effects in man. Ingestion of more than 2 mg/d may induce in man thyroid disorders and other metabolic disorders. In some countries, the reference level for dairy milk accepted is 0.5 mg of iodine/kg of milk. (orig./CB) [de

  17. Biogas from mesophilic anaerobic digestion of cow dung using gelatin as additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Bodius; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Sikder, Md Asif R.; Islam, Majedul

    2017-06-01

    A research work was conducted to investigate the enhanced production ability of biogas from mesophilic anaerobic digestions of cow dung (CD) using gelatin as additive. Five laboratory scale digesters were constructed to digest cow dung, where one set up was used for digestion of cow dung without additive and the other set up were used for digestion with additive. Gelatin additive was added in the slurry of amount 0.29, 0,57, 0.85 and 1.14% (wt.). The digesters were made of glass conical flask of 1-liter capacity each. Cow dung was used 335 gm and water was used 365 gm in each experiment. In the slurry, total solid content was maintained 8% (wt.) for all the observations. The digesters were fed on batch basis. The digesters were operated at ambient temperatures of 26 - 35°C. The total gas yield was obtained about 14.4 L/kg CD for digestion without additive and about 65% more biogas for digestion with 0.29% gelatin additive. The retention time for digestion without additive was 38 days and with additive retention time varied between 24 and 52 days.

  18. Nutritional management to optimize fertility of dairy cows in pasture-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, S T

    2014-05-01

    The efficiency of milk production in pasture-based systems is heavily influenced by calving pattern, necessitating excellent reproductive performance in a short-breeding season. Where grazed pasture is the major component of the diet, cows are underfed relative to their intake potential. The cow responds by reducing milk output, but fertility is generally better than high intake confinement systems that achieve greater milk production per cow. A number of studies have identified body condition score (BCS) measurements that are related to likelihood of both submission and conception. Blood metabolites and metabolic hormones linked to fertility outcomes are now well characterized. In general, fertility variables have favourable associations with circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin and IGF-1 and unfavourable associations with non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate and endogenous growth hormone. Nutritional strategies to impact these metabolic indicators have been utilized, but effects on herd fertility are inconsistent. Simply supplementing cows with additional energy in the form of standard concentrates does not appear to have a pronounced effect on fertility. Energy from additional concentrates fed during lactation is preferentially partitioned towards extra milk production rather than BCS repletion. The higher the genetic merit for milk production, the greater the partitioning of additional nutrients to the mammary gland. This review outlines the unique nutritional challenges of pasture-based systems, the role of specific metabolic hormones and metabolites in regulating reproductive function, and nutritional strategies to improve herd fertility.

  19. Determination of NABE in urine of high-yield dairy cows in early lactation in conditions of moderate heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratrić Natalija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of investigations of the effect of moderate heat stress on the acidobasal status in high-yield dairy cows in early lactation. Improving performance in high-yield dairy cows increases their inclination toward metabolic disorders. The most likely to be affected is the acid-base balance, in particular when cows are exposed to heat stress. Investigations so far have shown that the taking of urine samples and their analysis is the best and fastest way to diagnose disorders in the acid-base balance. Investigations were carried out on 7 clinically healthy cows of the Holstein- Friesian breed in the phase of early lactation, 30 to 40 days (on days 30, 33 and 40 following calving during the summer period, during the month of July, when there were significant variations in daily and nightly temperatures. The cows were in the second and fourth lactation, the annual milk yield was 8000 L milk per cow. The average daily milk production in the early phase of lactation ranged from 35 to 40 L. The cows were fed mixed rations (TMR twice daily. Lucerne hay in limited quantities was given to the cows prior to the mixed feed ration. The ration for this animal category was optimized on the grounds of the daily milk production. The balance of cations and anions in the feed ration stood at 95 mEq/kg DM. The results clearly demonstrate the cows' response to moderate heat stress through the defense parameters in urine (urine pH, NABE (net-acid-base-excretion, acids, bases, ammonium ion (NH4. The determination of the kidney NABE yields more correct data than the urine pH on acidotic conditions. The results of examinations of the urine pH do not show any digressions from physiological values and are approximately the same in all cows during the investigated periods. Normal NABE values are from 100-200 mmol/L. Burdening with acid products results in a NABE range from 0-100mmol/L, and metabolic acidosis results in NAB<0 mmol/L. NABE in the cows

  20. The influence of covering methods on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Camargo do Amaral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of covering methods on the nutritive value of corn silage and performance of dairy cows. Whole-plant corn was harvested at 340 g/kg of dry matter (DM and ensiled for 135 d in horizontal silos covered with one of the following methods: oxygen barrier film (45-µm thick + white-on-black polyethylene film (200-µm thick over the oxygen barrier film (OB+WB; white-on-black polyethylene film (200-µm thick (WB; black polyethylene film (200-µm thick (B; or recycled black polyethylene film (200-µm thick covered with a layer of 10 cm of sugarcane bagasse (RB+SB. Nutrient composition, fermentation profile, and yeast and mold counts in edible silages were similar across treatments. Silage temperature during the storage period was 24.6, 28.7, 28.4 and 33.1 °C for RB+SB, OB+WB, WB and B, respectively, and the proportion of spoiled silage ranged from 28.7 (for the RB+SB treatment to 74.2 g/kg DM (for the B treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments and averaged 21.9 kg/d. Milk production was higher for cows fed corn silage covered with RB+SB (34.4 kg/d compared with those fed corn silage covered with B (30.4 kg/d, resulting in higher feed efficiency for RB+SB treatment. Silages covered with OB+WB and WB had intermediate values. In vivo digestibility of organic matter was higher for cows fed corn silage covered with RB+SB compared with those fed corn silage covered with WB and B, but were similar to those fed corn silage covered with OB+WB. The utilization of oxygen barrier films and the protection of polyethylene film with sugarcane bagasse are effective strategies to increase the recovery of digestible nutrients and, consequently, to enhance production efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

  1. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (Pfat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; PMilk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (Pfat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (Pfat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein) sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  2. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Saady, Noori M Cata

    2014-03-05

    The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet), 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10) and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30). Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed 3 g COD L(-1)·day(-1) during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows' daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH₄ production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH₄ production by 14% compared to the control diet.

  3. Effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on performance and blood profile in early and mid-lactation Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Peters

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The supplementation of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE to dairy cows diets could be a strategy to improve fiber degradation in the rumen which is especially important for the early lactating cows characterized by a high milk energy output and an insufficient energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a fibrolytic enzyme product (Roxazyme G2 Liquid, 3.8 and 3.9 mL/kg total mixed ration [TMR] DM supplemented to a TMR on production performance and blood parameters of dairy cows during early (trial 1 and mid-lactation (trail 2. In addition, rumination activity was measured in trial 2. The nutrient digestibility of the experimental TMR was obtained by using wethers. In the digestibility trial, EFE was supplemented at a rate of 4.4 mL/kg Roxazyme G2 Liquid TMR-DM. The TMR contained 60% forage and 40% concentrate (DM basis. Twenty eight 50 ± 16 days in milk (DIM and twenty six 136 ± 26 DIM Holstein cows were used in two 8-wk completely randomized trails, stratified by parity and milk yield level. One milliliter of the enzyme product contained primarily cellulase and xylanase activities (8,000 units endo-1,4-ß glucanase, 18,000 units endo-1,3(4-ß glucanase and 26,000 units 1,4-ß xylanase. No differences in digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF were observed (P > 0.05 between the control and the EFE supplemented TMR. Addition of EFE to the TMR fed to early (trial 1 and mid-lactation cows (trial 2 did not affect daily dry matter intake (DMI, milk yield, 4% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk (ECM, concentration of milk fat, protein, fat-protein-quotients, somatic cell score, energy balance, and gross feed efficiency of early and mid-lactation cows (P > 0.05. Mid-lactation cows (trial 2 fed with TMR enzyme showed a tendency of a slightly higher ECM yield (P = 0.09. The tested blood parameters were not affected by treatment in trials 1 and 2 (P > 0.05. Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes supplementation did not alter

  4. Comparison of rumen bacteria distribution in original rumen digesta, rumen liquid and solid fractions in lactating Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Shoukun; Zhang, Hongtao; Yan, Hui; Azarfar, Arash; Shi, Haitao; Alugongo, Gibson; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun; Wang, Yajing

    2017-01-01

    Background Original rumen digesta, rumen liquid and solid fractions have been frequently used to assess the rumen bacterial community. However, bacterial profiles in rumen original digesta, liquid and solid fractions vary from each other and need to be better established. Methods To compare bacterial profiles in each fraction, samples of rumen digesta from six cows fed either a high fiber diet (HFD) or a high energy diet (HED) were collected via rumen fistulas. Rumen digesta was then squeezed...

  5. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Gross, J J; van Dorland, H A; Remmelink, G J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2015-02-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in early lactation. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 3×2 factorial design with 3 dry period lengths (n=56, 55, and 56 for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry, respectively) and 2 early lactation diets (n=84 and 83 for glucogenic and lipogenic diet, respectively). Cows were fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet from 10d before the expected calving date and onward. The main ingredient for a glucogenic concentrate was corn, and the main ingredients for a lipogenic concentrate were sugar beet pulp, palm kernel, and rumen-protected palm oil. Blood was sampled weekly from 95 cows from wk 3 precalving to wk 8 postcalving. Liver samples were collected from 76 cows in wk -2, 2, and 4 relative to calving. Liver samples were analyzed for triacylglycerol concentrations and mRNA expression of 12 candidate genes. Precalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had greater plasma β-hydroxybutyrate, urea, and insulin concentrations compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Postcalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had lower liver triacylglycerol and plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentrations (0.20, 0.32, and 0.36mmol/L for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively), greater plasma glucose, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin (24.38, 14.02, and 11.08µIU/mL for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively) concentrations, and lower hepatic mRNA expression of pyruvate carboxylase, compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Plasma urea and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were greater in cows fed a lipogenic diet compared with cows fed a glucogenic diet. In conclusion, cows with a 0-d dry period had

  6. Reproductive performance of reindeer fed all-grain and hay-grain rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Blanchard

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive performance of grain-fed reindeer {Rangifer tarandus was evaluated over a 2-year period. Groups of pregnant reindeer were fed one of three rations, (1 100% whole-grain barley, (2 98.9% whole-grain barley and 1.2% mineral and trace element supplement, and (3 70% whole-grain barley and 30% finely-chopped bluegrass hay. Reindeer fed unsupplemented whole-barley failed to produce a single live calf. The addition of mineral and trace element supplement to the ration did not result in any significant improvement in reproductive performance. Eighty-five percent of the reindeer consuming unsupplemented and supplemented all-barley rations became pregnant; however, 76% of the pregnancies resulted in stillborn calves. One-hundred percent of the cows maintained on the grain/hay ration produced live calves. We speculate that reproductive failure in reindeer cows maintained on all-grain rations is most likely a result of a diet induced disfunction in maternal rumen and/or carbohydrate metabolism rather than a micro-nutrient deficiency. More research is neeeded to determine which metabolic pathways are affected.

  7. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  8. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  9. Effects of intravenous glucose infusion and nutritional balance on serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and progesterone in nonlactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, F V R; Lopes, C N; Cappellozza, B I; Scarpa, A B; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and progesterone in nonlactating dairy cows according to nutritional balance and glucose infusion. Ten nonlactating, ovariectomized Gir x Holstein cows were stratified by body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) on d -28 of the study, and randomly assigned to 1) negative nutrient balance (NB) or 2) positive nutrient balance (PB). From d -28 to d 0, cows were allocated according to nutritional treatment (5 cows/treatment) into 2 low-quality pastures with reduced forage availability. However, PB cows individually received, on average, 3 kg/cow per day (as-fed) of a concentrate during the study. All cows had an intravaginal progesterone releasing device inserted on d -14, which remained in cows until the end of the study. Cow BW and BCS were assessed again on d 0. On d 0, cows within nutritional treatment were randomly assigned to receive, in a crossover design containing 2 periods of 24h each, 1) intravenous glucose infusion (GLU; 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW, as a 5% glucose solution administered, on average, at 32 mL/min over a 3-h period), or 2) intravenous saline infusion (SAL; 0.9% solution infused on average at 32 mL/min over a 3-h period). Prior to the beginning of each period, all cows were fasted for 12h. Blood samples were collected, relative to the beginning of the infusion, at -12 and -11.5h (beginning of fasting), and at -0.5, 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6h. Following the last blood collection of period 1, cows received (PB) or not (NB) concentrate and were returned to their respective pastures. Changes in BCS and BW were greater in NB cows compared with PB cows (-0.60 and -0.25+/-0.090 for BCS, respectively; -22.4 and 1.2+/-6.58 kg for BW, respectively). Cows receiving GLUC had greater glucose concentrations from 0.5 to 3h relative to infusion compared with SAL cows. Insulin concentrations were greater in PB cows assigned to GLUC compared

  10. Effects of including NaOH-treated corn straw as a substitute for wheat hay in the ration of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, E; Shterzer, N; Yosef, E; Nikbachat, M; Miron, J; Mizrahi, I

    2014-03-01

    This study measured the effects of including 5% NaOH-treated corn straw (T-CS) as a substitute for 15% wheat hay in the control total mixed ration (TMR) of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile. Two groups of 21 cows each, similar in initial performance, were fed individually 1 of the 2 TMR examined. Voluntary dry matter intake of cows fed the control TMR was 4.3% higher than that of the T-CS cows, but in vivo dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of both groups were similar. Crude protein digestibility was higher in the control cows but digestibility of neutral detergent fiber polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicelluloses) was higher in the T-CS TMR. This was followed by 4.6% reduction in rumination time of the T-CS group. A slightly higher milk yield was observed in the control cows compared with the T-CS group; however, milk fat and milk protein content were higher in cows fed the T-CS TMR. This was reflected in 1.3% increase in energy-corrected milk yield and 5.34% increase in production efficiency (energy-corrected milk yield/intake) of the T-CS cows compared with the control. Welfare of the cows, as assessed by length of daily recumbence time, was improved by feeding the T-CS TMR relative to the control group. As a whole, the rumen bacterial community was significantly modulated in the T-CS group in the experimental period compared with the preexperimental period, whereas the bacterial community of the control group remained unchanged during this period. Out of the 8 bacterial species that were quantified using real-time PCR, a notable decrease in cellulolytic bacteria was observed in the T-CS group, as well as an increase in lactic acid-utilizing bacteria. These results illustrate the effect of T-CS on the composition of rumen microbiota, which may play a role in improving the performance of the lactating cow. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lecithin: a by-product of biodiesel production and a source of choline for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of soy lecithins (L, a by-product of the biodiesel production process, and choline chloride microencapsulated with hydrogenated vegetable oils (C on dry matter intake, milk yield,  milk quality traits, milk choline and haematological profile of dairy cows. A total of 12 mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to cross-over design (2 diets x 2 periods. Diets were isoenergetic, isofibrous and isonitrogenous and had the same content of choline. Dry matter intake was not affected by the diet, but L led to lower milk choline (P

  12. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange County...

  13. Economic optimization of selective dry cow treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C G M; Hogeveen, H; Maas, L; Lam, T J G M

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to identify a scenario with the lowest costs for mastitis associated with the dry period while restricting the percentage of cows to be dried off with dry cow antimicrobials. Costs of clinical and subclinical mastitis as well as

  14. Bone metabolism in cow milk allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakusova, Lubica; Jesenak, Milos; Schudichova, Jela; Banovcin, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Children with cow milk allergy are suspected to develop calcium metabolism disturbances. We observed increased markers of bone turnover in these children. Children with cow milk allergy are more prone to develop the disturbances of the bone mineralization even in the first year of life.

  15. Supplementing in the diet of lactating Holstein cows may naturally produce coenzyme Q10-enriched milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Seck Bae

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine the effects of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (R. sphaeroides supplementation as a direct-fed microbial (DFM on rumen fermentation in dairy cows and on coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 transition into milk, an in vitro rumen simulation batch culture and an in vivo dairy cow experiment were conducted. Methods The characteristics of in vitro ruminal fermentation were investigated using rumen fluids from six cannulated Holstein dairy cows at 2 h post-afternoon feeding. A control treatment was included in the experiments based on a typified total mixed ration (TMR for lactating dairy cows, which was identical to the one used in the in vivo study, plus R. sphaeroides at 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% TMR dry matter. The in vivo study employed six ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows randomly allotted to either the control TMR (C-TMR treatment or to a diet supplemented with a 0.5% R. sphaeroides culture (S-TMR, dry matter basis ad libitum. The presence of R. sphaeroides was verified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE applied to the bacterial samples obtained from the in vivo study. The concentration of CoQ10 in milk and in the supernatant from the in vitro study was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Results The results of the in vitro batch culture and DGGE showed that the concentration of CoQ10 significantly increased after 2 h of R. sphaeroides supplementation above 0.1%. When supplemented to the diet of lactating cows at the level of 0.5%, R. sphaeroides did not present any adverse effect on dry matter intake and milk yield. However, the concentration of CoQ10 in milk dramatically increased, with treated cows producing 70.9% more CoQ10 than control cows. Conclusion The CoQ10 concentration in milk increased via the use of a novel DFM, and R. sphaeroides might be used for producing value-added milk and dairy products in the future.